WorldWideScience

Sample records for city-wide sanitation program

  1. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  2. Sanitation & Safety for Child Feeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.

    In the interest of promoting good health, sanitation, and safety practices in the operation of child feeding programs, this bulletin discusses practices in personal grooming and wearing apparel; the purchasing, storage, handling, and serving of food; sanitizing equipment and utensils; procedures to follow in case of a food poisoning outbreak; some…

  3. Enabling Environment Assessment for Scaling Up Sanitation Programs : Madhya Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Andy; Raman, Rajiv

    2008-01-01

    The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) is in the start-up phase of a new Global Scaling up Sanitation Project. The project is applying Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing (TSSM) to stimulate and scale up sanitation demand and supply. One of the central objectives of the project is to improve sanitation at a scale sufficient to meet the 2015 sanitation Millennium Development Goal (MDG...

  4. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  5. Factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu eFernandez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles and the use of social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always impact the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation.This paper presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services.The paper first describes the context and strategies of the program which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The paper analyses social, educational, economic, demographic and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  6. 9 CFR 147.14 - Procedures to determine status and effectiveness of sanitation monitored program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... effectiveness of sanitation monitored program. 147.14 Section 147.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... status and effectiveness of sanitation monitored program. The following monitoring procedures 10 may be... sanitation program. (1) Culture the surface of cased eggs periodically for fecal contaminating organisms...

  7. 50 CFR 260.103 - Operations and operating procedures shall be in accordance with an effective sanitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be in accordance with an effective sanitation program. 260.103 Section 260.103 Wildlife and Fisheries... Operations and operating procedures shall be in accordance with an effective sanitation program. (a) All..., choppers, and containers which fail to meet appropriate and adequate sanitation requirements will...

  8. Factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs

    OpenAIRE

    Marilu eFernandez; Maia eIngram

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and the use of social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always impact the habits of residents and ...

  9. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and br...

  10. Bilingual Skills Training Program. Barbering/Cosmetology. Module 2.0: Sterilization and Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

    This module on sterlization and sanitation is the second of ten (CE 028 308-318) in the barbering/cosmetology course of a bilingual skills training program. (A Vocabulary Development Workbook for modules 6-10 is available as CE 028 313.) The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory experience. Module objectives are for students to…

  11. Cambodia Sanitation Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This report synthesizes the technical assistance (TA) “Cambodia Sanitation Marketing” carried out by the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) from July 2011 to February 2015 in support of developing the rural sanitation market in Cambodia. It documents the results and lessons learned and makes recommendations to government on how - with support of development partners – the effe...

  12. Evaluation of water, sanitation and hygiene program outcomes shows knowledge-behavior gaps in Coast Province, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Schlegelmilch, Michael Paul; Lakhani, Amyn; Saunders, Leslie Duncan; Jhangri, Gian Singh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Water related diseases constitute a significant proportion of the burden of disease in Kenya. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programs are in operation nation-wide to address these challenges. This study evaluated the impact of the Sombeza Water and Sanitation Improvement Program (SWASIP) in Coast Province, Kenya. Methods This study is a cluster randomized, follow-up evaluation that compared baseline (2007) to follow-up (2013) indicators from 250 households. Twenty-five vill...

  13. Ghana : Water and Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, P. C.

    2001-01-01

    The First Community Water and Sanitation Project (CWSP-I), 1994-2000, was the World Bank's first stand-alone rural water and sanitation project in Ghana. It was designed to help achieve the objectives of the National Community Water and Sanitation Program by: a) providing basic water and sanitation services to communities that will contribute toward the capital costs and pay the normal ope...

  14. Sanitation Finance in Rural Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This document presents the findings of a study on sanitation finance in Cambodia conducted for the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) with support from the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The overall objective of the assignment was to consider sustainable sanitation financing options with a focus on promoting access for the poorest. This guidance note contains an introduction on sanitation f...

  15. Global Scaling Up Sanitation Project : Training and Capacity Building to Scale Up Rural Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The Water and Sanitation Program's (WSP's) Global Scaling up Sanitation Project combines the approaches of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), behavior change communications, and social marketing to generate sanitation demand and strengthen the supply of sanitation products and services at large scale. Training has played an essential role to scale up rural sanitation in India, Indonesi...

  16. Output-Based Aid and Sustainable Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Global Partnership on Output-Based Aid (GPOBA), in association with the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), initiated a study to examine whether OBA has the potential to improve the delivery of public financing to the sanitation sector and improve access to sustainable sanitation services. The first phase of the study consisted of reviewing experience to date with OBA for sanitation and ex...

  17. The PROCEL SANEAR program of energetic efficiency in environmental sanitation: water means energy; O programa PROCEL SANEAR de eficiencia energetica em saneamento ambiental: porque agua e energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Michel Goncalves; Barros, Denise Pereira; Moreira, Aurelio R.G.; Machado, Luciana D.L; Barreto, Marcus Paes; Coimbra, Claudia Maria; Perrone, Fernando; Soares, George Alves [ELETROBRAS, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Capella, Paulo da Silva; Otero, Osvaldo [CEPEL, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, Airton Sampaio [Ministerio das Cidades (MCidades), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Secretaria Nacional de Saneamento Ambiental

    2006-07-01

    The environmental sanitation sector accounts for 3% of all electric energy consumed. Along with the Electric System it is an important user of the hydro graphic basins. In 2003 ELETROBRAS created PROCEL SANEAR in order to promote the efficient use of energy and water in the environmental sanitation systems and by its consumers. This paper presents the Action Plan of PROCEL SANEAR 2006-2007 displaying its main ongoing actions: the implementation of projects of water and energy conservation selected by means of public hearings, the training of professionals with seminars for the high management and courses for the managers of sanitation services providers and the installation of equipment to implement laboratories of energy and water efficiency in sanitation. PROCEL SANEAR, a nationwide program, seeks to reach through its activities endurance and sustain ability aiming at minimizing isolated and discontinued actions. Thus, PROCEL SANEAR contributes to shift paradigms by causing service providers to prioritize the conservation of water and electric energy. (author)

  18. Building capacity for water, sanitation, and hygiene programming: Training evaluation theory applied to CLTS management training in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Shields, Katherine F; Venkataramanan, Vidya; Saywell, Darren; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-10-01

    Training and capacity building are long established critical components of global water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) policies, strategies, and programs. Expanding capacity building support for WaSH in developing countries is one of the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. There are many training evaluation methods and tools available. However, training evaluations in WaSH have been infrequent, have often not utilized these methods and tools, and have lacked rigor. We developed a conceptual framework for evaluating training in WaSH by reviewing and adapting concepts from literature. Our framework includes three target outcomes: learning, individual performance, and improved programming; and two sets of influences: trainee and context factors. We applied the framework to evaluate a seven-month community-led total sanitation (CLTS) management training program delivered to 42 government officials in Kenya from September 2013 to May 2014. Trainees were given a pre-training questionnaire and were interviewed at two weeks and seven months after initial training. We qualitatively analyzed the data using our conceptual framework. The training program resulted in trainees learning the CLTS process and new skills, and improving their individual performance through application of advocacy, partnership, and supervision soft skills. The link from trainees' performance to improved programming was constrained by resource limitations and pre-existing rigidity of trainees' organizations. Training-over-time enhanced outcomes and enabled trainees to overcome constraints in their work. Training in soft skills is relevant to managing public health programs beyond WaSH. We make recommendations on how training programs can be targeted and adapted to improve outcomes. Our conceptual framework can be used as a tool both for planning and evaluating training programs in WaSH.

  19. Building capacity for water, sanitation, and hygiene programming: Training evaluation theory applied to CLTS management training in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Shields, Katherine F; Venkataramanan, Vidya; Saywell, Darren; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-10-01

    Training and capacity building are long established critical components of global water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) policies, strategies, and programs. Expanding capacity building support for WaSH in developing countries is one of the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. There are many training evaluation methods and tools available. However, training evaluations in WaSH have been infrequent, have often not utilized these methods and tools, and have lacked rigor. We developed a conceptual framework for evaluating training in WaSH by reviewing and adapting concepts from literature. Our framework includes three target outcomes: learning, individual performance, and improved programming; and two sets of influences: trainee and context factors. We applied the framework to evaluate a seven-month community-led total sanitation (CLTS) management training program delivered to 42 government officials in Kenya from September 2013 to May 2014. Trainees were given a pre-training questionnaire and were interviewed at two weeks and seven months after initial training. We qualitatively analyzed the data using our conceptual framework. The training program resulted in trainees learning the CLTS process and new skills, and improving their individual performance through application of advocacy, partnership, and supervision soft skills. The link from trainees' performance to improved programming was constrained by resource limitations and pre-existing rigidity of trainees' organizations. Training-over-time enhanced outcomes and enabled trainees to overcome constraints in their work. Training in soft skills is relevant to managing public health programs beyond WaSH. We make recommendations on how training programs can be targeted and adapted to improve outcomes. Our conceptual framework can be used as a tool both for planning and evaluating training programs in WaSH. PMID:27543683

  20. Monitoring Systems for Incentive Programs : Learning from Large-scale Rural Sanitation initiatives in India

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This guidance note is one in a series of knowledge products designed to showcase project findings, assessments, and lessons learned in the global scaling up Rural Sanitation project. This paper is conceived as a work in progress to encourage the exchange of ideas about development issues. In India, the concept of Open-Defecation Free (ODF) communities, as an objective, has been a part of t...

  1. Economic Assessment of Sanitation Interventions in Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits of technical sanitation options and programs in Yunnan Province, China, as part of the Economics of Sanitation Initiative (ESI) conducted by the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program in East Asia. As an underdeveloped province, Yunnan has achieved huge progress in sanitation improvement since the 1990s. Sanitation options evaluated in the stu...

  2. Utilizing Community-Based Registers to Monitor Improved Access to Sanitation and Hygiene in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    In Tanzania, the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) has been supporting the Government of Tanzania in 10 districts to increase access to improved sanitation. This initiative to improve rural sanitation at large scale combines Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), behavior change communication, and sanitation marketing approaches, and supports both local and national governments to develop ...

  3. The “Wireless Sensor Networks for City-Wide Ambient Intelligence (WISE-WAI” Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Zorzi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a detailed technical overview of some of the activities carried out in the context of the “Wireless Sensor networks for city-Wide Ambient Intelligence (WISEWAI” project, funded by the Cassa di Risparmio di Padova e Rovigo Foundation, Italy. The main aim of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale wireless sensor network deployments, whereby tiny objects integrating one or more environmental sensors (humidity, temperature, light intensity, a microcontroller and a wireless transceiver are deployed over a large area, which in this case involves the buildings of the Department of Information Engineering at the University of Padova. We will describe how the network is organized to provide full-scale automated functions, and which services and applications it is configured to provide. These applications include long-term environmental monitoring, alarm event detection and propagation, single-sensor interrogation, localization and tracking of objects, assisted navigation, as well as fast data dissemination services to be used, e.g., to rapidly re-program all sensors over-the-air. The organization of such a large testbed requires notable efforts in terms of communication protocols and strategies, whose design must pursue scalability, energy efficiency (while sensors are connected through USB cables for logging and debugging purposes, most of them will be battery-operated, as well as the capability to support applications with diverse requirements. These efforts, the description of a subset of the results obtained so far, and of the final objectives to be met are the scope of the present paper.

  4. Development and Evaluation of a City-Wide Wireless Weather Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ben; Wang, Hsue-Yie; Peng, Tian-Yin; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2010-01-01

    This project analyzed the effectiveness of a city-wide wireless weather sensor network, the Taipei Weather Science Learning Network (TWIN), in facilitating elementary and junior high students' study of weather science. The network, composed of sixty school-based weather sensor nodes and a centralized weather data archive server, provides students…

  5. Statement of Facts for 1977 City-Wide Mock Trial Competitions. Walker Thomas v. Sam Nomad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the District of Columbia Street Law Project for its annual city-wide mock trial competition, this instructional handout provides material for a civil case over an automobile accident. Walker Thomas is suing Sam Nomad for damages that resulted from a collision, for which both parties blame the other. The handout clarifies the laws and…

  6. It Takes a City to Raise a Systemic Reform: Early Outcomes from the Say Yes City-wide Turnaround Strategy in Syracuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Ross

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is a systemic educational reform, “The Say Yes City-wide Turnaround Strategy,” designed to involve diverse city-wide partners in improving education and revitalizing the community and city. As an incentive and catalyst for change, college scholarships are offered to every high school graduate in the city. However, the major goal of the partnership is prepare all students for postsecondary education through improved classroom teaching, extended-learning opportunities, and adaptive supports in the academic, social-emotional, and health domains. Specific implementation components, such as the Student Monitoring and Intervention System, after-school and summer programs, communications with stakeholders and public, and pathways to postsecondary and careers, are described in reference to the recent initiation of the City-wide Turnaround Strategy in Syracuse, NY. Expected and early educational outcomes are also examined based on the Say Yes Theory of Change. Keywords: Systemic reform, systemic educational reform, tournaround strategy, social emotional.

  7. Predictive modeling for hot water inactivation of planktonic and biofilm-associated Sphingomonas parapaucimobilis to support hot water sanitization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatz Wahlen, Laura; Parker, Al; Walker, Diane; Pasmore, Mark; Sturman, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Hot water sanitization is a common means to maintain microbial control in process equipment for industries where microorganisms can degrade product or cause safety issues. This study compared the hot water inactivation kinetics of planktonic and biofilm-associated Sphingomonas parapaucimobilis at temperatures relevant to sanitization processes used in the pharmaceutical industry, viz. 65, 70, 75, and 80°C. Biofilms exhibited greater resistance to hot water than the planktonic cells. Both linear and nonlinear statistical models were developed to predict the log reduction as a function of temperature and time. Nonlinear Michaelis-Menten modeling provided the best fit for the inactivation data. Using the model, predictions were calculated to determine the times at which specific log reductions are achieved. While ≥80°C is the most commonly cited temperature for hot water sanitization, the predictive modeling suggests that temperatures ≥75°C are also effective at inactivating planktonic and biofilm bacteria in timeframes appropriate for the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27319816

  8. Warehouse Sanitation Workshop Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Drug Administration (DHHS/PHS), Washington, DC.

    This workshop handbook contains information and reference materials on proper food warehouse sanitation. The materials have been used at Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food warehouse sanitation workshops, and are selected by the FDA for use by food warehouse operators and for training warehouse sanitation employees. The handbook is divided…

  9. Ghana - Water and Sanitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The Ghana Community Services Activity was designed to complement the Agriculture Project by providing educational, water and sanitation and rural electrification...

  10. Scaling Up Handwashing and Rural Sanitation : Findings from a Baseline Survey in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Briceño, Bertha; Yusuf, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007, the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) has provided technical assistance to local and national governments implementing large rural sanitation and handwashing promotion programs in various countries. In Tanzania, handwashing with soap and sanitation programs were phased into 10 rural districts in the second half of 2009. This report presents summary descriptive statistics for key ...

  11. Effects of CO{sub 2} sanitation program for buildings 2008. Expert opinion; Effekte des CO{sub 2}-Gebaeudesanierungsprogramms 2008. Gutachten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausnitzer, Klaus-Dieter; Gabriel, Juergen; Eilmes, Sabine [Bremer Energie-Institut, Bremen (Germany); Diefenbach, Nikolaus; Loga, Tobias [Institut Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Wosniok, Werner [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Statistik

    2008-07-01

    The climate protection, the securing of the power supply as well as the enabling of payable energy costs belong to the central tasks to the policy. In the year 2006, the working group consisting of the Bremen Energie Institute (Bremen, Federal Republic of Energy), Institute Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH (Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Institute for Statistics of the University of Bremen (Bremen, Federal Republic of Germany) was ordered to develop a model for the estimation of the positive effects of the CO{sub 2} sanitation program for buildings according to the reduction of CO{sub 2}, conservation of final energy, employment, progress in modernization and saving of heating cost. In the expert opinion under consideration, the influences are stated for the case of loan and grant for the year 2008.

  12. Scaling Up Rural Sanitation : Findings from the Impact Evaluation Baseline Survey in Madhya Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore, Alicia L.; Patil, Sumeet R.

    2011-01-01

    In India, Water and Sanitation Program's (WSP's) global scaling up rural sanitation program is supporting the Government of India's (GoI) Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) in two states: Himachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. TSC is an ambitious countrywide, scaled-up rural sanitation program launched by the GoI in 1999, which seeks to attain an Open Defecation Free (ODF) India by 2012. In con...

  13. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Better hygiene and access to drinking water and sanitation will accelerate progress toward two millennium development goals (MDGs): 'reduce under-five child mortality rate by 2/3 between 1990 and 2015' and "by 2015 halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation". Meeting the latter goal will require infrastructure investments of about ...

  14. Sanitation and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan Mara; Jon Lane; Beth Scott; David Trouba

    2010-01-01

    As one article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation, David Trouba and colleagues discuss the importance of improved sanitation to health and the role that the health sector can play in its advocacy.

  15. Using city-wide mobile noise assessments to estimate bicycle trip annual exposure to Black Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoninck, Luc; Botteldooren, Dick; Int Panis, Luc

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have shown that a significant amount of daily air pollution exposure, in particular Black Carbon (BC), is inhaled during bicycle trips. Previously, the instantaneous BC exposure of cyclists was modeled as the sum of a background concentration and a local traffic related component based on a local assessment of traffic noise. We present a fast and low cost methodology to achieve a city-wide assessment of yearly average BC exposure of cyclists along their trips, based on a city-wide mobile noise sensing campaign. The methodology requires participatory sensing measurements of noise, partially combined with BC and/or other air pollutants sensitive to local traffic variations. The combined measurements cover the spatial and meteorological variability and provide the data for an instantaneous exposure model. The mobile noise-only measurements map the full city; and yearly meteorology statistics are used to extrapolate the instantaneous exposure model to a yearly average map of in-traffic air pollution exposure. Less than four passages at each segment along the network with mobile noise equipment are necessary to reach a standard error of 500 ng/m(3) for the yearly average BC exposure. A strong seasonal effect due to the BC background concentration is detected. The background contributes only 25% to the total trip exposure during spring and summer. During winter the background component increases to 50-60%. Engine related traffic noise along the bicyclist's route is a valid indicator of the BC exposure along the route, independent of the seasonal background. Low exposure route selection results in an exposure reduction of 35% in winter and 60% in summer, sensitive to the weather conditions, specific trip attributes and the available alternatives. The methodology is relevant for further research into the local effects of air pollution on health. Mobile noise mapping adds local traffic data including traffic dynamics into the air pollution exposure

  16. Improving Sanitation at Scale: Lessons from TSSM Implementation in East Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Samia Amin; Anu Rangarajan; Evan Borkum

    2011-01-01

    Low-quality or nonexistent sanitation affects health and hinders economic development, especially in the world's poorest countries. To address this issue, the Water and Sanitation Program, a partnership administered by the World Bank and funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, launched a global initiative in 2006 at selected sites in India, Indonesia, and Tanzania. In Indonesia, the program was known as the Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing initiative, which moved beyond simply...

  17. Scaling Up Rural Sanitation and Hygiene in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    This report is a synthesis of the technical assistance (TA) Scaling Up Rural Sanitation and Hygiene in Indonesia, carried out by the World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). It was developed in consultation with the Directorate of Environmental Health, Directorate General of Public Health and Centre for Health Promotion of the Ministry of Health (MoH) and with key institutions in t...

  18. Rural Sanitation Market Expansion of Domestic Private Sector in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This report is a synthesis of fieldwork findings and recommendations developed since October 2012 under this Technical Assistance (TA) carried out by the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). The recommendations have been developed through on-going consultations and meetings with the Directorate of Environmental Sanitation and Directorate General of Human Settlements, Ministry o...

  19. Support to Government of India for Implementation of National Urban Sanitation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This synthesis report details the process, outputs and intermediate outcomes of the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) Technical Assistance (TA) to Support Government of India for implementation of the National Urban Sanitation Policy (P131963). The objective of this TA was to (i) strengthen urban sanitation services and target the urban poor by development of strategies for r...

  20. Scaling up rural sanitation in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Brocklehurst

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Clarissa Brocklehurst discusses the study by Patil and colleagues on a sanitation program in India and highlights the challenges ahead to improve the situation for millions of people who still have no option but to practice open defecation. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  1. Sense and Sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Spaargaren, G.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, sanitation infrastructures have been designed to do away with sensory experiences. As in the present phase of modernity the senses are assigned a crucial role in the perception of risks, a paradigm shift has emerged in the infrastructural provision of energy, water and waste services.

  2. Epidemiologists working together with anthropologists: lessons from a study to evaluate the epidemiological impact of a city-wide sanitation program Los epidemiólogos y antropólogos que trabajan juntos: lecciones de un estudio para evaluar el impacto epidemiológico de un programa de saneamiento urbano Epidemiologistas e antropólogos trabalhando juntos: lições de um estudo para avaliar o impacto epidemiológico de um programa de saneamento urbano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio L. Barreto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of qualitative approaches in epidemiological studies, beginning with a general discussion of epidemiological and anthropological methods. It focuses on a case study of the health impact of an environmental intervention carried out in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Most of the precedent studies fields, based on primary date, use to devote little attention to the methodological and theorethical questions attached to long-term studies. Four specific aspects of this experience are highlighted: (a drawing up epidemiological study; (b construction of an observational instrument to measure hygiene habits; (c an ethnographic study that was carried out before the epidemiological study; (d observation of the effects of health intervention on health inequalities. Finally, the report details how the findings of qualitative and quantitative studies might be synthesized. It provides a critical overview of follow-up strategies, illustrated with proper examples whenever possible.En este artículo se discute el papel de los enfoques cualitativos en los estudios epidemiológicos, comenzando con una discusión general de ambos métodos. Se centra en un estudio de caso sobre el impacto en la salud de una intervención ambiental en Salvador, Bahía, Brasil. La mayoría de los estudios en esta línea, que se deriven de la fuente principal de la investigación, aporta poca discusión sobre los aspectos metodológicos y teóricos que participan en estudios a largo plazo. Cuatro aspectos específicos de esta experiencia son especialmente prominentes: (a elaboración de cuestionarios para el estudio epidemiológico; (b la construcción de un instrumento para medir los hábitos de higiene de observación; (c un estudio etnográfico que precedió a la investigación epidemiológica; (d observación de los efectos de las intervenciones sanitarias sobre las desigualdades en salud. Por último, el estudio considera en detalle cómo los resultados de los estudios cualitativos y cuantitativos se pueden sintetizar. Proporciona una visión general y crítica de estrategias de seguimiento, ilustraciones siempre que sea posible, con ejemplos apropiados.Este artigo discute o papel das abordagens qualitativas em estudos epidemiológicos, começando com uma discussão geral de ambos os métodos. Centra-se em um estudo de caso sobre o impacto na saúde de uma intervenção ambiental em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. A maioria de estudos nesta linha, que derivam de pesquisas de fonte primária, traz pouca discussão sobre as questões metodológicas e teóricas envolvidas em estudos em longo prazo. Quatro aspectos específicos dessa experiência são especialmente destacados: (a elaboração de questionários para o estudo epidemiológico; (b construção de um instrumento observacional para medir os hábitos de higiene; (c um estudo etnográfico que antecedeu a pesquisa epidemiológica; (d observação dos efeitos da intervenção de saúde sobre as desigualdades de saúde. Finalmente, o estudo considera em detalhe como os resultados dos estudos qualitativos e quantitativos podem ser sintetizados. Ele fornece uma visão geral e crítica das estratégias de acompanhamento, ilustrada, sempre que possível, com exemplos apropriados.

  3. It Takes a City to Raise a Systemic Reform: Early Outcomes from the Say Yes City-wide Turnaround Strategy in Syracuse

    OpenAIRE

    Steven M. Ross

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a systemic educational reform, “The Say Yes City-wide Turnaround Strategy,” designed to involve diverse city-wide partners in improving education and revitalizing the community and city. As an incentive and catalyst for change, college scholarships are offered to every high school graduate in the city. However, the major goal of the partnership is prepare all students for postsecondary education through improved classroom teaching, extended-learning opportunities, ...

  4. Activities in water supply and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Economic and Social Council for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) held a regional workshop in Thailand in 1992 to demonstrate how women's involvement at all levels of environmentally sound and sustainable water supply and sanitation programs and projects could be made more effective, easier, and productive. Using the same modules, with the support of other organizations such as the Department of Development Support and Management Services, ESCAP conducted four more workshops in the Philippines, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Vietnam, and Thailand in 1995. In the Philippines, the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women expressed its intention to adapt the modules for the country. In the Lao PDR, three project ideas were proposed which would assist the Lao Women Union in gaining knowledge on the planning, implementation, operation, and management of water supply and sanitation projects at the national, regional and project levels. In Vietnam, three main directions for action were identified for the promotion of close and active cooperation between the Rural Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Centres and the system of the Women Union of Vietnam. In Thailand, the National Committee on Health and Environment of the National Commission on Women's Affairs expressed its willingness to seek budgetary allocation for the promotion of women's role in water supply and sanitation.

  5. Haemoglobinopathy Awareness among Young Students in Turkey: Outcomes of a City-Wide Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Azim Okyay

    Full Text Available The success of prevention programs demonstrated the importance of raising awareness about haemoglobinopathies since the lack of knowledge and awareness about the disorders may serve as barriers to prevention, disclosure of disease status as well as to testing for haemoglobinopathies. The aim of this study is to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of middle and high school students towards haemoglobinopathies in Hatay, where the disorders are prevalent. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 8th and 9th grade students across Hatay including all sub provinces. From May 2012 to December 2012, a total of 1925 students filled the questionnaires which query the knowledge level and attitudes of students by face to face method. Among questions regarding students' knowledge about haemoglobinopathies, the lowest correct response rate was observed in "How do these diseases transmit?" with 31.8%, meaning most of the students did not know that the diseases are transmitted by heredity. Significant differences were observed between the correct answer rates of the students and their status of being previously informed. Students who had a diseased person around were having a 2.597-fold (95%CI = 1.886-3.575; students possessing at least one parent at secondary education level or above were having a 1.954-fold higher probability of being previously informed (95%CI = 1.564-2.443. Due to the lack of knowledge about haemoglobinopathies in middle and high school students, we suggest health education programs including informative lectures particularly about the genetic basis of the disorders especially in the regions where the disorders are prevalent.

  6. Haemoglobinopathy Awareness among Young Students in Turkey: Outcomes of a City-Wide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyay, Ramazan Azim; Çelenk, Özlem; Nazlıcan, Ersin; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2016-01-01

    The success of prevention programs demonstrated the importance of raising awareness about haemoglobinopathies since the lack of knowledge and awareness about the disorders may serve as barriers to prevention, disclosure of disease status as well as to testing for haemoglobinopathies. The aim of this study is to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of middle and high school students towards haemoglobinopathies in Hatay, where the disorders are prevalent. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 8th and 9th grade students across Hatay including all sub provinces. From May 2012 to December 2012, a total of 1925 students filled the questionnaires which query the knowledge level and attitudes of students by face to face method. Among questions regarding students' knowledge about haemoglobinopathies, the lowest correct response rate was observed in "How do these diseases transmit?" with 31.8%, meaning most of the students did not know that the diseases are transmitted by heredity. Significant differences were observed between the correct answer rates of the students and their status of being previously informed. Students who had a diseased person around were having a 2.597-fold (95%CI = 1.886-3.575); students possessing at least one parent at secondary education level or above were having a 1.954-fold higher probability of being previously informed (95%CI = 1.564-2.443). Due to the lack of knowledge about haemoglobinopathies in middle and high school students, we suggest health education programs including informative lectures particularly about the genetic basis of the disorders especially in the regions where the disorders are prevalent. PMID:27448202

  7. Advanced oxidation process sanitization of eggshell surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottselig, Steven M; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Woodring, Kristy S; Coufal, Craig D; Duong, Tri

    2016-06-01

    The microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery represents an important critical control point for biosecurity and pathogen reduction programs in integrated poultry production. The development of safe and effective interventions to reduce microbial contamination on the surface of eggs will be important to improve the overall productivity and microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet (UV) light advanced oxidation process is a potentially important alternative to traditional sanitizers and disinfectants for egg sanitation. The H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process was demonstrated previously to be effective in reducing surface microbial contamination on eggs. In this study, we evaluated treatment conditions affecting the efficacy of H2O2/UV advanced oxidation in order to identify operational parameters for the practical application of this technology in egg sanitation. The effect of the number of application cycles, UV intensity, duration of UV exposure, and egg rotation on the recovery of total aerobic bacteria from the surface of eggs was evaluated. Of the conditions evaluated, we determined that reduction of total aerobic bacteria from naturally contaminated eggs was optimized when eggs were sanitized using 2 repeated application cycles with 5 s exposure to 14 mW cm(-2) UV light, and that rotation of the eggs between application cycles was unnecessary. Additionally, using these optimized conditions, the H2O2/UV process reduced Salmonella by greater than 5 log10 cfu egg(-1) on the surface of experimentally contaminated eggs. This study demonstrates the potential for practical application of the H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process in egg sanitation and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella on eggshell surfaces. PMID:27030693

  8. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that res

  9. GENDER MAIN STREAMING IN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we have stated in the previous year conference paper, the human right to water and sanitation entitles everyoneto water and sanitation services which are available, accessible, affordable, acceptable and safe. Developmentprograms for water and sanitation services, as many other socio-economic development programs have often beenassumed to be neutral in terms of gender. However, sometimes there can be failures in the implementation andharnessing of such projects because of errors arising from lack of adequate integration of gender equality. In thispaper are highlighted some aspects and issues of gender mainstreaming in water supply and sanitation developmentprojects, including conclusions from a case study conducted by an NGO in a commune of Romania and ownrecommendations.

  10. Benchmarking Local Government Performance on Rural Sanitation : Learning from Himachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Open defecation is a traditional behavior in rural India. Conventional rural sanitation programs have been based on the assumption that people defecate in the open because they are too poor to afford the cost of constructing a toilet. Therefore, subsidies for upfront capital costs were provided to generate demand for 'sanitation,' interpreted narrowly as a pour-flush toilet. These programs...

  11. El Salvador - Water and Sanitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The benefits of the water and sanitation sub activity will be measured using a rigorous quasi-experimental impact evaluation methodology. An impact evaluation is a...

  12. Scaling Up Rural Sanitation : Partnering on the Road Towards Achieving Total Sanitation in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, the United Nations Development Program set a Millennium Development Goal (MDG) to reduce, by half, the number of people without access to basic sanitation by 2015. In 2008, when projections showed that countries in Africa were unlikely to reach this target, delegates from 32 African countries drafted and signed the eThekwini Declaration and AfricaSan action plan to renew commitmen...

  13. Ecological Sanitation : Social Factors Impacting Use of EcoSan in Rural Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, Martin; Blackett, Isabel; Arianto, Ikabul

    2010-01-01

    Access to improved sanitation remains a huge challenge in Indonesia. Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) 2010 data indicate that around 38 percent of the rural population has access to improved sanitation services and that open defecation remains a widespread practice for over 60 million Indonesians. The persistence of old habits and a lack of awareness form the basis of many challenges in the ...

  14. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered 'improved sanitation' or, in the current terminology, 'basic sanitation' by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapted and adopted throughout urban slums in developing countries, with a caretaker employed to keep the facilities clean. Such shared sanitation should be classified as 'basic', sometimes as 'safely-managed', sanitation, so contributing to the achievement of the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals.

  15. Preventing SQL Injection through Automatic Query Sanitization with ASSIST

    CERN Document Server

    Mui, Raymond; 10.4204/EPTCS.35.3

    2010-01-01

    Web applications are becoming an essential part of our everyday lives. Many of our activities are dependent on the functionality and security of these applications. As the scale of these applications grows, injection vulnerabilities such as SQL injection are major security challenges for developers today. This paper presents the technique of automatic query sanitization to automatically remove SQL injection vulnerabilities in code. In our technique, a combination of static analysis and program transformation are used to automatically instrument web applications with sanitization code. We have implemented this technique in a tool named ASSIST (Automatic and Static SQL Injection Sanitization Tool) for protecting Java-based web applications. Our experimental evaluation showed that our technique is effective against SQL injection vulnerabilities and has a low overhead.

  16. Preventing SQL Injection through Automatic Query Sanitization with ASSIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Mui

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Web applications are becoming an essential part of our everyday lives. Many of our activities are dependent on the functionality and security of these applications. As the scale of these applications grows, injection vulnerabilities such as SQL injection are major security challenges for developers today. This paper presents the technique of automatic query sanitization to automatically remove SQL injection vulnerabilities in code. In our technique, a combination of static analysis and program transformation are used to automatically instrument web applications with sanitization code. We have implemented this technique in a tool named ASSIST (Automatic and Static SQL Injection Sanitization Tool for protecting Java-based web applications. Our experimental evaluation showed that our technique is effective against SQL injection vulnerabilities and has a low overhead.

  17. 21 CFR 211.56 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation. 211.56 Section 211.56 Food and Drugs... Sanitation. (a) Any building used in the manufacture, processing, packing, or holding of a drug product shall... assigning responsibility for sanitation and describing in sufficient detail the cleaning schedules,...

  18. 9 CFR 3.131 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.131 Section 3.131... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.131 Sanitation. (a) Cleaning of enclosures. Excreta... being directly sprayed with the stream of water or wetted involuntarily. (b) Sanitation of...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.27 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 1926.27 Section 1926.27 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.27 Sanitation. Health and sanitation requirements for drinking water are contained in subpart D of this part....

  20. Three Platforms for Sustainable Environmental Sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed three platforms for sustainable environmental sanitation to strengthen three pillars of sustainable development. Understanding of the sanitation scope was identified. Problem on polluted environment was added and accompanied by the products as environmental resources.Environmental resources, repression and remediation were proposed for the task of sustainable environmental sanitation in the future.

  1. Three Platforms for Sustainable Environmental Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed three platforms for sustainable environmental sanitation to strengthen three pillars of sustainable development. Understanding of the sanitation scope was identified. Problem on polluted environment was added and accompanied by the products as environmental resources.Environmental resources, repression and remediation were proposed for the task of sustainable environmental sanitation in the future.

  2. Ecological Sanitation--a way to solve global sanitation problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langergraber, Günter; Muellegger, Elke

    2005-04-01

    Today about 2.4 billion people in rural and urban areas do not have access to adequate sanitation services. Within 20 years, it is expected that an additional 2 billion will live in towns and cities, mainly in developing countries, demanding sanitation. Still over 90% of sewage in developing countries is discharged untreated, polluting rivers, lakes and coastal areas. Conventional sanitation concepts, based on flush toilets, a water wasting technology, are neither an ecological nor economical solution in both industrialized and developing countries. The water-based sewage systems were designed and built on the premises that human excreta are a waste; suitable only for disposal and that the environment is capable of assimilating this waste. A sanitation system that provides Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan) is a cycle--a sustainable, closed-loop system, which closes the gap between sanitation and agriculture. The EcoSan approach is resource minded and represents a holistic concept towards ecologically and economically sound sanitation. The underlying aim is to close (local) nutrient and water cycles with as less expenditure on material and energy as possible to contribute to a sustainable development. Human excreta are treated as a resource and are usually processed on-site and then treated off-site. The nutrients contained in excreta are then recycled by using them, e.g., in agriculture. EcoSan is a systemic approach and an attitude; single technologies are only means to an end and may range from near-natural wastewater treatment techniques to compost toilets, simple household installations to complex, mainly decentralised systems. These technologies are not ecological per se but only in relation to the observed environment. They are picked from the whole range of available conventional, modern and traditional technical options, combining them to EcoSan systems. The paper presents an introduction to EcoSan principles and concepts including re-use aspects (available

  3. Prediction of Low Community Sanitation Coverage Using Environmental and Sociodemographic Factors in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, William E; Stewart, Aisha E P; Flanders, W Dana; Kramer, Michael R; Endeshaw, Tekola; Zerihun, Mulat; Melaku, Birhanu; Sata, Eshetu; Gessesse, Demelash; Teferi, Tesfaye; Tadesse, Zerihun; Guadie, Birhan; King, Jonathan D; Emerson, Paul M; Callahan, Elizabeth K; Moe, Christine L; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-09-01

    This study developed and validated a model for predicting the probability that communities in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, have low sanitation coverage, based on environmental and sociodemographic conditions. Community sanitation coverage was measured between 2011 and 2014 through trachoma control program evaluation surveys. Information on environmental and sociodemographic conditions was obtained from available data sources and linked with community data using a geographic information system. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of low community sanitation coverage (< 20% versus ≥ 20%). The selected model was geographically and temporally validated. Model-predicted probabilities of low community sanitation coverage were mapped. Among 1,502 communities, 344 (22.90%) had coverage below 20%. The selected model included measures for high topsoil gravel content, an indicator for low-lying land, population density, altitude, and rainfall and had reasonable predictive discrimination (area under the curve = 0.75, 95% confidence interval = 0.72, 0.78). Measures of soil stability were strongly associated with low community sanitation coverage, controlling for community wealth, and other factors. A model using available environmental and sociodemographic data predicted low community sanitation coverage for areas across Amhara Region with fair discrimination. This approach could assist sanitation programs and trachoma control programs, scaling up or in hyperendemic areas, to target vulnerable areas with additional activities or alternate technologies. PMID:27430547

  4. Targeted Cue-lure Trapping, Bait-spray, Sanitation, Sterile-male and Parasitoid Releases in an Area Wide Integrated Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Control Program in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: An area wide IPM approach to melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) suppression was undertaken as part of a Hawaii state-wide program funded by USDA-ARS Area Wide Initiative. Methods: A grid of 1 cuelure trap/ km2 over 40 km2 was established in Kamuela, HI to pinpoint ...

  5. Targeted Trapping, Bait-spray, Sanitation, Sterile-male and Parasitoid Releases in an Area Wide Integrated Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Control Program in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    An area wide integrated pest management approach to melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) suppression in Kamuela, Hawaii, was undertaken as part of a larger state-wide program by the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Area Wide Initiative. After a...

  6. Water and Sanitation in Belize

    OpenAIRE

    Traci Kuratomi; Dougal Martin; Jorge Ducci; Alfredo Rihm; María del Rosario Navia Díaz; Javier Grau

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, Belize has seen major improvements in access to water, but it is behind in achieving universal access to improved sanitation facilities. Belize has also made progress in terms of the disposal of solid waste in the central and western regions, including in the largest urban area, Belize City. Despite these developments, there is a need to further improve the performance of these sectors, especially in terms of wastewater collection and treatment in urban areas throughout th...

  7. Shallow groundwater temperatures and the urban heat island effect: the first U.K. city-wide geothermal map to support development of ground source heating systems strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, A.M.; Farr, G.J.; Boon, D.P.; James, D R; Williams, B; Newell, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    U.K. Government aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050 (Climate Change Act, 2008). Ground source heating systems could contribute to the U.K.’s energy future but uptake has been slow due to a lack of case studies. The aim of this work was to produce the 1st U.K. city-wide heat map to support the development of ground source heating. We also sought to describe groundwater temperature variation with lithology & estimate the available thermal energy beneath the cit...

  8. 9 CFR 416.12 - Development of Sanitation SOP's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of Sanitation SOP's. 416... ACT SANITATION § 416.12 Development of Sanitation SOP's. (a) The Sanitation SOP's shall describe all... direct contamination or adulteration of product(s). (b) The Sanitation SOP's shall be signed and dated...

  9. Case Study on Sustainability of Rural Sanitation Marketing in Vietname

    OpenAIRE

    Sijbesma, Christine; Truong, Truong Xuan; Devine, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    This case study of the sustainability of rural sanitation marketing is part of a wider activity entitled 'Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing (TSSM): new approaches to Stimulate and Scale up Sanitation Demand and Supply Project,' also known as the Global Scaling up Sanitation Project. The long-term vision for this effort is to help a number of developing countries meet the basic sani...

  10. Economic Aspects of Sanitation in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang Van Minh; Nguyen Viet Hung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Improved sanitation has been shown to have great impacts on people’s health and economy. However, the progress of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on halving the proportion of people without access to clean water and basic sanitation by 2015 has thus far been delayed. One of the reasons for the slow progress is that policy makers, as well as the general public, have not fully understood the importance of the improved sanitation solutions. This paper, by gathering ...

  11. Sanitation Strategies in Karnataka: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Veerashekarappa; Shashanka Bhide

    2009-01-01

    Because of lack of proper sanitation, communicable diseases spread causing considerable loss and disabilities to human resources. Considering this, the international community has set the provision of sanitation as part of the Millennium Development Goals, aiming to reduce the number of those without adequate sanitation facilities to half by the year 2015. To achieve this, various strategies are designed by the Government of India and the state governments. It is observed that the strategies ...

  12. Water and sanitation to reduce child mortality : the impact and cost of water and sanitation infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Gunther, Isabel; Fink, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Using household survey data, this paper estimates the mortality impact of improved water and sanitation access in order to evaluate the potential contribution of water and sanitation investment toward achieving the child mortality targets defined in Millennium Development Goal 4. The authors find that the average mortality reduction achievable by investment in water and sanitation infrastr...

  13. What’s So Hard about Improving Access to Water and Sanitation?

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    The World Bank is committed to ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity. Providing clean, safe water to people wherever they live is critical to achieving these goals. A World Bank research team analyzed more than 130 water, sanitation and hygiene evaluations to understand what evidence there is for successful programs and what still needs to be learned. The researchers found that evidence is clear that improving sanitation and handwashing reduces diarr...

  14. Energy saving program in an operating potable water and sanitation organism; Programa de ahorro de energia en un organismo operador de agua potable y saneamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Cruz, Juan Jose [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de la Energia Electrica, (Mexico)

    2001-03-01

    For the achievement of the objectives it was decided to use, among others, the following strategies: Personnel training, increase of the efficiency of the electromechanical equipment, study of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) tariffs, correction of low power factors, increase of load factors, operation automate, regulation of the operation times, preventive maintenance of the equipment, establishment of technical standards, rational and efficient use of air conditioning equipment and illumination. So that these actions were applied in an easy and opportune form, it was established that within the structure of the General Coordination of Foreign Municipalities, the Program of Energy Saving depended directly of the Technical Management of CFE. In this way, the recommendations are first put under consideration of high-level officers, and then are lowered to the operative departments. [Spanish] Para el logro de los objetivos se acordo utilizar, entre otras, las siguientes estrategias: capacitacion del personal; aumentar la eficiencia de los equipos electromecanicos; estudio de tarifas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE); correccion de bajos factores de potencia; aumento de los factores de carga; automatizar la operacion; regular de los tiempos de operacion; mantenimiento preventivo a los equipos; establecimiento de normas tecnicas; uso racional y eficiente de aire acondicionado e iluminacion. Para que estas acciones se aplicaran en forma agil y oportuna, se establecio que dentro de la estructura de la Coordinacion General de Municipios Foraneos, el Programa de Ahorro de Energia dependiera directamente de la Gerencia Tecnica de la CRE. De esta forma, las recomendaciones primero se someten a consideracion de los funcionarios de alto nivel, y luego bajan a los departamentos operativos.

  15. 9 CFR 3.107 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.107 Section 3.107 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.107 Sanitation. (a) Primary enclosures. (1) Animal...

  16. 36 CFR 261.11 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 261.11 Section 261.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.11 Sanitation. The following are prohibited: (a) Depositing in any...

  17. 46 CFR 196.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 196.15-10 Section 196.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1232 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 13.1232 Section 13.1232 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1232 Sanitation. Within the BCDA, washing dishes or cooking utensils at locations...

  19. 36 CFR 331.7 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 331.7 Section 331.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.7 Sanitation. (a) Garbage, trash, rubbish, litter, or any other waste...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.51 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the U.S. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, published in 42 CFR part 72, or water which... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 1926.51 Section 1926.51 Labor Regulations... Sanitation. (a) Potable water. (1) An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided in all places...

  1. 46 CFR 78.17-25 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 78.17-25 Section 78.17-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-25 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer to see that...

  2. 43 CFR 423.34 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 423.34 Section 423.34 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Sanitation. (a) You must not bring or improperly dispose of refuse on Reclamation facilities, lands,...

  3. 46 CFR 109.203 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 109.203 Section 109.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.203 Sanitation. (a) The master or person in charge shall insure that the...

  4. 9 CFR 3.31 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.31 Section 3.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Pigs and Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.31 Sanitation. (a) Cleaning and...

  5. 46 CFR 97.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 97.15-10 Section 97.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  6. 36 CFR 327.9 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 327.9 Section 327.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... § 327.9 Sanitation. (a) Garbage, trash, rubbish, litter, gray water, or any other waste material...

  7. Social Perspectives on the Sanitation Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Spaargaren, G.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In developed countries the sanitation challenge is to initiate a transition from strongly centralized, water-based infrastructure regimes towards more sustainable, source-separation oriented, sanitation regimes. This calls for social scientific research and demonstration on different levels and scal

  8. Ecosanitation: An Integrated Approach towards Sanitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Gabani,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are at least 2.6 billion people in the world without improved sanitation. Improved sanitation is defined by WHO as connection to a Public sewer, connection to a septic system, a pour-flush latrine, a simple or ventilated pit latrine. Most of this 2.6 billion reside in rural Asia and Africa. But technically even access to improved sanitation does not solve the problem, a spit latrines which serve about 2.8 billion people usually fail to sanitize and contribute to ground water pollution. Also, septic systems and sewerage treatment plant often discharge in to the overloading and eutrophication. The need to close the loop on nutrients indicates that a paradigm shift towards sustainable sanitation is necessary environment with little or no sanitization or nutrient removal, polluting the ground water table streams, lake sand coastal zones, helping to perpetuate the cycle of human disease and upsetting fragile aquatic ecosystems by nutrient. The health risks associated with the current state of sanitation in the world require immediate action. Thus in present scenario huge amount of water and piping coverage is required and inspite of all these things the operational and maintenance cost are also high. This traditional British flush sanitation system has created havoc. Ample amount of NPK which is readily available in absorbable form by plants is wasted down the drain. Due to ever expansion of urban areas are getting far away which is increasing the cost of conveyance of sewage.

  9. Better sanitation, with communities taking the lead

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammod Abdus Sabur

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Bangladesh have pioneered a new approach to sanitation development known as community-led total sanitation (CLTS). This approach has also been replicated in a number of other countries in Asia and Africa. The key difference between previous approaches and CLTS was demand creation within communities.

  10. Removal of micropollutants in source separated sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Source separated sanitation is an innovative sanitation method designed for minimizing use of energy and clean drinking water, and maximizing reuse of water, organics and nutrients from waste water. This approach is based on separate collection and treatment of toilet wastewater (black water) and th

  11. Enhancing governance for sanitation marketing in DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    This report is one of the results of the ‘Sanitation Marketing in Equateur Province’ project in RDC, in which Wageningen UR and Oxfam Great Britain (Oxfam GB) work together.

    • It Describes the characteristics of different governance arrangements that address sanitation problems in Gemena i

  12. Integrated Assessment of the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Situation in Haitian Schools in the Time of Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausta Prandini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the water, sanitation and hygiene situation in 42 schools in Haiti after the earthquake of January 12, 2010, by using a comprehensive approach, which includes participatory assessment tools and formal surveys. By conducting a detailed assessment of school water and sanitation infrastructure conditions and of the perceptions of students and professors, a series of recommendations are provided to support further project implementation towards more sustainable results. Direct observations showed that schools lack safe drinking water, appropriate sanitation and hand washing facilities. The main constraints to improve the water, sanitation and hygiene services were found to be related to lack of funding and infrastructure losses after the earthquake. Moreover, hygiene education is commonly not part of the school curriculum. Providing schools with adequate access to water and sanitation facilities and supporting the implementation of hygiene promotion programs, including a disaster risk preparedness plan, can play significant roles for a sustainable recovery phase.

  13. [The federal politics of basic sanitation and the initiatives of participation, mobilization, social control, health and environmental education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisés, Márcia; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Monteiro, Sandra Conceição Ferreira

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to accomplish a critical analysis of two governmental important programs in health and environmental education - Health Education and Social Mobilization Program (PESMS) and Environmental Education and Sanitation Social Mobilization Program (PEAMSS), aiming at stimulate participative educational actions and social mobilization in sanitation projects. The methodology was based on reading and analysis of documents and observation in Workshops, Meetings, Seminars, Conventions, Congresses and Interviews. The authors describe the process of Program creation - PESMS and PEAMSS. They promoted a reflection and thought about Participation, Mobilization, Social Control, Health Education and Environmental Education. They also made considerations about the difficulties, facilities, advances and challenges in the implantation and implementation of PESMS and PEAMSS in the fundament for the realization of the public services of basic sanitation. They conclude that the creation of conditions by means of initiatives of Participation, Mobilization, Social Control, Health Education and Environmental Education become necessary for the development of Federal Policies of Basic Sanitation. PMID:20802890

  14. Reflexive assessment of practical and holistic sanitation development tools using the rural and peri-urban case of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberghien, J E; Robbins, P T; Tyrrel, S F

    2011-03-01

    Lack of sanitation affects the lives of billions of people worldwide. It is now generally agreed that sustainable solutions to this complex problem require social and cultural factors to be addressed in addition to the habitual economic and technical aspects. Increasingly, sector professionals view the fragmented approaches to sanitation as a limiting factor. This refers to the fragmentation of the knowledge on the subject among often hermetic disciplines and to the distribution of political mandates on sanitation across many institutions, which independently tackle specific aspects of the issue. Holistic approaches have often been suggested as a solution. This paper presents the development of such a holistic approach, designed to assess sanitation development in rural and peri-urban settings. Tested in three Mexican communities, it relies on qualitative research tools to identify critical influences to sanitation development. This article presents generic results about micro and macro-factors affecting sanitation development in Mexican villages, and reflexively examines the research process as well as the strengths and limitations of the approach. The conceptual map developed for each case study successfully highlights the interconnectedness of all factors affecting sanitation development. Despite some weaknesses, these maps constitute a practical assessment tool for interdisciplinary teams deployed in integrated water and sanitation development programs and a valuable didactic tool for training activities.

  15. From conventional to advanced environmental sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertenleib, R

    2005-01-01

    The basic concept of collecting domestic liquid waste in water-borne sewer systems goes back more than 100 years and became in the last century the conventional approach to sanitation in urban areas. Over the years, these sewage disposal systems had to be successively upgraded by additional sewage treatment plants increasing investment, operating and maintenance costs. Although these conventional sanitation systems could improve significantly the public health situation in those countries who could afford to install and operate them, it is highly questionable, if they are economically and ecologically sustainable. The large number of people in the developing world who still do not have access to adequate sanitation is a clear indication that the conventional approach to sanitation is not adapted to the socio-economic condition prevailing in most countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Advanced environmental sanitation is aiming not only to protect public health and the integrity of aquatic ecosystems but also to conserve precious freshwater and non-renewable resources. The Bellagio Principles and the Household Centred Environmental Sanitation Approach (HCES) are suggested as guiding principles and a new approach for planing and designing advanced (sustainable) environmental sanitation systems. PMID:16104400

  16. 9 CFR 416.14 - Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. 416... ACT SANITATION § 416.14 Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. Each official establishment shall routinely evaluate the effectiveness of the Sanitation SOP's and the procedures therein in preventing...

  17. Economic Assessment of Sanitation Interventions in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Access to improved sanitation is a major concern in the Lao People s Democratic Republic. Only 63 percent of the population of the country had access to improved sanitation facilities in 2010. Sanitation conditions are worse in rural areas. This study aims to generate evidence on the costs and benefits of sanitation improvements Lao PDR.

  18. 49 CFR 229.139 - Sanitation, servicing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation, servicing requirements. 229.139... Cab Equipment § 229.139 Sanitation, servicing requirements. (a) The sanitation compartment of each... present that prevents waste from evacuating the bowl. (c) The sanitation compartment of each...

  19. High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Peng; Anderson, John D.; Leitner, Michael; Rheingans, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals. Methods The surveyed households in 397 clusters from 2008–2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories. The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. A comparison was then made with the annual estimates from United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization /United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation. Results The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation. The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing. Conclusions There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally

  20. High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jia

    Full Text Available Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals.The surveyed households in 397 clusters from 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories. The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. A comparison was then made with the annual estimates from United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization /United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation.The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation. The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing.There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally where there are areas of

  1. When is shared sanitation improved sanitation? - The correlation between number of users and toilet hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Günther, Isabel; Niwagaba, Charles B.; Lüthi, Christoph; Horst, Alexandra; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Tumwebaze, Innocent K.

    2012-01-01

    The international debate on the question of whether shared and/or public sanitation facilities should be considered improved is still open. The concern is that a shared sanitation facility cannot be maintained in hygienic conditions when used by too many people. The analysis of 1’500 randomly selected toilets in the urban slums of Kampala showed that only 22 percent of households have access to private sanitation facilities; the remaining 78 percent share their toilet with an average of 6 ho...

  2. Sanitation dynamics: toilet acquisition and its economic and social implications

    OpenAIRE

    Augsburg, Britta; Rodríguez-Lesmes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Poor sanitation is an important policy issue facing India, which accounts for over half of the 1.1 billion people worldwide that defecate in the open [JMP, 2012]. Achieving global sanitation targets, and reducing the social and economic costs of open defecation, therefore requires effectively extending sanitation services to India's citizens. The Indian Government has shown strong commitment to improving sanitation. However, uptake and usage of safe sanitation remains low: almost 50% of India...

  3. Economic impacts of sanitation in Southeast Asia : summary

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the major health, water, environmental, tourism and other welfare impacts associated with poor sanitation in Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam. By examining the economic impacts of poor sanitation, and the potential gains from improved sanitation, this study provides important evidence to support further investments in sanitation. The goal of this report is to show decision makers at the country and regional levels how the negative impacts of poor sanitation...

  4. 9 CFR 3.56 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... them with hot water (180 °F.) and soap or detergent as in a mechanical cage washer, or by washing all... are used under such enclosures they shall be maintained in a sanitary condition. (b) Sanitization...

  5. Removal of micropollutants in source separated sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Butkovskyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Source separated sanitation is an innovative sanitation method designed for minimizing use of energy and clean drinking water, and maximizing reuse of water, organics and nutrients from waste water. This approach is based on separate collection and treatment of toilet wastewater (black water) and the rest of the domestic wastewater (grey water). Different characteristics of wastewater streams facilitate recovery of energy, nutrients and fresh water. To ensure agricultural or ecological reuse ...

  6. History and Technology of Terra Preta Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Sabino De Gisi; Luigi Petta; Claudia Wendland

    2014-01-01

    In order to reach the Millennium Development Goals for significantly reducing the number of people without access to adequate sanitation, new holistic concepts are needed focusing on economically feasible closed-loop ecological sanitation systems rather than on expensive end-of-pipe technologies. An analysis of a former civilization in the Amazon (nowadays Brazil) highlights the possibility to close the loop with a more sustainable lifestyle integrating soil fertility, food security, waste ma...

  7. Dry sanitation concepts with inspiration from nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Hesselberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Poor sanitation is a major problem for health and water resources in many developing countries. Inexpensive but also attractive toilets could be a way to fight these problems. However, radical new ideas are needed to identify innovative solutions. Such novel ideas might be found by using systematic...... methods. The solutions have the potential to offer significant improvements compared to conventional non-water-based sanitation....

  8. Improving Sanitation and Health in Rural Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In rural Alaskan communities personal health is threatened by energy costs and limited access to clean water, wastewater management, and adequate nutrition. Fuel-­-based energy systems are significant factors in determining local accessibility to clean water, sanitation and food. Increasing fuel costs induce a scarcity of access and impact residents' health. The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences (SNRAS), NASA's Ames Research Center, and USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have joined forces to develop high-efficiency, low­-energy consuming techniques for water treatment and food production in rural circumpolar communities. Methods intended for exploration of space and establishment of settlements on the Moon or Mars will ultimately benefit Earth's communities in the circumpolar north. The initial phase of collaboration is completed. Researchers from NASA Ames Research Center and SNRAS, funded by the USDA­-ARS, tested a simple, reliable, low-energy sewage treatment system to recycle wastewater for use in food production and other reuse options in communities. The system extracted up to 70% of the water from sewage and rejected up to 92% of ions in the sewage with no carryover of toxic effects. Biological testing showed that plant growth using recovered water in the nutrient solution was equivalent to that using high-purity distilled water. With successful demonstration that the low energy consuming wastewater treatment system can provide safe water for communities and food production, the team is ready to move forward to a full-scale production testbed. The SNRAS/NASA team (including Alaska students) will design a prototype to match water processing rates and food production to meet rural community sanitation needs and nutritional preferences. This system would be operated in Fairbanks at the University of Alaska through SNRAS. Long­-term performance will be validated and operational needs of the

  9. Verslag van de 'Sanitation Challenge: An international conference on new sanitation concepts and models of governance'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Zeeman, G.; Mels, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Van 19 tot en met 21 mei vond in Wageningen de `Sanitation Challenge: an international conference on new sanitation concepts and models of governance¿ plaats. Het voornaamste doel was om de verschillende groepen die betrokken zijn bij onderzoek, ontwikkeling en implementatie van (nieuwe) sanitatie i

  10. Urban Sanitation Experiences of Senegal and Burkina Faso : Broadening Urban Sanitation Activities

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to offer evidence that urban sanitation in large West African cities faces specific issues linked to urban setting, housing development and urban environment, and to the development of water services. These issues are acutely perceived by urban households and largely shape their demand for sanitation, whereas the available supply offers unsatisfactory or unaffordable soluti...

  11. The Behaviour Of Society In The Management Of Environmental Sanitation At Coffee Plantation Residence In Jember Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiron Khoiron

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Jember government had conducted several programs to improve sanitation service in Jember area. One of them was Silo District, it was quite big of coffee plantation area. One of Silo district sanitation access, especially, healthy toilet was low (45,3%. One of the coffee plantation village in Silo district was Sidomulyo village. Methods: This research was quantitative and qualitative research by using Participation Rural Apraisal (PRA method. The data was collected by interview, observation, and Focus Group Discussion (FGD. The research was aimed to identify role and the potential of environment sanitation people in the coffee plantation of Sidomulyo Village, Silo District, Jember regency. Results:The research results showed respondent’s sanitation knowledge are low 36%, intermediate 46%. The respondent’s attitude are bad 14%, and intermediate are 72%. The respondent’s behaviour; intermediate 55% and bad 31%. Mostly, respondents used spring as source of MCK are 79%, drinking water 58%. Most of the respondent did not have well as many as 85%. 67% did not have toilet and 60% did not have bathroom. 50% of the respondents did not have toilet, they used river and coffee garden as toilet. The bad house condition was 62%. According to FGD result, the people had motivation to increase management of environment sanitation. Some of people did arisan activity, karang taruna and gentlemens’ religiuos meeting as used media to increase peoples’ awareness in the management of environment sanitation in coffee plantation area. Conclusions: The research results showed that a large of respondents had knowledge, attitude, and behaviour about environment sanitation was intermediate. There was still respondents that had poor behaviour in environment sanitation. It was showed by most of the respondent did not have well, toilet and bathroom in their house. A half of respondent which did not have toilet, used river and coffee garden as toilet

  12. Water and Sanitation Standards in Humanitarian Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersel, Murat

    2015-10-01

    The right to water and sanitation is an inextricable human right. Water and sanitation are critical determinants for survival in the initial stages of a disaster. An adequate amount of safe water is necessary to prevent death from dehydration, to reduce the risk of water-related disease and to provide for consumption, cooking and personal and domestic hygienic requirements. The main objective of WASH - (Water supply, Sanitation and Hygenie promotion) programmes in disasters is to reduce the transmission of faeco-oral diseases and exposure to disease-bearing vectors through the promotion of: good hygiene practices, the provision of safe drinking water, the reduction of environmental health risks, the conditions that allow people to a healthy life with dignity, comfort and security. PMID:27437529

  13. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC's Non-Thermal Sanitation by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma technology sanitizes fresh fruits and vegetables without the use of consumable chemicals and without...

  14. 46 CFR 184.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies with 33 CFR part 159. ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 184.704 Section...

  15. The Role of Graphic and Sanitized Violence in the Enjoyment of Television Dramas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Andrew J.; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment explores the relationship between television violence and viewer enjoyment. Over 400 participants were randomly assigned to one of 15 conditions that were created by editing five TV programs into three versions each: A graphically violent version, a sanitized violent version, and a nonviolent version. After viewing, participants…

  16. 9 CFR 147.26 - Procedures for establishing isolation and maintaining sanitation and good management practices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... are required for participation under the U.S. Sanitation Monitored, U.S. M. Gallisepticum Clean, U.S. M. Synoviae Clean, U.S. S. Enteritidis Monitored, and U.S. S. Enteritidis Clean classifications: (1... rodent population and other pests under control; (6) Tailor vaccination programs to needs of farm......

  17. Informal urban sanitation : everyday life, comparison and poverty.

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, C.; Desai, R.; Graham, S.

    2014-01-01

    The global sanitation crisis is rapidly urbanizing, but how is sanitation produced and sustained in informal settlements? While there are data available on aggregate statistics, relatively little is known about how sanitation is created, maintained, threatened, and contested within informal settlements. Drawing on an ethnography of two very different informal settlements in Mumbai, this study identifies key ways in which informal sanitation is produced, rendered vulnerable, and politicized. I...

  18. Citizenshit: the right to flush and the urban sanitation imaginary

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret del Carmen Morales; Leila Harris; Gunilla Ãberg

    2014-01-01

    For many in the Global North, urban life means that your shit is not your problem. We postulate that a possible reason for the global sanitation failure in urban areas is a disconnect between sanitation expectations—what we term the urban sanitation imaginary —and the practices required by proposed sanitation solutions. The case study presented here is based on interviews with residents of Villa Lamadrid, a marginalized neighborhood in Buenos Aires, Argentina, which faces significant public h...

  19. 18 CFR 1304.401 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marine sanitation... Miscellaneous § 1304.401 Marine sanitation devices. No person operating a commercial boat dock permitted under... equipped with a marine sanitation device (MSD) unless such MSD is in compliance with all...

  20. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at...

  1. 46 CFR 131.940 - Marine sanitation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Miscellaneous § 131.940 Marine sanitation device. Each vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device in compliance with 33 CFR part 159. ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation device. 131.940 Section...

  2. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  3. 49 CFR 229.137 - Sanitation, general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation, general requirements. 229.137 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.137 Sanitation, general requirements. (a) Sanitation compartment. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all lead locomotives in use shall be equipped with a...

  4. 46 CFR 121.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies with 33 CFR part 159. ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 121.704 Section...

  5. Decision support system for the provision of emergency sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, F; Garcia, H A; Hooijmans, C M; Brdjanovic, D

    2015-04-15

    Proper provision of sanitation in emergencies is considered a life-saving intervention. Without access to sanitation, refugees at emergency camps are at a high risk of contracting diseases. Even the most knowledgeable relief agencies have experienced difficulties providing sanitation alternatives in such challenging scenarios. This study developed a computer-based decision support system (DSS) to plan a sanitation response in emergencies. The sanitation alternatives suggested by the DSS are based on a sanitation chain concept that considers different steps in the faecal sludge management, from the toilet or latrine to the safe disposal of faecal matters. The DSS first screens individual sanitation technologies using the user's given input. Remaining sanitation options are then built into a feasible sanitation chain. Subsequently, each technology in the chain is evaluated on a scoring system. Different sanitation chains can later be ranked based on the total evaluation scores. The DSS addresses several deficiencies encountered in the provision of sanitation in emergencies including: the application of standard practices and intuition, the omission of site specific conditions, the limited knowledge exhibited by emergency planners, and the provision of sanitation focused exclusively on the collection step (i.e., just the provision of toilets). PMID:25662862

  6. Safe sanitation: Findings from the impact evaluation baseline survey in Orissa, India. Financial Inclusion improves sanitation and health - FINSIH Project

    OpenAIRE

    Augsburg, Britta

    2011-01-01

    FINISH - Financial Inclusion Improves Sanitation and Health - is a joint undertaking of a wide range of actors that came together to address the challenges of micro finance, insurance and sanitation and health. The overall goal of the project itself is to built 1 million safe toilets (possibly sanitation systems), financed through microfinance loans.

  7. Mechanical Hatching Egg Sanitization: A Fresh Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three to four decades ago, hatching egg sanitization was done by immersion of eggs in an egg-gathering basket (plastic-coated metal wire) into a small vat with a heating element and disinfectant solution. This procedure failed miserably for several reasons. First, the eggs were not subjected to the...

  8. Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past, most of the regulations regarding egg processing are concerned with quality rather than safety. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) will be required by retailers or by the federal government. GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) and SSOPs (Sanitation Standard Operating P...

  9. Economic Impacts of Inadequate Sanitation in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    DeFrancis, Marc P.

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the nonmonetary, financial, and economic costs of poor sanitation in the areas of health, drinking water, and domestic water, as well as user preference and welfare. Financial costs refer to the direct financial expense paid in monetary terms by someone, such as changes in household and government spending and real income losses for households. Nonmonetary costs consist ...

  10. The Road to Food Safety and Sanitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Food is one of the most essential substance factors for human being. And safety and sanitation is one of the most important requirements for food without doubt. Every consumer likes to enjoy the safest supplies of food products in the world.

  11. Environmental Sanitation Crisis: More than just a health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION CRISIS CANNOT BE DENIED: well over a century after the sanitary revolution in 19th century Europe, 40% of the world's population still lacks access to improved sanitation. Important lessons from the past must be applied today if the crisis is to be averted. Sanitation has suffered from a lack of prioritization for as long as it has remained the poor relation to water supply. The International Year of Sanitation 2008 provides an opportunity to separate the two and give sanitation the emphasis it requires. The economic argument for sanitation must be articulated and non-health incentives for improved sanitation exploited. Environmental sanitation results in a multitude of socio-economic benefits and can contribute positively to all the Millennium Development Goals. Community-led bottom-up approaches, rather than supply-led or technology-driven approaches, are most effective in increasing and sustaining access to sanitation but need to be implemented at scale. Targeted strategies for urban and school sanitation are also required. Evidence-based advocacy can help develop the political will that is now needed to ensure sufficient public sector investment, leadership, legislation and regulation to ensure that the fundamental human right of access to sanitation is realized. PMID:21572832

  12. Environmental Sanitation Crisis: More than just a health issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The global environmental sanitation crisis cannot be denied: well over a century after the sanitary revolution in 19th century Europe, 40% of the world’s population still lacks access to improved sanitation. Important lessons from the past must be applied today if the crisis is to be averted. Sanitation has suffered from a lack of prioritization for as long as it has remained the poor relation to water supply. The International Year of Sanitation 2008 provides an opportunity to separate the two and give sanitation the emphasis it requires. The economic argument for sanitation must be articulated and non-health incentives for improved sanitation exploited. Environmental sanitation results in a multitude of socio-economic benefits and can contribute positively to all the Millennium Development Goals. Community-led bottom-up approaches, rather than supply-led or technology-driven approaches, are most effective in increasing and sustaining access to sanitation but need to be implemented at scale. Targeted strategies for urban and school sanitation are also required. Evidence-based advocacy can help develop the political will that is now needed to ensure sufficient public sector investment, leadership, legislation and regulation to ensure that the fundamental human right of access to sanitation is realized.

  13. Modelo de priorização de investimentos em saneamento básico utilizando programação linear com base em indicadores ambientais Priorization model of investments in basic sanitation using linear programming based on environmental indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayra Vicente Sousa da Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresenta-se uma contribuição referente ao desenvolvimento de um modelo de hierarquização de investimentos em saneamento. Utiliza-se a técnica da programação linear, com base em um indicador de salubridade ambiental, o ISA/JP1 (Silva, 2006. O objetivo é a maximização das condições de salubridade ambiental nas comunidades a serem beneficiadas. Dessa forma, procura-se intervir na alocação dos benefícios relativos às variáveis que compõem o subindicador correspondente ao saneamento básico. O modelo foi aplicado nas comunidades periurbanas localizadas na bacia do Rio Gramame, litoral sul do estado da Paraíba. Os benefícios propostos, segundo o modelo, resultariam em mudanças significativas, atingindo até a condição salubre, conforme os valores de investimentos disponíveis.In this article a contribution concerning the development of a hierarchization of investments in sanitation model is presented. The technique of the linear programming is used, based on an environmental health indicator, the ISA/JP1 (Silva, 2006. The aim is the maximization of the environmental health conditions in the communities to be benefited. In this way, it is attempted to interfere in the allocation of the benefits related to the sub-indicator variables corresponding to basic sanitation. The model was applied in five periurban communities of Lower Gramame River Basin, on the Southern Littoral of Paraíba State, Brazil. In this case, the proposed benefits would result in significant changes, even reaching the salubrious condition, according to values of available investments.

  14. The Life-Cycle Costs of School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Access in Kenyan Primary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly T. Alexander; Alex Mwaki; Dorothy Adhiambo; Malaika Cheney-Coker; Richard Muga; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) programs in schools can increase the health, dignity and comfort of students and teachers. Understanding the costs of WASH facilities and services in schools is one essential piece for policy makers to utilize when budgeting for schools and helping to make WASH programs more sustainable. In this study we collected data from NGO and government offices, local hardware shops and 89 rural primary schools across three Kenyan counties. Current expenditures on WA...

  15. Economic Impacts of Inadequate Sanitation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    In Pakistan, the deterioration of the environment continues to harm livelihoods and health, increasing the vulnerability of the nation's poor. It has long been clear that lack of access to clean water and sanitation facilities has a wide variety of impacts; however, the data and evidence needed to verify the size of the burden imposed on the people of Pakistan are limited. As a result, inv...

  16. Corporate Governance in Water and Sanitation Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Fidel H. Cuéllar Boada

    2011-01-01

    This technical note contains a methodology to promote the use of good corporate governance practices for water and sanitation enterprises (especially SOEs) in Latin America and the Caribbean, based on IDB experiences and other relevant cases from network utilities. The methodology evaluates how corporate governance practices are currently being applied in those firms, and facilitates progressive advancement in successive stages. The methodology is rooted in theory in order to ensure that the ...

  17. Gender and Sanitation Tool for Displaced Populations

    OpenAIRE

    MSF

    2013-01-01

    This tool is meant to be used in the first and second stage of an emergency response where there is no time to implement a comprehensive consultation and participation process. The tool will help you to decide rapidly what and where sanitation facilities need to be built based on what women (but not exclusively), need with a minimum of effort or specialized expertise required. It is assumed that general WatSan needs are already assessed at this point.

  18. School environment and sanitation in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P Majra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : A school child educated about the benefits of sanitation and good hygiene behavior is a conduit for carrying those messages far beyond the school walls, bringing lasting improvement to community hygienic practices. Aims : To study the status of school environment and sanitation in rural India. Settings and Design: Government schools in rural Karnataka, cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: Twenty schools were randomly selected for the study. Informed consent was taken from the Heads of the schools. A pre tested close ended questionnaire was used to get the information. The minimum standards for sanitation of the school and its environment in India were used as the guiding principles to evaluate the appropriateness/ adequacy of the various attributes. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Results : Out of 20 schools selected, one fourth of the schools were located/ sited at inappropriate places. Only half of the schools had appropriate/ adequate structure. Eighteen (90% of the schools were overcrowded. Ventilation and day light was adequate for 12(60% and 14(70% of the schools respectively. Cleanliness of school compound/classrooms was adequate in 80% of the schools. There were no separate rooms for serving the midday meals in any of the schools under study. Eighteen (90% of the schools were having drinking water points. Liquid and solid waste disposal was insanitary in six (30% and eight (40% of the schools respectively. Only half of the schools had adequate latrines for boys and 60% for girls. Only two (10% of the schools had adequate hand washing points with soap. Conclusions : Environment and sanitation facilities at many of the schools are not fully satisfactory.

  19. History and Technology of Terra Preta Sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino De Gisi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to reach the Millennium Development Goals for significantly reducing the number of people without access to adequate sanitation, new holistic concepts are needed focusing on economically feasible closed-loop ecological sanitation systems rather than on expensive end-of-pipe technologies. An analysis of a former civilization in the Amazon (nowadays Brazil highlights the possibility to close the loop with a more sustainable lifestyle integrating soil fertility, food security, waste management, water protection and sanitation, renewable energy. Terra Preta do Indio is the anthropogenic black soil produced by ancient cultures through the conversion of bio-waste, fecal matter and charcoal into long-term fertile soils. These soils have maintained high amounts of organic carbon several thousand years after they were abandoned. Deriving from these concepts, Terra Preta Sanitation (TPS has been re-developed and adopted. TPS includes urine diversion, addition of a charcoal mixture and is based on lactic-acid-fermentation with subsequent vermicomposting. Lacto-fermentation is a biological anaerobic process that generates a pre-stabilization of the mixture. The main advantage of lacto-fermentation is that no gas and no odor is produced. What makes it particularly interesting for in-house systems even in urban areas. Instead, vermicomposting is an aerobic decomposition process of the pre-digested materials by the combined action of earthworms and microorganisms. It transforms the carbon and nutrients into the deep black, fertile and stable soil that can be utilized in agriculture. No water, ventilation or external energy is required. Starting from ancient Amazonian civilizations traditional knowledge, the aim of this work is to present TPS systems adopted nowadays.

  20. Sustainable sanitation technology options for urban slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Foppen, J W A; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2012-01-01

    Poor sanitation in urban slums results in increased prevalence of diseases and pollution of the environment. Excreta, grey water and solid wastes are the major contributors to the pollution load into the slum environment and pose a risk to public health. The high rates of urbanization and population growth, poor accessibility and lack of legal status in urban slums make it difficult to improve their level of sanitation. New approaches may help to achieve the sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7; ensuring environmental sustainability. This paper reviews the characteristics of waste streams and the potential treatment processes and technologies that can be adopted and applied in urban slums in a sustainable way. Resource recovery oriented technologies minimise health risks and negative environmental impacts. In particular, there has been increasing recognition of the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for treatment of excreta and organic solid waste for energy recovery as an alternative to composting. Soil and sand filters have also been found suitable for removal of organic matter, pathogens, nutrients and micro-pollutants from grey water.

  1. Sustainable sanitation technology options for urban slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Foppen, J W A; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2012-01-01

    Poor sanitation in urban slums results in increased prevalence of diseases and pollution of the environment. Excreta, grey water and solid wastes are the major contributors to the pollution load into the slum environment and pose a risk to public health. The high rates of urbanization and population growth, poor accessibility and lack of legal status in urban slums make it difficult to improve their level of sanitation. New approaches may help to achieve the sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7; ensuring environmental sustainability. This paper reviews the characteristics of waste streams and the potential treatment processes and technologies that can be adopted and applied in urban slums in a sustainable way. Resource recovery oriented technologies minimise health risks and negative environmental impacts. In particular, there has been increasing recognition of the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for treatment of excreta and organic solid waste for energy recovery as an alternative to composting. Soil and sand filters have also been found suitable for removal of organic matter, pathogens, nutrients and micro-pollutants from grey water. PMID:22361648

  2. Impacts of sanitation upgrading to the decrease of fecal coliforms entering into the environment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yindong; Yao, Ruihua; He, Wei; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Cen; Liu, Xianhua; Lu, Yiren; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun; Lin, Yan; Zhou, Min

    2016-08-01

    Identifying the sanitation efficacy of reducing fecal contaminations in the environment is important for evaluating health risks of the public and developing future management strategies to improve sanitation conditions. In this study, we estimated the fecal coliforms (FC) entering into the environment in 31 provinces in China under three sanitation scenarios. Our calculation results indicated that, the current FC release is disparate among regions, and the human releases in the rural regions were dominant, accounting for over 90% of the total human releases. Compared with the human release, the FC release from the livestock was of similar magnitude, but has a quite different spatial distribution. In China Women's Development Program, the Chinese government set the target to make over 85% of the population in the rural access to the toilets in 2020. If the target set by the Chinese government is achieved, a decrease of 34% (12-54%) in the FC releases would be anticipated. In the future, the improvement in sanitation and accesses to the safe drinking water in the less developed regions, such as Tibet, Qinghai, and Ningxia, should be considered as a priority. PMID:27179203

  3. Improving access to adequate water and basic sanitation services in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Budi; Sutomo, Sumengen

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of water problems faces nations and individuals around the world. These problems include international and regional disputes over water, water scarcity and contamination,unsustainable use of groundwater, ecological degradation,and the threat of climate change. At the heart of the world's water problems, however, is the failure to provide even the most basic water services for billions of people and the devastating human health problems associated with that failure. In 2000, the World Health Organization reported about regularly monitoring access to water and sanitation of 89%of the world's population, in which about 1.1 billion people lacked access to "improved water supply" and more than 2.4 billion lacked access to "improved sanitation". The development of water and basic sanitation services in Indonesia does not indicate any significant progress in the last two decades.The prevalence of water-borne diseases tends to increase yearly, which poses a risk for a population of over a million people. Therefore, it is not realistic to achieve the Millennium Development Goals target by 2015. Redefining approaches like providing integrated programs and action in water and sanitation services must be a priority to protect human health in Indonesia. PMID:23095182

  4. Impacts of sanitation upgrading to the decrease of fecal coliforms entering into the environment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yindong; Yao, Ruihua; He, Wei; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Cen; Liu, Xianhua; Lu, Yiren; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun; Lin, Yan; Zhou, Min

    2016-08-01

    Identifying the sanitation efficacy of reducing fecal contaminations in the environment is important for evaluating health risks of the public and developing future management strategies to improve sanitation conditions. In this study, we estimated the fecal coliforms (FC) entering into the environment in 31 provinces in China under three sanitation scenarios. Our calculation results indicated that, the current FC release is disparate among regions, and the human releases in the rural regions were dominant, accounting for over 90% of the total human releases. Compared with the human release, the FC release from the livestock was of similar magnitude, but has a quite different spatial distribution. In China Women's Development Program, the Chinese government set the target to make over 85% of the population in the rural access to the toilets in 2020. If the target set by the Chinese government is achieved, a decrease of 34% (12-54%) in the FC releases would be anticipated. In the future, the improvement in sanitation and accesses to the safe drinking water in the less developed regions, such as Tibet, Qinghai, and Ningxia, should be considered as a priority.

  5. A SURVEY ON ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION AND HYGENE INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel

    1979-11-01

    Full Text Available In a thousands beds general hospital affiliated to the Tehran University, long-standing infestations of insects such as cockroaches, flies, mosquitoes and rat were found as a result of vicious circles and substandard clearing which are due to not well trained and drilled personnel of contracting agency, out of work condition of two incinerators, quasti-administrative aspects of their program on hospital sanitation and in controlling of hospital infection. Out of 37 samples collected for bacteriological examination, 21, eases of gram positive cocci and gram negative bacilli were isolated and detected. The intensity of illumination at two operation rooms were substandard level, while the, sound level were exceed the recommended standard.

  6. A conceptual model of people's approach to sanitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanitation is a term primarily used to characterize the safe and sound handling (and disposal) of human excreta - or simply, people's approach to take-care of their (unavoidable) primal urge. According to the recent Human Development Report 2006 Global access to proper sanitation stands at approximately 58% with 37% being a conservative estimate both for South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Various multi-million dollar sanitation programmes the world over have had little success, often due to inadequate understanding of people's sanitation approach. Sanitation approach includes the perception, feel and practices involved in satisficing the primal need to defecate and urinate (and their disposal). This paper presents a structure to understand the nature of psycho-socio-economic influences that determine societal approach to sanitation. Societies across the globe have evolved imbibing diverse influences attributed to the local environment, religion, cultural practices, war, etc. While a civilization's living environment reflects these influences in their built-environment characteristics, the influences are often deep-rooted and can be traced to the way the community members satisfice their need to defecate and urinate (sanitation approach). The objective of this paper is to trace the various approaches that diverse societies/civilizations, over time, across the world have had towards sanitation, and present a structure to articulate and understand determining factors. Sanitation also involves other domestic (solid and liquid) waste disposal but in the context of this paper the scope of sanitation has been restricted to human excreta alone. The structure presented and discussed in this paper would be useful in understanding a community better in terms of providing appropriate sanitation. It is hoped that this structure be considered as a basis for further refinement and detailed research into each of the factors determining people's sanitation approach

  7. Economic Assessment of Sanitation Interventions in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The Philippines is well on its way to achieving the sanitation target, which is part of a combined drinking water and sanitation target within the Millennium Development Goal (MDG). As of 2008, about 76 percent of its population had access to improved sanitation facilities (JMP 2010). This is nearly 18 percentage points higher than the estimates for 1990 and 3 percentage points short of the MDG ...

  8. Drainage systems, an occluded source of sanitation related outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Background Drainage systems and its role in sanitation related outbreaks are evident but still occluded once it has been installed. This current review evaluates if drainage systems can cause infections and thus be of clinical concern. Method A review of the literature was analyzed. Papers, guidelines, and quality management systems have been considered. Results Adequate sanitation is fundamental and a prerequisite for safe life and productivity. In contrast, malfunctioning sanitation has bee...

  9. Environmental Sanitation Crisis: More than just a health issue

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Harvey

    2008-01-01

    The global environmental sanitation crisis cannot be denied: well over a century after the sanitary revolution in 19th century Europe, 40% of the world’s population still lacks access to improved sanitation. Important lessons from the past must be applied today if the crisis is to be averted. Sanitation has suffered from a lack of prioritization for as long as it has remained the poor relation to water supply. The International Year of Sanitation 2008 provides an opportunity to separate the t...

  10. Does Sanitation Affect Health Outcomes? Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Amarendra; Das, Bibhunandini

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we have attempted to unravel the disparity in sanitation facilities across rural and urban regions of Indian states and the impact of sanitation on health outcomes. Based on the 69th National Sample Survey data set which covers more than 95 000 households we find a wide disparity in the access to sanitation facilities across rural and urban areas of Indian states and across states. While the north-eastern and southern states perform better in sanitation indicators, the eastern a...

  11. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J Joseph; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Biemba, Godfrey; Ram, Pavani K; Osbert, Nicolas; Sabin, Lora L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2016-03-01

    Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called "triggering." This qualitative study explored community members' and stakeholders' sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12-18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children's opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of different generations of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia.

  12. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J Joseph; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Biemba, Godfrey; Ram, Pavani K; Osbert, Nicolas; Sabin, Lora L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2016-03-01

    Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called "triggering." This qualitative study explored community members' and stakeholders' sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12-18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children's opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of different generations of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia. PMID:26787149

  13. Annotated References on: Engineering Maintenance, Sanitation Public Health, Sanitation Health Care Facility, Housekeeping, and Purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Developed as part of the Allied Health Professions Projects, these five annotated bibliographies contain resource materials from the following areas: (1) Engineering Maintenance, 13 entries, (2) Sanitation and Public Health, 15 entries, (3) Hospital and Nursing Home Administration, 12 entries, (4) Hospital Housekeeping, 43 entries, and (5)…

  14. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, C.; Malambo, D.H.; Gonzalez Perez, M.E.; Nobela, H.N.; De Pooter, L.; Spit, J.; Hooijmans, C.M.; Van de Vossenberg, J.; Greya, W.; Thole, B.; Van Lier, J.B.; Brdjanovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lim

  15. Sanitation in the time of cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, A

    1991-01-01

    Cholera, identified by violent diarrhea, cramps, vomiting, and dehydration, is spreading through Peru into Colombia, Ecuador, Child, and Brazil. Water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae is used for washing food and/or drinking thereby transmitting the disease. PAHO estimates 6 million people in South America may get cholera within the next 3 years. This cholera epidemic is the result of unsanitary conditions in which the urban poor in South America live. In fact, in Lima, Peru, 40% of the people do not have potable, piped water available. These individuals fetch their water from far away taps and private vendors both of which are not necessarily safe. In addition, 40% do not have access to a sewage system. Further, 80% of sick people in developing countries have a water related illness, be it transmitted by contaminated water or by insects and snails that reproduce in the water. Diarrhea is the most deadly of these conditions. Indeed every year 10-20 million children die from the effects of diarrhea which include malnutrition, dehydration, and shock. Yet 940 million people in developing countries have no access to safe water and 1.7 billion do not have a sanitary means of disposing of human wastes, despite the fact that the UN decreed the 1980s the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade. Nevertheless UNICEF efforts did bring communal taps, odorless latrines, and/or pour flush toilets to 1.2 billion people. These types of sanitation costs $20-25/person whereas conventional sewers cost $350/person. Low technology supplied water averages $30/person compared to $200/person for piped water. Peru has spent $43 million on emergency medical care for cholera victims which could have provided low cost clean water and sanitation for almost 800,000 poor.

  16. Sanitation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    A sanitation programme for stamping-out viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) was implemented in Denmark in 1965. The programme has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of infected rainbow trout farms, from approximate to 400 to 26. The programme is carried out on a voluntary basis...... at the expense of the involved fish farm owners. The fact that financial support for the eradication of VHS and IHN may be made available from the European Union may enhance the efforts towards further eradication of the disease in Europe. The finding of a VHS virus (VHSV)-like virus in the marine environment...

  17. Environmental engineering and sanitation, 4th edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvato, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book has been updated to cover new laws and standards, including the Federal Safe Drinking Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Clean Air Act of 1990. This book applies sanitation and engineering theory and principles to environmental control in urban, suburban and rural communities. Engineering design, construction, operation and maintenance details are provided throughout as they relate to plants and structures. Topics include: disease control, water supply, wastewater treatment and disposal, air pollution and noise control, radiation uses and protection, recreation areas, solid waste management and much more.

  18. [Water and sanitation in disaster situations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    When implementing water and sanitation in a disaster situation, it is of crucial importance that the intervention is grounded in the local cultural and socioeconomic context. The assistance provided in the response phase should facilitate short and long-term recovery and sustainable development...... of the affected community. The new model for disaster management which comprises an integrated continuous risk reduction phase, calls for a cross-disciplinary approach which combines the known life-saving response methods with modern development practices. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Jan...

  19. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  20. 25 CFR 247.18 - What are the sanitation prohibitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the sanitation prohibitions? 247.18 Section 247.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.18 What are the sanitation prohibitions? (a) You cannot...

  1. 21 CFR 1240.95 - Sanitation of water boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation of water boats. 1240.95 Section 1240.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.95 Sanitation of water boats. No vessel engaged...

  2. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following...

  3. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14 Section 1002.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing...

  4. Uganda - Environmental Sanitation : Addressing Institutional and Financial Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 10 years the government of Uganda has endeavored to increase latrine coverage and promote hygiene with a view to improving health outcomes. In 1997, in the Kampala declaration for sanitation, leaders from all of Uganda's districts pledged to improve sanitation. Then in 2001, three ministries, the Ministry of Water, Lands, and Environment; the Ministry of Education and Sports;...

  5. Hygiene, Sanitation, and Water: What Needs to Be Done?

    OpenAIRE

    Sandy Cairncross; Jamie Bartram; Oliver Cumming; Clarissa Brocklehurst

    2010-01-01

    In the final article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation, Sandy Cairncross and colleagues outline what needs to be done to make significant progress in providing more and better hygiene, sanitation, and water for all.

  6. Hygiene, Sanitation, and Water: Forgotten Foundations of Health

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Bartram; Sandy Cairncross

    2010-01-01

    As the first article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation, Jamie Bartram and Sandy Cairncross argue that the massive burden of ill health associated with poor hygiene, sanitation, and water supply demands more attention from health professionals and policymakers.

  7. Bridging the sanitation gap between disaster relief and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ka-Man; Ramirez, Claudia; Liu, Weilong; Kirilova, Darina; Vick, David; Mari, Joe; Smith, Rachel; Lam, Ho-Yin; Ostovari, Afshin; Shibakawa, Akifumi; Liu, Yang; Samant, Sidharth; Osaro, Lucky

    2015-10-01

    By interpreting disasters as opportunities to initiate the fulfilment of development needs, realise the vulnerability of the affected community and environment, and extend the legacy of relief funds and effort, this paper builds upon the concept linking relief, rehabilitation and development (LRRD) in the sanitation sector. It aims to use a composite of case studies to devise a framework for a semi-hypothetical scenario to identify critical components and generic processes for a LRRD action plan. The scenario is based on a latrine wetland sanitation system in a Muslim community. Several sub-frameworks are developed: (i) latrine design; (ii) assessment of human waste treatment; (iii) connective sanitation promotion strategy; and (iv) ecological systems and environmental services for sanitation and development. This scenario illustrates the complex issues involved in LRRD in sanitation work and provides technical notes and references for a legacy plan for disaster relief and development. PMID:25752194

  8. Inactivation of dairy bacteriophages by commercial sanitizers and disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Céline; Villion, Manuela; Labrie, Simon J; Duchaine, Caroline; Moineau, Sylvain

    2014-02-01

    Many commercial sanitizers and disinfectants have been used over the years to control microbial contamination but their efficacy on phages is often unknown. Here, 23 commercial chemical products, including 21 food-grade sanitizers were tested against virulent dairy phages. These food-grade chemicals included oxidizing agents, halogenated agents, alcohols, quaternary ammonium compounds, anionic acids, iodine-based acids, and an amphoteric chemical. Phage P008 was first exposed to each sanitizer for 2 and 15min at room temperature and at two different concentrations, namely the lowest and highest no-rinse sanitizing concentrations. Organic matter (whey or milk) was also added to the testing solutions. At the end of the exposure period, the test solution was neutralized and the number of infectious phages was determined by plaque assays. The five most efficient sanitizers against phage P008 (factories and research laboratories. PMID:24321601

  9. Bringing Science to the Public through City-wide Science Festivals and Street Fairs/Supported in part by the National Science Foundation and the Lounsbery Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Brian

    2007-04-01

    Many organizations make an effort to reach the general public and children in the area of science understanding and appreciation. These include museums, universities, professional societies, government agencies, corporations and television networks. When studies are made of the composition of the audiences for many of these outreach programs one finds a great overlap. For example, those who like to go to science museums often enjoy viewing NOVA programs. The challenge is to bring Science to the People in places, times and venues not usual associated with science. For the past six years the Science & the Arts program at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York has made use of the performing arts to bring science to old and new audiences. See http://web.gc.cuny.edu/sciart. While this program has been effective, we have tried additional approaches in new modes and novel sites. In this paper we relate our experience with a citywide science festival, which we operated in New York City in November 2006. This idea was based on the science festival held in Atlanta in conjunction with the APS Centennial in 1999. We will review the history, effectiveness and various styles of Science Festivals in the United States and worldwide. In an even more adventurous outreach effort, in June 2006 our program rented booths at a conventional New York City weekend street fair, offering hands-on science experiences amidst the typical street fair food and wares. Adults and children were delighted to find science in this setting and welcomed the fact that they could get science with their tasty kielbasa sandwiches as well as a bargain on tube sox. Their responses were documented in a video. We will present parts of this video and offer suggestions for adapting this project to other locations

  10. Planning environmental sanitation programmes in emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Peter A; Reed, Robert A

    2005-06-01

    Environmental sanitation programmes are vital for tackling environmental-related disease and ensuring human dignity in emergency situations. If they are to have maximum impact they must be planned in a rapid but systematic manner. An appropriate planning process comprises five key stages: rapid assessment and priority setting; outline programme design; immediate action; detailed programme design; and implementation. The assessment should be based on carefully selected data, which are analysed via comparison with suitable minimum objectives. How the intervention should be prioritised is determined through objective ranking of different environmental sanitation sector needs. Next, a programme design outline is produced to identify immediate and longer-term intervention activities and to guarantee that apposite resources are made available. Immediate action is taken to meet acute emergency needs while the detailed programme design takes shape. This entails in-depth consultation with the affected community and comprehensive planning of activities and resource requirements. Implementation can then begin, which should involve pertinent management and monitoring strategies. PMID:15910646

  11. Sanitation policy and spatial planning in urban East Africa: Diverging sanitation spaces and actor arrangements in Kampala and Kisumu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses sanitation policies and spatial planning in Kampala (Uganda) and Kisumu (Kenya) from colonial times to date and their implications for the sitting of sanitation technologies and involving actors. During colonial times, a strict spatial duality was maintained between immigrants i

  12. A longitudinal study of the impact of village health education on environmental sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonon, Marilyn A

    Health educators working in developing nations commonly encounter administrative constraints and methodological problems which prevent rigorous program evaluation. Using a time-series design, this study followed approximately 600 families in two Guatemalan villages during a four-year period to measure the impact of community health education on seven indicators of change in environmental sanitation. Adoption of new behavior was accompanied by widespread change in village attitudes and perceptions of health benefits. At the level of the family, change in perception was not predictive of change in behavior. A strong relationship between participation in planned educational events and the adoption of sanitation changes suggests that the formative educational strategy was responsible for stimulating change for five of seven indicators. Suggestions are made about the usefulness of the methodology, ways that private behavioral changes may be measured are discussed, and the advantages of the time-series design for health education evaluation and monitoring are noted. PMID:19131304

  13. Who Delivers without Water? A Multi Country Analysis of Water and Sanitation in the Childbirth Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gon, Giorgia; Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Campbell, Oona M. R.; Barros, Aluísio J. D.; Woodd, Susannah; Benova, Lenka; Graham, Wendy J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hygiene during childbirth is essential to the health of mothers and newborns, irrespective of where birth takes place. This paper investigates the status of water and sanitation in both the home and facility childbirth environments, and for whom and where this is a more significant problem. Methods We used three datasets: a global dataset, with information on the home environment from 58 countries, and two datasets for each of four countries in Eastern Africa: a healthcare facility dataset, and a dataset that incorporated information on facilities and the home environment to create a comprehensive description of birth environments in those countries. We constructed indices of improved water, and improved water and sanitation combined (WATSAN), for the home and healthcare facilities. The Joint Monitoring Program was used to construct indices for household; we tailored them to the facility context–household and facility indices include different components. We described what proportion of women delivered in an environment with improved WATSAN. For those women who delivered at home, we calculated what proportion had improved WATSAN by socio-economic status, education and rural-urban status. Results Among women delivering at home (58 countries), coverage of improved WATSAN by region varied from 9% to 53%. Fewer than 15% of women who delivered at home in Sub-Saharan Africa, had access to water and sanitation infrastructure (range 0.1% to 37%). This was worse among the poorest, the less educated and those living in rural areas. In Eastern Africa, where we looked at both the home and facility childbirth environment, a third of women delivered in an environment with improved water in Uganda and Rwanda; whereas, 18% of women in Kenya and 7% in Tanzania delivered with improved water and sanitation. Across the four countries, less than half of the facility deliveries had improved water, or improved water and sanitation in the childbirth environment

  14. Sanitation and Externalities : Evidence from Early Childhood Health in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Andres, Luis A.; Briceno, Bertha; Chase, Claire; Echenique, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates two sources of benefits related to sanitation infrastructure access on early childhood health: a direct benefit a household receives when moving from open to fixed-point defecation or from unimproved sanitation to improved sanitation, and an external benefit (externality) produced by the neighborhood's access to sanitation infrastructure. The paper uses a sample of chi...

  15. The water and sanitation service provision in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Gisella Aragón; José Luis Bonifaz

    2013-01-01

    Public services in all countries are related to the basic needs that people should satisfy in order to warranty a worthy quality of life. The water and sanitation services provision is one of these services. Through this study, the case of water and sanitation provision in Peru will be analyzed. Data evidences that by 2004, the 71% of Peruvian population had access to water services, while the 63% of Peruvian population had access to sanitation services. Then, it can be inferred that the perf...

  16. Investigation on food sanitation controlling technologies; Shokuhin eisei kanri gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Y. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan); Nishioka, J.

    2000-03-24

    Investigation has been made on the current status of food sanitation controlling technologies. Eighty percent of food poisoning is caused by bacte such as Salmonera, enteritis vibrio, staphylococcus, and pathogenic colibacillus. Putrefaction as the cause for food poisoning occurs from proliferation of different microorganisms. Heating sterilization is the main method being performed, but non-heating method may include sterilization by flash and high voltage pulse discharge in addition to ultra-high pressure and ultraviolet ray sterilization. As a result of the questionnaire survey, what is extracted as the problems in the food sanitation controlling technologies is to establish a rinsing and sterilizing method with large sterilization effect, an effective sterilizing method and thawing of processed marine products, and a cooling method in food processing. Increasingly demanded for the future is to develop a foodstuff sanitation control system using as the core the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP, a quality control program developed by the U.S. NASA to ensure safety in manufacturing space food), and micro-organism control and sterilizing technologies to support the above system. The flash pulse and high-voltage pulse sterilizing technologies as the non-heating sterilizing technology are more effective than the conventional heating sterilization methods also from the aspect of quality retention after sterilization. More active development thereof is desired. (NEDO)

  17. Screening heavy metals levels in hair of sanitation workers by X-ray fluorescence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Khudzari, Jauharah; Wagiran, Husin; Hossain, I; Ibrahim, Noorddin

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a study of human hair as a bio-indicator for detection of heavy metals as part of environmental health surveillance programs project to develop a subject of interest in the biomedical and environmental sciences. A total of 34 hair samples were analyzed that consisting of 29 samples from sanitation workers and five samples from students. The hair samples were prepared and treated in accordance to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations. The concentrations of heavy metals were analyzed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique by X-50 Mobile X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) at Oceanography Institute, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu. The performance of EDXRF analyzer was tested by Standard Reference Material (SRM 2711) Montana Soil which was in good agreement with certified value within 14% deviations except for Hg. While seven heavy metals: Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, and Sb were detected in both groups, three additional elements, i.e. As, Hg and Pb, were detected only in sanitation workers group. For sanitation workers group, the mean concentration of six elements, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Sb, shows elevated concentration as compared to the control samples concentration. Results from both groups were compared and discussed in relation to their respective heavy metals concentrations. PMID:22846873

  18. Basic sanitation policy in Brazil: discussion of a path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Cristina A de; Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the position of dominance enjoyed by state sanitation companies dictates the public policy decision-making process for sanitation in Brazil. These companies' hegemony is explained here through the analysis of a path that generated political and economic incentives that have permitted its consolidation over time. Through the content analysis of the legislation proposed for the sector and the material produced by the stakeholders involved in the approval of new regulations for the sector in 2007, the study identifies the main sources of incentive introduced by the adoption of the National Sanitation Plan, which explain certain structural features of the current sanitation policy and its strong capacity to withstand the innovations proposed under democratic rule. PMID:27557353

  19. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TYPE I MARINE SANITATION DEVICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This performance test was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two Type I Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs): the Electro Scan Model EST 12, manufactured by Raritan Engineering Company, Inc., and the Thermopure-2, manufactured by Gross Mechanical Laboratories, Inc. Performance...

  20. Hygiene and sanitation among ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    the cultural perceptions of hygiene and sanitation which inform everyday hygiene practices did not differ substantially and were similar to hygiene explanations found in the rural majority population elsewhere in Vietnam. However, the difficult living conditions, particularly in highland communities, reinforce......Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam...... a sense of marginalization among the EMGs, which had great impact on how they perceive and respond to government sanitation interventions. The enclosed latrines promoted by authorities are met with reluctance by the EMGs due to cultural perceptions of the body as permeable and therefore, vulnerable...

  1. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  2. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a non-thermal technology based on atmospheric-pressure (AP) cold plasma to sanitize foods, food packaging materials, and other hardware...

  3. Rural sanitation problems in Uganda--institutional and management aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukungu, D M

    2000-01-01

    Rural Uganda faces a lot of problems caused by poor sanitation facilities such as pollution of water sources, a high rate of waterborne diseases, high expenditures on curative health care, and the threat of reduced educational performance of children through illness, early school drop out, especially of girls. Limited budgets and expenditures for the health sector, lack of staff, lack of accountability and transparency are important factors affecting sanitation status on the national level. Other restrictions can be found at the community level, e.g. taboos, cultural and customary beliefs, ignorance, poverty, or in soil conditions. To address the poor level of sanitation, the Government of Uganda has set up both a whole string of laws and guidelines and an institutional and management framework. One main emphasis was placed on the Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation Programme (PHAST) introduced in 1994 and since then adopted by several non-governmental organisations (NGO's). PMID:10842841

  4. Basic sanitation policy in Brazil: discussion of a path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Cristina A de; Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the position of dominance enjoyed by state sanitation companies dictates the public policy decision-making process for sanitation in Brazil. These companies' hegemony is explained here through the analysis of a path that generated political and economic incentives that have permitted its consolidation over time. Through the content analysis of the legislation proposed for the sector and the material produced by the stakeholders involved in the approval of new regulations for the sector in 2007, the study identifies the main sources of incentive introduced by the adoption of the National Sanitation Plan, which explain certain structural features of the current sanitation policy and its strong capacity to withstand the innovations proposed under democratic rule.

  5. Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updates Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products come with claims that they can prevent MRSA infections. Don't believe them. These statements are ...

  6. Gossiping about sanitation : role of communication in innovation diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kirstinä, Anniina

    2012-01-01

    Diseases which spread due to lack of sanitation facilities and knowledge on hygiene can in the worst case cause death. The problem occurs worldwide, and it touches mainly the lives of the poorest. Access to sanitation facilities is a significant way to improve people’s well-being. Turku University of Applied Sciences, Global Dry Toilet Association of Finland and Salvation Army of Swaziland have built dry toilets in an urban community in the capital of Swaziland in southern Africa. Dry to...

  7. Cambodia: Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Assessment, Strategy and Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2012-01-01

    Access to improved water supply, sanitation, and hygiene results in economic development and poverty reduction; ensures food safety and better livelihoods; preserves the environment; reduces health burden; improves school enrollment and retention rates, especially for girls; and empowers communities and provides opportunities for women. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has prepared a sector assessment, strategy, and road map for the water supply and sanitation sector in Cambodia. Aside from a...

  8. Community Participation & Ownership of Sanitation and Hygiene in Western Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Sudip

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sudip Joshi. Community Ownership of Sanitation and Hygiene in Western Nepal. Language: English. Jarvenpaa, Autumn 2011, 79 p. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Jarvenpaa Unit, Degree Programme in Social Services. The study specifically intends to assess the situation of community ownership of sanitation and hygiene in rural communities of Western Nepal through a community development perspective. The present study provides an overview of the Rural Wate...

  9. Water, sanitation and hygiene: The missing link with agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Tsegai, Daniel; McBain, Florence; Tischbein, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate access to safe water and sanitation services coupled with poor hygiene practices continues to kill, sicken and diminish opportunities of millions of people in developing countries. Various interventions to improve drinking water quality and service levels, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) have been applied, albeit in isolated approaches. Relevant literature focused on assessing the cost and health effectiveness of such approaches. In parallel, irrigation in agriculture, which affects a...

  10. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Haiti: Past, Present, and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Gelting, Richard; Bliss, Katherine; Patrick, Molly; Lockhart, Gabriella; Handzel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Haiti has the lowest rates of access to improved water and sanitation infrastructure in the western hemisphere. This situation was likely exacerbated by the earthquake in 2010 and also contributed to the rapid spread of the cholera epidemic that started later that same year. This report examines the history of the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector in Haiti, considering some factors that have influenced WASH conditions in the country. We then discuss the situation sine the earthquak...

  11. Economic Costs of Inadequate Water and Sanitation: South Tarawa, Kiribati

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    The inadequate water supply and sanitation situation in South Tarawa has contributed to high rates of water-borne diseases and environmental degradation in the country’s main urban center. There has been limited capital investment in water supply and sanitation infrastructure and ongoing operations and maintenance in South Tarawa, in part, as a result of low cost recovery in service delivery. To enable more informed policy responses to address the current situation, this study seeks to estima...

  12. Disassembly and Sanitization of Classified Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Disassembly Sanitization Operation (DSO) process was implemented to support weapon disassembly and disposition by using recycling and waste minimization measures. This process was initiated by treaty agreements and reconfigurations within both the DOD and DOE Complexes. The DOE is faced with disassembling and disposing of a huge inventory of retired weapons, components, training equipment, spare parts, weapon maintenance equipment, and associated material. In addition, regulations have caused a dramatic increase in the need for information required to support the handling and disposition of these parts and materials. In the past, huge inventories of classified weapon components were required to have long-term storage at Sandia and at many other locations throughout the DoE Complex. These materials are placed in onsite storage unit due to classification issues and they may also contain radiological and/or hazardous components. Since no disposal options exist for this material, the only choice was long-term storage. Long-term storage is costly and somewhat problematic, requiring a secured storage area, monitoring, auditing, and presenting the potential for loss or theft of the material. Overall recycling rates for materials sent through the DSO process have enabled 70 to 80% of these components to be recycled. These components are made of high quality materials and once this material has been sanitized, the demand for the component metals for recycling efforts is very high. The DSO process for NGPF, classified components established the credibility of this technique for addressing the long-term storage requirements of the classified weapons component inventory. The success of this application has generated interest from other Sandia organizations and other locations throughout the complex. Other organizations are requesting the help of the DSO team and the DSO is responding to these requests by expanding its scope to include Work-for- Other projects. For example

  13. Safe sanitation: Findings from the impact evaluation baseline survey in Thiruvarur, Tamil Nadu, India ; Financial Inclusion Improves Sanitation and Health - FINISH Project

    OpenAIRE

    Augsburg, Britta

    2011-01-01

    FINISH - Financial Inclusion Improves Sanitation and Health - is a joint undertaking of a wide range of actors that came together to address the challenges of micro finance, insurance and sanitation and health. The overall goal of the project itself is to built 1 million safe toilets (possibly sanitation systems), financed through microfinance loans.

  14. Teachers and Sanitation Promotion: An Assessment of Community-Led Total Sanitation in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Geremew, Abiyot; Atalie, Fisseha; Yetie, Messele; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-06-21

    Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory approach to addressing open defecation that has demonstrated success in previous studies, yet there is no research on how implementation arrangements and context change effectiveness. We used a quasi-experimental study design to compare two interventions in Ethiopia: conventional CLTS in which health workers and local leaders provided facilitation and an alternative approach in which teachers provided facilitation. In 2012, Plan International Ethiopia trained teachers from 111 villages and health workers and leaders from 54 villages in CLTS facilitation. The trained facilitators then implemented CLTS in their respective villages for a year. Latrine ownership, use, and quality were measured with household surveys. Differences between interventions were explored using surveys and interviews. The decrease in open defecation associated with teacher-facilitated CLTS was 8.2 percentage points smaller than for conventional CLTS (p = 0.048). Teachers had competing responsibilities and initially lacked support from local leaders, which may have lessened their success. Teachers may be more appropriate for a supporting rather than leading role in sanitation promotion because they did demonstrate ability and engagement. Open defecation decreased by 15.3 percentage points overall but did not change where baseline open defecation was below 30%. Ownership of a latrine with stable flooring increased by 8.7 percentage points overall. Improved latrine ownership did not change during the intervention. CLTS is most appropriate where open defecation is high because there were no significant changes in sanitation practices or latrine upgrades where baseline open defecation was low. PMID:27211881

  15. Teachers and Sanitation Promotion: An Assessment of Community-Led Total Sanitation in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Geremew, Abiyot; Atalie, Fisseha; Yetie, Messele; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-06-21

    Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory approach to addressing open defecation that has demonstrated success in previous studies, yet there is no research on how implementation arrangements and context change effectiveness. We used a quasi-experimental study design to compare two interventions in Ethiopia: conventional CLTS in which health workers and local leaders provided facilitation and an alternative approach in which teachers provided facilitation. In 2012, Plan International Ethiopia trained teachers from 111 villages and health workers and leaders from 54 villages in CLTS facilitation. The trained facilitators then implemented CLTS in their respective villages for a year. Latrine ownership, use, and quality were measured with household surveys. Differences between interventions were explored using surveys and interviews. The decrease in open defecation associated with teacher-facilitated CLTS was 8.2 percentage points smaller than for conventional CLTS (p = 0.048). Teachers had competing responsibilities and initially lacked support from local leaders, which may have lessened their success. Teachers may be more appropriate for a supporting rather than leading role in sanitation promotion because they did demonstrate ability and engagement. Open defecation decreased by 15.3 percentage points overall but did not change where baseline open defecation was below 30%. Ownership of a latrine with stable flooring increased by 8.7 percentage points overall. Improved latrine ownership did not change during the intervention. CLTS is most appropriate where open defecation is high because there were no significant changes in sanitation practices or latrine upgrades where baseline open defecation was low.

  16. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Anderson; Dennis Hanjalika Malambo; Maria Eliette Gonzalez Perez; Happiness Ngwanamoseka Nobela; Lobke de Pooter; Jan Spit; Christine Maria Hooijmans; Jack van de Vossenberg; Wilson Greya; Bernard Thole; Jules B. van Lier; Damir Brdjanovic

    2015-01-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea tre...

  17. CEDEX's supporting activities through the Cooperation fund for Water and Sanitation; Apoyo del CEDEX a las actuaciones del Fondo de cooperacion para Agua y Saneamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Marrero, I. del

    2015-07-01

    This paper deals with the activities CEDEX has being doing since 2012, Giving Technical support to the cooperation fund for Water and Sanitation (Fondo de Cooperacion para Agua y Saneamiento-FCAS), of the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation. Throughout the document, the different activities carried out by the CEDEX up to now, are briefly described. They have mainly consisted in giving technical support during the formulation, review and monitoring of the tasks derived from the FCAS programs, capacity buildings, and preparing technical guides and recommendations concerning different subjects. The FCAS programs concerns water planning water supply and sanitation planning as well as water supply and sanitation (sewerage and wastewater treatment plants) construction projects. The paper ends up presenting a set of conclusions and lessons learned extracted from this period working for the FCAS, as well as the main courses of action projected for the future collaboration works. (Author)

  18. Water, sanitation and hygiene for homeless people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Walters, Vicky; Gaillard, J C; Hridi, Sanjida Marium; McSherry, Alice

    2016-02-01

    This short communication provides insights into water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for homeless people through a scoping study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It investigates homeless access to WASH through the lens of a rights-based approach. It demonstrates that homeless people's denial of their right to WASH reflects their marginal position in society and an unequal distribution of power and opportunities. The study ultimately suggests a rights-based approach to work toward dealing with the root causes of discrimination and marginalisation rather than just the symptoms. For the homeless, who not only lack substantive rights, but also the means through which to claim their rights, an integrated rights-based approach to WASH offers the possibility for social inclusion and significant improvements in their life conditions. Given the unique deprivation of homelessness it is argued that in addressing the lack of access to adequate WASH for homeless people the immediate goal should be the fulfilment and protection of the right to adequate shelter. PMID:26837829

  19. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Anderson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity, urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose/kg and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota. Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m3 of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment.

  20. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-11-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment. PMID:26528995

  1. Environment and health: environmental sanitation and community water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies important features of two 5-Year Plans in India. Currently, only about 200 cities have even a partial sewage system. Elementary sewage systems are nonexistent in rural villages. In 1990, under 5% of rural population had access to sanitary facilities. The result is widespread soil and water pollution and its accompanying disease. The Rural Water Supply Program was proposed in the 5th Plan, but was implemented in the 7th Plan (1985-90). Construction of latrines is still too low. Resources were insufficiently mobilized for latrine construction. An alternative would be to institute cost recovery and user pays principles. Low cost technology could be substituted. Low cost latrine systems should conform with users' social habits, local culture, and the customs of the community. The system should be affordable to users. The technology should be user-friendly and rely on use of local materials and workers. Over 90% of the population rely on community water supply facilities. Health has not benefited from the access to water supplies. The reasons are low hygienic standards, lack of water quality surveillance, and poor maintenance of equipment. The community does not participate. By 1996, people's access to water was reduced to 1 km in the plains, and 50 m in hilly areas. Surface waters are contaminated by fecal matter, fluoride, nitrate, and arsenic. The Water Quality Surveillance Program lacks an institutional framework and human resource development. There is a need for education about hygiene, unsafe drinking water, and poor sanitation for people and agency staff. PMID:12293893

  2. Condições de trabalho das equipes de saúde bucal no Programa Saúde da Família: o caso do Distrito Sanitário Norte em Natal, RN Working conditions of oral health teams in the Family Health Program: the case of North Health District in Natal, RN, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelin Cristina Araújo da Rocha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo verifica as condições de trabalho dos dentistas nas equipes de saúde bucal (ESBs inseridas no Programa Saúde da Família (PSF. O universo da pesquisa foi composto por todos os dentistas lotados nas unidades básicas de saúde (UBSs. Foram aplicados questionários para identificar as características operacionais de funcionamento, o ambiente físico, a disponibilidade de equipamentos e insumos, a autonomia, o poder de decisão e a integração com as equipes do PSF. Os resultados apontam que vários aspectos são identificados pelos dentistas como limitação ao trabalho, tais como: local de trabalho com estrutura física inadequada, disponibilidade de equipamento, instrumental e material inadequados à realização das ações previstas, a ausência de articulação da referência e contrarreferência para que as necessidades de maior complexidade sejam atendidas, bem como a baixa capacitação dos profissionais para o trabalho em equipe. Apesar das dificuldades, há uma compreensão de que a inclusão das ações de saúde bucal no PSF do Distrito Sanitário Norte trouxe a incorporação de novos valores às práticas exercidas, abrindo a possibilidade para que haja uma verdadeira substituição das práticas tradicionais exercidas e um novo jeito de se fazer saúde.This article verifies the working conditions of oral health teams (OHT in the Family Health Program (FHP. The target population in the research was composed of all dentists working in basic health units (BHUs. Questionnaires were used to identify the operational characteristics, physical environment, equipment availability, autonomy, power of decision, and integration with FHP teams. The results demonstrate that some aspects identified by the dentists as limitations to their work are: workplace with inadequate physical structure, equipment availability, inadequate instruments and materials for their daily routine, absence of reference and counter

  3. What works in water supply and sanitation projects in developing countries with EWB-USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Melissa J

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) reports some progress on the global problem of a lack of improved water and sanitation. Between 1990 and 2012, the number of people that gained improved access to improved drinking water reached 2.3 billion people, while the number of children that have died from diarrheal diseases has fallen from 1.5 million deaths to just above 600,000 deaths (1, 2). However, it is estimated that there are still 1.8 billion people using a fecally contaminated source of drinking water (3). In addition, 748 million people continue to lack clean water, 1 billion continue to practice open defecation, and 2.5 billion people still lack adequate sanitation (3). In response to this global issue, Engineers Without Borders USA (EWB-USA) began with a mission to build a better world through engineering projects that empower communities to meet their basic human needs and equip leaders to solve the world's most pressing challenges. Their 15,000+ members work with communities to find appropriate solutions to improve water supply, sanitation, energy, agriculture, civil works and structures. Their development approach is based on standard engineering methodology, including problem identification, assessment, alternatives analysis, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. EWB-USA began in 2002 and currently has members working in over 40 countries around the world. The majority of their work is focused in Latin America and Africa, but their programs are expanding to Asia and the Pacific Basin. Currently, EWB-USA members are working in 17 programs in six countries, including the Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia, India, Nepal, and Fiji. Success in these programs is defined by measuring overall impact and learning from failure. Impact is measured through Standard Monitoring Indicators and learning is accomplished by documenting failures and lessons learned. Through this work, the organization has impacted 2.5 million lives through primarily water supply and

  4. What works in water supply and sanitation projects in developing countries with EWB-USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Melissa J

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) reports some progress on the global problem of a lack of improved water and sanitation. Between 1990 and 2012, the number of people that gained improved access to improved drinking water reached 2.3 billion people, while the number of children that have died from diarrheal diseases has fallen from 1.5 million deaths to just above 600,000 deaths (1, 2). However, it is estimated that there are still 1.8 billion people using a fecally contaminated source of drinking water (3). In addition, 748 million people continue to lack clean water, 1 billion continue to practice open defecation, and 2.5 billion people still lack adequate sanitation (3). In response to this global issue, Engineers Without Borders USA (EWB-USA) began with a mission to build a better world through engineering projects that empower communities to meet their basic human needs and equip leaders to solve the world's most pressing challenges. Their 15,000+ members work with communities to find appropriate solutions to improve water supply, sanitation, energy, agriculture, civil works and structures. Their development approach is based on standard engineering methodology, including problem identification, assessment, alternatives analysis, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. EWB-USA began in 2002 and currently has members working in over 40 countries around the world. The majority of their work is focused in Latin America and Africa, but their programs are expanding to Asia and the Pacific Basin. Currently, EWB-USA members are working in 17 programs in six countries, including the Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia, India, Nepal, and Fiji. Success in these programs is defined by measuring overall impact and learning from failure. Impact is measured through Standard Monitoring Indicators and learning is accomplished by documenting failures and lessons learned. Through this work, the organization has impacted 2.5 million lives through primarily water supply and

  5. Recurrent lactic acidosis secondary to hand sanitizer ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M E; Guru, P K; Park, J G

    2015-01-01

    Due to their ability to decrease the spread of infection, hand sanitizers are now ubiquitous in health care settings. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted with acute alcohol intoxication and had near complete recovery in 12 hrs. Subsequently, she was found unresponsive on the floor of her hospital room on two separate occasions. Evaluations revealed repeatedly elevated levels of ethanol, acetone, and lactate as well as increased anion gap and hypotension, requiring intensive care unit evaluation and intubation for airway protection. During the second episode, she was found next to an empty bottle of ethanol-based hospital hand sanitizer. She confirmed ingesting hand sanitizer in order to become intoxicated. PMID:25684875

  6. Sanitizing sensitive association rules using fuzzy correlation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data mining is used to extract useful information hidden in the data. Sometimes this extraction of information leads to revealing sensitive information. Privacy preservation in Data Mining is a process of sanitizing sensitive information. This research focuses on sanitizing sensitive rules discovered in quantitative data. The proposed scheme, Privacy Preserving in Fuzzy Association Rules (PPFAR) is based on fuzzy correlation analysis. In this work, fuzzy set concept is integrated with fuzzy correlation analysis and Apriori algorithm to mark interesting fuzzy association rules. The identified rules are called sensitive. For sanitization, we use modification technique where we substitute maximum value of fuzzy items with zero, which occurs most frequently. Experiments demonstrate that PPFAR method hides sensitive rules with minimum modifications. The technique also maintains the modified data's quality. The PPFAR scheme has applications in various domains e.g. temperature control, medical analysis, travel time prediction, genetic behavior prediction etc. We have validated the results on medical dataset. (author)

  7. Meeting drinking water and sanitation targets of MDGs. Water use & competition in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek van der, Marjolijn

    2006-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation is of vital importance for human beings. Improving the access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation in developing countries is therefore one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to be me

  8. Exploring the determinants of sanitation success in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munamati, Muchaneta; Nhapi, Innocent; Misi, Shepherd

    2016-10-15

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) missed the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) sanitation target by a wide margin. However, there are a few African countries which made remarkable progress towards achieving the sanitation target. While the general factors that influence sanitation success are widely known, some of the few studies that have investigated the SSA sanitation situation have arrived at different conclusions regarding the determinants of sanitation success. The objectives of this paper were to establish the key determinants of sanitation success in SSA countries and to classify the SSA countries based on factors associated with sanitation success. This was achieved by analysing data drawn from 46 SSA countries. An objective methodological approach, using regression and cluster analyses to reveal the underlying sanitation success factors, has been adopted. A total of 11 economic and socio-political independent variables were tested against the dependent variable; proportion of the 2015 population that has gained access to sanitation since 2000. Regression results showed consistent and robust association between sanitation success and education for the national, rural and socio-political samples (p values 0.018-0.038). These results suggest that the level of education contributed to sanitation success in SSA during the MDG period. For the urban sample, a negative association was demonstrated between sanitation success and access to improved water sources (p = 0.034). This implies that countries which made huge sanitation gains had low coverage of improved water sources. The results from cluster analysis showed that countries which achieved great sanitation success were characterized by the highest education levels, incomes, population densities, political stability and high proportions of urban population. The knowledge of the key determinants of sanitation success could help in the formulation and design of appropriate policies and interventions to improve

  9. Factors leading to poor water sanitation hygiene among primary school going children in Chitungwiza

    OpenAIRE

    Blessing Dube; James January

    2012-01-01

    Although the world has progressed in the area of water and sanitation, more than 2.3 billion people still live without access to sanitation facilities and some are unable to practice basic hygiene. Access to water and basic sanitation has deteriorated in Chitungwiza and children are at risk of developing illness and missing school due to the deterioration. We sought to investigate the predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors that are causally related to water- and sanitation- related hy...

  10. Water and Sanitation in Schools: A Systematic Review of the Health and Educational Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Bartram; Thanh-Tam Le; Christian Jasper

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature on the effects of water and sanitation in schools was performed. The goal was to characterize the impacts of water and sanitation inadequacies in the academic environment. Published peer reviewed literature was screened and articles that documented the provision of water and sanitation at schools were considered. Forty-one peer-reviewed papers met the criteria of exploring the effects of the availability of water and/or sanitation facilities in educationa...

  11. Exploring the determinants of sanitation success in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munamati, Muchaneta; Nhapi, Innocent; Misi, Shepherd

    2016-10-15

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) missed the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) sanitation target by a wide margin. However, there are a few African countries which made remarkable progress towards achieving the sanitation target. While the general factors that influence sanitation success are widely known, some of the few studies that have investigated the SSA sanitation situation have arrived at different conclusions regarding the determinants of sanitation success. The objectives of this paper were to establish the key determinants of sanitation success in SSA countries and to classify the SSA countries based on factors associated with sanitation success. This was achieved by analysing data drawn from 46 SSA countries. An objective methodological approach, using regression and cluster analyses to reveal the underlying sanitation success factors, has been adopted. A total of 11 economic and socio-political independent variables were tested against the dependent variable; proportion of the 2015 population that has gained access to sanitation since 2000. Regression results showed consistent and robust association between sanitation success and education for the national, rural and socio-political samples (p values 0.018-0.038). These results suggest that the level of education contributed to sanitation success in SSA during the MDG period. For the urban sample, a negative association was demonstrated between sanitation success and access to improved water sources (p = 0.034). This implies that countries which made huge sanitation gains had low coverage of improved water sources. The results from cluster analysis showed that countries which achieved great sanitation success were characterized by the highest education levels, incomes, population densities, political stability and high proportions of urban population. The knowledge of the key determinants of sanitation success could help in the formulation and design of appropriate policies and interventions to improve

  12. Striving for success in sanitation, hygiene, and water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 800,000 people do not have access to improved water sources, and 2.5 billion are without access to improved sanitation. As a result, an estimated 1800 children under 5 years of age die every day from preventable diseases related to water, sanitation & hygiene; more are ill or stunted. To sustainably improve people's health, actors in the water sector at all levels should use flexible, integrated approaches focused on behavior change and service delivery. Approaches and technologies should be as simple as possible while still protecting human health and the environment. Remember, it's not just about the toilet. PMID:24566351

  13. [Environmental virology and sanitation in Brazil: a narrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Tatiana; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Sanitation services play a critical role in controlling transmission of numerous waterborne pathogens, especially viruses that cause acute gastroenteritis and hepatitis. The viral agents with the greatest public health impact are hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and noroviruses, adenoviruses, and enteroviruses, contaminating many Brazilian aquatic ecosystems. Heavy circulation of viruses in the environment has been related to inadequate local sanitary conditions, including incomplete coverage of services or inefficacy of conventional technologies in eliminating or reducing the viral load in water or sewage. This study reviews the relations between virology, health, and sanitation, emphasizing the epidemiology of waterborne viral infections and their public health impact. PMID:25166934

  14. Mass parasite control as an approach to stimulate community acceptance of environmental sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, E S

    1983-01-01

    Asian experiences show that programs for the control of intestinal parasites have been able to stimulate village level interest in environmental sanitation as evidenced by increased demand for latrines. Mass parasite control can have a positive impact on the sociocultural and program design constraints of traditional sanitation projects. In the Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control Project, the psychological impact on treated individuals, plus the improved sense of well-being and strengthened interest in health care which often follow, had 2 results. First, the feeling of appreciation and trust by the people towards the workers who provide the medicine, thus enhancing worker credibility. Secondly, if the deworming is carried out on a communitywide basis accompanied by concrete health education on parasite life cycles, the individual impact will be broadened and strengthened to the point where the people, or at least their leaders, will want to get rid of the worms in their environment. This requires organized and sustained community action for parasite control, environmental sanitation and family hygiene. Basic operating principles consist of 3 elements: the institutional framework; community involvement; and recruitment and training of staff. It is best to begin a program on a pilot basis perhaps in rural localities of greatest concern to sanitarians. Success depends on whether a cooperative relationship has been established among steering committees and the people. Field workers promote and deliver services, link the village's interests with those of the project and its related programs, and provide technical and logistical support to the community effort to organize itself to implement and institutionalize these programs. Medical workers use the Kato Method and Kato Katz Method in determining parasitic infection. The Kato Method reveals only the presence or absence of worms, and is easy to do in a field situation; the Kato Katz Method can also measure

  15. Strengthening the Indonesia National Water and Sanitation Information Services Center for Improved Planning

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the main achievements of technical assistance provided under the Water Supply and Sanitation Policy Formulation and Action Planning Facility to the Indonesian National Water and Sanitation Information Services (NAWASIS) Centre from October 2012 to December 2014 to further consolidate the water supply and sanitation (WSS) data and information management instrument (NA...

  16. 21 CFR 111.360 - What are the requirements for sanitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements for sanitation? 111.360... for Manufacturing Operations § 111.360 What are the requirements for sanitation? You must conduct all manufacturing operations in accordance with adequate sanitation principles....

  17. 9 CFR 590.550 - Washing and sanitizing room or area facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washing and sanitizing room or area... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.550 Washing and sanitizing room or area... properly wash and sanitize all equipment at the rate required by the size of the operation....

  18. Blue Bahia: an environmental sanitation project; Bahia azul: um projeto de saneamento ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azcona, Miguel Angel L.; Neuvirth, Bruno [Centro de Recursos Ambientais do Estado da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents actions developed to incorporate some aspects of environmental sanitation to the basic sanitation project, natural resources assessing, identification of the environmental degradation sources - in addition to those caused by lack of basic sanitation, and common action between public and private sectors 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. 46 CFR 166.15 - Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation... maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills. All students shall be trained to obey... the fundamentals of ship sanitation as prescribed by law and regulations, and shall be given...

  20. Keeping Kids Safe: A Guide for Safe Food Handling & Sanitation for Child Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Because children under age 5 are susceptible to food-borne illnesses and children in diapers present special sanitation and health problems, food safety and sanitation are emerging as important issues for child care providers. This booklet is designed to give providers and parents a quick and easy reference for food safety and sanitation. The…

  1. The human right to water and sanitation: reflections on making the system effective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Obani; J. Gupta

    2014-01-01

    The Millenium Development Goal (MDG) on water has been more successful than the MDG on sanitation. Does this have implications for the human right to sanitation? This chapter argues that there are key differences between access to water and sanitation in terms of the legal content of both, the physi

  2. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  3. 21 CFR 123.11 - Sanitation control procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... specified in part 110 of this chapter that are both appropriate to the plant and the food being processed... outer garments, and from raw product to cooked product; (4) Maintenance of hand washing, hand sanitizing... chemical, physical, and biological contaminants; (6) Proper labeling, storage, and use of toxic...

  4. 21 CFR 120.6 - Sanitation standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to processed product; (4) Maintenance of hand washing, hand sanitizing, and toilet facilities; (5... biological contaminants; (6) Proper labeling, storage, and use of toxic compounds; (7) Control of employee..., at a minimum, conformance with those conditions and practices specified in part 110 of this...

  5. Hygiene and sanitation requirements in Danish biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendixen, H.J.

    1997-08-01

    According to Danish regulations, systematic pathogen reducing treatment is required, when industrial by-products and waste products, and urban waste, ie garbage from households and sewage sludge, are processed, before being used - without restrictions - as fertilizers on agricultural land. An adequate pathogen reducing effect (PRE) can be achieved in the digestion tanks and sanitation tanks of the biogas plants, provided they are operated correctly and respect the criteria of the official requirements. The FS-method is a microbiological indicator method based on faecal streptococci (enterococci) (FS). It may be used to check the sanitation effect achieved by the treatment in a tank. The effect is expressed numerically by the log{sub 10}-reduction of the numbers of FS measured in the biomass before and after treatment. The PRE was examined in 10 large-scale biogas plants during a period of 2-3 years. It was demonstrated that properly directed and well-functioning thermophilic digestion tanks ensure the removal of most pathogenic microorganisms from organic waste and slurry. The removal of pathogens by the treatment in mesophilic digestion tanks is incomplete. Systematic studies of the processes of inactivation of bacteria and virus in slurry and in animal tissues gave evidence that the PRE is enhanced in the microbiological environment of thermophilic digestion tanks. The sanitation criteria, ie combinations of temperature/time, for the processing of biomass in digestion tanks and sanitation tanks in biogas plants are specified. (au) 19 refs.

  6. A new approach to nationwide sanitation planning for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.; Spiller, M.; Leusbrock, I.; Zeeman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Many developing countries struggle to provide wastewater and solid waste services. The backlog in access has been partly attributed to the absence of a functional sanitation planning framework. Various planning tools are available; however a comprehensive framework that directly links a governmen

  7. 25 CFR 141.17 - Health and sanitation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and sanitation requirements. 141.17 Section 141.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON... reservation business shall complete the foodhandler training offered by the Indian Health Service...

  8. Analyzing sanitation characteristics in the urban slums of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szanto, G.L.; Letema, S.C.; Tukahirwa, J.; Mgana, S.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Buuren, van J.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Urban slums in East Africa exhibit deplorable sanitary conditions. Despite (inter)national efforts, slum sanitation provision remains inadequate and the projected population growth forecasts a worsening of this crisis. The core of the problem is that available knowledge about the local feasibility o

  9. The use of sanitation products in milk and cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kalit

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering hygienic conditions in cheese production the aim of thispaper was to investigate the influence of using some sanitation* products in milk and cheese production on family farms. This investigation was a part of the project “Improving the quality of Tounj cheese produced on family farms”. By use of the sanitation products, during milk production, significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometrical mean of total bacterial count from 3.54 x 105 to 8 x 103 in mL of milk, as well as significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometric mean of somatic cell count from 3.1 x 105 to 2.4 x 105 in mL of milk was observed. The ratio of hygienically unacceptable cheeses, according to the Regulations of microbial standards for foods (NN 46/94., significantly (P<0.01 decreased as well. Because of the new requests and standards, the sanitation products are more in use in both milk and cheese production on family farms. Investigated sanitation products were suitable for use in milk and Tounj cheese production.

  10. The status of water and sanitation among Pacific Rim nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert G; Heyworthz, Jane; Sáez, A Eduardo; Rodriguez, Clemencia; Weinstein, Phil; Ling, Bo; Memon, Saima

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of relationships among national wealth, access to improved water supply and sanitation facilities, and population health indices suggests that the adequacy of water resources at the national level is a poor predictor of economic development--namely, that low water stress is neither necessary nor sufficient for economic development at the present state of water stress among Pacific Rim nations. Although nations differ dramatically in terms of priority provided to improved water and sanitation, there is some level of wealth (per capita GNP) at which all nations promote the development of essential environmental services. Among the Pacific Rim countries for which there are data, no nation with a per capita GNP > US$18,000 per year has failed to provide near universal access to improved water supply and sanitation. Below US$18,000/person-year, however, there are decided differences in the provision of sanitary services (improved water supply and sanitation) among nations with similar economic success. There is a fairly strong relationship between child mortality/life expectancy and access to improved sanitation, as expected from the experiences of developed nations. Here no attempt is made to produce causal relationships among these data. Failure to meet Millennium Development Goals for the extension of improved sanitation is frequently evident in nations with large rural populations. Under those circumstances, capital intensive water and sanitation facilities are infeasible, and process selection for water/wastewater treatment requires an adaptation to local conditions, the use of appropriate materials, etc., constraints that are mostly absent in the developed world. Exceptions to these general ideas exist in water-stressed parts of developed countries, where water supplies are frequently augmented by water harvesting, water reclamation/reuse, and the desalination of brackish water resources. Each of these processes involves public acceptance of water

  11. Adopt or Adapt: Sanitation Technology Choices in Urbanizing Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunga, Richard M; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jenkins, Marion W; Brown, Joe

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods study examining adaptation strategies that property owners in low-income, rapidly urbanizing areas in Malawi adopt to address the limitations of pit latrines, the most common method of disposing human excreta. A particular challenge is lack of space for constructing new latrines as population density increases: traditional practice has been to cap full pits and simply move to a new site, but increasing demands on space require new approaches to extend the service life of latrines. In this context, we collected data on sanitation technology choices from January to September 2013 through 48 in-depth interviews and a stated preference survey targeting 1,300 property owners from 27 low-income urban areas. Results showed that property owners with concern about space for replacing pit latrines were 1.8 times more likely to select pit emptying service over the construction of new pit latrines with a slab floor (p = 0.02) but there was no significant association between concern about space for replacing pit latrines and intention to adopt locally promoted, novel sanitation technology known as ecological sanitation (ecosan). Property owners preferred to adapt existing, known technology by constructing replacement pit latrines on old pit latrine locations, reducing the frequency of replacing pit latrines, or via emptying pit latrines when full. This study highlights potential challenges to adoption of wholly new sanitation technologies, even when they present clear advantages to end users. To scale, alternative sanitation technologies for rapidly urbanising cities should offer clear advantages, be affordable, be easy to use when shared among multiple households, and their design should be informed by existing adaptation strategies and local knowledge. PMID:27532871

  12. Adopt or Adapt: Sanitation Technology Choices in Urbanizing Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunga, Richard M; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jenkins, Marion W; Brown, Joe

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods study examining adaptation strategies that property owners in low-income, rapidly urbanizing areas in Malawi adopt to address the limitations of pit latrines, the most common method of disposing human excreta. A particular challenge is lack of space for constructing new latrines as population density increases: traditional practice has been to cap full pits and simply move to a new site, but increasing demands on space require new approaches to extend the service life of latrines. In this context, we collected data on sanitation technology choices from January to September 2013 through 48 in-depth interviews and a stated preference survey targeting 1,300 property owners from 27 low-income urban areas. Results showed that property owners with concern about space for replacing pit latrines were 1.8 times more likely to select pit emptying service over the construction of new pit latrines with a slab floor (p = 0.02) but there was no significant association between concern about space for replacing pit latrines and intention to adopt locally promoted, novel sanitation technology known as ecological sanitation (ecosan). Property owners preferred to adapt existing, known technology by constructing replacement pit latrines on old pit latrine locations, reducing the frequency of replacing pit latrines, or via emptying pit latrines when full. This study highlights potential challenges to adoption of wholly new sanitation technologies, even when they present clear advantages to end users. To scale, alternative sanitation technologies for rapidly urbanising cities should offer clear advantages, be affordable, be easy to use when shared among multiple households, and their design should be informed by existing adaptation strategies and local knowledge.

  13. Book review, Sanità animale, Salvatore Montinaro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Un manuale strutturato per fornire un quadro d'insieme della materia e chiarire il metodo logico con il quale trovare i riferimenti scientifici e normativi necessari per affrontare il lavoro di tutti i giorni: così viene presentato Sanità animale, un volume che rispetto ai pochi testi analoghi sul mercato, si distingue per l'utilizzo parco di stralci normativi, comunque sistematicamente citati, in modo da renderne agevole la consultazione. L'attenzione maggiore è spostata verso l'analisi scientifica e normativa delle problematiche affrontate, delle peculiarità delle singole malattie e dei principi d'intervento sul campo. Il medico veterinario Salvatore Montinaro, forte dell'esperienza maturata in diverse amministrazioni (Regione, ASL, IZS riesce nell'intento di descrivere in maniera semplice, ma completa e dettagliata, il funzionamento della sanità animale e della lotta alle malattie diffusive animali. Come esplicita nell'introduzione del capitolo Norme Veterinarie e SSN: "Non si cercherà in questa sede di ripercorrere la storia della veterinaria pubblica, dal codice di Hammurabi in poi: ci si limiterà piuttosto a uno sguardo retrospettivo nella storia recente, finalizzato a identificare in modo sistematico, partendo dal generale per arrivare al particolare, i principali punti di riferimento che caratterizzano il quadro normativo della sanità pubblica veterinaria". Anche per questo il manuale è indirizzato soprattutto a coloro che già lavorano, o che intendono lavorare, nei servizi veterinari di sanità animale delle Aziende Sanitarie Locali, ponendosi come un testo "professionale" e un sussidio tecnico da avere a portata di mano. Salvatore Montinaro, classe 1967, svolge la sua attività professionale come dirigente del servizio veterinario di sanità animale della ASL di Nuoro, inoltre, fa parte del gruppo di esperti comunitari del TAIEX ed è consulente tecnico della FAO.

  14. Adopt or Adapt: Sanitation Technology Choices in Urbanizing Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunga, Richard M.; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Jenkins, Marion W.; Brown, Joe

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods study examining adaptation strategies that property owners in low-income, rapidly urbanizing areas in Malawi adopt to address the limitations of pit latrines, the most common method of disposing human excreta. A particular challenge is lack of space for constructing new latrines as population density increases: traditional practice has been to cap full pits and simply move to a new site, but increasing demands on space require new approaches to extend the service life of latrines. In this context, we collected data on sanitation technology choices from January to September 2013 through 48 in-depth interviews and a stated preference survey targeting 1,300 property owners from 27 low-income urban areas. Results showed that property owners with concern about space for replacing pit latrines were 1.8 times more likely to select pit emptying service over the construction of new pit latrines with a slab floor (p = 0.02) but there was no significant association between concern about space for replacing pit latrines and intention to adopt locally promoted, novel sanitation technology known as ecological sanitation (ecosan). Property owners preferred to adapt existing, known technology by constructing replacement pit latrines on old pit latrine locations, reducing the frequency of replacing pit latrines, or via emptying pit latrines when full. This study highlights potential challenges to adoption of wholly new sanitation technologies, even when they present clear advantages to end users. To scale, alternative sanitation technologies for rapidly urbanising cities should offer clear advantages, be affordable, be easy to use when shared among multiple households, and their design should be informed by existing adaptation strategies and local knowledge. PMID:27532871

  15. Hydrothermal carbonization as innovative technology in sustainable sanitation in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Ariane [Engineers Without Boarders (Germany), Berlin (DE). Project ' ' Carbonization as Sanitation' ' (CaSa)

    2011-07-01

    The need for sustainable systems is apparent as climate change and other adverse anthropogenic activities continue to negatively affect the soil fertility in Africa. One of the indicators of the loss of soil fertility is the continuous decrease in soil organic matter, which is the major building block of a fertile soil. This is mainly attributed to the inappropriate practice of human-beings of taking more substances from the ecosystem than the amount replaced. As the soil fertility is increasingly lost, food insecurity, due to dropped productivity of the soil, is becoming a critical issue in many areas of Africa, Tanzania is not any different in this respect. On the other hand, most people in rural areas of Africa still lack possibilities to cover their daily energy needs in a more sustainable way and many people mainly rely on firewood. This, in turn, has an adverse impact on the climate and the soil, causing a local viscous circle of poor soil and productivity conditions. Moreover, the sanitation coverage of those areas is very low and there is a need for appropriate sanitation systems. Therefore, the aim of this project is, to conduct research on the possibility of establishing a self-sustaining system for the rural areas of Kagera, Tanzania, to address the three basic issues: sanitation, energy supply and soil fertility. The system consists of a small-scale biogas digester, a urine diverting dehydrating toilet (UDDT) and an adaptive hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) unit. Biogas is produced from crop residues and other domestic organic waste. The fermentation residues and the dehydrated fecal matter from the UDDT is then treated with HTC. The carbonised and sanitized residue is then applied as soil amendment to improve the soil fertility as manifested by the Terra Preta in the Amazon. This holistic approach is a new development in ecological sanitation. Therefore, a comprehensive sustainability assessment including environmental, economic and socio

  16. Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation As Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Echazú

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are a public health problem in resource-limited settings worldwide. Chronic STH infection impairs optimum learning and productivity, contributing to the perpetuation of the poverty-disease cycle. Regular massive drug administration (MDA is the cardinal recommendation for its control; along with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH interventions. The impact of joint WASH interventions on STH infections has been reported; studies on the independent effect of WASH components are needed to contribute with the improvement of current recommendations for the control of STH. The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home.Cross-sectional study, conducted in Salta province, Argentina. During a deworming program that enrolled 6957 individuals; 771 were randomly selected for stool/serum sampling for parasitological and serological diagnosis of STH. Bivariate stratified analysis was performed to explore significant correlations between risk factors and STH infections grouped by mechanism of entry as skin-penetrators (hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis vs. orally-ingested (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6-5.9. Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7.Lack of safe water and proper sanitation pose a risk of STH infections that is distinct according to the route of entry to the human host used by each of the STH species. Interventions aimed to improve water and sanitation access should be highlighted in the recommendations

  17. Quantifying accessibility and use of improved sanitation: towards a comprehensive indicator of the need for sanitation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M J; Clements, A C A; Gray, D J; Sadler, R; Laksono, B; Stewart, D E

    2016-01-01

    To prevent diseases associated with inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene, people needing latrines and behavioural interventions must be identified. We compared two indicators that could be used to identify those people. Indicator 1 of household latrine coverage was a simple Yes/No response to the question "Does your household have a latrine?" Indicator 2 was more comprehensive, combining questions about defecation behaviour with observations of latrine conditions. Using a standardized procedure and questionnaire, trained research assistants collected data from 6,599 residents of 16 rural villages in Indonesia. Indicator 1 identified 30.3% as not having a household latrine, while Indicator 2 identified 56.0% as using unimproved sanitation. Indicator 2 thus identified an additional 1,710 people who were missed by Indicator 1. Those 1,710 people were of lower socioeconomic status (p sanitation and hygiene interventions can combine evidences of both access and use, from self-reports and objective observation. Such an indicator can inform decisions about sanitation-related interventions and about scaling deworming programmes up or down. Further, a comprehensive and locally relevant indicator allows improved targeting to those most in need of a hygiene-behaviour intervention. PMID:27452598

  18. Integration of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for the Prevention and Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Rationale for Inter-Sectoral Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Matthew C.; Stephanie Ogden; Julie Jacobson; Daniel Abbott; David G Addiss; Amnie, Asrat G.; Colin Beckwith; Sandy Cairncross; Rafael Callejas; Jack M Colford; Emerson, Paul M.; Alan Fenwick; Rebecca Fishman; Kerry Gallo; Jack Grimes

    2013-01-01

    Improvements of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure and appropriate health-seeking behavior are necessary for achieving sustained control, elimination, or eradication of many neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Indeed, the global strategies to fight NTDs include provision of WASH, but few programs have specific WASH targets and approaches. Collaboration between disease control programs and stakeholders in WASH is a critical next step. A group of stakeholders from the NTD cont...

  19. Environmental monitoring: the key to effective sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alan; Wilfred, Antonia G; Hidell, Timothy B

    2003-05-01

    Judicious and effective use of chemical decontaminants has a critical function in meeting the bioexclusion and biocontainment objectives established in every well-managed animal research facility. The authors provide an overview of the components to consider when developing and implementing an environmental monitoring program. PMID:19757613

  20. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... program should be designed and implemented. (b) The hatchery building should be arranged so that separate... processing, and egg tray and hatching basket washing. Traffic and airflow patterns in the hatchery should be..., poults, or other newly hatched poultry should be distributed in clean, new boxes and new chick...

  1. Why do households invest in sanitation in rural Benin: Health, wealth, or prestige?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Elena; Günther, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Seventy percent of the rural population in sub-Saharan Africa does not use adequate sanitation facilities. In rural Benin, as much as 95% of the population does not use improved sanitation. By analyzing a representative sample of 2000 rural households, this paper explores why households remain without latrines. Our results show that wealth and latrine prices play the most decisive role for sanitation demand and ownership. At current income levels, sanitation coverage will only increase to 50% if costs for construction are reduced from currently 190 USD to 50 USD per latrine. Our analysis also suggests that previous sanitation campaigns, which were based on prestige and the allure of a modern lifestyle as motives for latrine construction, have had no success in increasing sanitation coverage. Moreover, improved public health, which is the objective of public policies promoting sanitation, will not be effective at low sanitation coverage rates. Fear at night, especially of animals, and personal harassment, are stated as the most important motivational factors for latrine ownership and the intention to build one. We therefore suggest changing the message of sanitation projects and introduce new low-cost technologies into rural markets; otherwise, marketing strategies will continue to fail in increasing sanitation demand.

  2. SANitation CHoice Involving Stakeholders : a participatory multi-criteria method for drainage and sanitation system selection in developing cities applied in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, van J.C.L.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: sanitation; drainage; planning; multi-criteria decision analysis; stakeholder dialogues, developing countries The poor living in slums and other unplanned urban areas in developing countries have no access to adequate drainage and sanitation provisions with grave consequences to their he

  3. Water, sanitation and hygiene in Haiti: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelting, Richard; Bliss, Katherine; Patrick, Molly; Lockhart, Gabriella; Handzel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Haiti has the lowest rates of access to improved water and sanitation infrastructure in the western hemisphere. This situation was likely exacerbated by the earthquake in 2010 and also contributed to the rapid spread of the cholera epidemic that started later that same year. This report examines the history of the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector in Haiti, considering some factors that have influenced WASH conditions in the country. We then discuss the situation sine the earthquake and subsequent cholera epidemic, and the responses to those events. Finally, drawing on Haiti's National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Cholera in Haiti 2013-2022, we suggest some actions that could help bring about long-term WASH improvements for the future. Because the current WASH situation has evolved over decades of limited attention and resources, it will take a long-term, sustained effort to improve the situation. PMID:24106193

  4. Watson, Swellengrebel and species sanitation: environmental and ecological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D J

    1994-08-01

    Following the discovery of mosquito transmission of malaria, the theory and practice of malaria control by general and selective removal of specific vector populations resulted particularly from Malcolm Watson's empirical work in peninsular Malaysia, first in the urban and peri-urban areas of Klang and Port Swettenham and subsequently in the rural rubber plantations, and from the work of N.H. Swellengrebel in nearby Indonesia on the taxonomy, ecology and control of anophelines. They developed the concept of species sanitation: the selective modification of the environment to render a particular anopheline of no importance as a vector in a particular situation. The lack of progress along these lines in India at that time is contrasted with that in south-east Asia. The extension of species sanitation and related concepts to other geographical areas and to other vector-borne disease situations is outlined. PMID:7898951

  5. Incentivizing Decentralized Sanitation: The Role of Discount Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alison; Blackhurst, Michael; Garland, Jay L; Lawler, Desmond F

    2016-06-21

    In adoption decisions for decentralized sanitation technologies, two decision makers are involved: the public utility and the individual homeowner. Standard life cycle cost is calculated from the perspective of the utility, which uses a market-based discount rate in these calculations. However, both decision-makers must be considered, including their differing perceptions of the time trade-offs inherent in a stream of costs and benefits. This study uses the discount rate as a proxy for these perceptions and decision-maker preferences. The results in two case studies emphasize the dependence on location of such analyses. Falmouth, Massachusetts, appears to be a good candidate for incentivizing decentralized sanitation while the Allegheny County Sanitary Authority service area in Pennsylvania appears to have no need for similar incentives. This method can be applied to any two-party decision in which the parties are expected to have different discount rates. PMID:27183382

  6. Differentially Private Search Log Sanitization with Optimal Output Utility

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Yuan; Lu, Haibing; Wu, Mingrui

    2011-01-01

    Web search logs contain extremely sensitive data, as evidenced by the recent AOL incident. However, storing and analyzing search logs can be very useful for many purposes (i.e. investigating human behavior). Thus, an important research question is how to privately sanitize search logs. Although several search log anonymization techniques have been proposed with concrete privacy models, the output utility of most techniques is merely evaluated but not necessarily maximized. Indeed, when applying any privacy standard to the search log anonymization, the optimal (maximum utility) output can be derived according to the inter-relation between privacy and utility. In this paper, we take a first step towards tackling this problem by formulating utility-maximizing optimization problems based on the rigorous privacy standard of differential privacy. Specifically, we utilize optimization models to maximize the output utility of the sanitization for different applications, while ensuring that the production process sati...

  7. Sustainability of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Sabogal, Raquel I.; Medlin, Elizabeth; Aquino, Gonzalo; Gelting, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The American Red Cross and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated on a sustainability evaluation of post-hurricane water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in Central America. In 2006 and 2009, we revisited six study areas in rural El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to assess sustainability of WASH interventions finalized in 2002, after 1998’s Hurricane Mitch. We used surveys to collect data, calculate indicators and identify factors that influence ...

  8. Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoea

    OpenAIRE

    Cairncross, Sandy; Hunt, Caroline; Boisson, Sophie; Bostoen, Kristof; Curtis, Val; Fung, Isaac CH; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background Ever since John Snow’s intervention on the Broad St pump, the effect of water quality, hygiene and sanitation in preventing diarrhoea deaths has always been debated. The evidence identified in previous reviews is of variable quality, and mostly relates to morbidity rather than mortality. Methods We drew on three systematic reviews, two of them for the Cochrane Collaboration, focussed on the effect of handwashing with soap on diarrhoea, of water quality improvement and of excreta di...

  9. Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa: Where do we Stand?

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Piers; Coombes, Yolande

    2013-01-01

    "The Third African Sanitation and Hygiene Conference was held in Kigali, Rwanda in July 2011. It was hosted by the Government of the Republic of Rwanda, and the African Minister s Council on Water. The meeting attracted extraordinary interest: over 1000 people registered and nearly 900 people attended from a total of 67 countries, including representatives of 42 African countries. The content of AfricaSan 3 was aligned with the needs of countries as defined in country preparation meeting...

  10. Community Contribution for Environmental Sanitation: Myth or Reality?

    OpenAIRE

    Veerashekharappa, ...

    2006-01-01

    Reformsin water and sanitation sector intended to make stakeholders part of the implementation process. In the process beneficiaries share partial capital cost and meet 100 per cent of operation and maintenance cost by generating own revenue through user charges, which will reduce burden on exchequer. But, the experience shows that in most of the villages this approach has become a futile exercise. The option left is partially privatize the operation and maintenance activity for efficient del...

  11. Recurrent lactic acidosis secondary to hand sanitizer ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, M E; Guru, P. K.; Park, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their ability to decrease the spread of infection, hand sanitizers are now ubiquitous in health care settings. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted with acute alcohol intoxication and had near complete recovery in 12 hrs. Subsequently, she was found unresponsive on the floor of her hospital room on two separate occasions. Evaluations revealed repeatedly elevated levels of ethanol, acetone, and lactate as well as increased anion gap and hypotension, requiring inte...

  12. Sustainable Community Sanitation for a Rural Hospital in Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Jawidzik; Jay N. Meegoda; Paul Rodriguez; Hsin-Neng Hsieh

    2012-01-01

    A fully sustainable sanitation system was developed for a rural hospital in Haiti. The system operates by converting human waste into biogas and fertilizer without using external energy. It is a hybrid anaerobic/aerobic system that maximizes methane production while producing quality compost. The system first separates liquid and solid human waste at the source to control carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content to facilitate enhanced biodegradation. It will then degrade human waste thro...

  13. Sanitation and Analysis of Operation Data in Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Zucker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a workflow for data sanitation and analysis of operation data with the goal of increasing energy efficiency and reliability in the operation of building-related energy systems. The workflow makes use of machine learning algorithms and innovative visualizations. The environment, in which monitoring data for energy systems are created, requires low configuration effort for data analysis. Therefore the focus lies on methods that operate automatically and require little or no configuration. As a result a generic workflow is created that is applicable to various energy-related time series data; it starts with data accessibility, followed by automated detection of duty cycles where applicable. The detection of outliers in the data and the sanitation of gaps ensure that the data quality is sufficient for an analysis by domain experts, in our case the analysis of system energy efficiency. To prove the feasibility of the approach, the sanitation and analysis workflow is implemented and applied to the recorded data of a solar driven adsorption chiller.

  14. Use of sanitizing products: safety practices and risk situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aurélia Rocha da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the handling and risk factors for poisoning and/or digestive tract injuries associated with the use of sanitizing products at home. METHODS: interviews were conducted in 419 households from different regions, collecting epidemiological data from residents and risk habits related to the use and storage of cleaning products. RESULTS: sanitizing products considered to be a health risk were found in 98% of the households where the research was conducted, and in 54% of cases, they were stored in places easily accessible to children. Lye was found in 19%, followed by illicit products in 39% of homes. In 13% of households, people produced soap, and in 12% they stored products in non-original containers. The use of illicit products and the manufacture of handmade soap were associated with lower educational level of the household owners and with the regions and socioeconomic classes with lower purchasing power. CONCLUSIONS: risk practices such as inadequate storage, manufacturing, and use of sanitizing products by the population evidence the need for public health policies, including educational measures, as a means of preventing accidents.

  15. The urgent need for environmental sanitation and a safe drinking water supply in Mbandjock, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchounwou, P B; Lantum, D M; Monkiedje, A; Takougang, I; Barbazan, P

    1997-07-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the physical, chemical, and bacteriological qualities of drinking water in Mbandjock, Cameroon. Study results indicated that the vast majority of drinking water sources possessed acceptable physical and chemical qualities, according to the World Health Organization standards. However, microbiological analyses revealed that only the waters treated by the Cameroon National Water Company (SNEC) and the Sugar Processing Company (SOSUCAM) were acceptable for human consumption. All spring and well waters presented evidences of fecal contamination from human and/or animal origin. Water from these sources should, therefore, be treated before use for drinking. Since the majority of the population gets its water from wells and springs, there is an urgent need to develop a health education program, within the framework of primary health care, with respect to environmental sanitation and safe drinking water supply in this community. PMID:9216865

  16. Impact of Rainfall on Diarrheal Disease Risk Associated with Unimproved Water and Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavnani, Darlene; Goldstick, Jason E.; CEVALLOS, WILLIAM; Trueba, Gabriel; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Diarrheal disease remains a leading cause of morbidity in areas with limited access to safe water and sanitation. As water and sanitation interventions continue to be implemented, it will be important to understand the ecological context in which they can prevent diarrhea. We conducted six serial case control studies in Ecuador to estimate the risk of diarrhea from unimproved water and sanitation and the potential for effect modification by rainfall. Unimproved water source and unimproved san...

  17. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to ...

  18. Bacterial Contamination on Household Toys and Association with Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conditions in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Stauber, Christine E.; Adam Walters; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna M.; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that household water treatment interventions improve microbiological water quality and reduce diarrheal disease risk. Few studies have examined, however, the impact of water treatment interventions on household-level hygiene and sanitation. This study examined the association of four water and sanitation conditions (access to latrines, improved sanitation, improved water and the plastic biosand filter) on the levels of total coliforms and E. coli on existing and intr...

  19. Impact Evaluation of a Large-scale Rural Sanitation Project in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Lisa; Shah, Manisha; Olivia, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Lack of sanitation and poor hygiene behavior cause a tremendous disease burden among the poor. This paper evaluates the impact of the Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing project in Indonesia, where about 11 percent of children have diarrhea in any two-week period and more than 33,000 children die each year from diarrhea. The evaluation utilizes a randomized controlled trial but is un...

  20. Guidelines for assessing the risk to groundwater from on-site sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, A.R.; Macdonald, D. M. J.; Howard, A.G.; Barrett, M.H.; Pedley, S; Ahmed, K. M.; Nalubega, M.

    2001-01-01

    There has been encouraging progress with access to safe drinking water and sanitation in both rural and urban areas since the United Nations Water Decade of the 1980s. However, more than 1 billion people around the world still lack access to safe water supplies and more than 2.4 billion are without adequate sanitation. A substantial majority of these people live in Asia where the lack of sanitation provision is particularly acute. In Africa, over one third of the population still ...

  1. Delivering Access to Safe Drinking Water and Adequate Sanitation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Faheem Jehangir Khan; Yaser Javed

    2007-01-01

    Provision of safe drinking water, adequate sanitation and personal hygiene are vital for the sustainable environmental conditions and reducing the incidence of diarrhoea, malaria, trachoma, hepatitis A & B and morbidity levels. Not having access to water and sanitation is a courteous expression for a form of deprivation that threatens life, destroys opportunity and undermines human dignity. Thus, investing in the provision of safe water supply and adequate sanitation is not only a development...

  2. Health and environmental sanitation in India: Issues for prioritizing control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ganesh S; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Jain, Animesh

    2011-09-01

    Environmental sanitation is a major public health issue in India. Recent interventional studies on environmental sanitation in India highlighted the importance of prioritizing control strategies. Research related to the appropriate cost-effective intervention strategies and their implementation in Indian context is a big challenge. This paper discusses various intervention strategies related to environmental sanitation in India and emphasizes to prioritize it according to the need of country. PMID:22412284

  3. Health and environmental sanitation in India: Issues for prioritizing control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ganesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sanitation is a major public health issue in India. Recent interventional studies on environmental sanitation in India highlighted the importance of prioritizing control strategies. Research related to the appropriate cost-effective intervention strategies and their implementation in Indian context is a big challenge. This paper discusses various intervention strategies related to environmental sanitation in India and emphasizes to prioritize it according to the need of country.

  4. Gendered priorities for ‘improved’ sanitation: insights from Kisumu Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Jewitt, Sarah; Ryley, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how official concepts of ‘improved’ sanitation often fail to reflect the priorities of female users. As the health benefits associated with improved sanitation cannot be fully realised until all potential user groups habitually utilize it, specific user preferences/constraints need to be better understood and catered for. Drawing on empirical work in nine schools in Kisumu, Kenya, attention is focused on gendered sanitation priorities including menstrual hygiene management...

  5. Health and environmental sanitation in India: Issues for prioritizing control strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh Kumar, S; Sitanshu Sekhar Kar; Animesh Jain

    2011-01-01

    Environmental sanitation is a major public health issue in India. Recent interventional studies on environmental sanitation in India highlighted the importance of prioritizing control strategies. Research related to the appropriate cost-effective intervention strategies and their implementation in Indian context is a big challenge. This paper discusses various intervention strategies related to environmental sanitation in India and emphasizes to prioritize it according to the need of country.

  6. Hand sanitizer-dispensing door handles increase hand hygiene compliance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiarz, Lukasz S; Savoie, Brent; McGuire, Mark; McConnell, Lauren; Nagy, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Improving rates of hand hygiene compliance (HHC) has been shown to reduce nosocomial disease. We compared the HHC for a traditional wall-mounted unit and a novel sanitizer-dispensing door handle device in a hospital inpatient ultrasound area. HHC increased 24.5%-77.1% (P sanitizer-dispensing door handle, whereas it remained unchanged for the other rooms. Technical improvements like a sanitizer-dispensing door handle can improve hospital HHC. PMID:24679575

  7. A conceptual model of people's approach to sanitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avvannavar, Santosh M. [Center for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012, Karnataka (India)], E-mail: santosh@astra.iisc.ernet; Mani, Monto [Center for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012, Karnataka (India)

    2008-02-01

    Sanitation is a term primarily used to characterize the safe and sound handling (and disposal) of human excreta - or simply, people's approach to take-care of their (unavoidable) primal urge. According to the recent Human Development Report 2006 Global access to proper sanitation stands at approximately 58% with 37% being a conservative estimate both for South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Various multi-million dollar sanitation programmes the world over have had little success, often due to inadequate understanding of people's sanitation approach. Sanitation approach includes the perception, feel and practices involved in satisficing the primal need to defecate and urinate (and their disposal). This paper presents a structure to understand the nature of psycho-socio-economic influences that determine societal approach to sanitation. Societies across the globe have evolved imbibing diverse influences attributed to the local environment, religion, cultural practices, war, etc. While a civilization's living environment reflects these influences in their built-environment characteristics, the influences are often deep-rooted and can be traced to the way the community members satisfice their need to defecate and urinate (sanitation approach). The objective of this paper is to trace the various approaches that diverse societies/civilizations, over time, across the world have had towards sanitation, and present a structure to articulate and understand determining factors. Sanitation also involves other domestic (solid and liquid) waste disposal but in the context of this paper the scope of sanitation has been restricted to human excreta alone. The structure presented and discussed in this paper would be useful in understanding a community better in terms of providing appropriate sanitation. It is hoped that this structure be considered as a basis for further refinement and detailed research into each of the factors determining people's sanitation

  8. A case-control study of the effect of environmental sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity in Malawi.

    OpenAIRE

    Young, B; Briscoe, J.

    1988-01-01

    A case-control design has been applied in the evaluation of improved environmental sanitation on diarrhoeal diseases in rural Malawi. The study demonstrates the feasibility of using such an approach to evaluate two levels of water supply and sanitation service quickly and at moderate cost. Sample sizes would need to be increased substantially to evaluate multiple levels of service or to investigate interactions between water supply and sanitation. The results indicate that children living in ...

  9. Terra Preta Sanitation: A Key Component for Sustainability in the Urban Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten Schuetze; Vicente Santiago-Fandiño

    2014-01-01

    Terra Preta Sanitation (TPS) plays a key role in sustainable sanitation (SuSan) and in the sustainable management of resources such as water, energy, soil (agriculture), liquid and solid organic waste streams as well as in the development of sustainable urban environment and infrastructure systems. This paper discusses the advantages of, and requirements for, SuSan systems, focusing on TPS. Case studies showing the stepwise extension and re-development of conventional sanitation systems (CSS)...

  10. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyna R S Hulland

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60 and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes based on stress (high to low and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions. Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention.

  11. Integration of water, sanitation, and hygiene for the prevention and control of neglected tropical diseases: a rationale for inter-sectoral collaboration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Freeman

    Full Text Available Improvements of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH infrastructure and appropriate health-seeking behavior are necessary for achieving sustained control, elimination, or eradication of many neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Indeed, the global strategies to fight NTDs include provision of WASH, but few programs have specific WASH targets and approaches. Collaboration between disease control programs and stakeholders in WASH is a critical next step. A group of stakeholders from the NTD control, child health, and WASH sectors convened in late 2012 to discuss opportunities for, and barriers to, collaboration. The group agreed on a common vision, namely "Disease-free communities that have adequate and equitable access to water and sanitation, and that practice good hygiene." Four key areas of collaboration were identified, including (i advocacy, policy, and communication; (ii capacity building and training; (iii mapping, data collection, and monitoring; and (iv research. We discuss strategic opportunities and ways forward for enhanced collaboration between the WASH and the NTD sectors.

  12. Physics of Fresh Produce Safety: Role of Diffusion and Tissue Reaction in Sanitization of Leafy Green Vegetables with Liquid and Gaseous Ozone-Based Sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Pyatkovskyy, Taras; Mohamed, Hussein M; Yousef, Ahmed E; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2015-12-01

    Produce safety has received much recent attention, with the emphasis being largely on discovery of how microbes invade produce. However, the sanitization operation deserves more attention than it has received. The ability of a sanitizer to reach the site of pathogens is a fundamental prerequisite for efficacy. This work addresses the transport processes of ozone (gaseous and liquid) sanitizer for decontamination of leafy greens. The liquid sanitizer was ineffective against Escherichia coli K-12 in situations where air bubbles may be trapped within cavities. A model was developed for diffusion of sanitizer into the interior of produce. The reaction rate of ozone with the surface of a lettuce leaf was determined experimentally and was used in a numerical simulation to evaluate ozone concentrations within the produce and to determine the time required to reach different locations. For aqueous ozone, the penetration depth was limited to several millimeters by ozone self-decomposition due to the significant time required for diffusion. In contrast, gaseous sanitizer was able to reach a depth of 100 mm in several minutes without depletion in the absence of reaction with surfaces. However, when the ozone gas reacted with the produce surface, gas concentration was significantly affected. Simulation data were validated experimentally by measuring ozone concentrations at the bottom of a cylinder made of lettuce leaf. The microbiological test confirmed the relationship between ozone transport, its self-decomposition, reaction with surrounding materials, and the degree of inactivation of E. coli K-12. Our study shows that decontamination of fresh produce, through direct contact with the sanitizer, is more feasible with gaseous than with aqueous sanitizers. Therefore, sanitization during a high-speed washing process is effective only for decontaminating the wash water.

  13. Composting toilets as a sustainable alternative to urban sanitation – A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, Chirjiv K., E-mail: chirjiv@gmail.com; Apul, Defne S., E-mail: defne.apul@utoledo.edu

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Composting toilets can be an alternative to flush based sanitation. • Many different composting toilet designs are available. • Composting is affected by moisture content, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio. • There are many barriers to composting toilets. • Research is needed in science based design of composting toilets. - Abstract: In today’s flush based urban sanitation systems, toilets are connected to both the centralized water and wastewater infrastructures. This approach is not a sustainable use of our water and energy resources. In addition, in the U.S., there is a shortfall in funding for maintenance and upgrade of the water and wastewater infrastructures. The goal of this paper was to review the current knowledge on composting toilets since this technology is decentralized, requires no water, creates a value product (fertilizer) and can possibly reduce the burden on the current infrastructure as a sustainable sanitation approach. We found a large variety of composting toilet designs and categorized the different types of toilets as being self contained or central; single or multi chamber; waterless or with water/foam flush, electric or non-electric, and no-mix or combined collection. Factors reported as affecting the composting process and their optimum values were identified as; aeration, moisture content (50–60%), temperature (40–65 °C), carbon to nitrogen ratio (25–35), pH (5.5–8.0), and porosity (35–50%). Mass and energy balance models have been created for the composting process. However there is a literature gap in the use of this knowledge in design and operation of composting toilets. To evaluate the stability and safety of compost for use as fertilizer, various methods are available and the temperature–time criterion approach is the most common one used. There are many barriers to the use of composting toilets in urban settings including public acceptance, regulations, and lack of knowledge and

  14. Sanitation of cultural monuments - Energy conervation. Energetic improvement of buildings listed as monuments; Kulturdenkmale sanieren - Energie sparen. Energetische Verbesserung denkmalgeschuetzter Gebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on an energetic improvement of buildings listed as monuments. Substantial aspects are designated which absolutely have to be considered in the energetic sanitation. Depending upon plant (solar thermal power or photovoltaics), dimensions and other design (cell type, colour, reflection) solutions can be found which only insignificantly impair the appearance of the architectural monument. Partners for buildings listed as monument are monument protection authorities. The contribution under consideration also presents an overview of public funding programs.

  15. Reflections on Public Health: Captain Hart and Sanitation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-01

    This podcast consists of segments of an interview conducted by Capt. Kathleen McDuffie, CDC, with Capt. Russell Hart, a 100 year old retired sanitary engineer of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps as he reflects on his work in environmental sanitation and the development of local health departments. The interview was conducted in 2006.  Created: 10/1/2006 by Coordinating Center for Health Information and Service (CCHIS), National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM).   Date Released: 1/7/2009.

  16. Evolution of Water Supply, Sanitation, Wastewater, and Stormwater Technologies Globally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an outline of history of hydro-technologies in the west and the east. It is an overview of the special issue on “the evolution of hydro-technologies globally”, in which the key topics regarding the history of water and sanitation worldwide, and its importance to future cities are presented and discussed. It covers a wide range of relevant historical issues, and is presented in three categories: productivity assessment, institutional framework and mechanisms, and governance aspects. This paper concludes by discussing the challenges on future research in this field of study.

  17. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Accessing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Disabled People in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian White

    Full Text Available Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH. Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access.

  18. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Accessing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Disabled People in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sian; Kuper, Hannah; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Holm, Rochelle; Biran, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access.

  19. Composting toilets as a sustainable alternative to urban sanitation--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Chirjiv K; Apul, Defne S

    2014-02-01

    In today's flush based urban sanitation systems, toilets are connected to both the centralized water and wastewater infrastructures. This approach is not a sustainable use of our water and energy resources. In addition, in the U.S., there is a shortfall in funding for maintenance and upgrade of the water and wastewater infrastructures. The goal of this paper was to review the current knowledge on composting toilets since this technology is decentralized, requires no water, creates a value product (fertilizer) and can possibly reduce the burden on the current infrastructure as a sustainable sanitation approach. We found a large variety of composting toilet designs and categorized the different types of toilets as being self contained or central; single or multi chamber; waterless or with water/foam flush, electric or non-electric, and no-mix or combined collection. Factors reported as affecting the composting process and their optimum values were identified as; aeration, moisture content (50-60%), temperature (40-65°C), carbon to nitrogen ratio (25-35), pH (5.5-8.0), and porosity (35-50%). Mass and energy balance models have been created for the composting process. However there is a literature gap in the use of this knowledge in design and operation of composting toilets. To evaluate the stability and safety of compost for use as fertilizer, various methods are available and the temperature-time criterion approach is the most common one used. There are many barriers to the use of composting toilets in urban settings including public acceptance, regulations, and lack of knowledge and experience in composting toilet design and operation and program operation.

  20. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Accessing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Disabled People in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sian; Kuper, Hannah; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Holm, Rochelle; Biran, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access. PMID:27171520

  1. 36 CFR 3.13 - What conditions apply to the use of Marine Sanitation Devices (MSD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What conditions apply to the use of Marine Sanitation Devices (MSD)? 3.13 Section 3.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... to the use of Marine Sanitation Devices (MSD)? (a) Discharging sewage from any vessel,...

  2. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... sanitation requirements. (a) No person shall sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or...

  3. 9 CFR 354.210 - Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. 354.210 Section 354.210 Animals and Animal Products... sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. The provisions of §§ 354.210 to...

  4. 77 FR 11401 - Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs): No Discharge Zone (NDZ) for California State Marine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Petition and Other Request to Revise the Performance Standards for Marine Sanitation Devices,'' 75 FR 39683... and Other Request to Revise the Performance Standards for Marine Sanitation Devices, 75 FR 39683, July... Federal Register (75 FR 53914). A 60-day comment period followed that ended on November 1, 2010,...

  5. Legal pluralism in the area of human rights: water and sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Obani; J. Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Access to clean drinking water and adequate sanitation and hygiene facilities is crucial to achieving social and environmental sustainability. We examine the global human water and sanitation right from a legal pluralism perspective to see if it is indifferent to, competes with, accommodates, or is

  6. A Kinetic Study Using Evaporation of Different Types of Hand-Rub Sanitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas, Allan R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand-rub sanitizers are the types of products that hospital professionals use very often. These sanitizers can be classified into two major groups: those that contain a large quantity of thickener, and thus are a gel, and those that contain a small quantity of thickener, and thus remain a liquid. In an effort to create a laboratory…

  7. Health, hygiene and appropriate sanitation: experiences and perceptions of the urban poor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, D.; Fawcett, B.; Mannan, F.

    2011-01-01

    “Don’t teach us what is sanitation and hygiene.” This quote from Maqbul, a middle-aged male resident in Modher Bosti, a slum in Dhaka city, summed up the frustration of many people living in urban poverty to ongoing sanitation and hygiene programmes. In the light of their experiences, such programme

  8. Innovations in sanitation for sustainable urban growth; modernized mixtures in an east african context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanisation of poverty and informality in East Africa poses a threat to public health and environmental protection, perpetuating social exclusion and inequalities, while it creates service gaps. Neither conventional on-site sanitation nor modern centralised off-site sanitation provisions are tenabl

  9. Sierra Leone : Public Expenditure Review for Water and Sanitation 2002 to 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Anthony; Thompson, Darrell; Ginneken, Meike van

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on how public expenditure translates into the delivery of water supply and sanitation services in rural and urban areas in Sierra Leone. It describes the legal and institutional framework for the allocation of resources assesses access to Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) services and past sector performance, and analyzes public expenditure in the sector, including the ...

  10. [Introduction to management of environmental sanitation in public concession in Shanghai in 1930s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D

    2000-10-01

    The environmental sanitation in Shanghai public concession is one of the regions with better administration. A complete set of administration rules was proposed by the Hygienic Department and Logistic Department of its public Security Bureau. It also spent a wealth of money to organize personnel and material supply to treat its environmental sanitation. This experience is worthy of summarization. PMID:11871436

  11. Deterring Corruption and Improving Governance in the Urban Water & Sanitation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern, Jonathan; Kenny, Charles; Dickson, Eric; Erhardt, David; Oliver, Chloe

    2009-01-01

    Governments typically provide the water and sanitation sector with substantial amounts of public money. Monopoly power, public funds, and discretionary decisions, coupled with poor accountability, breed corruption. The best hope for reducing corruption in the water and sanitation sector is to incentivize water sector officials and managers to be responsive to citizens' demands.

  12. Water, Sanitation and Children’s Health : Evidence from 172 DHS Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Gunther, Isabel; Fink, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    This paper combines 172 Demography and Health Survey data sets from 70 countries to estimate the effect of water and sanitation on child mortality and morbidity. The results show a robust association between access to water and sanitation technologies and both child morbidity and child mortality. The point estimates imply, depending on the technology level and the sub-region chosen, that w...

  13. Inactivation of E.coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on strawberries by sanitizing solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent foodborne outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 in Oregon associated with the consumption of fresh strawberries highlights the need for effective sanitizing washes, suitable for the inactivation of pathogens on fresh produce. Sanitizing solutions were screened for decontaminating E. coli O157:H7 (E...

  14. Menu Planning, Food Consumption, and Sanitation Practices in Day Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratko, Connye N.; Martin, Ruth E.; Lan, William Y.; Chappell, James A.; Ahmad, Mahassen

    2000-01-01

    In 102 day care centers, data were collected on nutritional content of menus, compliance with guidelines, children's food consumption, and safety/sanitation. Although menus exceeded recommended daily allowances, quantities of food were below recommendations. No menu components were consumed by more than 65% of children. Sanitation problems were…

  15. Stability of nonfouling electroless nickel-polytetrafluoroethylene coatings after exposure to commercial dairy equipment sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Application of nonfouling coatings on thermal processing equipment can improve operational efficiency. However, to enable effective commercial translation, a need exists for more comprehensive studies on the stability of nonfouling coatings after exposure to different sanitizers. In the current study, the influence of different commercial dairy equipment sanitizers on the nonfouling properties of stainless steel modified with electroless Ni-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coatings was determined. Surface properties, such as dynamic contact angle, surface energy, surface morphology, and elemental composition, were measured before and after the coupons were exposed to the sanitizers for 168 cleaning cycles. The fouling behavior of Ni-PTFE-modified stainless steel coupons after exposure was also evaluated by processing raw milk on a self-fabricated benchtop-scale plate heat exchanger. The results indicated that peroxide sanitizer had only minor effect on the Ni-PTFE-modified stainless steel surface, whereas chlorine- and iodine-based sanitizers influenced the surface properties drastically. The coupons after 168 cycles of exposure to peroxide sanitizer accumulated the least amount of fouling material (4.44±0.24mg/cm(2)) compared with the coupons exposed to the other 3 sanitizers. These observations indicated that the Ni-PTFE nonfouling coating retained antifouling properties after 168 cycles of exposure to peroxide-based sanitizer, supporting their potential application as nonfouling coatings for stainless steel dairy processing equipment. PMID:26142857

  16. Promoting handwashing and sanitation : evidence from a large-scale randomized trial in rural Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Briceno, Bertha; Coville, Aidan; Martinez, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The association between hygiene, sanitation, and health is well documented, yet thousands of children die each year from exposure to contaminated fecal matter. At the same time, evidence on the effectiveness of at-scale behavior change interventions to improve sanitation and hygiene practices is limited. This paper presents the results of two large-scale, government-led handwashing and sa...

  17. The evolution of the right to water and sanitation: differentiating the implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Obani; J. Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Since 1980, the right to water has been seen mainly as implicitly subsumed under other social human and political rights. The global recognition of the need for access to sanitation services has led to formulations of a right to sanitation that emphasizes both the responsibilities of States and the

  18. Water Supply and Sanitation in Nigeria : Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This analysis aims to help Nigeria assess its own service delivery pathways for turning finance into water supply and sanitation services, in the subsectors of rural and urban water supply, rural and urban sanitation, and hygiene. This second Country Status Overview (CSO2) compares Nigeria's own estimates of coverage with data from the UNICEF/WHO Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP). The impac...

  19. 9 CFR 590.516 - Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking. 590.516 Section 590.516 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.516 Sanitizing and drying...

  20. Knowledge Brokerage for Environmentally Sustainable Sanitation. Position Paper and Guidelines from the EU-FP7 BESSE project.

    OpenAIRE

    BESSE, Project team; Bijker, W.E.; Caiati, Giovanni; d'Andrea, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The EU-funded BESSE project explores how sanitation in Europe can be made more sustainable. European sanitation is still based on 19th and early 20th century technologies and management systems. These systems do not adequately respond to the sustainable development needs of the 21st century, such as reducing energy use and the overall environmental impact of sanitation. BESSE set out to find innovative solutions for making the sanitation sector more sustainable. The BESSE consortium consisted...

  1. Challenges to achieving sustainable sanitation in informal settlements of Kigali, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinda, Aime; Abbott, Pamela; Pedley, Steve; Charles, Katrina; Adogo, Jane; Okurut, Kenan; Chenoweth, Jonathan

    2013-12-10

    Like most cities in developing countries, Kigali is experiencing rapid urbanisation leading to an increase in the urban population and rapid growth in the size and number of informal settlements. More than 60% of the city's population resides in these settlements, where they experience inadequate and poor quality urban services including sanitation. This article discusses the issues and constraints related to the provision of sustainable sanitation in the informal settlements in Kigali. Two informal settlements (Gatsata and Kimisagara) were selected for the study, which used a mixed method approach for data collection. The research found that residents experienced multiple problems because of poor sanitation and that the main barrier to improved sanitation was cost. Findings from this study can be used by the city authorities in the planning of effective sanitation intervention strategies for communities in informal settlements.

  2. Automated Client-side Sanitizer for Code Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyaneshwar K. Patil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Web applications are useful for various online services. These web applications are becoming ubiquitous in our daily lives. They are used for multiple purposes such as e-commerce, financial services, emails, healthcare services and many other captious services. But the presence of vulnerabilities in the web application may become a serious cause for the security of the web application. A web application may contain different types of vulnerabilities. Cross-site scripting is one of the type of code injection attacks. According to OWASP TOP 10 vulnerability report, Cross-site Scripting (XSS is among top 5 vulnerabilities. So this research work aims to implement an effective solution for the prevention of cross- site scripting vulnerabilities. In this paper, we implemented a novel client-side XSS sanitizer that prevents web applications from XSS attacks. Our sanitizer is able to detect cross-site scripting vulnerabilities at the client-side. It strengthens web browser, because modern web browser do not provide any specific notification, alert or indication of security holes or vulnerabilities and their presence in the web application.

  3. Characterization of contaminants from a sanitized milk processing plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cleto

    Full Text Available Milk processing lines offer a wide variety of microenvironments where a diversity of microorganisms can proliferate. We sampled crevices and junctions where, due to deficient reach by typical sanitizing procedures, bacteria can survive and establish biofilms. The sampling sites were the holding cell, cold storage tank, pasteurizer and storage tank--transfer pump junction. The culturable bacteria that were isolated after the sanitation procedure were predominantly Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp, Staphylococcus sciuri and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. We assayed several phenotypic characteristics such as the ability to secrete enzymes and siderophores, as well as the capacity of the strains to form biofilms that might contribute to their survival in a mixed species environment. The Pseudomonas spp. isolates were found to either produce proteases or lecithinases at high levels. Interestingly, protease production showed an inverse correlation with siderophore production. Furthermore, all of the Serratia spp. isolates were strong biofilm formers and spoilage enzymes producers. The organisms identified were not mere contaminants, but also producers of proteins with the potential to lower the quality and shelf-life of milk. In addition, we found that a considerable number of the Serratia and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from the pasteurizer were capable of secreting compounds with antimicrobial properties.

  4. Water, sanitation, hygiene, and soil-transmitted helminth infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Strunz

    2014-03-01

    of hookworm infection (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.18-0.47 and infection with any STH (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.83. Handwashing, both before eating (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.26-0.55 and after defecating (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.35-0.58, was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides infection. Soap use or availability was significantly associated with lower infection with any STH (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.29-0.98, as was handwashing after defecation (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.24-0.90. Observational evidence constituted the majority of included literature, which limits any attempt to make causal inferences. Due to underlying heterogeneity across observational studies, the meta-analysis results reflect an average of many potentially distinct effects, not an average of one specific exposure-outcome relationship. CONCLUSIONS: WASH access and practices are generally associated with reduced odds of STH infection. Pooled estimates from all meta-analyses, except for two, indicated at least a 33% reduction in odds of infection associated with individual WASH practices or access. Although most WASH interventions for STH have focused on sanitation, access to water and hygiene also appear to significantly reduce odds of infection. Overall quality of evidence was low due to the preponderance of observational studies, though recent randomized controlled trials have further underscored the benefit of handwashing interventions. Limited use of the Joint Monitoring Program's standardized water and sanitation definitions in the literature restricted efforts to generalize across studies. While further research is warranted to determine the magnitude of benefit from WASH interventions for STH control, these results call for multi-sectoral, integrated intervention packages that are tailored to social-ecological contexts.

  5. Shared sanitation versus individual household latrines: a systematic review of health outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Heijnen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 761 million people rely on shared sanitation facilities. These have historically been excluded from international sanitation targets, regardless of the service level, due to concerns about acceptability, hygiene and access. In connection with a proposed change in such policy, we undertook this review to identify and summarize existing evidence that compares health outcomes associated with shared sanitation versus individual household latrines. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Shared sanitation included any type of facilities intended for the containment of human faeces and used by more than one household, but excluded public facilities. Health outcomes included diarrhoea, helminth infections, enteric fevers, other faecal-oral diseases, trachoma and adverse maternal or birth outcomes. Studies were included regardless of design, location, language or publication status. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the STROBE guidelines. Twenty-two studies conducted in 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. Studies show a pattern of increased risk of adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation compared to individual household latrines. A meta-analysis of 12 studies reporting on diarrhoea found increased odds of disease associated with reliance on shared sanitation (odds ratio (OR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.18-1.76. CONCLUSION: Evidence to date does not support a change of existing policy of excluding shared sanitation from the definition of improved sanitation used in international monitoring and targets. However, such evidence is limited, does not adequately address likely confounding, and does not identify potentially important distinctions among types of shared facilities. As reliance on shared sanitation is increasing, further research is necessary to determine the circumstances, if any, under which shared sanitation can offer a safe, appropriate and acceptable alternative to individual household latrines.

  6. Terra Preta sanitation: re-discovered from an ancient Amazonian civilisation - integrating sanitation, bio-waste management and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factura, H; Bettendorf, T; Buzie, C; Pieplow, H; Reckin, J; Otterpohl, R

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of the bio-waste and excreta treatment of a former civilisation in the Amazon reveals the possibility of a highly efficient and simple sanitation system. With the end product that was black soil they converted 10% of former infertile soil of the region: Terra Preta do Indio (black soil of the Indians). These soils are still very fertile 500 years after this civilisation had disappeared. Deriving from these concepts, Terra Preta Sanitation (TPS) has been re-developed and adopted. TPS includes urine diversion, addition of a charcoal mixture and is based on lactic-acid-fermentation with subsequent vermicomposting. No water, ventilation or external energy is required. Natural formation processes are employed to transform excreta into lasting fertile soil that can be utilised in urban agriculture. The authors studied the lacto-fermentation of faecal matter with a minimum of 4 weeks followed by vermicomposting. The results showed that lactic-acid fermentation with addition of a charcoal mixture is a suitable option for dry toilets as the container can be closed after usage. Hardly any odour occured even after periods of several weeks. Lactic-acid fermentation alone without addition of bulking agents such as paper and sliced-cut wood to raise the C/N ratio is creating a substrate that is not accepted by worms. PMID:20453341

  7. Sustainable sanitation systems for low income urban areas - A case of the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinyama, A.; Chipato, P. T.; Mangore, E.

    Lack of basic sanitation systems threaten environmental and human health in low income urban communities. In 2005, the Government of Zimbabwe carried out a cleanup exercise in urban areas involving the destruction of illegal structures which left many people homeless. As a solution to this problem, the government embarked on an extensive housing construction exercise on unserviced land; the ‘Garikai/Hlalani Kuhle’ development programme. The objective of this paper was to investigate the sanitation status in one such area (Cowdray Park Extension, Bulawayo) and determine a sustainable sanitation system for the improved collection of wastewater from the unserviced low income urban area. The study was carried out between October 2010 and February 2011. The sanitation status as well as the residents’ preferences for improved sanitation and the economic set up of the community for the study area was determined through use of questionnaires to the residents. The local authority was then consulted to recommend sanitation facilities and system for the area that met regulatory requirements. A literature study identified sanitation options that were applicable to low income and high density urban areas. The baseline survey found that 61% of the people in the study area lacked sanitation facilities and practiced open defecation. The majority of the residents (70%) preferred ‘flush and discharge’ system sanitation facilities, which was in line with the local council’s requirements. On-site sanitation options were found not to be feasible as per the council regulations and the findings of the literature study, for areas with a high density of houses. Therefore a sewerage system was designed using the conventional sewerage design approach as well as the simplified sewerage design approach in order to determine the collection system that would best meet the needs of the community. In conclusion, the community was in dire need of a sanitation system and a waterborne

  8. The Life-Cycle Costs of School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Access in Kenyan Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly T. Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH programs in schools can increase the health, dignity and comfort of students and teachers. Understanding the costs of WASH facilities and services in schools is one essential piece for policy makers to utilize when budgeting for schools and helping to make WASH programs more sustainable. In this study we collected data from NGO and government offices, local hardware shops and 89 rural primary schools across three Kenyan counties. Current expenditures on WASH, from school and external (NGO, government, parent sources, averaged 1.83 USD per student per year. After reviewing current expenditures, estimated costs of operations and maintenance for bringing schools up to basic WASH standards, were calculated to be 3.03 USD per student per year. This includes recurrent costs, but not the cost of installing or setting up WASH infrastructure, which was 18,916 USD per school, for a school of 400 students (4.92 USD per student, per year. These findings demonstrate the need for increases in allocations to schools in Kenya, and stricter guidance on how money should be spent on WASH inputs to enable all schools to provide basic WASH for all students.

  9. The Life-Cycle Costs of School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Access in Kenyan Primary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kelly T; Mwaki, Alex; Adhiambo, Dorothy; Cheney-Coker, Malaika; Muga, Richard; Freeman, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) programs in schools can increase the health, dignity and comfort of students and teachers. Understanding the costs of WASH facilities and services in schools is one essential piece for policy makers to utilize when budgeting for schools and helping to make WASH programs more sustainable. In this study we collected data from NGO and government offices, local hardware shops and 89 rural primary schools across three Kenyan counties. Current expenditures on WASH, from school and external (NGO, government, parent) sources, averaged 1.83 USD per student per year. After reviewing current expenditures, estimated costs of operations and maintenance for bringing schools up to basic WASH standards, were calculated to be 3.03 USD per student per year. This includes recurrent costs, but not the cost of installing or setting up WASH infrastructure, which was 18,916 USD per school, for a school of 400 students (4.92 USD per student, per year). These findings demonstrate the need for increases in allocations to schools in Kenya, and stricter guidance on how money should be spent on WASH inputs to enable all schools to provide basic WASH for all students. PMID:27355962

  10. SWOT analysis of total sanitation campaign in Yavatmal district of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeshi Geeta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC in the Yavatmal district of Maharashtra. Methodology: Data was collected in December 2006 through interviews with stakeholders, house-to-house surveys, focus group discussions, and transect walks. Information in each category was finalized in a meeting after brainstorming and discussion with the TSC cell members. Results: The strengths of the campaign were innovations in Information Education and Communication, motivation through incentives, competitive spirit, active participation and partnerships, involvement of women, and universal coverage. The main weaknesses of the program were the absence of Rural Sanitary Marts/Production Centers, poor maintenance of Women Sanitary Complexes, lack of facilities for monitoring/ follow-up and a temporary focus of the campaign approach. There is an opportunity to tap additional resources, learn from other experiences, and institute back-up agencies to support and guide the community in the post-TSC phase. A change in administration and local leadership and loss of priority and interest needed to sustain the momentum while scaling up the interventions are possible threats for the program.

  11. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), environmental enteropathy, nutrition, and early child development: making the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngure, Francis M; Reid, Brianna M; Humphrey, Jean H; Mbuya, Mduduzi N; Pelto, Gretel; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    There is scarce research and programmatic evidence on the effect of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions of the physical environment on early child cognitive, sensorimotor, and socioemotional development. Furthermore, many common WASH interventions are not specifically designed to protect babies in the first 3 years of life, when gut health and linear growth are established. We review evidence linking WASH, anemia, and child growth, and highlight pathways through which WASH may affect early child development, primarily through inflammation, stunting, and anemia. Environmental enteropathy, a prevalent subclinical condition of the gut, may be a key mediating pathway linking poor hygiene to developmental deficits. Current early child development research and programs lack evidence-based interventions to provide a clean play and infant feeding environment in addition to established priorities of nutrition, stimulation, and child protection. Solutions to this problem will require appropriate behavior change and technologies that are adapted to the social and physical context and conducive to infant play and socialization. We propose the concept of baby WASH as an additional component of early childhood development programs. PMID:24571214

  12. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), environmental enteropathy, nutrition, and early child development: making the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngure, Francis M; Reid, Brianna M; Humphrey, Jean H; Mbuya, Mduduzi N; Pelto, Gretel; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    There is scarce research and programmatic evidence on the effect of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions of the physical environment on early child cognitive, sensorimotor, and socioemotional development. Furthermore, many common WASH interventions are not specifically designed to protect babies in the first 3 years of life, when gut health and linear growth are established. We review evidence linking WASH, anemia, and child growth, and highlight pathways through which WASH may affect early child development, primarily through inflammation, stunting, and anemia. Environmental enteropathy, a prevalent subclinical condition of the gut, may be a key mediating pathway linking poor hygiene to developmental deficits. Current early child development research and programs lack evidence-based interventions to provide a clean play and infant feeding environment in addition to established priorities of nutrition, stimulation, and child protection. Solutions to this problem will require appropriate behavior change and technologies that are adapted to the social and physical context and conducive to infant play and socialization. We propose the concept of baby WASH as an additional component of early childhood development programs.

  13. The Life-Cycle Costs of School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Access in Kenyan Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kelly T.; Mwaki, Alex; Adhiambo, Dorothy; Cheney-Coker, Malaika; Muga, Richard; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) programs in schools can increase the health, dignity and comfort of students and teachers. Understanding the costs of WASH facilities and services in schools is one essential piece for policy makers to utilize when budgeting for schools and helping to make WASH programs more sustainable. In this study we collected data from NGO and government offices, local hardware shops and 89 rural primary schools across three Kenyan counties. Current expenditures on WASH, from school and external (NGO, government, parent) sources, averaged 1.83 USD per student per year. After reviewing current expenditures, estimated costs of operations and maintenance for bringing schools up to basic WASH standards, were calculated to be 3.03 USD per student per year. This includes recurrent costs, but not the cost of installing or setting up WASH infrastructure, which was 18,916 USD per school, for a school of 400 students (4.92 USD per student, per year). These findings demonstrate the need for increases in allocations to schools in Kenya, and stricter guidance on how money should be spent on WASH inputs to enable all schools to provide basic WASH for all students. PMID:27355962

  14. Effect of Different Sanitizers on Microbial, Sensory and Nutritional Quality of Fresh-Cut Jalapeno Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Ruiz-Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sanitation is a critical step to insure safety of fresh-cut produce. The inadequacies of chlorine, currently used as a sanitizer, have stimulated interest in finding safer, more effective sanitizers, however little is known on the impact of these novel sanitizers on sensory and nutrimental quality of the treated products. Approach: The effect of four sanitizers: Sodium hypochlorite (OCl, Peroxiacetic Acid (PA, Acidified Sodium Chlorite (ASC and carvacrol on microbiological, sensorial and nutritional quality (total phenols, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut jalapeno peppers stored at 5°C during 27 days was evaluated. Results: All sanitizers (except carvacrol maintained microbiological and overall quality of jalapeno peppers during 27 days. ASC (500 and 250 mg L-1 maintained the best microbiological and sensorial properties at the end of the storage period. Carvacrol, active ingredient of oregano essential oil, maintained shelf life for only 17 days. At the end of the storage period, all treatments showed a decrease of 12-43% respect to the initial vitamin C values. Total phenols and antioxidant capacity decreased in a lesser degree. None of the treatments except ACS 500 mg L-1, induced higher losses of vitamin C, total phenols or antioxidant capacity compared to control. Conclusion: Our results showed that all sanitizers were capable of controlling microbial growth without inducing major loss of antioxidant capacity and photochemical. Carvacrol was the only sanitizer that reduced sensory acceptability of fresh-cut jalapeno peppers, however carvacrol treated samples retained the highest levels of photochemical and antioxidant capacity. ASC was the most effective sanitizer even though it was used at concentrations lower that those currently approved by the FDA.

  15. USE OF GASEOUS OZONE FOR SANITATION COLD ROOM STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Augusto Cavalcante

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the ozone application for sanitation of a cold room used to store Minas Frescal cheese during 120 days. The microbiological quality of the air, the room walls and the room door were evaluated during 60 days with and with no addition of ozone at 0,03 mg.L-1. The air sedimentation technique was applied for the evaluation of the air quality (aerobic mesophilic microorganisms and yeasts and moulds and the swab technique was used for the evaluation of internal surface counts of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms. Reductions of 0.81 and 1.01 log cycles in the room air were caused by air ozonation. Additionally, significant decimal reductions around 0.50 log were observed in the walls and door swabs of the cold room. Therefore, ozone gas has improved microbiological quality of the surfaces and the air of cold room. This suggests ozone as an alternative method for disinfection of rooms.

  16. A case-control study of the effect of environmental sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B; Briscoe, J

    1988-03-01

    A case-control design has been applied in the evaluation of improved environmental sanitation on diarrhoeal diseases in rural Malawi. The study demonstrates the feasibility of using such an approach to evaluate two levels of water supply and sanitation service quickly and at moderate cost. Sample sizes would need to be increased substantially to evaluate multiple levels of service or to investigate interactions between water supply and sanitation. The results indicate that children living in families who use good quality water supplies and latrines experience 20% less diarrhoea as reported to the health clinics during the warm, rainy season. PMID:3418292

  17. User perceptions of shared sanitation among rural households in Indonesia and Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kali B Nelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The practice of sharing sanitation facilities does not meet the current World Health Organization/UNICEF definition for what is considered improved sanitation. Recommendations have been made to categorize shared sanitation as improved sanitation if security, user access, and other conditions can be assured, yet limited data exist on user preferences with respect to shared facilities. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed user perceptions of shared sanitation facilities in rural households in East Java, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies of 2,087 households in East Java and 3,000 households in Bangladesh were conducted using questionnaires and observational methods. Relative risks were calculated to analyze associations between sanitation access and user perceptions of satisfaction, cleanliness, and safety. RESULTS: In East Java, 82.4% of households with private improved sanitation facilities reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation compared to 68.3% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09, 1.31]. In Bangladesh, 87.7% of households with private improved facilities reported feeling satisfied compared to 74.5% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10, 1.20]. In East Java, 79.5% of households who reported a clean latrine also reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation; only 38.9% of households who reported a dirty latrine also reported feeling satisfied [RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.45, 2.08]. CONCLUSION: Simple distinctions between improved and unimproved sanitation facilities tend to misrepresent the variability observed among households sharing sanitation facilities. Our results suggest that private improved sanitation is consistently preferred over any other sanitation option. An increased number of users appeared to negatively affect toilet cleanliness, and lower levels of cleanliness were associated with lower levels of satisfaction

  18. Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community College Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Includes a collection of eight short articles describing model community college programs. Discusses a literacy program, a mobile computer classroom, a support program for at-risk students, a timber-harvesting program, a multimedia presentation on successful women graduates, a career center, a collaboration with NASA, and an Israeli engineering…

  19. 75 FR 4379 - Maine Marine Sanitation Device Standard-Notice of Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Maine Marine Sanitation Device Standard--Notice of Determination AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Determination. SUMMARY: The Regional Administrator of the...

  20. Anaerobic treatment in decentralised and source-separation-based sanitation concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Zeeman, G.

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of wastewater should be a core technology employed in decentralised sanitation systems especially when their objective is also resource conservation and reuse. The most efficient system involves separate collection and anaerobic digestion of the most concentrated domestic wastewa

  1. (Un)reliability in sanitation monitoring: Analysis of East African urban data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szanto, G.L.; Letema, S.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at the difficulties measuring sanitation improvements in eastern Africa, arguing that data supplied by international bodies such as the WHO and UNICEF may not always be realistic and should be used with caution.

  2. Environmental and Social Management Report (ESMR) for Water and Sanitation Division (WSA) Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Camé; Hilary Hoagland-Grey

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this technical note is to provide Bank staff with direction and assistance regarding the content of the Environmental and Social Management Report (ESMR) for Water & Sanitation (W&S) projects.

  3. 77 FR 38797 - Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard-Notice of Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard--Notice of Determination AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Determination. SUMMARY: The Regional Administrator of...

  4. 76 FR 39395 - Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard-Notice of Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard--Notice of Determination AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Determination. SUMMARY: The Regional Administrator of...

  5. Cape Verde - Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Project and Land Management for Investment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The overall objective of this survey is to collect relevant information on water, sanitation and hygiene sectors in Praia, hinterlands of Santiago and Sal Islands....

  6. Effectiveness of sanitizing agents in inactivating Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 in food cutting board surfaces. Removal E. coli using different sanitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEZAR AUGUSTO BELTRAME

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate Escherichia coli adhesion on new and used polyethylene cutting board surface and evaluate it’s removal using different sanitizer (peracetic acid,chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite and organic acids. Results indicated that the number of adherent cells increased with time in both surfaces evaluated. Evaluating the sanitizer action, 0.5%peracetic acid was more effective in removal E. coli than chlorhexidine and organic acids at same concentration in both surfaces. Peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite also showed effectiveness at concentrations of 0.2% and 0.5% on new surfaces, respectively. 0.8% of chlorhexidine and 2.0% of organic acids showed similar effectiveness in the removal E. coli on new and used surfaces, respectively.These results suggest that peracetic acid is considerable promise sanitizer for application in surfaces of the food processing industry.

  7. Sanitation-related psychosocial stress: A grounded theory study of women across the life-course in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Hulland, Kristyna R S; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Freeman, Matthew C; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-08-01

    While sanitation interventions have focused primarily on child health, women's unique health risks from inadequate sanitation are gaining recognition as a priority issue. This study examines the range of sanitation-related psychosocial stressors during routine sanitation practices in Odisha, India. Between August 2013 and March 2014, we conducted in-depth interviews with 56 women in four life stages: adolescent, newly married, pregnant and established adult women in three settings: urban slums, rural villages and indigenous villages. Using a grounded theory approach, the study team transcribed, translated, coded and discussed interviews using detailed analytic memos to identify and characterize stressors at each life stage and study site. We found that sanitation practices encompassed more than defecation and urination and included carrying water, washing, bathing, menstrual management, and changing clothes. During the course of these activities, women encountered three broad types of stressors-environmental, social, and sexual-the intensity of which were modified by the woman's life stage, living environment, and access to sanitation facilities. Environmental barriers, social factors and fears of sexual violence all contributed to sanitation-related psychosocial stress. Though women responded with small changes to sanitation practices, they were unable to significantly modify their circumstances, notably by achieving adequate privacy for sanitation-related behaviors. A better understanding of the range of causes of stress and adaptive behaviors is needed to inform context-specific, gender-sensitive sanitation interventions.

  8. Problems of Water Supply and Sanitation in Kpakungu Area of Minna (Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamiji Adeleye

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Access to clean water and adequate sanitation has been a challenging issue in Kpakungu. Due to the unavailability of clean water sources and poor sanitation most of the inhabitants of Kpakungu are threaten with the spread of diseases such as diarrhoea and cholera and this has led to the degenerating situation of Kpakungu. Assessing the problems of water supply and sanitation in Kpakungu area of Minna, Niger State using GIS (Geographic Information System is aimed at providing access to adequate portable water supply and a better sanitation through the use of research and advocacy. This is achieved by identifying the pattern of access to public water supply and sanitation in Kpakungu and the creation of a database of the existing water source and their yield was determined to enhance planning. This research involved the use of both primary and secondary data to achieve a thorough assessment of the problems of poor water supply and sanitation in the study area. It was discovered that the problems of poor water supply and sanitation often leave most women and children on queues for several hours and those that cannot endure are forced to travel long miles in search for alternative source of water, which may not be fit for drinking. In the light of this, mothers are prevented from domestic work and most children are kept away from school. At the end of the research water and sanitation blue print for the study area was designed and a proposal was sent to relevant government agencies and ministries for the provision of more sources of potable water in the community. In this regard, Public Private Dialogue (PPD was initiated and adequate follow up process was made until the aim of the research was achieved.

  9. Water and Sanitation Hygiene Knowledge Attitude Practice in Urban Slum Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Ashish; Prasad, Satish; Kasav, Jyoti B; Segan, Mehak; Singh, Awnish K

    2013-01-01

    Background: Access to improved drinking water, sanitation and hygiene is one of the prime concerns around the globe. This study aimed at assessing water and sanitation hygiene-related attitude and practices, and quality of water in urban slums of south Delhi, India. Methodology: This pilot cross sectional study was performed during July 2013 across four urban slums of South Delhi. A convenient sample of 40 participants was enrolled. A modified version of previously validated questionnaire was...

  10. The Relationship between Water, Sanitation and Schistosomiasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes, Jack E. T.; David Croll; Harrison, Wendy E.; Jürg Utzinger; Freeman, Matthew C.; Templeton, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Access to "safe" water and "adequate" sanitation are emphasized as important measures for schistosomiasis control. Indeed, the schistosomes' lifecycles suggest that their transmission may be reduced through safe water and adequate sanitation. However, the evidence has not previously been compiled in a systematic review. METHODOLOGY: We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting schistosome infection rates in people who do or do not have access to safe w...

  11. How to Climate Proof Water Sanitation Services for the Urban Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, Tom; Parker, Alison; E.K. Weatherhead

    2010-01-01

    This report is based upon a 10 month project assessing the vulnerability of WSUP (Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor) projects to climate change, converting climate change predictions into recommended adaptations. The findings are based on a literature review and field work in Kenya, Madagascar and Zambia, undertaking focus groups, stakeholder interviews and observations. This report synthesises the science of climate change, the impacts of climate change on drinking water and sanitation...

  12. Transforming Markets, Increasing Access : Early Lessons on Base-of-the-Pyramid Market Development in Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Pedi, Danielle; Davies, Will

    2013-01-01

    The four billion global consumers at the base of the pyramid (BOP) - those earning less than two dollars a day - are increasingly recognized by the private sector as a major untapped market segment. The sanitation industry is no exception. Across sub-Saharan Africa, more than half of the population lives without access to minimum levels of improved sanitation. Beyond the reach of urban sew...

  13. Expanding the Frontiers of Microfinance in the Service of the Poor: Experiment with Water and Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel K. Afrane; Bernard Adjei-Poku

    2014-01-01

    Microfinance application in water and sanitation is a burgeoning concept. For some Microfinance Institutions (MFIs), the concept and its viability appear nebulous since there is inadequate information to enable them create effective portfolios for that. This paper provides a clear case of extending microfinance to water and sanitation businesses. It adopted diverse approaches to collect data from 60 landlords and tenants as well as a number of potential and existing indigenous entrepreneurs i...

  14. Challenges to Achieving Sustainable Sanitation in Informal Settlements of Kigali, Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Aime Tsinda; Pamela Abbott; Steve Pedley; Katrina Charles; Jane Adogo; Kenan Okurut; Jonathan Chenoweth

    2013-01-01

    Like most cities in developing countries, Kigali is experiencing rapid urbanisation leading to an increase in the urban population and rapid growth in the size and number of informal settlements. More than 60% of the city’s population resides in these settlements, where they experience inadequate and poor quality urban services including sanitation. This article discusses the issues and constraints related to the provision of sustainable sanitation in the informal settlements in Kigali. Two i...

  15. Access to Waterless Hand Sanitizer Improves Student Hand Hygiene Behavior in Primary Schools in Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, Amy J.; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G.; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F.; Ram, Pavani K.

    2013-01-01

    Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning...

  16. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources. PMID:25943177

  17. Water for a few : a history of urban water and sanitation in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, David

    2006-01-01

    This licentiate thesis describes and analyses the modern history of the socio-technical systems for urban water supply and sanitation in East Africa with focus on Uganda and Kenya. The key objective of the thesis is to evaluate to what extent the historic processes frame and influence the water and sanitation services sectors in these countries today. The theoretical approach combines the Large Technical Systems approach from the discipline of History of Technology with New Institutional Econ...

  18. Simulating sanitation and waste flows and their environmental impacts in East African urban centres

    OpenAIRE

    Oyoo, R.

    2014-01-01

    Simulating Sanitation and Waste Flows and their Environmental Impacts in East African Urban Centres Abstract If improperly managed, urban waste flows can pose a significant threat to the quality of both the natural environment and public health. Just as many urban authorities in other developing countries, most cities in the vicinity of Lake Victoria (East Africa) have been unsuccessful in providing adequate solid waste and sanitation services to their residents. To effectively manage urban w...

  19. Environmental sanitation situation and solute transport in variably saturated soil in peri-urban Kampala

    OpenAIRE

    Kulabako, Robinah

    2010-01-01

    The environmental sanitation situation in Kampala’s peri-urban areas was reviewed and investigated through field studies, structured interviews with personnel from key institutions and administration of questionnaires to households in a selected peri-urban settlement (Bwaise III Parish).  In this settlement, specific field and laboratory measurements were undertaken so as to create a better understanding of the environmental sanitation situation, anthropogenic pollution loads and their transp...

  20. Sanitation in unsewered urban poor areas: technology selection, quantitative microbial risk assessment and grey water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Katukiza, A.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The sanitation crisis in unsewered urban slums of cities in developing countries is one of the challenges that need to be addressed. It is caused by the high rate of urbanisation in developing countries and the increasing urban population with limited urban infrastructure. The major issues of concern are the collection, treatment and safe disposal of excreta, grey water and solid waste. The goal of this study was to contribute to the sanitation improvement in urban slums with focus on sanitat...

  1. Willingness to Pay for Drinking Water and Sanitation Availability in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Djoni Hartono; Bilang Nauli Harahap

    2007-01-01

    When sustainability of access and quality, is the primary concern, water and saniatioan should be considered as economic goods. Therefore, we need more accurate information on the amount of people’s willingness to pay. This study attemp to (i) identify the effects of drinking water supply and home sanitation on the rent price of a house, (ii) calculating the value of marginal implicit price (marginal willingness to pay) for drinking water and sanitation, and (iii) examine factors that affects...

  2. From Indicators to Policies: Open Sustainability Assessment in the Water and Sanitation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Alejandro Iribarnegaray; María Laura Gatto D’Andrea; María Soledad Rodriguez-Alvarez; María Eugenia Hernández; Christian Brannstrom; Lucas Seghezzo

    2015-01-01

    A water and sanitation sustainability index (WASSI) was developed and estimated in four cities of the province of Salta, in northern Argentina. The index was built with nine descriptors and fifteen indicators that covered all essential aspects of the sustainability of local water and sanitation management systems. Only one of the cities studied obtained a sustainability value above the acceptability threshold adopted (50 of 100 points). Results indicate that the water company needs to addres...

  3. A Holistic Approach to the Assessment of Sanitation Development in Mexican Villages

    OpenAIRE

    Tiberghien, Jacques-Edouard

    2002-01-01

    Lack of, or inadequate sanitation development is a serious issue worldwide, especially in developing countries, where it severely affects human health, the environment and the economy. Despite the 'Water Decade' (1980-1990) and the repeated commitment of the international community to address sanitation development as a priority, the proportion of people enjoying good sanitary conditions in developing countries has not improved during the 1990s. During the last 30 years, post-c...

  4. GEOSPATIAL STUDY OF ACCESSING SANITATION IN SLUMS OF JALGAON CITY : A GEOINFORMATICS APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Kanchan Wani; S. N. Bharambe

    2015-01-01

    As per the 74th Constitution Amendment Act, the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs)are entrusted to provide basic urban services and amenities to all the citizens, including urban poor residing in the slums. The standard of the basic services provided by ULBs in slums often has been accorded low priority. Poor sanitation is a major public health problem in slums & has considerable implications on health and environment. Poor awareness about sanitation among the slum dwellers has inherent linkages wi...

  5. Framing the Water Challenge : Multilateral donor policies for water supply and sanitation 1960-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Bohman, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Opinions on what is best way to provide more people in low income countries with adequate water and sanitation services have changed over time. A recent policy paradigm suggests that private companies should be involved in WSS service provision to improve the situation for those in need. This study looks at how issues of water supply and sanitation (WSS) have been confronted by the international donor community and how strategies to improve performance in this sector have changed from the ear...

  6. Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms to Sanitizing Agents in a Simulated Food Processing Environment▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Y.; Breidt, F.; Kathariou, S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes to sanitizing agents under laboratory conditions simulating a food processing environment. Biofilms were initially formed on stainless steel and Teflon coupons using a five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes. The coupons were then subjected to repeated 24-h daily cycles. Each cycle consisted of three sequential steps: (i) a brief (60 s) exposure of the coupons to a sanitizing agent (a mixture of p...

  7. The relationship between water, sanitation and schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack E T Grimes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to "safe" water and "adequate" sanitation are emphasized as important measures for schistosomiasis control. Indeed, the schistosomes' lifecycles suggest that their transmission may be reduced through safe water and adequate sanitation. However, the evidence has not previously been compiled in a systematic review.We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting schistosome infection rates in people who do or do not have access to safe water and adequate sanitation. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to 31 December 2013, without restrictions on year of publication or language. Studies' titles and abstracts were screened by two independent assessors. Papers deemed of interest were read in full and appropriate studies included in the meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed through the visual inspection of funnel plots and through Egger's test. Heterogeneity of datasets within the meta-analysis was quantified using Higgins' I2.Safe water supplies were associated with significantly lower odds of schistosomiasis (odds ratio (OR = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.47-0.61. Adequate sanitation was associated with lower odds of Schistosoma mansoni, (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.47-0.73 and Schistosoma haematobium (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.84. Included studies were mainly cross-sectional and quality was largely poor.Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that increasing access to safe water and adequate sanitation are important measures to reduce the odds of schistosome infection. However, most of the studies were observational and quality was poor. Hence, there is a pressing need for adequately powered cluster randomized trials comparing schistosome infection risk with access to safe water and adequate sanitation, more studies which rigorously define water and sanitation, and new research on the relationships between water, sanitation, hygiene, human

  8. Ivermectin Treatment and Sanitation Effectively Reduce Strongyloides stercoralis Infection Risk in Rural Communities in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schindler, Christian; Schär, Fabian; Marti, Hanspeter; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis is the only soil-transmitted helminth with the ability to replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and its worldwide prevalence has recently been estimated to be at least half that of hookworm. Information on the epidemiology of S. stercoralis remains scarce and modalities for its large-scale control are yet to be determined. Methodology/Principal Findings A community-based two-year cohort study was conducted among the general population in a rural province in North Cambodia. At each survey, participants infected with S. stercoralis were treated with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW). Diagnosis was performed using a combination of the Baermann method and Koga agar plate culture on two stool samples. The cohort included participants from eight villages who were either positive or negative for S. stercoralis at baseline. Mixed logistic regression models were employed to assess risk factors for S. stercoralis infection at baseline and re-infection at follow-up. A total of 3,096 participants were examined at baseline, revealing a S. stercoralis prevalence of 33.1%. Of these participants, 1,269 were followed-up over two years. Re-infection and infection rates among positive and negative participants at baseline were 14.4% and 9.6% at the first and 11.0% and 11.5% at the second follow-up, respectively. At follow-up, all age groups were at similar risk of acquiring an infection, while infection risk significantly decreased with increasing village sanitation coverage. Conclusions/Significance Chemotherapy-based control of S. stercoralis is feasible and highly beneficial, particularly in combination with improved sanitation. The impact of community-based ivermectin treatment on S. stercoralis was high, with over 85% of villagers remaining negative one year after treatment. The integration of S. stercoralis into existing STH control programs should be considered

  9. Bacterial Contamination on Household Toys and Association with Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conditions in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Stauber

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that household water treatment interventions improve microbiological water quality and reduce diarrheal disease risk. Few studies have examined, however, the impact of water treatment interventions on household-level hygiene and sanitation. This study examined the association of four water and sanitation conditions (access to latrines, improved sanitation, improved water and the plastic biosand filter on the levels of total coliforms and E. coli on existing and introduced toys during an on-going randomized controlled trial of the plastic biosand filter (plastic BSF. The following conditions were associated with decreased bacterial contamination on children’s toys: access to a latrine, access to improved sanitation and access to the plastic BSF. Overall, compared to existing toys, introduced toys had significantly lower levels of both E. coli and total coliforms. Results suggest that levels of fecal indicator bacteria contamination on children’s toys may be associated with access to improved water and sanitation conditions in the home. In addition, the fecal indicator bacteria levels on toys probably vary with duration in the household. Additional information on how these toys become contaminated is needed to determine the usefulness of toys as indicators or sentinels of water, sanitation and hygiene conditions, behaviors and risks.

  10. An exploration of multilevel modeling for estimating access to drinking-water and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jennyfer; Bonjour, Sophie; Prüss-Ustün, Annette

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring progress towards the targets for access to safe drinking-water and sanitation under the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) requires reliable estimates and indicators. We analyzed trends and reviewed current indicators used for those targets. We developed continuous time series for 1990 to 2015 for access to improved drinking-water sources and improved sanitation facilities by country using multilevel modeling (MLM). We show that MLM is a reliable and transparent tool with many advantages over alternative approaches to estimate access to facilities. Using current indicators, the MDG target for water would be met, but the target for sanitation missed considerably. The number of people without access to such services is still increasing in certain regions. Striking differences persist between urban and rural areas. Consideration of water quality and different classification of shared sanitation facilities would, however, alter estimates considerably. To achieve improved monitoring we propose: (1) considering the use of MLM as an alternative for estimating access to safe drinking-water and sanitation; (2) completing regular assessments of water quality and supporting the development of national regulatory frameworks as part of capacity development; (3) evaluating health impacts of shared sanitation; (4) using a more equitable presentation of countries' performances in providing improved services.

  11. Access to waterless hand sanitizer improves student hand hygiene behavior in primary schools in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F; Ram, Pavani K

    2013-09-01

    Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning after toileting was 82% at sanitizer schools (N = 2,507 toileting events), 38% at soap schools (N = 3,429), and 37% at control schools (N = 2,797). Students at sanitizer schools were 23% less likely to have observed rhinorrhea than control students (P = 0.02); reductions in student-reported gastrointestinal and respiratory illness symptoms were not statistically significant. Providing waterless hand sanitizer markedly increased student hand cleaning after toilet use, whereas the soap intervention did not. Waterless hand sanitizer may be a promising option to improve student hand cleansing behavior, particularly in schools with limited water access. PMID:23836575

  12. Economic aspects of rural sanitation in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOLLIS, M D

    1954-01-01

    Although health conditions in the rural areas of the USA are comparatively good, they are inferior to those in the urban areas. An important reason for this inferiority is the fact that rural sanitation is less a social responsibility than an individual responsibility, which many rural families cannot finance. The rural culture imposes many handicaps on the rural family's health and wealth. Such handicaps may be moderated by sanitation and related social and economic measures, if the measures selected are appropriate to the local needs and resources, which may vary greatly. Although sanitation needs are common to all rural areas, the refinement and complexity of sanitation facilities and services cannot be uniform. Allowing for variable circumstances, however, the basic elements of rural sanitation in the USA can be realized within a generation. The probable net gains in farm productivity would seem to warrant support for a rural sanitation programme on economic grounds alone, if an economic market may be assumed for the increase in agricultural production. PMID:13160756

  13. If We Build It, We Will Come: Impacts of a Summer Robotics Program on Regular Year Attendance in Middle School. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Mac Iver, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of both keeping middle school students engaged and improving their math skills, Baltimore City Public Schools (City Schools) developed a summer school STEM program involving not only math and science instruction but also the experience of building a robot and competing with those robots in a city-wide tournament.…

  14. Ações de saúde mental no Programa Saúde da Família: confluências e dissonâncias das práticas com os princípios das reformas psiquiátrica e sanitária Mental health care in the Family Health Program: consensus and dissent in practices and principles under the psychiatric reform and health reform in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Nunes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Em um grande número de Reformas Psiquiátricas que se sedimentam sobre os pressupostos básicos da não-institucionalização dos pacientes psiquiátricos e da consolidação de bases territoriais do cuidado em saúde mental, a ênfase é atribuída a uma rede de cuidados que contemple a rede de atenção primária. No Brasil, a Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileira nasce no bojo da Reforma Sanitária, guardando em comum princípios que reorientariam o modelo de atenção. Neste artigo, discutiremos as articulações entre esses dois movimentos por intermédio das práticas concretas do cuidado de saúde mental no Programa Saúde da Família (PSF, tomando como base um estudo etnográfico com quatro equipes de saúde da família, em que priorizamos a narrativa dos trabalhadores de saúde. Analisaremos, dessas práticas, discrepâncias entre o proposto normativo e o instituído, fatores dificultadores e conquistas da operacionalização das ações e limites da confrontação e potencialidades da transversalidade de campos epistemológicos particulares como a clínica ampliada da saúde mental e do PSF. Moveremos nossa discussão com base em conceitos como modelo psicossocial do cuidado, integralidade da atenção, participação social, territorialidade, ações coletivas, entre outros.In many psychiatric reforms based on the principles of deinstitutionalization of psychiatric patients and the consolidation of territorial systems for mental health care, the emphasis is on a mental health care system that includes the primary care network. In Brazil, the Psychiatric Reform emerged within the country's overall Health Reform, with which it shares common principles for reorienting the model of care. The current article discusses the links between these two movements through actual mental health care practices within the Family Health Program (FHP, based on an ethnographic study with four family health teams, in which the authors prioritize health workers

  15. Diagnóstico das condições higiênico-sanitárias da produção de doces por agricultores familiares do Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos no município de Cardoso Moreira, RJ | Diagnosis of hygienic and sanitary conditions of jam production by family farmers from the Food Acquisition Program in the City of Cardoso Moreira, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Castelo Branco Schiavo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos (PAA possui uma modalidade na qual os agricultores familiares vendem sua produção para o Governo e entregam diretamente em rede socioassistencial, atendendo populações em situação de insegurança alimentar e nutricional. No ano de 2012, o município de Cardoso Moreira participou do PAA e, nesta ocasião, foi constatado que os doces fornecidos por alguns produtores apresentavam alteração de suas características sensoriais. Este trabalho teve por objetivo fornecer um diagnóstico da qualidade higiênico-sanitária das condições de produção dos doces naquele município. A metodologia utilizada contou com a aplicação de um questionário sobre os conhecimentos básicos de higiene alimentar e doenças transmitidas por alimentos e de um checklist para avaliar os locais de processamento. De um total de onze produtores avaliados, dois foram incluídos no grupo 1, conforme classificação proposta pela RDC no 275 (ANVISA, alcançando índices superiores a 76% de conformidade. Sete apresentaram percentuais entre 51% e 75%, sendo classificados no grupo 2 e dois tiveram resultados inferiores a 50% de conformidade, ficando no grupo 3, caracterizando condições precárias para a produção de doces. Os resultados demonstraram a necessidade de treinamento dos agricultores familiares em boas práticas de fabricação, a fim de garantir produtos de qualidade e seguros. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Food Acquisition Program (PAA — Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos has an option in which family farmers can sell their produced crops to the government and directly deliver it to an assistance network, which aids people in need of food and nutrition. In 2012, representatives of the municipality of Cardoso Moreira attended the PAA meeting that addressed the changes in sensory characteristics of jams provided by some producers. This study aimed to

  16. Assessing demand for improved sustainable sanitation in low-income informal settlements of urban areas: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okurut, Kenan; Kulabako, Robinah Nakawunde; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Charles, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Sanitation improvement is crucial in saving lives that are lost due to water contamination. Progress towards achieving full sanitation coverage is still slow in low-income informal settlements in most developing countries. Furthermore, resources are being wasted on installing facilities that are later misused or never used because they do not meet the local demand. Understanding demand for improved sanitation in the local context is critical if facilities are to be continually used. Various approaches that attempt to change peoples' behaviours or create demand have been reviewed to identify what they are designed to address. A multi-disciplinary research team using mixed methods is re-emphasised as a comprehensive approach for assessing demand for improved sanitation in low-income informal settlements, where the sanitation situation is more challenging than in other areas. Further research involving a multi-disciplinary research team and use of mixed methods to assess sanitation demand in informal settlements is needed.

  17. Evaluation of 57 teat sanitizers using excised cow teats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdough, P A; Pankey, J W

    1993-07-01

    Fifty-seven teat dip formulations were tested for germicidal activity with an excised teat assay. Streptococcus agalactiae (ATCC 27956), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29740), and Escherichia coli+ (a wild strain isolated from an Ohio cow 2956RR during the dry period) were used. Log reductions ranged from 5.6480 to 1.8330 for Strep. agalactiae compared with undipped controls. Staphylococcus aureus were reduced from 4.8972 to 1.0102. Escherichia coli were reduced from 5.8677 to 1.1450. The percentages of the products tested that had log reductions dip formulations contained 4% sodium hypochlorite; all were effective against Strep. agalactiae, Staph. aureus, and E. coli. The three formulations containing glutaraldehyde were effective against the three mastitis pathogens. Formulations containing 1 and .5% iodine were not consistently effective against Strep. agalactiae, Staph. aureus, or E. coli. Teat sanitizers containing .5% chlorhexidine also showed inconsistency. Variations in formulation for products containing iodine or chlorhexidine affected germicidal activity. PMID:8345130

  18. Potential of irradiation technology for improved shellfish sanitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation is shown capable of serving as an effective sanitizing treatment improving the sanitary quality of shellfish and providing an increased margin of safety for shellfish consumers. 60Co irradiation of the hard-shelled clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, and the oyster, Crassostrea virginica, significantly reduced virus carriage numbers without unduly affecting shellfish survival rates or desirable organoleptic qualities. A D10 value of 2 kGy was determined for depletion of hepatitis A virus in clams and oysters as measured by in situ hybridization fluorescent foci and cytopathology enumeration methods. A D10 value of 2.4 kGy was determined for depletion of rotavirus SA11 in clams and oysters as measured by a plaque forming unit enumeration method. Study results showed ionizing radiation capable of providing an extra, highly effective safeguard of shellfish sanitary quality when combined with traditional depuration treatment. Data drawn from other studies is introduced which shows D10 values as low as 1.0 kGy effectively eliminate Vibrio cholerae, and V. parahemolyticus, from shellfish

  19. Sustainable Community Sanitation for a Rural Hospital in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Jawidzik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A fully sustainable sanitation system was developed for a rural hospital in Haiti. The system operates by converting human waste into biogas and fertilizer without using external energy. It is a hybrid anaerobic/aerobic system that maximizes methane production while producing quality compost. The system first separates liquid and solid human waste at the source to control carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content to facilitate enhanced biodegradation. It will then degrade human waste through anaerobic digestion and capture the methane gas for on-site use as a heating fuel. For anaerobic decomposition and methane harvesting a bioreactor with two-stage batch process was designed. Finally, partially degraded human waste is extracted from the bioreactor with two-stage batch process and applied to land farming type aerobic composter to produce fertilizer. The proposed system is optimized in design by considering local conditions such as waste composition, waste generation, reaction temperature, residence time, construction materials, and current practice. It is above ground with low maintenance requirements.

  20. Health planning through Village Health Sanitation and Nutrition Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Virendra; Mishra, Anindya Jayanta; Verma, Sonia

    2016-07-11

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide systematic empirical evidence on the health planning through Village Health Sanitation and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs) in India. Design/methodology/approach - A micro-level study was carried out using qualitative study design. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 105 respondents selected from 42 VHSNC sites. A thematic analytical framework approach was used to analyse the data. Findings - The research results indicate that VHSNCs are playing a significant role in health planning. However, the committee meetings are not organised by the committee members on the regular basis. Most of the VHSNC members do not make village health plans. There are some challenges associated with the functioning of VHSNCs like insufficient resources, lack of people's interest, insignificant attention and the unfair behaviour of the Panchayati Raj leaders. Practical implications - The implications of the findings suggest that VHSNCs play a significant role in health planning. However, the leadership is ineffective due to their partial capabilities and approach that generate non-conducive environment. Studies of such nature will be helpful for policy makers in understanding the current situation and micro-level picture of VHSNC and also in analysing it in the existing health system. Originality/value - VHSNC functions with a broader concern and cover range of social determinants at the village level. This study provides empirical evidence on the VHSNCs as lowest part of the health system. PMID:27298066

  1. Competency-Based Modules in Food Sanitation and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Ilagan-Manzano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the food safety practices among food service establishments in order to increase awareness among students the dangers of food poisoning. The output of this study may serve as a tool for information dissemination. The study used the descriptive method research. The respondents of the study were the supervisors of selected fast-food chains and deluxe hotels in Manila. Descriptive Statistics was used to describe the basic features of the data in the study and to validate the data gathered. The safety of consumers is the paramount responsibility of any food service establishment. Standards, procedures and guidelines are developed to prevent the outbreak of food borne illnesses and intoxication. However, these standards, procedures and guidelines as food sanitation and safety will be meaningless if they are not study implemented through education, information, dissemination, and training among the personnel. Food safety is everybody’s concern. It is in this context that the researcher tried in her own lifestyle way to help by proposing these competency-based modules.

  2. Human Parasites in Medieval Europe: Lifestyle, Sanitation and Medical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D

    2015-01-01

    Parasites have been infecting humans throughout our evolution. However, not all people suffered with the same species or to the same intensity throughout this time. Our changing way of life has altered the suitability of humans to infection by each type of parasite. This analysis focuses upon the evidence for parasites from archaeological excavations at medieval sites across Europe. Comparison between the patterns of infection in the medieval period allows us to see how changes in sanitation, herding animals, growing and fertilizing crops, the fishing industry, food preparation and migration all affected human susceptibility to different parasites. We go on to explore how ectoparasites may have spread infectious bacterial diseases, and also consider what medieval medical practitioners thought of parasites and how they tried to treat them. While modern research has shown the use of a toilet decreases the risk of contracting certain intestinal parasites, the evidence for past societies presented here suggests that the invention of latrines had no observable beneficial effects upon intestinal health. This may be because toilets were not sufficiently ubiquitous until the last century, or that the use of fresh human faeces for manuring crops still ensured those parasite species were easily able to reinfect the population.

  3. The Economic and Social Benefits and the Barriers of Providing People with Disabilities Accessible Clean Water and Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Wolbring; Jacqueline Noga

    2012-01-01

    Resolution A/HRC/RES/16/2 adopted by the UN Human Rights Council on 8 April 2011 declared access to safe drinking water and sanitation a human right. However many people around the globe including people with disabilities do not have access to safe drinking water, hygiene or sanitation facilities. Inaccessibility of clean water sources, hygiene and sanitation facilities negatively impacts among others health, education, the ability to work, and the ability to partake in social activities. Thi...

  4. Using Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis Methods to Assess Household Water Access and Sanitation Coverage in the SHINE Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ntozini, Robert; Marks, Sara J.; Mangwadu, Goldberg; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Gerema, Grace; Mutasa, Batsirai; Julian, Timothy R.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Humphrey, Jean H.; Zungu, Lindiwe I.

    2015-01-01

    Access to water and sanitation are important determinants of behavioral responses to hygiene and sanitation interventions. We estimated cluster-specific water access and sanitation coverage to inform a constrained randomization technique in the SHINE trial. Technicians and engineers inspected all public access water sources to ascertain seasonality, function, and geospatial coordinates. Households and water sources were mapped using open-source geospatial software. The distance from each hous...

  5. Modelling population growth on public water and sanitation facilities using GIS and statistics: A case study of Aboabo, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Arthur Quaye-Ballard; Ru An

    2010-01-01

    Background: Effect of population increase on public water and sanitation facilities in densely populated area, Aboabo, Kumasi, Ghana. Materials and Methods: Town sheet maps, layout and population census data of Aboabo. GPS for observing spatial locations existing water and sanitation facilities and field verification exercise in the study. GIS for building geodatabase, digitization and Cartographic Visualization. Questionnaires were used to collect non-spatial information on the sanitation fa...

  6. Sustainability of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Services under Community Management Approach: The case of six villages in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mtinda, Elias

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Community management of the rural water supply and sanitation services is considered as one of the options for achieving sustainability of the water services. International communities and donors are steering this concept. National water policy in Tanzania puts more emphasis on community participation and management of water and sanitation (WATSAN) schemes. This study on the sustainability of the rural water supply and sanitation services focused on community management and participa...

  7. The Economic and Social Benefits and the Barriers of Providing People with Disabilities Accessible Clean Water and Sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Wolbring

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Resolution A/HRC/RES/16/2 adopted by the UN Human Rights Council on 8 April 2011 declared access to safe drinking water and sanitation a human right. However many people around the globe including people with disabilities do not have access to safe drinking water, hygiene or sanitation facilities. Inaccessibility of clean water sources, hygiene and sanitation facilities negatively impacts among others health, education, the ability to work, and the ability to partake in social activities. This paper looks at the benefits of, and access barriers to, clean water and sanitation for people with disabilities.

  8. Sanitation Coverage And Impact Of Open Defecation Free (ODF) Zone With Special Reference To Nepal: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Khet Raj Dahal; Bikash Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    The basic needs of people such as safe drinking water, improved hygiene and sanitation must be fulfilled for a dignified life of human being. Sanitation is one of the major components which directly impact the living standard of people. However, people in many parts of the world have not got the sanitized condition and have been living in a non-hygienic situation. About 35% (2.5 billion) populations in the world are still lacking to access improved sanitation. There are many i...

  9. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment.

  10. The Waterless Portable Private Toilet: An Innovative Sanitation Solution in Disaster Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongkyun; Hashemi, Shervin; Han, Mooyoung; Kim, Tschungil; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2016-04-01

    Catastrophes can occur without warning and inevitably cause short-term and long-term problems. In disaster zones, having an action plan to alleviate difficulties can reduce or prevent many long-lasting complications. One of the most critical and urgent issues is sanitation. Water, energy, personnel, transportation, and the allocation of resources in disaster areas tend to become very limited during emergencies. Sanitation systems suffer in the process, potentially leading to crises due to unsafe and unhygienic surroundings. This article explores the problems of current sanitation practices in disaster areas and identifies the essential characteristics of sustainable sanitation systems. This study also presents a plan for an innovative and sustainable sanitation system using a waterless, portable, private toilet, in addition to a procedure for collecting and disposing waste. The system is agronomic, is socially acceptable, prevents contact with human waste, and can be used for individuals or families. Environmental pollution and social problems (such as sexual harassment) can be reduced both during and after restoration. PMID:26781752

  11. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment. PMID:25475272

  12. Big Data Analytics of City Wide Building Energy Declarations

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yixiao

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores the building energy performance of the domestic sector in the city of Stockholm based on the building energy declaration database. The aims of this master thesis are to analyze the big data sets of around 20,000 buildings in Stockholm region, explore the correlation between building energy performance and different internal and external affecting factors on building energy consumption, such as building energy systems, building vintages and etc. By using clustering method,...

  13. Chapter 11: City-Wide Collaborations for Urban Climate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Steven; Hoffstadt, Rita Mukherjee; Allen, Lauren B.; Crowley, Kevin; Bader, Daniel A.; Horton, Radley M.

    2014-01-01

    Although cities cover only 2 percent of the Earth's surface, more than 50 percent of the world's people live in urban environments, collectively consuming 75 percent of the Earth's resources. Because of their population densities, reliance on infrastructure, and role as centers of industry, cities will be greatly impacted by, and will play a large role in, the reduction or exacerbation of climate change. However, although urban dwellers are becoming more aware of the need to reduce their carbon usage and to implement adaptation strategies, education efforts on these strategies have not been comprehensive. To meet the needs of an informed and engaged urban population, a more systemic, multiplatform and coordinated approach is necessary. The Climate and Urban Systems Partnership (CUSP) is designed to explore and address this challenge. Spanning four cities-Philadelphia, New York, Pittsburgh, and Washington, DC-the project is a partnership between the Franklin Institute, the Columbia University Center for Climate Systems Research, the University of Pittsburgh Learning Research and Development Center, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, New York Hall of Science, and the Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences. The partnership is developing a comprehensive, interdisciplinary network to educate urban residents about climate science and the urban impacts of climate change.

  14. Sanitation and Microbiological Quality in Production Field and Fruit-Packing Shed of Persimmon and Satsuma Mandarin in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemi Izumi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sanitation treatments including chlorination (ca 10 ppm available chlorine of agricultural water and ethyl alcohol (70% spraying on packing shed equipment on microbial contamination on fruits and the environment were determined and compared with those in conventionally managed field and packing shed in persimmon and satsuma mandarin orchards. Chlorinated water reduced the microbial counts to levels below the lower limit of detection (1.4 log CFU/ml for bacteria and 2.0 log CFU/ml for fungi in most agricultural water samples. Microbial counts of pesticide solution, which contained the agricultural water or chlorinated water for the mixture, were lower in sanitary field than in control field in both fruit orchards. The number of bacterial and mold species detected in agricultural water, chlorinated water, and pesticide solution were almost proportional to microbial counts in each sample throughout the year. The chlorination treatment of agricultural water tended to reduce the counts of mesophiles and fungi on the peel of persimmon fruit during production season. The ethyl alcohol spray treatment on packing shed equipment resulted in a substantial microbial reduction on plastic harvest basket and container in persimmon orchard and plastic harvest basket and container, gloves, scissors, and size sorter in satsuma mandarin orchard. The spray application on packing shed equipment reduced the counts of mesophiles and fungi on the peel of persimmon fruit by 1 log CFU/g. The number of satsuma mandarin packing shed equipment containing the species found on fruit peel was higher in control than in sanitary packing shed. No human pathogens such as verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella were detected in any of the fruit and environmental samples. These results indicate that uses of sanitizers such as chlorine for agricultural water and ethyl alcohol for packing shed equipment would be useful in a good agricultural practices

  15. Self-cleaning and self-sanitizing coatings on plastic fabrics: design, manufacture and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, M; Vesco, S; Tagliaferri, V

    2014-08-01

    Self-cleaning and self-sanitizing coatings are of utmost interest in several manufacturing domains. In particular, fabrics and textile materials are often pre-treated by impregnation or incorporation with antimicrobial pesticides for protection purposes against bacteria and fungi that are pathogenic for man or other animals. In this respect, the present investigation deals with the design and manufacture of self-cleaning and self-sanitizing coatings on plastic fabrics. The functionalization of the coatings was yield by incorporating active inorganic matter alone (i.e., photo-catalytic TiO2 anatase and Ag(+) ions) inside an organic inorganic hybrid binder. The achieved formulations were deposited on coextruded polyvinylchloride-polyester fabrics by air-mix spraying and left to dry at ambient temperature. The performance of the resulting coatings were characterized for their self-cleaning and self-sanitizing ability according to standardized testing procedure and/or applicable international regulations.

  16. The role of sanitation in malnutrition--a science and policy controversy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobe, Madhumita

    2015-02-01

    Over the past decade, India's economic growth has been remarkable - yet almost half of India's children under 5 remain stunted. The National Food Security Bill is the country's response to this critical situation. Studies reveal that Indian children are chronically undernourished, not only because of lack of food but also because of recurring gastrointestinal infections. The stunting problem revolves more around lack of sanitation than food insecurity. Despite acknowledging that malnutrition is 'complex and multidimensional', government action has consisted largely of nutritional interventions and subsidized food. Although improvements in sanitation would be the most effective way to reduce excessively high levels of chronic undernutrition and stunting, a review of policy formulation and implementation reveals deficits and disconnects with available scientific evidence. It is time to change these mistaken assumptions and focus on improving access and use of safe sanitation facilities to achieve India's nutritional goals. PMID:25428191

  17. Self-cleaning and self-sanitizing coatings on plastic fabrics: design, manufacture and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, M; Vesco, S; Tagliaferri, V

    2014-08-01

    Self-cleaning and self-sanitizing coatings are of utmost interest in several manufacturing domains. In particular, fabrics and textile materials are often pre-treated by impregnation or incorporation with antimicrobial pesticides for protection purposes against bacteria and fungi that are pathogenic for man or other animals. In this respect, the present investigation deals with the design and manufacture of self-cleaning and self-sanitizing coatings on plastic fabrics. The functionalization of the coatings was yield by incorporating active inorganic matter alone (i.e., photo-catalytic TiO2 anatase and Ag(+) ions) inside an organic inorganic hybrid binder. The achieved formulations were deposited on coextruded polyvinylchloride-polyester fabrics by air-mix spraying and left to dry at ambient temperature. The performance of the resulting coatings were characterized for their self-cleaning and self-sanitizing ability according to standardized testing procedure and/or applicable international regulations. PMID:24892563

  18. Social marketing of water and sanitation products: a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W D; Pattanayak, S K; Young, S; Buszin, J; Rai, S; Bihm, Jasmine Wallace

    2014-06-01

    Like commercial marketing, social marketing uses the 4 "Ps" and seeks exchange of value between the marketer and consumer. Behaviors such as handwashing, and products such as those for oral rehydration treatment (ORT), can be marketed like commercial products in developing countries. Although social marketing in these areas is growing, there has been no systematic review of the current state of practice, research and evaluation. We searched the literature for published peer-reviewed studies available through major online publication databases. We identified manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on social marketing that used at least one of the 4 Ps of marketing and had a behavioral objective targeting the behaviors or products related to improving water and sanitation. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 117 articles and reviewed a final set of 32 that met our criteria. Social marketing is a widespread strategy. Marketing efforts have created high levels of awareness of health threats and solutions, including behavior change and socially marketed products. There is widespread use of the 4 Ps of marketing, with price interventions being the least common. Evaluations show consistent improvements in behavioral mediators but mixed results in behavior change. Interventions have successfully used social marketing following widely recommended strategies. Future evaluations need to focus on mediators that explain successful behavior change in order to identify best practices and improve future programs. More rigorous evaluations including quasi-experimental designs and randomized trials are needed. More consistent reporting of evaluation results that permits meta-analysis of effects is needed. PMID:24704890

  19. Social marketing of water and sanitation products: a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W D; Pattanayak, S K; Young, S; Buszin, J; Rai, S; Bihm, Jasmine Wallace

    2014-06-01

    Like commercial marketing, social marketing uses the 4 "Ps" and seeks exchange of value between the marketer and consumer. Behaviors such as handwashing, and products such as those for oral rehydration treatment (ORT), can be marketed like commercial products in developing countries. Although social marketing in these areas is growing, there has been no systematic review of the current state of practice, research and evaluation. We searched the literature for published peer-reviewed studies available through major online publication databases. We identified manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on social marketing that used at least one of the 4 Ps of marketing and had a behavioral objective targeting the behaviors or products related to improving water and sanitation. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 117 articles and reviewed a final set of 32 that met our criteria. Social marketing is a widespread strategy. Marketing efforts have created high levels of awareness of health threats and solutions, including behavior change and socially marketed products. There is widespread use of the 4 Ps of marketing, with price interventions being the least common. Evaluations show consistent improvements in behavioral mediators but mixed results in behavior change. Interventions have successfully used social marketing following widely recommended strategies. Future evaluations need to focus on mediators that explain successful behavior change in order to identify best practices and improve future programs. More rigorous evaluations including quasi-experimental designs and randomized trials are needed. More consistent reporting of evaluation results that permits meta-analysis of effects is needed.

  20. Microbiological Sampling Methods and Sanitation of Edible Plants Grown on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Charles H. II; Khodadad, Christina L.; Garland, Nathaniel T.; Larson, Brian D.; Hummreick, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic microbes on the surfaces of salad crops and growth chambers pose a threat to the health of crew on International Space Station. For astronauts to safely consume spacegrown vegetables produced in NASA's new vegetable production unit, VEGGIE, three technical challenges must be overcome: real-time sampling, microbiological analysis, and sanitation. Raphanus sativus cultivar Cherry Bomb II and Latuca sativa cultivar Outredgeous, two saled crops to be grown in VEGGIE, were inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), a bacterium known to cause food-borne illness Tape- and swab-based sampling techniques were optimized for use in microgravity and assessed for effectiveness in recovery of bacteria from crop surfaces: Rapid pathogen detection and molecular analyses were performed via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactiop using LightCycler® 480 and RAZOR® EX, a scaled-down instrument that is undergoing evaluation and testing for future flight hardware. These methods were compared with conventional, culture-based methods for the recovery of S. Typhimurium colonies. A sterile wipe saturated with a citric acid-based, food-grade sanitizer was applied to two different surface materials used in VEGGIE flight hardware that had been contaminated with the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa,. another known human pathogen. To sanitize surfaces, wipes were saturated with either the sanitizer or sterile deionized water and applied to each surface. Colony forming units of P. aeruginosa grown on tryptic soy agar plates were enumerated from surface samples after sanitization treatments. Depending on the VEGGIE hardware material, 2- to 4.5-log10 reductions in colony-forming units were observed after sanitization. The difference in recovery of S. Typhimurium between tape- and swab- based sampling techniques was insignificant. RAZOR® EX rapidly detected S. Typhimurium present in both raw culture and extracted DNA samples.

  1. Knowledge Brokerage for Environmentally Sustainable Sanitation. Position Paper and Guidelines from the EU-FP7 BESSE project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BESSE, Project team; Bijker, W.E.; Caiati, Giovanni; d'Andrea, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The EU-funded BESSE project explores how sanitation in Europe can be made more sustainable. European sanitation is still based on 19th and early 20th century technologies and management systems. These systems do not adequately respond to the sustainable development needs of the 21st century, such as

  2. Effect of chemical sanitizers with and without ultrasonication on Listeria monocytogenes as a biofilm within polyvinyl chloride drain pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a biofilm in a floor drain, L. monocytogenes is exceedingly difficult to eradicate with standard sanitizing protocols. The objective of these studies was to test the use of ultra-sonication to break up biofilm architecture allowing chemical sanitizers to contact cells directly. L. monoc...

  3. Addressing the Human Rights Issues of Water and Sanitation in Fako division (Cameroon) Legal Framework and the Realization of the Sustainable Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This study favours the argument of water and sanitation being an indispensable comodity for human existence. A strong reason why there is an express recognition at both national level and international level of the right to water and sanitation. The Right to water and sanitation as defined by this study is the right of all humans without distinction to have access to water for domestic and personal use and proper sanitation. The paper limits the study to the Fako division of the republic ...

  4. Up in flames: a flammability assessment of alcohol-based hand sanitizers on common perioperative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Almengor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to perform a flammability assessment of alcohol-based hand sanitizers on common perioperative materials. There is an estimated 550–650 surgical fires that occur nationally each year, an instance comparable to that of wrong-site surgery, yet only about 100 operating room fires are reported each year.  The median cost of an OR fire settlement claim is $120,166.  Generation of fire requires the presence of three components, known as the “fire triad”: (1 an oxidizer, (2 an ignition source, and (3 fuel. Methods: The flammability of five common perioperative materials was assessed (conform stretch gauze, surgical drape, foam headrest, OR towels, and lap sponges.  The flammability of these materials was assessed alone and with six test liquids (Purell Advanced, Germ-X, generic hand sanitizer, spray hand sanitizer, ChloraPrep, and sterile water.  The assessments with the test liquids were conducted immediately after application and after five minutes.  The ignition sources used were a lighter and two spark generators (piezo-electric and battery-powered spark generator. Results: Two of the five perioperative materials were easily ignitable (OR towels and lap sponges, while the others exhibited flame retardant properties, which manifested itself as “melting” when an ignition source was applied (conform stretch gauze, surgical drape, and foam headrest.  ChloraPrep served as the positive control and sterile water served as the negative control.  When alcohol-based hand sanitizers and ChloraPrep were added to these materials, the flammability increased.  The addition of sterile water to the perioperative materials rendered the material nonflammable. The piezo-electric spark generator did not elicit any combustion of perioperative materials with or without test liquids, but the battery-powered spark generator did. Conclusion: Commonly used alcohol-based hand sanitizers are flammable.  When

  5. Access to sanitation and violence against women: evidence from Demographic Health Survey (DHS) data in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Samantha C; Barchi, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Violence against women (VAW) is a serious public health and human rights concern. Literature suggests sanitation conditions in developing countries may be potential neighborhood-level risk factors contributing to VAW, and that this association may be more important in highly socially disorganized neighborhoods. This study analyzed 2008 Kenya Demographic Health Survey's data and found women who primarily practice open defecation (OD), particularly in disorganized communities, had higher odds of experiencing recent non-partner violence. This study provides quantitative evidence of an association between sanitation and VAW that is attracting increasing attention in media and scholarly literature throughout Kenya and other developing countries. PMID:26593879

  6. Efficacy of various sanitizers against Salmonella during simulated commercial packing of tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiqiang; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-11-01

    Chemical sanitizers are usually added to dump tank water to minimize cross-contamination during tomato packing. However, the efficacy of sanitizers continues to be questioned. This study assessed the ability of six commonly used sanitizers (40 ppm of peroxyacetic acid, 40 ppm of mixed peracid, 40 ppm of available chlorine alone or acidified to pH 6.0 with citric acid or T-128, and electrolyzed water containing 40 ppm of available chlorine at pH 6.7) to reduce Salmonella on tomatoes, in wash water, and on equipment surfaces using a pilot-scale processing line. Red round tomatoes (11.3 kg) were dip inoculated to contain Salmonella at ∼6 log CFU/g, air dried for 2 h, treated for 2 min in a 3.3-m-long dump tank and then dried on a roller conveyor, with sanitizer-free water serving as the control. Tomato and water samples were collected at 15-s intervals during washing with additional dump tank, water tank, and roller conveyor surface samples collected after washing. All samples were appropriately neutralized, diluted, and surface plated on Trypticase soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract, 0.05% ferric ammonium citrate, and 0.03% sodium thiosulfate with or without membrane filtration to enumerate Salmonella. All six sanitizer treatments were more efficacious than the water control (P ≤ 0.05), with chlorine plus citric acid yielding the greatest Salmonella reduction on tomatoes (3.1 log CFU/g). After processing, all sanitizer wash solutions contained significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) levels of Salmonella than the water control (3.0 log CFU/ml). The four chlorine-based sanitizer treatments yielded significantly lower Salmonella populations (P ≤ 0.05) in the wash solution compared with peroxyacetic acid and mixed peracid. After processing with sanitizers, Salmonella populations decreased to nondetectable levels (<0.2 log CFU/100 cm(2) ) on the equipment surfaces. PMID:25364919

  7. Access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of Millennium Development Goals (MDGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh

    2010-01-01

    Cameroon has been fully engaged with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since their inception in 2000. This paper examines the situation of access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), establishes whether Cameroon is on the track of meeting the MDGs in these domains and proposes actions to be taken to bring it closer to these objectives. Based on analyzed data obtained from national surveys, government ministries, national statistical offices, bibliographic research, reports and interviews, it argues that Cameroon will not reach the water and sanitation MGDs. While Cameroon is not yet on track to meet the targets of the MDGs for water and sanitation, it has made notable progress since 1990, much more needs to be done to improve the situation, especially in rural areas. In 2006, 70% of the population had access to safe drinking water and the coverage in urban centres is 88%, significantly better than the 47% in rural areas. However, rapid urbanization has rendered existing infrastructure inadequate with periurban dwellers also lacking access to safe drinking water. Sanitation coverage is also poor. In urban areas only 58% of the population has access to improved sanitation facilities, and the rate in rural areas is 42%. Women and girls shoulder the largest burden in collecting water, 15% of urban and 18% rural populations use improved drinking water sources over 30 minutes away. Cameroon faces the following challenges in reaching the water and sanitation MDGs: poor management and development of the resources, coupled with inadequate political will and commitment for the long term; rapid urbanization; urban and rural poverty and regulation and legislative lapses. The authors propose that: bridging the gap between national water policies and water services; recognizing the role played by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in the attainment of MDGs; developing a Council Water Resource Management

  8. Occupational safety and health status of sanitation workers in urban areas: a pilot study from Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanhong; Yu, Jincong; Zhang, Xiaochang; Liang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Sanitation workers' workload increases quickly with rapid urbanization, but there is almost no evidence or policy recommendations for their management in developing countries. This study describes the health status and occupational protection of sanitation workers; it also explores risk factors related to their health status in Wuhan City, China. Three hundred and eighty-five sanitation workers from 54 streets of Wuhan were surveyed. Their prevalence of 2-week illness and arthritis was relatively higher than in the general population in China. Findings related to occupational protection showed that both sanitation workers (users) and their managers (providers) neglected the role of low-cost protection measures, especially masks, soap/hand sanitizer and prejob training (use rate of 7.27%, 26.75% and 43.64%, respectively). High-intensity workload was an important risk factor for 2-week illness, and prejob training was an important protective factor against arthritis.

  9. Focus the food sanitation safety system in France (partⅠ)%聚焦法国食品卫生安全体系(一)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Not long ago, the French Food Sanitation Safety System Seminar held in Beijing. The seminar helps the Chinese colleagues to understand the food sanitation safety system in France, and further promotes the Chinese food sanitation standards to move towards internationalization and standardization.

  10. Focus the food sanitation safety system in France (part Ⅱ )%聚焦法国食品卫生安全体系(二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Not long ago, the French Food Sanitation Safety System Seminar held in Beijing. The seminar helps the Chinese colleagues to understand the food sanitation safety system in France, and further promotes the Chinese food sanitation standards to move towards internationalization and standardization.

  11. A cluster-randomized trial assessing the impact of school water, sanitation, and hygiene improvements on pupil enrollment and gender parity in enrollment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Joshua V; Greene, Leslie E; Dreibelbis, Robert; Saboori, Shadi; Rheingans, Richard D; Freeman, Matthew C

    2013-10-01

    We employed a cluster randomized trial design to measure the impact of a school based water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) improvement on pupil enrollment and on gender parity in enrollment, in primary schools in Nyanza Province, Kenya (2007-2009). Among schools with poor water access during the dry season, those that received a water supply, hygiene promotion and water treatment (HP&WT) and sanitation improvement, demonstrated increased enrollment (β=0.091 [0.009, 0.173] p=0.03), which translates to 26 additional pupils per school on average. The proportion of girls enrolled in school also increased by 4% (prevalence ratio (PR)=1.04 [1.00, 1.07] p=0.02). Among schools with better baseline water access during the dry season (schools that didn't receive a water source), we found no evidence of increased enrollment in schools that received a HP&WT intervention (β=0.016 [-0.039, 0.072] p=0.56) or the HP&WT and sanitation intervention (β=0.027 [-0.028, 0.082]p=0.34), and there was no evidence of improved gender parity (PR=0.99 [0.96, 1.02] p=0.59, PR=1.00 [0.97, 1.02] p=0.75, respectively). Our findings suggest that increased school enrollment and improved gender parity may be influenced by a comprehensive WASH program that includes an improved water source; schools with poor water access during the dry season may benefit most from these interventions. PMID:24392220

  12. Regulamentação Sanitária de Medicamentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA DE CARVALHO MASTROIANNI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A regulamentação sanitária de medicamentos é uma das oito diretrizes da Política Nacional de Medicamentos. Trata-se da fiscalização e regulamentação de registro de medicamentos e da autorização de funcionamento desde os produtores até o varejo de medicamentos, bem como das restrições àqueles sujeitos a controle especial. A regulamentação sanitária de medicamentos tem como objetivo garantir eficácia, segurança, qualidade e custo aos produtos farmacêuticos. Os estudos clínicos dos medicamentos de Referência, a bioequivalência ou biodisponibilidade relativa e testes de equivalência dos medicamentos similares e genéricos são meios de avaliar a eficácia e a segurança. A qualidade é garantida lote a lote pelas Boas Práticas de Fabricação e Controle dos produtos farmacêuticos e a certificação da empresa pela ANVISA. O custo é avaliado pela câmara técnica de medicamento (CMED, que estabelece os critérios para fixação e ajuste de preços dos produtos farmacêuticos. No pós-registro, a efetividade, segurança e qualidade dos produtos são avaliadas por meio das comprovações exigidas na renovação do registro e, principalmente, pelo programa de farmacovigilância. Palavras-chave: Registro de Produtos. Medicamentos de Referência. Medicamentos Similares. Medicamentos Genéricos. Alteração de Registro de Produtos. ABSTRACT Health Regulations for Drugs The health regulation of drugs is one of eight guidelines issued within the National Drug Policy. It refers to the supervision and regulation of drug registration and the approval of operations, from the manufacturers to the retailers of medicines, as well as the restrictions that apply to drugs under special control. The health regulation of medicines is aimed at controlling the effectiveness, safety, quality and cost of pharmaceutical products. Clinical studies of brand-name (innovator medicines, bioequivalence or relative bioavailability and the equivalence

  13. Vietnam : A Handwashing Behavior Change Journey for the Caretakers’ Program

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The Vietnam Handwashing Initiative (HWI) was launched in January 2006 by the Ministry of Health (MoH) with funds from the Danish Embassy in Vietnam and technical assistance from the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). This learning note documents the development process of the caretakers' program with a focus on how it was designed, implemented, and monitored. Lessons learned and challenge...

  14. 7 CFR 70.110 - Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in 9 CFR part 381 for poultry, and for rabbits the requirements shall be the applicable provisions stated in 9 CFR part 354. (b) With respect to grading services, there shall be a minimum of 100-foot... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and...

  15. A Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Survey of Water and Sanitation in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Edward C.

    The terms of agreement of the Rural Water-Borne Disease Control Project called for a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study relating to water and sanitation in rural Swaziland. The purpose of the study was to provide: (1) baseline data for the design of a national health education strategy aimed at reducing the incidence of water-borne…

  16. 75 FR 952 - Draft Marine Sanitation Device Discharge Regulations for the Florida Keys National Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... proposed rule, issued on November 16, 2009 (74 FR 58923), to amend the regulations implementing the Florida... prevent discharges (74 FR 58923). The meetings described in the DATES section above are intended to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 15 CFR Part 922 Draft Marine Sanitation Device...

  17. Simulating sanitation and waste flows and their environmental impacts in East African urban centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyoo, R.

    2014-01-01

    Simulating Sanitation and Waste Flows and their Environmental Impacts in East African Urban Centres Abstract If improperly managed, urban waste flows can pose a significant threat to the quality of both the natural environment and public health. Just as many urban a

  18. Oestrogen removal from biological pre-treated wastewater within decentralised sanitation and re-use concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, de T.Z.D.; Urmenyi, A.M.; Poot, A.A.; Wessling, M.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Zeeman, G.

    2006-01-01

    Two parallel researches were performed; one focused on the fate of oestrogens in the biological treatment systems within decentralised sanitation and re-use concepts (DESAR), the second related to the development of a suitable specific removal method. A new affinity membrane was developed using anti

  19. Human security and access to water, sanitation, and hygiene: exploring the drivers and nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Obani; J. Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Water security challenges are mostly covered in the literature on the food and energy nexus. This chapter however adopts a broader conception of water security in relation to lack of access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and argues that the human rights approach could be instrumental in a

  20. 9 CFR 3.11 - Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... another dog or cat, or social grouping of dogs or cats. (2) Used primary enclosures and food and water..., sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control. (a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. Excreta and food waste must... prevent an excessive accumulation of feces and food waste, to prevent soiling of the dogs or...

  1. [Rationale and knowledge for the universal implementation of sanitation in areas of social vulnerability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Ester Feche Guimarães de Arruda; Feuerwerker, Laura Camargo Macruz; Coutinho, Sonia Maria Viggiani; Malheiros, Tadeu Fabrício

    2012-11-01

    The adoption of principles of equality and universality stipulated in legislation for the sanitation sector requires discussions on innovation. The existing model was able to meet sanitary demands, but was unable to attend all areas causing disparities in vulnerable areas. The universal implementation of sanitation requires identification of the know-how that promotes it and analysis of the model adopted today to establish a new method. Analysis of how different viewpoints on the restructuring process is necessary for the definition of public policy, especially in health, and understanding its complexities and importance in confirming social practices and organizational designs. These are discussed to contribute to universal implementation of sanitation in urban areas by means of a review of the literature and practices in the industry. By way of conclusion, it is considered that accepting a particular concept or idea in sanitation means choosing some effective interventions in the network and on the lives of individual users, and implies a redefinition of the space in which it exercises control and management of sewerage networks, such that connected users are perceived as groups with different interests.

  2. Ancient water and sanitation systems - applicability for the contemporary urban developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, T; Roma, E; Foxon, K M; Templeton, M R; Buckley, C A

    2013-01-01

    The idea of implementing ancient water and wastewater technologies in the developing world is a persuasive one, since ancient systems had many features which would constitute sustainable and decentralised water and sanitation (WATSAN) provision in contemporary terminology. Latest figures indicate 2.6 billion people do not use improved sanitation and 1.1 billion practise open defecation, thus there is a huge need for sustainable and cost-effective WATSAN facilities, particularly in cities of the developing world. The objective of this study was to discuss and evaluate the applicability of selected ancient WATSAN systems for the contemporary developing world. Selected WATSAN systems in ancient Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, Egypt, Greece, Rome and the Yucatan peninsula are briefly introduced and then discussed in the context of the developing world. One relevant aspect is that public latrines and baths were not only a part of daily life in ancient Rome but also a focal point for socialising. As such they would appear to represent a model of how to promote use and acceptance of modern community toilets and ablution blocks. Although public or community toilets are not classified as improved sanitation by WHO/UNICEF, this is a debatable premise since examples such as Durban, South Africa, illustrate how community toilets continue to represent a WATSAN solution for urban areas with high population density. Meanwhile, given the need for dry sanitation technologies, toilets based on the production of enriched Terra Preta soil have potential applications in urban and rural agriculture and warrant further investigation.

  3. Cholera in Papua New Guinea and the importance of safe water sources and sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Greenhill

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent outbreak of cholera in Papua New Guinea (PNG has resulted in a large number of illnesses with a relatively high case fatality ratio (3.2%. Access to adequate sanitation and safe water is very low in PNG and has undoubtedly contributed to the spread of cholera within the country.

  4. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  5. Role of small-scale independent providers in water and sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSmall-scale independent providers (SSIPs) and households are good for 10–69% of the household water supply and sometimes up to 95% of the sanitation solutions in cities in developing countries. Different types of SSIP can be distinguished. They could be allowed to make a more important c

  6. A Global Perspective on Drinking-Water and Sanitation Classification: An Evaluation of Census Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiyu; Wardrop, Nicola A; Bain, Robert E S; Lin, Yanzhao; Zhang, Ce; Wright, Jim A

    2016-01-01

    Following the recent expiry of the United Nations' 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), new international development agenda covering 2030 water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress. This study evaluates drinking-water and sanitation classification systems from national census questionnaire content, based upon the most recent international policy changes, to examine national population census's ability to capture drinking-water and sanitation availability, safety, accessibility, and sustainability. In total, 247 censuses from 83 low income and lower-middle income countries were assessed using a scoring system, intended to assess harmonised water supply and sanitation classification systems for each census relative to the typology needed to monitor the proposed post-2015 indicators of WASH targets. The results signal a lack of international harmonisation and standardisation in census categorisation systems, especially concerning safety, accessibility, and sustainability of services in current census content. This suggests further refinements and harmonisation of future census content may be necessary to reflect ambitions for post-2015 monitoring.

  7. Home hygiene and environmental sanitation: a country situation analysis for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, K J

    2003-06-01

    Problems of the environment and of domestic hygiene are always related to poverty of population and the sanitation of settlements. Most cities and towns in developing countries, like India, are characterised by over-crowding, congestion, inadequate water supply and inadequate facilities of disposal of human excreta, waste water and solid wastes. Inadequacy of housing for most urban poor invariably leads to poor home hygiene. Personal and domestic hygiene practices cannot be improved without improving basic amenities, such as water supply, waste water disposal, solid waste management and the problems of human settlements. But even under the prevailing conditions, there is significant scope of improving hygiene practices at home to prevent infection and cross-infection. Unfortunately, in developing countries, public health concerns are usually raised on the institutional setting, such as municipal services, hospitals, environmental sanitation, etc. There is a reluctance to acknowledge the home as a setting of equal importance along with the public institutions in the chain of disease transmission in the community. Managers of home hygiene and community hygiene must act in unison to optimise return from efforts to promote public health. Current practices and perceptions of domestic and personal hygiene in Indian communities, the existing levels of environmental and peri-domestic sanitation and the 'health risk' these pose will be outlined, as well as the need for an integrated action for improving hygiene behaviour and access to safe water and sanitation. PMID:12775376

  8. Environmental Awareness and School Sanitation in Calabar Metropolis of Cross Rivers State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anijaobi-Idem, F. N.; Ukata, B. N.; Bisong, N. N

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey designed study explored the influence of environmental awareness on secondary school sanitation in Calabar Metropolis. 1 hypothesis was formulated to direct the investigation. 300 subjects made up of 30 principals and 270 teachers constituted the sample drawn from the population of principals and teachers in secondary…

  9. Distribution and chemical fate of chlorine dioxide gas during sanitation of tomatoes and cantaloupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of studies was conducted to establish the 1) distribution and chemical fate of 36-ClO2 on tomatoes and cantaloupe; and 2) the magnitude of residues in kilogram quantities of tomatoes and cantaloupe sanitized with a slow-release chlorine dioxide formulation. Tomatoes and cantaloupe were resp...

  10. 9 CFR 3.84 - Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and pest control. 3.84 Section 3.84 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control. (a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. Excreta and food waste must... controlled so as to facilitate cleaning of the premises and pest control. (d) Pest control. An...

  11. 75 FR 38516 - Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard-Notice of Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard--Notice of Determination AGENCY: Environmental... 508- M-F 8 a.m.-5 p.m., 3 ft. Chatham. 945-5185, VHF 66. Sat. 9 a.m.-1 p.m. Nauset Marine East...

  12. 75 FR 25247 - Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard-Receipt of Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard--Receipt of Petition AGENCY: Environmental.... 60. Harbormaster Ryder's Cove 508-945-1067 or M-F 8 am-5 pm, 3 ft Chatham. 508-945-5185 VHF Sat. 9...

  13. Nutrient removal by NF and RO membranes in a decentralized sanitation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorthuizen, van Ellen M.; Zwijnenburg, Arie; Wessling, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Decentralized treatment of domestic wastewater offers the possibility of water and nutrient reuse. In a decentralized sanitation system the household wastewater streams are separated in a large diluted stream (gray water) and a small and concentrated stream (black water) containing important nutrien

  14. Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

  15. Fate of pharmaceuticals in full-scale source separated sanitation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Zeeman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Removal of 14 pharmaceuticals and 3 of their transformation products was studied in a full-scale source separated sanitation system with separate collection and treatment of black water and grey water. Black water is treated in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by oxygen

  16. Sanitation in unsewered urban poor areas: technology selection, quantitative microbial risk assessment and grey water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katukiza, A.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The sanitation crisis in unsewered urban slums of cities in developing countries is one of the challenges that need to be addressed. It is caused by the high rate of urbanisation in developing countries and the increasing urban population with limited urban infrastructure. The major issues of concer

  17. Effect of seed maturity on sensitiviy of seed towards physical sanitation treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Rop, N.; Jalink, H.; Forsberg, G.; Kromphardt, C.; Werner, S.; Koch, E.

    2006-01-01

    Physical sanitation methods are used by the seed industry to prevent transmission of seed-borne diseases, but sensitivity varies between seed lots. The effect of seed maturity on the sensitivity to hot water, aerated steam and electron treatments was studied. Two Brassica oleracea L. and two Daucus

  18. Ancient water and sanitation systems - applicability for the contemporary urban developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, T; Roma, E; Foxon, K M; Templeton, M R; Buckley, C A

    2013-01-01

    The idea of implementing ancient water and wastewater technologies in the developing world is a persuasive one, since ancient systems had many features which would constitute sustainable and decentralised water and sanitation (WATSAN) provision in contemporary terminology. Latest figures indicate 2.6 billion people do not use improved sanitation and 1.1 billion practise open defecation, thus there is a huge need for sustainable and cost-effective WATSAN facilities, particularly in cities of the developing world. The objective of this study was to discuss and evaluate the applicability of selected ancient WATSAN systems for the contemporary developing world. Selected WATSAN systems in ancient Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, Egypt, Greece, Rome and the Yucatan peninsula are briefly introduced and then discussed in the context of the developing world. One relevant aspect is that public latrines and baths were not only a part of daily life in ancient Rome but also a focal point for socialising. As such they would appear to represent a model of how to promote use and acceptance of modern community toilets and ablution blocks. Although public or community toilets are not classified as improved sanitation by WHO/UNICEF, this is a debatable premise since examples such as Durban, South Africa, illustrate how community toilets continue to represent a WATSAN solution for urban areas with high population density. Meanwhile, given the need for dry sanitation technologies, toilets based on the production of enriched Terra Preta soil have potential applications in urban and rural agriculture and warrant further investigation. PMID:23416582

  19. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-05-27

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  20. Susceptibility of 194 Salmonella Isolates to 17 Chemicals used as Sanitizers and Biocides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States. Meat processing facilities use a wide variety of antimicrobial interventions to reduce Salmonella contamination. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of sanitizers and biocides...

  1. Perceptions of Health Communication, Water Treatment and Sanitation in Artibonite Department, Haiti, March-April 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Ann Williams

    Full Text Available The international response to Haiti's ongoing cholera outbreak has been multifaceted, including health education efforts by community health workers and the distribution of free water treatment products. Artibonite Department was the first region affected by the outbreak. Numerous organizations have been involved in cholera response efforts in Haiti with many focusing on efforts to improve water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH. Multiple types of water treatment products have been distributed, creating the potential for confusion over correct dosage and water treatment methods. We utilized qualitative methods in Artibonite to determine the population's response to WASH messages, use and acceptability of water treatment products, and water treatment and sanitation knowledge, attitudes and practices at the household level. We conducted eighteen focus group discussions (FGDs: 17 FGDs were held with community members (nine among females, eight among males; one FGD was held with community health workers. Health messages related to WASH were well-retained, with reported improvements in hand-washing. Community health workers were identified as valued sources of health information. Most participants noted a paucity of water-treatment products. Sanitation, specifically the construction of latrines, was the most commonly identified need. Lack of funds was the primary reason given for not constructing a latrine. The construction and maintenance of potable water and sanitation services is needed to ensure a sustainable change.

  2. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  3. Urban Waste and Sanitation Services for Sustainable Developmen: Harnessing social and technical diversity in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Buuren, van J.C.L.; Mgana, S.

    2014-01-01

    Urban sanitation and solid waste sectors are under significant pressure in East Africa due to the lack of competent institutional capacity and the growth of the region’s urban population. This book presents and applies an original analytical approach to assess the existing socio-technical mixtures o

  4. [Rationale and knowledge for the universal implementation of sanitation in areas of social vulnerability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Ester Feche Guimarães de Arruda; Feuerwerker, Laura Camargo Macruz; Coutinho, Sonia Maria Viggiani; Malheiros, Tadeu Fabrício

    2012-11-01

    The adoption of principles of equality and universality stipulated in legislation for the sanitation sector requires discussions on innovation. The existing model was able to meet sanitary demands, but was unable to attend all areas causing disparities in vulnerable areas. The universal implementation of sanitation requires identification of the know-how that promotes it and analysis of the model adopted today to establish a new method. Analysis of how different viewpoints on the restructuring process is necessary for the definition of public policy, especially in health, and understanding its complexities and importance in confirming social practices and organizational designs. These are discussed to contribute to universal implementation of sanitation in urban areas by means of a review of the literature and practices in the industry. By way of conclusion, it is considered that accepting a particular concept or idea in sanitation means choosing some effective interventions in the network and on the lives of individual users, and implies a redefinition of the space in which it exercises control and management of sewerage networks, such that connected users are perceived as groups with different interests. PMID:23175310

  5. Terra Preta Sanitation: A Key Component for Sustainability in the Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schuetze

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Terra Preta Sanitation (TPS plays a key role in sustainable sanitation (SuSan and in the sustainable management of resources such as water, energy, soil (agriculture, liquid and solid organic waste streams as well as in the development of sustainable urban environment and infrastructure systems. This paper discusses the advantages of, and requirements for, SuSan systems, focusing on TPS. Case studies showing the stepwise extension and re-development of conventional sanitation systems (CSS using TPS technologies and system approaches are presented and discussed. Decentralized TPS systems integrated in sustainable urban resource management were implemented in the German cities of Hamburg and Berlin. The compilation of best practice examples and findings using the newest TPS systems illustrates the immense potential of this approach for the transformation from conventional to SuSan systems. For this purpose, the potential savings of drinking water resources and the recycling potential of nutrient components are quantified. The results strongly suggest the need to encourage the development and application of innovative decentralized sanitation technologies, urban infrastructures, and resource management systems that have TP as a key component.

  6. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hutton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  7. Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Trang Hoang,; Hernández, L.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on literature data

  8. Floors and Toilets: Association of Floors and Sanitation Practices with Fecal Contamination in Peruvian Amazon Peri-Urban Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exum, Natalie G; Olórtegui, Maribel Paredes; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Davis, Meghan F; Heaney, Christopher D; Kosek, Margaret; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2016-07-19

    Over two billion people worldwide lack access to an improved sanitation facility that adequately retains or treats feces. This results in the potential for fecal material containing enteric pathogens to contaminate the environment, including household floors. This study aimed to assess how floor type and sanitation practices impacted the concentration of fecal contamination on household floors. We sampled 189 floor surfaces within 63 households in a peri-urban community in Iquitos, Peru. All samples were analyzed for colony forming units (CFUs) of E. coli, and households were evaluated for their water, sanitation, and hygiene characteristics. Results of multivariate linear regression indicated that households with improved sanitation and cement floors in the kitchen area had reduced fecal contamination to those with unimproved sanitation and dirt floors (Beta: -1.18 log10 E. coli CFU/900 cm(2); 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.77, -0.60). Households that did not versus did share their sanitation facility also had less contaminated kitchen floors (Beta: -0.65 log10 E. coli CFU/900 cm(2); 95% CI: -1.15, -0.16). These findings suggest that the sanitation facilities of a home may impact the microbial load found on floors, contributing to the potential for household floors to serve as an indirect route of fecal pathogen transmission to children. PMID:27338564

  9. Linking human health, climate change, and food security through ecological-based sanitation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Kramer, S.; Porder, S.; Andersen, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    Ensuring access to clean, safe sanitation for the world's population remains a challenging, yet critical, global sustainability goal. Ecological-based sanitation (EcoSan) technology is a promising strategy for improving sanitation, particularly in areas where financial resources and infrastructure are limiting. The composting of human waste and its use as an agricultural soil amendment can tackle three important challenges in developing countries - providing improved sanitation for vulnerable communities, reducing the spread of intestinal-born pathogens, and returning nutrients and organic matter to degraded agricultural soils. The extent of these benefits and potential tradeoffs are not well known, but have important implications for the widespread adoption of this strategy to promote healthy communities and enhance food security. We quantified the effects of EcoSan on the climate and human health in partnership with Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL) in Haiti. We measured greenhouse gas emissions (nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide) from compost piles that ranged in age from 0 to 14 months (i.e. finished) from two compost facilities managed with or without cement lining. We also measured emissions from a government-operated waste treatment pond and a grass field where waste has been illegally dumped. The highest methane emissions were observed from the anaerobic waste pond, whereas the dump site and compost piles had higher nitrous oxide emissions. Net greenhouse gases (CO2-equivalents) from unlined compost piles were 8x lower than lined compost piles and 20 and 30x lower than the dump and waste pond, respectively. We screened finished compost for fecal pathogens using bacterial 16S sequencing. Bacterial pathogens were eliminated regardless of the type of composting process. Pilot trials indicate that the application of compost to crops has a large potential for increasing food production. This research suggests that EcoSan systems are

  10. Factors leading to poor water sanitation hygiene among primary school going children in Chitungwiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Dube

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the world has progressed in the area of water and sanitation, more than 2.3 billion people still live without access to sanitation facilities and some are unable to practice basic hygiene. Access to water and basic sanitation has deteriorated in Chitungwiza and children are at risk of developing illness and missing school due to the deterioration. We sought to investigate the predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors that are causally related to water- and sanitation- related hygiene practices among school going children. A random sample of 400 primary school children (196 males, 204 females in four schools in Chitungwiza town, Zimbabwe was interviewed. Behavioural factors were assessed through cross examination of the PROCEED PRECEDE Model. The respondents had been stratified through the random sampling where strata were classes. A structured observation checklist was also administered to assess hygiene enabling facilities for each school. Children’s knowledge and perceptions were inconsistent with hygienic behaviour. The family institution seemed to play a more important role in life skills training and positive reinforcement compared to the school (50% vs 27.3%. There was no association between a child’s sex, age and parents’ occupation with any of the factors assessed (P=0.646. Schools did not provide a hygiene enabling environment as there were no learning materials, policy and resources on hygiene and health. The challenges lay in the provision of hygiene enabling facilities, particularly, the lack of access to sanitation for the maturing girl child and a school curriculum that provides positive reinforcement and practical life skills training approach.

  11. Effect of water, sanitation, and hygiene on the prevention of trachoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith E Stocks

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the world's leading cause of infectious blindness. The World Health Organization (WHO has endorsed the SAFE strategy in order to eliminate blindness due to trachoma by 2020 through "surgery," "antibiotics," "facial cleanliness," and "environmental improvement." While the S and A components have been widely implemented, evidence and specific targets are lacking for the F and E components, of which water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH are critical elements. Data on the impact of WASH on trachoma are needed to support policy and program recommendations. Our objective was to systematically review the literature and conduct meta-analyses where possible to report the effects of WASH conditions on trachoma and identify research gaps. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, MedCarib, Lilacs, REPIDISCA, DESASTRES, and African Index Medicus databases through October 27, 2013 with no restrictions on language or year of publication. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported a measure of the effect of WASH on trachoma, either active disease indicated by observed signs of trachomatous inflammation or Chlamydia trachomatis infection diagnosed using PCR. We identified 86 studies that reported a measure of the effect of WASH on trachoma. To evaluate study quality, we developed a set of criteria derived from the GRADE methodology. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. If three or more studies reported measures of effect for a comparable WASH exposure and trachoma outcome, we conducted a random-effects meta-analysis. We conducted 15 meta-analyses for specific exposure-outcome pairs. Access to sanitation was associated with lower trachoma as measured by the presence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular or trachomatous inflammation-intense (TF/TI (odds ratio [OR] 0.85, 95% CI 0.75-0.95 and C. trachomatis infection (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.55-0.78. Having a clean face was

  12. Effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infection: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Ziegelbauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In countries of high endemicity of the soil-transmitted helminth parasites Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm, preventive chemotherapy (i.e., repeated administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations is the main strategy to control morbidity. However, rapid reinfection of humans occurs after successful deworming, and therefore effective preventive measures are required to achieve public health goals with optimal efficiency and sustainability. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of sanitation (i.e., access and use of facilities for the safe disposal of human urine and feces on infection with soil-transmitted helminths. PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and the World Health Organization Library Database were searched without language restrictions and year of publication (search performed until December 31, 2010. Bibliographies of identified articles were hand-searched. All types of studies reporting data on sanitation availability (i.e., having access at own household or living in close proximity to sanitation facility, or usage, and soil-transmitted helminth infections at the individual level were considered. Reported odds ratios (ORs of the protective effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from the papers or calculated from reported numbers. The quality of published studies was assessed with a panel of criteria developed by the authors. Random effects meta-analyses were used to account for observed heterogeneity. Thirty-six publications, consisting of 39 datasets, met our inclusion criteria. Availability of sanitation facilities was associated with significant protection against infection with soil-transmitted helminths (OR  =  0.46 to 0.58. Regarding the use of sanitation, ORs of 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-1.02, 0.63 (95% CI 0.37-1.05, and 0.78 (95% CI 0.60-1.00 were determined for T

  13. Efficiency of different sanitation methods on Listeria monocytogenes biofilms formed under various environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belessi, Charalambia-Eirini A; Gounadaki, Antonia S; Psomas, Antonios N; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2011-03-01

    The resistance of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms formed under food processing conditions, against various sanitizing agents and disinfection procedures was evaluated in the present study. The first sanitation procedure included biofilm formation on stainless steel coupons (SS) placed in tryptic soy broth supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract (TSBYE) of various concentrations of NaCl (0.5, 7.5 and 9.5%) at different temperatures (5 and 20 °C). The biofilms formed were exposed to warm (60 °C) water for 20 min, or to peroxyacetic acid (2% PAA) for 1, 2, 3 and 6 min. Treatment with warm water caused no significant (P ≥ 0.05) reductions in the attached populations. Conversely, surviving bacteria on SS coupons decreased as the exposure time to 2% PAA increased and could not be detected by culture after 6 min of exposure. Biofilms formed at 20°C were more resistant to PAA than biofilms formed at 5 °C. Salt concentration in the growth medium had no marked impact on the resistance to PAA. The second sanitation procedure included biofilm formation of nonadapted (NA) and acid-adapted (AA) cells in TSBYE of pH 5.0 and 7.0 (i.e., NA-5.0, NA-7.0 and AA-5.0, AA-7.0) at 4 °C. Coupons bearing attached cells of L. monocytogenes were periodically exposed to chlorine (0.465% Cl(-)), quaternary ammonium compound (1% QAC) and 2% PAA. The resistance of attached cells to QAC, PAA and Cl(-) followed the order: AA-5.0>NA-7.0 ≥ AA-7.0>NA-5.0. The most effective sanitizer was QAC followed by PAA and Cl(-). The results can lead to the development of efficient sanitation strategies in order to eliminate L. monocytogenes from the processing environment. Furthermore, such results may explain the presence of L. monocytogenes after sanitation as a result of cell attachment history. PMID:21093085

  14. Water Supply or ‘Beautiful Latrines’? Microcredit for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Reis; Mollinga, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    "Around half of the Mekong Delta's rural population lacks year-round access to clean water. In combination with inadequate hygiene and poor sanitation this creates a high risk of diseases. Microcredit schemes are a popular element in addressing such problems on the global policy level. The present paper analyses the contradictory results of such a microcredit programme for rural water supply and sanitation in the context of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, through a qualitative study primarily base...

  15. Integrated Assessment of the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Situation in Haitian Schools in the Time of Emergency

    OpenAIRE

    Fausta Prandini; Daniela Giardina; Sabrina Sorlini

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the water, sanitation and hygiene situation in 42 schools in Haiti after the earthquake of January 12, 2010, by using a comprehensive approach, which includes participatory assessment tools and formal surveys. By conducting a detailed assessment of school water and sanitation infrastructure conditions and of the perceptions of students and professors, a series of recommendations are provided to support further project implementation towards more sustainable results. Direct...

  16. Water and sanitation hygiene knowledge, attitude, and practices among household members living in rural setting of India

    OpenAIRE

    Kuberan, Anjana; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Kasav, Jyoti Bala; Prasad, Satish; Surapaneni, Krishna Mohan; Upadhyay, Vandana; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rural population in developing countries face water, sanitation, and hygiene-related health issues. To objectively highlight these issues, we studied the knowledge, attitude, and practices-related to drinking water and sanitation facilities among the rural population of Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed involving individuals over 18 years of age living in Thandalam village, Chennai, India. Basic information about sociodemographic profile a...

  17. Cholera at the Crossroads: The Association Between Endemic Cholera and National Access to Improved Water Sources and Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Nygren, Benjamin L.; Blackstock, Anna J.; Eric D Mintz

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated World Health Organization (WHO) national water and sanitation coverage levels and the infant mortality rate as predictors of endemic cholera in the 5-year period following water and sanitation coverage estimates using logistic regression, receiver operator characteristic curves, and different definitions of endemicity. Each was a significant predictors of endemic cholera at P < 0.001. Using a value of 250 for annual cases reported in 3 of 5 years, a national water access level of...

  18. Social returns from drinking water, sanitation and hygiene education: A case study of two coastal villages in Kerala

    OpenAIRE

    K. Pushpangadan

    2002-01-01

    Social returns from investing in water supply, sanitation and hygiene education (WATSANGENE) have been estimated from the UNICEF model of water supply, sanitation and hygiene after modifying it using Sen's commodities and capabilities approach. The various characteristics of the commodity, WATSANGENE, affect significantly the functioning levels of people with respect to poverty, health, longevity, education and quality of environment. Among them, education, longevity and quality of environmen...

  19. Civil society in urban sanitation and solid waste management: The role of NGOs and CBOs in metropolises of East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tukahirwa, J

    2011-01-01

    Urban sanitation and solid waste management are among the most significant factors that affect the poor in developing countries and contribute to their sustained poverty. It is the poorest people, particularly children, who suffer most from weak or non-existent services, through illness, distress and many early and preventable deaths. This intolerable state of affairs is caused by a combination of political, socio-economic, cultural, and technological aspects. In recent years, sanitation and ...

  20. Final evaluation of the Msunduza Dry Sanitation Project

    OpenAIRE

    Leppänen, Silja

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation is a generic part of the project cycle, which gives critical information to the funder and different stakeholders of development projects, striving to improvement of the development aid, strategies and policies. Evaluation is a periodic, objective assessment of a planned, ongoing or already completed project. It answers specific questions related to project design, implementation and results. Final evaluation is summative and it typically focuses on the impacts of the program, demo...

  1. "Bitten By Shyness": Menstrual Hygiene Management, Sanitation, and the Quest for Privacy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorgie, Fiona; Foster, Jennifer; Stadler, Jonathan; Phiri, Thokozile; Hoppenjans, Laura; Rees, Helen; Muller, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how menstruation is managed in low-income settings and whether existing sanitation systems meet women's needs. Using the 'Photovoice' method with 21 women in participatory workshops and in-depth interviews, we collected data on menstrual hygiene management in three sites in Durban, South Africa. All women reported using disposable sanitary pads. Although they were aware that disposable pads were nonbiodegradable, incompatible with waterborne flush systems, and fill up pit latrines, they had little experience with reusable products. Considerable energy was devoted to concealing and containing 'menstrual waste,' and women expressed concern about inadequate privacy during menstruation. All sites lacked discreet disposal options and reliable water access, while outdoor sanitation facilities were considered unsafe. Findings highlight the need for advocacy to improve safety and privacy of facilities for women in this setting. PMID:26436841

  2. Environmental sanitation conditions and health impact: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Léo; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Antunes, Carlos Mauricio de Figueiredo

    2003-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation examines the impact of several environmental sanitation conditions and hygiene practices on diarrhea occurrence among children under five years of age living in an urban area. The case-control design was employed; 997 cases and 999 controls were included in the investigation. Cases were defined as children with diarrhea and controls were randomly selected among children under five years of age. After logistic regression adjustment, the following variables were found to be significantly associated with diarrhea: washing and purifying fruit and vegetables; presence of wastewater in the street; refuse storage, collection and disposal; domestic water reservoir conditions; feces disposal from swaddles; presence of vectors in the house and flooding in the lot. The estimates of the relative risks reached values up to 2.87. The present study revealed the feasibility of developing and implementing an adequate model to establish intervention priorities in the field of environmental sanitation. PMID:12715062

  3. An approach to optimise nutrient management in environmental sanitation systems despite limited data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montangero, Agnès; Belevi, Hasan

    2008-09-01

    The material flow analysis method can be used to assess the impact of environmental sanitation systems on resource consumption and environmental pollution. However, given the limited access to reliable data, application of this data-intensive method in developing countries may be difficult. This paper presents an approach allowing to develop material flow models despite limited data availability. Application of an iterative procedure is of key importance: model parameter values should first be assessed on the basis of a literature review and by eliciting expert judgement. If model outputs are not plausible, sensitive input parameters should be reassessed more accurately. Moreover, model parameters can be expressed as probability distributions and variable uncertainty estimated by using Monte Carlo simulation. The impact of environmental sanitation systems on the phosphorus load discharged into surface water in Hanoi, Vietnam, is simulated by applying the proposed approach. PMID:17868974

  4. Panel 2.8: water, sanitation, food safety, and environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shafiqul; Heijnen, Han Antonius; Sumanasekera, Deepthi; Walden, Vivien; Roulet, Michel; Yoosuf, Abdul Sattar

    2005-01-01

    This is a summary of the presentations and discussion by the panel that addressed issues with Water, Sanitation, Food Safety, and Environmental Health during the Conference, Health Aspects of the Tsunami Disaster in Asia, convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) in Phuket, Thailand, 04-06 May 2005. The topics discussed included issues related to water, sanitation, food safety, and environmental health as pertain to the responses to the damage created by the Tsunami. It is presented in the following major sections: (1) needs assessments; (2) institutional capacity and coordination; (3) what was done well, and what could have been done better?; and (4) capacity building and preparedness. Topics discussed in the needs assessment section included: (1) water supply; (2) hygiene; and (3) lessons learned. Topics discussed realated to capacity building and preparedness included: (1) waste and vector-borne diseases; (2) food safety; (3) nutrition; and (4) environmental health. PMID:16496628

  5. Motivational orientation of persons managing community water supply and sanitation programmes: An empirical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayford Benjamin Kwashie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an investigation into factors that determined the decisions of members of Water and Sanitation (Watsan Committees to participate in and commit themselves to management activities that would ensure the sustainability of water supply and sanitation programmes in their communities.The major finding was that the motivational orientation of the Watsan members was gradually shifting from purely normative to remunerative values. It implies that their continued membership and willingness to perform their management tasks satisfactorily, in future, would depend on how much satisfaction they derived from being members. These motivational factors are essential if the participation and commitment of local organizations to the entire programme management process is to be guaranteed.

  6. Bioflocculation of grey water for improved energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Leal, L; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2010-12-01

    Bioflocculation of grey water was tested with a lab-scale membrane bioreactor in order to concentrate the COD. Three concentration factors were tested based on the ratio of sludge retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT): 3, 8 and 12. COD concentration factor was up to 7.1, achieving a final concentration of 7.2 g COD L(-1). Large fractions of suspended COD were recovered in the concentrate (57%, 81% and 82% at SRT/HRT ratios of 3, 8 and 12, respectively) indicating a strong bioflocculation of grey water. A maximum of 11% of COD mineralization of grey water was measured at the longest SRT tested (1 d). The integration of bioflocculation of grey water in decentralized sanitation concepts may increase the overall production of methane by 73%, based on the biogas produced by black water only. Therefore, bioflocculation is a promising grey water pre-treatment step for energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts. PMID:20691588

  7. Yelp Versus Inspection Reports: Is Quality Correlated With Sanitation in Retail Food Facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haeik; Kim, Jooho; Almanza, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Consumer-generated restaurant review sites offer a wealth of information about dining options. These sites are based on consumers' experiences; therefore, it is useful to assess the relevance between restaurant review (for food quality) and retail food facilities (RFFs) inspection results (for sanitation) from health departments. This study analyzed New York City restaurant ratings on Yelp.com to determine if there was a relationship to RFFs' violation scores for those same facilities found on the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene web pages. In addition, we assessed differences between RFFs defined on Yelp as quick service versus full service, and chains versus nonchains. Yelp ratings were found to be correlated only with sanitation in chain RFFs. PMID:27348977

  8. Sleaze, Slur... and the Search for a Sanitized Identity: Bhojpuri Media at a Crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusri Shrivastava

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article offers perspectives on those who control the Bhojpuri media industry in Mumbai, India, and delimit what is to be shown. Bhojpuri is a dialect of Hindi spoken in parts of the north Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. The influx of migrants from these regions to different parts of India has led to a resurgence of interest in the Bhojpuri media, and has drawn fly-by-night operators to the industry. To cater to the migrants’ needs, ribald action romances are produced; but this very bawdiness hamstrings attempts to widen the audience base. The article examines the issues that plague the industry, and explores the ways in which the industry is struggling to carve a sanitized, yet distinctive identity. Keywords: Bhojpuri; media industry; ribald; sanitized; migrants

  9. Health systems, quality of health care, and translational cancer research: the role of the Istituto Superiore Sanità - Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of ensuring high-quality and cost-effective health systems in the context of persistent financial crisis, a global strategy for cancer prevention and treatment represents a priority for public health bodies and governments. The key goals for the initiative are to define standards of cancer prevention and care while leveraging the continuous progress of biomedical research in the interest of public health. In Italy, the establishment of a network of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (CCC) named the Alliance Against Cancer (ACC) is an important initiative taken by the Ministry of Health to foster common strategies for enhancing the quality of oncology research and care at the national level. The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) has played an important role in supporting ACC activities through a special national program called ISS for ACC, launched by the Italian Ministry of Health in 2006. A similar role has been pursued in subsequent initiatives, including ISS support for a project aimed at providing international accreditation of the CCC of the ACC, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. The results of this initiative, reported in the current issue of Tumori, are especially significant since specific indicators of quality for research and cancer care have been successfully defined for all the participating institutes. As the leading technical and scientific body of the Italian National Health Service, the ISS will continue to play a proactive role in supporting national networks and strategic national and international initiatives aimed at promoting public health. PMID:27096278

  10. Improving service delivery of water, sanitation, and hygiene in primary schools: a cluster-randomized trial in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kelly T; Dreibelbis, Robert; Freeman, Matthew C; Ojeny, Betty; Rheingans, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programs in schools have been shown to improve health and reduce absence. In resource-poor settings, barriers such as inadequate budgets, lack of oversight, and competing priorities limit effective and sustained WASH service delivery in schools. We employed a cluster-randomized trial to examine if schools could improve WASH conditions within existing administrative structures. Seventy schools were divided into a control group and three intervention groups. All intervention schools received a budget for purchasing WASH-related items. One group received no further intervention. A second group received additional funding for hiring a WASH attendant and making repairs to WASH infrastructure, and a third group was given guides for student and community monitoring of conditions. Intervention schools made significant improvements in provision of soap and handwashing water, treated drinking water, and clean latrines compared with controls. Teachers reported benefits of monitoring, repairs, and a WASH attendant, but quantitative data of WASH conditions did not determine whether expanded interventions out-performed our budget-only intervention. Providing schools with budgets for WASH operational costs improved access to necessary supplies, but did not ensure consistent service delivery to students. Further work is needed to clarify how schools can provide WASH services daily. PMID:23981878

  11. Improving service delivery of water, sanitation, and hygiene in primary schools: a cluster-randomized trial in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kelly T; Dreibelbis, Robert; Freeman, Matthew C; Ojeny, Betty; Rheingans, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programs in schools have been shown to improve health and reduce absence. In resource-poor settings, barriers such as inadequate budgets, lack of oversight, and competing priorities limit effective and sustained WASH service delivery in schools. We employed a cluster-randomized trial to examine if schools could improve WASH conditions within existing administrative structures. Seventy schools were divided into a control group and three intervention groups. All intervention schools received a budget for purchasing WASH-related items. One group received no further intervention. A second group received additional funding for hiring a WASH attendant and making repairs to WASH infrastructure, and a third group was given guides for student and community monitoring of conditions. Intervention schools made significant improvements in provision of soap and handwashing water, treated drinking water, and clean latrines compared with controls. Teachers reported benefits of monitoring, repairs, and a WASH attendant, but quantitative data of WASH conditions did not determine whether expanded interventions out-performed our budget-only intervention. Providing schools with budgets for WASH operational costs improved access to necessary supplies, but did not ensure consistent service delivery to students. Further work is needed to clarify how schools can provide WASH services daily.

  12. Health systems, quality of health care, and translational cancer research: the role of the Istituto Superiore Sanità - Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of ensuring high-quality and cost-effective health systems in the context of persistent financial crisis, a global strategy for cancer prevention and treatment represents a priority for public health bodies and governments. The key goals for the initiative are to define standards of cancer prevention and care while leveraging the continuous progress of biomedical research in the interest of public health. In Italy, the establishment of a network of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (CCC) named the Alliance Against Cancer (ACC) is an important initiative taken by the Ministry of Health to foster common strategies for enhancing the quality of oncology research and care at the national level. The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) has played an important role in supporting ACC activities through a special national program called ISS for ACC, launched by the Italian Ministry of Health in 2006. A similar role has been pursued in subsequent initiatives, including ISS support for a project aimed at providing international accreditation of the CCC of the ACC, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. The results of this initiative, reported in the current issue of Tumori, are especially significant since specific indicators of quality for research and cancer care have been successfully defined for all the participating institutes. As the leading technical and scientific body of the Italian National Health Service, the ISS will continue to play a proactive role in supporting national networks and strategic national and international initiatives aimed at promoting public health.

  13. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conditions in Kenyan Rural Schools: Are Schools Meeting the Needs of Menstruating Girls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly T. Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH programs in African schools have received increased attention, particularly around the potential impact of poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM on equity for girls’ education. This study was conducted prior to a menstrual feasibility study in rural Kenya, to examine current WASH in primary schools and the resources available for menstruating schoolgirls. Cross-sectional surveys were performed in 62 primary schools during unannounced visits. Of these, 60% had handwashing water, 13% had washing water in latrines for menstruating girls, and 2% had soap. Latrines were structurally sound and 16% were clean. Most schools (84% had separate latrines for girls, but the majority (77% had no lock. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs supported WASH in 76% of schools. Schools receiving WASH interventions were more likely to have: cleaner latrines (Risk Ratio (RR 1.5; 95% Confidence Intervals [CI] 1.0, 2.1, handwashing facilities (RR 1.6, CI 1.1, 2.5, handwashing water (RR 2.7; CI 1.4, 5.2, and water in girls’ latrines (RR 4.0; CI 1.4, 11.6. Schools continue to lack essential WASH facilities for menstruating girls. While external support for school WASH interventions improved MHM quality, the impact of these contributions remains insufficient. Further support is required to meet international recommendations for healthy, gender-equitable schools.

  14. Private Sector Participation in Urban Water and Sanitation Provision in Ghana: Experiences from the Tamale Metropolitan Area (TMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumanu, Issaka Kanton

    2008-07-01

    African governments, like most countries in the developing world, face daunting tasks in their attempts to provide effective and equitable water and sanitation services for their ever increasing urban populations. Consequently, the past few years have witnessed increased private sector participation in urban water and sanitation provision, as many African governments strive to improve access to water and sanitation services for their citizens in line with Millennium Development Goal 7 (MDG7). Since the early 1990s, the government of Ghana and many local authorities have entered into various forms of public-private partnerships in urban water and sanitation provision. This article examines the outcome of such partnerships using the Tamale Metropolitan Area (TMA) as a case study with the aim of providing policy guidelines for the way forward. The article argues that the public-private arrangement for water supply and sanitation infrastructure management in the Tamale Metropolis has done nothing that an invigorated public sector could not have possibly achieved. It concludes that there can be no sustainable improvement in water and sanitation provision without political commitment, stakeholder ownership, and strong support for community driven initiatives.

  15. Shared Sanitation Versus Individual Household Latrines in Urban Slums: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    A large and growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities despite evidence of a potential increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with individual household latrines (IHLs). We sought to explore differences between households relying on shared sanitation versus IHLs in terms of demographics, sanitation facilities, and fecal exposure. We surveyed 570 households from 30 slums in Orissa, India, to obtain data on demographics, water, sanitation, and hygiene. Latrine spot-checks were conducted to collect data on indicators of use, privacy, and cleanliness. We collected samples of drinking water and hand rinses to assess fecal contamination. Households relying on shared sanitation were poorer and less educated than those accessing IHLs. Individuals in sharing households were more likely to practice open defecation. Shared facilities were less likely to be functional, less clean, and more likely to have feces and flies. No differences in fecal contamination of drinking water or hand-rinse samples were found. Important differences exist among households accessing shared facilities versus IHLs that may partly explain the apparent adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation. As these factors may capture differences in risk and promote sanitary improvements, they should be considered in future policy.

  16. Sanitation Coverage And Impact Of Open Defecation Free (ODF Zone With Special Reference To Nepal: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khet Raj Dahal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The basic needs of people such as safe drinking water, improved hygiene and sanitation must be fulfilled for a dignified life of human being. Sanitation is one of the major components which directly impact the living standard of people. However, people in many parts of the world have not got the sanitized condition and have been living in a non-hygienic situation. About 35% (2.5 billion populations in the world are still lacking to access improved sanitation. There are many indicators of sanitized society but toilet is considered as one of the important ones. In Nepal, around 62% households have got the facility of toilet. This indicates that 38 % of households have no access to toilets and defecate openly. As a result people have got poor hygiene and sanitation environment. In turn, the country has got the loss of NRs. 10 billion annually. The objective of this paper is to explore the knowledge on open defecation (OD. OD is being eradicated from many parts of the world. Many western countries have already been free from OD. But this problem still exists in most of the developing and under-developed countries like Nepal. Though the adverse impact of OD is very high; people are not aware. Construction of toilets by providing outside support for the ultra poor people is not the rational way of eradication of OD. Technical and financial support for toilet construction could be effective if people are aware.

  17. Hygiene, sanitation and the soil transmitted helminths (STH infection among elementary school students in West Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Soeyoko Sri Sumarni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalenses of soil transmitted helminths (STH infection in Lombok are relatively high. It isclosley associated with poor environmetal hygiene, non healthy sanitation status, poverty andimproper health services. The highest prevalences is normally observed in elementary school children.The aim of this study was to evalaute the relationship between hygiene, sanitation and STH infectionamong elementary school children in West Lombok. An observational study with cross-sectionaldesign was performed involving 197 elementary school children in Terong Tawah Village, LabuapiSub District, West Lombok District and 197 children in Ampenan, Mataram City as control. Thestool specimen of the children were collected and processed using Kato-Katz technique. Hygieneand sanitation of each subject that consisted nail hygiene, hand washing, using footwear, latrine,clean water availability, house floor, soil around the house were taken by questionnaire and directobservation. The result showed that the prevalences of STH among elementary school children inTerong Tawah (81.7% was higher than that in Ampenan (12.7%.Trichuris trichiura was thepredominant helminth both in Terong Tawah (36.0% and Ampenan (7.0% followed by A.lumbricoides (20.4% in Terong Tawah and 4.5% in Ampenan. The mix infections between T.trichiura and A. lumbricoides among the children in Terong Tawah (24.4% and Ampenan (1.0%were also found. A significant relationship between hygiene and sanitaion i.e. nail cleaniness, washinghands, contaminated soil around the house and STH infection among elementary school children inTerong Tawah and Ampenan (p<0.05. In conclusion, there is a significant relationship betweenpersonal hygiene, environmental sanitation and STH infections among elementary school children.

  18. Unravelling the linkages between water, sanitation, hygiene and rural poverty: The WASH poverty index

    OpenAIRE

    Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have reported the effect of water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in improving health and ultimately alleviating poverty. Current coverage estimates show however that a large proportion of people in the world still do not have access to a simple pit latrine or a source of safe drinking water, and this situation worsens in rural areas. To help end these appalling figures, much effort has gone into the development of policy instruments which support decision-making, i.e. plan...

  19. Indicators for Monitoring Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: A Systematic Review of Indicator Selection Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanie Schwemlein; Ryan Cronk; Jamie Bartram

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) is important to track progress, improve accountability, and demonstrate impacts of efforts to improve conditions and services, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Indicator selection methods enable robust monitoring of WaSH projects and conditions. However, selection methods are not always used and there are no commonly-used methods for selecting WaSH indicators. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic review of indicator sel...

  20. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Accessing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Disabled People in Malawi.

    OpenAIRE

    Sian White; Hannah Kuper; Ambumulire Itimu-Phiri; Rochelle Holm; Adam Biran

    2016-01-01

    Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, c...

  1. The Costs of Meeting the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Guy; Varughese, Mili

    2016-01-01

    A dedicated goal for water has recently been endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly as part of the sustainable development goal (SDG) framework. This study provides an assessment of the global costs of meeting the WASH-related targets of Goal #6. The targets assessed include achieving universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all (target 6.1), achieving access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all, and ending open defecation (target 6...

  2. Gender in community water supply, sanitation and water resource protection: A guide to methods and techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Wijk-Sijbesma, Christine van

    1995-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper presents a guideline to cover the International Water and Sanitation Center gender-specific requirements. The guidelines begin with identification of needs and priorities of men and women in local communities. To ensure that project objectives are inline with community needs, a gender-specific assessment in the areas of health, socio-economic, and environment is recommended. The authors present a list of gender issues to be considered during project planning...

  3. Water, sanitation, hygiene, and soil-transmitted helminth infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Strunz, Eric C.; David G Addiss; Meredith E Stocks; Stephanie Ogden; Jürg Utzinger; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), parasitic worms that live in the human intestine (gut). These intestinal worms, including roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm, mainly occur in tropical and subtropical regions and are most common in developing countries, where personal hygiene is poor, there is insufficient access to clean water, and sanitation (disposal of human feces and urine) is inadequate or absent. STHs c...

  4. Knowledge and Practice of Personal Hygiene and Sanitation: A Study in Selected Slums of Dhaka City

    OpenAIRE

    Shayela Farah; Mohoshina Karim; Nasreen Akther; Meherunnessa Begum; Nadia Begum

    2015-01-01

    Background: : Slum dwellers are likely to be among the most deprived people in urban areas. Poor hygiene practices and inadequate sanitary conditions play major roles in the increased burden of communicable diseases within developing countries like ours. Objective: To assess the knowledge and practice about personal hygiene and environmental sanitation in selected slums of Dhaka city. Materials and method: This cross sectional study was conducted in purposively selected urban slum are...

  5. Effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infection : systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Ziegelbauer; Benjamin Speich; Daniel Mäusezahl; Robert Bos; Jennifer Keiser; Jürg Utzinger

    2012-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths, parasitic worms that live in the human intestine (gut). Roundworm, whipworm, and hookworm infections mainly occur in tropical and subtropical regions and are most common in developing countries, where personal hygiene is poor, there is insufficient access to clean water, and sanitation (disposal of human feces and urine) is inadequate or absent. Because infected individuals excrete ...

  6. Water, sanitation, hygiene and rural poverty: Issues of sector monitoring and the role of aggregated indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí

    2013-01-01

    Water and sanitation improvements together with hygiene (WASH) are central to health. However, progress in ensuring access to these basic services remains inadequate, particularly in the rural developingworld. To remedy this appalling situation, decision-makers need reliable data on which to base planning, targeting and prioritization. However, the challenges of collecting such data and producing consistent evidence are diverse. To influence policy, data have to be easily and meaningfully int...

  7. Environmental sanitation conditions and health impact: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Heller Léo; Colosimo Enrico Antonio; Antunes Carlos Mauricio de Figueiredo

    2003-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation examines the impact of several environmental sanitation conditions and hygiene practices on diarrhea occurrence among children under five years of age living in an urban area. The case-control design was employed; 997 cases and 999 controls were included in the investigation. Cases were defined as children with diarrhea and controls were randomly selected among children under five years of age. After logistic regression adjustment, the following variables we...

  8. Stop stunting: improving child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Menon, Purnima

    2016-05-01

    The latest available data indicate that 38% of South Asia's children aged 0-59 months are stunted. Such high prevalence combined with the region's large child population explain why South Asia bears about 40% of the global burden of stunting. Recent analyses indicate that the poor diets of children in the first years of life, the poor nutrition of women before and during pregnancy and the prevailing poor sanitation practices in households and communities are important drivers of stunting, most likely because of underlying conditions of women's status, food insecurity, poverty, and social inequalities. With this evidence in mind, UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia convened the Regional Conference: Stop Stunting: Improving Child Feeding, Women's Nutrition, and Household Sanitation in South Asia (New Delhi, November 10-12, 2014). The Conference provided a knowledge-for-action platform with three objectives: (1) share state-of-the-art research findings on the causes of child stunting and its consequences for child growth and development and the sustainable growth and development of nations; (2) discuss better practices and the cost and benefits of scaling up programmes to improve child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation in South Asia; and (3) identify implications for sectoral and cross-sectoral policy, programme, advocacy and research to accelerate progress in reducing child stunting in South Asia. This overview paper summarizes the rationale for the focus on improving child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation as priority areas for investment to prevent child stunting in South Asia. It builds on the invited papers presented at or developed as a follow on to the Stop Stunting Conference. PMID:27187906

  9. Hand hygiene--evaluation of three disinfectant hand sanitizers in a community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babeluk, Rita; Jutz, Sabrina; Mertlitz, Sarah; Matiasek, Johannes; Klaus, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Hand hygiene is acknowledged as the single most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections in the healthcare setting. Similarly, in non-clinical settings, hand hygiene is recognised as a key element in helping prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different disinfectant hand sanitizers in reducing the burden of bacterial hand contamination in 60 healthy volunteers in a community setting, both before and after education about the correct use of hand sanitizers. The study is the first to evaluate the efficacy and ease of use of different formulations of hand rubs used by the general population. The products tested were: Sterillium (perfumed, liquid), desderman pure gel (odorless, gel) and Lavit (perfumed, spray). Sterillium and desderman are EN1500 (hygienic hand rub) certified products (available in pharmacy) and Lavit is non EN1500 certified and available in supermarkets. The two EN1500 certified products were found to be significantly superior in terms of reducing bacterial load. desderman pure gel, Sterillium and Lavit reduced the bacterial count to 6.4%, 8.2% and 28.0% respectively. After education in the correct use of each hand rub, the bacterial load was reduced even further, demonstrating the value of education in improving hand hygiene. Information about the testers' perceptions of the three sanitizers, together with their expectations of a hand sanitizer was obtained through a questionnaire. Efficacy, followed by skin compatibility were found to be the two most important attributes of a hand disinfectant in our target group. PMID:25379773

  10. Hand hygiene--evaluation of three disinfectant hand sanitizers in a community setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Babeluk

    Full Text Available Hand hygiene is acknowledged as the single most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections in the healthcare setting. Similarly, in non-clinical settings, hand hygiene is recognised as a key element in helping prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different disinfectant hand sanitizers in reducing the burden of bacterial hand contamination in 60 healthy volunteers in a community setting, both before and after education about the correct use of hand sanitizers. The study is the first to evaluate the efficacy and ease of use of different formulations of hand rubs used by the general population. The products tested were: Sterillium (perfumed, liquid, desderman pure gel (odorless, gel and Lavit (perfumed, spray. Sterillium and desderman are EN1500 (hygienic hand rub certified products (available in pharmacy and Lavit is non EN1500 certified and available in supermarkets. The two EN1500 certified products were found to be significantly superior in terms of reducing bacterial load. desderman pure gel, Sterillium and Lavit reduced the bacterial count to 6.4%, 8.2% and 28.0% respectively. After education in the correct use of each hand rub, the bacterial load was reduced even further, demonstrating the value of education in improving hand hygiene. Information about the testers' perceptions of the three sanitizers, together with their expectations of a hand sanitizer was obtained through a questionnaire. Efficacy, followed by skin compatibility were found to be the two most important attributes of a hand disinfectant in our target group.

  11. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lígia Biazotto Bachelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L-1/10 min, peracetic acid (100 mg L-1/15 min and ozonated water (1.2 mg L-1 /1 min as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L-1 free chlorine/15 min were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 ºC with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 µm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days.

  12. The Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria in Recirculating Aquaculture System Biofilms and their Response to Various Sanitizers

    OpenAIRE

    King, Robin K.

    2001-01-01

    THE PRESENCE OF BACTERIAL PATHOGENS IN BIOFILMS OF RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS AND THEIR RESPONSE TO VARIOUS SANITIZERS Robin K. King ABSTRACT Recirculating aquaculture offers a prospect for successful fish farming, but this form of aquaculture presents a great potential for pathogenic microorganisms to become established in the system through the formation of biofilms. Biofilms are capable of forming on all aquaculture system components, incorporating the various microflor...

  13. Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Strunz, Eric C.; Addiss, David G; Stocks, Meredith E.; Ogden, Stephanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), parasitic worms that live in the human intestine (gut). These intestinal worms, including roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm, mainly occur in tropical and subtropical regions and are most common in developing countries, where personal hygiene is poor, there is insufficient access to clean water, and sanitation (disposal of human feces and urine) is inadequate or absent. STHs c...

  14. Growth, yield, and fruit quality of pepper plants amended with two sanitized sewage sludges.

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Elizalde, Inmaculada; Azcona, Iñaki; Aguirreolea, Jone; Morales Iribas, Fermín; Corpas, Francisco Javier; Palma, José Manuel; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Organic wastes such as sewage sludge have been successfully used to increase crop productivity of horticultural soils. Nevertheless, considerations of the impact of sludges on vegetable and fruit quality have received little attention. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to investigate the impact of two sanitized sewage sludges, autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) and compost sludge, on the growth, yield, and fruit quality of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Pi...

  15. Governance, Sustainability and Decision Making in Water and Sanitation Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Alejandro Iribarnegaray; Lucas Seghezzo

    2012-01-01

    We explore the connections between the concepts of governance and sustainability and discuss their possible roles in water and sanitation management systems (WSMS). We see governance as a decision-making process that drives the relationship between social institutions and the public affairs of a given society. We understand sustainability as a combination of spatial, temporal, and personal aspects, and we argue that this definition is more comprehensive than the traditional triple bottom line...

  16. Sanitation, fish handling and artisanal fish processing within fishing communities: socio-cultural influences

    OpenAIRE

    Odongkara, K.O.; Kyangwa, I.

    2005-01-01

    postive transformation of the fisheries sector in Uganda has of recent been scatted by failure to mountain fish quality and safety,akey prerequiste for retaining and gaining fish markets. The social cultural study established the extent to which social cutural practices had affected the levels and the use of sanitation facilities,fish handling facilities and artisanal fish processing techniques and the factors that influenced these practices in the fishing communities of lake victoria. ...

  17. The development of the user interface of an innovative sanitation solution targeted at developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Case Study Impact Statement. Around the World, 2.6 billion people do not have access to a toilet, leading to the deaths of 1.5 million children per year through associated diseases (Kone, 2012). Novel approaches to this problem are needed that utilise the latest research and technology to safely deal with human waste in developing countries. These new sanitation methods have to be carefully developed to meet the needs and aspirations of their target audience. The Bill and...

  18. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION IN SANITIZATION OF PIG SLURRY AND BIOMASS IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Grudziński; Arkadiusz Pietruszka; Wojciech Sawicki

    2015-01-01

    Pig slurry is one of the production manure, which should be managed properly because of environmental threats it can cause. Pig slurry contains a wide range of microorganisms, most of which are opportunistic or obligatory pathogens for people and animals. Spreading it on fields without control can cause microbial contaminations of water and soil. Use of pig slurry as substrate in anaerobic digestion can be an effective way of sanitization. In this work role of methanogenic fermentation in pig...

  19. Riconoscimento del profilo professionale del bibliotecario documentalista in sanità

    OpenAIRE

    Truccolo, Ivana; Vidale, Claudia; Falcetta, Anna Maria; Merighi, Roberta

    2006-01-01

    In Italy the reference institution for all librarians is AIB (Associazione Italiana Biblioteche), while AIDA, the Association for the Advanced Documentation, contributes to develop documentation diffusion and information science. The Ministry of Health also plays an important role in supporting the libraries of Biomedical Research Institutes (IRCCS). The BDS Association (Bibliotecari Documentalisti della Sanità) was founded in 2000 with the purpose of highlight the specific activities perf...

  20. Water and sanitation policies in Argentina: the challenge of universalizing services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica L. Cáceres

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at contributing to the reflection and debate on the water and sanitation policies in Argentina. For this purpose, regulatory and institutional aspects are discussed regarding services management in the country. The paper also includes a characterization of the five stages of such policies that have marked the progress of the sector. Finally, the main challenges faced by the sector are mentioned as a conclusion.

  1. Sanitation conditions of clean food good taste restaurants in Hat Yai City Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopon, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanitation conditions and microbiological quality of 52 “Clean Food Good Taste” restaurants in Hat Yai city municipality were examined using a standard food sanitation survey checklist based on the Department of Health and Department of Medical Science, Ministry of Public Health. Coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli (E. coli were investigated in samples of foods and drinking water, whereas total bacterial count (TBC was carried out in samples of foods, plates, spoons, glasses and food handlers. The methods of investigation were the Most Probable Number (MPN method for coliform bacteria, E. coli and the standard plate count method for TBC. The SI-2 field test kit was used to indicate microbiological contamination, particularly coliform bacteria. It was found that 38/52 (73.1% restaurants passed all items of food sanitation standard. The food sanitation condition with the lowest number passing was the dressing of food handlers (45/52, 86.5% followed by the area for eating, preparing and cooking (47/52, 90.4%. Microbiological quality of food samples based on both MPN of coliform bacteria and E. coli was at an acceptable level in 190/202 samples (94.1%. However, in samples of drinking water only 19/52 (36.5% passed the MPN standard for coliform bacteria and 45/52 (86.5% that for E. coli. Moreover, among the 52 restaurants, the numbers (percentages passing the standard TBC in samples of plate, spoon, glass, cooker handlers and server handlers were 32 (61.5%, 27(51.9%, 20 (38.5%, 2 (3.9% and 1 (1.9%, respectively. Comparison of microbiological quality between the SI-2 test kit and MPN coliform/TBC showed no significant differences for samples of foods, but significant differences for the rest of the samples (p<0.05, t-test.

  2. The roles of water, sanitation and hygiene in reducing schistosomiasis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Jack E T; Croll, David; Harrison, Wendy E; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C; Templeton, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by infection with blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Transmission of, and exposure to, the parasite result from faecal or urinary contamination of freshwater containing intermediate host snails, and dermal contact with the same water. The World Health Assembly resolution 65.21 from May 2012 urges member states to eliminate schistosomiasis through preventive chemotherapy (i.e. periodic large-scale administration of the antischistosomal drug praziquantel to school-aged children and other high-risk groups), provision of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and snail control. However, control measures focus almost exclusively on preventive chemotherapy, while only few studies made an attempt to determine the impact of upgraded access to safe water, adequate sanitation and good hygiene on schistosome transmission. We recently completed a systematic review and meta-analysis pertaining to WASH and schistosomiasis and found that people with safe water and adequate sanitation have significantly lower odds of a Schistosoma infection. Importantly though, the transmission of schistosomiasis is deeply entrenched in social-ecological systems, and hence is governed by setting-specific cultural and environmental factors that determine human behaviour and snail populations. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature, which explores the transmission routes of schistosomes, particularly focussing on how these might be disrupted with WASH-related technologies and human behaviour. Additionally, future research directions in this area are highlighted. PMID:25884172

  3. Water systems and urban sanitation: a historical comparison of Tokyo and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaki, Yurina; Otaki, Masahiro; Sakura, Osamu

    2007-06-01

    The importance of a water supply and sewage treatment for urban sanitation is recognized in the modern world. Their contributions to public health have not, however, been well demonstrated by historical data, especially in Asian cities. In this research, we focused on the Asian cities of Tokyo and Singapore, which both developed significantly in the 20th century. We analysed their development processes statistically to determine what the key elements for the protection of urban sanitation have been. Although both cities constructed modern water supply systems at almost same time (Tokyo in 1898 and Singapore in 1878), and similarly modern wastewater treatment systems (Tokyo in 1922 and Singapore in 1913), the prevalence of water-borne diseases in Tokyo was more serious than it was in Singapore, in spite of Singapore's high infant mortality rate. The main reason for this was the differences in the systems of night-soil transport. We found that the water supply system in itself was not enough to resolve all urban sanitation problems, and appropriate night-soil removal was also crucial. In addition, historical trends and water consumption vary by city, so the appropriate technology and system are also different according to the unique characteristics and needs of each.

  4. Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cees Buisman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on literature data to compare energy and water balance, nutrient recovery, chemical use, effluent quality and land area requirement in four different sanitation concepts: (1 centralized; (2 centralized with source-separation of urine; (3 source-separation of black water, kitchen refuse and grey water; and (4 source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. The highest primary energy consumption of 914 MJ/capita(cap/year was attained within the centralized sanitation concept, and the lowest primary energy consumption of 437 MJ/cap/year was attained within source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. Grey water bio-flocculation and subsequent grey water sludge co-digestion decreased the primary energy consumption, but was not energetically favorable to couple with grey water effluent reuse. Source-separation of urine improved the energy balance, nutrient recovery and effluent quality, but required larger land area and higher chemical use in the centralized concept.

  5. Total Phenols, Antioxidant Activity and Microbiological Quality of Ozone Sanitized Blackberry (Rubus spp. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valcenir Júnior Mendes Furlan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Regular research conducted has associated the consumption of fresh fruits to beneficial effects on health, but microbiological quality must be ensured. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of ozone as a sanitizing agent and evaluate the impact of treatment on the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, color and microbiological quality of blackberry (Rubus spp. L. Tupy cultivar. The total coliforms and at 45ºC, Salmonella, yeasts and molds, content of total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, color and pH of the samples were evaluated. The values obtained for total phenols, antioxidant activity and color test were not significantly different (p>0.05 between the control treatment, and those where the ozone was applied for 30 s and for 3 min. However, sanitization with a solution of sodium hypochlorite caused a significant reduction (p≤0.05 for the hue angle in relation to the in natura sample (control. It was concluded that the treatment in which ozone was used as a sanitizer for 3 min, was the most effective in reducing the microbial load of yeasts and molds, followed by the treatment with sodium hypochlorite solution and ozone for 30 s.

  6. Access to basic sanitation and hospitalization for acute diarrheal disease: a study of child vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Mendonça Guimarães

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the differential vulnerability of children in relation to environmental sanitation conditions.Methods: An ecological study was conducted about the association between the trend in rates of hospitalization for acute diarrheal disease (ADD and the population covered by basic sanitation in Brazil by Brazilian states, and stratified by age. The polynomial regression model was used to assess trends. Results: Using data from sanitation coverage and hospitalization rate for ADD, an inverse correlation was found between the two variables, with the correlation having greater magnitude and statistical significance for children (adults: r = -0.259, p = 0.184; children: r = -0.406, p = 0.032. Moreover, there was a statistically significant association for the number of hospitalizations for ADD in children, including the global data for Brazil (SIR = 3.17, 95 % CI 2.95 to 3.42. Conclusions: Improved knowledge and information about children and their windows of susceptibility to environmental agents will help to identify susceptible subgroups and ages, as well as to plan specific preventive measures.

  7. From Indicators to Policies: Open Sustainability Assessment in the Water and Sanitation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Alejandro Iribarnegaray

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A water and sanitation sustainability index (WASSI was developed and estimated in four cities of the province of Salta, in northern Argentina. The index was built with nine descriptors and fifteen indicators that covered all essential aspects of the sustainability of local water and sanitation management systems. Only one of the cities studied obtained a sustainability value above the acceptability threshold adopted (50 of 100 points. Results indicate that the water company needs to address some environmental and social issues to enhance the sustainability of the systems studied. The WASSI was conceptually robust and operationally simple, and could be easily adapted to the case studies. The index can be followed and updated online on a web site specially developed for this project. This website could be useful to promote participatory processes, assist decision makers, and facilitate academic research. According to local stakeholders, a more open sustainability assessment based on sustainability indices and supported by virtual tools would be relevant and highly feasible. It would help decision makers improve the sustainability and transparency of water and sanitation management systems, and promote more sustainable water policies in the region and beyond.

  8. Slum Sanitation and the Social Determinants of Women’s Health in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Corburn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate urban sanitation disproportionately impacts the social determinants of women’s health in informal settlements or slums. The impacts on women’s health include infectious and chronic illnesses, violence, food contamination and malnutrition, economic and educational attainment, and indignity. We used household survey data to report on self-rated health and sociodemographic, housing, and infrastructure conditions in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We combined quantitative survey and mapping data with qualitative focus group information to better understand the relationships between environmental sanitation and the social determinants of women and girls’ health in the Mathare slum. We find that an average of eighty-five households in Mathare share one toilet, only 15% of households have access to a private toilet, and the average distance to a public toilet is over 52 meters. Eighty-three percent of households without a private toilet report poor health. Mathare women report violence (68%, respiratory illness/cough (46%, diabetes (33%, and diarrhea (30% as the most frequent physical burdens. Inadequate, unsafe, and unhygienic sanitation results in multiple and overlapping health, economic, and social impacts that disproportionately impact women and girls living in urban informal settlements.

  9. Slum Sanitation and the Social Determinants of Women's Health in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Hildebrand, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate urban sanitation disproportionately impacts the social determinants of women's health in informal settlements or slums. The impacts on women's health include infectious and chronic illnesses, violence, food contamination and malnutrition, economic and educational attainment, and indignity. We used household survey data to report on self-rated health and sociodemographic, housing, and infrastructure conditions in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We combined quantitative survey and mapping data with qualitative focus group information to better understand the relationships between environmental sanitation and the social determinants of women and girls' health in the Mathare slum. We find that an average of eighty-five households in Mathare share one toilet, only 15% of households have access to a private toilet, and the average distance to a public toilet is over 52 meters. Eighty-three percent of households without a private toilet report poor health. Mathare women report violence (68%), respiratory illness/cough (46%), diabetes (33%), and diarrhea (30%) as the most frequent physical burdens. Inadequate, unsafe, and unhygienic sanitation results in multiple and overlapping health, economic, and social impacts that disproportionately impact women and girls living in urban informal settlements. PMID:26060499

  10. Field survey of a sustainable sanitation system in a residential house

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoko NAKAGAWA; Masahiro OTAKI; Shinji MIURA; Hironobu HAMASUNA; Katsuyoshi ISHIZAKI

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable sanitation is an approach for more ecological and sustainable water resources management. In this paper, we proposed one of the new integrated waste treatment systems: an "sustainable sanitation system" that includes separation of the black water from water system by a non-flushing toilet (bio-toilet), and a gray water treatment based on a biological and ecological concept.Sustainable sanitation system also converts the domestic waste to soil conditioners and fertilizers, for farmland use. As one of the case studies, Environmentally Symbiotic Housing in which people actually live using the bio-toilet for the black water treatment and the household wastewater treatment facility for the gray water was introduced. The availability of this system was investigated by analyzing the sawdust used in the bio-toilet and the quality of the effluent in the household wastewater treatment facility. As the result,the water content of the sawdust did not exceed 60% in any of the sampling points and the BOD and COD of the effluent of the household wastewater treatment facility were below 10 and 20 mg/L respectively, due to the low loading. Compared to the pollution load on the water environment created by the conventional system, it was found that the effluent of the house has a lower load than the tertiary treatment and the volume of the water consumption is 75% of the conventional system.

  11. School Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene, Soil-Transmitted Helminths, and Schistosomes: National Mapping in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack E T Grimes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is thought that improving water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH might reduce the transmission of schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths, owing to their life cycles. However, few large-scale studies have yet assessed the real extent of associations between WASH and these parasites.In the 2013-2014 Ethiopian national mapping of infections with these parasites, school WASH was assessed alongside infection intensity in children, mostly between 10 and 15 years of age. Scores were constructed reflecting exposure to schistosomes arising from water collection for schools, from freshwater sources, and the adequacy of school sanitation and hygiene facilities. Kendall's τb was used to test the WASH scores against the school-level arithmetic mean intensity of infection with each parasite, in schools with at least one child positive for the parasite in question. WASH and parasitology data were available for 1,645 schools. More frequent collection of water for schools, from open freshwater sources was associated with statistically significantly higher Schistosoma mansoni infection intensity (Kendall's τb = 0.097, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.011 to 0.18, better sanitation was associated with significantly lower Ascaris lumbricoides intensity (Kendall's τb = -0.067, 95% CI: -0.11 to -0.023 and borderline significant lower hookworm intensity (Kendall's τb = -0.039, 95% CI: -0.090 to 0.012, P = 0.067, and better hygiene was associated with significantly lower hookworm intensity (Kendall's τb = -0.076, 95% CI: -0.13 to -0.020. However, no significant differences were observed when comparing sanitation and infection with S. mansoni or Trichuris trichiura, or hygiene and infection with A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura.Improving school WASH may reduce transmission of these parasites. However, different forms of WASH appear to have different effects on infection with the various parasites, with our analysis finding the strongest associations between

  12. Effects of Cage Density, Sanitation Frequency, and Bedding Type on Animal Wellbeing and Health and Cage Environment in Mice and Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Mandy J; Hudson, Shanice V.; Bostrom, Linda A; Cooper, Dale M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of cage density, sanitation frequency, and bedding type on animal growth and welfare. At weaning, Sprague–Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice were allocated to treatment groups according to sex, bedding type (shredded aspen, cellulose, or a 50:50 mixture), and cage density and sanitation frequency (inhouse cage density standards and sanitation procedures measured against Guide recommendations) for an 8-wk period. Body weight, feed disapp...

  13. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Lee, Chul Ou; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.Objective: This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination.Design: Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Clu...

  14. O processo administrativo-sanitário como instrumento de efetividade das ações de vigilância sanitária

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    Joedson de Souza DELGADO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se o processo administrativo-sanitário oriundo da Lei n. 6.437/1977, suas formalidades e tramitação no contexto da vigilância sanitária. Aborda-se a complementação de outras regras jurídicas em sentido amplo para caracterizar adequadamente uma situação como infração sanitária. Destaca-se a importância da sistematização do Direito Sanitário sancionador com observância aos primados da ampla defesa e do contraditório em face do atributo da coercibilidade presente no poder de polícia. Revisa-se o material bibliográfico acerca do tema, com ênfase na doutrina administrativa sanitária e estudam-se os elementos do poder normativo e do poder de fiscalização, percorrendo a edição de regramentos técnicos que estabelecem condutas obrigatórias, vedadas ou permitidas. Conclui-se que a norma processual, prevista na Lei n. 6.437/1977, contempla um conjunto de medidas que realiza a prevenção dos riscos e a proteção dos danos à saúde com a responsabilidade legal diante do descumprimento ao ordenamento jurídico-sanitário, mas que alguns institutos devem ser atualizados revistos, assim como apurado o modelo de cobrança administrativa e judicial das multas sanitárias. ABSTRACT Analyzed the administrative-sanitary process from the Brazilian Law n. 6.437/1977, his rules and procedure in the context of the sanitary vigilance. Approached the complementation of other juridical rules in a wide sense to characterize adequately a situation as sanitary infraction. Stands out the relevance of the systematization of Sanitary Law punitive, with observance in the priority of the ample defense and the contradictory in front of the attribute of present repression in the power of the police. Revised the bibliographical material over of the topic, emphatically in the administrative sanitary doctrine and study the elements of the normative power and of the power of inspection, crossing the edition of technical regulations that establish

  15. 75 FR 2800 - Special Community Disaster Loans Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... ability to provide essential municipal services such as public schools, sanitation, fire and police... interim rule to implement the provisions of the 2005 Act. See 70 FR 60443; also 44 CFR 206.370-206.377... using for the CDL program. See 74 FR 15228. Pursuant to FEMA's statutory authority under the 2007...

  16. Violence in Children's Television Programming: Assessing the Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara J.; Smith, Stacy L.; Potter, W. James; Kunkel, Dale; Linz, Daniel; Colvin, Carolyn M.; Donnerstein, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the nature and extent of violence contained in television programming that targets children aged 12 and younger. Notes that the violence itself is just as likely to be glamorized in children's as in nonchildren's shows, but it is even more sanitized and more likely to be trivialized. Documents five subgenres of children's programming…

  17. Comparison of virucidal activity of alcohol-based hand sanitizers versus antimicrobial hand soaps in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, J; Paulmann, D; Becker, B; Bischoff, B; Steinmann, E; Steinmann, J

    2012-12-01

    Three ethanol-based sanitizers were compared with three antimicrobial liquid soaps for their efficacy to inactivate polio-, adeno-, vaccinia- and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as well as feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) as surrogates for human norovirus in a suspension test. Additionally, sanitizers and soaps were examined against MNV in a modified fingerpad method. All sanitizers sufficiently inactivated the test viruses in the suspension test whereas two soaps were active only against vaccinia virus and BVDV. In the modified fingerpad test a povidone-iodine-containing soap was superior to the sanitizers whereas the other two soaps showed no activity.

  18. Water Quality vs. Sanitation Accessibility: What is the most effective intervention point for preventing cholera in Dhaka, Bangladesh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, M. S.; Gute, D.; Faruque, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Every year, 3 to 5 million individuals contract cholera, an acute diarrheal infection that is caused by the ingestion of food or water containing the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. Because cholera is a waterborne disease, it can be transmitted quickly in environments with inadequate water and sanitation systems where infected waste can easily pollute drinking water. Today, Bangladesh continues to struggle with endemic cholera. Donor organizations address water and sanitation via localized initiatives, including the installation of community water collection sites (i.e. tubewells; water-boiling points; etc.). At this small-scale level, water quality and sanitation accessibility can be improved independently of one another, and when resources are limited, donors must invest in the most effective disease prevention options. This study used laboratory-confirmed cholera incidence data (2000-2009) collected by the International Centre of Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh at their on-site hospital to compare the efficacy of interventions addressing water quality versus sanitation accessibility in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data regarding use of sanitary latrines and boiling of drinking water were extracted from sequential patient interviews conducted at the Dhaka facility and used as surrogate variables for sanitation accessibility and water quality respectively. Our analysis indicates that boiling water is 10 times more effective at preventing cholera than the use of a sanitary latrine. This finding suggests that regulating water quality is perhaps more critical to cholera prevention than increasing sanitation accessibility in an urban environment like that of Dhaka. At present, WaterAid - one of Bangladesh's most significant water and sanitation donor organizations - invests the majority of its budget on improving sanitation accessibility. The World Health Organization and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals also prioritize sanitation accessibility. However, in

  19. Food Safety in the National School Lunch Program. USDA Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Schools that serve meals under the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) are required to maintain proper sanitation and health standards in conformance with all applicable State and local laws and regulations. In addition, schools are required to obtain two school food safety inspections per school year, which are…

  20. Using Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis Methods to Assess Household Water Access and Sanitation Coverage in the SHINE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntozini, Robert; Marks, Sara J; Mangwadu, Goldberg; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Gerema, Grace; Mutasa, Batsirai; Julian, Timothy R; Schwab, Kellogg J; Humphrey, Jean H; Zungu, Lindiwe I

    2015-12-15

    Access to water and sanitation are important determinants of behavioral responses to hygiene and sanitation interventions. We estimated cluster-specific water access and sanitation coverage to inform a constrained randomization technique in the SHINE trial. Technicians and engineers inspected all public access water sources to ascertain seasonality, function, and geospatial coordinates. Households and water sources were mapped using open-source geospatial software. The distance from each household to the nearest perennial, functional, protected water source was calculated, and for each cluster, the median distance and the proportion of households within 1500 m of such a water source. Cluster-specific sanitation coverage was ascertained using a random sample of 13 households per cluster. These parameters were included as covariates in randomization to optimize balance in water and sanitation access across treatment arms at the start of the trial. The observed high variability between clusters in both parameters suggests that constraining on these factors was needed to reduce risk of bias. PMID:26602299