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Sample records for city viet nam

  1. Interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T.; Kuroda, K.; Do Thuan, A.; Tran Thi Viet, N.; Takizawa, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hanoi is the capital of Viet Nam and the second largest city in this country (population: 6.45 million in 2009). Hanoi city has developed along the Red River and has many lakes, ponds and canals. However, recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced number of natural water areas such as ponds and lakes by reclamation not only in the central area but the suburban area. Canals also have been reclaimed or cut into pieces. Contrary, number of artificial water areas such as fish cultivation pond has rapidly increased. On the other hand, various kind of waste water flows into these natural and artificial water areas and induces pollution and eutrophication. These waste waters also have possibility of pollution of groundwater that is one of major water resources in this city. In addition, groundwater in this area has high concentrations of Arsenic, Fe and NH4. Thus, groundwater use may causes re-circulation of Arsenic. However, studies on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater and on the role of surface water areas for solute transport with water cycle are a few. Therefore, we focused on these points and took water samples of river, pond and groundwater from four communities in suburban areas: two communities are located near the Red River and other two are far from the River. Also, columnar sediment samples of these ponds were taken and pore water was abstracted. Major dissolved ions, metals and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were analyzed. As for water cycle, from the correlation between δ18O and δD, the Red River water (after GNIR) were distributed along the LMWL (δD=8.2δ18O+14.1, calculated from precipitation (after GNIP)). On the other hand, although the pond waters in rainy season were distributed along the LMWL, that in dry season were distributed along the local evaporation line (LEL, slope=5.6). The LEL crossed with the LMWL at around the point of weighted mean values of precipitation in rainy season and of

  2. HOG-WILD IN VIET NAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Amid growing pains, a Chongqing company finds Viet Nam good for breeding its motorcycles Back in 1998, Yin Mingshan found his company was between a rock and a hard place with seemingly nowhere to scooter through. As Chairman of the Board of Chongqing Lifan Industry Co. Ltd., China's largest motorcycle manufacturer, Vm was seeing his domestic market dry up while export volume also was shrinking.

  3. Phylogeography of recently emerged DENV-2 in southern Viet Nam.

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    Maia A Rabaa

    Full Text Available Revealing the dispersal of dengue viruses (DENV in time and space is central to understanding their epidemiology. However, the processes that shape DENV transmission patterns at the scale of local populations are not well understood, particularly the impact of such factors as human population movement and urbanization. Herein, we investigated trends in the spatial dynamics of DENV-2 transmission in the highly endemic setting of southern Viet Nam. Through a phylogeographic analysis of 168 full-length DENV-2 genome sequences obtained from hospitalized dengue cases from 10 provinces in southern Viet Nam, we reveal substantial genetic diversity in both urban and rural areas, with multiple lineages identified in individual provinces within a single season, and indicative of frequent viral migration among communities. Focusing on the recently introduced Asian I genotype, we observed particularly high rates of viral exchange between adjacent geographic areas, and between Ho Chi Minh City, the primary urban center of this region, and populations across southern Viet Nam. Within Ho Chi Minh City, patterns of DENV movement appear consistent with a gravity model of virus dispersal, with viruses traveling across a gradient of population density. Overall, our analysis suggests that Ho Chi Minh City may act as a source population for the dispersal of DENV across southern Viet Nam, and provides further evidence that urban areas of Southeast Asia play a primary role in DENV transmission. However, these data also indicate that more rural areas are also capable of maintaining virus populations and hence fueling DENV evolution over multiple seasons.

  4. Disability from Japanese encephalitis in Cambodia and Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Susan L; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Touch, Sok; Mai, Hoang Hong; Soeung, Sann Chan; Lien, Tran Thi Huong; Samnang, Chham; Sovann, Ly; Van Diu, Pham; Lac, Luc Duy; Heng, Seng; Huong, Vu Minh; Grundy, John J; Huch, Chea; Lewthwaite, Penny; Solomon, Tom; Jacobson, Julie A

    2011-08-01

    A cohort of Japanese encephalitis (JE) survivors in Cambodia and Viet Nam were assessed at least 4 months after hospital discharge in order to understand the extent of disability after JE. We used a simple assessment tool which focuses on the impact on daily life. In total, 64 disability assessments were conducted: 38 in Cambodia and 26 in Viet Nam. In Cambodia, 4 (11%) children had severe sequelae, suggesting the children would likely be dependent, 15 (39%) had moderate sequelae and 17 (45%) had mild sequelae. In Viet Nam, two (8%) persons had severe sequelae, five (19%) had moderate sequelae and eight (31%) had mild sequelae. In many JE-endemic areas there are no multi-disciplinary teams with sophisticated equipment to assess patients after JE disease. This assessment tool can assist with patient management and generate data to support the need for programmes to prevent disease and improve outcomes for survivors.

  5. Paragonimiasis in Sin Ho District, Lai Chau Province, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vien, C V; Phue, N C; Ha, L D; Tuan, L M; Van, N T; Pao, T C; Hoa, L T; Phoung, C T

    1997-01-01

    Forty-four cases of pulmonary paragonimiasis, two also with evidence of cerebral infection, were found in Sin Ho District in Northern Viet Nam. There were 30 males and 14 females, 2-30 years of age. The diagnosis was made by sputum examination. Pet dogs and wild dogs in the area were also found infected and the people often eat roasted crabs.

  6. Globalization and the Governance of Education in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    In a globalizing world, local and global governance arrangements are increasingly interdependent, which produces harmonization in some instances and new tensions and contradictions in others. Analysis shows that successive waves of globalization have affected the governance of education in Viet Nam differently. It shows that the globalization of…

  7. National survey of tuberculosis prevalence in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoa, N.B.; Sy, D.N.; Nhung, N.V.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Borgdorff, M.W.; Cobelens, F.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis in Viet Nam with data from a population-based survey, compare it with the prevalence estimated by the World Health Organization, and identify major demographic determinants of tuberculosis prevalence. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with multis

  8. Wave overtopping resistance of grassed slopes in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Meer, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Simulator was applied to test the resistance against wave overtopping of grass covered dike slopes in Viet Nam. Observation and measurement during destructive tests were performed to investigate the development process of damage induced by overtopping flow. Damages were likely to be initiated at

  9. Globalization and the Governance of Education in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    In a globalizing world, local and global governance arrangements are increasingly interdependent, which produces harmonization in some instances and new tensions and contradictions in others. Analysis shows that successive waves of globalization have affected the governance of education in Viet Nam differently. It shows that the globalization of…

  10. Adequacy of anti-tuberculosis drug prescriptions in Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, N B; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L

    2012-01-01

    SETTING: National Tuberculosis Program, Viet Nam, 2008. OBJECTIVES: To determine drug prescription adherence to national guidelines, to examine factors associated with an erroneous dosage of rifampin (RMP) and to evaluate the impact of an insufficient RMP dosage on treatment outcome. METHODS: A r...

  11. Wave overtopping resistance of grassed slopes in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Meer, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Simulator was applied to test the resistance against wave overtopping of grass covered dike slopes in Viet Nam. Observation and measurement during destructive tests were performed to investigate the development process of damage induced by overtopping flow. Damages were likely to be initiated at

  12. Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Z Guilmoto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam. Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since 2000 of about 450,000 women, as well as from two successive birth surveys conducted for the first time in 2007 (1.1 million births. The annual population surveys include specific information on birth history and mothers' characteristics to be used for the analysis of trends and differentials in sex ratio at birth. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Birth history statistics indicate that the SRB in Viet Nam has recorded a steady growth since 2001. Starting from a level probably close to the biological standard of 105, the SRB reached 108 in 2005 and 112 in 2006, a value significantly above the normal level. An independent confirmation of these results comes from the surveys of births in health facilities which yielded a SRB of 110 in 2006-07. High SRB is linked to various factors such as access to modern health care, number of prenatal visits, level of higher education and employment status, young age, province of residence and prenatal sex determination. These results suggest that prenatal sex determination followed by selective abortion has recently become more common in Viet Nam. This recent trend is a consequence of various factors such as preference for sons, declining fertility, easy access to abortion, economic development as well as the increased availability of ultrasonography facilities.

  13. Characterizing the relationship between temperature and mortality in tropical and subtropical cities: a distributed lag non-linear model analysis in Hue, Viet Nam, 2009–2013

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    Tran Ngoc Dang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between temperature and mortality has been found to be U-, V-, or J-shaped in developed temperate countries; however, in developing tropical/subtropical cities, it remains unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in Hue, a subtropical city in Viet Nam. Design: We collected daily mortality data from the Vietnamese A6 mortality reporting system for 6,214 deceased persons between 2009 and 2013. A distributed lag non-linear model was used to examine the temperature effects on all-cause and cause-specific mortality by assuming negative binomial distribution for count data. We developed an objective-oriented model selection with four steps following the Akaike information criterion (AIC rule (i.e. a smaller AIC value indicates a better model. Results: High temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with short lags, whereas low temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with long lags. The low temperatures increased risk in all-category mortality compared to high temperatures. We observed elevated temperature-mortality risk in vulnerable groups: elderly people (high temperature effect, relative risk [RR]=1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11–1.83; low temperature effect, RR=2.0, 95% CI=1.13–3.52, females (low temperature effect, RR=2.19, 95% CI=1.14–4.21, people with respiratory disease (high temperature effect, RR=2.45, 95% CI=0.91–6.63, and those with cardiovascular disease (high temperature effect, RR=1.6, 95% CI=1.15–2.22; low temperature effect, RR=1.99, 95% CI=0.92–4.28. Conclusions: In Hue, the temperature significantly increased the risk of mortality, especially in vulnerable groups (i.e. elderly, female, people with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. These findings may provide a foundation for developing adequate policies to address the effects of temperature on health in Hue City.

  14. Cooperation of nuclear manpower development between Viet Nam and Korea in order to enhance establishment of infrastructure in exporting nuclear technology to Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Park, J. K.; Kim, Y. T.; Nam, Y. M.; Jang, Y. H.; Yang, M. H

    2003-08-15

    Through this project, KAERI provided OJT Programme to 3 nuclear experts of Viet Nam at the KAERI for 3 months as a cooperation of human resource development in the field of nuclear policy, nuclear safety analysis and thermo hydraulic. We could have publicity activities of S/W and H/W then achieve an advantage position of economical and technical in exporting nuclear technology to Viet Nam. Also we have provided a training course and seminar for a high-level delegation of nuclear policy decision makers, which is consisted of 5 deputy ministers and general directors of Viet Nam in Korea. Thus we could have Vietnamese who are favoring Korea. The KAERI will also prepare a data base of trained Vietnamese in Korea for the maximum utilization of them in cooperating with Viet Nam. We accomplished the cooperation of human resource development and providing program and curriculum of the nuclear education and training in Viet Nam. Furthermore, it is expected that the enhancement of nuclear technical cooperation between Viet Nam and Korea and the nuclear human resource development.

  15. Plague foci in Viet Nam: zoological and parasitological aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Suntsov, V. V.; Huong, L. T.; Suntsova, N. I.; Gratz, N. G.

    1997-01-01

    Reported are the results of studies over the period 1989-94 on host-flea complexes in small mammals and their flea ectoparasites in and around a number of human settlements in Viet Nam in which human cases of plague had been found. Collections were also made in savanna and tropical forest areas within a 10-km radius of the settlements. The greatest numbers of small mammals, for the most part Rattus spp., and of the flea ectoparasite Xenopsylla cheopis were found in inhabited areas. X. cheopis...

  16. Mandatory helmet legislation and the print media in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter S; Ngo, Anh D; Khuong, Tuan A; Dao, Huong L; Hoang, Hanh T M; Trinh, Hang T; Nguyen, Lien T N; Nguyen, Phong H

    2009-07-01

    With motorcycle ownership high and rising in Viet Nam, and motorcycle riders vulnerable to both fatal and non-fatal injury, the re-introduction of mandatory helmet legislation in 2007 has been a priority for the Vietnamese government. The paper uses a qualitative analysis of web-based versions of the eight most popular newspapers in Viet Nam to track reporting over four phases of the implementation of the legislation, identifying codes and constructing the dominant themes of the media coverage. The study documents the justification and promotion of the legislation, and the mechanisms for preparing for its implementation at a national and local level, developing solutions and encouraging the replication of successful strategies. It records opposition and obstacles to helmet use, and concerns raised around the quality of helmets purchased. In return, the press notes the response of the market in innovative solutions to these problems. With the successful implementation of the legislation, the functions of the print media in promulgating and promoting the legislation, together with the reporting of ongoing resistance to the process, serve to enable a dialogue between the State and population around expressed concerns. In highlighting quality control of helmets as a key issue, the media have identified a potential ongoing role in monitoring the state's initiative in reducing the road toll from traumatic brain injury in motorcyclists.

  17. Plague foci in Viet Nam: zoological and parasitological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntsov, V V; Huong, L T; Suntsova, N I; Gratz, N G

    1997-01-01

    Reported are the results of studies over the period 1989-94 on host-flea complexes in small mammals and their flea ectoparasites in and around a number of human settlements in Viet Nam in which human cases of plague had been found. Collections were also made in savanna and tropical forest areas within a 10-km radius of the settlements. The greatest numbers of small mammals, for the most part Rattus spp., and of the flea ectoparasite Xenopsylla cheopis were found in inhabited areas. X. cheopis was not found on any feral or sylvan mammal further than 0.6 km from settlements. A possible link between wild and commensal mammals may be provided by the flea Lentistivalius klossi, a specific parasite of squirrels and tree-shrews but also found in very small numbers on commensal rats. No zoonotic foci of plague were found in the immediate vicinity of the villages studied and it is most likely that plague persists in a commensal rat-X. cheopis cycle in and around human settlements in Viet Nam.

  18. Effectiveness of the Viet Nam produced, mouse brain-derived, inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Northern Viet Nam.

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    Florian Marks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE is a flaviviral disease of public health concern in many parts of Asia. JE often occurs in large epidemics, has a high case-fatality ratio and, among survivors, frequently causes persistent neurological sequelae and mental disabilities. In 1997, the Vietnamese government initiated immunization campaigns targeting all children aged 1-5 years. Three doses of a locally-produced, mouse brain-derived, inactivated JE vaccine (MBV were given. This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of Viet Nam's MBV. METHODOLOGY: A matched case-control study was conducted in Northern Viet Nam. Cases were identified through an ongoing hospital-based surveillance. Each case was matched to four healthy controls for age, gender, and neighborhood. The vaccination history was ascertained through JE immunization logbooks maintained at local health centers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty cases and 120 controls were enrolled. The effectiveness of the JE vaccine was 92.9% [95% CI: 66.6-98.5]. Confounding effects of other risk variables were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results strongly suggest that the locally-produced JE-MBV given to 1-5 years old Vietnamese children was efficacious.

  19. Managing Success in Viet Nam: Macroeconomic Consequences of Large Capital Inflows with Limited Policy Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Jayant

    2009-01-01

    Viet Nam has experienced spectacular economic growth over the past decade, in part the result of massive foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Although much has been written on the impacts of FDI in developing countries, previous studies have generally ignored macroeconomic consequences in cost-benefit assessments. These macroeconomic aspects can be particularly important in transitional economies like Viet Nam, where some of the tools for macroeconomic stabilization may be blunt or unavai...

  20. Electric two-wheelers in India and Viet Nam: Market analysis and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, C.; Luke Jones [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Electric two-wheelers, which include vehicles ranging from electric bicycles to electric scooters, are becoming increasingly popular and important forms of urban transport in Asian cities, particularly in the People's Republic of China (PRC). While electric two-wheelers' popularity is evident in the PRC, their acceptance and adoption in other Asian countries is much more modest. The potential environmental benefit to Asian cities of electric two-wheelers could be significant, especially if electric two-wheelers replaced gasoline scooters and motorcycles. Electric two-wheelers in the PRC have been shown to have some of the lowest emission rates per kilometer compared to any motorized mode. This report consists of three main analyses for two Asian cities, Ahmedabad, India, and Ha Noi, Viet Nam. The first is a market analysis of both cities, using disaggregate stated-preference choice modeling method derived from user surveys to estimate the factors that influence electric two-wheeler purchase. Factors tested include vehicle price and performance characteristics, as well as variables like tax and licensing policy. The second analysis investigates electric two-wheeler emission rates based on electricity generation characteristics in Viet Nam and India. These analyses were conducted using two aggregate models to estimate primary pollutants and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The final section of this report combines the market models with the emission estimates to develop scenarios of vehicle adoption and the influence of those varied adoption rates on average emissions of the two-wheeler population in each of these cities. Electric two-wheelers are much cleaner than their gasoline-powered two-wheeled counterparts on most metrics. Gasoline two-wheelers emit approximately double the CO{sub 2}, an order of magnitude more nitrogen oxides and particulate matter 10, and several orders of magnitude more volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide. Particulate matter

  1. Consequences of gestational diabetes in an urban hospital in Viet Nam: a prospective cohort study.

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    Jane E Hirst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is increasing and is a risk for type 2 diabetes. Evidence supporting screening comes mostly from high-income countries. We aimed to determine prevalence and outcomes in urban Viet Nam. We compared the proposed International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG criterion, requiring one positive value on the 75-g glucose tolerance test, to the 2010 American Diabetes Association (ADA criterion, requiring two positive values. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. Study participants were 2,772 women undergoing routine prenatal care who underwent a 75-g glucose tolerance test and interview around 28 (range 24-32 wk. GDM diagnosed by the ADA criterion was treated by local protocol. Women with GDM by the IADPSG criterion but not the ADA criterion were termed "borderline" and received standard care. 2,702 women (97.5% of cohort were followed until discharge after delivery. GDM was diagnosed in 164 participants (6.1% by the ADA criterion, 550 (20.3% by the IADPSG criterion. Mean body mass index was 20.45 kg/m(2 in women with out GDM, 21.10 in women with borderline GDM, and 21.81 in women with GDM, p<0.001. Women with GDM and borderline GDM were more likely to deliver preterm, with adjusted odds ratios (aORs of 1.49 (95% CI 1.16-1.91 and 1.52 (1.03-2.24, respectively. They were more likely to have clinical neonatal hypoglycaemia, aORs of 4.94 (3.41-7.14 and 3.34 (1.41-7.89, respectively. For large for gestational age, the aORs were 1.16 (0.93-1.45 and 1.31 (0.96-1.79, respectively. There was no significant difference in large for gestational age, death, severe birth trauma, or maternal morbidity between the groups. Women with GDM underwent more labour inductions, aOR 1.51 (1.08-2.11. CONCLUSIONS: Choice of criterion greatly affects GDM prevalence in Viet Nam. Women with GDM by the IADPSG criterion were at risk of preterm delivery

  2. Root characteristics of some grass species on the sea dikes in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2011, some grass-covered sea dikes were tested with the Wave Overtopping Simulator in the north of Viet Nam. Slope specifications and grass species of sea and estuary dikes were quantitatively observed and investigated. This report is concerned with expressing main characteristics

  3. Root characteristics of some grass species on the sea dikes in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2011, some grass-covered sea dikes were tested with the Wave Overtopping Simulator in the north of Viet Nam. Slope specifications and grass species of sea and estuary dikes were quantitatively observed and investigated. This report is concerned with expressing main characteristics o

  4. Time to unsuccessful tuberculosis treatment outcome, Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, N B; Sokun, C; Wei, C

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and characteristics of patients with unsuccessful tuberculosis (TB) treatment. METHODS: Random selection of TB case registers among all treatment units in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam. The data of two calendar years were analyzed to assess u...

  5. Characterisation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates lacking IS6110 in Viet Nam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, M.N.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Kremer, K.; Haas, P. de; Lan, N.T.; Buu, T.N.; Sola, C.; Cobelens, F.G.; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    SETTING: The molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam is often based on the detection of insertion sequence (IS) 6110 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, 8-11% of M. tuberculosis strains in South-East Asia do not contain this target and this undermines the validity of these molecular

  6. Characteristics of tuberculosis patients at intake in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam

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    Lauritsen Jens M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all tuberculosis case categories. National tuberculosis programs might utilize such information to identify problems related to referral and access to diagnosis and treatment. Objectives Based on the electronic database we created, our objectives were to provide a detailed description of age and sex characteristics of tuberculosis patients at registration and to provide a comparison of age-specific sex characteristics among incident and prevalent sputum smear-positive cases. Methods A representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2005 was selected in Cambodia, two provinces in China and Viet Nam. Age and sex characteristics of cases in the three separate prevalence surveys in the three jurisdictions (Cambodia: year 2002; China: year 2000; and Viet Nam: year 2006-2007 were obtained for comparison. Results A total 37,635 patients had been registered during the period in the selected units in the three countries. Cases were more frequently male in all three countries with 53%, 71%, and 69% in Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam, respectively. The ratios of the female-to-male odds in the notification system to that in the prevalence survey in smear-positive cases in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam were 2.1, 0.9, and 1.8, respectively. Because of the small proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis registered in China, we limited the analysis on age and sex distribution for extrapulmonary cases to Cambodia and Viet Nam. The proportion with extrapulmonary tuberculosis among all cases was 18.5% in Cambodia and 15.7% in Viet Nam, decreasing in frequency with increasing age. Conclusions Characteristics of patients

  7. Gender dimensions of Viet Nam's comprehensive macroeconomic and structural reform policies

    OpenAIRE

    Packard, Le Anh Tu

    2006-01-01

    From a gender perspective, Viet Nam is an interesting case study because it is widely seen as a 'globalization' success story where historically the social and political status of women have been high compared with women's status in many other developing countries. At the same time, there is concern that women's status may be eroding during the country's rapid transition to a market economy. Thus, it is of interest to examine the relationship between gender equality and economic performance, ...

  8. Player or referee? Aid effectiveness and the governance of health policy development: Lessons from Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Rebecca; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Viet Nam is one of the brightest stars in the constellation of developing countries. Its remarkable achievements in reducing poverty and improving health and education outcomes are well known, and as a result it has enjoyed generous aid programmes. Viet Nam also has a reputation for taking a strong lead in disciplining its donors and pushing for more efficient and effective forms of aid delivery, both at home and internationally. This article discusses how efforts to improve the effectiveness of aid intersect with policy-making processes in the health sector. It presents a quantitative review of health aid flows in Viet Nam and a qualitative analysis of the aid environment using event analysis, participant observation and key informant interviews. The analysis reveals a complex and dynamic web of incentives influencing the implementation of the aid effectiveness agenda in the health sector. There are contradictory forces within the Ministry of Health, within government as a whole, within the donor community and between donors and government. Analytical frameworks drawn from the study of policy networks and governance can help explain these tensions. They suggest that governance of health aid in Viet Nam is characterised by multiple, overlapping 'policy networks' which cut across the traditional donor-government divide. The principles of aid effectiveness make sense for some of these communities, but for others they are irrational and may lead to a loss of influence and resources. However, sustained engagement combined with the building of strategic coalitions can overcome individual and institutional incentives. This article suggests that aid reform efforts should be understood not as a technocratic agenda but as a political process with all the associated tensions, perverse incentives and challenges. Partners thus need to recognise - and find new ways of making sense of - the complexity of forces affecting aid delivery.

  9. Oseltamivir resistance among influenza viruses: surveillance in northern Viet Nam, 2009–2012

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    Nguyen Thi Kim Phuong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiviral resistance has been reported in seasonal influenza A viruses and avian influenza A(H5N1 viruses in Viet Nam, raising concerns about the efficacy of treatment. Methods: We analysed specimens from two sources during the period 2009–2012: influenza-positive samples from influenza-like illness patients at sentinel clinics in northern Viet Nam and isolates from patients with confirmed A(H5N1 infections. Pyrosequencing was used to detect mutations: H275Y [for A(H1N1 and A(H5N1], E119V [for A(H3N2] and I117V [for A(H5N1]. A neuraminidase inhibition assay was used to determine the Inhibitory Concentration 50 (IC50 values for all influenza A and B isolates. Results: There were 341 influenza A positive samples identified; influenza A(H1N1pdm09 was identified most frequently (n = 215. In 2009, oseltamivir resistance was observed in 100% (19 of 19 of seasonal A(H1N1 isolates and 1.4% (3/215 of A(H1N1pdm09 isolates. This H275Y mutation was not found in influenza subtypes A(H5N1 or A(H3N2 isolates. Discussion: In Viet Nam, seasonal and A(H5N1 influenza vaccines are not currently available; thus, effective treatment is required. The presence of oseltamivir-resistant viruses is therefore a concern. Active surveillance for oseltamivir resistance among influenza viruses circulating in Viet Nam should be continued.

  10. Identifying factors for job motivation of rural health workers in North Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Cuong, Pham Viet; Anh, Le Vu; Martineau, Tim

    2003-11-05

    BACKGROUND: In Viet Nam, most of the public health staff (84%) currently works in rural areas, where 80% of the people live. To provide good quality health care services, it is important to develop strategies influencing staff motivation for better performance. METHOD: An exploratory qualitative research was carried out among health workers in two provinces in North Viet Nam so as to identify entry points for developing strategies that improve staff performance in rural areas. The study aimed to determine the major motivating factors and it is the first in Viet Nam that looks at health workers' job perception and motivation. Apart from health workers, managers at national and at provincial level were interviewed as well as some community representatives. RESULTS: The study showed that motivation is influenced by both financial and non-financial incentives. The main motivating factors for health workers were appreciation by managers, colleagues and the community, a stable job and income and training. The main discouraging factors were related to low salaries and difficult working conditions. CONCLUSION: Activities associated with appreciation such as performance management are currently not optimally implemented, as health workers perceive supervision as control, selection for training as unclear and unequal, and performance appraisal as not useful. The kind of non-financial incentives identified should be taken into consideration when developing HRM strategies. Areas for further studies are identified.

  11. Identifying factors for job motivation of rural health workers in North Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Le

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Viet Nam, most of the public health staff (84% currently works in rural areas, where 80% of the people live. To provide good quality health care services, it is important to develop strategies influencing staff motivation for better performance. Method An exploratory qualitative research was carried out among health workers in two provinces in North Viet Nam so as to identify entry points for developing strategies that improve staff performance in rural areas. The study aimed to determine the major motivating factors and it is the first in Viet Nam that looks at health workers' job perception and motivation. Apart from health workers, managers at national and at provincial level were interviewed as well as some community representatives. Results The study showed that motivation is influenced by both financial and non-financial incentives. The main motivating factors for health workers were appreciation by managers, colleagues and the community, a stable job and income and training. The main discouraging factors were related to low salaries and difficult working conditions. Conclusion Activities associated with appreciation such as performance management are currently not optimally implemented, as health workers perceive supervision as control, selection for training as unclear and unequal, and performance appraisal as not useful. The kind of non-financial incentives identified should be taken into consideration when developing HRM strategies. Areas for further studies are identified.

  12. Towards a lifelong learning society through reading promotion: Opportunities and challenges for libraries and community learning centres in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Zakir

    2016-04-01

    The government of Viet Nam has made a commitment to build a Lifelong Learning Society by 2020. A range of related initiatives have been launched, including the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization Centre for Lifelong Learning (SEAMEO CELLL) and "Book Day" - a day aimed at encouraging reading and raising awareness of its importance for the development of knowledge and skills. Viet Nam also aims to implement lifelong learning (LLL) activities in libraries, museums, cultural centres and clubs. The government of Viet Nam currently operates more than 11,900 Community Learning Centres (CLCs) and is in the process of both renovating and innovating public libraries and museums throughout the country. In addition to the work undertaken by the Viet Nam government, a number of enterprises have been initiated by non-governmental organisations and non-profit organisations to promote literacy and lifelong learning. This paper investigates some government initiatives focused on libraries and CLCs and their impact on reading promotion. Proposing a way forward, the paper confirms that Viet Nam's libraries and CLCs play an essential role in promoting reading and building a LLL Society.

  13. Early marriage and intimate partner violence among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong Le, Minh Thi; Tran, Thach Duc; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Fisher, Jane

    2014-03-01

    Research about the association between early marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income countries has yielded conflicting evidence. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of and associations between early marriage, and IPV among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam. Secondary analysis of data from the national Survey Assessment of Viet Namese Youth-Round II (SAVY-II) conducted in 2009-2010, which assessed a representative cohort of people aged 14 to 25 years recruited via a systematic household survey was undertaken. Prevalence was established using descriptive statistics. The association between early marriage and IPV was examined using multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for potential risk factors. Of 10,044 participants, 1,701 had ever married and were included in analyses. Early marriage (before age 18), and experiences of verbal, physical, or sexual IPV were more common among females than males. More young married men than women reported experiences of controlling behaviors by their partners. Early marriage, being illiterate, and exposure to sexual abuse were associated with experience of IPV among young females, but not among young males. Poverty and exposure to family violence was associated with IPV in both sexes. Addressing early marriage, low educational opportunities for girls, childhood sexual abuse, family violence, and poverty should be considered in strategies to reduce IPV in Viet Nam.

  14. Prevalence of and risk factors for violent disciplinary practices at home in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Claudia; Dam, Hang

    2014-02-01

    Data on parenting practices and the use of violence in child rearing remain scarce worldwide, hindering prevention efforts. This study examines disciplinary methods used on children at home in Viet Nam. It is based on data collected from 2010 to 2011 through the fourth round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4)-a household survey program supported by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) that focuses on women and children in low- and middle-income countries. Respondents in the survey were asked 11 questions relating to disciplinary measures used in the preceding month on one randomly selected child (2-14 years old) in each household. A final question about attitudes probed adults' views on the need for physical punishment in child rearing. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of violent and nonviolent forms of discipline, and to identify risk factors associated with violent punishment. Results showed that three in four children in Viet Nam are disciplined through violent means. The exposure of Vietnamese children to violent forms of discipline was significantly associated with varied characteristics of both children and their caregivers. Moreover, the use of violent disciplinary practices on children was strongly associated with positive attitudes toward corporal punishment. Risk factors for violent child discipline identified in this study can inform future interventions to promote positive practices and to protect Vietnamese children against violence in the home.

  15. Survey of food-hygiene practices at home and childhood diarrhoea in Hanoi, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Kumiko; Chonan, Yuko; Quyen, Dao To; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Poudel, Krishna C; Jimba, Masamine

    2009-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the potential factors of food-hygiene practices of mothers on the prevalence of diarrhoea among their children. Mothers who had children aged 6 months-5 years were recruited in a hamlet in Viet Nam. The food-hygiene practices included hand-washing, method of washing utensils, separation of utensils for raw and cooked food, and the location where foods were prepared for cooking. A face-to-face interview was conducted, and data on 206 mothers were analyzed. The risk of diarrhoea was significantly higher among children whose mothers prepared food for cooking somewhere other than the table (typically on the ground) compared to children whose mothers prepared food on the table (adjusted odds ratio = 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.11-7.28). The results indicate that food-hygiene practices of mothers, such as avoiding preparing food for cooking on the ground, has a potential impact in preventing diarrhoea among children in Viet Nam.

  16. Participatory support to farmers in improving safety and health at work: building WIND farmer volunteer networks in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Van, Vhu Nhu; Theu, Nguyen Van; Khai, Ton That; Kogi, Kazutaka

    2008-10-01

    The government of Viet Nam places a high priority on upgrading the quality of farmers' lives. Providing adequate occupational safety and health (OSH) protection for all farmers is an important challenge. The Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) of Viet Nam trained WIND (Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development) farmer volunteers. From 2004-2007, MOLISA in cooperation with ministries of health and agriculture trained 480 WIND farmer volunteers in selected 14 provinces. Trained farmer volunteers trained their neighbouring farmers and expanded their networks. The WIND training programme produced in Cantho, Viet Nam in 1996, was used as the core training methodology. The WIND action-checklist, good example photo-sheets, and other participatory training materials were designed for WIND farmer volunteers as practical training tools. The volunteers trained 7,922 farmers. The trained farmers implemented 28,508 improvements in materials handling, work posture, machine and electrical safety, working environments and control of hazardous chemicals, and welfare facilities. The provincial support committees organized follow-up workshops and strengthen the WIND farmer volunteer networks. The system of WIND farmer volunteers proved effective in extending practical OSH protection measures to farmers at grassroots level. The system of WIND farmer volunteers was adopted in the First National Programme on Labour Protection and OSH of Viet Nam as a practical means in OSH and is now further expanding within the framework of the National Programme.

  17. Towards a Lifelong Learning Society through Reading Promotion: Opportunities and Challenges for Libraries and Community Learning Centres in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Zakir

    2016-01-01

    The government of Viet Nam has made a commitment to build a Lifelong Learning Society by 2020. A range of related initiatives have been launched, including the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization Centre for Lifelong Learning (SEAMEO CELLL) and "Book Day"--a day aimed at encouraging reading and raising awareness of its…

  18. Situation analysis of quality of abortion care in the main maternity hospital in Hai Phòng, Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, My H Ng; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    Six months after a Comprehensive Abortion Care project was implemented in Phu-San Hospital, the main maternity hospital in Hai Phòng, northern Viet Nam, a study of quality of abortion services was carried out. The study explored the interaction between providers and women seeking abortion and how...

  19. A multicentre molecular analysis of hepatitis B and blood-borne virus coinfections in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dunford

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B (HBV infection is endemic in Viet Nam, with up to 8.4 million individuals estimated to be chronically infected. We describe results of a large, multicentre seroepidemiological and molecular study of the prevalence of HBV infection and blood-borne viral coinfections in Viet Nam. Individuals with varying risk factors for infection (n = 8654 were recruited from five centres; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. A mean prevalence rate of 10.7% was observed and levels of HBsAg were significantly higher in injecting drug users (IDUs (17.4%, n = 174/1000 and dialysis patients (14.3%, n = 82/575 than in lower-risk groups (9.4%; p<0.001. Coinfection with HIV was seen in 28% of HBV-infected IDUs (n = 49/174 and 15.2% of commercial sex workers (CSWs; n = 15/99. HCV infection was present in 89.8% of the HBV-HIV coinfected IDUs (n = 44/49 and 40% of HBV-HIV coinfected CSWs (n = 16/40. Anti-HDV was detected in 10.7% (n = 34/318 of HBsAg positive individuals. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV S gene (n = 187 showed a predominance of genotype B4 (82.6%; genotypes C1 (14.6%, B2 (2.7% and C5 (0.5% were also identified. The precore mutation G1896A was identified in 35% of all specimens, and was more frequently observed in genotype B (41% than genotype C (3%; p<0.0001. In the immunodominant 'a' region of the surface gene, point mutations were identified in 31% (n = 58/187 of sequences, and 2.2% (n = 4/187 and 5.3% (n = 10/187 specimens contained the major vaccine escape mutations G145A/R and P120L/Q/S/T, respectively. 368 HBsAg positive individuals were genotyped for the IL28B SNP rs12979860 and no significant association between the IL28B SNP and clearance of HBsAg, HBV viral load or HBeAg was observed. This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV infection in Viet Nam and also highlights the significant levels of blood-borne virus coinfections, which have important implications for hepatitis-related morbidity and development of effective

  20. Establishing second trimester abortion services: experiences in Nepal, Viet Nam and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Alyson G; Baird, Traci L; Basnett, Indira

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes experiences and lessons learned about how to establish safe second trimester abortion services in low-resource settings in the public health sector in three countries: Nepal, Viet Nam and South Africa. The key steps involved include securing the necessary approvals, selecting abortion methods, organising facilities, obtaining necessary equipment and supplies, training staff, setting up and managing services, and ensuring quality. It may take a number of months to gain the necessary approvals to introduce or expand second trimester services. Advocacy efforts are often required to raise awareness among key governmental and health system stakeholders. Providers and their teams require thorough training, including values clarification; monitoring and support following training prevents burn-out and ensures quality of care. This paper shows that good quality second trimester abortion services are achievable in even the most low-resource settings. Ultimately, improvements in second trimester abortion services will help to reduce abortion-related morbidity and mortality.

  1. Manual on sample-based data collection for fisheries assessment : Examples from Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Per Johan

    with through both detailed discussion and by using simple examples. These examples are mostly based on situations in tropical fisheries and, in particular, experience has been drawn from developing a data collection programme in Viet Nam. The main questions addressed in the manual are which fisheries data...... (artisanal) vessels and a few large (industrial) vessels. The methodology is the "sample-based approach" - the manual does not deal with a methodology that assumes complete enumeration. The data collection methodology presented attempts to utilize whatever information can be obtained in practice......This manual deals with the practical implementation of a routine data collection programme. This programme is developed through a top-down approach, from the identification of the objectives down to the practical recording and management of data obtained from the fishery. The issues are dealt...

  2. Manual on sample-based data collection for fisheries assessment : Examples from Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Per Johan

    This manual deals with the practical implementation of a routine data collection programme. This programme is developed through a top-down approach, from the identification of the objectives down to the practical recording and management of data obtained from the fishery. The issues are dealt...... with through both detailed discussion and by using simple examples. These examples are mostly based on situations in tropical fisheries and, in particular, experience has been drawn from developing a data collection programme in Viet Nam. The main questions addressed in the manual are which fisheries data...... to collect, where and when to collect them. Only data collected from commercial marine capture fisheries are considered (data from freshwater fisheries, cultured fish and experimental fisheries are excluded). The methodologies used are mainly appropriate for a tropical developing country with many small...

  3. Harm reduction and “Clean” community: can Viet Nam have both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuat Thu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The findings of our research show that while police play multiple roles in the fight against drug-related crime, they often perceived their tasks – especially preventing and controlling drug use on the one hand, and supporting harm reduction on the other – as contradictory, and this creates tensions in their work and relations with their communities. Although they are leaders and implementers of harm reduction, not all police know about it, and some remain skeptical or perceive it as contradictory to their main task of fighting drugs. Methadone treatment is seen by some as in competition with their main task of coordinating conventional drug treatment in the rehabilitation center. The history of drug use and the evolution of discourses on drug use in Viet Nam have created these conflicting pressures on police, and thus created contradictory expectations and led to different views and attitudes of police regarding various harm reduction measures. This might aid understanding why, despite the comprehensive and progressive policies on HIV/AIDS and harm reduction in Viet Nam, it is not easy for police to actively and effectively support and be involved in harm reduction at the ground level. To promote the wider acceptance of harm reduction the concept of community safety must be expanded to include community health; harm reduction must be integrated into the “new society” movement; and laws and policies need further revision to reduce contradiction between current drug laws and HIV laws. Harm reduction guidelines for police and other actors need to be disseminated and supported, embodying better ways of working between sectors, and all sectors in the partnership require support for building capacity to contribute to the overall goal.

  4. Enterovirus D68 in Viet Nam (2009-2015 [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

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    Nguyen Thi Han Ny

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 1962, enterovirus D68 (EV-D68 has been implicated in multiple outbreaks and sporadic cases of respiratory infection worldwide, but especially in the USA and Europe with an increasing frequency between 2010 and 2014. We describe the detection, associated clinical features and molecular characterization of EV-D68 in central and southern Viet Nam between 2009 and 2015. Methods: Enterovirus/rhinovirus PCR positive respiratory or CSF samples taken from children and adults with respiratory/central nervous system infections in Viet Nam were tested by an EV-D68 specific PCR. The included samples were derived from 3 different observational studies conducted at referral hospitals across central and southern Viet Nam between 2009 and 2015. Whole-genome sequencing was carried out using a MiSeq based approach. Phylogenetic reconstruction and estimation of evolutionary rate and recombination were carried out in BEAST and Recombination Detection Program, respectively. Results: EV-D68 was detected in 21/625 (3.4% enterovirus/rhinovirus PCR positive respiratory samples but in none of the 15 CSF. All the EV-D68 patients were young children (age range: 11.8 – 24.5 months and had moderate respiratory infections. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Vietnamese sequences clustered with those from Asian countries, of which 9 fell in the B1 clade, and the remaining sequence was identified within the A2 clade. One intra sub-clade recombination event was detected, representing the second reported recombination within EV-D68. The evolutionary rate of EV-D68 was estimated to be 5.12E-3 substitutions/site/year. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the virus was imported into Viet Nam in 2008. Conclusions: We have demonstrated for the first time EV-D68 has been circulating at low levels in Viet Nam since 2008, associated with moderate acute respiratory infection in children. EV-D68 in Viet Nam is most closely related to Asian viruses, and clusters

  5. La sexualidad en adolescentes de la secundaria básica "Viet Nam" Sexuality of adolescent students in "Viet Nam" junior high school

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    Elisa Puentes Rizo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: en la actualidad existe en los adolescentes una temprana iniciación de las relaciones sexuales y cambios en la actitud social hacia la sexualidad. Objetivo: identificar las particularidades y conocimientos sobre sexualidad en adolescentes. Métodos: se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal en adolescentes entre los 12 y 15 años, de la secundaria básica "Viet Nam" del municipio Arroyo Naranjo, durante los años 2009-2010. El universo estuvo constituido por 296 estudiantes y la muestra por 150, seleccionados mediante sorteo hasta completar 50 estudiantes de cada año. La información se obtuvo de una encuesta validada por el Ministerio de Educación. Todos los seleccionados expresaron su consentimiento para participar en la investigación. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino y los adolescentes de 15 años. El inicio de las relaciones sexuales fue a los 14 años en los muchachos y a los 15 en las muchachas; 72 (56,69 % adolescentes utilizaron el condón en su "primera vez". Las principales vías de obtención de información fueron los padres, profesores y la información televisiva. Hubo mayor conocimiento sobre VIH-sida, gonorrea y sífilis y menor sobre, herpes simple y clamidia. El condón resultó ser el método anticonceptivo más conocido. Conclusiones: hay un inicio precoz en las relaciones sexuales y poco conocimiento acerca de los métodos anticonceptivos biológicos o naturales, lo que pudiera estar indicando la importancia que tiene la familia, sobre todo los padres, los profesores y médicos de familia, en incrementar y mantener la labor educativa con los jóvenes en relación con la sexualidad.Introduction: there exists an early onset of sexual relations in adolescents at present, together with changes in the social attitude towards sexuality. Objective: to identify the particularities of and the knowledge on sexuality in adolescents. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive research study was

  6. Co-existence of Paragonimus harinasutai and Paragonimus bangkokensis metacercariae in fresh water crab hosts in central Viet Nam with special emphasis on their close phylogenetic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Hien, Hoang Van; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2012-09-01

    During our epidemiological surveys for Paragonimus species in central Viet Nam, we found four morphologically different Paragonimus metacercariae in mountainous crabs. They were identified as metacercariae of Paragonimus westermani, P. bangkokensis, P. proliferus, and P. harinasutai in the order of their prevalence in crab hosts. This is the first discovery of P. harinasutai in Viet Nam, co-inhabiting with P. bangkokensis and other species. Metacercariae of P. harinasutai were given orally to a cat to obtain adult worms. Then, ITS2 and CO1 sequences of metacercariae and adults of P. harinasutai, and metacercariae of P. bangkokensis collected from the same place were determined for analyses of phylogenetic relationships to other P. harinasutai and P. bangkokensis populations as well as related species. The results of molecular analyses showed that P. harinasutai from Quang Binh province of central Viet Nam was almost completely identical with those from Vientiane, Lao PDR; P. bangkokensis from Quang Binh, Viet Nam was also almost completely identical with those from Lao PDR and from Quang Ninh province, Viet Nam. Except for one P. harinasutai isolate from China, all populations of P. harinasutai and P. bangkokensis from Thailand, Lao and Viet Nam make a single clade in both ITS2 and CO1 trees. In ITS2 sequences, AT deletion and ATC insertion were observed in some isolates of both species, indicating recent gene flow between P. harinasutai and P. bangkokensis. Moreover, because of their extremely high genetic similarities and their co-inhabitation in the same crab hosts found in Thailand, Lao PDR and Viet Nam, they should be considered as the sister species at the early stage of divergence. In addition, P. microrchis previously described from Yunnan, China should be placed as the synonym of P. harinasutai, because of their morphological and molecular similarities.

  7. Collaborative activities and treatment outcomes in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyen, T T T; Nhung, N V; Shewade, H D; Hoa, N B; Harries, A D

    2016-03-21

    Contexte : Le programme national tuberculose (TB) au Viet Nam et à Ho Chi Minh ville (HCMC).Objectifs : Déterminer 1) au niveau national entre 2011 et 2013, la relation entre le test pour le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH), l'utilisation des interventions TB-VIH et les mauvais résultats du traitement de la TB parmi les patients TB-VIH, et 2) à HCMC en 2013, les caractéristiques des patients associées à un mauvais résultat.Schéma : Une étude écologique revoyant les données nationales agrégées et une étude de cohorte rétrospective dans HCMC.Résultats : Au niveau national, le test VIH est passé de 58% à 68% chez les patients tuberculeux et le traitement antirétroviral (ART) est passé chez les patients TB-VIH de 54% à 63% entre 2011 et 2013. Les mauvais résultats du traitement chez les patients TB-VIH ont augmenté de 24% à 27%, largement à cause des transferts (de 5% à 9%) et des décès. Les régions du Nord et des Highlands ont montré une faible utilisation des interventions TB-VIH. A HCMC, 303 (27%) patients TB-VIH sur 1110 ont eu un mauvais résultat avec un risque plus élevé observé parmi ceux qui avaient déjà eu un traitement de TB, ceux dont le diagnostic de VIH précédait l'apparition de la TB et ceux qui n'avaient jamais bénéficié du traitement par cotrimoxazole et de l'ART.Conclusion : En dépit de meilleurs taux de tests VIH et d'interventions TB-VIH, près de 26% des patients TB-VIH ont de mauvais résultats du traitement de la TB. Les facteurs de prédiction d'un risque plus élevé de mauvais résultats doivent être pris en compte si le Viet Nam souhaite mettre fin à l'épidémie de TB d'ici 2030.

  8. Management and treatment outcomes of patients enrolled in MDR-TB treatment in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, N T M; Nhung, N V; Hoa, N B; Thuy, H T; Takarinda, K C; Tayler-Smith, K; Harries, A D

    2016-03-21

    Contexte : La prise en charge de la tuberculose (TB) pharmacorésistante au Viet Nam a bénéficié d'une accélération considérable depuis 2009.Objectifs : Documenter le nombre annuel de patients enrôlés pour un traitement de TB multirésistante (TB-MDR) entre 2010 et 2014, et déterminer les caractéristiques et les résultats du traitement des patients qui l'out commencé entre 2010 et 2012.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte basée sur les rapports nationaux et les données du système national de données électroniques pour la TB pharmacorésistante.Résultats : Le nombre de patients enrôlés chaque année pour traitement de TB-MDR a augmenté de 97 en 2010 à 1522 en 2014. La majorité des patients étaient des hommes d'âge moyen qui avaient une atteinte pulmonaire et chez qui un protocole de retraitement avait échoué ; 77% d'entre eux avaient reçu au moins deux traitements de TB. De bons résultats (guérison et achèvement du traitement) ont été obtenus chez 73% des patients. Les résultats défavorables incluaient les sujets perdus de vue (12,5%), les décès (8%) et les échecs (6,3%). Avoir eu plus de deux traitements préalables et être positif pour le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine étaient associés à des résultats défavorables.Conclusion : Un nombre croissant de patients est traité pour TB-MDR chaque année dans le cadre du programme national de prise en charge au Viet Nam, avec de bons résultats. Cependant, il est nécessaire d'augmenter la détection des cas (actuellement seulement 30% des 5100 cas de TB-MDR estimés par an), de réduire la proportion de résultats défavorables et d'améliorer le suivi et l'évaluation.

  9. Supervisors and accomplices: extra-marital sex among migrant construction workers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Bui Thi Thanh; Kretchmar, Joshua

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the influence of social networks on the sexual relations of migrant construction workers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam. Research included observation and interviews with members of two different groups of workers. The first group, together with their employer (cai), came from the same village; the second group came from different villages. Of interest in the present study was how social relationships among workers and their employers influence extra-marital sexual activity. In the group where workers and their cai came from the same village of origin, fear of acquiring a bad reputation made these workers reluctant to seek sex services, since accounts of their behaviour were transmitted quickly home. In contrast, workers from the group who came from different villages often went out together to purchase sex. The absence of direct links to their villages of origin made it easier for these latter workers to conceal their activity. The implication of these findings for sexual safety and risk are discussed.

  10. Promoting accountability in obstetric care: use of criteria-based audit in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, P E; Binh, H T; Bang, H T

    2010-01-01

    Audits can improve clinical and managerial practices, enhance the rational use of limited resources, and improve staff morale and motivation. Staff at five hospitals in Thanh Hoa and Quang Tri provinces (Viet Nam) used criteria-based audit (CBA) as a tool to improve the quality of emergency obstetric and newborn care. CBA compares current practice with standards based on the best available evidence and the local context. The audit cycle begins with a known problem, proceeds with an initial assessment and data collection, analysis of those data, formulation and implementation of an action plan, and a re-evaluation of the topic initially assessed. Teams found that clinical protocols for treating major obstetric complications were not followed, although, national guidelines had been issued in 2002. In an audit of facility organisation, staff addressed obstacles to the timely treatment of obstetric emergencies during off hours. In each audit, teams devised mechanisms to correct problems that resulted in significant improvements when the audit cycle was repeated. CBA improved adherence to national guidelines, improved record-keeping, heightened teamwork, and showed staff that they could identify and solve many of their own problems.

  11. Violation of Bans on Tobacco Advertising and Promotion at Points of Sale in Viet Nam: Trend from 2009 - 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Son, Phung Xuan; Huyen, Do Phuc; Linh, Phan Thuy; Bich, Nguyen Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Xuan; Anh, Le Vu; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion were introduced through tobacco control legislation in Viet Nam, but it has been established that violations of the bans are very common. This study was conducted to explore the trend in violations of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in Viet Nam in the past six years and to explore any differences in the violation situations before and after the Law on Tobacco Control came into effect on 1st May 2013. Quantitative data were collected through observation of violations of the bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in 10 provinces throughout Viet Nam in four survey rounds (2009, 2010, 2011, and 2015). Variation in violation prevalence over time was examined by chi-square test using a Bonferini method. Binary logistic regression was employed to identify the factors that may have influences on different types of violation. A level of significance of padvertising increased while violations on promotion ban and on displaying tobacco decreased through time. Some factors associated with the tobacco advertising and promotion bans included surveyed years, types of points of sale, regions and areas where the points of sale were located. The enforcement of the bans did not improve even after the issuance and the enactment of the Law on Tobacco Control. This suggests that the monitoring and enforcement of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale should be strengthened. Penalties should be strictly applied for violators as indicated in the current tobacco control legislation.

  12. Collaborative GIS for flood susceptibility mapping: An example from Mekong river basin of Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, B.

    2016-12-01

    Flooding is one of the most dangerous natural disasters in Vietnam. Floods have caused serious damages to people and made adverse impact on social economic development across the country, especially in lower river basin where there is high risk of flooding as consequences of the climate change and social activities. This paper presents a collaborative platform of a combination of an interactive web-GIS framework and a multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) tool. MCE is carried out in server side through web interface, in which parameters used for evaluation are groups into three major categories, including (1) climatic factor: precipitation, typhoon frequency, temperature, humidity (2) physiographic data: DEM, topographic wetness index, NDVI, stream power index, soil texture, distance to river (3) social factor: NDBI, land use pattern. Web-based GIS is based on open-source technology that includes an information page, a page for MCE tool that users can interactively alter parameters in flood susceptible mapping, and a discussion page. The system is designed for local participation in prediction of the flood risk magnitude under impacts of natural processes and human intervention. The proposed flood susceptibility assessment prototype was implemented in the Mekong river basin, Viet Nam. Index images were calculated using Landsat data, and other were collected from authorized agencies. This study shows the potential to combine web-GIS and spatial analysis tool to flood hazard risk assessment. The combination can be a supportive solution that potentially assists the interaction between stakeholders in information exchange and in disaster management, thus provides for better analysis, control and decision-making.

  13. Persisting stigma reduces the utilisation of HIV-related care and support services in Viet Nam

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    Thanh Duong Cong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seeking and utilisation of HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services for people living with HIV is often hampered by HIV-related stigma. The study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences regarding treatment, care, and support amongst people living with HIV in Viet Nam, where the HIV epidemic is concentrated among injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted during September 2007 in 6 districts in Hai Phong with a very high HIV prevalence among injecting drug users. The information obtained was analysed and merged within topic areas. Illustrative quotes were selected. Results Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV in the community and healthcare settings was commonly reported, and substantially hampered the seeking and the utilisation of HIV-related services. The informants related the high level of stigma to the way the national HIV preventive campaigns played on fear, by employing a “scare tactic” mainly focusing on drug users and sex workers, who were defined as “social evils” in the anti-drug and anti-prostitution policy. There was a strong exclusion effect caused by the stigma, with serious implications, such as loss of job opportunities and isolation. The support and care provided by family members was experienced as vital for the spirit and hope for the future among people living with HIV. Conclusions A comprehensive care and support programme is needed. The very high levels of stigma experienced seem largely to have been created by an HIV preventive scare tactic closely linked to the “social evil“ approach in the national policy on drug and prostitution. In order to reduce the stigma and create more effective interventions, this tactic will have to be replaced with approaches that create better legal and policy environments for drug users and sex workers.

  14. Effect of land use change on water discharge in Srepok watershed, Central Highland, Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Ngoc Quyen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Srepok watershed plays an important role in Central Highland in Viet Nam. It impacts to developing social-economic conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to research elements which impact to natural resources in this watershed. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model and Geography Information System (GIS were used to simulate water discharge in the Srepok watershed. The objectives of the research were to apply GIS and SWAT model for simulation water discharge and then, we assessed land use change which impacted on water discharge in the watershed. The observed stream flow data from Ban Don Stream gauge station was used to calibrate for the period from 1981 to 2000 and then validate for the period from 2001 to 2009. After using SWAT-CUP software to calibration, NSI reached 0.63 and R square value achieved 0.64 from 2004 to 2008 in calibration and NSI gained good level at 0.74 and R square got 0.75 from 2009 to 2012 in validation step at Ban Don Station. After that, land cover in 2010 was processed like land cover in 2000 and set up SWAT model again. The simulated water discharge in scenario 1 (land use 2000 was compared with scenario 2 (land use 2010, the simulation result was not significant difference between two scenarios because the change of area of land use was not much enough to affect the fluctuation of water discharge. However, the effect of land cover on water resource could be seen clearly via total water yield. The percentage of surface flow in 2000 was twice times more than in 2010; retard and base flow in 2000 was slightly more than in 2010. Therefore, decreased surface flow, increased infiltration capacity of water and enriched base flow resulted in the growth of land cover.

  15. Respiratory virus laboratory pandemic planning an surveillance in central Viet Nam, 2008-2010

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    Trinh Xuan Mai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laboratory capacity is needed in central Viet Nam to provide early warning to public health authorities of respiratory outbreaks of importance to human health, for example the outbreak of influenza A(H1N1 pandemic in 2009. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR procedures established as part of a capacity-building process were used to conduct prospective respiratory surveillance in a region where few previous studies have been undertaken.Methods: Between October 2008 and September 2010, nose and throat swabs from adults and children (approximately 20 per week presenting with an acute respiratory illness to the Ninh Hoa General Hospital were collected. Same-day PCR testing and result reporting for 13 respiratory viruses were carried out by locally trained scientists.Results: Of 2144 surveillance samples tested, 1235 (57.6% were positive for at least one virus. The most common were influenza A strains (17.9%, with pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 and seasonal H3N2 strain accounting for 52% and 43% of these, respectively. Other virus detections included: rhinovirus (12.4%, enterovirus (8.9%, influenza B (8.3%, adenovirus (5.3%, parainfluenza (4.7%, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV (3.9%, human coronavirus (3.0% and human metapneumovirus (0.3%. The detection rate was greatest in the 0–5 year age group. Viral co-infections were identified in 148 (6.9% cases.Discussion: The outbreak in 2009 of the influenza A(H1N1 pandemic strain provided a practical test of the laboratory’s pandemic plan. This study shows that the availability of appropriate equipment and molecular-based testing can contribute to important individual and public health outcomes in geographical locations susceptible to emerging infections.

  16. Immunological and viral determinants of dengue severity in hospitalized adults in Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

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    Annette Fox

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationships between the infecting dengue serotype, primary and secondary infection, viremia and dengue severity remain unclear. This cross-sectional study examined these interactions in adult patients hospitalized with dengue in Ha Noi. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 158 patients were enrolled between September 16 and November 11, 2008. Quantitative RT-PCR, serology and NS1 detection were used to confirm dengue infection, determine the serotype and plasma viral RNA concentration, and categorize infections as primary or secondary. 130 (82% were laboratory confirmed. Serology was consistent with primary and secondary infection in 34% and 61%, respectively. The infecting serotype was DENV-1 in 42 (32%, DENV-2 in 39 (30% and unknown in 49 (38%. Secondary infection was more common in DENV-2 infections (79% compared to DENV-1 (36%, p<0.001. The proportion that developed dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF was 32% for secondary infection compared to 18% for primary infection (p = 0.14, and 26% for DENV-1 compared to 28% for DENV-2. The time until NS1 and plasma viral RNA were undetectable was shorter for DENV-2 compared to DENV-1 (p≤0.001 and plasma viral RNA concentration on day 5 was higher for DENV-1 (p = 0.03. Plasma viral RNA concentration was higher in secondary infection on day 5 of illness (p = 0.046. We didn't find an association between plasma viral RNA concentration and clinical severity. CONCLUSION: Dengue is emerging as a major public health problem in Ha Noi. DENV-1 and DENV-2 were the prevalent serotypes with similar numbers and clinical presentation. Secondary infection may be more common amongst DENV-2 than DENV-1 infections because DENV-2 infections resulted in lower plasma viral RNA concentrations and viral RNA concentrations were higher in secondary infection. The drivers of dengue emergence in northern Viet Nam need to be elucidated and public health measures instituted.

  17. Aetiologies of central nervous system infection in Viet Nam: a prospective provincial hospital-based descriptive surveillance study.

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    Nghia Ho Dang Trung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen. METHODS: We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007-April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology. RESULTS: We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52% of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24% and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6% adult patients and 11/624 (2% paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR during hospital admission was 73/617 (12% in adults and to 42/624 (7% in children. CONCLUSIONS: Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam.

  18. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Nguyen, Tuan T; Tran, Lan M; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3-1.8) was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase utilization of facility-based IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam, and may be relevant for increasing and sustaining use of nutrition services in similar contexts.

  19. Primary drug-resistant tuberculosis in Hanoi, Viet Nam: present status and risk factors.

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    Nguyen Thi Le Hang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB to anti-tuberculosis (TB drugs presents a serious challenge to TB control worldwide. We investigated the status of drug resistance, including multidrug-resistant (MDR TB, and possible risk factors among newly diagnosed TB patients in Hanoi, the capital of Viet Nam. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological information was collected from 506 newly diagnosed patients with sputum smear- and culture-positive TB, and 489 (96.6% MTB isolates were subjected to conventional drug susceptibility testing, spoligotyping, and 15-locus variable numbers of tandem repeats typing. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs were calculated to analyze the risk factors for primary drug resistance. RESULTS: Of 489 isolates, 298 (60.9% were sensitive to all drugs tested. Resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, ethambutol, and MDR accounted for 28.2%, 4.9%, 28.2%, 2.9%, and 4.5%, respectively. Of 24 isolates with rifampicin resistance, 22 (91.7% were MDR and also resistant to streptomycin, except one case. Factors associated with isoniazid resistance included living in old urban areas, presence of the Beijing genotype, and clustered strains [aOR = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.15-4.35; 1.91, 1.18-3.10; and 1.69, 1.06-2.69, respectively. The Beijing genotype was also associated with streptomycin resistance (aOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.29-3.40. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV coinfection was associated with rifampicin resistance and MDR (aOR = 5.42, 95% CI 2.07-14.14; 6.23, 2.34-16.58, respectively. CONCLUSION: Isoniazid and streptomycin resistance was observed in more than a quarter of TB patients without treatment history in Hanoi. Transmission of isoniazid-resistant TB among younger people should be carefully monitored in urban areas, where Beijing strains and HIV coinfection are prevalent. Choosing an optimal treatment regimen on the basis of the results of drug susceptibility tests and monitoring of treatment

  20. Roads and Floods: Best Practice Guidelines for the Integrated Planning and Design of Economically Sound and Environmentally Friendly Roads in the Mekong Floodplains of Cambodia and Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, W.J.A.M.; Goichot, M.; Verheij, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents a set of Best Practice Guidelines for road development and rehabilitation in the Mekong floodplains of Cambodia and Viet Nam. The guidelines are developed under the ‘Roads and Floods’ project1. The guidelines are based on the review of local practice, international experience,

  1. Iodine status in late pregnancy and psychosocial determinants of iodized salt use in rural northern Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jane; Tran, Thach; Biggs, Beverley; Tran, Tuan; Dwyer, Terry; Casey, Gerard; Tho, Dang Hai; Hetzel, Basil

    2011-11-01

    To establish iodine status among pregnant women in rural northern Viet Nam and explore psychosocial predictors of the use of iodized salt in their households. This prospective study included pregnant women registered in health stations in randomly-selected communes in Ha Nam province. At recruitment (factors, reproductive health, intimate partner relationship, family violence, symptoms of common mental disorders and use of micronutrient supplements were assessed. During a second assessment (> 28 weeks of gestation) a urine specimen was collected to measure urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and iodized salt use was assessed. Predictors were explored through univariable analyses and multivariable linear and logistic regression. The 413 pregnant women who provided data for this study had a median UIC of 70 µg/l; nearly 83% had a UIC lower than the 150 µg/l recommended by the World Health Organization; only 73.6% reported using iodized salt in any form in their households. Iodized salt use was lower among nulliparous women (odds ratio, OR: 0.56; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.32-0.96); less educated women (OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.16-0.71); factory workers or small-scale traders (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.31-0.86), government workers (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.13-0.89) and women with common mental disorders at recruitment (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.38-0.98). The decline in the use of iodized salt in Viet Nam since the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme was suspended in 2005 has placed pregnant women and their infants in rural areas at risk of iodine deficiency disorders.

  2. Decreasing In-home Smoking of Adults—Results from a School-based Intervention Program in Viet Nam

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    Le Thi Thanh Huong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is indicated that children are involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke from adults, mainly at their home environment. This study aimed at describing the effectiveness of the school-based intervention to decrease the in-home smoking situation of adults so as to decrease children’s exposure to secondhand smoke at home during the year 2011–2012 in a rural district in Hanoi, Viet Nam. This school-based intervention program (intervention and control group involved 804 children aged 8 to 11 years from August 2011 to May 2012 in a rural district of Hanoi, Viet Nam. Children were taught in class about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke and about how to negotiate with fathers not to smoke in-home. Then children applied what they learnt, including staying away from secondhand smoke and persuading fathers not to smoke in-home in order to decrease children’s exposure to secondhand smoke. Chi square test, t-test and multinominal logistic regression were applied in data analysis. The results showed that children’s reported their father’s in-home smoking decreased from 83.0% pre-intervention to 59.8% post-intervention (p < 0.001 in the intervention school while no change happened in the control school. The study found that the better changed smoking location of adult smokers as reported by children associated with the school who received intervention activities (adjusted OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.28–3.24. Poorer changed attitudes towards secondhand smoke of children associated with a lower percentage of better change in smoking location of their fathers/other adult smokers (aOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.28–0.96. Children’s poorer changed knowledge towards secondhand smoke also associated with poorer changed smoking location of adult smokers (aOR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.07–7.76. It is recommended by this study that similar school based intervention approaches should be applied in primary schools in Viet Nam to increase children’s awareness on the

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults in Khanh Hoa, Viet Nam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huy Van Tran; M.T. Truong; Thach Nguyen

    2004-01-01

    Background The metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by a specific clustering of risk factors, including dyslipidemia, central adiposity, systemic hypertension, insulin resistance, and dysglycemia. It is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Accurate data on prevalence and characteristics of MS will facilitate the development of preventive strategies for CVD. Objective To estimate accurately the prevalence of MS among Vietnamese adults with the usual criteria or with the criteria modified for Asian populations. Design and methods We studied a representative, cross-sectional, population-based sample of 856 subjects (mean age 52.82 ± 16.36) classified in three age groups from 15-34 years, 35-54 years and > 54 years of age, living in Khanh Hoa Province, Viet Nam. MS was diagnosed according to the criteria defined by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expect Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ) (NCEP-ATP Ⅲ) and by the modified criteria for some Asian populations in which the waist circumference (WC) is considered abnormal if it is > 90 cm for males and > 80 cm for females.Results Using the NCEP-ATP Ⅲ criteria, the prevalence of MS in the studied population was 10.0% (CI 95 %:8.1-12.3). It was 2.4 % in the 15-34 age group (men 4.5% and women 1.2%),5.2% (men 6.3%,women 4.5% ) in 35-54 age group and 15.8% (men 9.7%, women 21.7%) in over 54 age group, respectively. And it was more common in women than in men (11.7% vs 8.0%, P <0.001). Using 2001 population census data of the whole province over 15 years (695 218 habitants) we estimated that about 35 193 people suffered from the MS.The WC was the least common feature of MS (2.1% for men and in 6.1% for women).Overall,45.2 % of the studied population had one feature of MS, 23.1% had two features, 8.2% had three features, 1.6% had four

  4. GIS and local knowledge in disaster management: a case study of flood risk mapping in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phong; Shaw, Rajib; Chantry, Guillaume; Norton, John

    2009-03-01

    Linking community knowledge with modern techniques to record and analyse risk related data is one way of engaging and mobilising community capacity. This paper discusses the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) at the local level and the need for integrating modern technology and indigenous knowledge into disaster management. It suggests a way to mobilise available human and technical resources in order to strengthen a good partnership between local communities and local and national institutions. The paper also analyses the current vulnerability of two communes by correlating hazard risk and loss/damage caused by disasters and the contribution that domestic risk maps in the community can make to reduce this risk. The disadvantages, advantages and lessons learned from the GIS flood risk mapping project are presented through the case study of the Quang Tho Commune in Thua Thien Hue province, central Viet Nam.

  5. Estimating beta of Viet Nam listed public utilities, natural gas and oil company groups during and after the financial crisis 2007-2011

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    Dinh Tran ngoc Huy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There comes a need for analyzing riskiness of many industries in Viet Nam stock market during the financial crisis period 2007-2011. Among these industries, the Viet Nam public utilities, natural gas and oil industries, specifically, also has to re-evaluate the risk level. First, we found out in the research sample that there are 84% of firms, of total 45 listed firms, with beta values lower than ( 1, meaning having stock returns fluctuating more than the market index. Third, among three (3 groups, the systemic risk in the electric power industry is the smallest, and asset beta variance in the gas and oil industry is the smallest, shown by estimated values of equity and asset beta mean. Finally, this paper generates some analytical outcomes that enable companies and government to have more evidence in establishing their policies in investments and in governance.

  6. Dengue Virus in Sub-tropical Northern and Central Viet Nam: Population Immunity and Climate Shape Patterns of Viral Invasion and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    numbers of sequences and a lack of exact sampling dates for viral sequences from other countries in maritime Southeast Asia prevented us from including...Asia for at least a decade, although the lack of samples from Cambodia and Viet Nam in early years prevents investigation of the means by which this...the virus by Aedes aegypti [23–26]. However, the short-term transmission of strains of DENV in the first half of the year, which are suggested to have

  7. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam.

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    Phuong H Nguyen

    Full Text Available Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF, but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children <2y (n = 1,008 and health staff (n = 60 from the evaluation of a program that embedded IYCF counseling into the existing government health system. The frequency of never users, one-time users, repeat users, and achievers of the recommended minimum number of visits at health facilities were 45.1%, 13.0%, 28.4% and 13.5%, respectively. Poisson regression showed that demand-generation strategies, especially invitation cards, were the key factors determining one-time use (Prevalence ratio, PR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.2-4.2, repeated use (PR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4-4.2, and achievement of minimum visits (PR 5.5, 95% CI: 3.6-8.4. Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3-1.8 was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase

  8. Correlation analysis between forest carbon stock and spectral vegetation indices in Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Nguyen, The; Kappas, Martin

    2017-04-01

    In the last several years, the interest in forest biomass and carbon stock estimation has increased due to its importance for forest management, modelling carbon cycle, and other ecosystem services. However, no estimates of biomass and carbon stocks of deferent forest cover types exist throughout in the Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam. This study investigates the relationship between above ground carbon stock and different vegetation indices and to identify the most likely vegetation index that best correlate with forest carbon stock. The terrestrial inventory data come from 380 sample plots that were randomly sampled. Individual tree parameters such as DBH and tree height were collected to calculate the above ground volume, biomass and carbon for different forest types. The SPOT6 2013 satellite data was used in the study to obtain five vegetation indices NDVI, RDVI, MSR, RVI, and EVI. The relationships between the forest carbon stock and vegetation indices were investigated using a multiple linear regression analysis. R-square, RMSE values and cross-validation were used to measure the strength and validate the performance of the models. The methodology presented here demonstrates the possibility of estimating forest volume, biomass and carbon stock. It can also be further improved by addressing more spectral bands data and/or elevation.

  9. Evidence for the Convergence Model: The Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksena, Sumeet; Fox, Jefferson; Epprecht, Michael; Tran, Chinh C; Nong, Duong H; Spencer, James H; Nguyen, Lam; Finucane, Melissa L; Tran, Vien D; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Building on a series of ground breaking reviews that first defined and drew attention to emerging infectious diseases (EID), the 'convergence model' was proposed to explain the multifactorial causality of disease emergence. The model broadly hypothesizes disease emergence is driven by the co-incidence of genetic, physical environmental, ecological, and social factors. We developed and tested a model of the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 based on suspected convergence factors that are mainly associated with land-use change. Building on previous geospatial statistical studies that identified natural and human risk factors associated with urbanization, we added new factors to test whether causal mechanisms and pathogenic landscapes could be more specifically identified. Our findings suggest that urbanization spatially combines risk factors to produce particular types of peri-urban landscapes with significantly higher HPAI H5N1 emergence risk. The work highlights that peri-urban areas of Viet Nam have higher levels of chicken densities, duck and geese flock size diversities, and fraction of land under rice or aquaculture than rural and urban areas. We also found that land-use diversity, a surrogate measure for potential mixing of host populations and other factors that likely influence viral transmission, significantly improves the model's predictability. Similarly, landscapes where intensive and extensive forms of poultry production overlap were found at greater risk. These results support the convergence hypothesis in general and demonstrate the potential to improve EID prevention and control by combing geospatial monitoring of these factors along with pathogen surveillance programs.

  10. Evidence for the Convergence Model: The Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1 in Viet Nam.

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    Sumeet Saksena

    Full Text Available Building on a series of ground breaking reviews that first defined and drew attention to emerging infectious diseases (EID, the 'convergence model' was proposed to explain the multifactorial causality of disease emergence. The model broadly hypothesizes disease emergence is driven by the co-incidence of genetic, physical environmental, ecological, and social factors. We developed and tested a model of the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 based on suspected convergence factors that are mainly associated with land-use change. Building on previous geospatial statistical studies that identified natural and human risk factors associated with urbanization, we added new factors to test whether causal mechanisms and pathogenic landscapes could be more specifically identified. Our findings suggest that urbanization spatially combines risk factors to produce particular types of peri-urban landscapes with significantly higher HPAI H5N1 emergence risk. The work highlights that peri-urban areas of Viet Nam have higher levels of chicken densities, duck and geese flock size diversities, and fraction of land under rice or aquaculture than rural and urban areas. We also found that land-use diversity, a surrogate measure for potential mixing of host populations and other factors that likely influence viral transmission, significantly improves the model's predictability. Similarly, landscapes where intensive and extensive forms of poultry production overlap were found at greater risk. These results support the convergence hypothesis in general and demonstrate the potential to improve EID prevention and control by combing geospatial monitoring of these factors along with pathogen surveillance programs.

  11. Mapping Landcover/Landuse and Coastline Change in the Eastern Mekong Delta (Viet Nam) from 1989 to 2002 using Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    SOHAIL, ARFAN

    2012-01-01

    There has been rapid change in the landcover/landuse in the Mekong delta, Viet Nam. The landcover/landuse has changed very fast due to intense population pressure, agriculture/aquaculture farming and timber collection in the coastal areas of the delta. The changing landuse pattern in the coastal areas of the delta is threatened to be flooded by sea level rise; sea level is expected to rise 33 cm until 2050; 45 cm until 2070 and 1 m until 2100. The coastline along the eastern Mekong delta has ...

  12. Impacts on Breastfeeding Practices of At-Scale Strategies That Combine Intensive Interpersonal Counseling, Mass Media, and Community Mobilization: Results of Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluations in Bangladesh and Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Purnima; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Saha, Kuntal Kumar; Khaled, Adiba; Kennedy, Andrew; Tran, Lan Mai; Sanghvi, Tina; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Baker, Jean; Alayon, Silvia; Afsana, Kaosar; Haque, Raisul; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul

    2016-10-01

    Despite recommendations supporting optimal breastfeeding, the number of women practicing exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) remains low, and few interventions have demonstrated implementation and impact at scale. Alive & Thrive was implemented over a period of 6 y (2009-2014) and aimed to improve breastfeeding practices through intensified interpersonal counseling (IPC), mass media (MM), and community mobilization (CM) intervention components delivered at scale in the context of policy advocacy (PA) in Bangladesh and Viet Nam. In Bangladesh, IPC was delivered through a large non-governmental health program; in Viet Nam, it was integrated into government health facilities. This study evaluated the population-level impact of intensified IPC, MM, CM, and PA (intensive) compared to standard nutrition counseling and less intensive MM, CM, and PA (non-intensive) on breastfeeding practices in these two countries. A cluster-randomized evaluation design was employed in each country. For the evaluation sample, 20 sub-districts in Bangladesh and 40 communes in Viet Nam were randomized to either the intensive or the non-intensive group. Cross-sectional surveys (n ~ 500 children 0-5.9 mo old per group per country) were implemented at baseline (June 7-August 29, 2010, in Viet Nam; April 28-June 26, 2010, in Bangladesh) and endline (June 16-August 30, 2014, in Viet Nam; April 20-June 23, 2014, in Bangladesh). Difference-in-differences estimates (DDEs) of impact were calculated, adjusting for clustering. In Bangladesh, improvements were significantly greater in the intensive compared to the non-intensive group for the proportion of women who reported practicing EBF in the previous 24 h (DDE 36.2 percentage points [pp], 95% CI 21.0-51.5, p breastfeeding (EIBF) (16.7 pp, 95% CI 2.8-30.6, p = 0.021; 63.7% to 94.2%). In Viet Nam, EBF increases were greater in the intensive group (27.9 pp, 95% CI 17.7-38.1, p breastfeeding practices in Bangladesh and Viet Nam than standard counseling with

  13. The Volatility of Market Risk In Groups of Viet Nam Listed Computer and Electrical Company Groups during the Financial Crisis 2007-2009

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    Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the financial crisis 2007-2009 with certain impacts on the Viet Nam economy and especially, the stock exchange, there is un-diversifiable risk that influences the whole computer and electrical industries. Hence, the risk re-estimation for the listed firms in these industries becomes necessary. First of all, by using quantitative and analytical methods to estimate asset and equity beta of four (4 groups of listed companies in Viet Nam electrical, software, hardware and telecommunication industries with a proper traditional estimating model, we found out that the beta values, in general, for most companies are acceptable, excluding just a few cases. There are 88% of listed firms with lower risk, among total 64 firms, whose beta values lower than ( 1and have stock returns moving more than the market benchmark. Ultimately, this paper generates some results that could provides both internal and external investors, financial institutions, companies and government more evidence in establishing their policies in investments and in governance.

  14. The context of HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users in Viet Nam: Moving toward effective harm reduction

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    Thanh Duong

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug users represent the largest proportion of all HIV reported cases in Viet Nam. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of risk and risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users, and their experiences related to safe injection and safe sex practices. Methods This study used multiple qualitative methods in data collection including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation with HIV-positive injection drug users. Results The informants described a change in the sharing practices among injection drug users towards more precautions and what was considered 'low risk sharing', like sharing among seroconcordant partners and borrowing rather than lending. However risky practices like re-use of injection equipment and 'syringe pulling' i.e. the use of left-over drugs in particular, were frequently described and observed. Needle and syringe distribution programmes were in place but carrying needles and syringes and particularly drugs could result in being arrested and fined. Fear of rejection and of loss of intimacy made disclosure difficult and was perceived as a major obstacle for condom use among recently diagnosed HIV infected individuals. Conclusion HIV-positive injection drug users continue to practice HIV risk behaviours. The anti-drug law and the police crack-down policy appeared as critical factors hampering ongoing prevention efforts with needle and syringe distribution programmes in Viet Nam. Drastic policy measures are needed to reduce the very high HIV prevalence among injection drug users.

  15. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients who died from Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in Viet Nam

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    Phan Thanh Tinh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients who died from influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in hospitals in Viet Nam between August 2009 and March 2010.Of 58 fatal cases, 32 (55% were below 30 years of age and 14 (24% were pregnant females. Forty-five (78% patients had at least one underlying medical condition including chronic heart, kidney or lung diseases or pregnancy. Twelve (21% cases sought medical attention on the day of symptom onset. Only 13 (36% of 36 cases for whom treatment data were available had been given antiviral drugs within the recommended two days of symptom onset.The clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of the patients who died from influenza A(H1N1pdm09 are similar to those reported from other countries. To improve preparedness and response to future pandemics, Viet Nam needs to strengthen the surveillance of influenza; increase laboratory capacity to test for influenza viruses; and develop strategies for promoting the timely attendance of at-risk individuals at health facilities and the early administration of antiviral drugs, particularly for persons with underlying medical conditions and pregnant females.

  16. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf…

  17. Roads and Floods: Best Practice Guidelines for the Integrated Planning and Design of Economically Sound and Environmentally Friendly Roads in the Mekong Floodplains of Cambodia and Viet Nam: Synthesis Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, W.; Goichot, M.; Verheij, H.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents a set of Best Practice Guidelines for road development and rehabilitation in the Mekong floodplains of Cambodia and Viet Nam. The guidelines are developed under the ‘Roads and Floods’ project1. The guidelines are based on the review of local practice, international experience,

  18. Psychological and social factors associated with late pregnancy iron deficiency anaemia in rural Viet Nam: a population-based prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thach Duc Tran

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychological and social factors and late pregnancy IDA among pregnant women in rural Viet Nam. METHODS: Pregnant women from 50 randomly-selected communes within Ha Nam province were recruited and assessed at 12 - 20 weeks gestation (Wave 1, W1. They were followed up in the last trimester (Wave 2, W2. IDA was defined as Haemoglobin < 11 g/dL and serum ferritin < 15 ng/mL. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders (CMD were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Vietnam (EPDS-V. Persistent antenatal CMD was defined as having an EPDS-V score ≥ 4 in both W1 and W2. Hypothesis models were tested by Structural Equation Modeling analyses. RESULTS: A total of 378 women provided complete data at both W1 and W2. The incidence risk of IDA in the third trimester was 13.2% (95% confidence interval (CI: 9.8-16.7. Persistent CMD was found in 16.9% (95% CI: 13.1-20.7 pregnant women and predicted by intimate partner violence, fear of other family members, experience of childhood abuse, coincidental life adversity, and having a preference for the sex of the baby. There was a significant pathway from persistent CMD to IDA in late pregnancy via the length of time that iron supplements had been taken. Receiving advice to take iron supplements and higher household wealth index were indirectly related to lower risk of late pregnancy IDA. Early pregnancy IDA and being multi-parous also contributed to late pregnancy IDA. CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal IDA and CMD are prevalent public health problems among women in Viet Nam. The link between them suggests that while direct recommendations to use iron supplements are important, the social factors associated with common mental disorders should be addressed in antenatal care in order to improve the health of pregnant women and their infants.

  19. Dollarization in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Hauskrecht; Nguyen Thanh Hai

    2004-01-01

    The paper maps the dollarization process in Vietnam since the beginning 1990s. We analyze the pros and cons of complete currency substitution. We discuss different forms and degrees of dollarization, and why some countries dollarized and others not. Further, the paper analyzes the case of partial dollarization, its implied risks for financial sector stability and the underlying dynamics of dollarization. Finally, we describe ways to reverse dollarization. The main conclusions are that dollari...

  20. The Volatility of Market Risk In Viet Nam Listed Public Utilities Company Groups during and after the Financial Crisis 2007-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates market risk of total 45 listed companies in Viet Nam public utilities, natural gas and oil industry during the financial crisis period 2007-2009. Firstly, we found out in the research sample that there are 82% of firms, of total listed firms, with beta values lower than ( 1, meaning having stock returns fluctuating more than the market benchmark. Thirdly, among three (3 groups, the systemic risk in the electric power industry is the smallest, shown by estimated values of equity and asset beta mean, and asset beta variance in this industry is also the smallest. Finally, this paper generates some analytical outcomes that enable companies and government to have more evidence in establishing their policies in investments and in governance

  1. Morphological and genetic differences between cultured and wild populations of Channa striata in Viet Nam and its phylogenetic relationship with other Channa species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Tran Thi Nguyen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Channa genus includes important species for aquaculture and interesting targets for phylogenetic studies. In the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam, four species of this genus (Channa striata, C. micropeltes, C. lucius, and C. gachua are naturally distributed and other phenotypes that look like C. striata have been observed in aquaculture conditions. The taxonomic status of newly-observed phenotypes including “triangle-head” snakehead (THS and square-head snakehead (SHS is still controversial. This study compared morphological characteristics and Cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI sequences of different C. striata-like phenotypes and investigated the phylogenetic relationship of Channa species based on COI. Morphological results show that THS, SHS, and wild C. striata have similar ranges for meristic traits but differ in morphometric ratios, especially the shape of their head and length of their gut. Kimura-2P genetic distances among three phenotypes (0.0017- 0.0062 are equivalent to those of C. striata samples from Mainland Southeast Asian countries. The results indicate that THS and SHS belong to C. striata, and this species exhibits within-species diversity in both morphology and COI sequences. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that C. striata individuals form a monophyletic group and are genetically distinct from other Channa species in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. Congeneric distances of four species range from 0.1836 to 0.2436, indicating high divergence among Channa species.

  2. Collision-induced basalt eruptions at Pleiku and Buôn Mê Thuột, south-central Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoàng, Nguyễn; Flower, Martin F. J.; Chí, Cung Thu'ọ'ng; Xuân, Phạm Tích; Quý, Hoàng Văn; Sơn, Trần Thanh

    2013-09-01

    Neogene-Quaternary basalts occur as dispersed volcanic clusters in the vicinity of the Tethyan tectonic belt, possibly representing 'far-field' effects of the Early Tertiary collisions of Gondwana fragments with the southern margin of Eurasia. In Indochina, such a 'Diffuse Igneous Province' post-dates the 45-42 Ma 'hard' India-Asia collision and southeastward, collision induced (c. 30-17 Ma.), extrusion of Indochina. Extrusion was accommodated by left-lateral strike-slip shearing on the Ailao Shan-Red River Fault, coeval with seafloor spreading in the East Viet Nam (South China) Sea. The Indochina basalts mostly comprise shield-building tholeiites capped by small-volume undersaturated types, the latter often bearing mantle xenoliths and 'exotic' xenocrysts such as sapphire, zircon. They appeared at c. 17 Ma, more-or-less coinciding with the cessation of both continental extrusion and seafloor spreading. At this point extensional stress appears to have shifted westwards to continental Indochina, with magmatic activity appearing, characteristically, at 'pull-apart' basins. However, the relationship of mantle melting beneath this region to its geodynamic setting is controversial, being variously attributed to mantle plumes, extreme lithospheric stretching, and lateral asthenospheric displacement. There is little or no definitive evidence for regional mantle upwelling while lithosphere stretching alone appears to be insufficient to allow for melting, Here, we present geochemical and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic (and paleomagnetic data), for cored sections from the Pleiku and Buon Mê Thuột plateaus in south-central Viet Nam, representative in most respects of the Indochina province as a whole. In the Pleiku shield olivine tholeiite flows are intercalated with quartz tholeiites while, in contrast, alkali basalts predominate over olivine tholeiite in the Buon Mê Thuột (BMT) shield. The first of these features (in Pleiku) probably reflects crustal wall-rock reaction while

  3. Dengue virus in sub-tropical northern and central Viet Nam: population immunity and climate shape patterns of viral invasion and maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia A Rabaa

    Full Text Available Dengue virus transmission occurs in both epidemic and endemic cycles across tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Incidence is particularly high in much of Southeast Asia, where hyperendemic transmission plagues both urban and rural populations. However, endemicity has not been established in some areas with climates that may not support year-round viral transmission. An understanding of how dengue viruses (DENV enter these environments and whether the viruses persist in inapparent local transmission cycles is central to understanding how dengue emerges in areas at the margins of endemic transmission. Dengue is highly endemic in tropical southern Vietnam, while increasingly large seasonal epidemics have occurred in northern Viet Nam over the last decade. We have investigated the spread of DENV-1 throughout Vietnam to determine the routes by which the virus enters northern and central regions of the country. Phylogeographic analysis of 1,765 envelope (E gene sequences from Southeast Asia revealed frequent movement of DENV between neighboring human populations and strong local clustering of viral lineages. Long-distance migration of DENV between human population centers also occurred regularly and on short time-scales, indicating human-mediated viral invasion into northern Vietnam. Human populations in southern Vietnam were found to be the primary source of DENV circulating throughout the country, while central and northern Vietnam acted as sink populations, likely due to reduced connectedness to other populations in the case of the central regions and to the influence of temperature variability on DENV replication and vector survival and competence in the north. Finally, phylogeographic analyses suggested that viral movement follows a gravity model and indicates that population immunity and physical and economic connections between populations may play important roles in shaping patterns of DENV transmission.

  4. Polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ exchanger is indicative of a low in vitro quinine susceptibility in isolates from Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Nguyen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Plasmodium falciparum NA+/H+ exchanger (pfnhe1, gene PF13_0019 has recently been proposed to influence quinine (QN susceptibility. However, its contribution to QN resistance seems to vary geographically depending on the genetic background of the parasites. Here, the role of this gene was investigated in in vitro QN susceptibility of isolates from Viet Nam. Method Ninety-eight isolates were obtained from three different regions of the Binh Phuoc and Dak Nong bordering Cambodia provinces during 2006-2008. Among these, 79 were identified as monoclonal infection and were genotyped at the microsatellite pfnhe1 ms4760 locus and in vitro QN sensitivity data were obtained for 51 isolates. Parasite growth was assessed in the field using the HRP2 immunodetection assay. Results Significant associations were found between polymorphisms at pfnhe1 microsatellite ms4760 and susceptibility to QN. Isolates with two or more DNNND exhibited much lower susceptibility to QN than those harbouring zero or one DNNND repeats (median IC50 of 682 nM versus median IC50 of 300 nM; p = 0.0146 while isolates with one NHNDNHNNDDD repeat presented significantly reduced QN susceptibility than those who had two (median IC50 of 704 nM versus median IC50 of 375 nM; p pfcrt76T and wild-type pfmdr1 (> 95% thus preventing analysis of associations with these mutations. Interestingly, area with the highest median QN IC50 showed also the highest percentage of isolates carrying the pfnhe1 haplotype 7. Conclusions The haplotype 7 which is the typical Asian profile is likely well-adapted to high drug pressure in this area and may constitute a good genetic marker to evaluate the dissemination of QNR in this part of the world.

  5. Dengue virus in sub-tropical northern and central Viet Nam: population immunity and climate shape patterns of viral invasion and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaa, Maia A; Simmons, Cameron P; Fox, Annette; Le, Mai Quynh; Nguyen, Thuy Thi Thu; Le, Hai Yen; Gibbons, Robert V; Nguyen, Xuyen Thanh; Holmes, Edward C; Aaskov, John G

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus transmission occurs in both epidemic and endemic cycles across tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Incidence is particularly high in much of Southeast Asia, where hyperendemic transmission plagues both urban and rural populations. However, endemicity has not been established in some areas with climates that may not support year-round viral transmission. An understanding of how dengue viruses (DENV) enter these environments and whether the viruses persist in inapparent local transmission cycles is central to understanding how dengue emerges in areas at the margins of endemic transmission. Dengue is highly endemic in tropical southern Vietnam, while increasingly large seasonal epidemics have occurred in northern Viet Nam over the last decade. We have investigated the spread of DENV-1 throughout Vietnam to determine the routes by which the virus enters northern and central regions of the country. Phylogeographic analysis of 1,765 envelope (E) gene sequences from Southeast Asia revealed frequent movement of DENV between neighboring human populations and strong local clustering of viral lineages. Long-distance migration of DENV between human population centers also occurred regularly and on short time-scales, indicating human-mediated viral invasion into northern Vietnam. Human populations in southern Vietnam were found to be the primary source of DENV circulating throughout the country, while central and northern Vietnam acted as sink populations, likely due to reduced connectedness to other populations in the case of the central regions and to the influence of temperature variability on DENV replication and vector survival and competence in the north. Finally, phylogeographic analyses suggested that viral movement follows a gravity model and indicates that population immunity and physical and economic connections between populations may play important roles in shaping patterns of DENV transmission.

  6. Gender, Alcohol Consumption Patterns, and Engagement in Sexually Intimate Behaviors among Adolescents and Young Adults in Nha Trang, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Green, Mackenzie S.; Zhan, Min; Riel, Rosemary; Lerdboon, Porntip; Lostutter, Ty W.; Tho, Le Huu; Luong, Vo Van; Minh, Truong Tan

    2011-01-01

    A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was conducted with 880 youth (16 to 24 years) in Nha Trang City to assess relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors. A timeline followback method was employed. Chi-square, generalized logit modeling and logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the sample, 78.2% male and 56.1%…

  7. Biomass Business Opportunities Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwebe, D. [SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, Ha Noi (Viet Nam)

    2012-03-15

    The goal of this survey is to provide a more specific and integral perspective in which niches, relevant policy development by the Vietnamese government, legislation and sustainability criteria are clearly addressed to benefit both the Dutch Private sector as well as to stimulate Dutch-Vietnamese cooperation and support the Vietnamese government in its search for tangible options to develop the desired enabling environment for a sustainable biomass/biofuel market. The following activities are defined to be executed to reach the goal of the project: Biomass availability in Vietnam (Chapter 2); Government of Vietnam and Energy (Chapter 3); The opportunities and barriers to enter the market in Vietnam (Chapter 4 and 5); Stakeholder analysis of the bio-energy sector (Chapter 6); and Recommendations (Chapter 7)

  8. Industrial and Commercial Registration of Sailun (Viet Nam) Completed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Wen

    2012-01-01

    Recently, upon the approval of related departments, the registration of the sole subsidiary of Sailun Co., Ltd. established in Viet Nam has been completed. According to the registration content, the name of this subsidiary: Sailun (Viet Nam) Co., Ltd.; English name: Sailun (Viet Nam) Co., Ltd.; Registered address: Fudong Industrial Park, Furlong Town, Go Dau, Tay Ninh, Viet Nam; Registered capital: VND 400 billion, converting to about USD 20 million; Business scope: production and operation of tires, research of NR tech- nologies, etc.

  9. Application of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to assess factors that may influence implementation of tobacco use treatment guidelines in the Viet Nam public health care delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDevanter, Nancy; Kumar, Pritika; Nguyen, Nam; Nguyen, Linh; Nguyen, Trang; Stillman, Frances; Weiner, Bryan; Shelley, Donna

    2017-02-28

    Services to treat tobacco dependence are not readily available to smokers in low-middle income countries (LMICs) where smoking prevalence remains high. We are conducting a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of two strategies for implementing tobacco use treatment guidelines in 26 community health centers (CHCs) in Viet Nam. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), prior to implementing the trial, we conducted formative research to (1) identify factors that may influence guideline implementation and (2) inform further modifications to the intervention that may be necessary to translate a model of care delivery from a high-income country (HIC) to the local context of a LMIC. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with CHC medical directors, health care providers, and village health workers (VHWs) in eight CHCs (n = 40). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and translated into English. Two qualitative researchers used both deductive (CFIR theory driven) and inductive (open coding) approaches to analysis developed codes and themes relevant to the aims of this study. The interviews explored four out of five CFIR domains (i.e., intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, and individual characteristics) that were relevant to the analysis. Potential facilitators of the intervention included the relative advantage of the intervention compared with current practice (intervention characteristics), awareness of the burden of tobacco use in the population (outer setting), tension for change due to a lack of training and need for skill building and leadership engagement (inner setting), and a strong sense of collective efficacy to provide tobacco cessation services (individual characteristics). Potential barriers included the perception that the intervention was more complex (intervention characteristic) and not necessarily compatible (inner setting) with current workflows and staffing

  10. Infant feeding practices in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S A; Ngo, T T; Knodel, J; Le, H; Tran, T T

    1995-12-01

    Data from the 1988 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey and the 1994 Demographic Survey are used to determine the trends in breast feeding and amenorrhea among ever married women of reproductive age. Life table procedures are used to calculate monthly probabilities of weaning. Then five month moving averages of equal weight are computed for observed monthly probabilities of weaning. The smoothed probabilities are used to calculate the cumulative proportion weaned at successive monthly ages. Breast feeding is universal in Vietnam. Infants are put to the breast earlier when delivery occurs at home. Almost all children are breast fed through the first six months, and 80% are breast fed for a year. The median duration was 15.3 months in the 1988 survey and 15.9 months in the 1994 survey based on life table methods. Calculations based on current status methods were slightly higher for both years. Rural women tended to breast feed longer than urban women. Children who had mothers working in agriculture were breast fed longer than children whose mothers had other occupations. Socioeconomic factors did not correlate well with breast feeding duration. Findings indicate that over 66% of breast fed infants aged under 3 months were given plain water, and over 90% of infants aged 3-5 months were given plain water. Fresh cow's milk is not given to Vietnamese infants. Juices were given to children aged older than 6 months. Sugar water was given to younger infants. The introduction of supplemental liquids was more common in urban areas. Few infants during the first few months of life were given solid or mushy foods. But by 4 months of age, 50% of infants were given solid or mushy foods, and the practice was more common in rural areas. The urban-rural gap closed by 6 months of age. Over 90% of infants received solids at 9 months. It is expected that modernization will negatively impact on breast feeding.

  11. Multilingualism in Lithuanian cities. Daugiakalbystė Lietuvos miestuose: namų kalbų apklausos Vilniuje, Kaune ir Klaipėdoje tikslai ir rezultatai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus Extra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the experience gained from the Multilingual Cities Project, carried out in 6 Western European multicultural cities (Extra & Yağmur 2004, a home language survey was carried out at almost all primary schools in Vilnius, Kaunas and Klaipėda. The total sample consists of almost 24,000 pupils, most of them in the age range of 8-10 years old. After an introduction to the aims of the project, the design of the questionnaire and the collection, processing and analysis of the resulting data, information will be provided on the size and composition of the sample and the distribution of reported home languages. The top-9 of reported languages contains the vast majority of all home languages referred to, i.e., Lithuanian, Russian, English, Polish, German, Belarusian, French, Ukrainian, and Latvian. For these 9 languages groups, crosslinguistic perspectives will be offered on language profiles and language vitality in terms of reported language proficiency, language choice, language dominance, and language preference. Pseudolongitudinal perspectives will be offered for each of these four dimensions in the age range of 8-10 years old.                 Straipsnyje analizuojami namų kalbų plataus masto apklausos, 2008 metais atliktos Vilniaus, Kauno ir Klaipėdos miestų mokyklų pradinėse klasėse, duomenys. Apklausa rėmėsi šešiuose Vakarų Europos miestuose atlikto Daugiakalbių miestų projekto (Multilingual Cities Project patirtimi ir metodologiniais principais. Trijų didžiųjų Lietuvos miestų apklausos imtį sudarė beveik 24 tūkstančiai 8-10 metų amžiaus respondentų. Buvo apklausti 98 % Vilniaus, Kauno ir Klaipėdos II-IV klasių moksleivių. Sukaupti gausūs kiekybiniai duomenys apdoroti Tilburgo universiteto (Nyderlandai mokslininkų parengta specialia kompiuterine programa ir ten esančia įranga, pritaikyta greitam duomenų skenavimui, tikrinimui ir apdorojimui.Straipsnyje pristatomi namų kalbų analiz

  12. Economics of Nuclear Power Plant and the development of nuclear power in Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Thuy Nguyen Thi; Song, JinHo [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Kwang Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    There are many factors affecting the capital costs like: increased plant size, multiple unit construction, improved construct methods, increase the lifetime of plant and so on, and beside is technical to enhancing the safety for NPPs. For the question that whether building a NPP is really economic than other energy resources or not, we will find the answer by comparing the USD per kWh of different energy sources as: nuclear power, coal, oil, hydro natural energy sources. The situation of energy in Vietnam was also mentioned in this paper. Vietnam has an abundant natural resources likes: coal, gas, hydro power etc, but from year 2013 to now Vietnam facing of electricity shortage and to solve the problem, Vietnam Government has chosen nuclear power energy to achieve energy balance between the rate of energy consumption and the ability to energy supply. Eight units will be built in Vietnam and in October 2014 Vietnamese officials have chosen Rosatom's AES-2006 design with VVER-1200/v-491 reactors for country's first nuclear power plant at Ninh Thuan and a second plant should follow based on a partnership with Japan. In this paper, the breakdown of NPP costs is considered. All the costs for building a NPP includes: the investment costs are the largest components (about 60%), fuel costs (15%), O and M costs (25%) and external costs are lower than 1% of the kWh costs. The situation for energy in Vietnam was mentioned with increase annually by 5.5 %, and now the shortage electricity is the big problem in power section. The purpose of this report is to give a general picture to consider the cost of nuclear power. It includes all the costs for building a nuclear power plant like total capital investment costs, production costs, external costs in which the capital investment costs is the largest component of the kWh cost. Nuclear energy Power was chosen to deal with situation of diminishing resources shortages.

  13. Coping with new food-related risks / Autour de la grippe aviaire au Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Fournier

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study on the sociology of food and sociology of risk examines the impact of the recent Avian Influenza epizootic (H5N1 virus on Vietnamese consumers in Hanoi. Precautions taken by consumers did not only include following official recommendations but also adopting their own avoidance tactics. Indeed “common” food practices and “magical thinking” regularly triumphed over recommendations when these were regarded as unacceptable. While food patterns in Hanoi originally appeared to represent one of the risk factors for the spread of the virus, we noticed that these patterns were updated by new food practices adopted in response to Avian Influenza. The question is to what extent have Hanoi consumers grown accustomed to this risk as a result of homespun prevention measures.Cette étude, à la croisée de la sociologie de l’alimentation et de la sociologie du risque, analyse l’impact de l’épizootie de grippe aviaire (le virus H5N1 sur les représentations et les réactions des consommateurs urbains à Hanoi. Afin de pouvoir se protéger du risque de grippe aviaire, les consommateurs ont non seulement suivi certaines recommandations officielles, mais ont aussi créé leurs propres manières de se protéger de ce risque. De plus, certaines pratiques alimentaires « traditionnelles » accompagnées de « pensée magique » ont pris le pas sur ces recommandations lorsque les consommateurs ne les considéraient pas comme acceptables. Alors que les modèles alimentaires à Hanoi semblaient premièrement constituer un facteur de risque de propagation du virus, nous avons remarqué que la grippe aviaire avait entraîné de nouvelles habitudes alimentaires, bousculant ainsi les modèles alimentaires en place. Enfin, il s’agira de voir comment l’adoption de ces manières propres de se protéger du risque de grippe aviaire a pu entraîner une accoutumance à ce risque.

  14. Foreign Direct Investment and the Survival of Domestic Private Firms in Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Thang, Tran Toan

    2014-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) may benefit local firms in the host country through various kinds of spillovers, but it may also raise competition and result in the crowding out of domestic firms. Using detailed firm-level data for the period 2001–2008, this paper examines the aggregate effect...... significantly, while downstream FDI may reduce the hazard. The presence of SOEs has a direct negative effect on the survival odds of local private firms in the same industry, but there is also an indirect impact on the exit hazard from FDI. Local firms are more vulnerable to foreign entry in sectors with high...

  15. Summary of the Culture, History and Educational System of Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chinh B., Comp.

    This booklet gives information on the culture, history and educational system of Vietnam as it relates to Vietnamese students in the American educational system. It is intended for use by teachers who have Vietnamese students in their classes. It consists of the following chapters: (1) Vietnamese Geography and History; (2) Vietnamese Family…

  16. Bridgestone to Establish Pas-senger Car Tire Plant in Viet- nam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    On November 11, Japan Bridge- stone Corporation announced that it de- cided to establish a tire plant in Haiphong Industrial Zone, Vietnam to adapt to the steadily increasing global demand of the passenger car radial tire, upon comprehensive demonstration on all aspects such as the infrastructure, lay- out, labor force and cost.

  17. Population dynamics of shrimps in littoral marine waters of the Mekong Delta, south of Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, T D; Moreau, J; Van, M V; Phuong, N T; Toan, V T

    2010-07-15

    The population dynamics of eight commercial species of shrimp (Haliporoides sibogae, Harpiosquilla harpax, Metapenaeus affinis, Metapenaeus brevicornis, Metapenaeus tenuipes, Parapenaeopsis cultrirostris, Parapenaeopsis gracillima and Parapenaeus maxilipedo) distributed in littoral marine zone of the Mekong Delta were investigated. Length-based stock assessment using FiSAT II software package was used to assess the growth and mortality parameters: Asymptotic size (L8), growth coefficient (K), total (Z) and natural (M) mortality, exploitation rate (E), recruitment pattern, current probability of capture and selectivity of fishing gears. Yield-per-recruit analyses were carried out showing different levels of the exploitation. Results showed that the maximum sustainable yield would be reached for an exploitation rate higher than the current one for each population. However, the size of first capture should be increased for every population. The findings indicated that the current exploitations of shrimp populations distributed in littoral marine zone of the Mekong Delta are under exploitation level for maximum sustainable yield; however, all the shrimp populations are subject to growth over-exploitation.

  18. Characteristics of tuberculosis patients at intake in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, Nguyen B; Wei, Chen; Sokun, Chay

    2011-01-01

    The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all ...... tuberculosis case categories. National tuberculosis programs might utilize such information to identify problems related to referral and access to diagnosis and treatment.......The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all...

  19. Explaining tourists satisfaction and intention to revisit Nha Trang, Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Thi Ai Cam

    2011-01-01

    The first purpose of the thesis is to find how visitors evaluate the quality of different facets or attributes of a destination image of Nha Trang, how satisfied they are with Nha Trang, loyalty intention to revisit and willingness to recommend Nha Trang to others. The second is to investigate what “image” is most important to explain global satisfaction with visiting Nha Trang. The third is to investigate how perceived quality, satisfaction and other motivational or dismotivational factors ...

  20. Growth and Structural Transformation in Viet Nam during the 2000s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thu Hoai, Dang Thi; Tarp, Finn; van Seventer, Dirk

    the period 2000–12, while moving from primary production (agriculture) towards more value adding manufacturing activities. This transformation has been broad based and in large measure driven by external demand. We conclude that it will be challenging to sustain growth without bold moves in technological......We study structural transformation and change in the Vietnamese economy using two Social Accounting Matrices (SAMs), one for the year 2000 and a recently compiled SAM for the year 2012. This period is of particular interest as it features an important shift in terms of more economic integration...... with the global economy. Several analytical approaches are taken, including comparisons and decomposition of multipliers and a decomposition of structural change. We observe significant changes in economic structure, and the results suggest that the Vietnamese economy has become internally more integrated over...

  1. Vietnamese Refugee. Orientation Handbook. (Nguoi Ti Nan Viet Nam. Sach Chi Dan.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC. Office of Family Assistance.

    This is a bilingual orientation handbook for Vietnamese refugees in the United States. The handbook provides information on refugee status, its legal definition and obligations. General information presented about the United States includes a description of the land, climate, people, government, and a list of national holidays. Living conditions…

  2. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among Rural Adolescents in Khanh Hoa Province Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, L. M.; Genberg, B. L.; Minh, T. T.; Tho, L. H.; Thoa, L. T. K.; Stanton, B.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that youth are consuming more alcohol and at younger ages than in the past. Data also indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with participation in other risk behaviors including aggression and sexual behaviors. As part of a randomized control effectiveness trial for an HIV prevention program, 480 Vietnamese youth (15-20…

  3. Growth and Structural Transformation in Viet Nam during the 2000s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thu Hoai, Dang Thi; Tarp, Finn; van Seventer, Dirk;

    We study structural transformation and change in the Vietnamese economy using two Social Accounting Matrices (SAMs), one for the year 2000 and a recently compiled SAM for the year 2012. This period is of particular interest as it features an important shift in terms of more economic integration w...

  4. Educational Financing and Budgeting in Viet Nam. Financial Management of Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Nguyen Ba; Long, Vu Van; Tam, Phan Thanh; Sinh, Nguyen Thi

    Vietnam started market reforms earlier than other countries in Southeast Asia and is used as a role model by the Asian Development Bank. Nevertheless, complicated bureaucracy and regional differences hinder improvements in financial management in education. The budgeting process, in particular, is cumbersome. This book presents a report of a…

  5. Growth and Structural Transformation in Viet Nam during the 2000s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thu Hoai, Dang Thi; Tarp, Finn; van Seventer, Dirk

    We study structural transformation and change in the Vietnamese economy using two Social Accounting Matrices (SAMs), one for the year 2000 and a recently compiled SAM for the year 2012. This period is of particular interest as it features an important shift in terms of more economic integration...... with the global economy. Several analytical approaches are taken, including comparisons and decomposition of multipliers and a decomposition of structural change. We observe significant changes in economic structure, and the results suggest that the Vietnamese economy has become internally more integrated over...... the period 2000–12, while moving from primary production (agriculture) towards more value adding manufacturing activities. This transformation has been broad-based and in large measure driven by external demand. We conclude that it will be challenging to sustain growth without bold moves in technological...

  6. Culture and cooperation: cooperative learning in Asian Confucian heritage cultures. The case of Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    The study is concerned with the influence of western educational approaches upon non-western societies and cultural groups. In applying western educational approaches, often a detailed consideration of its consequences to the culture and heritage of a non-western civilization is neglected. This is b

  7. Neutrophil activator of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (NAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Ellen E; Hymowitz, Michelle; Schmidt, Cathleen E; Montana, Steve; Foda, Hussein; Zucker, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    We have isolated a novel soluble factor(s), neutrophil activator of matrix metalloproteinases (NAM), secreted by unstimulated normal human peripheral blood neutrophils that causes the activation of cell secreted promatrix metalloproteinase-2 (proMMP-2). Partially purified preparations of NAM have been isolated from the conditioned media of neutrophils employing gelatin-Sepharose chromatography and differential membrane filter centrifugation. NAM activity, as assessed by exposing primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or HT1080 cells to NAM followed by gelatin zymography, was seen within one hour. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and hydroxamic acid derived inhibitors of MMPs (CT1746 and BB94) abrogated the activation of proMMP-2 by NAM, while inhibitors of serine and cysteine proteases showed no effect. NAM also produced an increase in TIMP-2 binding to HUVEC and HT1080 cell surfaces that was inhibited by TIMP-2, CT1746, and BB94. Time-dependent increases in MT1-MMP protein and mRNA were seen following the addition of NAM to cells. These data support a role for NAM in cancer dissemination.

  8. ANAM vs. NAM: Is the difference significant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammel, S.; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Tsintikidis, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Navy Aerosol Model (NAM, available in MODTRAN) is widely used as a tool to assess the aerosol extinction in the marine atmospheric surface layer. NAM was built as a regression model in the 1980s to represent the aerosol extinction at deck height as a function of the meteorological conditions. Th

  9. Nam June Paik / Nam June Paik ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paik, Nam June

    2006-01-01

    Korea-ameerika kunstnikust Nam June Paikist (sünd. 1932), telefoniintervjuu kunstnikuga tema talvekodus Floridas 20.01.2001. Nam June Paiki töödest "Participation TV" (1963), "Video Synthesizer" (1969/70),sateliidiperformance'itest "Good Morning, Mr. Orwell!" (1980), "Bye Bye, Kipling" (1987) ja "Wrap around the World" (1988), näitusest "Electronic Superhighway" (1994) jm. Nam June Paik ka Internetist, Interneti-kunstist, töötamisest laseriga

  10. Nam June Paik / Nam June Paik ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paik, Nam June

    2006-01-01

    Korea-ameerika kunstnikust Nam June Paikist (sünd. 1932), telefoniintervjuu kunstnikuga tema talvekodus Floridas 20.01.2001. Nam June Paiki töödest "Participation TV" (1963), "Video Synthesizer" (1969/70),sateliidiperformance'itest "Good Morning, Mr. Orwell!" (1980), "Bye Bye, Kipling" (1987) ja "Wrap around the World" (1988), näitusest "Electronic Superhighway" (1994) jm. Nam June Paik ka Internetist, Interneti-kunstist, töötamisest laseriga

  11. Geostatistical Approach to Estimating the Gold Ore Characteristics and Gold Reserves: A Case Study Daksa Area, Quang Nam Province, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan Truong, Xuan; Luong Le, Van; Quang Truong, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Daksa gold deposit is the biggest gold deposits in Vietnam. The Daksa geological structure complicated, distributed mainly metamorphosed sedimentary NuiVu formation (PR3-?1nv2). The sulfide gold ore bodies distributed in quartz schist, quartz - biotite related to faut and distribution wing anticline. The gold ore bodies form circuits, network circuits, circuits lenses; fill the cup surface layer of the developing northeast - southwest; is the less than or west longitude north - SE. The results show that, Au and accompanying elements (Ag, Pb and Zn) have correlated pretty closely. All of its consistent with the logarithmic distribution standard, in accordance with the law of distribution of content mineral rare. The structure functions have nugget effect and spherical models with show that Au and accompanying elements special variation are changes. Au contents shown local anisotropy, no clearly anisotropy (K=1,17) and weakly anisotropy (K=1,4). Intensity mineralization of the ore bodies are quite high with demand spherical conversion coefficient ranging from 0.49 to 0.75 and from 0.66 to 0.97 (for other body). With nugget effects, ore bodies shown that it is consistent with mineralization in the ore bodies study, ore erasable, micro vein, infilling fractures in quartz vein. All of variogram presents local anisotropy, indicated gold mineralization at study area has least two-mineralization stages, consistent with the analysis of mineralography samples. By the results of the structure function study, the authors present the system optimization for exploration deposit and used to evaluate gold reserves by Ordinary Kriging. High accuracy of Kriging estimation results are expressed in the minimum Kriging variance, by compare the results calculated by some other methods (such as distance inverse weighting method, ..) and specially compare to the results of a some blocks have been exploited. Key words: Geostat and gold deposits VN. Daksa and gold mineralization. Geostat and gold mine Daksa.

  12. The Innovative Structure Solution for Preventing Salt Intrusion and Retaining Freshwater In Mekong Delta VietNam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.T.; Vrijling, J.K.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta Vietnam, the construction of sluices with the purpose of retaining fresh water and preventing salt water intrusion potentially plays a very important role. However, the structures constructed in small rivers according to local or traditional technology revealed many disadvantages

  13. Assessing error sources for Landsat time series analysis for tropical test sites in Viet Nam and Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, M.; Verbesselt, J.; Herold, M.; Avitabile, V.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers who use remotely sensed data can spend half of their total effort analysing prior data. If this data preprocessing does not match the application, this time spent on data analysis can increase considerably and can lead to inaccuracies. Despite the existence of a number of methods for pre

  14. Evaluation of microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay for diagnosis of multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis in Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Ha Dang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB is important for the elimination of TB. We evaluated the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS assay as a direct rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST method for MDR-TB screening in sputum samples Methods All adult TB suspects, who were newly presenting to Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital from August to November 2008 were enrolled into the study. Processed sputum samples were used for DST by MODS (DST-MODS (Rifampicin (RIF 1 μg/ml and Isoniazid (INH 0.4 μg/ml, MGIT culture (Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube and Lowenstein Jensen (LJ culture. Cultures positive by either MGIT or LJ were used for proportional DST (DST-LJ (RIF 40 μg/ml and INH 0.2 μg/ml. DST profiles on MODS and LJ were compared. Discrepant results were resolved by multiplex allele specific PCR (MAS-PCR. Results Seven hundred and nine TB suspects/samples were enrolled into the study, of which 300 samples with DST profiles available from both MODS and DST-LJ were analyzed. Cording in MODS was unable to correctly identify 3 Mycobacteria Other Than Tuberculosis (MOTT isolates, resulting in 3 false positive TB diagnoses. None of these isolates were identified as MDR-TB by MODS. The sensitivity and specificity of MODS were 72.6% (95%CI: 59.8, 83.1 and 97.9% (95%CI: 95.2, 99.3, respectively for detection of INH resistant isolates, 72.7% (95%CI: 30.9, 93.7 and 99.7% (95%CI: 98.1, 99.9, respectively for detecting RIF resistant isolates and 77.8% (95%CI: 39.9, 97.1 and 99.7% (95%CI: 98.1, 99.9, respectively for detecting MDR isolates. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV of DST-MODS were 87.5% (95%CI: 47.3, 99.6 and 99.3% (95%CI: 97.5, 99.9 for detection of MDR isolates; and the agreement between MODS and DST-LJ was 99.0% (kappa: 0.8, P Conclusion The DST-MODS technique is rapid with low contamination rates. However, the sensitivity of DST-MODS for detection of INH and RIF resistance in this study was lower than reported from other settings.

  15. Managing Hotel’s Operation in Viet Nam in Global Economic Crisis : A case study on cost reduction in hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Son

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research for this thesis is to find out the costs which can be reduced in hotels in Vietnam to copes with difficulties and challenges from the global economic crisis. The idea is to find out what kinds of cost can be reduced and how they are reduced to minimize expenditures of hotel, how the costs reduction affect quality of hotel’s products and services. In order to achieve goals of the research, two structure telephone interviews were conducted in a case study in the Huu Ngh...

  16. Effect of an integrated child nutrition intervention on the complementary food intake of young children in rural north Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachón, Helena; Schroeder, Dirk G; Marsh, David R; Dearden, Kirk A; Ha, Tran Thu; Lang, Tran Thi

    2002-12-01

    Forty-two percent of Vietnamese children are stunted by two years of age. Since 1990, Save the Children Federation/US (SC) has implemented integrated nutrition programs targeting young children. We evaluated the effect of SC's nutrition program on the complementary food intake of young rural Vietnamese children. Using a longitudinal, prospective, randomized design, we followed 238 children (119 each from intervention and comparison communes) age 5 to 25 months old for six months with a re-survey at 12 months. We gathered 24-hour recall data at baseline and at months 2, 4, 6, and 12. Dietary energy intake was calculated using the 1972 Vietnamese food composition table. Key outcomes were daily frequency of consuming intervention-promoted food and non-breastmilk liquids and food, daily quantity of non-breastmilk liquids and food consumed, daily energy intake, and proportion of children meeting daily median energy requirements. Young rural children exposed to SC's program consumed intervention-promoted, and any, foods more frequently, ate a greater quantity of any food, consumed more energy, and were more likely to meet their daily energy requirements than comparison children. Some effects were only observed during the intensive intervention period; others persisted into or were evident only at the 12-month follow-up, approximately four months after program completion. Based on the mothers' reports, the intervention did not apparently compromise breastfeeding prevalence or frequency. The intervention improved children's food and energy intake and protected them from declining as rapidly as comparison children in meeting their energy requirements.

  17. The Innovative Structure Solution for Preventing Salt Intrusion and Retaining Freshwater In Mekong Delta VietNam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.T.; Vrijling, J.K.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta Vietnam, the construction of sluices with the purpose of retaining fresh water and preventing salt water intrusion potentially plays a very important role. However, the structures constructed in small rivers according to local or traditional technology revealed many disadvantages

  18. Vai Tro Cua Phu Huynh Viet Nam Tai Hoc Duong Hoa Ky. The Role of Vietnamese Parents in American Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Vuong G.

    This document, written in Vietnamese and containing a bilingual (English/Vietnamese) forward, examines the differences between the American and Vietnamese educational systems with respect to basic educational philosophy, content, learning style and organization. Also discussed are specific learning problems which affect the education of Vietnamese…

  19. Impact of Ecotourism : A Study on the Environmental Impact of Ecotourism in Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere, Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Van Ly; Do , Anh

    2011-01-01

    Ecotourism is a new concept in the tourism industry of Vietnam, which essentially developed since past 20 years. However, Vietnam’s cultural and natural potential for ecotourism is well established. Over many neighbouring countries, Vietnam has great advantages for ecotourism with many scenic attractions and diversified ecology. Among other destinations, Can Gio has emerged as a new ecotourism destination with the unique mangrove forest, multiform fauna and flora species along with a nice bea...

  20. Vai Tro Cua Phu Huynh Viet Nam Tai Hoc Duong Hoa Ky. The Role of Vietnamese Parents in American Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Vuong G.

    This document, written in Vietnamese and containing a bilingual (English/Vietnamese) forward, examines the differences between the American and Vietnamese educational systems with respect to basic educational philosophy, content, learning style and organization. Also discussed are specific learning problems which affect the education of Vietnamese…

  1. NAM: The 2004 RAS National Astronomy Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Barrie; Norton, Andrew

    2004-06-01

    This year's RAS National Astronomy Meeting was held at the Open University's Milton Keynes campus from 29 March to 2 April. The event was organized by members of the OU Physics & Astronomy Department and Planetary & Space Science Research Institute. Around 450 people attended the meeting, at which more than 220 talks were presented, along with around 90 posters. Co-chairs of RAS NAM04, Barrie Jones and Andrew Norton, summarize.

  2. River of kings [Mae Nam Chao Phraya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogg, R.

    1997-10-01

    Low rainfall and a growing demand for water have had profound effects on water supplies in Thailand`s Mae Nam Chao Phraya river basin. In particular, low water levels are causing problems at the Bhumibol and Sirikit dams, as rice farms are threatened. The work of a Government sponsored think-tank set up to coordinate water management in the region is describe. Strategies may include use of groundwater at peak demand, recycling waste water and improve technical efficiency to reduce distribution losses. Any such policy changes will inevitably have widespread political, economic and social consequences. (UK)

  3. "Bõvajut dni - nam hotshetsja pokoja..." : [luuletused] / Gennadi Vereshtshagin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vereshtshagin, Gennadi

    2007-01-01

    Sisu: "Bõvajut dni - nam hotshetsja pokoja..." ; "- V ljubvi net strahha, - Pavel prav..." ; "K tshemu utshonõje slova..." ; "Ossoznannoje - tolko tshast..." ; "Proshtshaju Vass, no ne vernus..." ; "Uventshai tsar ljubvi nebesnoi..." ; "Ja znaju tvoi dushevnõi sterzhen..."

  4. North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) [12 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) is one of the major regional weather forecast models run by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction...

  5. [Identification of Nam Dinh virus in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qu; Lin, Lin; Zhou, Jian-Ming; Chen, Ying-Jian; Zhang, Qi-Wen; Wang, De-Quan; Li, Jing-Mei; Jin, Yu-Juan

    2013-01-01

    During 2009-2012, the Nam Dinh virus (NDiv) was detected from the samples of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus in Shenzhen China. In this study, cell culture,SYBR Green I based real time RT-PCR and RT-PCR were performed to analyze the cell susceptibility and other biological characteristics of the NDiV isolates. The results showed that C6/36 cell line was susceptible to four isolates of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus. The "S" type amplification curve and specific melting curve were obtained in the realtime fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR based on SYBR Green I for the detection of the NDiV from the mosquito. The target bands from the RdRp gene and partial fragment of ZmHel1 gene were observed using agarose gel electrophoresis. Both the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of four Shenzhen isolates showed more than 99.00% homology with the Vietnam representative NDiV strain (02VN178). Phylogenetic analysis showed that four Shenzhen isolates shared the same evolution branch as the Vietnam representative NDiV strain. This is the first report of NDiV in China.

  6. NAM-1gene polymorphism and grain protein content in Hordeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamar, Catherine; Loffet, Francois; Frettinger, Patrick; Ramsay, Luke; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; du Jardin, Patrick

    2010-04-15

    Grain protein content (GPC) is a key quality factor for malting and brewing process. In wheat, a QTL explaining a large part of GPC variation was identified, which co-localizes with a gene encoding a NAC transcription factor (TtNAM-B1). NAC transcription factors influence GPC by their role in the regulation of senescence and in protein remobilization. An orthologous gene was discovered on barley chromosome 6H where a GPC QTL was mapped. In this study, we identify allelic variation of the NAM-1 gene for three species of Hordeum representing wild and cultivated barley and we investigate the possible link with GPC. Three haplotypes were identified, one corresponds to the sequences of 11 European varieties representing H. vulgare, one corresponds to the sequence found in H. spontaneum and one represents the sequence of H. bulbosum. Three SNPs were identified between H. spontaneum sequence and H. vulgare sequence. One of the H. bulbosum polymorphisms leads to the introduction of a stop codon and a non-functional protein. Differences in GPC between the 11 varieties were found but no polymorphism in the NAM-1 gene was observed, suggesting that differences in expression of the HvNAM-1 gene or other genes should play a role in GPC regulation. Nevertheless based on published values for GPC of H. bulbosum and H. spontaneum compared to GPC measured here in H. vulgare, the non-functional protein is associated with the lower GPC, suggesting that loss of functionality of the NAM-1 gene in Hordeum is related to lower GPC. Moreover H. spontaneum GPC seems to be higher than H. vulgare GPC, suggesting also that allelic variation of the functional NAM-1 gene could be associated with GPC variation within the genus Hordeum. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of the Vietnamese Good Agricultural Practice (VietGAP on plant growth and quality of Choy Sum (Brassica rapa var. Parachinensis in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan M. Ha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to the recent concerns about human health, ecosystem sustainability and thus demands for food safety, production of clean produce, particularly daily-consumed vegetables, is essential. The study was carried out in Thai Nguyen city (northern Vietnam during August – November 2011 to evaluate impacts of a VietGAP guideline on plant growth and quality of Choy Sum, one of the major vegetables in the research area. The experiment comprised two treatments, a control (local farmers’ conventional practice and an experimental treatment (plants grown according to the VietGAP guideline. Plant samples of the latter treatment were collected for quality test at the end of the experiment. Results showed that the experimental plants had significant higher growth parameters with regards to leaf areas (7.13 dm2 and average top plant weight (3.33 kg m-2, while those of the control treatment were 5.80 dm2 and 2.77 kg m-2, respectively. Lab test results showed the experimental plant samples met the national quality standards to be certified as a clean product. The participatory on-field experiment would facilitate critical reflections, transformative learning and readiness for adoption of eco-friendly production practices by the local farmers

  8. The War in the Delta: Views from Three Viet Cong Battalions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-09-01

    hard- ships but in terms of whether or not political education had fortified the troops to the point where they were willing to face the risk of death...was their main consideration, or do they hehV as if their political education had fortified them against the risk of death? In the Viet Cong military

  9. Developing management packages for acid sulphate soils based on farmer and expert knowledge : field study in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quang Tri, Le

    1996-01-01


    Effective interaction of farmers' expertise and expert knowledge has been a special point of attention for this study. The objectives of the study were to describe the process of interaction between farmers and experts in improving the use of acid sulphate soils and to point out difficult

  10. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B-1, ochratoxin A and fuminisins of adults in Lao Cai province, Viet Nam: A total dietary study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Huong Mai; Le Danh Tuyen; Do Huu Tuan

    2016-01-01

    higher than recommended provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) values mainly due to contaminated cereals and meat. The exposure to total fumonisins (1400 ng/kg bw/day) was typically lower than the PTDI value (2000 ng/kg bw/day). The estimated risk of liver cancer associated with exposure to aflatoxin...... B1 was 2.7 cases/100,000 person/year. Margin of exposure (MOE) of renal cancer linked to ochratoxin A and liver cancer associated with fumonisins were 1124 and 1954, respectively indicating risk levels of public health concern. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficiency of technical...... solutions which could reduce mycotoxin contamination as well as to determine the health effects of the co-exposure to different types of mycotoxins....

  11. Virus diseases risk-factors associated with shrimp farming practices in rice-shrimp and intensive culture systems in Mekong Delta Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duc, P.M.; Tuyet Hoa, T.T.; Nguyen Thanh Phuong,; Bosma, R.H.; Huynh V., Hien; Tran N., Tuan

    2015-01-01

    In Mekong Delta, viral infection, including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), heptopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and gill-associated nidovirus (GAV) frequently infect cultured shrimp starting at the postlarvae

  12. Soil knowledge for farmers, farmer knowledge for soil scientists : the case of acid sulphate soils in the Mekong delta, Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensvoort, van M.E.F.

    1996-01-01


    Half the Mekong delta in Vietnam, i.e. around 2 million hectares, suffers soil related problems due to acid sulphate soils. These soils generate sulphuric acid due to the oxidation of pyrite after aeration. Pyrite is most easily formed in tidal swamps. Human interference through land

  13. Integrated soil and water management in acid sulphate soils. Balancing agricultural production and environmental requirements in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quang Minh,

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this study in the Mekong delta, Vietnam, were: (1) to obtain a better understanding of the effects of soil physical properties and flow types on solute transport in ASS emphasing aluminum; (2) to quantify environmental hazards resulting from amelioration activities in acid sulphate

  14. Health services for reproductive tract infections among female migrant workers in industrial zones in Ha Noi, Viet Nam: an in-depth assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Le; Pham Lien; Vu Lan; Schelling Esther

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Rural-to-urban migration involves a high proportion of females because job opportunities for female migrants have increased in urban industrial areas. Those who migrate may be healthier than those staying in the village and they may benefit from better health care services at destination, but the 'healthy' effect can be reversed at destination due to migration-related health risk factors. The study aimed to explore the need for health care services for reproductive tract i...

  15. Health services for reproductive tract infections among female migrant workers in industrial zones in Ha Noi, Viet Nam: an in-depth assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Le

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural-to-urban migration involves a high proportion of females because job opportunities for female migrants have increased in urban industrial areas. Those who migrate may be healthier than those staying in the village and they may benefit from better health care services at destination, but the 'healthy' effect can be reversed at destination due to migration-related health risk factors. The study aimed to explore the need for health care services for reproductive tract infections (RTIs among female migrants working in the Sai Dong industrial zone as well as their services utilization. Methods The cross sectional study employed a mixed method approach. A cohort of 300 female migrants was interviewed to collect quantitative data. Two focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data. We have used frequency and cross-tabulation techniques to analyze the quantitative data and the qualitative data was used to triangulate and to provide more in-depth information. Results The needs for health care services for RTI were high as 25% of participants had RTI syndromes. Only 21.6% of female migrants having RTI syndromes ever seek helps for health care services. Barriers preventing migrants to access services were traditional values, long working hours, lack of information, and high cost of services. Employers had limited interests in reproductive health of female migrants, and there was ineffective collaboration between the local health system and enterprises. These barriers were partly caused by lack of health promotion programs suitable for migrants. Most respondents needed more information on RTIs and preferred to receive these from their employers since they commonly work shifts - and spend most of their day time at work. Conclusion While RTIs are a common health problem among female migrant workers in industrial zones, female migrants had many obstacles in accessing RTI care services. The findings from this study will help to design intervention models for RTI among this vulnerable group such as communication for behavioural impact of RTI health care, fostered collaboration between local health care services and employer enterprises, and on-site service (e.g. local or enterprise health clinics strengthening.

  16. Emergence of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 and other carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex among patients in hospitals in Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D N; Tran, H H; Matsui, M; Suzuki, M; Suzuki, S; Shibayama, K; Pham, T D; Van Phuong, T T; Dang, D A; Trinh, H S; Loan, C T; Nga, L T V; van Doorn, H R; Wertheim, H F L

    2017-02-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important cause of multidrug-resistant hospital acquired infections in the world. Here, we investigate the presence of NDM-1 and other carbapenemases among carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolated between August 2010 and December 2014 from three large hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam. We identified 23/582 isolates (4 %) (11 from hospital A, five from hospital B, and seven from hospital C) that were NDM-1 positive, and among them 18 carried additional carbapenemase genes, including seven isolates carrying NDM-1, IMP-1, and OXA-58 with high MICs for carbapenems. Genotyping indicated that NDM-1 carrying A. baumannii have expanded clonally in these hospitals. Five new STs (ST1135, ST1136, ST1137, ST1138, and ST1139) were identified. One isolate carried NDM-1 on a plasmid belonging to the N-repA replicon type; no NDM-1-positive plasmids were identified in the other isolates. We have shown the extent of the carbapenem resistance and the local clonal spread of A. baumannii carrying NDM-1 in these hospitals; coexistence of NDM-1 and IMP-1 is reported for the first time from Vietnam here, and this will further seriously limit future therapeutic options.

  17. Living With an American Family: A Guide for Vietnamese Youth. (Song Trong Mot Gia Dinh Hoa Ky: Cam nang cho thieu nien Viet Nam.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Dale; And Others

    This booklet was written for Vietnamese adolescents who are living with American families. The booklet describes, in both Vietnamese and English, the structure and mores of American family and social life. Concerns common to teenagers are also discussed. Among the topics addressed are: school; typical weekdays and weekends; forms of address;…

  18. Developing management packages for acid sulphate soils based on farmer and expert knowledge. Field study in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quang Tri,

    1996-01-01

    Effective interaction of farmers' expertise and expert knowledge has been a special point of attention for this study. The objectives of the study were to describe the process of interaction between farmers and experts in improving the use of acid sulphate soils and to point out difficulties encount

  19. The Use and Effectiveness of Sabotage as a Means of Unconventional Warfare - An Historical Perspective from World War I through Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    infectious diseases in animals prior to open hostilities (38:13). Some saboteurs are also trained on the use of tac- tical nuclear weapons (38:14...rear areas. Sometimes this can be a major 36 objective. Fcr example, in June-July 1943, the Greek sabo- teurs initiated Operation ANIMALS . In this...two Germar freighters at Bardia, a major Axis port. Keeley lay camoflauged f.or three days a few miles west of Bardia looking for Axis ships. Two

  20. Integrated soil and water management in acid sulphate soils : balancing agricultural production and environmental requirements in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Q.M.

    1996-01-01


    The objectives of this study in the Mekong delta, Vietnam, were: (1) to obtain a better understanding of the effects of soil physical properties and flow types on solute transport in ASS emphasing aluminum; (2) to quantify environmental hazards resulting from amelioration activities in

  1. Virus diseases risk-factors associated with shrimp farming practices in rice-shrimp and intensive culture systems in Mekong Delta Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duc, P.M.; Tuyet Hoa, T.T.; Nguyen Thanh Phuong,; Bosma, R.H.; Huynh V., Hien; Tran N., Tuan

    2015-01-01

    In Mekong Delta, viral infection, including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), heptopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and gill-associated nidovirus (GAV) frequently infect cultured shrimp starting at the postlarvae s

  2. Soil knowledge for farmers, farmer knowledge for soil scientists. The case of acid sulphate soils in the Mekong delta, Viet Nam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensvoort, van M.E.F.

    1996-01-01

    Half the Mekong delta in Vietnam, i.e. around 2 million hectares, suffers soil related problems due to acid sulphate soils. These soils generate sulphuric acid due to the oxidation of pyrite after aeration. Pyrite is most easily formed in tidal swamps. Human interference through land drainage is the

  3. External evaluation of the Ban Nam Paeng & Ban Nam Ki ComMod case study in Nan Province, Northern Thailand : Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paassen, van A.; Patamadit, I.

    2007-01-01

    Verslag van de evaluatie rondom het gebruik van Companion Modelling (ComMod) bij projecten in Ban Nam Paeng & Ban Nam Ki, in de provincie Nan, in het noorden van Thailand. Een van de doelen is om de lokale bevolking (meer) inspraak te geven bij besluitvorming rond bijvoorbeeld het oprichten van

  4. Two Integrator Loop Filters: Generation Using NAM Expansion and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Soliman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic synthesis method to generate a family of two integrator loop filters based on nodal admittance matrix (NAM expansion is given. Eight equivalent circuits are obtained; six of them are new. Each of the generated circuits uses two grounded capacitors and employs two current conveyors (CCII or two inverting current conveyors (ICCII or a combination of both. The NAM expansion is also used to generate eight equivalent grounded passive elements two integrator loop filters using differential voltage current conveyor (DVCC; six of them are new. Changing the input port of excitation, two new families of eight unity gain lowpass filter circuits each using two CCII or ICCII or combination of both or two DVCC are obtained.

  5. Synthesis of Oscillators Using Limit Variables and NAM Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Soliman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic synthesis procedure for generating second-order grounded passive element canonic oscillators is given. The synthesis procedure is based on using nodal admittance matrix (NAM expansion with the bracket method as well as using the infinity parameters. The resulting derived oscillators include circuits using various types of current conveyors. Two classes of oscillators are considered in this paper, and they have the advantages of having independent control on the condition of oscillation and on the frequency of oscillation by varying two different grounded resistors. The two classes of oscillators considered can be easily compensated for the parasitic element effects introduced by the current conveyors. This paper is considered to be continuation to the recently published paper on oscillators using NAM expansion D. G. Haigh et al. (2006. This is the first paper in the literature which uses limit-variables called infinity-variables D. G. Haigh et al. (2005 in the synthesis of oscillator circuits. Simulation results demonstrating the practicality of some of the generated circuits are included.

  6. Review of the odd chrysidid genus Loboscelidia Westwood, 1874 (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae, Loboscelidiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Kimsey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The chrysidid genus Loboscelidia is reviewed and 11 new species are described, including L. cinnamonea (Borneo, L. fulgens (Viet Nam, L. fulva (Thailand, L. incompleta (India, L. kafae (Borneo, L. laminata (Viet Nam, L. meifungae (Borneo, L. nasiformis (Thailand, L. nitidula (Thailand, L. pecki (Viet Nam, and L. sisik (Borneo. A key to males of the species of Loboscelidia is given.

  7. Potential for Aedes albopictus and Ochlerotatus j. japonicus to Change the Field Ecology of Arboviruses of Human Health Importance in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    transovarial transmission (Watts et al. 1974) and may be amplified by venereal transmission between infected males and uninfected female mosquitoes...Failloux AB. 1999. Aedes aegypti in Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam): susceptibility to dengue 2 virus and genetic differentiation . Trans R Soc Trop Med...triseriatus triseriatus female male Venereal Human Figure 4. La Crosse virus cycle. 38 Table 2. Vector competence

  8. Greening Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Evaluating Environmental Policy in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Khoa, Le

    2006-01-01

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) contribute considerably to the economic and social development of bothViet Namand Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). But at the same time this sector causes severe environmental proble

  9. Psiholoģiskā terora darba vietā tiesiskais regulējums

    OpenAIRE

    Laizāne, Santa

    2010-01-01

    Maģistra darbā „Psiholoģiskā terora darba vietā tiesiskais regulējums” darba autore ir aplūkojusi tiesību zinātnē līdz šim maz pētītu jautājumu. Neētiskas un aizskarošas uzvedības darba vietā apzīmēšanai netiek lietots vienots, starptautiski atzīts termins. Darba autore darbā lieto jēdzienu „psiholoģiskais terors” ar to saprotot personai nevēlamu, neētisku, aizskarošu, naidīgu rīcību, ko viena vai vairākas personas sistemātiski vērš pret darbinieku ilgstošā laika posmā, tādējādi kaitējot darb...

  10. Shining Light on an mGlu5 Photoswitchable NAM: A Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, James A R; Lans, Isaias; Rovira, Xavier; Malhaire, Fanny; Gómez-Santacana, Xavier; Pittolo, Silvia; Gorostiza, Pau; Llebaria, Amadeu; Goudet, Cyril; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Giraldo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are important drug targets because of their involvement in several neurological diseases. Among mGluRs, mGlu5 is a particularly high-profile target because its positive or negative allosteric modulation can potentially treat schizophrenia or anxiety and chronic pain, respectively. Here, we computationally and experimentally probe the functional binding of a novel photoswitchable mGlu5 NAM, termed alloswitch-1, which loses its NAM functionality under violet light. We show alloswitch-1 binds deep in the allosteric pocket in a similar fashion to mavoglurant, the co-crystallized NAM in the mGlu5 transmembrane domain crystal structure. Alloswitch-1, like NAM 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP), is significantly affected by P655M mutation deep in the allosteric pocket, eradicating its functionality. In MD simulations, we show alloswitch-1 and MPEP stabilize the co-crystallized water molecule located at the bottom of the allosteric site that is seemingly characteristic of the inactive receptor state. Furthermore, both NAMs form H-bonds with S809 on helix 7, which may constitute an important stabilizing interaction for NAM-induced mGlu5 inactivation. Alloswitch-1, through isomerization of its amide group from trans to cis is able to form an additional interaction with N747 on helix 5. This may be an important interaction for amide-containing mGlu5 NAMs, helping to stabilize their binding in a potentially unusual cis-amide state. Simulated conformational switching of alloswitch-1 in silico suggests photoisomerization of its azo group from trans to cis may be possible within the allosteric pocket. However, photoexcited alloswitch-1 binds in an unstable fashion, breaking H-bonds with the protein and destabilizing the co-crystallized water molecule. This suggests photoswitching may have destabilizing effects on mGlu5 binding and functionality.

  11. Quaternary Lake Deposits of Nam Co, Tibet, with a Discussion of the Connection of Nam Co with Ring Co-Jiuru Co

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱大岗; 赵希涛; 孟宪刚; 吴中海; 吴珍汉; 冯向阳; 邵兆刚; 刘琦胜; 杨美玲

    2002-01-01

    Shorelines are widespread and lake deposits and lake geomorphology are well developed on the northern Tibetan Plateau. Through field observations of lacustrine deposits of Nam Co-the highest and largest Quaternary lake in Tibet, the authors found four-step shore terraces composed of sands and clays with well-developed horizontal bedding and 3-12 m, 15-22 m, 25-30 m and 35-45 m higher than the lake surface respectively, lacustrine deposits resting on the bedrocks and 60-150 m higher than the lake surface, and up to ~50 levees composed of oblate lakeshore gravels. Moreover they found lacustrine and lakeshore deposits making up the terraces and levees on the bottoms of wide dividing valleys connecting Nam Co with the Rencoyuema, Rencogongma and Jiuru Co northwest of Nam Co (the valley bottoms are 20 m, 90 m and 60 m higher than the above-mentioned three lakes) and on slopes north of it, i.e. terraces II and III of Nam Co. Thus they confirm that Nam Co and Ring Co-Jiuru Co had connected with each other several times, i.e. formed a unified large lake several times, rather than had been different lakes connected only by river channels. From indications such as the distribution of the highest shoreline and lake deposits and geomorphology, the authors conclude that the total area of the old large lakes on the northern Tibetan Plateau is a few times larger than that of the modern lakes and that the last-stage old large lakes formed in the interglacial interval of the last glaciation.

  12. A contextual ICA stakeholder model approach for the Namibian spatial data infrastructure (NamSDI)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sinvula, KM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Namibian parliament presented and promulgated the Namibian Spatial Data Infrastructure (NamSDI) with the aim of promoting the sharing and improved access and use of geospatial data and services across Namibia. Notable SDI models...

  13. Climate change and development responses on agriculture in Quang Nam Province Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The study describes the development of agriculture in Quang Nam Province and the adaptation to climate change. Climate change can be defined as the deviation from the “normal” climate variation and we did not assess the anthropogenic contributions to the climate events. It was not possible...

  14. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Lakes in Nam Co Basin, 1991-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wang; Aiguo Zhou; Ziyong Sun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Lakes in Tibet Plateau with little effects of human activities serve as important indicators of climate change. This study analysed remote sensing data and long term climate variables to examine the hydrological response of lakes in Nam Co Basin. The area changes of lakes were extracted by Landsat TM/ETM+and analysed by SRTM 3 DEM. And the ICESat elevation data between 2003 and 2009 were used to observe the lake level of the Nam Co Lake. The results show that the number of new formed glacier lakes increased by 36% and the area of glacier lakes increased by 36.7% (0.97 km2) from 1991 to 2011. At the same time, the surface area of the Nam Co Lake expanded by 3.71%(72.64 km2) of the original size in 1991, with a tendency value of 3.63 km2 per year. The lake level of the Nam Co Lake shows an increase tendency of 0.24 m per year during 2003–2009. These variations appear to be related to an increase in mean annual temperature of 0.06 ºC per year, and an increase in annual precipitation of 2.1 mm per year in summer in the last two decades. The increased number of lakes and increased area of glacial lakes reached a peak at an altitude of 5 500–5 600 m a.s.l.. The number of new formed glacier lakes and the area of glacier lakes tend to higher altitudes. Climate change has an im-portant impact on the variation of the glacier lakes and the Nam Co Lake.

  15. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  16. Research on the Prevention and Control of Dengue by Using Mosquito Repellent lncense in Hai Hung Province, Viet Nam%越南Hai Hung省使用蚊香防治登革出血热的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nsuyen ThuyHoa; 郑剑; 姜志宽

    2001-01-01

    目的:防治传播登革出血热的媒介;方法:使用棒状蚊香在Hai Hung省进行现场灭蚊实验;结果:使用蚊香棒后蚊虫密度明显下降,7 h三个实验现场Ngugen Trai,Phu Luogn,Hong Thai蚊虫密度(只/h)分别为2.80,1.45,1.40;结论:蚊香棒使用简便、省时、省钱,是一个较好的防治蚊虫的剂型.

  17. On a Negotion Mechanism between China and Viet Nam in Border Area for Illegal Immigrant Workers%建立中越边境非法移民劳工管理的区域协商机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦福安

    2014-01-01

    建立中越跨界民族非法移民劳工合作管理协商机制,中越双方应围绕共同目标、规范框架和协调机构,签署双边协定解决历史遗留的难民问题,多层次多部门协商解决非法跨国婚姻问题和签署双边季节性移民劳工协议。并且以国际性战略合作的视野,谋划建立中国-东盟的区域协商机制,修正与完善当前的移民政策。%Based on the necessity of the consultation mechanism of cooperation management on Sino-Vietnamese cross-border and illegal immigration labor, both China and Vietnam have common goals for regulatory frameworks and coordinating bodies, bilateral agreements to resolve the refugee issue left over from history, the multi-level and multi-sector consultation on illicit transnational marital problems and a bilateral agreement for seasonal migrant workers, to achieve cross-national co-management mechanisms for illegal immigrant workers. It relies on the decision-makers in the view of international strategic cooperation plan to establish China-ASEAN regional consultation mechanism, and revise and improve the policy of the current immigration.

  18. Young Adults in America. A Booklet for [Vietnamese] Refugees in Their Late Teens = Doi Song Thanh Thieu Nien O Hoa Ky. Tap Huong Dan Thanh Thieu Nien Viet-Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language and Orientation Resource Center.

    Young persons in their late teens have problems and concerns that are different from those of persons who are younger or older. This booklet recognizes this fact and discusses some aspects of American life that might be of particular interest to young people of Vietnamese origin. It gives information that will be helpful in making knowledgeable…

  19. English-Vietnamese Scientific Terminology for High School and Junior College Students. Book 4: Chemistry = Danh Tu Khoa Hoc Anh-Viet Danh Cho Hoc Sinh Trung Hoc Va Sinh Vien Nam Thu Nhat Dai Hoc. Quyen 4: Hoa Hoc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanh-Van, Tran Thi

    Vietnamese students now enrolled in American high schools incur an extremely special need in English. After being taught subject matter disciplines in Vietnamese for many years, and while English is still a foreign language for them, these students are bound to go through two linguistic processes. First, while reading or sitting through lectures…

  20. Project on Training of Non-Formal Education Personnel: National Workshops in Bhutan, Nepal, and India cum Study Visits Undertaken by Teams of China, Lao PDR and Viet Nam (June 17-July 5, 1998) (APPEAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report is a summary of study visits plus workshops that took place in Bhutan, Nepal, and India in 1998 within the framework of UNESCO's Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL). Three educators each from China, Lao PDR, and Vietnam and educators from the host countries participated. The project aimed to promote literacy and…

  1. Potent L-lactic acid assimilation of the fermentative and heterothallic haploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae NAM34-4C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitaka, Masataka; Taguchi, Hisataka; Matsuoka, Masayoshi; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji; Akamatsu, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We screened an industrial thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, KF7, as a potent lactic-acid-assimilating yeast. Heterothallic haploid strains KF7-5C and KF7-4B were obtained from the tetrads of the homothallic yeast strain KF7. The inefficient sporulation and poor spore viability of the haploid strains were improved by two strategies. The first strategy was as follows: (i) the KF7-5C was crossed with the laboratory strain SH6710; (ii) the progenies were backcrossed with KF7-5C three times; and (iii) the progenies were inbred three times to maintain a genetic background close to that of KF7. The NAM12 diploid between the cross of the resultant two strains, NAM11-9C and NAM11-13A, showed efficient sporulation and exhibited excellent growth in YPD medium (pH 3.5) at 35°C with 1.4-h generation time, indicating thermotolerance and acid tolerance. The second strategy was successive intrastrain crosses. The resultant two strains, KFG4-6B and KFG4-4B, showed excellent mating capacity. A spontaneous mutant of KFG4-6B, KFG4-6BD, showed a high growth rate with a generation time of 1.1 h in YPD medium (pH 3.0) at 35°C. The KFG4-6BD strain produced ascospores, which were crossed with NAM11-2C and its progeny to produce tetrads. These tetrads were crossed with KFG4-4B to produce NAM26-14A and NAM26-15A. The latter strain had a generation time of 1.6 h at 35°C in pH 2.5, thus exhibiting further thermotolerance and acid tolerance. A progeny from a cross of NAM26-14A and NAM26-15A yielded the strain NAM34-4C, which showed potent lactic acid assimilation and high transformation efficiency, better than those of a standard laboratory strain.

  2. Des habitations à bon marché au Việt Nam. La question du logement social en situation coloniale Public Housing Projects in Việt Nam: the Problem of Habitation in a Colonial Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Herbelin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La crise du logement dans les grandes villes du Việt Nam est récurrente pendant toute la colonisation. Elle touche les Européens, mais surtout les populations locales qui vivent en majorité dans des habitats précaires. A partir des années 1920, face à l’ampleur de la situation, le gouvernement général décide d’adapter dans la colonie les récentes lois françaises en faveur du logement social. Si quelques prototypes d’habitations à bon marché vont être mis en place par la municipalité de Hanoi dans les années 1930, ce n’est que dans les années 1950, pour répondre à la crise sociale que les politiques de logement vont commencer à être significatives. Entre inertie et projets enthousiastes, les politiques de logement révèlent les contradictions du système colonial face à un problème aussi crucial que complexe, mettant en jeu différents acteurs à différents niveaux : le gouvernement général d’Indochine, la résidence supérieure du Tonkin, les municipalités, les associations privées et dans une moindre mesure les sociétés de construction. Du point de vue architectural, les projets mis en place sont des créations hybrides qui montrent une volonté manifeste de s’adapter au style de vie vietnamien.During the colonial period, the main cities of Việt Nam periodically experienced social housing crises. While Europeans did not remain immune from the consequences of a lack of adequate housing, local populations, who constituted the majority in these makeshift constructs, were most deeply affected. Beginning in the 1920s, faced with the urgency of this problem, the general government sought to adapt contemporaneous French laws in favor of social housing to the local colonial situation. Even though some prototypes of affordable housing were constructed by the Hanoi municipality in the 1930s, it was only in the 1950s that government efforts began to have a significant impact. The politics of housing, and

  3. Presurgical Nasoalveolar Molding Therapy Using Figueroa's NAM Technique in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Shafees; Shetty, Sandeep; Husain, Akhter; Khader, Mustafa

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the results of nasoalveolar molding (NAM) in the treatment of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate using a modified technique in a South Indian population. The design was a prospective study with blinded measurements. The sample constituted 10 complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients who underwent NAM therapy by the same operator. Direct extra and intra oral anthropometric measurements were done using a digital vernier caliper before and after NAM therapy. A photographic evaluation was also done to rate the nasal deformity post NAM therapy. The differences between measurements were statistically analyzed using paired t tests. The extra oral measurements revealed a statistically significant increase in bi-alar width, columellar length and width. The intraoral measurements demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in anterior alveolar cleft width. There was also a significant increase in arch width and greater and lesser segments length. All cases were rated as improved by the surgeons in photographic analysis. The study has quantitatively shown that the modified NAM therapy improved nasal asymmetry by columellar lengthening and effectively molded the maxillary alveolar arch.

  4. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin, evolution and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-GPC (grain protein content. Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73% to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44% than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7 caused by a base mutations (at position 544 in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. SNPs and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding

  5. Nam June Paik: el “Aprendiz de brujo” tecnológico

    OpenAIRE

    Sarriugarte Gómez, Iñigo

    2016-01-01

    El artista coreano Nam June Paik ha recreado en numerosos trabajos escultóricos y videográficos constantes referencias a las prácticas chamánicas. Los rituales Koot fueron conocidos durante su niñez como una práctica habitual dentro de la convivencia de las familias coreanas. tras estudiar música en Japón, se desplaza a alemania, donde conoce al músico vanguardista y experimental John Cage, así como a diferentes miembros de Fluxus, entre ellos a Joseph Beuys. El compositor norteamericano John...

  6. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of carbonatites from South Nam Xe, Lai Chau area, northwest Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Thi, Thuy; Wada, Hideki; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Shimano, Taketo

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a study of the petrography, mineral chemistry, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb-C-O isotope systematics of carbonatite dykes and associated rocks from the northeastern part of the Song Da intracontinental rift in South Nam Xe (northwest Vietnam) aimed at constraining the origin of the carbonatite magmas. The carbonatites are characterized by SiO2 material. Because of the lack of tectonic data and the limited number of samples studied, this conclusion is still ambiguous and requires further study.

  7. Water Isotope framework for lake water balance monitoring and modelling in the Nam Co Basin, Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichang Kang

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights: A water isotope framework for the Nam Co basin, including the Local Meteoric Water Line, limiting isotopic composition of evaporation and two hypothetical evaporation trajectories, is established. We further applied the isotope mass balance model to estimate the overall isotopic composition of input water to the Nam Co, the evaporation over inputs ratios (E/I for three consecutive years, and the water yields (Wy, depth equivalent runoff at a basin scale. Our results clearly suggest a positive water budget (i.e., E/I < 1, providing another line of evidence that the subsurface leakage from Nam Co is likely. The discrepancy between isotope-based water yields estimations and field-based runoff observations suggest that, compared to the well-studied Nyainqentanglha Mountains and southwestern mountains, the ridge-and-valley landscape in the western highlands and northwestern hogbacks are possibly low yields area, which should draw more research attentions in future hydrological investigations.

  8. Interview with Ahmet İnam about Science and Interpretations on Teaching of Nature of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Nihal YEŞİLOĞLU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The following conversation with Professor Doctor Ahmet İnam took place in August 11, 2010 at Middle East Technical University (METU. We are the researchers studying on nature of science in the context of a TUBITAK project entitled “Teaching the Nature of Science: Production of a professional development package for teaching scientific argumentation and reasoning based on philosophy and history of science.” We, as researchers trying to realize and teach nature of science, are continuously pursuing Ahmet İnam‟s articles, talks, books he wrote or translated about science. We think that Ahmet İnam is influential in suppression of peoples‟ negative prejudges about science, either they are directly related about science or not. With this conversation, we learned what a scientist, who is interested in philosophy of science and has valuable thoughts about science and science education, think about the issues that we concerned and had some confusions about them. Through the reflection on conversation, we tried to interpret his ideas, made some inferences about science education and intended to make some contributions for science educators. We believe that this study, presenting our inferences integrated wit Ahmet İnam‟s articles and ideas about science and nature of science, will be beneficial for researchers interested in science and science education in terms of providing a fundamental undertstanding about nature of science.

  9. Seismic Interpretation of the Nam Con Son Basin and its Implication for the Tectonic Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang Tuan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Nam Con Son Basin covering an area of circa 110,000 km2 is characterized by complex tectonic settings of the basin which has not fully been understood. Multiple faults allowed favourable migration passageways for hydrocarbons to go in and out of traps. Despite a large amount of newly acquired seismic and well data there is no significant update on the tectonic evolution and history of the basin development. In this study, the vast amount of seismic and well data were integrated and reinterpreted to define the key structural events in the Nam Con Son Basin. The results show that the basin has undergone two extentional phases. The first N - S extensional phase terminated at around 30 M.a. forming E - W trending grabens which are complicated by multiple half grabens filled by Lower Oligocene sediments. These grabens were reactivated during the second NW - SE extension (Middle Miocene, that resulted from the progressive propagation of NE-SW listric fault from the middle part of the grabens to the margins, and the large scale building up of roll-over structure. Further to the SW, the faults of the second extentional phase turn to NNE-SSW and ultimately N - S in the SW edge of the basin. Most of the fault systems were inactive by Upper Miocene except for the N - S fault system which is still active until recent time.

  10. Seismic Interpretation of the Nam Con Son Basin and its Implication for the Tectonic Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang Tuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.2.127-137The Nam Con Son Basin covering an area of circa 110,000 km2 is characterized by complex tectonic settings of the basin which has not fully been understood. Multiple faults allowed favourable migration passageways for hydrocarbons to go in and out of traps. Despite a large amount of newly acquired seismic and well data there is no significant update on the tectonic evolution and history of the basin development. In this study, the vast amount of seismic and well data were integrated and reinterpreted to define the key structural events in the Nam Con Son Basin. The results show that the basin has undergone two extentional phases. The first N - S extensional phase terminated at around 30 M.a. forming E - W trending grabens which are complicated by multiple half grabens filled by Lower Oligocene sediments. These grabens were reactivated during the second NW - SE extension (Middle Miocene, that resulted from the progressive propagation of NE-SW listric fault from the middle part of the grabens to the margins, and the large scale building up of roll-over structure. Further to the SW, the faults of the second extentional phase turn to NNE-SSW and ultimately N - S in the SW edge of the basin. Most of the fault systems were inactive by Upper Miocene except for the N - S fault system which is still active until recent time.

  11. Historical perspectives on typhoons and tropical storms in the natural and socio-economic system of Nam Dinh (Vietnam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.

    2007-01-01

    This contribution starts with a brief introduction of the effects of typhoons and tropical storms on Vietnam, focusing in particular on the coastal region of Nam Dinh, a province in the northern part of the country and part of the Red River Delta. The magnitude of damage caused by a natural disaster

  12. Quaternary ecological responses and impacts of the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon at Nam Co, Southern Tibetan Plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Günther, F.; Witt, R.; Schouten, Stefan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137124929; Mausbacher, R.; Daut, G.; Zhu, Liping; Xu, B.; Yao, T.; Gleixner, G.

    2015-01-01

    The transition from the Last Glacial to the current Interglacial, the Holocene, represents an important period with climatic and environmental changes impacting ecosystems. In this study, we examined the interplay between the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon (IOSM) and the Westerlies at lake Nam Co, sout

  13. Quaternary ecological responses and impacts of the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon at Nam Co, Southern Tibetan Plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Günther, F.; Witt, R.; Schouten, S.; Mausbacher, R.; Daut, G.; Zhu, L.; Xu, B.Q.; Yao, T.; Gleixner, G.

    2015-01-01

    The transition from the Last Glacial to the current Interglacial, the Holocene, represents an important period with climatic and environmental changes impacting ecosystems. In this study, we examined the interplay between the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon (IOSM) and the Westerlies at lake Nam Co,

  14. Quaternary ecological responses and impacts of the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon at Nam Co, Southern Tibetan Plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Günther, F.; Witt, R.; Schouten, Stefan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137124929; Mausbacher, R.; Daut, G.; Zhu, Liping; Xu, B.; Yao, T.; Gleixner, G.

    The transition from the Last Glacial to the current Interglacial, the Holocene, represents an important period with climatic and environmental changes impacting ecosystems. In this study, we examined the interplay between the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon (IOSM) and the Westerlies at lake Nam Co,

  15. A compressed super-parameterization: test of NAM-SCA under single-column GCM configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-I. Yano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The NAM-SCA (nonhydrostatic anelastic model with segmentally-constant approximation is a type of cloud-resolving model (CRM with a highly-inhomogeneous distribution of finite volumes of varying sizes in a horizontal direction under a two-dimensional geometrical configuration. These finite-volume positions and sizes are dynamically adapted to achieve best performance with a limited number of finite volumes. The concept can be compared with "compression" techniques used for digital images. The physics are also limited only to a minimum microphysics.

    The present paper reports on a successful implementation of NAM-SCA into single column versions of two global atmospheric models as a compressed super-parameterization. ECHAM1 and ACCESS2 are chosen as the host models. A stand-alone single-column model (SCM is also developed, in which the other physics are prescribed by observations. A simple radiation scheme is added as required.

    Overall, it is found that, under this configuration, the lowest-resolution (Δ x = 16 km NAM-SCA with the smallest domain size (L = 32 km often works the best in terms of the errors for the precipitation rate, apparent heat source and moisture sink. Neither increase of resolution nor domain size leads to better performance in these respects until both cross the thresholds (Δ x ≤ 1km and L ≥ 256 km. These results suggest that even a simple parameterization (with a small degree of freedom can perform in a reliable way as long as it is constructed in a physically consistent manner.

    On the other hand, the prediction errors tend to be smaller for higher resolutions and larger domains. This tendency is clearer for the GATE3 case than the TWP-ICE4case.



    1ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Hamburg version Atmospheric Model.
    2Australian Community Climate and

  16. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  17. Azartinių lošimų namų komunikacijos ypatumai

    OpenAIRE

    Eismontaitė, Audronė

    2012-01-01

    Teorinėje darbo dalyje analizuojamos azartinių lošimų savybės, subtilybės, lošėjų motyvacija lošti. Pateikiami galimi lošėjų segmentavimo pavyzdžiai, komunikacijos modelis azartinių lošimų rinkai. Analitinėje baigiamojo darbo dalyje pateikiami ir analizuojami rezultatai azartinių lošimų žaidėjų tyrimo, atlikto anketinės apklausos metodu, bei pateikiama Lietuvoje veikiančių lošimo namų internetinių svetainių turinio analizė. Projektinėje darbo dalyje suformuluoti tokie sprendimai: sukurt...

  18. Skin disease among farmers using wastewater in rice cultivation in Nam Dinh, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Thuy Trang; van der Hoek, Wim; Nguyen, Dang Tuan;

    2007-01-01

    . In each commune, 200 households were randomly selected. RESULTS: Of the 1103 individuals aged > or =15 years, 381 reported a skin problem at baseline or at any of the monthly visits, primarily dermatitis (eczema) and superficial fungal infections. Among the 874 subjects who were free from skin disease......OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of skin disease among farmers occupationally exposed to wastewater. METHODS: One-year follow-up study with monthly assessments of wastewater exposure and skin disease in Nam Dinh, northern Vietnam, in two adjacent communes with contrasting levels of wastewater use...... at baseline and who could be followed up > or =11 months, 183 developed a new skin disease (cumulative incidence 21%). Exposure to wastewater was a major risk factor for skin disease with a relative risk (RR) of 1.89 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.57] in multivariable analysis. Other risk factors...

  19. The online measured black carbon aerosol and source orientations in the Nam Co region, Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Ming, Jing; Li, Zhongqin; Wang, Feiteng; Zhang, Guoshuai

    2017-09-17

    Equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations were measured by an aethalometer (AE-31) in the Nam Co, central Tibet from 2010 to 2014. Different from previous filter-sampling studies (Ming et al., J Environ Sci 22(11):1748-1756, 2010; Zhao et al., Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:5827-5838, 2013), the first high-resolution online eBC measurement conducted in central Tibet is reported here, allowing to discuss the diurnal variations as well as seasonal variabilities of eBC. Average daily eBC concentration was 74 ± 50 ng/m(3), reflecting a global background level. Meteorological conditions influenced eBC concentrations largely at seasonal scale, which are higher in February-May but lower in June-January. The highest eBC concentrations (greater than 210 ng/m(3)) were more associated with the W and WSW winds smaller than 6 m/s. The diurnal variations of eBC showed plateaus from 10:00 to 15:00 with seasonal variations, associated with local anthropogenic activities, such as indigenous Tibetan burning animal waste and tourism traffic. The PBLHs showed a co-variance with eBC concentrations, implicating close sources. The aerosol optical depths derived from the MODIS data over the Nam Co Observatory Station (NCOS)-included sub-area (30° N-40° N, 90° E-100° E) showed significant relationship with eBC concentrations. This suggests that nearby or short-distance sources other than long-distance transported pollutants could be important contributors to eBC concentrations at the NCOS, different from the conclusions suggested by previous studies.

  20. Kara Bela Münasebetiyle Eleştirilen Bir Ekol: Namık Kemal A Literary School Criticized on Merits of “Kara Bela” (“Misfortune”: Namık Kemal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer GÜLŞEN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most notable writers of Turkish literature, Namık Kemal was rather a school unto himself, owing to his pursuits in the creation of a New literature, his works and critical essays. Several prominent figures assembled around him, sharing his thoughts, and also defending him ardently. More often than not praised, he was sometimes criticized bitterly. Introducing Western literary forms to a nascent universe, he assigned importance to theater. For him, it isentertainment – but a most useful distraction. “Mukaddime-i Celal” isthe preface of the title “Celalettin Harzemşah.” This prelude wascomposed with an allusion to Victor Hugo’s Cromwell foreword. In this,his views on drama are markedly captivating. He penned his play “KaraBela” (“Misfortune” while in exile in Famagusta. Publishedposthumously, it was purported, however, to be rather a tenuous piece.“Kara Bela” was criticized in “Tenkidat-ı Edebiye – Namık Kemal - KaraBela Münasebetiyle” (“A Literary Critique – On Merits of Namık Kemal’s‘Misfortune’,” written in 1911 by Şahabettin Süleyman, among theillustrious portraits of the Fecr-i Âti (“Pending Twilight” period. Heportrays Namık Kemal as a crony of the commoners. Thereafter, headjudges that its plotline fails to align with real life. Remarkably, hechooses the less formal reference of “Kemal,” who has prevailed in theliterary realm long before his debut. Criticized in this article for hisartistic stature, Namık Kemal will be assessed with the Author-BasedCritical Approach. Evidently, this method places the artist at the core ofthe critique. Türk edebiyatının önemli sanatkârlarından biri olan Namık Kemal, yeni bir edebiyatın oluşmasında ve tanınmasında gösterdiği gayretlerle, eserleriyle, eleştirileriyle, âdeta bir ekol olmuştur. İsminin etrafında birçok isim toplanmış, düşüncelerini paylaşıp, onu savunmuşlardır. Çoğu zaman övülen Namık Kemal

  1. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  2. Collaborative Governance of Protected Areas: Success Factors and Prospects for Hin Nam No National Protected Area, Central Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam de Koning

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative governance of protected areas has emerged as a response to failures of, and ethical concerns about, centralised environmental governance. This paper assesses the governance of the Hin Nam No National Protected Area in central Laos to identify the conditions that support successful collaborative governance. Our analysis is based on the argument that collaborative governance is more likely to be successful under conditions that provide incentives for community engagement, formal mechanisms for power sharing, local ownership of resources, downward accountability, mechanisms for building trust, and an adaptive approach to performance assessment and improvement. We show that collaborative governance in Hin Nam No demonstrates the potential for a more decentralised and democratic system of governance based on customary rights, but requires ongoing political will to consolidate and sustain these arrangements. The findings of this study contribute to the growing literature on collaborative governance of protected areas in Asia and elsewhere.

  3. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    , the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing...

  4. Positive and negative metacognitions about alcohol use among university students: Psychometric properties of the PAMS and NAMS French versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierski, Fabien; Spada, Marcantonio M; Fois, Eveline; Picard, Aurélie; Naassila, Mickaël; Van der Linden, Martial

    2015-08-01

    Metacognitions about the positive and negative effects of alcohol use have been associated with various patterns of drinking. The aim of the present study was to validate French versions of the Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS) and the Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS) developed by Spada and Wells (2008, Addict. Behav. 33, 515) and to investigate the relationship between metacognitions and patterns of alcohol use among university students. Responses of 1600 university students who participated in an internet survey-based study on alcohol use were submitted to confirmatory (N=800, mean age 20.40 years, 45.50% male) and exploratory (N=800, mean age 20.34 years, 45.38% male) factor analyses in two separate samples. Alcohol use, binge drinking and mood were also assessed. In line with the original versions of the scales, results provided support for a two-factor structure of the French PAMS and NAMS. Both scales revealed adequate internal reliability. Good temporal stability was found for the two factors of the NAMS, whereas one factor of the PAMS showed weakness across time. Predictive validity revealed that negative alcohol metacognitions about the uncontrollability of alcohol use were found to be consistently associated with alcohol use and binge drinking, whereas positive metacognitions about alcohol use were found to be differentially associated with alcohol use and binge drinking. The French versions of the PAMS and NAMS exhibited suitable psychometric properties. This study also emphasized the role of metacognitions about alcohol use in drinking behaviour among university students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Forecast Verification for North American Mesoscale (NAM) Operational Model over Karst/Non-Karst regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Z.; Fan, X.

    2014-12-01

    Karst is defined as a landscape that contains especially soluble rocks such as limestone, gypsum, and marble in which caves, underground water systems, over-time sinkholes, vertical shafts, and subterranean river systems form. The cavities and voids within a karst system affect the hydrology of the region and, consequently, can affect the moisture and energy budget at surface, the planetary boundary layer development, convection, and precipitation. Carbonate karst landscapes comprise about 40% of land areas over the continental U.S east of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Currently, due to the lack of knowledge of the effects karst has on the atmosphere, no existing weather model has the capability to represent karst landscapes and to simulate its impact. One way to check the impact of a karst region on the atmosphere is to check the performance of existing weather models over karst and non-karst regions. The North American Mesoscale (NAM) operational forecast is the best example, of which historical forecasts were archived. Variables such as precipitation, maximum/minimum temperature, dew point, evapotranspiration, and surface winds were taken into account when checking the model performance over karst versus non-karst regions. The forecast verification focused on a five-year period from 2007-2011. Surface station observations, gridded observational dataset, and North American Regional Reanalysis (for certain variables with insufficient observations) were used. Thirteen regions of differing climate, size, and landscape compositions were chosen across the Contiguous United States (CONUS) for the investigation. Equitable threat score (ETS), frequency bias (fBias), and root-mean-square error (RMSE) scores were calculated and analyzed for precipitation. RMSE and mean bias (Bias) were analyzed for other variables. ETS, fBias, and RMSE scores show generally a pattern of lower forecast skills, a greater magnitude of error, and a greater under prediction of precipitation over karst than

  6. A REVIEW OF THE PALEO-HYDROLOGICAL AND GEOMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTER OF LAKE NAM CO,SOUTH-CENTRAL TIBET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Berking; A.Keil; B.Schütt

    2009-01-01

    The endorheic Lake Nam Co,south Eastern Tibetan Plateau,was selected to investigate the interrelation between drainage basin processes,especially post-glacial glacier decay,and lake level fluctuations.Landforms of the drainage basin are highly influenced by tectonics,superimposed by fluvial and periglacial processes,and locally by glacial and eolian processes.Thus,geomorphological features and hydrological characteristics were compiled for the lake-basin to provide an overview of the landscape character.Data show that during the Last Glacial Maximum melt water from the mountains accumulated fluvial deposits in the foreland.Concurrently,an increase of the lake level occurred which is presently shown by a cliff line all around Nam Co with its base approximately 29m above the present lake level.The Holocene decrease of the lake level is traced by beach ridges.As Nam Co is an endorheic lake post-glacial water loss has to be primarily explained by evaporation and moisture conditions.However,more detailed conclusions on quantitative and chronological patterns of both factors,melt-water input and evaporation output,still remain to be drawn.

  7. 小麦中国春 NAM 转录因子 Gpc-1和 Gpc-2灌浆期时空表达模式分析%Spatiotemporal Expression Pattern Analysis of NAM Transcription Factors Gpc-1 and Gpc-2 in Bread Wheat Cultivar Chinese Spring During Grain Filling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丹; 董剑; 要燕杰; 赵万春; 高翔

    2015-01-01

    Objective]The objective of this experiment is to study the roles of no apical meristem (NAM) transcription factors Gpc-1 and Gpc-2 in early senescence and nutrient remobilization to the grain of bread wheat. [Method] Their spatiotemporal expression patterns were investigated during the grain-filling stage in wheat cultivar Chinese Spring. Their temporal expression dynamics were studied in penultimate leaf, flag leaf, peduncle, glume, rachis and the kernel using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). And the relative expression level was quantified using Pfaffl method with normalization against multiple verified reference genes. Applying mRNA in situ hybridization, the spatial expression pattern was explored in post-anthesis flag leaf, peduncle and the kernel only with digoxin-labeled oligonucleotide probes which were specifically targeting 5′ or 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of Gpc-1 and Gpc-2. [Result] Contrary to a previous report, the functional TaNAM-B1 rather than its dysfunctional paralog was found in Chinese Spring, and its nucleotide sequence was identical with the wild-type TtNAM-B1 in T. turgidum var.dicoccoides. All the results showed that Gpc-1 and Gpc-2 were all widely expressed in studied tissues with the exception of the root in which only the transcript of Gpc-1 was detected. The outcomes of mRNA in situ hybridization indicated that all five genes shared cell-type specificities. To be specific, no transcripts were distributed in leaf epidermal cells, pericarp and the seed coat;however, they mainly aggregated in leaf mesophyll cells, aleurone layer, embryo, and the tissues responsible for the mineral element transport (vascular bundle, pigment strand, nucellar projection and the transfer cell) in grain, in which the highest expression level was observed in embryo. In addition, lower expression level was detected in the peduncle and leaf vascular bundle as well. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the temporal expression

  8. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever,...... and urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  9. 番茄NAM基因的克隆与遗传转化%Cloning and Genetic Transformation of NAM Gene in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春文; 唐宁; 李正国

    2012-01-01

    To understand the function of NAM gene in tomato, the full length cDNA NAM gene was amplified by RT-PCR from tomato cDNA, which contains a 1 053 bp open reading frame (ORF)encoding 351 amino acid residues, and contains NAC domain in its N terminus. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that NAM expressed highly in all tissues including root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit. To further investigate the function of tomato NAM gene, NAM overexpression vector pLP ?5S -NAM was constructed, and transformed into tomato plants by Agrobacterium-mediated method. The NAM overexpressing plants showed a dwarf phenotype, the size of these plants was smaller than those of wild-type plants, the plant growth was inhibited, and the leaves of transgenic tomato were highly lobed shaped. In conclusion, NAM affected the formation of shoot apical meristem(SAM)and leaf morphogenesis in tomato.%为了研究番茄NAM基因的功能,利用RT-PCR技术从番茄cDNA中分离了NAM(GenBank登录号:FJ435163.1)基因,该基因ORF全长1 053 bp,共编码351个氨基酸,N端含有NAC结构域.定量RT-PCR分析结果表明,该基因在番茄的根、茎、叶、花和果实中均有较强表达.为了进一步研究番茄NAM基因的功能,构建了NAM基因的超表达载体pLP100-35S-NAM,通过农杆菌介导法转化番茄,并获得抗性植株.经表型分析,转基因番茄植株矮小,生长受到抑制,叶片形态异常,表明NAM基因影响番茄顶端分生组织(SAM)的形成和叶片形态的发生.

  10. Systematic synthesis of CCCCTA-based T-T filters using NAM expansion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongan; Cao, Rui

    2016-06-01

    In the light of nullor-mirror models for current-controlled current conveyor trans-conductance amplifier (CCCCTA), initiating the admittance matrices of the Tow-Thomas (T-T) filter, three different types of the T-T filter are synthesised by means of the nodal admittance matrix (NAM) expansion method. The type A filter, which employ one CCCCTA, one grounded resistor and two grounded capacitors, has eight different forms, the type B filter, which employ one CCCCTA, two grounded capacitors and a second-generation current-controlled conveyor (CCCII) or an second-generation inverting current-controlled conveyor (ICCCII) or an operational trans-conductance amplifier (OTA), has 64 different forms and the type C filter employing one CCCCTA and two grounded capacitors has eight different forms. In all, 80 voltage-mode/current-mode T-T filter circuits are obtained. Because of using canonic number components, the circuits are highly desirable from the viewpoint of IC fabrication and their parameters can be electronically tuned through tuning bias currents of CCCCTAs. The hand analysis and computer simulation results have been provided to support the synthesis method.

  11. River Flow Forecasting Using Neural Networks and Auto-Calibrated NAM Model with Shuffled Complex Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakermoshfegh, M.; Ghodsian, M.; Salehi Neishabouri, S. A. A.; Shakiba, M.

    River flow forecasting is required to provide important information on a wide range of cases related to design and operation of river systems. Since there are a lot of parameters with uncertainties and non-linear relationships, the calibration of conceptual or physically-based models is often a difficult and time consuming procedure. So it is preferred to implement a heuristic black box model to perform a non-linear mapping between the input and output spaces without detailed consideration of the internal structure of the physical process. In this study, the capability of artificial neural networks for stream flow forecasting in Kashkan River in West of Iran is investigated and compared to a NAM model which is a lumped conceptual model with shuffled complex evolution algorithm for auto calibration. Multi Layer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function neural networks are introduced and implemented. The results show that the discharge can be more adequately forecasted by Multi Layer Perceptron neural network, compared to other implemented models, in case of both peak discharge and base flow forecasting.

  12. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...... emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography....

  13. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated by the st......This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  14. Leading Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogner, Karl-Heinz

    2017-01-01

    and technical engineering; Smart Cities) is very prominent in the traditional mass media discourse, in PR / PA of tech companies and traditional municipal administrations; whereas the second one (participation; Livable Cities) is mostly enacted in social media, (local) initiatives, movements, (virtual......) communities, new forms of urban governance in municipal administration and co-competitive city networks. Both forms seem to struggle for getting voice and power in the discourses, negotiations, struggles, and conflicts in Urban Governance about the question how to manage or lead (in) a city. Talking about...

  15. John Cage y su influencia en la obra del video artista Nam June Paik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarriugarte Gómez, Íñigo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1958, the Korean artist Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 meets in Germany John Cage (*1912; †1992, avant-garde musician, who was deeply interested in the Zen Buddhism. The meeting with Cage was vital, because the North American composer will convince him to orient his career towards the artistic avant-garde, giving up his facet like classic pianist. The philosophy of Cage is refl ected in compositions like “4’ 33’’, from 1952, where the spectator doesn’t listen the sound of the piano, because this isn’t played, but he listens a silence that is interrupted by the environmental sound. There are several versions of this piece, marking the silences by means of processes at random with the “I Ching”. In this sense, the silence used by John Cage is related to the vacuity of the Zen Buddhism. Also, Paik makes use of silence in numerous works, like “1963 TV Clock”, where 24 colour television sets are manipulated, feeling at the same time the silence, interrupted again by the own momentary circumstances of the spectator. This same infl uence of the Zen Buddhism in the music of Cage is observed when argues that the music composed of melodies has the same value than the sound understood by us like noises. This aspect, among others, infl uenced to Paik, whose video images are defi ned like attributes of traditional works that don’t impress to the audience, but they suggest variable conditions. Some of his works related to Cage’s philosophy have been “Hommage à John Cage” from 1959; “Study for pianoforte” from 1960; and “Global Grove” from 1973, where Paik uses as a collage the images of his avant-garde collaborators John Cage, Allen Ginsberg and Merce Cunningham.

    En 1958, el artista coreano Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 conoce en Alemania a John Cage (*1912; †1992, músico vanguardista, quien estaba profundamente interesado en el budismo zen. Su encuentro con Cage fue vital, ya que el compositor

  16. [Vietnam and its population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, J

    1993-01-01

    80% rural. The population is concentrated in the Red River delta, the Mekong delta, and the southeastern region including Ho Chi Minh City. The 4 main cities are Ho Chi Minh City with 3.2 million inhabitants,. Hanoi with 1.1 million, Hai Phong with 456,000, and Da Nang with 371,000. Although internal migration has not yet assumed great weight, there has been some rural exodus and movement from poor to richer regions. The policy of population redistribution to reduce density in the Red River delta and central coastal plain and to control city growth has led to some movement. 88% of the population over 10 was literate in 1989. Almost 75% of the population over age 13 is economically active. 71% of the economically active population is employed in agriculture, 12% in industry, and 7% in commerce. If current growth trends continue, Viet Nam is projected to have a population of 80 million in 2000 and 96 million in 2014.

  17. Le pluralisme médicamenteux face à l’épidémie de VIH/sida au Viêt Nam Drug Pluralism Confronted by HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Viêt Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ève Blanc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article traite de la place du pluralisme médicamenteux au Viêt Nam dans le contexte de l’épidémie de VIH/sida et de la mise en place d’une nouvelle politique du médicament qui mène à la régulation du médicament traditionnel. Un des principaux problèmes dans la prise en charge du VIH/sida au Viêt Nam fut l’absence de médicaments appropriés, efficaces et accessibles. Contrairement à la Chine, la médecine traditionnelle au Viêt Nam ne s’est pas adaptée, ni n’a réussi à développer durablement de produits spécifiques. Pourtant, l’OMS favorise et incite les thérapeutes traditionnels à participer et à proposer des solutions et pas seulement dans le cadre de soins complémentaires ou palliatifs. On a pu parfois même observer des attitudes plutôt répressives de la part des autorités vietnamiennes à l’égard d’un médicament traditionnel qui n’était pas passé par l’evidence based medicine. En revanche, contrairement à la Chine, le Viêt Nam s’est orienté vers une production locale de médicaments génériques pour répondre aux besoins locaux et baisser le coût de la prise en charge du VIH. À l’aide d’une analyse de contenu de la presse vietnamienne sur le sujet nous tenterons de comprendre les enjeux politiques, économiques et culturels qui se cachent derrière le faible développement de médicaments traditionnels dans le cadre de la prise en charge du VIH/sida. Nous montrerons que l’occidentalisation pendant la période coloniale, l’ouverture du pays depuis le début des années 1990, la globalisation (vue ici comme la multiplication des échanges avec les pays occidentaux et l’intégration du Viêt Nam au reste du monde et à l’ASEAN et la chaîne de production du médicament pharmaceutique ont modifié les pratiques de pluralisme médicamenteux ainsi que la politique nationale en matière de santé, avec des implications à plus ou moins long terme sur les pratiques

  18. Atypical Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  19. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    of a sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  20. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography.......This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...

  1. OptoGluNAM4.1, a Photoswitchable Allosteric Antagonist for Real-Time Control of mGlu4 Receptor Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Xavier; Trapero, Ana; Pittolo, Silvia; Zussy, Charleine; Faucherre, Adèle; Jopling, Chris; Giraldo, Jesús; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Gorostiza, Pau; Goudet, Cyril; Llebaria, Amadeu

    2016-08-18

    OptoGluNAM4.1, a negative allosteric modulator (NAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4) contains a reactive group that covalently binds to the receptor and a blue-light-activated, fast-relaxing azobenzene group that allows reversible receptor activity photocontrol in vitro and in vivo. OptoGluNAM4.1 induces light-dependent behavior in zebrafish and reverses the activity of the mGlu4 agonist LSP4-2022 in a mice model of chronic pain, defining a photopharmacological tool to better elucidate the physiological roles of the mGlu4 receptor in the nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    . This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art......Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction...

  3. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    with their relatively concrete dimensions are absent when the main question is one of values. Furthermore, when  the relatively straightforward identification and power structures of corporations and consumers are replaced by the more diversified structures of city government, their poplulations, and potential visitors......, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of - or willingness...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  4. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    , the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing......-of-events approach. In addition we use information on father's location as an instrument. We find that the sorting effect dominates. Moving to the countryside is therefore not a cheap way to prolong relationships....

  5. Discovery of molecular switches within the ADX-47273 mGlu5 PAM scaffold that modulate modes of pharmacology to afford potent mGlu5 NAMs, PAMs and partial antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Jeffrey P; Engers, Darren W; Niswender, Colleen M; Rodriguez, Alice L; Venable, Daryl F; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2011-05-01

    This Letter describes a chemical lead optimization campaign directed at a weak mGlu(5) NAM discovered while developing SAR for the mGlu(5) PAM, ADX-47273. An iterative parallel synthesis effort discovered multiple, subtle molecular switches that afford potent mGlu(5) NAMs, mGlu(5) PAMs as well as mGlu(5) partial antagonists.

  6. Osmanlı Devletinin Son Yıllarında Ağnam Vergisine Yapılan Zamlar Rise In Ağnam (Sheep Tax In The Recent Years Of Ottoman State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünal TAŞKIN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available People generally known as rayah in Ottoman State had some responsibilities to state. Among these responsibilities there were tax figures to be paid about agricultural and husbandry facilities. Each rayah doing husbandry facilities made payments in certain rates according to animal breed fed. Known as the tax of sheep and goat in the classical time of state, sheep tax gained a more general meaning and was subject to new regulations. It was initiated to be collected with a method called mukataa and expressing a certain amount determined in advance since the XVII. century of Ottoman State. Called as sheep tax mukataa, this income became one the most important figure of central treasury. Since the XIX. by abandoning the collection in kind method additional taxes with various names were also abolished.The price determined as the amount of tax was too much for some regions of the state because of regional differences in sheep prices. Because of this it was initiated to determine how much income was gained from the milk and wool of sheep and goat according to each region with the new regulation since the second part of the XIX. century. Determined by local administrations seperately, the tax figure of these amounts were determined in central office.As the rise in the taxes caused a negative effect on public, they were read justed towards the end of XIX. century. Reasons such as the current social situation of state, the worry of fund raising and political events caused changes in the encashment of taxes called as ağnam group. In ourwork the eight fold rise in ağnam tax which is accepted as one of the most important sources for recovering budget deficit of Ottoman State is goingto be studied. Osmanlı Devleti’nde reaya genel adıyla bilinen halkın, devletekarşı birtakım mükellefiyetleri vardı. Bu mükellefiyetler içerisinde,tarım ve hayvancılık faaliyetlerinden kaynaklı, ödenmesi gereken vergikalemleri mevcuttu. Hayvanc

  7. Recent decadal glacier mass balances over the Western Nyainqentanglha Mountains and the increase in their melting contribution to Nam Co Lake measured by differential bistatic SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Lin, Hui

    2017-02-01

    The Western Nyainqentanglha Mountains locates in the southeastern center of the Inner Tibetan Plateau (ITP). Glaciers in this region are influenced by both the continental climate of Central Asia and the Indian Monsoon system. Their melting on the western slopes feeds the Nam Co Lake, which is the second largest endorheic lake in the ITP. The elevation of Nam Co Lake increased at a rate of 0.25 ± 0.12 m year- 1 from 2003 to 2009. In this study, aimed at quantifying the decadal glacier mass balance in the Western Nyainqentanglha Mountains and their increasing melting contribution to Nam Co Lake; we applied the differential Bistatic SAR interferometry method to five pairs of TanDEM CoSSC datasets observed between 2013 and 2014 and SRTM acquired in 2000. The mean annual mass loss rate was - 0.235 ± 0.127 m w.e. year- 1 for the entire range. The mass loss rate for the northwestern slope (inside the Nam Co Lake drainage basin) and the southeastern slope (outside the Nam Co Lake drainage basin) were - 0.268 ± 0.129 m w.e. year- 1 and ¬ 0.219 ± 0.126 m w.e. year- 1, respectively. Our results agree well with previous fieldwork at the Zhadang and Gurenhekou glaciers located on the northwestern and southeastern slopes. Debris-cover suppressed glacier downwasting to some extent. By presuming that all of the melted ice flows into the lake, the glaciers' melting contribution to Nam Co Lake's increasing water volume was approximately 10.50 ± 9.00% during the period between 2003 and 2009.

  8. A conserved role for the NAM/miR164 developmental module reveals a common mechanism underlying carpel margin fusion in monocarpous and syncarpous eurosids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Chantal Marie Vialette-Guiraud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of angiosperms are syncarpous- their gynoecium is composed of two or more fused carpels. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this fusion is regulated through the balance of expression between CUP SHAPED COTYLEDON (CUC genes, which are orthologues of the Petunia hybrida transcription factor NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM, and their post-transcriptional regulator miR164. Accordingly, the expression of a miR164-insensitive form of Ar. thaliana CUC2 causes a radical breakdown of carpel fusion. Here, we investigate the role of the NAM/miR164 genetic module in carpel closure in monocarpous plants. We show that the disruption of this module in monocarpous flowers of Ar. thaliana aux1-22 mutants causes a failure of carpel closure, similar to the failure of carpel fusion observed in the wild-type genetic background. This observation suggested that closely related mechanisms may bring about carpel closure and carpel fusion, at least in Ar. thaliana. We therefore tested whether these mechanisms were conserved in a eurosid species that is monocarpous in its wild-type form. We observed that expression of MtNAM, the NAM ortholog in the monocarpous eurosid Medicago truncatula, decreases during carpel margin fusion, suggesting a role for the NAM/miR164 module in this process. We transformed M. truncatula with a miR164-resistant form of MtNAM and observed, among other phenotypes, incomplete carpel closure in the resulting transformants. These data confirm the underlying mechanistic similarity between carpel closure and carpel fusion which we observed in Ar. thaliana. Our observations suggest that the role of the NAM/miR164 module in the fusion of carpel margins has been conserved at least since the most recent common ancestor of the eurosid clade, and open the possibility that a similar mechanism may have been responsible for carpel closure at much earlier stages of angiosperm evolution. We combine our results with studies of early-diverging angiosperms to speculate

  9. Detection of NAM-A1 Natural Variants in Bread Wheat Reveals Differences in Haplotype Distribution between a Worldwide Core Collection and European Elite Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Cormier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In wheat, remobilization of nitrogen absorbed before anthesis and regulation of monocarpic senescence is a major issue in breeding for nutrient use efficiency. We identified natural variants of NAM-A1, a gene having the same role as its well-characterized homoeolog NAM-B1, a NAC transcription factor associated with senescence kinetics and nutrient remobilization to the grain. Differences in haplotype frequencies between a worldwide core collection and a panel of European elite varieties were assessed and discussed. Moreover, hypotheses for the loss of function of the most common haplotype in elite European germplasm are discussed.

  10. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  11. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    with their relatively concrete dimensions are absent when the main question is one of values. Furthermore, when  the relatively straightforward identification and power structures of corporations and consumers are replaced by the more diversified structures of city government, their poplulations, and potential visitors...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  12. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, M.

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  13. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand......This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid...

  14. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...... of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  15. Impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Mekong River basin: a case study of the Nam Ou basin, Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, B.; Babel, M.S.; Maskey, S.; Van Griensven, A.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Green, A.; Akkharath, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Nam Ou basin located in northern Laos. Future climate (temperature and precipitation) from four general circulation models (GCMs) that are found to perform well in the Mekong region and a regional circulation model (PRECIS) a

  16. Risk factors for the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in domestic water-holding containers in areas impacted by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project, Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Kaye, A.; Vongphayloth, K.; Banks, I.; Piffer, M.; Khammanithong, P.; Sananikhom, P.; Kaul, S.; Hill, N.; Lindsay, S.W.; Brey, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were m

  17. Risk factors for the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in domestic water-holding containers in areas impacted by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project, Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Kaye, A.; Vongphayloth, K.; Banks, I.; Piffer, M.; Khammanithong, P.; Sananikhom, P.; Kaul, S.; Hill, N.; Lindsay, S.W.; Brey, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were

  18. Risk factors for the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in domestic water-holding containers in areas impacted by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project, Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Kaye, A.; Vongphayloth, K.; Banks, I.; Piffer, M.; Khammanithong, P.; Sananikhom, P.; Kaul, S.; Hill, N.; Lindsay, S.W.; Brey, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were m

  19. The stay-green phenotype of TaNAM-RNAi wheat plants is associated with maintenance of chloroplast structure and high enzymatic antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checovich, Mariana L; Galatro, Andrea; Moriconi, Jorge I; Simontacchi, Marcela; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Santa-María, Guillermo E

    2016-07-01

    TaNAM transcription factors play an important role in controlling senescence, which in turn, influences the delivery of nitrogen, iron and other elements to the grain of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants, thus contributing to grain nutritional value. While lack or diminished expression of TaNAMs determines a stay-green phenotype, the precise effect of these factors on chloroplast structure has not been studied. In this work we focused on the events undergone by chloroplasts in two wheat lines having either control or diminished TaNAM expression due to RNA interference (RNAi). It was found that in RNAi plants maintenance of chlorophyll levels and maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II were associated with lack of chloroplast dismantling. Flow cytometer studies and electron microscope analysis showed that RNAi plants conserved organelle ultrastructure and complexity. It was also found that senescence in control plants was accompanied by a low leaf enzymatic antioxidant activity. Lack of chloroplast dismantling in RNAi plants was associated with maintenance of protein and iron concentration in the flag leaf, the opposite being observed in control plants. These data provide a structural basis for the observation that down regulation of TaNAMs confers a functional stay-green phenotype and indicate that the low export of iron and nitrogen from the flag leaf of these plants is concomitant, within the developmental window studied, with lack of chloroplast degradation and high enzymatic antioxidant activity.

  20. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project exploring sustainable ways of urban living. The project renders a scenario comprised of an array of simple conversions of existing urban spaces and buildings, in the attempt to tie strategies ranging from urban planning to interior design into a coherent vision...... of a sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  1. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin...... down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning"....

  2. Unhappy Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Gottlieb, Joshua D.; Ziv, Oren

    2016-01-01

    There are persistent differences in self-reported subjective well-being across US metropolitan areas, and residents of declining cities appear less happy than others. Yet some people continue to move to these areas, and newer residents appear to be as unhappy as longer-term residents. While historical data on happiness are limited, the available facts suggest that cities that are now declining were also unhappy in their more prosperous past. These facts support the view that individuals do not maximize happiness alone but include it in the utility function along with other arguments. People may trade off happiness against other competing objectives. PMID:27546979

  3. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance......The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...

  4. Seasonal variation of secondary organic aerosol in Nam Co, Central Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.-Q. Shen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA affects the earth's radiation balance and global climate. High-elevation areas are sensitive to global climate change. However, at present, SOA origins and seasonal variations are understudied in remote high-elevation areas. In this study, particulate samples were collected from July 2012 to July 2013 at the remote Nam Co (NC site, Central Tibetan Plateau and analyzed for SOA tracers from biogenic (isoprene, monoterpenes and β-caryophyllene and anthropogenic (aromatics precursors. Among these compounds, isoprene SOA (SOAI tracers represented the majority (26.6 ± 44.2 ng m−3, followed by monoterpene SOA (SOAM tracers (0.97 ± 0.57 ng m−3, aromatic SOA (SOAA tracer (2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid, DHOPA, 0.25 ± 0.18 ng m−3 and β-caryophyllene SOA tracer (β-caryophyllenic acid, 0.09 ± 0.10 ng m−3. SOAI tracers exhibited high concentrations in the summer and low levels in the winter. The similar temperature dependence of SOAI tracers and isoprene emission suggested that the seasonal variation of SOAI at the NC site was mainly influenced by isoprene emission. The ratio of high-NOx to low-NOx products of isoprene (2-methylglyceric acid to 2-methyltetrols was the highest in the winter and the lowest in the summer, due to the influence of temperature and relative humidity. The seasonal variation of SOAM tracers was impacted by monoterpenes emission and tracers partitioning. The similar temperature dependence of SOAM tracers and monoterpenes emission was only observed during winter to spring. SOAM tracer levels did not elevate with increased temperature in the summer, probably resulting from the counteraction of temperature effects on gas/particle partitioning and monoterpenes emission. The concentrations of DHOPA were 1–2 orders of magnitude lower than those reported in the urban regions of the world. Due to the transport of air pollutants from the adjacent Bangladesh and the eastern India, DHOPA

  5. Viet Cong Logistics,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-06-01

    Machinegun Recoil spring 4 Safety pin 1 30 MAS Safety pin 4 Garand rifle Extractor 10 Connecting pin 7 CKC rifle Firing pin 10 Tripod lock 12...1 Machine gun Safety pin 11 Safety lever 11 ? Extractor 10 Carbine Sight 16 RPD Sub- machinegun Bolt latch release lock 12 Wooden stock 24

  6. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  7. The Design of the River Diversion for Construction of the Nam Ngum 5 Hydropower Project in Laos%老挝 Nam Ngum5水电站工程施工导流设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李曼; 逯峰

    2013-01-01

    施工导流设计是水利水电枢纽总体设计的重要组成部分,施工导流贯穿工程施工的全过程。 Nam Ngum5水电站采用枯期导流与全年导流相结合的方式,结合主体建筑物进行设计,选用导流隧洞导流,并在第2年汛期利用坝体过流,从而减少了导流泄水建筑物及挡水建筑物的规模,节约了工程造价。该设计方案经实际施工证明经济合理可行,为主体工程的顺利施工创造了良好的条件。%The design of the river diversion is an important part of the overall design of a hydro project complex and the river diversion is needed throughout the w hole process of the construction of a hydropow-er project .The river diversion for construction of the Nam Ngum 5 hydropower project is performed in both dry season and w hole year ,and the diversion tunnel is selected for river diversion and is designed ac-cording to the major structures of the project .In order to reduce the sizes of both flood relief structure and water retaining structure ,thus reducing the construction cost ,flood is allowed to flow over the dam body in the wet season of the second year .The construction practice of the project indicates that the design al-ternative proved economical ,rational and feasible ,creating favorable conditions for successful construction of the major work of the project .

  8. Sin City?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, Pieter A.; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city

  9. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  10. Vacant city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzot, N.

    2013-01-01

    Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if not recognized by any in

  11. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... on the block” that will potentially be a game-changer for urban governance, economics and everyday life. Here we are thinking of the unmanned aerial vehicle or drone as the popular term has it. Therefore, the paper asks how life in “drone city” may play out. Drones may alter the notion of surveillance by means...

  12. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    /assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  13. Genesis of economic relevant fresh groundwater resources in Pleistocene/ Neogene aquifers in Nam Dinh (Red River Delta, Vietnam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F.; Ludwig, R. R.; Noell, U.; Hoang, H. V.; Pham, N. Q.; Larsen, F.; Lindenmaier, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the Southern Red River Delta (Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam), a local lens of low saline pore water of high quality has been identified in unconsolidated Pleistocene and Neogene aquifers, which are regionally known to contain brackish and saline pore waters. Since the 1990ies, ongoing overexploitation of the fresh groundwater results in decreasing GW heads up to 0.6 m/a and the development of a regional abstraction cone. The presented study focuses on distribution and genesis of fresh and saline pore waters and reflects the results in frame of the regional hydrogeological context. Observations of the geological structure and groundwater dynamics combined with hydrochemical and isotopic studies suggest adjacent Triassic hard rock aquifers as the major source for fresh Pleistocene and Neogene groundwater. Salinization status in the economically most relevant Pleistocene aquifer has been studied based on archive and new hydrochemical and geophysical data. Own hydrochemical field studies as well as laboratory measurements of the specific resistivity of dry sediment samples allow the translation of induction logging data from existing monitoring wells into vertical pore water salinity profiles. This approach suggests the regional occurrence of saline pore water in shallow Holocene sediments in the working area, as confirmed by pore water studies in Hoan et al. (2010). Interpretation of induction logging and stable isotope data suggest vertical diffusion of saline pore water in shallow Holocene sediments as a source for high saline pore water in deeper aquifers. Analytical diffusion modeling for a period of 3000 years confirms that vertical diffusion of Holocene paleo-sea water can explain saline pore water in Pleistocene and Neogene aquifers in a stagnant environment. The constant influx of fresh groundwater from adjacent Triassic hard rocks results in flushing of the primary Pleistocene and Neogene pore water and inhibits the infiltration of saline water from marine

  14. La Misión Salesiana "La Candelaria" y los cambios en la dieta de los selk'nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casali, Romina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta comunicación tiene como objetivo dar a conocer los primeros resultados acerca del análisis de la dieta de los aborígenes Selk’nam que habitaron en la Misión Salesiana ‘La Candelaria’, Río Grande (Tierra del Fuego durante su funcionamiento (1893-1931. Nuestros anteriores estudios señalaron a la tuberculosis como causa de muerte excluyente dentro de la Misión. Por tanto, asumimos la relevancia de evaluar y generar información comparativa, acerca de aspectos de la vida cotidiana, en este caso los cambios dietarios, y su incidencia en la salud de los Selk’nam. Se trata de un abordaje interdisciplinario, en función de la conexión de distintos tipos de evidencia y de una visión totalizadora del proceso de desaparición étnica (intervención de múltiples factores con grado variable de sustento en el contacto interétnico, lo mismo que con un comportamiento sinérgico. Se revistan fuentes etnográficas, etnohistóricas y primarias (registros internos de la Misión. Se entrelazan los datos obtenidos, atendiendo a variables cuanti y cualitativas, lo mismo que a las referencias al ámbito de la Misión, como al exterior. Se formaliza una lectura historiográ- fica, antropológica y biológica. Se vislumbra un claro contraste en el tipo de dieta pre y pos contacto interétnico, lo mismo que una discordancia entre los ámbitos “naturales” y la Misión.

  15. An International Balancing Act

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU HAO

    2010-01-01

    @@ Exchanges between the United States and Viet Nam have continued to grow since the two countries normalized diplomatic relationship in 1995.Their bilateral relationship has also improved steadily. After Barack Obama took office,Washington declared it would focus on its relationships in Southeast Asia.The United States concentrated mainly on Viet Nam and Indonesia.Since the start of 2010,the U.S.-Viet Nam relationship has heated up so much that it has now gained worldwide attention.Nowhere is this more obvious than in the countries bordering the South China Sea.

  16. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  17. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Solutions of sharing that seeks to improve our cities and local communities in both urban and rural environments. 24 sharing economy organisations and businesses addressing urban and rural issues are being portrayed and seven Danish municipalities that have explored the potentials of sharing economy....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  18. Freezing Warm Christmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGUYEN; THI; CAM; PHUNG

    2007-01-01

    A lot of Beijing expats carp at Christmas here because of celebra- tion allegedly without regard for its true spirit. Not me. I’m from Ho Chi Minh City,Viet Nam,where Christmas is more like Mardi Gras than a celebration of Jesus Christ’s birth. Granted,on December 25,people gather in droves at"one particular church"in Saigon,as we still like to say.But what happens there is anything but holy. Mayhem,if not murder,ensues.

  19. Neoliberalizm polskich 'gender studies'. Czy to 'backlash' odbiera nam słuchaczki/słuchaczy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Duda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available "Neoliberalism of Polish 'gender studies'. Is 'backlash' a reaction, which collects our students?" In this text I present today’s condition of Polish gender studies that are conducted as postgraduate studies. In most of the cities it is impossible to form groups of students. It is believed that “responsible” for this state are backlash and campaign called “gender ideology”. Unfortunately these problems with enrollment have appeared earlier. In my presentation I describe the neoliberal shape of chargeable postgraduate studies that are conducted in large cities. Joining these groups depends on economic factors and free time of the students. An important aspect is also practical dimension of gender studies – students should develop themselves and their abilities. In accordance with the guidelines of postgraduate studies students should improve their professional skills. There is also a problem with the language of information/promotion campaign, as we use it as an instrument to encourage people to take part in these group activities. The language very often uses capitalist and stereotypical concepts profit and investment in yourself. The presentation is the critical voice of lecturer, who was teaching gender studies in Warsaw and was participating in forming “genders” in Poznan and Szczecin.

  20. A glacier inventory for the western Nyainqentanglha Range and the Nam Co Basin, Tibet, and glacier changes 1976–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bolch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The western Nyainqentanglha Range is located in the south-eastern centre of the Tibetan Plateau. Its north-western slopes drain into Lake Nam Co. The region is of special interest for glacio-climatological research as it is influenced by both the continental climate of Central Asia and the Indian Monsoon system, and situated at the transition zone between temperate and subcontinental glaciers. A glacier inventory for the whole mountain range was generated for the year around 2001 using automated remote sensing and GIS techniques based on Landsat ETM+ and SRTM3 DEM data. Glacier change analysis was based on data from Hexagon KH-9 and Landsat MSS (both 1976, Metric Camera (1984, and Landsat TM/ETM+ (1991, 2001, 2005, 2009. Manual adjustment was especially necessary for delineating the debris-covered glaciers and the glaciers on the panchromatic Hexagon data. In the years around 2001 the whole mountain range contained about 960 glaciers covering an area of 795.6 ± 22.3 km2 while the ice in the drainage basin of Nam Co covered 198.1 ± 5.6 km2. The median elevation of the glaciers was about 5800 m with the majority terminating around 5600 m. Five glaciers with debris-covered tongues terminated lower than 5200 m. The glacier area decreased by −6.1 ± 3% between 1976 and 2001. This is less than reported in previous studies based on the 1970s topographic maps and Landsat data from 2000. Glaciers continued to shrink during the period 2001–2009. No advancing glaciers were detected. Detailed length measurements for five glaciers indicated a retreat of around 10 m per year (1976–2009. Ice cover is higher south-east of the mountain ridge which reflects the windward direction to the monsoon. The temperature increase during the ablation period was probably the main driver of glacier wastage, but the complex glacier-climate interactions need further investigation.

  1. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  2. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  3. The Impact of Para Rubber Expansion on Streamflow and Other Water Balance Components of the Nam Loei River Basin, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winai Wangpimool

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, Para rubber is an economical crop which provides a high priced product and is in demand by global markets. Consequently, the government of Thailand is promoting the expansion of Para rubber plantations throughout the country. Traditionally, Para rubber was planted and grown only in the southern areas of the country. However, due to the Government’s support and promotion as well as economic reasons, the expansion of Para rubber plantations in the northeast has increased rapidly. This support has occurred without accounting for suitable cultivation of Para rubber conditions, particularly in areas with steep slopes and other factors which have significant impacts on hydrology and water quality. This study presents the impacts of Para rubber expansion by applying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT hydrological model on the hydrology and water balance of the Nam Loei River Basin, Loei Province. The results showed that the displacement of original local field crops and disturbed forest land by Para rubber production resulted in an overall increase of evapotranspiration (ET of roughly 3%. The major factors are the rubber canopy and precipitation. Moreover, the water balance results showed an annual reduction of about 3% in the basin average water yield, especially during the dry season.

  4. Water monitoring and treatment for drinking purposes in 2004 tsunami affected area-Ban Nam Khem, Phang Nga, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collivignarelli, Carlo; Tharnpoophasiam, Prapin; Vaccari, Mentore; De Felice, Valentina; Di Bella, Veronica; Mingkwan, Ruchaneekorn

    2008-12-01

    University of Brescia and Mahidol University of Bangkok developed a project in Phang Nga province (Thailand), the most damaged by 2004 tsunami. In particular, the study, performed between April and May 2006, dealt with the surface and ground water monitoring in Ban Nam Khem village and the experimental evaluation of possible drinking treatment alternatives. The monitoring highlighted that saline content in the tsunami affected area is decreasing but still very high (conductivity presented values up to 2,600 and 6,230 microS/cm in ground and surface water, respectively); hence, advanced and complicated processes such as reverse osmosis should be adopted to treat such water for drinking purposes. Waiting for ground water salinity to assume acceptable values, activities for the reduction of its organic and microbiological contamination will be started. However, it has to be underlined that the diffusion of drinking water to a greater part of population can be obtained only through the realization of new centralised treatment plants and the improvement of existing ones (serving at the moment about 20% of inhabitants).

  5. Historical perspectives on typhoons and tropical storms in the natural and socio-economic system of Nam Dinh (Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinen, John

    2007-02-01

    This contribution starts with a brief introduction of the effects of typhoons and tropical storms on Vietnam, focusing in particular on the coastal region of Nam Dinh, a province in the northern part of the country and part of the Red River Delta. The magnitude of damage caused by a natural disaster is not solely determined by the direct physical impact of the event, but also depends on the socio-economic and political circumstances that shape a person or a groups' daily life. Such conditions define where and how people live and work. An overview of the major events since the 19th century shows how important it is to study these events in historical perspective. This paper briefly considers various conceptualizations and definitions of vulnerability. It analyses the destruction caused by a natural disaster in terms of peoples' vulnerability in a deltaic region. A distinction is made between collective vulnerability and individual vulnerability, each leading to different levels of perception of the disaster. The levels overlap in the discussion because they are interwoven and dependent on one another.

  6. Ionic versus metallic bonding in AlnNam and AlnMgm (m ≤ 3, n + m ≤ 15) clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Cameron J.; Reber, Arthur C.; Khanna, Shiv N.

    2017-06-01

    First principles electronic structure studies on the ground state geometries, stability, and the electronic structure of AlnNam and AlnMgm (m ≤ 3, n + m ≤ 15) clusters have been carried out to examine the nature of bonding between Na or Mg and Al. Identifying whether the bonding is ionic or metallic in bulk materials is typically straightforward; however, in small clusters where quantum confinement is important, the nature of bonding may become unclear. We have performed a critical analysis of the bonding in these bimetallic clusters using charge analysis, electrical dipole moments, hybridization of the atomic orbitals, the Laplacian of the charge density at the bond critical points, and the change in the bonding energy between neutral and anionic forms of the cluster. For NanAlm clusters, we find that the Na binding is primarily ionic, while the bonding in AlnMgm is primarily metallic. We find that the Mulliken population of the 3p orbital of Na and Mg can provide a rapid assessment of the nature of bonding. We also find that the Hirshfeld charge and dipole moments are effective indicators, when placed in context. We found that the Laplacian of the charge density at the bond critical points can be misleading in identifying whether the bonding is ionic or metallic in small clusters.

  7. English-Vietnamese Scientific Terminology for High School and Junior College Students. Book 2: Physics = Danh Tu Khoa Hoc Anh-Viet Danh Cho Cac Hoc Sinh Trung Hoc Va Cac Sinh Vien Nam Thu Nhat Dai Hoc. Quyen 2: Vat Ly Hoc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Pham Cao

    Vietnamese students now enrolled in American high schools incur an extremely special need in English. After being taught subject matter disciplines in Vietnamese for many years, and while English is still a foreign language for them, these students are bound to go through two linguistic processes. First, while reading or sitting through lectures…

  8. Expats rank Chinese cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Lv Dong

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, April The results of the "2011 Amazing China- The Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners" election are released. Expats choose Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities as Chinas 10 most attractive cities for foreigners.

  9. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers, Pool...

  10. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers,...

  11. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  12. Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are expected from rabies biological suppliers in both India and Viet Nam. Once complete, the data will ... and affected communities. For more information contact: WHO Media centre E-mail: mediainquiries@who.int Related links ...

  13. International Osteoporosis Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arab Emirates - United Kingdom - United States - Uruguay - Uzbekistan - Venezuela - Viet Nam - Serbia Sign In Sign Up Members ... Advisors Regional Representation Vision, Mission & Goals Annual Report History Find a Local Society Contact Us Partners What ...

  14. Africa's Failed Economic Development Trajectory: A Critique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    there is something wrong with economic development in Africa. This paper ... final section addresses the research question about whether there is something ..... Colombia. 98. 25. 3. Jamaica. 98. 18. 3. Viet Nam. 98. 17. 3. Nicaragua. 98. 28. 3.

  15. Country News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

  16. The Campus Community and the Futureless Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoben, Jr., Edward J.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses discontent of students in light of ideological differences concerning Viet Nam, pollution, overpopulation, racial strife. First of two in depth articles, in same issue, on college students. (CJ)

  17. The Campus Community and the Futureless Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoben, Jr., Edward J.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses discontent of students in light of ideological differences concerning Viet Nam, pollution, overpopulation, racial strife. First of two in depth articles, in same issue, on college students. (CJ)

  18. Warm Rem embrance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1997-01-01

    Shao Mulan worked as secretary and councilor in Chinese embassies to the United Arab Emirates,Viet Nam, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt. Her longest mission was to Egypt, where she stayed for more than 10 years.

  19. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinquan; Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  20. Impact of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) to Local Communities and Environment in Hop Tien Commune, Dong Hy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wageningen International,

    2008-01-01

    This case-study is designed to support the development of the Viet Nam – Netherlands Water Partnership on Water for Food and Ecosystems. The partnership is between Viet Nam’s Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) and the Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality

  1. Financial Crisis Redux?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Observers refute the start of a new Asian financial crisis sparked by Viet Nam’s financial and economic troubles It looked like a sudden nightmare when stockholders with hundreds of millions of Vietnamese dong found their pockets half empty overnight. The once prosper- ous bull market in Viet Nam plummeted to

  2. Factors Influencing Blood Cadmium and Mercury Concentrations in Residents of Agro-Industries along Nam Phong River, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannanapa Srathonghon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional analytical study aimed to determine the blood levels of cadmium (B-Cd and mercury (B-Hg and identify the factors influencing heavy metal accumulation in residents of Agro-Industries along the Nam Phong River. Quantitative data were collected, and systematic random sampling was used to obtain 420 samples for questionnaire interview and serum heavy metal testing for B-Cd and B-Hg. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals in the population and report mean differences, 95% confidence intervals and p-values. The results indicated that B-Cd levels were within the recommended safety limits for human health (5 µg/dL. However, 4.29% of respondents had Hg levels higher than the recommended safety limits for human health (10 µg/dL. Factors influencing Cd levels included sex (mean difference=0.13 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.24, p-value=0.02 and smoking (mean difference=0.14 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.09-0.19, p-value<0.001. Factors influencing Hg levels included smoking (mean difference=1.06 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.52-1.61, p-value<0.001, fish consumption (mean difference=1.11 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.22-2.01, p-value=0.01 and river snail consumption (mean difference=0.56 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.19, p-value=0.03.

  3. Research on Using Natural Coating Materials on the Storage Life of Mango Fruit cv. Nam Dok Mai and Technology Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiradee MUANGDECH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the suitable type and concentration of 3 natural coating materials, namely, Aloe vera gel, chitosan and carnaubar wax, on postharvest storage life of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Nam Dok Mai. The experiment was divided into 3 treatments to compare the 3 types of coating materials and each appropriate concentration, to find the appropriate combination treatment, and to evaluate the benefit of this technology. The objectives of this research were to compare different concentrations and study the type of natural coating materials. At 20 % Aloe vera jelly, 1 % chitosan and 4 % carnaubar wax gave the longest storage life with good quality at 12 days at a storage temperature of 25 °C and 75±5 % relative humidity (p ≤ 0.05. Further investigation was done by using these optimal concentrations alone or in combination under 2 different conditions, 25 °C with 75±5 % relative humidity and 13 °C with 90±5 % relative humidity. It was found that coating with combination of 20 % Aloe vera jelly and 1 % chitosan gave the best result in alleviating the formation of brown spot and extended the storage life up to 12 days as well as slowing down the weight loss, changes in peel and pulp color, firmness, texture, quality such as concentrate by titratable acidity, total soluble solids and respiratory rate significantly compared to control and other treatment (p ≤ 0.05. The use of the coating materials did not alter the quality of the fruit when ripe. Technology dissemination to farmers and exporters was performed by using the training manuals created by the author. The results of the pre-test and after training post-test showed that farmers and exporters increased their knowledge, attitudes, awareness and skills in the use of the natural coating materials for prolonging storage life of mangos.

  4. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  5. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  6. Comparative study of nasoalveolar molding methods: nasal elevator plus DynaCleft® versus NAM-Grayson in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monasterio, Luis; Ford, Alison; Gutiérrez, Carolina; Tastets, María Eugenia; García, Jacqueline

    2013-09-01

    Objective : To compare nasoalveolar molding (NAM) effect employing a nasal elevator plus DynaCleft® and NAM-Grayson system in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate. Method : Prospective study in two groups. Group A included 20 consecutive patients treated with DynaCleft® and a nasal elevator before lip surgery. Group B included 20 patients treated with NAM-Grayson system. Maxillary casts and standard view photographs were done before and after treatment. Columella deviation angle, soft tissue distance of the cleft, intercommisural distance, and nostril height and width were traced and measured on the printed photos; a ratio was obtained and compared before and after treatment. Cleft width, anterior width, and anteroposterior distances were measured on the maxillary cast. Results : Group A began treatment at an average age of 14.3 days and group B at an average age of 16.9 days; no complications were observed. For group A, the initial average alveolar cleft within the cast was 10.7 mm, and after treatment it was 6.6 mm. For group B, pretreatment width was 11.2 mm, and after treatment it was 5.9 mm. No differences were found on the anterior and posterior width, and A-P distance of both groups. The initial mean columellar angle in group A was 38.1°, and after treatment it was 61.5°; for group B the initial mean columellar angle was 33.6°, and after treatment it was 59.5°. Results of Mann-Whitney U and Student's t tests showed no differences (P > .05). Width and height dimensions of the nostril showed minor differences. Conclusions : Both methods significantly reduced the cleft width and improved the nasal asymmetry. Our findings show that both methods produced similar results.

  7. Lake Nam Co (Tibet, China) - a suitable target for a deep drilling project as confirmed by a preliminary airgun seismic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, V.; Daut, G.; Wenau, S.; Gernhardt, F.; Wang, J.; Schwenk, T.; Haberzettl, T.; Zhu, L.; Maeusbacher, R.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Nam Co, located on the central Tibetan Plateau at the intersection of the Westerlies and the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon, is well suited to study the monsoonal regime over different time scales. High-resolution and continuous sedimentary records from the Tibetan Plateau are still rare and only few reach back to the Last Glacial Maximum. For Nam Co, numerous multiproxy studies unravel the regional paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental history for the past 24,000 years. These promising results demonstrate the potential of Lake Nam Co as a geoarchive, but nature, thickness and geologic time of the sediment fill have not yet been determined. Therefore the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research (Chinese Academy of Sciences) and the Universities of Bremen and Jena jointly carried out an airgun multichannel seismic survey at Nam Co in June/July 2014. As main equipment, a micro GI Gun(2 x 0.1 L) was used in conjunction with a 64 m long seismic streamer (32 channels/2 m spacing) to achieve deep signal penetration, to confirm a thick sediment infill and to prove the suitability for deep coring of several hundred meters. Although only few lines could be shot due to technical and weather issues, several lines particularly from the deepest part of the lake provide new insight. Preliminary data processing and interpretation reveal a well layered sediment cover of >700 m in the center of the lake. Seismic facies appears to vary in a cyclic manner, indicating a coupling to climatically-driven changes in lake level and sediment delivery. From a comparison with the Holocene/Late Glacial sedimentary and seismic record, several similar units could be imaged. Furthermore, rapid sedimentation is confirmed from the continuous cover of growth faults and doming, and continuous sedimentation throughout glacial/interglacial cycles appears likely due to the absence of erosional unconformities. By tentatively assigning these units to marine isotope stages, different seismostratigraphies can

  8. City health development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Geoff; Acres, John; Price, Charles; Tsouros, Agis

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this evaluation was to review the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the Healthy Cities Network organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 56 cities which participated in Phase III (1998-2002) of the Network. Evidence was gathered from documents either held in WHO archives or made available from Network cities and from interviews with city representatives. CHDPs were the centrepiece of Phase III, evolving from city health plans developed in Phase II. They are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed three types of CHDP, reflecting the realpolitik of each city. For many cities, the process of CHDP was as important as the plan itself.

  9. Physical controls on CH4 emissions from a newly flooded subtropical freshwater hydroelectric reservoir: Nam Theun 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deshmukh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we measured CH4 ebullition and diffusion with funnels and floating chambers in the footprint of an eddy-covariance system measuring CH4 emissions at high frequency (30 mn in the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir, a recently impounded (in 2008 subtropical hydroelectric reservoir located in Lao PDR, southeast Asia. The EC fluxes were very consistent with the sum of the two terms measured independently (diffusive fluxes + ebullition = EC fluxes, indicating that the EC system picked-up both diffusive fluxes and ebullition from the reservoir. The EC system permitted to evidence a diurnal bimodal pattern of CH4 emissions anti-correlated with atmospheric pressure. During daytime, a large atmospheric pressure drop triggers CH4 ebullition (up to 100 mmol m–2 d–1 whereas at night, a more moderate peak of CH4 emission was recorded. As a consequence, fluxes during daytime were twice higher than during nighttime. A total of 4811 measurements of CH4 ebullition with submerged funnels at a weekly/fortnightly frequency were performed. The data set covers a water depth ranging from 0.4 to 16 m, and all types of flooded ecosystems. This dataset allowed to determine that ebullition depends mostly on water level change among many other variables tested. On average, ebullition was 8.5 ± 10.5 mmol m–2 d–1 (10–90 percentile range: 0.03–21.5 mmol m–2 d–1 and ranged from 0–201.7 mmol m–2 d–1. An artificial neural network model could explain up to 45% of variability of ebullition using total static pressure (sum of hydrostatic and atmospheric pressure, variations in the water level and atmospheric pressure, and bottom temperature as inputs. This model allowed extrapolation of CH4 ebullition at the reservoir scale and performing gap-filling over four years. Our results clearly showed a very high seasonality: 50% of the yearly CH4 ebullition occurs within four months of the warm dry season. Overall, ebullition contributed 60–80% of total

  10. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  11. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  12. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  13. European Cities in the World City Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Taylor (Peter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis is primarily an empirical paper that brings together selected results from the GaWC research programme. The latter studies inter-city relations at a global scale. Empirical research is based upon a model of world city network network formation as a product of the location strategies

  14. Impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Mekong River Basin: a case study of the Nam Ou Basin, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shrestha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Nam Ou Basin located in Northern Laos. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is used to assess future changes in sediment flux attributable to climate change. Future precipitation and temperature series are constructed through a delta change approach. As per the results, in general, temperature as well as precipitation show increasing trends in both scenarios, A2 and B2. However, monthly precipitation shows both increasing and decreasing trends. The simulation results exhibit that the wet and dry seasonal and annual stream discharges are likely to increase (by up to 15, 17 and 14% under scenario A2; and 11, 5 and 10% under scenario B2 respectively in the future, which will lead to increased wet and dry seasonal and annual sediment yields (by up to 39, 28 and 36% under scenario A2; and 23, 12 and 22% under scenario B2 respectively. A higher discharge and more sediment flux are expected during the wet seasons, although the changes, percentage-wise, are observed to be higher during the dry months. In conclusion, the sediment yield from the Nam Ou Basin is likely to increase with climate change, which strongly suggests the need for basin-wide sediment management strategies in order to reduce the negative impact of this change.

  15. Diversity and uses of Zingiberaceae in Nam Nao National Park, Chaiyaphum and Phetchabun provinces, Thailand, with a new record for Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapon Saensouk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Three tribes, 12 genera and 38 species of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae along five routes in Nam Nao National Park were surveyed between January 2012 and December 2013 to determine their diversity, ecological data, phenology, uses and conservation status. The highest diversity was found in the tribe Zingibereae (6 genera and 21 species, of which the genera Curcuma and Zingiber comprised the highest number species (eight species each. A species key was constructed based on morphology. The ginger family was found in four forest-types—deciduous dipterocarp forest, mixed deciduous forest, dry evergreen forest and pine forest. The most flowering bloom of the ginger family in Nam Nao National Park was during March to August and the most fruiting bloom was during June to September. The popular uses of Zingiberaceae were as a food, spice, in medicine, as ornamentation and in rituals. Eight species have been evaluated as of least concern and are presented in the IUCN Red List, while two rare species were reported in Thailand Red Data: Plants, while six rare Zingiberaceae species were identified based on the evaluation criteria of Saensouk (2011. Four species were endemic to Thailand. Moreover, Etlingera yunnanensis (T. L. Wu & S. J. Chen R. M. Smith was a new record for Thailand.

  16. A new nidovirus (NamDinh virus NDiV): Its ultrastructural characterization in the C6/36 mosquito cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuy, Nguyen Thanh, E-mail: ngtthuy02@yahoo.com [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Huy, Tran Quang, E-mail: huytq@nihe.org.vn [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nga, Phan Thi [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Morita, Kouichi [Department of Virology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Global COE Program, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan); Dunia, Irene; Benedetti, Lucio [Institut Jacques Monod, UMR7592 Université Paris Diderot/CNRS, Paris (France)

    2013-09-15

    We describe the ultrastructure of the NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales grown in the C6/36 mosquito cell line. Uninfected and NDiV-infected cells were investigated by electron microscopy 24–48 h after infection. The results show that the viral nucleocapsid-like particles form clusters concentrated in the vacuoles, the endoplasmic reticulum, and are scattered in the cytoplasm. Mature virions of NDiV were released as budding particles on the cell surface where viral components appear to lie beneath and along the plasma membrane. Free homogeneous virus particles were obtained by ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradients of culture fluids. The size of the round-shaped particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter. This is the first study to provide information on the morphogenesis and ultrastructure of the first insect nidovirus NDiV, a missing evolutionary link in the emergence of the viruses with the largest RNA genomes. - Highlights: • NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales was tested in cultured cell line. • The morphogenesis and ultrastructure of NDiV were investigated by electron microscopy. • The viral nucleocapsid-like particles clustered and scattered in the cytoplasm. • NDiVs were released as budding particles on the cell surface. • The size of the viral particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter.

  17. A Namuyi Tibetan Woman's Journey from Chinese Village to Indian City to Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiong Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Li Xiaoqiong (Drolma, a namʑzə (Namuyi Tibetan from Lianshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province describes her childhood; parents; paternal grandmother's early life and death; village life including children's games, tending horses, and herding yaks; her experiences at primary school; a surrogate grandfather; her youngest brother; local lunar New Year festivities; her time at middle school including a special friend and love letters; her schooling at Qinghai Normal University in Xining City; her time in India including college experiences, travels, working in an NGO, and working at a call center in Delhi; and her return to China. Also included are two original poems, three stories by Li Xiaoqiong's grandmother, and photographs of Li Xiaoqiong's village and of her time in India.

  18. A Crowded City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Over 4 million vehicles on road challenge Beijing’s city management Beijing, the city once known as the kingdom of bicycles, has become clogged with automobiles, the Beijing Municipal Government Publicity Office said on December 18.

  19. Build a Green City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUYING; HAOXUE

    2005-01-01

    MA'ANSHAN,dubbed ""City of Iron and Steel,""is on the south bank of the Yangtze River in eastern Anhui Province, bordering Jiangsu Province. One of the city's most impressive features is its clean environment.

  20. EU Smart City Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carmela Gargiulo; Valentina Pinto; Floriana Zucaro

    2013-01-01

    .... The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City...

  1. Revisiting city connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a new perspective on city connectivity in order to analyze non-hub cities and their position in the world economy. The author revisits the different approaches discussed in the Global Commodity Chains (GCC), Global Production Networks (GPN) and World City Network (WCN) discou

  2. Imagineering the city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.; Paddison, R.; Hutton, T.

    2015-01-01

    Cities today are products. The urban experience is commodified into marketable items by urban entrepreneurs. Urban administrations, city marketers, politicians, local businesses and other actors all over the world are developing entrepreneurial strategies to sell their city. From "‘I ♥ New York"’ to

  3. The Creative Cities Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Creative Cities Network, started by UNESCO in 2004, is one of the world’s highest-level non-governmental organizations in creative industry. The network focuses on the excellence of its member cities as its main product, and finds ways to maintain relevance in city life, local economy

  4. Me, the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for identity of cities looks rather urgent and attracts attention of many researchers. Addressing this issue, the article draws an analogy between a human person and a city. Like a city, a human being needs to comprehend his self-identity in order to resist depressive tendencies. It is shown that a person’s depressive symptoms are similar to those of cities. The city identity necessary to resist depression can be searched for both historically and geographically. The historical aspect consists of local myths and legends about the city and the citizens. The geographical aspect of identity comprises features of the terrain, climate, flora and fauna of the region where the city is located.

  5. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth...... can be serious threats to the realization of the socio-economic contributions that cities can make. However, as a result of considerable diversity of competences combined with interactive learning and innovation, cities may also solve these problems. The ‘urban order’ may form a platform...... for innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden...

  6. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  7. Use of eschar swabbing for the molecular diagnosis and genotyping of Orientia tsutsugamushi causing scrub typhus in Quang Nam province, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Viet, Nhiem; Laroche, Maureen; Thi Pham, Hoa L.; Viet, Nho L.; Mediannikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is a rickettsiosis which is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and occurs throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Molecular diagnosis of rickettsioses using eschar swabs has recently emerged, and may be very useful for the diagnosis of these diseases in tropical settings. Methodology/Principal findings Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to detect O. tsutsugamushi DNA in whole blood and eschar swab specimens of 67 patients who were clinically suspected of scrub typhus in Quang Nam province, Vietnam. Among the 20 patients for whom both eschar and whole blood were obtained, 17 (85%) of the eschar specimens and 5 (25%) of the whole blood specimens tested positive for O. tsutsugamushi. Genetic analysis of the 56-kDa TSA gene sequences demonstrated that the 14 sequences obtained in this study, including 12 eschar swabs and 2 whole blood specimens, were related to 4 groups: Karp, Kawasaki, Gilliam (JG-v and TG-v) and TA716. The majority (9/14; 64.4%) of contemporary O. tsutsugamushi genotypes in Quang Nam province were related to the Karp group. Conclusions These results suggest that polyclonal antigen pools used for serological testing in the future should contain at least Karp, Kawasaki, Gilliam and TA716 antigens for Vietnamese patients, as well as patients who have traveled to Vietnam. qPCR after eschar swabbing should be considered for molecular diagnosis of scrub typhus in endemic patients as well as in travelers, since it is easy to perform and appears very useful for the rapid detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi in the early phase of infection. PMID:28241043

  8. Use of eschar swabbing for the molecular diagnosis and genotyping of Orientia tsutsugamushi causing scrub typhus in Quang Nam province, Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhiem Le Viet

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a rickettsiosis which is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and occurs throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Molecular diagnosis of rickettsioses using eschar swabs has recently emerged, and may be very useful for the diagnosis of these diseases in tropical settings.Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to detect O. tsutsugamushi DNA in whole blood and eschar swab specimens of 67 patients who were clinically suspected of scrub typhus in Quang Nam province, Vietnam. Among the 20 patients for whom both eschar and whole blood were obtained, 17 (85% of the eschar specimens and 5 (25% of the whole blood specimens tested positive for O. tsutsugamushi. Genetic analysis of the 56-kDa TSA gene sequences demonstrated that the 14 sequences obtained in this study, including 12 eschar swabs and 2 whole blood specimens, were related to 4 groups: Karp, Kawasaki, Gilliam (JG-v and TG-v and TA716. The majority (9/14; 64.4% of contemporary O. tsutsugamushi genotypes in Quang Nam province were related to the Karp group.These results suggest that polyclonal antigen pools used for serological testing in the future should contain at least Karp, Kawasaki, Gilliam and TA716 antigens for Vietnamese patients, as well as patients who have traveled to Vietnam. qPCR after eschar swabbing should be considered for molecular diagnosis of scrub typhus in endemic patients as well as in travelers, since it is easy to perform and appears very useful for the rapid detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi in the early phase of infection.

  9. Los misioneros salesianos y la polémica sobre la extinción de los Selk’nam de Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Andrea Nicoletti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de extinción de los selk’nam generó una polémica dentro de la congregación de los salesianos alrededor de las causas que suscitaron su desaparición. Por medio de la reducción «Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria» llevada a cabo por monseñor Fagnano en 1893, se puso en marcha un plan de evangelización y «civilización» de los selk’nam. Estos aborígenes buscaban refugio en la reducción ante la persecución y asesinato perpetrados por los estancieros fueguinos. Las acechanzas, el contagio de enfermedades a las que los aborígenes no eran inmunes y el impacto cultural que provocó el sistema de reducciones, contribuyeron a su extinción. Los misioneros salesianos, protagonistas del proceso reduccional, analizaron las causas de la extinción poniendo el acento fundamentalmente en las matanzas de los estancieros y la violencia aplicada por las autoridades estatales, aun admitiendo las ocasionadas por el cambio cultural. La siguiente generación de salesianos, desde el estudio de las fuentes y la construcción de su propia historia, desplazó la causa violenta hacia motivos fisiológicos y culturales, con el fin de no poner en tela de juicio el rol que las familias de estancieros Braun Menéndez y Menéndez Behety, colaboradoras con la obra salesiana, tuvieron en este nefasto proceso.

  10. Perceived ill-health and health seeking behavior in two communities in the nam theun 2 hydroelectric project area in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sayasone S; Erlanger TE; Kaul S; Sananikhom P; Tanner M; Utzinger J; Odermatt P

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To compare perceived ill-health and health seeking behavior between two communities affected by the large Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in central Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR).Methods:Two different affected areas:Nakai plateaubeing remote,sparcely populated and mountainous,and Xe Bang Fai lowland plains,more densely populated and comparatively affluent were included.Data were obtained from two cross-sectional household-based health and socio-economic surveys.Results:We found pronounced differ-ences in the frequency of self-reported fever,cough,headache and myalgia according to location.On the Na-kai plateau,45.1 % of the individuals with ill-health report (recall period:2 weeks)went to a local health volunteer compared to only 7.2 % in the Xe Bang Fai area (P <0.001).In Nakai,there were disproportion-ately more illiterates seeking help from local health volunteers when compared to those who attended at least primary schooling (49.2 % versus 17.5 %,P <0.01).Self-medication with antimalarials was more common in Xe Bang Fai than on Nakai (32.3 % versus 7.0 %,P <0.001).The mean amount of money spent per health consultation was US $1.7 in Nakai and US $7.2 in Xe Bang Fai.Conclusion:The observed differ-ences in self-reported ill-health and health seeking behavior among these two Lao communities need to be con-sidered when implementing setting-specific mitigation measures as part of the public health action plan of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project.

  11. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2011-01-01

    for innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden....... It is shown that the cities have the potential to significantly contribute to a more sustainable development through increased material recycling and energy recovery. Waste prevention may increase this potential. For example, instead of constituting 3% of the total greenhouse gas emission problem, it seems......There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth...

  12. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  13. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...

  14. Suburbs and Cities

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Matthew I. Spiegel; Susan M. Wachter

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how closely the fortunes of suburbs are tied to the fortunes of the central city. We use similarities in residential housing price dynamics as a measure of how closely the economies of cities and suburbs are related. We develop housing price indices for most of the zip codes in California, and use these in a clustering procedure to see whether cities and suburbs naturally aggregate together, or whether they move separately. We find that central cities tend to...

  15. Governing the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    cities. This theoretical curiosity is reflected in the rising interest in urban strategy from practice. For instance, the World Bank regularly organizes an Urban Strategy Speaker Series, while the powerful network CEOs for Cities lobbies for a strategic approach to urban development. Critical scholars...... such as Zukin diagnose not a shift in but a shift to strategic thinking in the contemporary city. This article poses the question: what makes strategy such an attractive ‘thought style’ in relation to imagining and managing cities? How can we understand the practice of urban strategy? And what are its intended...

  16. 北半球环状模波流相互作用动力学研究进展%Advances on Wave-Flow Interaction Dynamics of NAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁苏洁; 赵南

    2011-01-01

    总结了国内外学者对于北半球环状模(NAM:Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode)及其活动中心形成原因的研究成果.主要从NAM的天气、气候影响,波流相互作用原理对NAM形成的解释,NAM在北太平洋、北大西洋和北极3个区域活动中心的天气尺度波和行星尺度波活动等方面论述.NAM在对流层的变化与天气尺度波有关,北太平洋和北大西洋两个活动中心是天气尺度波活跃的区域,其峰值区表现为风暴轴,其中北大西洋天气尺度波破碎过程会使得NAM指数急剧变化.NAM在平流层的变化和准定常行星波关系密切,冬季准定常行星波会上传并与高纬平流层纬向流发生相互作用,从而引起北极极涡发生改变.准定常行星波将NAM 3个活动中心有机联系起来:对流层准定常行星波的纬向传播会影响北太平洋风暴轴的位置,而风暴轴的变化会影响下游北大西洋波破碎过程,同时准定常行星波的上传可以影响极涡活动.%The progresses in the studies in the recent years of NAM/AO (Northern Hemisphere Anuular Mode / Arctic Oscillation) are reviewed, with the emphases on the influences of the NAM/AO on weather and climate, the physical mechanisms of NAM/AO, the wave-flow interaction theory, and the baroclinic Rossby wave and quasi-stationary planetary wave activities on the NAM/AO' s three regional activity centers. During recent years, many studies show that tropospheric fluctuations of NAM/AO are associated with baroclinic waves, while fluctuations are associated with the quasi-stationary planetary waves in the stratosphere. It is found that the regions where baroclinic wave activities are frequent are the Pacific and Atlantic in the Northern Hemisphere, and the peak value areas are manifested as storm tracks. Besides, the wave breaking is the trigger of NAM/AO events in North Atlantic. On the other hand, the stratospheric zonal winds modify the upward-propagation of the troposphere

  17. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  18. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    is increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing...

  19. Deer City Legend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUHUANZHI; LILIKUN

    2003-01-01

    MORE and more commodities,such as clothes,shoes,millinery,lighters and shavers,now bear the “Made in Wenzhou”mark.It woule appear that Wenzhou grooms the whole nation.Lucheng(deer city)District in central Wenzhou is the nucleus of the city's thriving light industry sector.

  20. Reflective cool cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidegger, V.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Our globe is heating, and cities are heating up much more. At the same time, cities are growing and green spaces are substituted by buildings and streets. These man-made surfaces are dark and tend to heat up

  1. Walkout in Crystal City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  2. Preface (to Playable Cities)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    In this book, we address the issue of playfulness and playability in intelligent and smart cities. Playful technology can be introduced and authorized by city authorities. This can be compared and is similar to the introduction of smart technology in theme and recreational parks. However, smart

  3. City Improves State Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EnjoyceZhu

    2003-01-01

    As China's new leadership drafts measures to help ailing Stateowned enterprises(SOEs),Changchun,a strategic city in the Rust Belt,is reaping benefits unseen in more than a decade of SOE reform.Home to a large number of SOEs,Changchun has had its share of bureaucracy and stagnation.The city initiated a program called,“Saving SOEs

  4. CHONGQING, the Hot City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chongqing is a well-known city with a history of more than 3,000 years. It is a famous historical and cultural city in China. Chongqing is the birthplace of the Bayu Culture. At present, Chongqing is a municipality directly under the Central Government with the largest area, the most administrative districts and the largest population.

  5. City profile: Paramaribo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrest, H.J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Paramaribo, the largest and only significant urban area in Suriname, is a typical primate city. The majority of the countries’ population resides here and the majority of political, social and economic functions is clustered in the urban zone. In the course of the 20th century, the city changed dram

  6. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It thus...

  7. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets Arkitekt...

  8. Universities Scale Like Cities

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the gross university income in terms of total number of citations over size in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its ...

  9. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  10. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...... premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles are more likely to move from rural areas to cities while married couples are more likely to make...... the reverse movement. A second prediction of the model is that attractive singles benefit most from a dense market (i.e. from being choosy). Those predictions are tested with a unique Danish dataset....

  11. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...... premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles are more likely to move from rural areas to cities while married couples are more likely to make...... the reverse movement. A second prediction of the model is that attractive singles benefit most from a dense market (i.e. from being choosy). Those predictions are tested with a unique Danish dataset....

  12. The Flickering Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  13. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    There are over 20 cities world-wide with a population of over 10 million people. We have entered ‘The Millennium of the City’. The growth of urban populations has been accompanied by profound changes of the cities’ economic and social profile and of the cities themselves. The world economy...... is increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing...... on experience. We will argue for a human turn in the research on liveabil- ity and urbanisation, and debates the concept of liveability. We will take Copenhagen as our main case and compare with other cities from around the world....

  14. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  15. Cities, Towns and Villages, City Limits of City of Dubuque, IA, Published in 2007, City of Dubuque.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as 'City Limits of City of...

  16. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  17. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rojas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of  technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects  the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City,  creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  18. Colloque international : Modernities and dynamics of tradition in Vietnam : Anthropological approaches, 15-18 décembre 2007 à Bình Châu (Việt Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyên Phuong Ngoc

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Le colloque international Modernities and dynamics of tradition in Vietnam : Anthropological approaches s’est déroulé du 15 au 18 décembre 2007 à Bình Châu dans la province de Bà Ria au Sud du Việt Nam. Financé par la Ford Fondation au Việt Nam et la Wenner-Gren Fondation pour l’anthropologie, ce colloque a été organisé conjointement par l’Université des Sciences Sociales et Humaines (Université Nationale de Hồchíminh-ville et l’Université de Toronto (Canada.Le professeur Lương Văn Hy du dé...

  19. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    makes an investigation into the complex relationship between the words and policies of the ‘Experience Economy' and the actual urban transformations made in cities with reference to these changes. The paper discusses the cases researched in relation to the state, market, civil society framework as well......This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It thus...

  20. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  1. Cities and Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Bruce; Noring, Luise; Garrelts, Nantke

    institutions, it is municipalities across Europe in general and Germany in particular who are responsible for planning, delivering, and, in some cases, financing the housing, education, and full integration of new arrivals. “Cities and Refugees: The European Response” is a collaboration of the Brookings...... Centennial Scholar Initiative and the Foreign Policy program, with key research led by the Copenhagen Business School. It aims to show the extent to which cities are at the vanguard of this crisis and to deepen our understanding of the role and capacity of city governments and local networks in resettlement...... and long-term economic and social integration....

  2. The surface geochemical exploration of oil and gas in the Gangbatong-Ya’anxiang and the Dongqiao-Nam Co of the Qinghai-Tibet region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Due to the complexity of geological background and the adverseness of natural geographical environment in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,it is very difficult to carry out petroleum geological study in this region. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the only blank space of petroleum exploration on a large scale. The authors carried out the surface geochemical exploration of oil and gas in the Gangbatong-Ya’anxiang and Dongqiao-Nam Co of the Qinghai-Tibet region. Based on the data of actual detection and experiments in the studied area,the characteristics of concentration and profile distribution of the main geochemical exploration indicators(total adsorbed hydrocarbon,altered carbonate,thermal released mercury,etc.) were discussed. The origin of hydrocarbon was also discussed. Moreover,the oil and gas potential of different sections in the Qiangtang Basin and the Biru Basin were evaluated,which could provide references for the exploration and prediction of oil and gas in this region. The concentrations of total adsorbed hydrocarbons in the Ya’anxiang of Suoxian County-Zadong of Baqing County and the Jiecha-Dangxiong of Anduo County in the Qinghai-Tibet region are high,averaging 312.64 μL·kg-1 and 164.36 μL·kg-1. Their altered carbonate concentrations are relatively low,averaging 0.11% and 0.56%. Their concentrations of thermal released mercury are relatively high,averaging 13.09×10-9 and 1.94×10-9. Geochemical exploration results in fact reflect hydrocarbon information in the underground,which are mainly petroleum associated gas and over-matured cracking gas. The Jiecha-Charenluma and the Xiamaya’ertong-Suoba sections in the Qiangtang Basin are the most favorable ones for oil and gas and the Ekou-Zadong section is relatively favorable one,while the Nam Co and the Zigetangcuo-Dongqiao sections in the Biru Basin are the favorable ones for oil and gas,and the Jiang Co-Nading Co and the Ya’anxiang-Ya’ertong sections are relatively favorable ones.

  3. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  4. Earthquakes in cities revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wirgin, Armand

    2016-01-01

    During the last twenty years, a number of publications of theoretical-numerical nature have appeared which come to the apparently-reassuring conclusion that seismic motion on the ground in cities is smaller than what this motion would be in the absence of the buildings (but for the same underground and seismic load). Other than the fact that this finding tells nothing about the motion within the buildings, it must be confronted with the overwhelming empirical evidence (e.g, earthquakes in Sendai (2011), Kathmandu (2015), Tainan City (2016), etc.) that shaking within buildings of a city is often large enough to damage or even destroy these structures. I show, on several examples, that theory can be reconciled with empirical evidence, and suggest that the crucial subject of seismic response in cities is in need of more thorough research.

  5. Should Cities Regulate Graffiti?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Graffiti, while still a new phenomenon to most Chinese, is becoming more familiar among teenagers in big cities like Beijing and Shanghai. A recent report by Xinhua News Agency discusses the trend. The report said a small

  6. Towards healthy cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, D

    1996-01-01

    Cities contain many of the world's most unhealthy living environments. They are considered ecologically unsustainable because of high consumption and waste levels, attributed to high population density. However, well planned and managed cities can combine high living standards with remarkably low levels of energy consumption, resource use and wastes. The concentration of people and production creates many more possibilities of collecting and recycling wastes and for walking, bicycling and a high quality public transport. This potential for providing healthy, stimulating and valued places to live and work for all age groups could be achieved with good governance. In any city, this approach means encouragement and support from all levels of government for a great range of investments of capital, expertise and time by individuals, households, communities, voluntary organizations and nongovernmental organizations, as well as private enterprises. Moreover, this means managing competing claims and finding common ground between enterprises, trade unions and residents about what should be done to make the city healthier.

  7. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    WE LOVE THE CITY Byen i bygningen, bygningen i byen Lasse Andersson, Ph.d., arkitekt maa, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY vil vi formidle mødet mellem urban design oog arkitektur. Disciplinen ’at bygge by’ har de seneste 20 år ikke tændt hjerterne hos...... fjern og ’usexet’ for unge arkitekter in spe. Det kan fremtidens by ikke være tjent med, og WE LOVE THE CITY vil derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at her er et potentiale. Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY ønsker Utzon Centeret, LasseVegas Kontoret ApS og ADEPT...

  8. City of Parsons, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the city of Parsons, KS, for alleged violations at the wastewater treatment plant located at 1636 22000 Rd, Parsons, KS 67357.

  9. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

      The article take its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...... and cultural experience are emerging. In the discussion of the transformation into the ‘experience economy' relevant to cities and urban areas we rarely find an analysis of the physical and spatial implications of this transformation. However, the physical, cultural and democratic consequences...... of this development are discussed in the paper, as well as the problems and the new opportunities with which the ‘Experience city' is faced. The article focus on the design of the Danish Experience City with special emphasis on hybrid cultural projects and on performative urban spaces. It present the first findings...

  10. Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

  11. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  12. Ecological city planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Rueda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A territory, a city, a neighbourhood are all ecosystems; a mixture of chemico-physical and organic elements related to each other. That which defines an ecological system is the set of rules and characteristics which condition its relationships, and its duration in time is guaranteed by its efficiency and internal organization which applied to the city is translated in the reduction of the use of natural resources and in the increase of social organization. To increase the efficiency of the urban systems is the necessary condition for the formulation of ecological city planning favouring the maximum liveability of sites. Liveability is directly correlated to the optimization of numerous elements (public space, equipment, services, building techniques, innovative technology, social cohesion, biodiversity. To carry out such objectives, ecological city planning proposes a new model of town planning on three levels (subsoil, ground level, and upper level.

  13. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  14. Aging City Leads Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The northern city of Dalian has become a model of care for the elderly that other Chinese cities are following Chinese Minister of Civil Affairs Li Xueju has called upon civil affairs agencies in the nation to learn from Dalian’s diversified models for elderly care,ranging from running collectively owned and foreign-designed nursing homes to offering tax incentives to private households and companies serving the elderly

  15. Keys to the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsson, Christian Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118......Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118...

  16. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  17. City marketing: online communication plan for the city of Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    Altrichter, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing City Marketing represents marketing efforts of cities in order to attract more visitors. Today, we are confronted everyday with marketing campaigns in all different communication media promoting countries, cities or events. Cities are competing for visitors on a global scale, forcing them to adapt successful marketing strategies for gaining and retaining costumers. Yet, City Marketing still remains an unknown chapter for a big part of the general public an...

  18. Sinking Coastal Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management

  19. Physiological changes in pre-harvest dropped fruits in the pummelo cultivars ‘Thong Dee’ and ‘Khao Nam Phueng’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongnart Nartvaranant

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation of physiological changes in pummelo pre-harvest dropped fruit, termed “yellow fruit calyx symptoms” in Thailand, aimed to examine in two particular cultivars Thong Dee and Khao Nam Phueng grown in the central regionof Thailand. The results show that the normal pummelo fruits of either variety had statistically more total non-structuralcarbohydrate (TNC in their peel and pulp than did those of the dropped fruits. On the other hand, the leaves of normal fruittrees of both cultivars show less TNC than those found in the leaves of pre-harvest dropped fruit trees. There were significantdifferences in some plant nutrients in the leaves, peel and pulp of the dropped and normal pummelo cultivars. IAA concentration in fruit was determined with the result that normal fruits had a statistically higher IAA concentration than did those inpre-harvest dropped fruits. The PCR technique used for the greening disease test identified infections in leaves taken fromthe pre-harvest dropped fruit trees but none in leaves from the normal fruit trees. There were no differences in soil chemicalproperties between soil samples taken from the normal and pre-harvest dropped fruit trees. It seems likely that greeningdisease is the cause of ‘yellow fruit calyx symptom’ in Thailand and is the resulting from low TNC concentrations, low plantnutrients and low IAA concentrations in the pre-harvest dropped fruits in the pummelo cultivars.

  20. Petrochemistry and mineral chemistry of Late Permian hornblendite and hornblende gabbro from the Wang Nam Khiao area, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand: Indication of Palaeo-Tethyan subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanka, Alongkot; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Daorerk, Veerote; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Takamura, Yusuke; Endo, Takahiro; Sutthirat, Chakkaphan

    2016-11-01

    In the Wang Nam Khiao area, Nakhon Ratchasima, northeastern Thailand, there are various mafic-ultramafic plutons composed of hornblendite, hornblende gabbro and hornblende microgabbro. The rocks are generally dominated by hornblende, plagioclase and clinopyroxene. The mineral chemistry and whole-rock geochemistry of hornblendite, hornblende gabbro and hornblende microgabbro show their similarities, suggesting a close relationship of their magmatic evolution. The flat REE pattern and low HREE concentration indicate fractional crystallization from hydrous magma. The enrichment in LILE (e.g. Ba, K, Sr) and depletion of HFSE (e.g. Nb, Ta, Zr) together with compositions of clinopyroxene and hornblende reflect arc-related subduction. Hornblende-plagioclase geothermometry and Al-in-hornblende geobarometry indicate the PT conditions of crystallization are 5.3-9.8 kbar and 670-1000 °C, 7.6-9.0 kbar and 850-950 °C, and 7.6-8.8 kbar and 750-850 °C for hornblendite, hornblende gabbro and hornblende microgabbro, respectively, at the lower crustal depth (28-31 km). Zircon U-Pb age of hornblende microgabbro dike, that intruded into hornblendite, yields 257 Ma of intrusion age, suggesting the emplacement of the mafic-ultramafic rock in this area is related to Late Permian arc magmatism resulted from subduction of Palaeo-Tethys beneath Indochina Terrane.

  1. Turbulent flux modelling with a simple 2-layer soil model and extrapolated surface temperature applied at Nam Co Lake basin on the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gerken

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a surface model with two soil-layers for use in a high-resolution circulation model that has been modified with an extrapolated surface temperature, to be used for the calculation of turbulent fluxes. A quadratic temperature profile based on the layer mean and base temperature is assumed in each layer and extended to the surface. The model is tested at two sites on the Tibetan Plateau near Nam Co Lake during four days during the 2009 Monsoon season. In comparison to a two-layer model without explicit surface temperature estimate, there is a greatly reduced delay in diurnal flux cycles and the modelled surface temperature is much closer to observations. Comparison with a SVAT model and eddy covariance measurements shows an overall reasonable model performance based on RMSD and cross correlation comparisons between the modified and original model. A potential limitation of the model is the need for careful initialisation of the initial soil temperature profile, that requires field measurements. We show that the modified model is capable of reproducing fluxes of similar magnitudes and dynamics when compared to more complex methods chosen as a reference.

  2. Physical and chemical properties of Nam Prig Noom, a Thai green-chili paste, following ultra-high pressure and thermal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Srisajjalertwaja, Siriwan; Chaikham, Pittaya; Hirun, Sathira

    2013-03-01

    A study of processing green-chili pastes (Nam Prig Noom) by pressurization (100-600 MPa/30-50°C/20 min), pasteurization (90°C/3-5 min) or sterilization (121°C/4 min), subsequently, their physical, biochemical and microbiological qualities as well as the sensory acceptance were assessed. It was found that pressure at low levels (100-300 MPa) could improve activities of enzyme peroxidase (POD), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and lypoxygenase (LOX) in the chili paste by more than 100%, while pressures above 500 or 300 MPa combined with heat would significantly inactivate these enzyme activities. Both color parameters and enzyme activities illustrated that though some enzymatic browning occurred with the pressurized products indicated by b* (yellowish) parameter, the magnitude of these browning was still milder than those thermally treated products indicated by-a* (greenness) and L (lightness) parameters, presumably as a consequence of the Maillard reaction. Moreover, the sensory scores were found in accordance with color parameters, firmness and capsaicin contents.

  3. Anna Kareņina mūsdienu literatūrā: no anekdotes līdz romānam-apgreidam

    OpenAIRE

    Vinčugova, Natālija

    2009-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs „Anna Kareņina mūsdienu literatūrā: no anekdotes līdz romānam – apgreidam” – ir mēģinājums uz Annas Kareņinas tēla piemēra izanalizēt „klasisko” daiļdarbu popularitāti starp mūsdienu autoriem, kuru uztveres un izpratnes problēma mūsdienu sabiedrībā ir ļoti aktuāla. Pētījums tiek veikts uz anekdošu teksta analīzes, kuri subjekta vai objekta lomā izmanto Annas Kareņinas tēlu, kā arī Ļva Nikolajeviča „Anna Kareņina” un Lilijas Kim „Aņa Kareņina” romānu pamata. Darbā arī ir ...

  4. Simulating the Impact of Future Land Use and Climate Change on Soil Erosion and Deposition in the Mae Nam Nan Sub-Catchment, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Tripathi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the possible impacts of climate change and land use change and its combined effects on soil loss and net soil loss (erosion and deposition in the Mae Nam Nan sub-catchment, Thailand. Future climate from two general circulation models (GCMs and a regional circulation model (RCM consisting of HadCM3, NCAR CSSM3 and PRECIS RCM ware downscaled using a delta change approach. Cellular Automata/Markov (CA_Markov model was used to characterize future land use. Soil loss modeling using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE and sedimentation modeling in Idrisi software were employed to estimate soil loss and net soil loss under direct impact (climate change, indirect impact (land use change and full range of impact (climate and land use change to generate results at a 10 year interval between 2020 and 2040. Results indicate that soil erosion and deposition increase or decrease, depending on which climate and land use scenarios are considered. The potential for climate change to increase soil loss rate, soil erosion and deposition in future periods was established, whereas considerable decreases in erosion are projected when land use is increased from baseline periods. The combined climate and land use change analysis revealed that land use planning could be adopted to mitigate soil erosion and deposition in the future, in conjunction with the projected direct impact of climate change.

  5. Anna Kareņina mūsdienu literatūrā: no anekdotes līdz romānam-apgreidam

    OpenAIRE

    Vinčugova, Natālija

    2009-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs „Anna Kareņina mūsdienu literatūrā: no anekdotes līdz romānam – apgreidam” – ir mēģinājums uz Annas Kareņinas tēla piemēra izanalizēt „klasisko” daiļdarbu popularitāti starp mūsdienu autoriem, kuru uztveres un izpratnes problēma mūsdienu sabiedrībā ir ļoti aktuāla. Pētījums tiek veikts uz anekdošu teksta analīzes, kuri subjekta vai objekta lomā izmanto Annas Kareņinas tēlu, kā arī Ļva Nikolajeviča „Anna Kareņina” un Lilijas Kim „Aņa Kareņina” romānu pamata. Darbā arī ir ...

  6. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  7. Mapping the Gendered City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almahmood, Mohammed Abdulrahman M; Scharnhorst, Eric; Carstensen, Trine Agervig;

    2017-01-01

    Walking is a mode of perceiving the city which also contributes to health and social benefits. This paper studies the influence of the socio-cultural aspects on the practice of walking and the meaning of walkscapes in Riyadh, one of the most auto-dependent and gender-segregated cities on the Arab...... Peninsula, where socio-cultural values and restrictions regulate men and women’s use and access to public spaces. The methodology used is a combination of movement tracking data using GPS technology and map-based workshops where participants can reflect on their walking behaviour and spatial preferences....... The results of mapping where the respondents walk show a city consisting of gender-specific walkscapes. Indoor environments, such as shopping malls, function as ‘urban shelters’ for women, so they use such spaces for walking. On the other hand, young men mainly walk in urban streets, which provide greater...

  8. Mapping the gendered city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almahmood, Mohammed Abdulrahman M; Scharnhorst, Eric; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2017-01-01

    opportunities for gender interaction. However, streets are socially conceived as men’s walkscapes, which limits women’s presence, especially at certain times of the day. This paper reveals how walking experience, tempo-rhythm, sense of place and range of walkscapes are not only determined by ‘universal’ spatial......Walking is a mode of perceiving the city which also contributes to health and social benefits. This paper studies the influence of the socio-cultural aspects on the practice of walking and the meaning of walkscapes in Riyadh, one of the most auto-dependent and gender-segregated cities on the Arab....... The results of mapping where the respondents walk show a city consisting of gender-specific walkscapes. Indoor environments, such as shopping malls, function as ‘urban shelters’ for women, so they use such spaces for walking. On the other hand, young men mainly walk in urban streets, which provide greater...

  9. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city....

  10. Climate change and cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterthwaite, David

    2006-10-15

    What is done, or not done, in cities in relation to climate change over the next 5-10 years will affect hundreds of millions of people, because their lives and livelihoods are at risk from global warming. What is done in cities will also have a major influence on whether the escalating risks for the whole planet will be reduced or eliminated. Climate change needs to be considered in all development plans and investments - local, regional, national and international. Urban growth must be made more climate-resilient and help reduce, rather than increase, greenhouse gas emissions. This will not be done by the market; it can only be done by governments.

  11. Nam Tso Lacustrine Sediments and the Ancient Big Lake in Northern Tibet Plateau%纳木错湖相沉积与藏北高原古大湖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱大岗; 孟宪刚; 赵希涛; 吴珍汉; 冯向阳; 吴中海; 邵兆刚; 刘琦胜

    2001-01-01

    The ancient lakeshore is distributed extensively in northern Tibet plateau, and the lake sediments as well as the lake landform are well developed. At present, 4~6 grades of lake terraces around the Nam Tso can be distinctly recognized, which exceed the modern surface of the Nam Tso in altitude by 3~12 m, 15~22 m, 25~30 m, 35~45 m and 60~150 m, respectively. The first, second and third grades of terraces are all built terraces, and the fourth to sixth grades of terraces are also built terrace in plain area, but are base seat terraces at the sloping foot of the bedrock hill. These terraces are all composed of well-sorted sand, silt, clay and sub-clay with horizontal bedding and sometimes distinct tiny bedding. The highest lake sediments are 150 m higher than the modern surface of the lake. On the smooth lake terrace 40 m below the morden lake surface are tens of (more than 50) lakeshore mounds composed of lakeside gravels. Along the bank of the Nam Tso and on the islands of the lake, various kinds of lake-erosion topographies can be seen, probably related to the change of the surface of the lake. The EW-trending Xiongqu-Naqu valley, 30 km in length and 1.5~3.5 km in width, connects with the Namucuo basin and the Rencuo-Jiurucuo basin in the west. In the eastern part of the valley, it connects with a new NWW-trending valley. Nearby the watershed of the valley and on its east and west sides, Quaternary lake sediments comprising the top of the second lake terrace of the Nam Tso becomes the bottom of the wide valley, indicating that the Nam Tso and the Rencuo-Jiurucuo on its west seem to have been a connected big lake when the third and second grade lake terrace of the Nam Tso were formed. Besides, the watershed between the Rencuo and the Mujiucuo on its west is as wide as 8 km with the elevation lower than 4 700 m, and its height above the Rencuogongma does not exceed 50 m, which suggests that the Nam Tso and the Selincuo also constistuted a connectied

  12. City of Crystal City, Missouri - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the City of Crystal City, Missouri, a municipality located in Jefferson County, Missouri, 63019, for alleged violations associated with the City’s wastewater treatment progra

  13. A Committed City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Shanghai, one of the most populated cities in the world's most populous nation, knew it had the largest ever 'World Exposition to prepare for more than two years prior to its opening, when a record number of countries and international organizations confirmed their participation.

  14. The Emerging City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    ” – urban furniture that was originally part of an election campaign for the cultural minister of Denmark, will illustrate how both political and artistic signatures become deterritorialized through urban space, time and every day social use. The second example is taken from corporate city development...

  15. Cities at Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Elming, Anna

    2015-01-01

    for redesigning the neighbourhood in Minecraft and LEGO. These were presented to City of Copenhagen architects and urban planners as well as the head of the Department of Transport, Technology and Environment. Overall the study showed that tasks focused on solving local living problems through neighbourhood...

  16. Nature in the City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferbert, Mary Lou

    1981-01-01

    Describes a science program developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, "Nature in the City," in which students and teachers learn together about the natural community surrounding their school. Includes program's rationale, list of "adventures," and methods. Discusses strategies of Sherlock Holmes'"adventure" focusing on animal tracks…

  17. Mobilities, Futures & the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene; Kesselring, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The future of cities and regions will be strongly shaped by the mobilities of people, goods, modes of transport, waste and information. In many ways, the ‘why and ‘for what’ often get lost in discourses on planning and designing mobilities. The predominant planning paradigm still conceptualizes...

  18. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    With a point of departure in amongst others the Danish office of ADEPT’s approach, ‘The city in the building and the building in the city’ (ADEPT 2012), it is consequently the aim of this article to show how workshops can help shape and develop a spatial and architectural approach to form finding...

  19. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    With a point of departure in amongst others the Danish office of ADEPT’s approach, ‘The city in the building and the building in the city’ (ADEPT 2012), it is consequently the aim of this article to show how workshops can help shape and develop a spatial and architectural approach to form finding...

  20. Bug City: Beetles [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  1. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  2. That City is Mine!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijendijk, Cordula

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is about urban ideal images. It is about dreams - not fictitious beliefs, but dreams that humankind can realize tomorrow. It is about images from intellectuals, pastry cooks, urban planners and firemen. About people who deeply care about their cities, about their hopes, frustrations, ang

  3. Bandung City, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarigan, A.K.M.; Sagala, S.S.; Samsura, D.A.A.; Fiisabiilillah, D.F.; Simarmata, H.A.; Nababan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Bandung City has grown to become a very important centre in Indonesia, demonstrating a higher economic growth rate than the national average. It has experienced many challenges resulting from rapid urbanisation, including slums, basic infrastructures, and flooding. Despite such issues, a gradual imp

  4. Accepted into Education City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Qatar's Education City, perhaps the world's most diverse campus, is almost entirely unknown in the United States, but represents the next step in the globalization of American higher education--international franchising. Aided by technology such as online libraries, distance learning and streaming video, U.S. universities offer--and charge tuition…

  5. Melbourne: A Parasite City?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Birrell, Bob; Healy, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Melbourne appears to be booming. Job growth is far more rapid than in Sydney. This article shows that Melbourne's economy is being driven by population growth and that most job growth is in the city-building and people-servicing industries...

  6. Airport as city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, M.

    2011-01-01

    The airport city is a two-fold phenomenon: the areas surrounding the airport develop due to their proximity and accessibility to the terminal complex, and the terminal complex itself develops in to a pseudo-urban centre. This situation is manifest to varying extents in all major airports of the worl

  7. A Committed City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    shanghai, one of the most populated cities in the world’s most populous nation, knew it had the largest ever World Exposition to prepare for more than two years prior to its opening, when a record number of countries and international organizations confirmed their participation. A total of 246 countries and international organizations take part in World Expo 2010,

  8. City fiiling / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Arhitektide Andres Alveri ja Tiit Trummali tähtsamatest töödest. Pikemalt Tallinna kesklinnas asuvatest majadest City Plaza ja Rävala Neli. Kommentaarid Rein Veidemannilt, Veljo Kaasikult, Hardo Aasmäelt, Toomas Tammiselt, Jaak Aaviksoolt ja Karin Pauluselt

  9. City fiiling / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Arhitektide Andres Alveri ja Tiit Trummali tähtsamatest töödest. Pikemalt Tallinna kesklinnas asuvatest majadest City Plaza ja Rävala Neli. Kommentaarid Rein Veidemannilt, Veljo Kaasikult, Hardo Aasmäelt, Toomas Tammiselt, Jaak Aaviksoolt ja Karin Pauluselt

  10. Cities on the GROW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, Richard; Meulen, Suzanne; Mol, G.; Bailey, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Cities on the Grow is a cross-disciplinary project that has been funded by Climate-KIC, an initiative of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology. It seeks to support the sustainable growth of urban food enterprises toward the implementation of more commercially viable business practices.

  11. IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benin City, document reasons for these discharges and suggest ways of reducing its occurrence. Methods: The ... Thirty seven (63.8%) of parents of children DAMAbelonged to social classes IV and V. The ..... SPCH for assisting in retrieving the case-notes of the patients ... community study of childhood death in Guinea.

  12. Towards Smart City Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Stan, Catalin; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    2015-01-01

    , the concept of smart city learning is exploited to situate learning about geometric shapes in concrete buildings and thus make them more accessible for younger children. In close collaboration with a local school a game for 3rd graders was developed and tested on a field trip and in class. A mixed measures...

  13. City model enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Philip D.; Quinn, Jonathan A.; Jones, Christopher B.

    The combination of mobile communication technology with location and orientation aware digital cameras has introduced increasing interest in the exploitation of 3D city models for applications such as augmented reality and automated image captioning. The effectiveness of such applications is, at present, severely limited by the often poor quality of semantic annotation of the 3D models. In this paper, we show how freely available sources of georeferenced Web 2.0 information can be used for automated enrichment of 3D city models. Point referenced names of prominent buildings and landmarks mined from Wikipedia articles and from the OpenStreetMaps digital map and Geonames gazetteer have been matched to the 2D ground plan geometry of a 3D city model. In order to address the ambiguities that arise in the associations between these sources and the city model, we present procedures to merge potentially related buildings and implement fuzzy matching between reference points and building polygons. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented methods.

  14. IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A community based prospective study was carried out amongst 780 mothers who had children aged less than one year in Benin. City, between ... countries particularly infectious diseases maintain a vicious but ... months and or infant formula to an infant'. ... comparison with older ones practised exclusive breastfeeding.

  15. Preharvest bagging with wavelength-selective materials enhances development and quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Nam Dok Mai #4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonhenchob, Vanee; Kamhangwong, Damrongpol; Kruenate, Jittiporn; Khongrat, Krittaphat; Tangchantra, Nantavat; Wichai, Uthai; Singh, S Paul

    2011-03-15

    Preharvest bagging has been shown to improve development and quality of fruits. Different light transmittance bags showed different effects on fruit quality. This study presents the benefits of using newly developed plastic bagging materials with different wavelength-selective characteristics for mangoes (cv. Nam Dok Mai #4). Mangoes were bagged at 45 days after full bloom (DAFB) and randomly harvested at 65, 75, 85, 95, and 105 DAFB. The bags were removed on the harvest days. The wavelength-selective bags (no pigment, yellow, red, blue/violet, blue) were compared with the Kraft paper bag with black paper liner, which is currently used commercially for several fruits, and with non-bagging as a control. Bagging significantly (p⩽0.05) reduced diseases and blemishes. Mango weight at 95 DAFB was increased approximately 15% by VM and V plastic bagging, as compared to paper bagging and control. Plastic bagging accelerated mango ripening as well as growth. Plastic-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 95 DAFB, while non-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 105 DAFB. Paper bagging resulted in a pale-yellow peel beginning at 65 DAFB, while plastic bagging improved peel glossiness. Preharvest bagging with different wavelength-selective materials affected mango development and quality. Bagging mangoes with VM and V materials could reduce peel defects and diseases, increase weight, size, and sphericity, improve peel appearance, and shorten the development periods of mangoes. The results suggest a favorable practice using the newly developed VM and V plastic bags in the production of mangoes, and possibly other fruits as well. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Reducing the basin vulnerability by land management practices under past and future climate: a case study of the Nam Ou River Basin, Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, M.; Babel, M. S.; Maskey, S.

    2014-08-01

    This research evaluates different land management practices for the Nam Ou River Basin in Northern Laos for reducing vulnerability of the basin due to erosion and sediment yield under existing and future climate conditions. We use climate projection data (precipitation and temperature) from three general circulation models (GCMs) for three greenhouse gas emission scenarios (GHGES), namely B1, A1B and A2 and three future periods, namely 2011-2030, 2046-2065 and 2080-2099. These large resolution GCM data are downscaled using the Long Ashton Research Station-Weather Generator (LARS-WG). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), which is a process based hydrological model, is used to simulate discharge and sediment yield and a threshold value of annual sediment yield is applied to identify vulnerable sub-basins. Results show that the change in the annual precipitation is expected to be between -7.60 to 2.64% in 2011-2030, -8.98 to 11.85% in 2046-2065, and -11.04 to 25.84% in 2080-2099. In the meantime, the changes in mean monthly temperature vary from 0.3 to 1.3 °C in the 2011-2030, 1.3 to 2.9 °C in the 2046-2065 and 1.9 to 4.9 °C in the 2080-2099. Five sub-basins are identified vulnerable (critical) under the current climate. Our results show that terracing is the most effective land management practice to reduce sediment yield in these sub-basins followed by strip-cropping and filter strip. Appropriate land management practices applied under future climate scenarios show significant reduction in sediment yield (i.e. up to the tolerance limit) except for some sub-basins. In these exceptional sub-basins, designing an optimum combination of management practices is essential to reduce the vulnerability of the basin.

  17. Impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Mekong River basin: a case study of the Nam Ou basin, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Nam Ou basin located in northern Laos. Future climate (temperature and precipitation from four general circulation models (GCMs that are found to perform well in the Mekong region and a regional circulation model (PRECIS are downscaled using a delta change approach. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is used to assess future changes in sediment flux attributable to climate change. Results indicate up to 3.0 °C shift in seasonal temperature and 27% (decrease to 41% (increase in seasonal precipitation. The largest increase in temperature is observed in the dry season while the largest change in precipitation is observed in the wet season. In general, temperature shows increasing trends but changes in precipitation are not unidirectional and vary depending on the greenhouse gas emission scenarios (GHGES, climate models, prediction period and season. The simulation results show that the changes in annual stream discharges are likely to range from a 17% decrease to 66% increase in the future, which will lead to predicted changes in annual sediment yield ranging from a 27% decrease to about 160% increase. Changes in intra-annual (monthly discharge as well as sediment yield are even greater (−62 to 105% in discharge and −88 to 243% in sediment yield. A higher discharge and sediment flux are expected during the wet seasons, although the highest relative changes are observed during the dry months. The results indicate high uncertainties in the direction and magnitude of changes of discharge as well as sediment yields due to climate change. As the projected climate change impact on sediment varies remarkably between the different climate models, the uncertainty should be taken into account in both sediment management and climate change adaptation.

  18. Modelling Niche Differentiation of Co-Existing, Elusive and Morphologically Similar Species: A Case Study of Four Macaque Species in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille N. Z. Coudrat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Species misidentification often occurs when dealing with co-existing and morphologically similar species such as macaques, making the study of their ecology challenging. To overcome this issue, we use reliable occurrence data from camera-trap images and transect survey data to model their respective ecological niche and potential distribution locally in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area (NNT NPA, central-Eastern Laos. We investigate niche differentiation of morphologically similar species using four sympatric macaque species in NNT NPA, as our model species: rhesus Macaca mulatta (Taxonomic Serial Number, TSN 180099, Northern pig-tailed M. leonina (TSN not listed; Assamese M. assamensis (TSN 573018 and stump-tailed M. arctoides (TSN 573017. We examine the implications for their conservation. We obtained occurrence data of macaque species from systematic 2006–2011 camera-trapping surveys and 2011–2012 transect surveys and model their niche and potential distribution with MaxEnt software using 25 environmental and topographic variables. The respective suitable habitat predicted for each species reveals niche segregation between the four species with a gradual geographical distribution following an environmental gradient within the study area. Camera-trapping positioned at many locations can increase elusive-species records with a relatively reduced and more systematic sampling effort and provide reliable species occurrence data. These can be used for environmental niche modelling to study niche segregation of morphologically similar species in areas where their distribution remains uncertain. Examining unresolved species' niches and potential distributions can have crucial implications for future research and species' management and conservation even in the most remote regions and for the least-known species.

  19. Analysis of the population genetics of Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato in the Nam Ngum River wetland, Lao PDR, by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatsopit, Nadda; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Saijuntha, Weerachai; Pitaksakulrat, Opal; Petney, Trevor N; Webster, Joanne P; Andrews, Ross H

    2014-08-01

    A previous population genetics study of Opisthorchis viverrini from a locality in an endemic area in Thailand found little genetic variation over time and second intermediate fish host species. Since a similar comparative analysis is not available for Lao PDR, we conducted a study of O. viverrini from different endemic foci in Vientiane Province, Lao PDR, based on spatial, temporal and fish host species. A total of 620 adult O. viverrini originating from the Nam Ngum River wetland were analysed at five previously defined polymorphic enzyme loci. Of these worms, 252 were from six different localities (spatial samples), 162 worms from different years (temporal samples) and 206 worms from four different cyprinid fish species. Significant heterozygote deficiency was found in most O. viverrini populations with levels of genetic differentiation ranging between F ST 0.0000 and 0.0197 suggesting that gene flow occurred at a variable rate. The role of temporal factors and fish host species had little influence on the level of genetic differentiation. As for O. viverrini from Thailand, these findings indicate that self-fertilization and/or a clonal distribution of O. viverrini occurs in Lao PDR. Unlike the results for O. viverrini from Thailand, spatial population substructuring may be the underlying population processes for O. viverrini in Lao PDR. These findings indicate that geographical variation may contribute to the transmission dynamics of the parasite with implications for parasite control. However, other host factors, such as snail intermediate hosts and mammal reservoir hosts, as well as human beings, may also play significant roles.

  20. Genome-wide analysis and identification of stress-responsive genes of the NAM-ATAF1,2-CUC2 transcription factor family in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongyan; Zhang, Shizhong; Yuan, Xiaowei; Chen, Changtian; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2013-10-01

    NAC (NAM, ATAF1,2, and CUC2) proteins constitute one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factors. To date, little is known about the NAC genes in the apple (Malus domestica). In this study, a total of 180 NAC genes were identified in the apple genome and were phylogenetically clustered into six groups (I-VI) with the NAC genes from Arabidopsis and rice. The predicted apple NAC genes were distributed across all of 17 chromosomes at various densities. Additionally, the gene structure and motif compositions of the apple NAC genes were analyzed. Moreover, the expression of 29 selected apple NAC genes was analyzed in different tissues and under different abiotic stress conditions. All of the selected genes, with the exception of four genes, were expressed in at least one of the tissues tested, which indicates that the NAC genes are involved in various aspects of the physiological and developmental processes of the apple. Encouragingly, 17 of the selected genes were found to respond to one or more of the abiotic stress treatments, and these 17 genes included not only the expected 7 genes that were clustered with the well-known stress-related marker genes in group IV but also 10 genes located in other subgroups, none of which contains members that have been reported to be stress-related. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first genome-wide analysis of the apple NAC gene family, and the results should provide valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of this family.

  1. Drill bit seismic, vertical seismic profiling, and seismic depth imaging to acid drilling decisions in the Tho Tinh structure Nam Con Son Basin-Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, W.; Leaney, W.; Nakanishi, S.; Kusaka, H.

    1998-02-01

    Rapid deposition in the Nam Con Son Basin during the Miocene resulted in under-compacted shales. These under-compacted shales are often associated with over-pressured formations. As these shales have excess water and tend to be mechanically weak, the safe mud window for drilling the under-compacted interval can be quite narrow. Efficient and safe drilling operations require accurate depth predictions of these over-pressured formations as well a knowledge of the magnitude of the over-pressure. In this paper we describe a technique which combines the best aspects of conventional Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP) and Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiles (RVSP) to detect under-compacted shales and predict formation pressures to locate drilling hazards below TD. Under-compacted shales with excess water will have a lower acoustic impedance than expected from the compaction trend. Shales that depart from the compaction trend may indicate potential drilling hazards below. Conventional VSPs provide high quality reflection data at discrete intervals in the well, and can be used to accurately predict acoustic impedance below the bit. This acoustic impedance is then interpreted to provide both the location (in time and depth) of the drilling hazard and the mud weight necessary to contain it. The two-way time estimate of the hazard location is usually quite accurate but the depth estimate is less certain due to the estimation error in formation velocities below TD. The RVSP using the drill bit as a source, provides a continuous time versus depth relationship while drilling. This time versus depth is used to continually update the conventional VSP depth prediction of the drilling hazard and thus provide the most accurate depth of the hazard prior to its penetration. It is also used to update a depth-indexed display of existing surface seismic at the wellsite. 10 refs., 22 figs.

  2. Modelling Niche Differentiation of Co-Existing, Elusive and Morphologically Similar Species: A Case Study of Four Macaque Species in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudrat, Camille N Z; Nekaris, K Anne-Isola

    2013-01-30

    Species misidentification often occurs when dealing with co-existing and morphologically similar species such as macaques, making the study of their ecology challenging. To overcome this issue, we use reliable occurrence data from camera-trap images and transect survey data to model their respective ecological niche and potential distribution locally in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area (NNT NPA), central-Eastern Laos. We investigate niche differentiation of morphologically similar species using four sympatric macaque species in NNT NPA, as our model species: rhesus Macaca mulatta (Taxonomic Serial Number, TSN 180099), Northern pig-tailed M. leonina (TSN not listed); Assamese M. assamensis (TSN 573018) and stump-tailed M. arctoides (TSN 573017). We examine the implications for their conservation. We obtained occurrence data of macaque species from systematic 2006-2011 camera-trapping surveys and 2011-2012 transect surveys and model their niche and potential distribution with MaxEnt software using 25 environmental and topographic variables. The respective suitable habitat predicted for each species reveals niche segregation between the four species with a gradual geographical distribution following an environmental gradient within the study area. Camera-trapping positioned at many locations can increase elusive-species records with a relatively reduced and more systematic sampling effort and provide reliable species occurrence data. These can be used for environmental niche modelling to study niche segregation of morphologically similar species in areas where their distribution remains uncertain. Examining unresolved species' niches and potential distributions can have crucial implications for future research and species' management and conservation even in the most remote regions and for the least-known species.

  3. Arsenic and other trace elements in groundwater and human urine in Ha Nam province, the Northern Vietnam: contamination characteristics and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Long Hai; Nguyen, Hue Thi; Van Tran, Cuong; Nguyen, Ha Manh; Nguyen, Tung Hoang; Tu, Minh Binh

    2017-06-01

    The contamination characteristics of arsenic and other trace elements in groundwater and the potential risks of arsenic from the groundwater were investigated. Elevated contamination of arsenic, barium and manganese was observed in tube-well water of two villages (Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang) in Ha Nam province in the Northern Vietnam. Concentrations of As in the groundwater ranged from 12.8 to 884 µg/L with mean values in Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were 614.7 and 160.1 µg/L, respectively. About 83 % of these samples contained As concentrations exceeding WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/L. The mean values of Mn and Ba in groundwater from Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were 300 and 657 μg/L and 650 and 468 μg/L, respectively. The mean value of Ba concentration in groundwater in both Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang was about 22 % of the samples exceeded the WHO guideline (700 µg/L). Arsenic concentrations in human urine of residents from Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were the range from 8.6 to 458 µg/L. The mean values of Mn and Ba in human urine of local people from Chuyen Ngoai were 46.9 and 62.8 μg/L, respectively, while those in people from Chau Giang were 25.9 and 45.9 μg/L, respectively. The average daily dose from ingesting arsenic for consuming both untreated and treated groundwater is from 0.02 to 11.5 and 0.003 to 1.6 μg/kg day, respectively. Approximately, 57 % of the families using treated groundwater and 64 % of the families using untreated groundwater could be affected by elevated arsenic exposure.

  4. Hackable Cities : From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, M.L.; de Waal, Martijn; Foth, Marcus; Verhoeff, Nanna; Martin, Brynskov

    2015-01-01

    The DC9 workshop takes place on June 27, 2015 in Limerick, Ireland and is titled "Hackable Cities: From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change". The notion of "hacking" originates from the world of media technologies but is increasingly often being used for creative ideals and practices of city m

  5. Hackable Cities : From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, M.L.; de Waal, Martijn; Foth, Marcus; Verhoeff, Nanna; Martin, Brynskov

    2015-01-01

    The DC9 workshop takes place on June 27, 2015 in Limerick, Ireland and is titled "Hackable Cities: From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change". The notion of "hacking" originates from the world of media technologies but is increasingly often being used for creative ideals and practices of city

  6. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

    2014-05-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent

  7. Less Smart More City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart is an expression used in recent years in science, and it refers to someone or something that shows a lively intelligence, with a quick learning curve and a fast response to external stimuli. The present scenario is dominated by the accelerated technological development that involves every aspect of life, enhancing the everyday tools through the use of information and digital processing: everything is smart, even cities. But when you pair the term smart to a complex organism such as the city the significance of the two together is open to a variety of interpretations, as shown by the vast and varied landscape of definitions that have occurred in recent years. Our contribution presents the results of research aimed at analyzing and interpreting this fragmented scene mainly, but not exclusively, through lexical analysis, applied to a textual corpus of 156 definitions of smart city. In particular, the study identified the main groups of stakeholders that have taken part in the debate, and investigated the differences and convergences that can be detected: Academic, Institutional, and Business worlds. It is undeniable that the term smart has been a veritable media vehicle that, on the one hand brought to the center of the discussion the issue of the city, of increasing strategic importance for the major challenges that humanity is going to face,  and on the other has been a fertile ground on which to pour the interests of different groups and individuals. In a nutshell we can say that from the analysis the different approaches that each group has used and supported emerge clearly and another, alarming, consideration occurs: of the smart part of “Smart City” we clearly grasp the tools useful to the each group of stakeholders, and of the city part, as a collective aspiration, there is often little or nothing.

  8. DAR ES SALAAM CITY, TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engineering geological mapping of Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania has been carried out using .... faces and road cuts. The studied material ... for regional and city master planning, and these are geomorphological, geological, geo-hazard ...

  9. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many city logistics projects in Europe have failed. The purpose of this article is to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge. A better understanding of the complex organizational processes with many actors and stakeholders in city logistics projects may prevent further...... failures. Design/methodology/approach: Theory on organizational change is applied to capture the processes leading to emergence of city logistics. The methodology is process analysis on a single longitudinal case. Findings: The emergence of the Copenhagen city logistics project can be understood....... The study aims at understanding the social processes towards reduced congestion and greenhouse gas emissions from goods transport in inner cities. Originality/value: By better understanding the organization processes leading to implementation of city logistics, other projects in other cities may learn from...

  10. JINAN: the City of Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Attractions Jinan is not a hot tourist destination in China, but it has Something special to offer, such as the 72 springs scattered throughout the city. Jinan has an alias of the Spring City (Quan Cheng)because of ouver 700 natural springs run through the city. Among them,the Baotu Spring is the most famous.

  11. Social Studies: Cities in Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Brenda F.

    This elective quinmester program for grades 10 through 12 focuses upon the study of urban problems. Students analyze city problems taking into consideration ecology, city planning, model cities, and other factors in an attempt to provide creative solutions. The course is arranged into seven sections. Student activities are to: 1) discuss the…

  12. Deconstructing Rotterdam's modern city centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2013-01-01

    In the 20th century, the Dutch city of Rotterdam was radically transformed from a historic town into a modern city, becoming the selfacclaimed 'city of architecture', home to international architectural design offices, publishers and institutions. Although it is already 60 years after the destructio

  13. Deconstructing Rotterdam's modern city centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2013-01-01

    In the 20th century, the Dutch city of Rotterdam was radically transformed from a historic town into a modern city, becoming the selfacclaimed 'city of architecture', home to international architectural design offices, publishers and institutions. Although it is already 60 years after the destructio

  14. The city of the merchant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    2003-01-01

    The City of the Merchant deals with cities, towns and villages in the European medieval period - i.e. in post-antique and pre-industrial Europe. In actual fact, the book mainly deals with Denmark and Northern Italy (the City States), with digressions to other "feudal" localities in France on Sicily...

  15. Effect of the mGluR5-NAM Basimglurant on Behavior in Adolescents and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial: FragXis Phase 2 Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Eriene A; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Czech, Christian; Hagerman, Randi J; Hessl, David; Wong, Chin Y; Rabbia, Michael; Deptula, Dennis; John, Amy; Kinch, Russell; Drewitt, Philip; Lindemann, Lothar; Marcinowski, Moritz; Langland, Rachel; Horn, Carsten; Fontoura, Paulo; Santarelli, Luca; Quiroz, Jorge A

    2017-08-17

    Preclinical data suggest that inhibition of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) receptor might hold therapeutic benefits in Fragile X syndrome (FXS). Treatment of Fmr1 knockout mice with mGluR5-negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) has been reported to correct a broad range of phenotypes related to FXS. The early short-term clinical trials with mGluR5 NAMs, including basimglurant, assessing the effects in individuals with FXS, were supportive of further exploration in larger, well-controlled trials. We evaluated basimglurant, a potent and selective mGluR5 NAM, in a 12-week, double-blind, parallel-group study of 183 adults and adolescents (aged 14-50, mean 23.4 years) with FXS. Individuals with an FMR1 full mutation were randomized to placebo or one of two doses of basimglurant. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in behavioral symptoms using the Anxiety Depression and Mood Scale (ADAMS) total score. All treatment arms showed marked behavioral improvements from baseline to week 12 with less improvement in the basimglurant 1.5 mg arm than placebo; however, basimglurant 0.5 mg was inferior to placebo in the ADAMs total score. Treatment with basimglurant was overall well-tolerated. A higher incidence of adverse events classified as psychiatric disorders were reported in patients treated with basimglurant, including three patients with hallucinations or psychosis. In this phase 2 clinical trial, basimglurant did not demonstrate improvement over placebo. Evaluation of the overall risk-benefit in younger patient populations is an important consideration for the design of potential further investigations of efficacy with this class of medications.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 20 September 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.177.

  16. Seasonal Variations in δ18O of Inflowing River Water, Lake Water, Sediment Trap Material and Ostracod Shells of Lake Nam Co and its Catchment (Tibet, China) — a Proxy Calibration Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daut, G.; Wang, J.; Ju, J.; Plessen, B.; Fürstenberg, S.; Baade, J.; Frenzel, P.; Haberzettl, T.; Maeusbacher, R.; Zhu, L.

    2014-12-01

    δ18O is a very common proxy used in palaeoclimate studies all over the world, but for most parts of the world and especially the Tibetan Plateau modern studies that trace the pathway of this isotope from sink to source are lacking. In this study, financed by the BMBF (German Ministry of Science and Education, Project CADY), we present data that fill this gap. The study was performed in the terminal lake Nam Co, the biggest lake on the central Tibetan Plateau and its catchment. Water of the main tributaries to the lake, lake water at three different stations and from different water depths, bulk carbonate collected from different water depths with sediment traps and shells of living ostracods were collected for one year at lake Nam Co in approx. monthly intervals and analyzed for their δ18O values. The inflowing river waters mainly reflect the precipitation and show regional as well as seasonal variations depending on their location and on Monsoon or Westerly season but are in general on the global meteoric waterline. The lake water shows only minor vertical and spatial variations and is clearly off the meteoric waterline due to strong evaporation effects in this terminal lake. δ18O values of the bulk carbonate of sediment collected in sediment traps show only minor vertical and spatial variations during the year and the δ18O offset compared to the lake water is with around 1 ‰ quite small. Most probably this is attributed to chemical fractionation during formation of monohydrocalcite in the water column. In contrast δ18O values of ostracod shells are significant heavier than the lake water indicating isotopic fractionation (vital effect) during shell formation. In addition a seasonal variability is visible. The data of this proxy calibration study give now for the first time the opportunity to validate δ18O proxy data measured on core material from Lake Nam Co for their palaeoclimatic significance.

  17. Preserving city color plan, surveying Iranian submontane cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preserving city color plan, surveying Iranian submontane cities

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available No Considering color pallet of the buildings of every city, arouse a debate related to identity and aesthetics of urban environment. This debate is succeeded by researches about the color of cities, from limited hues of traditional city to numerous colors of modern city. The French Lenclos was the first one who after dedicating many years to the color subject, innovated a method of surveying color of cities; which is used by anyone who is researching in this field. This article after mentioning Lenclos’ method of surveying color plan of cities, represents author’s case study in color pallet of Fuman. Author’s method in this case study is a combination of digital photography and photo shop software along with Lenclos’ method. Results (shown in a bar chart confirm that although traditional color pallet of the city is still dominant, but it has some differences with citizens’ opinion achieved by interviews and questionnaires.

  18. Bui Tran Phuong, Viêt Nam 1918-1945, genre et modernité : Émergence de nouvelles perceptions et expérimentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Tran Phuong

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Pourquoi ce sujet ?D’abord pour combler un vide. Si l’on ne considère que l’historiographie vietnamienne, ce dont dispose le public vietnamien dans le pays, malgré une abondance apparente à un certain moment, l’histoire contemporaine reste déplorablement pauvre sur le plan cognitif. Elle renseigne peu sur les hommes (et encore moins sur les femmes en société, dans l’espace et dans le temps. Dans la recherche internationale sur le Viêt Nam, jusqu’à très récemment les femmes ne figuraient pas ...

  19. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

    of a research project  mapping the different approaches to urban transformation and experience design, to the level of strategic thinking and planning, and to the content of the programs implemented. Special emphasis is put on on projects combining experience, leisure and learning, and on projects which have...... concepts and framings that will guide the understanding and the analysis of the experience city. In section three we focus on the design of the Danish experience city and present the first findings of the research project The projects are categorised according to their content, structure and urban...... localisation. In particular the cases are represented in relation to their strategic and urban planning importance, their social and cultural content and their architectural representation and the programmes they contain. The article ends with a short discussion of some  of these preliminary findings as well...

  20. City under the Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    military conflicts are taking place. Studying the wealth of public representations of Camp Century, established 1959-60 by the US Army 128 miles east of the Thule Air Base and often referred to as the “City under the Ice”, we find a sharp contrast between the domesticated interior and the superpower...... conflict that gave impetus to the camp’s construction. Presented to the public as a scientific station and a technologically-advanced, under-ice extension of the American way of life, while situated in the titanic struggle between West and East, Camp Century took on a number of closed-world meanings....... However, the military logic of Camp Century was self-referential and closed in the sense that the very idea of constructing the city under ice emerged from Cold War strategy. The closed world of Camp Century established a temporary boundary between, on the one hand, the comfortable space controlled by US...

  1. Building the Bicycle City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Tokyo - Upcoming City of Cyclists Japan is often hit by natural disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, tsunamis and heavy rain- and snowfall. Earthquakes often causes break downs in electricity and communication lines and makes public transportation come to a halt. Stations are shut down...... and passengers stranded. This was the case in many Japanese cities after the fatal earthquake hit the country on March 11th2011. But more and more people are choosing to cycle to work. Should an earthquake hit Japan again (it will) and thousands being unable to go home by car or public transportations, cyclists...... will most likely be able to ride home. After the March 11th earthquake The Japan Cycling Association (JCA) has said that the number of cyclist in Tokyo might be five times as high today as it was before March 2011. But the worry is the safety of the new cyclists. Government statistics in 2010, showed...

  2. Tackling Cities' Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The world will continue to rely on scientists and technicians to tackle looming challenges in climate,medicine and transportation.A forum addressing science and technological innovations and the future of urbanization was held in Wuxi City in east China's Jiangsu Province on June 21-22,where scientists and government officials the world over discussed these three main issues.Edited excerpts follow:

  3. City of open works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riesto, Svava; Søberg, Martin; Braae, Ellen Marie

    2012-01-01

    Cities change – and so do the tasks and agendas of landscapes architects. New types of urban schemes are increasingly arising. On the one hand, new sorts of commissions have emerged in recent years – on the other hand, traditional commissions have been interpreted in radically new ways. These con......-geneous design method. But what actually characterizes this new design method? We have pointed out five specific strategies...

  4. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRAKTISTAN 2011 og udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY på Utzon Centeret i Aalborg vil vi derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at der i Urban design fagligheden er et potentiale. Både for de der bruger byen og for dem der udøver arkitekturen med en stærk urban intention i det skala...

  5. Coworking in the city

    OpenAIRE

    Merkel, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the financial and economic crisis of 2007 and 2008, a new type of collaboratively oriented workplace has emerged in cities. These coworking spaces and the associated practice of coworking exemplify new ways of organising labour in project-based and largely freelance occupations as found in the cultural and creative industries. But coworking spaces are not just flexible shared office spaces for creative professionals ‘working alone together’ (Spinuzzi, 2012). Coworking prom...

  6. Living in Living Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and overview of current and potential applications of living technology to urban problems. Living technology can be described as technology that exhibits the core features of living systems. These features can be useful to solve dynamic problems. In particular, urban problems concerning mobility, logistics, telecommunications, governance, safety, sustainability, and society and culture are presented, while solutions involving living technology are reviewed. Finally, the usefulness of describing cities as living systems is discussed.

  7. Practicing the Generic (City)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2010-01-01

    Flanagan proposes that most locative media artworks neglect the particularities of spaces, their historical and political layers. Koolhaas, on the other hand, states that all urban areas are alike, that we are facing a global Generic City. The paper analyses digital media artist Esther Polak......’s NomadicMILK project in light of the generic and particular properties of space as laid out by Flanagan and Koolhaas in order to discuss the possible reconfiguring practices of locative media....

  8. Towards what kind of city?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Coletta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The virtual city exists in “time” whereas the real city exists in “space”. The first one is an expression of our imagination, the second one of our ability to create. Time has articulated the images of cities as artisan philosophers, historians, artists, dreamers and even poets have given it to us. Space has generated cities which have been worked upon by geographers, geologists, surveyors, and finally urban planners. Space and time however live together in both cities, even if with alternating states of subordination. The culture of thinking, of decision making and of working is the unifying center of both the cities; it is the generating element both of the crises and the prosperity of the cities and it works towards an overcoming of the first and for the pursuit of the second (prosperity using the experience of the past for the making of a better future.

  9. Spectroscopic Properties of Novel Aromatic Metal Clusters: NaM4 (M=Al, Ga, In) and their Cations and Anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, K; Zhao, C

    2004-03-17

    The ground and several excited states of metal aromatic clusters, namely NaM4 and NaM{sub 4}{sup {+-}} (M=Al, Ga, In) clusters have been investigated by employing complete activespace self-consistent-field (CASSCF) followed by Multi-reference singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) computations that included up to 10 million configurations and other methods. The ground states NaM{sub 4}{sup -} of aromatic anions are found to be symmetric C{sub 4v} ({sup 1}A{sub 1}) electronic states with ideal square pyramid geometries. While the ground state of NaIn4 is also predicted to be a symmetric C{sub 4v} ({sup 2}A{sub 1}) square pyramid, the ground state of the NaAl4 cluster is found to have a C{sub 2v} ({sup 2}A{sub 1}) pyramid with a rhombus base and the ground state of NaGa{sub 4} possesses a C{sub 2v} ({sup 2}A{sub 1}) pyramid with a rectangle base. In general these structures exhibit 2 competing geometries, viz., an ideal C{sub 4v} structure and a distorted rhomboidal or rectangular pyramid structure (C{sub 2v}). All of the ground states of the NaM{sub 4}{sup +} (M= Al, Ga, In) cations are computed to be C{sub 2v} ({sup 3}A{sub 2}) pyramids with rhombus bases. The equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies, dissociation energies, adiabatic ionization potentials, adiabatic electron affinities for the electronic states of NaM{sub 4} (M=Al, Ga, In) and their ions are computed and compared with experimental results and other theoretical calculations. On the basis of our computed excited states energy separations, we have tentatively suggested assignments to the observed X and A states in the anion photoelectron spectra of Al{sub 4}Na{sup -} reported by Li et al. The X state can be assigned to a C{sub 2v} ({sup 2}A{sub 1}) rhomboidal pyramid. The A state observed in the anion spectrum is assigned to the first excited state ({sup 2}B{sub 1}) of the neutral NaAl{sub 4} with the C{sub 4v} symmetry. The assignments of the excited states are consistent with

  10. Monsoon variability for the past 4 ka derived from high-resolution analyses of sediments from lake Nam Co, central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, T.; Haberzettl, T.; Doberschütz, S.; Daut, G.; Mäusbacher, R.; Wang, J.; Zhu, L.; Wennrich, V.

    2010-12-01

    The presented project aims to reconstruct processes within lake Nam Co (central Tibetan Plateau; 4718 m a.s.l.), its environment and climatic conditions. By using a multi-proxy approach for this study we present high resolution data covering the past 4 ka. During a field campaign in September 2008 five gravity cores (68 cm to 115 cm length) were recovered in addition to one piston core with a total length of 11 m (water depth: 93 m). This study focuses on data from sediments of two gravity cores (NC08/01 Pilot 3 & Pilot 4). A wide spectrum of sedimentological, geochemical and mineralogical investigations was carried out. Results are presented for XRD measurements, XRF-core scans, grain size analysis and SEM-image analyses. Data are completed by an age-depth model using 210Pb and 137Cs analyses as well as eleven AMS 14C-ages. In addition this model is supported by excellent agreement between secular variations detected in one of the cores to geomagnetic field models. This is a significant improvement of the chronology as the catchments of most lacustrine systems on the plateau contain carbonates resulting in a carbon reservoir effect for radiocarbon dates. By the comparison of our record with the geomagnetic field models we assure that there is no change in this effect through time. Sediments exhibit homogeneous color and only minor variations regarding grain size distribution. According to the XRD measurements the main minerogenic components of the sediment, such as quartz, calcite, feldspars (albite & orthoclase) and muscovite show only minor fluctuations. In addition the presence of monohydrocalcite (CaCO3×H2O) (MHC), was proven by both XRD-measurements and SEM imaging. The presence of this metastable phase of CaCO3 is meant to be an indicator for intervals of cold climate or for evaporative settings (Li et al. 2008). Results of the high-resolution XRF-core scan (0.2 cm interval) show clear variability. After removing elements with too low counts 8 element scans

  11. Reducing the basin vulnerability by land management practices under past and future climate: a case study of the Nam Ou River Basin, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maharjan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluates different land management practices for the Nam Ou River Basin in Northern Laos for reducing vulnerability of the basin due to erosion and sediment yield under existing and future climate conditions. We use climate projection data (precipitation and temperature from three general circulation models (GCMs for three greenhouse gas emission scenarios (GHGES, namely B1, A1B and A2 and three future periods, namely 2011–2030, 2046–2065 and 2080–2099. These large resolution GCM data are downscaled using the Long Ashton Research Station-Weather Generator (LARS-WG. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, which is a process based hydrological model, is used to simulate discharge and sediment yield and a threshold value of annual sediment yield is applied to identify vulnerable sub-basins. Results show that the change in the annual precipitation is expected to be between −7.60 to 2.64% in 2011–2030, −8.98 to 11.85% in 2046–2065, and −11.04 to 25.84% in 2080–2099. In the meantime, the changes in mean monthly temperature vary from 0.3 to 1.3 °C in the 2011–2030, 1.3 to 2.9 °C in the 2046–2065 and 1.9 to 4.9 °C in the 2080–2099. Five sub-basins are identified vulnerable (critical under the current climate. Our results show that terracing is the most effective land management practice to reduce sediment yield in these sub-basins followed by strip-cropping and filter strip. Appropriate land management practices applied under future climate scenarios show significant reduction in sediment yield (i.e. up to the tolerance limit except for some sub-basins. In these exceptional sub-basins, designing an optimum combination of management practices is essential to reduce the vulnerability of the basin.

  12. Quantifying the impact of climate change on crop yield and water footprint of rice in the Nam Oon Irrigation Project, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sangam; Chapagain, Ranju; Babel, Mukand S

    2017-12-01

    Northeast Thailand makes a significant contribution to fragrant and high-quality rice consumed within Thailand and exported to other countries. The majority of rice is produced in rainfed conditions while irrigation water is supplied to rice growers in the dry season. This paper quantifies the potential impact of climate change on the water footprint of rice production using the DSSAT (CERES-Rice) crop growth model for the Nam Oon Irrigation Project located in Northeast Thailand. Crop phenology data was obtained from field experiments and used to set up and validate the CERES-Rice model. The present and future water footprint of rice, the amount of water evaporated during the growing period, was calculated under current and future climatic condition for the irrigation project area. The outputs of three regional climate models (ACCESS-CSIRO-CCAM, CNRM-CM5-CSIRO-CCAM, and MPI-ESM-LR-CSIRO-CCAM) for scenarios RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 were downscaled using quantile mapping method. Simulation results show a considerably high increase in the water footprint of KDML-105 and RD-6 rice varieties ranging from 56.5 to 92.2% and 27.5 to 29.7%. respectively for the future period under RCP 4.5, and 71.4 to 76.5% and 27.9 to 37.6%, respectively under RCP 8.5 relative to the simulated baseline water footprint for the period 1976-2005. Conversely, the ChaiNat-1 variety shows a decrease in projected water footprint of 42.1 to 39.4% under RCP 4.5 and 38.5 to 31.7% under RCP 8.5. The results also indicate a huge increase in the future blue water footprint, which will consequently cause a high increment in the irrigation water requirement in order to meet the plant's evaporation demand. The research outcome highlights the importance of proper adaptation strategies to reduce or maintain acceptable water footprints under future climate conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Playable cities the city as a digital playground

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the topic of playable cities, which use the ‘smartness’ of digital cities to offer their citizens playful events and activities. The contributions presented here examine various aspects of playable cities, including developments in pervasive and urban games, the use of urban data to design games and playful applications, architecture design and playability, and mischief and humor in playable cities. The smartness of digital cities can be found in the sensors and actuators that are embedded in their environment. This smartness allows them to monitor, anticipate and support our activities and increases the efficiency of the cities and our activities. These urban smart technologies can offer citizens playful interactions with streets, buildings, street furniture, traffic, public art and entertainment, large public displays and public events.

  14. Large cities are less green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Erneson A.; Andrade, José S.; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-02-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on CO2 emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between CO2 emissions and city population with average allometric exponent β = 1.46 across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Specifically, MSAs display isometric scaling emissions and we argue that this discrepancy is due to the overestimation of MSA areas. The results suggest that allometric studies based on administrative boundaries to define cities may suffer from endogeneity bias.

  15. Securing water for the cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, D

    1993-01-01

    Many cities in developing countries have grown so much that they can no longer provide adequate, sustainable water. Over pumping in Dakar and Mexico City has forced those cities to obtain water from ever more distant sources. In Dakar, the result has been saltwater intrusion. Overpumping has caused Mexico City to sink, in some areas by as much as 9 m, resulting in serious damage to buildings and sewage and drainage pipes. Other cities facing similar water problems are coastal cities in Peru (e.g., Lima), La Rioja and Catamarca in Argentina, cities in Northern Mexico, and cities in dry areas of Africa. For some cities, the problem is not so much ever more distant water supplies but insufficient funds to expand supplies. Bangkok and Jakarta both face saltwater intrusion into their overdrawn aquifers. Even through agriculture is the dominant user of water in most countries, demand concentrated in a small area exhausts local and regional sources and pollutes rivers, lakes, and coasts with untreated human and industrial waste. Most cities in Africa and Asia do not have a sewerage system. Further, most cities do not have the drains to deal with storm water and external floodwater, causing frequent, seasonal flooding. The resulting stagnant water provides breeding grounds for insect vectors of diseases (e.g., malaria). The problems in most cities are a result of poor management, not lack of water. Reducing leaks in existing piped distribution systems from the usual 60% loss of water to leaks to 12% would increase the available water 2-fold. Another way to address water shortages would be commercial, industrial, and recreational use of minimally treated waste water, such as is the case in Madras and Mexico City. Political solutions are needed to resolve inadequate water supply and waste management.

  16. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its

  17. Responsive City Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper presents and discusses perspectives extracted from two interviews conducted during the experiments Urban Responsive Lighting. The two experts embody two different fields related to city lighting: architecture & public lighting industry. The representatives were invited to the test......-site, where 15 LED RGB Park lamps, controlled driven by a wind sensor, mobile phone applications or by thermal camera tracking. According to the specialists are the social and aesthetical dimensions more interesting than the energy use cases and efficiency. This motivates an interdisciplinary discussion...

  18. Cities and Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Bruce; Noring, Luise; Garrelts, Nantke

    In the midst of a global refugee crisis, the influx of refugees into Europe presents unique challenges. The large scale of the migration, the extent of the human suffering driving it, and the political complexities of resolving it come on top of substantial existing strains on the European project...... institutions, it is municipalities across Europe in general and Germany in particular who are responsible for planning, delivering, and, in some cases, financing the housing, education, and full integration of new arrivals. “Cities and Refugees: The European Response” is a collaboration of the Brookings...

  19. Energy and the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Martinico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning should have a key role in creating urban environments that support less energy-intense lifestyles. A wise consideration of energy in urban land use policies should play an important role considering that, in spite of having a land occupation of 2% and accommodating 50% of the world population, cities produce 80% of GHG emissions and consume 80 % of the world’s resources.In the building industry, the green economy is already part of the designers’ approach. This has already produced several energy efficient buildings that also feature high architectural quality. Now is the turn of cities to take the same direction in developing the capacity of formulating sounded urban policies. This will contribute to develop adequate new tools for achieving the energy efficiency goal.Climate change concern, the dominating environmental paradigm, is permeating the political scenario worldwide, producing a plethora of formal documents. The most recent one is the COP21 agreed in Paris in December 2015, after the failure of the Copenhagen summit in 2009, and formally signed in April 2016 in New York. The challenge for land use planning now is to translate these general commitments into actions that modify planning practices at all levels, from cities to regions.In this field, the current situation is extremely varied. EU has issued several documents focussed mainly at building level but also sustainable transports are considered a key issue. However, a further step is needed in order to increase the level of integration among all land use approaches, including the idea of green infrastructure as a key component of any human settlement. (European Commission, 2013. The relationship between urbanisation and climate change has become key worldwide but looking at it from a Mediterranean perspective arises some specificities, considering also the political strain that this part of the world is facing. Both Southern Europe and Middle East and North

  20. Experience City.DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    I de seneste 20 år er der foretaget meget store investeringer i kulturhuse, museer og koncertsale. Mange nye spillesteder og "performancehuse" er dukket op, og som noget nyt sker der en samlokalisering af forskellige kunstarter med cafemiljøer, uddannelsesmiljøer, bibliotekter og virksomheder med...... bydele omtales som "oplevelsesbyen". Den kulturelle podning stiller krav til de fysiske omgivelser, til arkitekturen og til design af byrum. Experience City.DK undersøger betingelser for og konsekvenser af nye hybride kulturprojekter og performative byrum i danske byer....

  1. Visions of the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    hopes and dreams of modern urbanism. It also contests current claims about the 'end of utopia', arguing that reconsidering earlier projects can play a critical role in developing utopian perspectives today. Through the study of utopian visions, it aims to rekindle elements of utopianism itself.......Visions of the City is a dramatic account of utopian urbanism in the twentieth century. It explores radical demands for new spaces and ways of living, and considers their effects on planning, architecture and struggles to shape urban landscapes. Such visions, it shows, have played a crucial role...

  2. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2012-01-01

    findings. The projects are categorised according to their content, structure and urban localisation. In particular the cases are labelled in relation to their strategic and urban planning importance, their social and cultural content and their architectural representation and the programmes they contain...... to relate to the wider international debate and development. In section two we present the main theoretical concepts and framings that will guide the understanding and the analysis of the experience city. In section three we focus on the design of the ‘Danish experience city’ and present the first research...

  3. New city spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan; Gemzøe, Lars

    2001-01-01

    2. rev. udg. engelsk udgave af 'Nye byrum'. This book presents an overview of the developments in the use and planning of public spaces, and offers a detailed description of 9 cities with interesting public space strategies: Barcelona, Lyon, Strasbourg, Freiburg and Copenhagen in Europe, Portland...... in North America, Curitiba and Cordoba in South America and Melbourne in Australia. It also portrays 39 selected public space projects from all parts of the World. The strategies and projects are extensively illustrated by drawings, plans and photographs....

  4. City of Epitaphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Hicks

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The pavement lies like a ledger-stone on a tomb. Buried underneath are the remains of fertile landscapes and the life they once supported. Inscribed on its upper side are epitaphic writings. Whatever their ostensible purpose, memorial plaques and public artworks embedded in the pavement are ultimately expressions of civic bereavement and guilt. The pavement's role as both witness and accomplice to fatality is confirmed by private individuals who publicize their grief with death notices graffitied on the asphalt. To walk the city is to engage in a dialogue about death.

  5. Beijing-Entertainment City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With 3,000 years of history and over 18 million people,Beijing is a city that has moved with the times.Behind the brand new malls,futuristic buildings and vibrant nightlife,one can still feel the pulse of China’s ancient culture.Here are a few options to discover Beijing’s rich and vibrant entertainment scene. Traditional Beijing Peking Opera is the most famous of all Chinese opera and certainly the quintessential traditional Chinese culture.It combines music,vocal per-

  6. Beyond the City Limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hairong

    2012-01-01

    While most fresh university graduates in China aim to find jobs in the cities,more and more welleducated young people are starting to look for career opportunities in rural areas.Cheng Guangjing is one of those who have chosen to work as a village official.In 2009 he began working in Dongzhuang Village,Lankao County in central China's Henan Province.On November 24,2011,the villagers unanimously elected him secretary of the Dongzhuang Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC).

  7. City project and public space

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The book aims at nurturing theoretic reflection on the city and the territory and working out and applying methods and techniques for improving our physical and social landscapes. The main issue is developed around the projectual dimension, with the objective of visualising both the city and the territory from a particular viewpoint, which singles out the territorial dimension as the city’s space of communication and negotiation. Issues that characterise the dynamics of city development will be faced, such as the new, fresh relations between urban societies and physical space, the right to the city, urban equity, the project for the physical city as a means to reveal civitas, signs of new social cohesiveness, the sense of contemporary public space and the sustainability of urban development. Authors have been invited to explore topics that feature a pluralism of disciplinary contributions studying formal and informal practices on the project for the city and seeking conceptual and operative categories capab...

  8. The Carbon City Index (CCI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Straatman, Bas; Mangalagiu, Diana

    This paper presents a consumption-based Carbon City Index for CO2 emissions in a city. The index is derived from regional consumption and not from regional production. It includes imports and exports of emissions, factual emission developments, green investments as well as low carbon city...... development policies and stakeholder engagement. The index is based on a multi-region input-output model used in most parts of the world for more than half a century. We demonstrate the index through comparative case studies of three Danish regions: a rural region with a city center, the municipality...... of Sønderborg, a mid-sized city region, the municipality of Odense, and a metropolitan area, the municipality of Copenhagen. We demonstrate how city initiatives implemented to reduce emissions are translated into easy to access input-output parameters changes and how the index transparently assesses...

  9. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: – Many city logistics projects in Europe have failed. A better understanding of the complex organizational change processes in city logistics projects with many stakeholders may expand city logistics capabilities and thereby help prevent future failures. The purpose of this paper...... is therefore to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge, and secondarily, to investigate whether such processes can be managed at all. Design/methodology/approach: – A paradigm shift in urban planning creates new ways of involving stakeholders in new sustainability measures such as city logistics....... Organizational change theory is applied to capture the social processes leading to emergence of city logistics. The methodology is a qualitative processual analysis of a single longitudinal case. Findings: – The change process took different forms over time. At the time of concluding the analysis, positive...

  10. Influence of exposure differences on city-to-city heterogeneity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-city population-based epidemiological studies have observed heterogeneity between city-specific fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-mortality effect estimates. These studies typically use ambient monitoring data as a surrogate for exposure leading to potential exposure misclassification. The level of exposure misclassification can differ by city affecting the observed health effect estimate. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate whether previously developed residential infiltration-based city clusters can explain city-to-city heterogeneity in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates. In a prior paper 94 cities were clustered based on residential infiltration factors (e.g. home age/size, prevalence of air conditioning (AC)), resulting in 5 clusters. For this analysis, the association between PM2.5 and all-cause mortality was first determined in 77 cities across the United States for 2001–2005. Next, a second stage analysis was conducted evaluating the influence of cluster assignment on heterogeneity in the risk estimates. Associations between a 2-day (lag 0–1 days) moving average of PM2.5 concentrations and non-accidental mortality were determined for each city. Estimated effects ranged from −3.2 to 5.1% with a pooled estimate of 0.33% (95% CI: 0.13, 0.53) increase in mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5. The second stage analysis determined that cluster assignment was marginally significant in explaining the city-to-city heterogeneity. The health effe

  11. Nam obeshtshajut peregrev / Kim Kosmatshov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kosmatshov, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Ajakirjas The Economist ilmunud artiklist, milles käsitletakse Eesti ja Läti majandusedu ning viidatakse võimalikele ohtudele tulevikus. Peamiseks probleemiks nimetatakse mõlema riigi puhul inflatsiooni kasvu

  12. K nam prijezzhajet "Tramvai "Zhelanije""...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    5.-7. juulini toimuvad Estonia teatris Moskva Mossoveti-nim. Teatri külalisetendused. Juri Jerjomini lavastus Tennessee Williamsi järgi "Tramm nimega Iha" : Blanche - Jevgenija Krjukova ja Stella - Jekaterina Gusseva,

  13. Nam obeshtshajut peregrev / Kim Kosmatshov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kosmatshov, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Ajakirjas The Economist ilmunud artiklist, milles käsitletakse Eesti ja Läti majandusedu ning viidatakse võimalikele ohtudele tulevikus. Peamiseks probleemiks nimetatakse mõlema riigi puhul inflatsiooni kasvu

  14. Ne nuzhen nam bereg Turetskii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli õppejõu Lembo Tanningu raamat "Armeenia probleem" ja Hollandi välisministri Bernard Rudolf Boti välisministeeriumi pressikeskuses peetud loeng "Estonia, the Netherlands and our common European Future" seonduvad mõlemad Türgiga

  15. Smart Cities Will Need Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru WOINAROSCHY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Chemical industry has a key role to play in the sustainable evolution of the smart cities. Additionally, chemistry is at the heart of all modern industries, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. Chemistry can make the smart cities project more sustainable, more energy efficient and more cost effective. There are six broad critical elements of any smart city: water management systems; infrastructure; transportation; energy; waste management and raw materials consumption. In all these elements chemistry and chemical engineering are deeply involved.

  16. Smart Cities and Sustainability Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In our age cities are complex systems and we can say systems of systems. Today locality is the result of using information and communication technologies in all departments of our life, but in future all cities must to use smart systems for improve quality of life and on the other hand for sustainable development. The smart systems make daily activities more easily, efficiently and represent a real support for sustainable city development. This paper analysis the sus-tainable development and identified the key elements of future smart cities.

  17. Large cities are less green

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, E A; Makse, H A

    2014-01-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on $\\rm{CO}_2$ emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between $\\rm{CO}_2$ emissions and city population with average allometric exponent $\\beta = 1.46$ across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropol...

  18. in Beirut City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. El Khoury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of nutritional supplements among exercisers in gyms has been never investigated in the Middle East. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence intake of nutritional supplements and the potential influencing factors among people exercising in gyms in Beirut city. In this cross-sectional study, 512 exercisers, aged between 20 and 50 years, were randomly selected from gyms. The intake of nutritional supplements was reported among 36.3% (95% confidence interval 32.2–40.5 of participants, with a weak presence of medical supervision. Patterns of supplement use differed by gender and age. Men and younger exercisers were found to focus on supplements associated with performance enhancement and muscle building, while women and older exercisers were more concerned with health-promoting products such as vitamins, minerals, and herbal supplements. An appropriate dissemination of accurate and scientifically sound information regarding the benefits and side effects of nutritional supplements is highly recommended in the sports environment in Beirut city.

  19. Inner-city station areas in Chinese cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.

    2014-01-01

    Redevelopments of Chinese inner-­‐city station areas introduced both new transport infrastructures (high speed railway, urban mass transit system, etc.) and real estate projects to station vicinities during the past decades. However, existing station areas are isolated from the rest of the city, and

  20. Smart cities of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  1. Luoyang Dual Spatial Criterion Ecological City Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fazeng; Wang Shengnan

    2007-01-01

    The construction of an ecological city has two foundational platforms:the small platform,namely urban district or simply called as"city ecosystem";and the big platform,namely around city district in certain region scope or also referred to as"city-region ecosystem".The construction of an ecological city must be launched in the dual spatial criteria:in city(urban district)criterion-optimizing the city ecosystem;in city-region(city territory)criterion-optimizing the city-region ecosystem.Luoyang has the bright characteristic and the typical image within cities of China,and even in the world.The construction of anecological city in dual spatial criteria-the city and the city-region-has the vital significance to urbanization advancement and sustainable development in Luoyang.In city-region criterion,the primary mission of Luoyang's ecological city construction is to create a fine ecological environment platform in its city territory.In city criterion,the basic duty of Luoyang's ecologic city construction is to enhance the ecological capacity and benefit of the central city.

  2. Climate friendly cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julian, Roberto C.; Larona, Ferdinand P. [Green Renewable Independent Power Producers, Manila (Philippines)

    2006-07-15

    The provincial government of Negros Occidental, together with GRIPP (Green Renewable Independent Power Producers), has succeeded in securing for itself a clean energy future. Beginning with a campaign by a few NGOs, notably Greenpeace, and civil society groups against the construction of a coal-fired power plant, a coordinated plan, built on the needs of the local communities, has been developed to supply the energy needs of the province solely from renewable resources, as well as, to ensure the efficient use of energy from all sources. This project expands the plan beyond traditional renewable resources and electricity. It uses a low carbon approach to providing sufficient energy for continued urban development while mitigating the environmental problems that normally attend economic growth in the cities, specifically, air pollution from mass transport and solid waste. The project is based on an integrated facility for generating electricity for transport from organic waste. Its components are: a) a fleet of 35 jeepneys, each with a capacity of twenty passengers, b) a depot that will serve as charging station and maintenance center for the fleet, as well as, project information center and c) a power plant consisting of a generator, a high solid anaerobic digester and a 40 KW wind farm. The project cost, net of the cost of land, is Philippine Peso Sixty Nine Million, roughly the equivalent of Euro One Million. The City government may share in the total cost by way of nominal long-term leases on the land for the project sites. The bulk of the power will be supplied by biogas from a High Solid Anaerobic Digester that will biologically break down organic waste from the wet markets and commercial food establishments in downtown Bacolod. The process is relatively straightforward. First, both the wet market and commercial food waste streams will be thoroughly cleaned of all inert material such as metals and plastics by scavengers. The need for, as well as, the cost of

  3. City under the Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    military conflicts are taking place. Studying the wealth of public representations of Camp Century, established 1959-60 by the US Army 128 miles east of the Thule Air Base and often referred to as the “City under the Ice”, we find a sharp contrast between the domesticated interior and the superpower......This paper uses Paul Edwards’ closed world metaphor to understand US involvement in Greenland during the Cold War. Closed worlds mark military-techno-scientific geographies of conflict: They refer to sealed techno-spaces of observation, containment, and control, but also to the settings in which......: The public image of Camp Century was one of technological comfort and military-scientific control. Amidst the raging Cold War and up against the harsh environment, the construction of the camp would prove to the public that the combined forces of the US military-technology-science complex would prevail...

  4. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2012-01-01

    This article take its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...... and cultural experience are emerging. The physical, cultural and democratic consequences of this development are discussed in the article, as well as the problems and the new opportunities in the ‘Experience city’. It focuses on the design of the ‘Danish Experience City’ with a special emphasis on hybrid...... cultural projects and on performative urban spaces. ‘Hybrid cultural projects’ are characterised by a conscious fusion between urban transformation and new knowledge centres, cultural institutions and experience environments. ‘Performative urban spaces” are characterised by stages for performance...

  5. Founding the sustainable city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Darko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development encompasses both ecologically and socio-culturally responsible and responsive practices. In urban design and architecture the results of cutting-edge research have to be tested on real projects. Issue of appropriate design-research methodologies thus becomes key to integration of usually separated disciplines of research (as 'analytical' or 'scientific' and design (as 'creative'. The paper presents a project for the new city based on ideas of sustainable urban development. The focus is on key aspects of urban design proposal, applied design research methods and efforts to translate critical sustainability-related urbanistic regulations and guidelines into responsible, high-quality architecture. The key issues are discussed throughout the paper and some open-ended conclusions put forward for further development.

  6. Archaeoastronomy and Calendar Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    The use of astronomy for collective purposes, both religious and political, is apparent in the earliest astronomical records, from the evidence for Palaeolithic lunar calendars to megalithic monuments and Mesopotamian celestial-omen reports. This paper will consider the application of the heavens to the organisation of the ‘Cosmic State’, the human polity modelled on the assumption of a close relationship between society on the one hand and planetary and stellar patterns on the other. I will also examine the foundation of Baghdad within the tradition of celestial town planning and argue that the city may be seen as a ‘talisman’, designed to connect heaven to Earth and ensure peace, stability and political success by harmonising time and space.

  7. Transformation of a City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenessa L. Williams

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gentrification changes the landscape and the cultural makeup of a city by increasing property values and changing consumption patterns. Since the late 1980s, gentrification has challenged the residential and small business community of Harlem, New York. Guided by the rent gap theory and the consumption-side theory, the purpose of this case study was to explore how small business leaders can compete with demographical changes brought by gentrification. A purposive sample of 20 Harlem small business owners operating during the city’s gentrification participated in interviews. Interview interpretations were triangulated with government documents and periodicals to bolster the trustworthiness of the final report. These findings may contribute to positive social change by informing the strategies employed by small business owners who are currently facing gentrification.

  8. Innovation in City Governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny M; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans

    Innovation has become an important focus for governments around the world over the last decade, with greater pressure on governments to do more with less, and expanding community expectations. Some are now calling this ‘social innovation’ – innovation that is related to creating new services...... that have value for stakeholders (such as citizens) in terms of the social and political outcomes they produce. Innovation in City Governments: Structures, Networks, and Leadership establishes an analytical framework of innovation capacity based on three dimensions: Structure - national governance...... and traditions, the local socioeconomic context, and the municipal structure Networks – interpersonal connections inside and outside the organization Leadership – the qualities and capabilities of senior individuals within the organization. Each of these are analysed using data from a comparative EU research...

  9. Gesamtkunstwerk Metelkova City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Nabergoj

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For the last twenty years the protagonists of the ACC Metelkova City have been transforming its public space and the façades of the buildings by architectural, constructional, artistic and handcraft interventions, thus creating a unique kind of gesamtkunstwerk. The article focuses on the key points of the construction process and its contextualization in a broader historical, social, political and cultural context, thus aiming to define the constitutive elements of artistic practices and procedures of setting up the Metelkova artists’ community. The article highlights the necessity to perceive the entire area as a work-in-progress, with individual segments sometimes disappearing or gradually overlapping with other interventions, and with a number of elements that from the very beginning were meant to be only temporary. This principle, in contrast to the traditional understanding of cultural heritage preservation, appears to be crucial.

  10. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates t

  11. Educating Cities in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of…

  12. Dubai: a City of Hope?

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Abirafeh

    2007-01-01

    The City of Hope is an organisation offering refuge for abused women in Dubai, the largest city of the United Arab Emirates. Dubai has started to acknowledge the social problems accompanying its phenomenal economic growth but is it doing enough to tackle the scourge of human trafficking?

  13. Malmo: A city in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Tessa Kate

    2014-01-01

    . From 1840 to the mid-1970s, Malmo’s growth continued to flourish. Like many Swedish cities, the manufacturing recession of the mid-1970s bought unemployment and population decline. Malmo transitioned from a manufacturing hub into a knowledge city with a strong focus on sustainable planning. Malmo has...

  14. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates

  15. New York City: Musically Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    New York City as a subject has fascinated generations of artists, writers, and musicians. However, the glamorous image of the city has changed over the years, and in the 1960s, popular music, in particular, began to reflect a utopia/dystopia dichotomy in relation to New York. During the past twenty years, six popular singer-songwriters who have…

  16. Educating Cities in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of…

  17. Climate Proof Cities : Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, V.; Bosch, Peter; Albers, Ronald; Spit, Tejo

    2014-01-01

    All cities in the Netherlands, large and small, are vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The degree of vulnerability varies considerably within urban areas. This means that making cities more climate proof can be done most efficiently by taking many relatively small and local measures. Many

  18. Cities as nuclei of sustainability?

    CERN Document Server

    Rybski, Diego; Reusser, Dominik E; Fichtner, Christina; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing CO2 emission inventories of 256 cities from 33 countries we find power-law correlations between the emissions and city size, measured in population. The results suggest that in developing countries more CO2 per capita is emitted in large cities, i.e. they tend to exhibit super-linear correlations and doubling the population of any city implies up to 110% increase of emissions. For developed countries the results suggest the opposite, i.e. linear or sub-linear correlations, implying better efficiency of large cities, doubling the population of any city implies only 80% increase of emissions. The transition occurs at approx. 10,000GDP/cap. We derive how the total emissions of an entire country relate with the power-law correlations and find that the size of the most populated city is dominating in the case of linear and super-linear correlations. The size of the largest city has no influence in the case of sub-linear correlations. We conclude that from the climate change mitigation point of view, urba...

  19. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates t

  20. Dubai: a City of Hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Abirafeh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The City of Hope is an organisation offering refuge for abused women in Dubai, the largest city of the United Arab Emirates. Dubai has started to acknowledge the social problems accompanying its phenomenal economic growth but is it doing enough to tackle the scourge of human trafficking?

  1. Modern Experience in City Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    reinforce the West Wall in the Aachen sector. A rapid thrust bypassing the city was no longer possible. Aachen, as the ancient capital of Charlemagne , had...old capital of the Vietnamese emperors and its most nota- ble feature was the walled citadel, or old city, lying north of the Perfume River. The

  2. Educating cities in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-09-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate how this proposal was adopted in Latin America. After discussing the basic aims of educating cities, the paper focuses on the Latin American experience, giving examples of existing projects within the educating cities initiative. The authors are particularly interested in the contrast between the political intentions of educating cities on the one hand and the social, economic, political and cultural world on the other hand. They observe that in this context there is a danger of the individual being forgotten, which contradicts the actual intention of the educating city concept. They also discuss the problem of who should carry out the realisation of educating cities and how the various stakeholders might coordinate their actions. Contemplating new directions at the end of their paper, the authors sum up a number of guidelines and offer recommendations for action in developing educating cities.

  3. Biometeorology for cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondula, David M.; Balling, Robert C.; Andrade, Riley; Scott Krayenhoff, E.; Middel, Ariane; Urban, Aleš; Georgescu, Matei; Sailor, David J.

    2017-09-01

    Improvements in global sustainability, health, and equity will largely be determined by the extent to which cities are able to become more efficient, hospitable, and productive places. The development and evolution of urban areas has a significant impact on local and regional weather and climate, which subsequently affect people and other organisms that live in and near cities. Biometeorologists, researchers who study the impact of weather and climate on living creatures, are well positioned to help evaluate and anticipate the consequences of urbanization on the biosphere. Motivated by the 60th anniversary of the International Society of Biometeorology, we reviewed articles published in the Society's International Journal of Biometeorology over the period 1974-2017 to understand if and how biometeorologists have directed attention to urban areas. We found that interest in urban areas has rapidly accelerated; urban-oriented articles accounted for more than 20% of all articles published in the journal in the most recent decade. Urban-focused articles in the journal span five themes: measuring urban climate, theoretical foundations and models, human thermal comfort, human morbidity and mortality, and ecosystem impacts. Within these themes, articles published in the journal represent a sizeable share of the total academic literature. More explicit attention from urban biometeorologists publishing in the journal to low- and middle-income countries, indoor environments, animals, and the impacts of climate change on human health would help ensure that the distinctive perspectives of biometeorology reach the places, people, and processes that are the foci of global sustainability, health, and equity goals.

  4. The Right to the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Lefebvre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a new proposition of thinking about such categoriesas a city, the urban, urban strategy and social practices connected with analyticalscience of the city, which is only at the outline stage, but also projected by Lefebvrehimself. This turn seems necessary due to the death of traditional city and oldhumanism. The article is also a passionate and utopian (in positive sense of termmanifesto for democratization of right to the city consisting of cry and demand ofthe dispossessed from such a prerogative. The author argues that an urban strategybased on a new science of the city needs social support and political force. They willbe provided by the working class, putting an end to the urban segregation.

  5. Human diffusion and city influence

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J

    2015-01-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and hierarchy in terms of influence at local, regional or global scales naturally emerges. Traditionally, there have been important efforts to describe this hierarchy by indirect measures such the sharing of company headquarters, traffic by air, train or boats or economical exchanges. In this work, we take a different approach and introduce a method that uses geolocated Twitter information to quantify the impact of cities on rural or other urban areas. Since geolocated tweets are becoming a global phenomenon, the method can be applied at a world-wide scale. We focus on $58$ cities and analyze the mobility patterns of people after visiting them for the first time. Cities such as Rome and Paris appear consistently as those with largest area covered by Twitter users after their visit and as those attracting visitors most diverse in origin. The study is also performed discerning users mobility b...

  6. Sustainability in South Asian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City brings about the most complex interplay of social, cultural, and political dimensions of space. It will have to accommodate around one billion humans only in South Asia by the year 2030. Therefore it needs to be prepared to absorb huge increases in urban population and resulting pressure on basic infrastructure and livelihood opportunities. In order to secure a better future and to improve the quality of life of all the citizens, city needs to be reinvented, by incorporating creativity and innovation with the approaches, we use in its planning. Here we present an overview of the progress, challenges and some key interventions to reinvent the city in South Asian region as well as in the developing world, with the examples of the most populous countries in the region: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Planning transforms geometric space in city into lived space. City planning in South Asia is as old as the human settlement itself, but the current situation is well below the level to be admired. Most of the city plans have been faulty with poor economic base and implementability, and fostered unintended city within the city, whose growth rate shadows the growth rate of the city itself. City in the developing world desperately needs to follow a sustainable development pattern which satisfies the requirement for equity; meets basic human needs; allows social and ethnic self-determination; promotes environmental awareness, integrity and inter-linkages between various living beings across time and space. It requires a combination of strategic policy making, supported by a system that combines personal opinion with scientific knowledge. It needs to reset the basis for the articulation of the initiatives of all relevant stakeholders to seek synergies for its development.

  7. 2015 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  8. 2016 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  9. Movilidad y uso del espacio: análisis demográfico de latrayectoria selk´nam ante la colonización. Tierradel Fuego, Argentina, 1890-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Casali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analiza la movilidad de la etnia selk´namen función del uso del espacio y el aprovisionamiento de recursos, a partir de las alteraciones generadas por el proceso decolonización. Se plantea una aproximación desde la perspectiva demográfica, el escrutinio de diversas fuentes congruentes, como censos, actas de los registros civiles y parroquiales, al tiempo que otros documentos oficiales. Se proponeuna vía más para la reconstrucción de la trayectoria selk´nam en cuanto a los mecanismos desobrevivencia y se deja esbozada la relación entre estatrayectoria y el rol del mestizaje biológico.

  10. French Policies towards the Chinese in Vietnam Les politiques françaises envers les Chinois du Viêt Nam : études des migrations et des réponses du colonisateur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramses Amer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the patterns of Chinese migration to and from Vietnam as well as the demographic changes relating to the Chinese residing in the country. It also outlines how the French authorities responded to the arrival of the Chinese and how they treated them. The focus is on the period of French control over the whole of Vietnam from 1883 to 1954. The French authorities did pay considerable attention to the Chinese migration to Vietnam. The policies of the French aimed at keeping a close surveillance on the Chinese. To administer the Chinese communities the French opted to maintain the system of indirect control introduced by the Vietnamese Emperors. During the period of French rule the Chinese population grew considerably. Chinese migration to and from Vietnam was influenced by the political evolution in China and by repercussions of international economic developments. Thus, the French authorities could influence the migrants when they arrived or departed, but the decision to migrate was primarily due to other factors.Cette étude examine les modèles de la migration chinoise à destination et en provenance du Viêt Nam de même que les changements démographiques concernant les Chinois résidant dans le pays. Elle précise également les réponses des autorités françaises à l’arrivée des Chinois et le traitement qui leur était réservé. Elle traite tout spécialement la période du contrôle français sur le Viêt Nam de 1883 à 1954. Car les autorités françaises ont porté un intérêt considérable à la migration des Chinois au Viêt Nam. La politique française consistait à surveiller de près les Chinois. Pour l’administration des communautés chinoises les Français ont choisi de conserver le système de contrôle indirect mis en place par les empereurs vietnamiens. La population chinoise connut une croissance considérable pendant la période française. La migration vers et depuis le Viêt Nam était influenc

  11. The Lake and the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers relations between the city of Irkutsk and Lake Baikal in terms of cultural geography. Baikal is included in the UNESCO world heritage list. Unlike the majority of lakes also included in this list, Baikal’s coast is inhabited, especially its southern part. Similar situation is, for example, in the cluster “the city of Bergen – Geiranger village – Geirangerfjord” in Norway. The comparative analysis shows how Norway’s positive experience of the system “a city – a village – a natural phenomenon” could be used in order to make Irkutsk more attractive for tourists and citizens.

  12. Small City With Big Ambitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2004-01-01

    Yiwu is a county-level city in the central part of Zhejiang Province with no obvious geographical advantage or traditional industrial foundation. And yet it has dazzled the country with its sizzling economic figures. The city posted an annual growth of 16 percent in GDP in 2003 on 15.6bn yuan {US$1.9 billion)from the previous year. Its average annual GDP increase from 1978 to 1999 reached 18.5 percent. Exports from Yiwu were valued at US$734 million last year, compared with US$390m for 2002. So what is it about Yiwu that has molded the city into such handsome shape?

  13. Cities Changing Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    The Rule of Halves (RoH), stating that half of those with diabetes are diagnosed, half of those diagnosed receive care, half of those receiving care achieve treatment targets, and finally that half of those achieving targets also achieve desired outcomes, has not previously been assessed for diab......The Rule of Halves (RoH), stating that half of those with diabetes are diagnosed, half of those diagnosed receive care, half of those receiving care achieve treatment targets, and finally that half of those achieving targets also achieve desired outcomes, has not previously been assessed...... for diabetes in Copenhagen. As part of the quantitative mapping phase of the Cities Changing Diabetes project in Copenhagen, a RoH analysis was conducted. The results of this analysis are summarized below. The figure shows that the ‘Halves’ rule does not generally apply for Copenhagen. On most of the levels......, Copenhagen is doing better than simple halves. For example, the results indicate that almost three quarters of the true diabetes population are diagnosed and that almost all of those diagnosed with diabetes receive some form of care. Although the analysis indicates that Copenhagen is doing better than...

  14. Cities Changing Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Clare Kristensen, Elisabeth; Malling, Gritt Marie Hviid

    The overall objectives of the Vulnerability Assessmentis to gain in-depth information on what attributes the most to vulnerability seen from the perspectives of vulnerable diabetes patients and citizens at risk. In Copenhagen, we focused on how everyday life influences the perceptions and experie......The overall objectives of the Vulnerability Assessmentis to gain in-depth information on what attributes the most to vulnerability seen from the perspectives of vulnerable diabetes patients and citizens at risk. In Copenhagen, we focused on how everyday life influences the perceptions...... and experiences of health risks and illness among fifty vulnerable patients and citizens at risk in the city. We aimed at investigating how the local environment and practices influence individual practices and behavior, and how the management of diabetes is influenced by social factors. Also, the analysis...... of diabetes or health issues in general. Vulnerability was closely associated with the Danish term “manglende overskud”, in English ‘lack of reserves of energy’. Due to a range of issues and worries in everyday life, such as comorbidity, unemployment, economic problems, major life events and loneliness...

  15. From city marketing to city branding: An interdisciplinary analysis with reference to Amsterdam, Budapest and Athens

    OpenAIRE

    Kavaratzis, M.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the theory and practice of city marketing. It describes the transition from city marketing to city branding by identifying the roots of city marketing in general marketing theory, by adapting the concept of corporate-level marketing for the needs of cities and by analysing in depth the components and processes involved in city branding. The thesis contends that city branding, if understood well and applied properly, is a powerful tool at the disposal of contemporary cit...

  16. City Walks and Tactile Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Diaconu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to develop categories of the pedestrian’s tactile and kinaesthetic experience of the city. The beginning emphasizes the haptic qualities of surfaces and textures, which can be “palpated” visually or experienced by walking. Also the lived city is three-dimensional; its corporeal depth is discussed here in relation to the invisible sewers, protuberant profiles, and the formal diversity of roofscapes. A central role is ascribed in the present analysis to the formal similarities between the representation of the city by walking through it and the representation of the tactile form of objects. Additional aspects of the “tactile” experience of the city in a broad sense concern the feeling of their rhythms and the exposure to weather conditions. Finally, several aspects of contingency converge in the visible age of architectural works, which record traces of individual and collective histories.

  17. Cities lead on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancost, Richard D.

    2016-04-01

    The need to mitigate climate change opens up a key role for cities. Bristol's year as a Green Capital led to great strides forward, but it also revealed that a creative and determined partnership across cultural divides will be necessary.

  18. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammons, Tom B. [Energy Conservation Specialist, Port Ewen, NY (United States)

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and

  19. Layout of Ancient Maya Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Although there is little doubt that the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica laid their cities out based, in part, on astronomical considerations, the proliferation of "cosmograms" in contemporary scholarly discourse has complicated matters for the acceptance of rigorous archaeoastronomical research.

  20. Reading the city through literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cruz Margueliche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at bring the gaze of literature closer to the city. This gaze is used to create a focus enabling a “reading” of the city from its “textuality”; that is to say, from its path, so that we can position ourselves within society’s “writing” in each spatial delimitation. In order to do this, we looked into the connection between literature and geography and we selected certain works and authors, which have looked at the city, nature and landscapes from a literary stance. We have found that both literature and authors can move away from the daily gaze and portray the other city - that which ends up fading in space overlapping, maelstrom and everyday life.

  1. Trees : relief for the city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, J.A.; Schoenmaker-van der Bijl, E.; Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Hoffman, M.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Mogelijkheden ter bestrijding van fijnstofThis brochure describes the underlying principles that form a basis for better-informed choices with regards to the management of trees and shrubs in cities and the design of functional planting schemes.

  2. Foreign Funds for City Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2005-01-01

    The rather straightforward restructuring of the Bank of Beijing became more arresting in January after Deutsche Bank was reported to be competing with its Dutch rival ING to purchase a stake in the local city commercial bank.

  3. CAUSES, JIMMA CITY, SOUTHWEST ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONCLUSION: There was an epidemic of dysentery in Jimma City from December 12 to 22, 2008 due to ..... Date of the onset of symptoms of the disease in suspected cases of dysentery who visited health facilities ..... dysentery and cholera.

  4. Qinadao:An Oceanic City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    BLUE sky and white clouds, an azure sea patterned with colorful sails, this view of Qingdao is little different from a seascape of either the Mediterranean or the Pacific Ocean. The exotic facade of this small city on the

  5. 1985 Mexico City, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 square km area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter....

  6. Seeking a Peaceful Settlement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China has indisputable sovereignty over the Nansha Archipelago and its neighboring seas. But some Southeast Asian nations-Viet Nam, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei--began to claim complete or part sovereignty over the Nansha Archipelago from the late 1960s and early 1970s, because international marine law underwent a revolu-tionary change.

  7. 75 FR 32533 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... on Certain Shrimp From Viet Nam AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... reviews conducted by the Department of Commerce on imports of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam... reviews, and sunset review conducted by the Department of Commerce on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...

  8. 75 FR 8177 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... on Certain Shrimp From Viet Nam AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... conducted by the Department of Commerce on imports of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam, referring in particular to the use of what it...

  9. Wave overtopping resistance of grassed dike slopes in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Luong, N.Q.; Verhagen, H.J.; Schiereck, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The resistance of various grassed slopes against wave overtopping has been appraised by means of the Wave Overtopping Simulator in situ for a couple of years in Viet Nam. Destructive test results show that a dike slope covered with grass could suffer a certain overtopping discharge not smaller than

  10. Wave overtopping simulator tests in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.; Van der Meer, J.M.; Schiereck, G.J.; Cat, V.M.; Van der Meer, G.

    2010-01-01

    Sea dikes in Viet Nam have been built up during a long history. Every year, about 4 to 6 storms attack the coast and cause severe damages of the sea dikes. Till now, little is known about strength and stability of the inner slope covered with grass under impacts of wave overtopping during storm

  11. Wave overtopping simulator tests in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.; Van der Meer, J.M.; Schiereck, G.J.; Cat, V.M.; Van der Meer, G.

    2010-01-01

    Sea dikes in Viet Nam have been built up during a long history. Every year, about 4 to 6 storms attack the coast and cause severe damages of the sea dikes. Till now, little is known about strength and stability of the inner slope covered with grass under impacts of wave overtopping during storm surg

  12. Wave overtopping resistance of grassed dike slopes in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Luong, N.Q.; Verhagen, H.J.; Schiereck, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The resistance of various grassed slopes against wave overtopping has been appraised by means of the Wave Overtopping Simulator in situ for a couple of years in Viet Nam. Destructive test results show that a dike slope covered with grass could suffer a certain overtopping discharge not smaller than

  13. Economics in Asia: Status Reports on Teaching and Research in Nine Countries. RUSHSAP Series on Occasional Monographs and Papers, 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This book contains reports on the teaching of and research in economics in nine countries: India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Each report covers the historical development and growth of the discipline in the country; the development of infra-structures for teaching and…

  14. Aircrew Compliance with Standard Operating Procedures as a Component of Airline Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Pilot A-37B, Bien Hoa Air Base, Republic of Viet Nam 1970-1972 ........... .. Pilot, C-141A, McGuire Air Force Base, New Jersey 1973-1974...experlmentum personae were not uniform for all eighteen simulator runs, it has become necessary to eliminate some trials from the current investigation. Ten

  15. Training Methods and Tactical Decision-Making Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    leader in and outside the military context. In a 1981 study examining leadership styles of military officers in Viet Nam, Gabriel and Savage assert...6. Marine Corps Tactical Systems Support Activity (Attn: Operations Officer) Camp Pendleton, California 7. Kara Harp Okulu Savunma Bilimleri

  16. Health workers' views on quality of prevention of mother-to-child transmission and post-natal care for HIV-infected women and their children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.A.; Oosterhoff, P.; Yen, P.N.; Hardon, A.; Wright, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission has been considered as not a simple intervention but a comprehensive set of interventions requiring capable health workers. Viet Nam's extensive health care system reaches the village level, but still HIV-infected mothers and children have recei

  17. From Coast to Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Asia-Pacific economic integration seems destined to take on new dimensions. On March 15, officials from eight nations began talks in Melbourne, Australia, on the expansion of a trans-Pacific free trade agreement. The United States, Australia, Peru and Viet Nam are

  18. Vietnamese Women in Academic Leadership: Experiences of Mid-Level Women Leaders in Universities and Colleges in the Mekong Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ngoc Lan Thi

    2012-01-01

    Academic women in the Mekong Delta (MD) in southern Viet Nam remain underrepresented in key leadership positions and other positions of power and influence in their institutions. This situation exists regardless of various local, national, and international policies on gender equality and the implementation of numerous action plans, strategies,…

  19. Ecological Modernisation of Industrial Estates in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phung Thuy Phuong,

    2002-01-01

    This research provides insights into environmental policy-making and management in Viet Nam, with special reference to industrial estates. It analyses the reasons behind the weaknesses of environmental policy-making and management in dealing with contemporary industrialisation and r

  20. Content of General Education in Relation to Occupational Training. Country Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    Studies were conducted in 10 countries of Asia and the Pacific (Australia, China, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Republic of Korea, Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Turkey) to determine whether general education school leavers are able to meet the requirements of various occupational training programs. Each country…