WorldWideScience

Sample records for city urban fabric

  1. Characterizing the fabric of the urban environment: A case study of Salt Lake City, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari, Hashem; Rose, L. Shea

    2001-01-01

    Urban fabric data are needed in order to estimate the impact of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city, and to design effective implementation programs. In this report, we discuss the result of a semi-automatic Monte-Carlo statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and city-fabric makeup (percentage of various surface-types) using aerial color orthophotography. The ...

  2. Protection of New York City Urban Fabric With Low-Cost Textile Storm Surge Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Bolonkin, Alexander; Cathcart, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Textile storm surge barriers, sited at multiple locations, are literally extensions of the city world famous urban fabric - another manifestation of the dominance of the City over local Nature. Textile Storm Surge Barriers (TSSB) are intended to preserve the City from North Atlantic Ocean hurricanes that cause sea waves impacting the densely populated and high-value real estate, instigating catastrophic, and possibly long-term, infrastructure and monetary losses. Complicating TSSB installatio...

  3. Protection of New York City Urban Fabric With Low-Cost Textile Storm Surge Barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Textile storm surge barriers, sited at multiple locations, are literally extensions of the city world famous urban fabric - another manifestation of the dominance of the City over local Nature. Textile Storm Surge Barriers (TSSB) are intended to preserve the City from North Atlantic Ocean hurricanes that cause sea waves impacting the densely populated and high-value real estate, instigating catastrophic, and possibly long-term, infrastructure and monetary losses. Complicating TSSB installation macroproject planning is the presence of the Hudson and other rivers, several small tidal straits, future climate change and other factors. We conclude that TSSB installations made of homogeneous construction materials are worthwhile investigating because they may be less expensive to build, and more easily replaced following any failure, than concrete and steel storm surge barriers, which are also made of homogeneous materials. We suppose the best macroproject outcome will develop in the perfect Macro-engineering plann...

  4. Shrinking Cities or Urban Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise Holst

    Shrinking Cities or Urban Transformation is a PhD-thesis conducted at the Department of Architecture and Design, Aalborg University in the period 2004-2008. The PhD concerns the spatial changes that emerge in contemporary urbanity. Contemporary urbanity can among others be characterized as both...... growing and declining. On the one hand, a concentration of the urban into a highly urbanized nodal point is happening and on the other a deconcentration of the urban fabric in declining territories is taking place. The starting point for the dissertation is the term shrinking cities, which has been...... investigation of the cases Baltimore and Denmark is conducted. This shall shed light upon whether the theoretical assumptions correspond to what is happening in the real world. The introduction of the term urban transformation is the result of these investigations and a response to shrinking cities. Urban...

  5. An Ethology of Urban Fabric(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2014-01-01

    The article explores a non-metaphorical understanding of urban fabric(s), shifting the attention from a bird’s eye perspective to the actual, textural manifestations of a variety of urban fabric(s) to be studied in their real, processual, ecological and ethological complexity within urban life. We...... effectuate this move by bringing into resonance a range of intersecting fields that all deal with urban fabric(s) in complementary ways (interaction design and urban design activism, fashion, cultural theory, philosophy, urban computing)....

  6. The Urban Topography of the Contemporary City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Álvarez Berrones

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban reason, defined under psychoanalytic concepts transcended through the use of complex topologies in the generation of urban problems, develops our understanding of the paradoxes of the anti-city within the city, identity and non-identity, and marginalization and inclusion. The city is understood from the rapport of the urban environment, as its urban topology is discovered and its essential configuration subordinated to urbanism, in relation to collective consciousness. This understanding leads to an explanation and comprehension of the phenomena that help to understand identity, marginalization, and violence as urban phenomena.

  7. Promoting Green Urban Development in African Cities

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The city of Kampala has undergone a period of rapid urbanization that has contributed to the degradation of the city’s natural environment. The urban environmental profile for Kampala has been prepared as the first component of the assignment promoting green urban development in Africa: enhancing the relationship between urbanization, environmental assets, and ecosystem services, a project...

  8. Urban Scaling of Cities in the Netherlands

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J; Goedhart, Willem

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the socioeconomic scaling behavior of cities in the Netherlands and found significant nonlinear correlations between gross urban product as well as number of jobs with population size. This nonlinearity manifested by a super-linear power law scaling is found for both the cities defined as municipalities and for the agglomerations of major cities. We used two types of agglomerations as defined by the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics: the direct agglomeration, i.e. the central city (municipality) with the adjacent suburbs (which are separate municipalities); and the larger urban area of the same major cities. The exponents are all similar, with values around 1.20. Remarkably, the agglomerations of cities underperform as compared to a city which is one municipality with the same population as the agglomeration. This effect is larger for the second type of agglomerations, the urban areas. We think this finding has important implications for the current Dutch urban policy. A residual analys...

  9. Promoting Green Urban Development in African Cities

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    The city of eThekwini or Durban has undergone a period of rapid urbanization that has contributed to the degradation of the city’s natural environment. Climate change is placing further strains on the city’s ability to manage the urban environment. The urban environmental profile of eThekwini has been prepared as the first component of the assignment promoting green urban development in Af...

  10. Accessibility in cities: transport and urban form

    OpenAIRE

    Rode, Philipp; Floater, Graham; Thomopoulos, Nikolas; Docherty, James; Schwinger, Peter; Mahendra, Anjali; Fang, Wanli

    2014-01-01

    This paper focusses on one central aspect of urban development: transport and urban form and how the two shape the provision of access to people, goods and services, and information in cities. The more efficient this access, the greater the economic benefits through economies of scale, agglomeration effects and networking advantages. This paper discusses how different urban accessibility pathways impact directly on other measures of human development and environmental sustainability. It also ...

  11. Status of urban vegetation in Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Dong-sheng; CHEN Yu-juan

    2003-01-01

    According to a survey for the urban vegetation of Guangzhou, urban vegetation has a significantly difference from natural vegetation because of intense human impacts. The research was conducted in a synthetic survey for soil, species diversity, roadside trees and ecological function of urban vegetation in Guangzhou City. The results showed that: (1) soil densities of urban roadside and park forests were higher than mean density of natural forest soil. The pH values of soil in urban roadside were higher too, and the content of organic matter and the concentration of nitrogen were lower. (2) Species diversity of urban vegetation was lower. The most number of species was only 16 species in tree layers of urban forest. (3) Tree growth was limited by narrow space in high-density urban area, where the trees with defects and disorders were common. (4) Comparing with mature natural forests, the productivity of urban vegetation was lower. The effect of urban vegetation on balance of carbon and oxygen were influenced by the low primary production of urban vegetation. Therefore, the growth condition for urban vegetation should be improved. Biodiversity, primary production and ecological function should be increased for urban vegetation in order to improve urban eco-environment.

  12. Shrinking cities: urban challenges of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina; Audirac, Ivonne; Fol, Sylvie; Cunningham-Sabot, Emmanuèle

    2012-01-01

    Urban shrinkage is not a new phenomenon. It has been documented in a large literature analyzing the social and economic issues that have led to population flight, resulting, in the worse cases, in the eventual abandonment of blocks of housing and neighbourhoods. Analysis of urban shrinkage should take into account the new realization that this phenomenon is now global and multidimensional — but also little understood in all its manifestations. Thus, as the world's population increasingly becomes urban, orthodox views of urban decline need redefinition. The symposium includes articles from 10 urban analysts working on 30 cities around the globe. These analysts belong to the Shrinking Cities International Research Network (SCIRN), whose collaborative work aims to understand different types of city shrinkage and the role that different approaches, policies and strategies have played in the regeneration of these cities. In this way the symposium will inform both a rich diversity of analytical perspectives and country-based studies of the challenges faced by shrinking cities. It will also disseminate SCIRN's research results from the last 3 years. PMID:22518881

  13. Urban Agriculture : Findings from Four City Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Urban agriculture contributes to local economic development, poverty alleviation, the social inclusion of the urban poor and women, as well as to the greening of the city and the productive reuse of urban wastes. Urban agriculture encompasses a wide variety of production systems in both urban as well as peri-urban areas. This study examines the contribution of urban agriculture to liveliho...

  14. The hybrid outcome of urban change: global city, polarized city?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayat Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of studies supports the assumption that levels of socio-spatial polarization, segregation, and exclusion are rising in global cities over the past decades as a direct outcome of certain global processes, such as the deindustrialization process, its associated changes in division of labor, and declined redistributive power of the welfare state. However, that assumption – known as the polarization thesis – is criticized based on several contentions, including the oversimplification of the global/local interplay by overlooking the role of local contingent factors that may modify, intensify, or reverse the expected socio-spatial outcome in individual cities. This study aims to capture the hybrid nature of the socio-spatial outcomes of global cities by proving that the complex process of restructuring of cities is a form of structural and chronological hybridity. Through providing a solid empirical ground for investigating the general applicability of the socio-spatial polarization thesis, as well as evaluating the influence of local contexts of cities on the outcomes of urban change. The research offers a theoretical review of the multifaceted restructuring of global cities. Then, the macro trends of global economy are linked to their micro outcomes (segregation patterns within cities, through understanding the implications of cities’ economic functions on local urban policies and housing markets. Finally, the changes in socioeconomic segregation over the past decades are calculated for a large dataset of 66 global cities. The collective result of the analysis shows the downfalls of the generalized hypothesis. While the discussion of individual cities highlights certain contextual particularities, that are contributing to the production of unique socio-spatial configurations in different global cities.

  15. Urban Pulse: Capturing the Rhythm of Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, Fabio; Lage, Marcos; Zhao, Kai; Gonçalves, Bruno; Wilson, Luc; Hsieh, Mondrian; Silva, Cláudio T

    2016-01-01

    Cities are inherently dynamic. Interesting patterns of behavior typically manifest at several key areas of a city over multiple temporal resolutions. Studying these patterns can greatly help a variety of experts ranging from city planners and architects to human behavioral experts. Recent technological innovations have enabled the collection of enormous amounts of data that can help in these studies. However, techniques using these data sets typically focus on understanding the data in the context of the city, thus failing to capture the dynamic aspects of the city. The goal of this work is to instead understand the city in the context of multiple urban data sets. To do so, we define the concept of an "urban pulse" which captures the spatio-temporal activity in a city across multiple temporal resolutions. The prominent pulses in a city are obtained using the topology of the data sets, and are characterized as a set of beats. The beats are then used to analyze and compare different pulses. We also design a vis...

  16. Urbanization data of Samara city, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    A method has been developed for urbanization by using satellite data and socio-economic data. These datasets consists three decade Landsat images and population data. A detailed description using flow chart is given to show how to use this data to produce land use/cove maps. The land use/cove maps were used to know the urban growth in Samara City, Russia. PMID:26937466

  17. Smart City: thinking About Urban Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Anticipating future urban settings where technologies enable actions and interactions among individuals unimaginable only a few years ago, has always been one of the  research topics most interesting of the urban sciences although probably not sufficiently considered in the town planning field, in the last twenty years.The acceleration towards these issues, which can be generally identified with the name Smart City, has been strong also because of the recent calls of the European Community and the Italian Ministry of Education and Research. In this important change, supported by a number of technology companies, devices and media, it seems experience a discontinuity in the theoretical definition of the processes involved in structuring and management of the Smart City. Numerous investigations on this topic seem to be developed away from urban sciences and away from the main subject area of interest: the urban planning. In this paper we attempt to bring back the dynamics of development of the Smart Cities in their natural site of theoretical development, by recovering operational approaches and methodological references related to the study of the relationship between new technologies and changes inside the urban system, never really considered in order to envisage a new process of urban and regional planning.

  18. Model cities: argumentation, institutions and urban development since 1880

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Sean Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bangalore, Barcelona and Singapore are just three of the many “model cities” identified in urban studies. Such model cities constitute a phenomenon which has received little critical attention in urban studies, though there has been much progress in the related fields of urban policy mobilities, comparative urbanism and global urbanism. This thesis builds upon these contributions whilst concentrating specifically on the model city. It defines three core characteristics of grounded model citie...

  19. Lifestyles and the city: connecting daily life to urbanity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M.L. van Diepen; S. Musterd

    2009-01-01

    Urban households are part of what makes a city a city: economically, because of their labour market participation and use of urban facilities; and socially, because of their participation in public life. In turn, these urban households profit from what the city has to offer. In this paper, a househo

  20. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grodek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales – Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel – both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand, which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources. This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraced homes and gardens created areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens and created favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1–4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc. generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 22% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively. During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, it was found, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is

  1. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grodek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales – Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel – both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand, which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources.

    This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraces with homes and gardens create areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens create favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1–4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc. generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 35% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively. During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant

  2. From global cities to globalized urbanization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Brenner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization rates across the world economy are now higher and more rapid than ever before in human history. What categories and models of urbanization are most appropriate for understanding these transformations, their origins, and their consequences, and for coming to terms with their wide-ranging implications? In this brief essay, we cannot attempt to survey the intricacies of diverse research traditions. Instead, we outline some of the methodological foundations and major lines of investigation within research on globalizing cities, while also alluding to several emergent debates and agendas that are currently animating this field, with specific reference to the conceptualization and investigation of global interurban networks.

  3. Decarbonising cities mainstreaming low carbon urban development

    CERN Document Server

    Rauland, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This book sets out some positive directions to move forward including government policy and regulatory options, an innovative GRID (Greening, Regenerative, Improvement Districts) scheme that can assist with funding and management, and the first steps towards an innovative carbon credit scheme for the built environment. Decarbonising cities is a global agenda with huge significance for the future of urban civilisation. Global demonstrations have shown that technology and design issues are largely solved. However, the mainstreaming of low carbon urban development, particularly at the precinct

  4. Walls of Crisis: Street Art and Urban Fabric in Central Athens, 2000–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Panos Leventis

    2013-01-01

    Street art, an offspring of the global metropolis and a product of its socio-urban fabric, has inevitably grown on, and been sustained by, urban architecture. Individual taggers and graffiti crews have proliferated in European cities since the 1980s. In the beginning, they mirrored their North American counterparts’ socio-political preoccupations that were a product of deteriorating socio-economic and socio-urban conditions in depressed sectors of metropolitan areas. In the early 1990s, howev...

  5. Urbanization: Concepts, Trends and Analysis in Three Latin American Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piña William Alfonso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Explanatory models on the urban expansion process have focussed mainly on the dynamic of cities in the developed countries that are characterized by a strong institutional framework, a culture of urban planning, and compliance with the rules. This paper analyses the phenomenon of urban expansion in three Latin American cities (Buenos Aires, Santiago de Chile and Mexico City, taking into account cities with a strong process of urbanization and where the local administration does not have enough control over the growth of cities due to the high rate of migration determining sub-urbanization, peri-urbanization, exo-urbanization, and counter-urbanization processes similar to developed countries. However, these processes may be related to hidden or displaced urbanization in rural areas of municipalities and metropolitan areas or intermediate cities due to the dynamics of urban consolidation. In every Latin American country, the participation and combination of these phenomena are different, although the results are similar: the advance of urban expansion with more segmented, disperse and distant patterns of large urban centres. This analysis determine the characteristics of the urbanization process taking into account physical and geographic aspects, urbanization trends and socioeconomic features in cities selected of Latin America and determines their impact determining the importance to formulate adequate policies that integrates environmental and socioeconomic aspects to achieve sustainable development in urban contexts.

  6. America's Urban Forests: Keeping Our Cities Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    1997-01-01

    The additional heating of the air over the city is the result of the replacement of naturally vegetated surfaces with those composed of asphalt, concrete, rooftops and other man-made materials. The temperatures of these artificial surfaces can be 20 to 40 C higher than vegetated surfaces. Materials such as asphalt store much of the sun's energy and remains hot long after sunset. This produces a dome of elevated air temperatures 5 to 8 C greater over the city, compared to the air temperatures over adjacent rural areas. This effect is called the "urban heat island". Tree canopies can reduce the urban heat island effect by dissipating the solar energy received by transpiring water from leaf surfaces which cools the air by taking "heat" from the air to evaporate the water and by shading surfaces like asphalt, roofs, and concrete parking lots which prevents initial heating and storage of heat. It is difficult to take enough temperature measurements over a large city area to characterize the surface temperature variability and quantify the temperature reduction effects of tree canopies. However, the use of remotely sensed thermal data from airborne scanners are ideal for the task. In a study funded by NASA, a series of flights over Huntsville AL were performed in September 1994 and over Atlanta in May 1997. In this article we will examine the techniques of analyzing remotely sensed data for measuring the effect of tree canopies in reducing the urban heat island effect.

  7. Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M. [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    1996-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

  8. Characterizing the fabric of the urban environment: A case study of Metropolitan Chicago, Illinois and Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari, Hashem; Rose, Leanna Shea

    2001-01-01

    Urban fabric data are needed in order to estimate the impact of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city, and to design effective implementation programs. In this report, we discuss the result of a semi-automatic Monte-Carlo statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and city-fabric makeup (percentage of various surface-types) using aerial color orthophotography. The d...

  9. Dutch City Network feeds the Innovation of Urban Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.E.; Veen, E.J.; Kop, van de P.J.; Eijk, van O.N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2010, the Dutch City Network on Urban Agriculture (Stedennetwerk in Dutch), has linked up civil servants of fourteen cities in order to see opportunities, share knowledge and solve issues on urban agriculture in their cities. Though it started as an internally focused network for civil servant

  10. CITY IMAGE AND URBAN IDENTITY AS A PREREQUISITE FOR CITY DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kotāne, Inta

    2010-01-01

    City environment or urban environment is a complex social, economic and biophysical system, which emerged as a result of the human-nature interaction. Urban development issues, the city image and urban identity exploration in Latvia have become a key subject in times of economic globalisation as well as determination of city and district development direction and priorities for urban development programs is also the reason for such an interest. The article deals with the research on the theor...

  11. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO ACTUAL URBAN ISSUES OF CITY PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Александрович Беляков

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the problems of modern urban development. We discuss the necessity of transition to new system of urban design and examples of new concepts of ideal cities of the future .

  12. Accidental and ideal island cities: islanding processes and urban design in Belize City and the urban archipelagos of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pigou-Dennis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores processes of islanding, de-islanding, and re-islanding in the context of island cities. Although today popularly associated with rural, peripheral, and isolated landscapes, concepts of the ideal city coincided in Medieval and Renaissance Europe with emergent notions of the ideal island. Major European cities such as Amsterdam, Paris, and Copenhagen were established on densely urbanized small islands. In accordance with dominant political and military philosophies, they were subsequently developed through comprehensive urban design into vast yet coherent urban archipelagos. In contrast, the contemporary development of Belize City as an island city took place through piecemeal land reclamation, absent comprehensive urban design, resulting in a very different kind of urban archipelago. Neither the coherent European island cities nor Belize City are generally regarded as islands today, yet their histories of urban development evidence the impact of spatial attributes of islandness on urban form. Comprehensive urban design efforts are currently directed at land reclamation and waterfront revitalization in Belize City, aiming to restore Belize City’s island city status. We argue that cities can be islanded, de-islanded, and re-islanded in the minds of their inhabitants and that it is necessary to recognize the connection between ideal islands and ideal cities in order to understand the islanding process in full.

  13. Environment Hygiene in the Nigerian Urban Cities (A Case Study of Enugu Urban)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary Ndidiamaka Ene

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined the environmental hygiene in the Nigeria urban cities. The paper observed the poor hygiene and the problems of Nigeria urban cities and identified the problems that have aided the poor hygiene of the urban cities as; i) poor town planning implementation, ii) improper waste management and disposal, iii) poor sanitation, iv) overcrowding and v) poor ventilation. These conditions have serious adverse impacts on the health of the urban dwellers. The paper also suggested strate...

  14. Gods of the City? Reflecting on City Building Games as an Early Introduction to Urban Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereitschaft, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    For millions of gamers and students alike, city building games (CBGs) like SimCity and the more recent Cities: Skylines present a compelling initial introduction to the world of urban planning and development. As such, these games have great potential to shape players' understanding and expectations of real urban patterns and processes. In this…

  15. Towards Urban Fabrics Characterization Based on Buildings Footprints

    OpenAIRE

    Hamaina, Rachid; Leduc, Thomas; Moreau, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    International audience Urban fabric characterization is very useful in urban design, planning, modeling and simulation. It is traditionally considered as a descriptive task mainly based on visual inspection of urban plans. Cartographic databases and geographic information systems (GIS) capabilities make possible the analytical formalization of this issue. This paper proposes a renewed approach to characterize urban fabrics using buildings' footprints data. This characterization method hand...

  16. Crime, Urban Flight, and the Consequences for Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Berry Cullen; Steven D. Levitt

    1996-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that rising crime rates in cities are correlated with city depopulation. Instrumental variables estimates, using measures of the certainty and severity of a state?s criminal justice system as instruments for city crime rates, imply that the direction of causality runs from crime to urban flight. Using annual city-level panel data, our estimates suggest that each additional reported crime is associated with a one person decline in city residents. There is some evidence ...

  17. Urban growth and air quality in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    O. H. L. Ling

    2010-01-01

    Urban developments, land use patterns and activities not only influence the volume of emissions into the ambient air environment but also affect the ability of the urban ecosystem to purify the air. Therefore, urbanisation affects the quality of air in urban areas. However, urban air quality is also affected by global, regional or trans-boundary pollutants. The objectives of this paper are to understand the trend of air quality level and urban growth in Kuala Lumpur city (KL), and examine the...

  18. Islamic city and urbanism, an obvious example of sustainable architecture and city

    OpenAIRE

    SHOJAEE, Farshid; PAEEZEH, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Urbanism entered a new phase by the arrival of Islam so that the formed foundation of urban life changed in the Sassanid era. Urban communities experienced major developments in accordance with Islamic rules in social and economic dimensions. Also, establishment of mosques resulted in physical alteration of cities. By gradual dominance of Islam in Iran, the fields were ready concerning rapid growth of cities and creation of new cities with transformed form and modern culture. Follow...

  19. AUTHENTICITY, IDENTITY AND SUSTAINABILITY IN POST-WAR IRAQ: Reshaping the Urban Form of Erbil City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebwar Ibrahim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues of authenticity and identity are particularly significant in cities where social and cultural change is shaping active transformation of its urban fabric and structure in the post-war condition. In search of sustainable future, Iraqi cities are stretched between the two ends of the spectrum, authentic quarters with its traditional fabric and modern districts with their global sense of living. This paper interrogates the reciprocal influences and distinct qualities and sustainable performance of both authentic and modern quarters of Erbil, the capital of the Iraqi province of Kurdistan, as factors in shaping sustainable urban forms for Iraqi cities. In doing so, the paper, firstly, seeks to highlight the urban identity as an effective factor in relation to sustainable urban form. Secondly, the city of Erbil in Iraq has been chosen as a field study, due to its regional, social, political and historical role in the region. Thirdly, the study emphasises the dynamic activities and performance of residential projects according to rational sustainable criteria. The research concludes that urban identity and the sense of place in traditional and historical places should inform design strategies in order to achieve a more sustainable urban context.

  20. Spatial Allometric Scaling of Cities Based on Variable Urban Boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang; Li, Xijing

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that urban growth and hierarchies of cities follow the allometric scaling law. However, there is no study on the allometric relations of the internal spatial structure within a city. This paper is devoted to explore the allometric scaling of intraurban patterns by means of variable boundaries of cities. Based on a digital map, an urban boundary can be determined by given searching radius. Changing the searching radius, we have different urban boundaries for the same city. A set of urban boundaries based on different searching radius is similar to a set of isograms. Three typical measurements can be obtained, including urban area, total length of streets, and number of street nodes. These measurements represent three basic spatial elements of geographical systems, i.e., area, lines, and points. A finding is that the numerical relationships between urban area, street length, and node number follow allometric scaling laws. In practice, the spatial allometry can be used to estimate the fr...

  1. BICYCLE TRANSPORT IN URBAN TRANSPORT OF KONYA CITY

    OpenAIRE

    LORASOKKAY, Mehmet Ali; AĞIRDIR, M. Levent

    2011-01-01

    The use of motor vehicles in the cities of Turkey is increasing with every passing day due to the cities rapidly expanding in Turkey. The share of environment-friendly transportation types entirely based on manpower such as pedestrian and bicycle transports in urban areas continuously decreases due to expanding urban residential areas. For urban transportation, bicycle is an individual, independent and fast transportation vehicle similar to motor vehicles in terms of its properties such as it...

  2. CONCEPT OF URBAN FORESTRY AND EXAMINATION OF URBAN FORESTRY STUDIES IN ISPARTA CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Nilüfer SERİN; GÜL, Atila

    2009-01-01

    Urban trees and forests are very important and inevitable natural materials by providing aesthetics and functional benefits for urban life and urban people. In this study, the concept and frame of urban forestry was studied. In this connection, studies of urban forestry activities were examined and urban trees used in Isparta city were determined. In this connection, some solutions were proposed for revealed current problems concerning the topic. According to results of the study, some serio...

  3. Urban Design Interventions Towards a Bike Friendly City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor; Harder, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper`s goal is to present findings of the research project titled Bikeability, funded by the Danish Research Council, concerning the investigation of how Urban Design interventions in consolidated urban areas can promote cycling – with a special focus on alterations in the urban fabric and...

  4. City and the sea: maritime identity for urban sustainable regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Clemente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraordinary shape of cities by the sea is the result of the synthesis between urban culture and maritime culture – a synthesis that is full of charm and semantic values. The harmonious union of maritime culture and urban culture offers a different point of view – the one that Konvitz defined as “Urban maritime culture” (Konvitz, 1978 – for appreciating the coastal human settlements.Cities by the sea have been a really central theme in architectural and urban debate of last few decades. The suggestion behind the research is that to understand coastal and port cities we must move our point of view from the mainland on the sea – actually we must refer to maritime culture to understand urban culture in the city by the sea.The contribution describes the main research findings related to several studies that, since 2009, the Group "City and Architecture" in the National Research Council of Italy has carried out about the relationship between city and sea. The starting point is to consider the maritime interpretation of seaside cities as a relevant issue for an innovative research related to urban planning and design in coastal urban areas.The first phase of the research project has concerned with an original multidisciplinary methodology based on a mindful maritime re-interpretation of architectures and urban spaces and, more generally, of coastal urban areas. The second phase is aimed to refer the research results to real case studies with the broad involvement of multidisciplinary scholars, stakeholders and policy.The approach has permitted a review of the waterfront renewal processes – in ever greater numbers over the last fifty years – in a very different way. The objective is to define innovative methodologies and strategies for enhancing maritime identity as key tool for the urban sustainable regeneration of cities by the sea.

  5. Cities within Cities: An Urbanization Approach in the Gulf Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bamakhrama, Salim Salah

    2015-01-01

    Within Dubai, nineteen out of the original 112 mega-projects carried the word city in their names, a phenomenon that is common in Gulf cities such as Dubai, Riyadh and Abu Dhabi. To further explore this phenomenon, this thesis focuses on three aspects that affect the dynamic relationship between the primary city and the cities within cities (sub-cities) in the Gulf region with special emphasis on Dubai. First, the naming problem of the sub-city illustrates why the tension between competing id...

  6. Urban environmental health: Respiratory illness and urban factors in Kuala Lumpur City, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Ling Hoon Leh

    2011-01-01

    With increasing urbanisation, more people are now staying in urban built environments, even though the conditions of the urban environments may not be conducive to urban residents' health. However, with the lack of health data of urban residents, very few studies have been conducted to examine the relationship between urban factors and city residents' health especially in developing countries. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to examine the rate of respiratory illness (acute respir...

  7. Nutrient flows in urban and peri-urban agroecosystems in three West African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulkadir, A.

    2012-01-01

    Key words: Sustainability, CATPCA, two-step cluster analysis, farm types, nutrient balances, West Africa, gross margin, NUTMON/MONQI. Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) is defined as the cultivation of crops and keeping livestock within and around cities. In addition to providing the cities&rsq

  8. Shaping ideal cities: the graph representation of the urban utopia

    CERN Document Server

    D'Autilia, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The ideal Renaissance city is designed as a star-shaped fortress, where the streets and squares are organized to speed the movement of people and soldiers. Symmetry and accessibility represent the key features for the organization of the urban space. The resulting city is hierarchized and does not always guarantee an optimal degree of connectivity. Taking the baton from the work done by space syntax in the definition of properties of spatial graph representation, we introduce a method to compute urban graphs from the Euclidean representation, the corresponding line graph and the contraction of nodes with the same urban function. We analyze the urban graphs of five historic cities: Vitry le Fran\\c{c}ois, Avola, Neuf Brisach, Grammichele and Palmanova and compare the analysis restults with the corresponding results from space syntax. Analysis of the spectral gap and the relative asymmetry distribution show a similar structure for these cities. The irregular or reticular housing structure seems to ensure connect...

  9. Developing knowledge cities : aligning urban, corporate and university strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Heijer, A.C.; De Vries, J.C.; De Jonge, H.

    2011-01-01

    The successful development of knowledge cities increasingly depends on collaboration between urban and regional authorities, knowledge institutions and businesses. Policy makers and business strategists do acknowledge the interrelated objectives of these actors in the knowledge economy and their dif

  10. Towards Sustainable Urban Environmental Management in Jiangyin city, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Dan; Wang Rusong; Yuan Shaojun

    2004-01-01

    Dramatic economic and social changes have taken place in Jiangyin city due to rapid and uneven urbanization and industrialization. The environmental degradation has followed driven by these changes since the 1980's. With the pressures and effects of environmental deterioration, the city has implemented environmental management to hold back the trends of negative environmental changes.From the viewpoint of systems, DPSER is a good model for urban environmental changes to understand the causes, pressure, state, effect, existing responses and future action strategies. We took Jiangyin city,a developed city in South Jiangsu province, East China, as an example, and analyzed the characteristics of environmental changes and urban responses using DPSER model. Some operational strategies have been put forward to direct the city environmental management towards a sustainable road step by step.

  11. Fast and robust generation of city scale urban ground plan

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, JM; Camelli, F; Wong, WSD

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of the concept of Digital Earth, almost every major international city has been re-constructed in the virtual world. A large volume of geometric models describing urban objects has become freely available in public domain via software like Google Earth. Although mostly created for visualization, these urban models can benefit many applications beyond visualization including video games, city scale evacuation plan, traffic simulation and earth phenomenon simulations. ...

  12. Urban Modality: Modelling and evaluating the sustainable mobility of urban areas in the city-region

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis proposes a framework for evaluating the mobility potential and performance of urban areas in the city region, as an instrument to support urban development that contributes positively to regional sustainable mobility objectives. The research takes a quantitative approach, modelling and measuring the characteristics of a city-region and of its individual urban areas, in terms of travel patterns and socio- economic characteristics of the resident population, and in terms of built en...

  13. URBAN AGRICULTURE: A STRATEGY TO SUSTAIN URBAN ENVIRONMENT (CASE STUDY: QAZVIN CITY)

    OpenAIRE

    REZAEI QALEH, Marzieh; MEDI, Hossein; SHEYBANI, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Urbanization and gardening, due to the hot and dry weather in Iran, always have been coordinated and interconnected trends. The combination of these two trends could create the concept of Iranian sustainable city. These cities were a combination of gardens and farms in the midst of urban context that offered favorable environmental conditions for citizens and natural urban organs and provided coordination with difficult climate conditions and water supply shortages. In fact, these c...

  14. Historic Urban Landscape Approach and Port Cities Regeneration: Naples between Identity and Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Di Palma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to highlight some perspectives for the sustainable development of Naples, to direct future policies for the city. The proposed approach is based on the Historic Urban Landscape, which, being structurally integrated/systemic, allows the relationship between the historic center and the waterfront, as well as many contradictions, to be overcome, which in the city of Naples, have become particularly acute. The notion of Historic Urban Landscape (HUL is the latest contribution to the international debate concerning the identification, preservation and valorization of cultural heritage. This new category, in fact, refers to the notion of context to emphasize the systemic interrelation between economic, social, environmental and cultural factors and the complexity of the framework within which conservation policies are inserted. It is in this perspective that the experiences of planning taking place in Naples are read, as a starting point for an innovative approach to the issue of an integrated conservation of the Historic Urban Landscape and, more generally, of the regeneration of the city. The starting point is the study of the experiences of urban transformation in some European port cities in order to “learn from comparison” to develop a theoretic approach based on the understanding of reality. The comparative analysis of case studies, through the synthesis of the most significant aspects of each port city, allows the relationship that exists between a phenomenon and its context to be understood and the critical success factors to be identified, in order to transfer the knowledge gained from good practices in the processes of regeneration of the city of Naples. Naples, for its stratified urban fabric, rich in tangible and intangible cultural values, and for its particular nodal position within the Mediterranean basin, lends itself effectively to a different approach to urban regeneration, which focuses on the

  15. Urban growth and air quality in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. L. Ling

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban developments, land use patterns and activities not only influence the volume of emissions into the ambient air environment but also affect the ability of the urban ecosystem to purify the air. Therefore, urbanisation affects the quality of air in urban areas. However, urban air quality is also affected by global, regional or trans-boundary pollutants. The objectives of this paper are to understand the trend of air quality level and urban growth in Kuala Lumpur city (KL, and examine the relationship between these variables. Results of analysis show a significant and strong relationship between the number of unhealthy/hazardous days and urban land uses. The finding is contrary to the argument that the high concentration of air pollutants (unhealthy level in the Malaysian city is contributed by the forest fire in a neighbouring country (haze.

  16. The Experience City and challenges for Architects and Urban Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte

    2008-01-01

    The article discusse the challenges of the experience economy from a Nordic welfare perspective. It argues that the challenges of the experience economy must be combined with the ambition that our cities are not reduced to entertainment engines. The urban life in the Nordic "welfare cities" must ...

  17. Place of Convergence, Capital of Myth, and City Chasing Sea:A Study on Urban Identity of Lianyungang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As one of the series of studies on the City Master Plan of Lianyungang (2008-2030), the study on the urban identity of Lianyungang City summarizes the context and the theories of urban identity, analyzes the basic components, influential factors, and current situations of urban identity of Lianyungang, clarifies the objectives of shaping the urban identity of the city, and puts forward a series of elements that are important for strengthening the urban identity of the city, such as city brands, city events, and perception spaces, etc. This paper is a synthesis of this study.

  18. Planetary Stewardship in an Urbanizing World: Beyond City Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Seitzinger, Sybil P.; Svedin, Uno; Crumley, Carole; Steffen, Will; Adbullah, Saiful Arif; Alfsen, Christine; Broadgate, Wendy J.; Biermann, Frank; Bondre, Nanid R.; John A. Dearing; Deutsch, Lisa; Shobhakar, Dhakal; Elmqvist, Thomas; Farahbakhshazad, Neda; Gaffney, Owen

    2012-01-01

    Cities are rapidly increasing in importance as a major factor shaping the Earth system, and therefore, must take corresponding responsibility. With currently over half the world’s population, cities are supported by resources originating from primarily rural regions often located around the world far distant from the urban loci of use. The sustainability of a city can no longer be considered in isolation from the sustainability of human and natural resources it uses from proximal or distant r...

  19. Narrating the city. Urban tales from Tilburg and Almere

    OpenAIRE

    Dormans, S.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    In contemporary academic debates on the city, it is generally agreed upon that there are many different ways to represent or imagine a city and that these multiple representations and imaginations are dependent on their temporal and spatial context. In line with these debates, the city is understood in this study as a simultaneity of stories-so-far. Accordingly, this study brings together a wide variety of urban representations into one empirical project and, in doing so, it aims to reflect a...

  20. Urban Physiology: City Ants Possess High Heat Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Angilletta, Michael J; Wilson, Robbie S; Niehaus, Amanda C.; Michael W Sears; Navas, Carlos A.; Ribeiro, Pedro L.

    2007-01-01

    Urbanization has caused regional increases in temperature that exceed those measured on a global scale, leading to urban heat islands as much as 12 degrees C hotter than their surroundings. Optimality models predict ectotherms in urban areas should tolerate heat better and cold worse than ectotherms in rural areas. We tested these predications by measuring heat and cold tolerances of leaf-cutter ants from South America's largest city (São Paulo, Brazil). Specifically, we compared thermal tole...

  1. Urbanism beyond Architecture : African cities as Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Vyjayanthi; De Boeck, Filip; Simone, Abdou Maliq

    2009-01-01

    About African Cities Reader(A creation of the African Centre for Cities & Chimurenga Magazine ) In many senses African cities are amongst the most generative and vibrant places on the planet. Yet, we know next to nothing about what goes on in the places. Not that there is any shortage of caricature, hyperbole or opinion about what makes African cities such quintessential spaces of dystopia and atrophy. We believe that a range of interventions that seek to engage the shape-shifting essenc...

  2. Rhine Cities - Urban Flood Integration (UFI)

    OpenAIRE

    Redeker, C.

    2013-01-01

    While agglomerations along the Rhine are confronted with the uncertainties of an increasing flood risk due to climate change, different programs are claiming urban river front sites. Simultaneously, urban development, flood management, as well as navigation and environmental protection are negotiating the border between the river and the urban realm. This produces complex spatial constellations between the river system and the urban realm with a diverse set of interdependencies, where program...

  3. Sustainable UrbanTransport Assessment in Asian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Haghshenas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effective access and mobility in cities arethe bases for achieving urban sustainable development. Today, in Asia, uncontrolled growth of cars and motorcycles has undermined human health, urban environmental quality, economic productivity and social equity. Indicators and practices indicate that efficient public and non motorizedtransport, and prudent restrictions on private motorized vehicles have been proven effective in not only reducing the negative impacts of unsustainable transport but also in providing a means to improve the basic quality of human life.Someattempts have been made to develop sustainable transport indicators, STI. A few studies actually apply STI to compare sustainability among various cities. In this paper 21 Asian cities ranked in terms of urban sustainable transport composite index and the best and worst Asian cities identified. Then, the key factors that have influencedsustainability in these cities have been extracted.The study database is created from UITP databank: “Millennium cities database for sustainable mobility” or MCDST. Firstly sustainable transportation indicators were selectedby reviewing past researches. Some indicators are edited or redefined. Consequently, 3 indicators in each 3 groups of environmental, economical and socialwere developed. Then composite index was also suggested by combination of 9 standardized indicators. According to composite index various cities were compared. Finallysome important factors affecting urban transportation sustainability were determined by using correlation analyses between composite index and cities’ characteristics.

  4. Towards an urban planners’ perspective on Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “Smart City”, providing a solution for making cities more efficient and sustainable, has been quite popular in recent years, encouraging reflections, ideas, researches and projects for a “smart” urban development. A smart city is generally meant as a city capable of joining “competitiveness” and “sustainability”, by integrating different dimensions of development and addressing infrastructural investments able to support economic growth as well as the quality of life of communities, a more careful management of natural resources, a greater transparency and participation to decision-making processes. Based on those assumptions, this contribution tackle the controversial subject of Smart City, starting from the review of the scientific Italian and international literature that, from the Eighties to the Nineties, has been largely focused on ICTs and their impacts on urban development. Then, the focus shifts on the large debate on smart cities that has been developing from the beginning of 2000s and on the numerous institutional initiatives up to now implemented by the European Union for building up the Smart City. Finally, the article highlights how, despite these efforts, a shared definition of the term is still missing and current approaches to the issue are still very heterogeneous; it emphasizes, on the opposite, the key-role that urban planning, grounding on a holistic approach to cities’ development, should play in coordinating and integrating urban policies addressed to building up a Smart City.

  5. Urban sustainable development (Case study Darreh Shahr city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim Ali Shaei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Appraisement and report of cities sustainable development have started in some counties especially in the developed countries,for some years and their main goal is investigating the sustainability or unsustainability of development of cities. According to the investigation of varying parts ofcity and its comparison with country average, it is found that most of socialeconomic and environmental indices are low in comparison with the average valueof the country. Keeping the livestock, low per capita of green area, problems of potable water, weakness of thegarbage collection system, incompetence in wastewater disposal, constructions,air pollution, urban traffic and etc. are the problems of this city making unstable environmental, social and economic conditions of Dahreshar city. Basedon the lack of clarification of all aspects of a sustainable city andimpossibility of presenting the definite solutions to achieve the sustainablecity, there are some solutions to achieve the urban sustainable development ofDahreshar city such as: Increasing urban use density, reduction of reliance oncars in transportation (especially personal cars, modification of citymanagement system, protection and renovation of natural systems around city,reduction of resources consumption to decline the pollutions. It seems that thebasic cause of unsustainability of Dahreshar is dedicated to weakness of citymanagement, and urban management review if presented for its solution (e.g. definiteauthority, plans, goals and executive methods and etc.

  6. Nutrient flows in urban and peri-urban agroecosystems in three West African cities

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkadir, A.

    2012-01-01

    Key words: Sustainability, CATPCA, two-step cluster analysis, farm types, nutrient balances, West Africa, gross margin, NUTMON/MONQI. Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) is defined as the cultivation of crops and keeping livestock within and around cities. In addition to providing the cities’ demand of fresh vegetables, crops and livestock products, it plays an important role in the livelihoods of the urban farmers. With the rapid urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa, UPA provides food...

  7. The Interactive Urban Model: Histories and Legacies Related to Prototyping the Twenty-First Century City

    OpenAIRE

    Verebes, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This article surveys the theoretical and historical legacies of mass production and standardization, and the cultural issues associated with globalization, in the most prolific era ever of urbanization. Situated at the intersection of scholarly writing on history, current conditions, and a speculative future, this article focuses on themes related to design research on computation, fabrication, and the city. Given the ongoing transition of industrial paradigm from Modernism’s dependency upon ...

  8. An urban informatics approach to smart city learning in architecture and urban design education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Guaralda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to redefine spaces of learning to places of learning through the direct engagement of local communities as a way to examine and learn from real world issues in the city. This paper exemplifies Smart City Learning, where the key goal is to promote the generation and exchange of urban design ideas for the future development of South Bank, in Brisbane, Australia, informing the creation of new design policies responding to the needs of local citizens. Specific to this project was the implementation of urban informatics techniques and approaches to promote innovative engagement strategies. Architecture and Urban Design students were encouraged to review and appropriate real-time, ubiquitous technology, social media, and mobile devices that were used by urban residents to augment and mediate the physical and digital layers of urban infrastructures. Our study’s experience found that urban informatics provide an innovative opportunity to enrich students’ place of learning within the city.

  9. Assessing Urban Droughts in a Smart City Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obringer, R.; Zhang, X.; Mallick, K.; Alemohammad, S. H.; Niyogi, D.

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to integrate environmental data for drought monitoring to reduce uncertainty in urban drought characterization as part of the smart city framework. Currently, drought monitoring in urban areas is a challenge. This is due, in part, to a lack of knowledge on the subject of urban droughts and urban drought vulnerability. A critical part to assessing urban drought and implementing the necessary policies is determining drought conditions. Often the timing and severity of the drought can leave cities to enforce water restrictions, so accuracy of this determination has socioeconomic implications. To determine drought conditions, we need to know the water balance over the urban landscape, of which evapotranspiration (ET) is a key variable. However, ET data and models have high uncertainty when compared to other hydrological variables (i.e., precipitation). This is largely due to ill-defined empirical models for characterizing the urban surface resistance parameter (rs) that is used in ET calculations. We propose a method to estimate rs values using a combination of the Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC) method that calculates regional evapotranspiration data and an inverted version of the Penman-Monteith equation. We use this approach across the region surrounding Indianapolis, IN (USA) from 2010-2014. We discuss the potential for this method to be integrated in to smart city framework to improve urban drought assessment.

  10. Politics for cities, cities for the political. About possibility (and necessity of radical urban politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Marzec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Essay faces the problem of determinacy of global capitalism processes for the reality of urban political life. The city is naturally communitarian form of human life and seems to be the place where radical pro-community politics could be undertaken. Already existing and operating forms of power could fruitfully influence the city social relations. Values and norms of conduct are broadly delegated on the urban space and materiality, thus conscious shaping of city space has severe consequences for community life. If a crisis of the political partly has its roots in metamorphoses of the cities, then also remedies, rising from the urban materiality and reestablishing political subjects, could be thought. City, as most real place of political life could be either reduced to the aggregate of consumers or reestablished as a political community. Due to this is the place where undesired course of action could be stopped, hence precisely here the radical democratic politics can emerge.

  11. Strategic Urban Narratives: Beyond conventional city branding

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Sevcik

    2011-01-01

    City branding and marketing have become key success factors for cities worldwide. But the results are mixed. One possible reason is that conventional branding tools have been used. But cities are not companies or products. They are complex, dynamic and living entities with a diverse stakeholdership. What is needed is a more comprehensive, inclusive approach. Thomas Sevcik suggests that one solutions could be the strategic use of ‘narrative’ as an overall guiding structure including key implem...

  12. Exhibition: Urban Now. City Life in Congo

    OpenAIRE

    De Boeck, Filip; Baloji, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    This exhibition by photographer Sammy Baloji and anthropologist Filip De Boeck offers an exploration of different urban sites in Congo, through the media of photography and video. Focusing upon the “urban now”, a moment suspended between the broken dreams of a colonial past and the promises of neoliberal futures, the exhibition offers an artistic and ethnographic investigation of what living – and living together – might mean in Congo’s urban worlds. As elsewhere on the African continent,...

  13. Large urban fire environment: trends and model city predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urban fire environment that would result from a megaton-yield nuclear weapon burst is considered. The dependence of temperatures and velocities on fire size, burning intensity, turbulence, and radiation is explored, and specific calculations for three model urban areas are presented. In all cases, high velocity fire winds are predicted. The model-city results show the influence of building density and urban sprawl on the fire environment. Additional calculations consider large-area fires with the burning intensity reduced in a blast-damaged urban center

  14. Rhine Cities - Urban Flood Integration (UFI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redeker, C.

    2013-01-01

    While agglomerations along the Rhine are confronted with the uncertainties of an increasing flood risk due to climate change, different programs are claiming urban river front sites. Simultaneously, urban development, flood management, as well as navigation and environmental protection are negotiati

  15. City-integrated renewable energy for urban sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M; Sunter, Deborah A

    2016-05-20

    To prepare for an urban influx of 2.5 billion people by 2050, it is critical to create cities that are low-carbon, resilient, and livable. Cities not only contribute to global climate change by emitting the majority of anthropogenic greenhouse gases but also are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change and extreme weather. We explore options for establishing sustainable energy systems by reducing energy consumption, particularly in the buildings and transportation sectors, and providing robust, decentralized, and renewable energy sources. Through technical advancements in power density, city-integrated renewable energy will be better suited to satisfy the high-energy demands of growing urban areas. Several economic, technical, behavioral, and political challenges need to be overcome for innovation to improve urban sustainability. PMID:27199413

  16. URBAN MARKETING AND ITS IMPACT OVER THE COMPETITION BETWEEN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Elena ALEXA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the globalization era, characterized by profound political and economical reforms of which main objective is the increased competitiveness, whether we talk about goods, companies, cities or countries, the proactive attitude and the marketing strategy is a must in order to survive and develop. Now more than ever the cities have become brands of their one, because they are in an endless competition for attention, investments, inhabitants and tourists and the main competitor is no longer the city located a couple of kilometers away, but any city across the globe. Cities and regions need competitive strategies in order to attract more tourists, investors and inhabitants and for this they have to make a change in the decision makers’ attitude. The new city is no longer a plain urban conglomerate; it becomes a Company, a Product, and a Market depending on the target group it applies to.

  17. Planning Urban Food Production into Today's Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Andy; Keefe, Greg; Hall, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    If cities are to become more sustainable and resilient to change it is likely that they will have to engage with food at increasingly localised levels, in order to reduce their dependency on global systems. With 87 percent of people in developed regions estimated to be living in cities by 2050 it can be assumed that the majority of this localised production will occur in and around cities. As part of a 12 month engagement, Queen’s University Belfast designed and implemented an elevated aquapo...

  18. Adaptive Cities: A Cybernetic Perspective on Urban Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos; Ratti, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Cities are changing constantly. All urban systems face different conditions from day to day. Even when averaged regularities can be found, urban systems will be more efficient if they can adapt to changes at the same speeds at which these occur. Technology can assist humans in achieving this adaptation. Inspired by cybernetics, we propose a description of cities as adaptive systems. We identify three main components: information, algorithms, and agents, which we illustrate with current and future examples. The implications of adaptive cities are manifold, with direct impacts on mobility, sustainability, resilience, governance, and society. Still, the potential of adaptive cities will not depend so much on technology as on how we use it.

  19. INFLUENCE OF THE URBANIZATION ON STABILITY DEVELOPMENTS LARGE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Murzin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research the degree and nature of influence of the effect of urbanization on the sustainability ofcomplex socio-ecological-economic development of the area big cities. The historical and economic assessment is given, ecologicalfactors are studied, qualitative and quantitative parameters of the phenomenon of the urbanization are considered. Based on therequirements of modern legal documents and data analysis the principles are generalized and the directions of formation of favorableconditions for sustainable development of social, ecological and economic environment on the large cities are defined.

  20. Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Planning in African Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gertrud; Herslund, Lise Byskov; Lund, Dorthe Hedensted;

    2014-01-01

    Resilience of urban structures towards impacts of a changing climate is one of the emerging tasks that cities all over the world are facing at present. Effects of climate change take many forms, depending on local climate, spatial patterns, and socioeconomic structures. Cities are only just begin...... they need integration at city level to form strategic adaptation plans. A combined rational and pragmatic approach is advisable as is involvement of stakeholders in the production of relevant knowledge...... beginning to be aware of the task, and some time will pass before it is integrated into mainstream urban governance. This chapter is based on work in progress. It covers urban governance and planning aspects of climate change adaptation as studied in the CLUVA project (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability...... in Africa), as well as some experiences from Denmark. Focus is on the responses and capacities of urban authorities, strengths and weaknesses of the efforts, data needs and possible ways forward. The chapter concludes that many adaptation activities are taking place in the CLUVA case cities, but that...

  1. Public transport infrastructure, urban sprawl, and post-carbon cities

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique Bureau

    2011-01-01

    Curbing greenhouse gases emissions from transport in cities is a major challenge for climate policies. The pioneering works of Newman and Kenworthy suggest that many of these emissions could be avoidable, since they result from city densities and the share of road traffic in urban transport. However, implementing a change raises difficult questions. The respective roles of transport and land use policies are controversial. There is an intense debate about priorities between proponents of vehi...

  2. City and Energy Infrastructures between Economic Processes and Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues related to the relationship between city, energy, economic factors and city planning. These issues are analyzed from a theoretical point of view and are placed in a logical path based on three assumptions. The first considers the city as an intelligent system constantly evolving. The second considers the city as a system where economic processes come out at their highest level affecting other aspects of social and urban structure. The third considers the planning as the weak link in the process of urban development, one of the most exposed to economic and social pressures.Energy production has experienced a great progress since steam and electricity were discovered. Each stage of this evolution has affected city and territory introducing significant physical signs, changing the ways of carrying out functions and creating new needs and new activities. The energy revolution, based on sustainable sources and on skillful management of the networks, will strongly affect the city and the way of organizing the activities, their location, dimension, and the shape of the spaces.The paper explores some of the issues related to the relationship between urban system and energy.The first section analyzes the meaning of the intelligent city as an entity that is constantly changing and constantly adapting. The second section analyzes the role of the energy systems in the evolution of the activities and of the city’s image. The last section investigates the role of the economic factors in the evolution of the shape and meaning of city, pointing out that the way towards smart and green urban systems will largely depend on their economic advantage. 

  3. City Risk Diagnostic for Urban Resilience in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Iwan; Sagala, Saut; Amin, Suryani; Zawani, Hoferdy; Mangunsong, Ruby

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the World Bank initiated the building urban resilience in East Asia program, aimed at increasing the resilience of cities to disasters and the impact of climate change by using a risk-based approach to making public investment decisions. The objective is to demonstrate a scalable methodology and practical tools for risk assessment that can be used for city-level investment decisio...

  4. Urban Modality: Modelling and evaluating the sustainable mobility of urban areas in the city-region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis proposes a framework for evaluating the mobility potential and performance of urban areas in the city region, as an instrument to support urban development that contributes positively to regional sustainable mobility objectives. The research takes a quantitative approach, modelling and m

  5. Chapter 11: City-Wide Collaborations for Urban Climate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Steven; Hoffstadt, Rita Mukherjee; Allen, Lauren B.; Crowley, Kevin; Bader, Daniel A.; Horton, Radley M.

    2014-01-01

    Although cities cover only 2 percent of the Earth's surface, more than 50 percent of the world's people live in urban environments, collectively consuming 75 percent of the Earth's resources. Because of their population densities, reliance on infrastructure, and role as centers of industry, cities will be greatly impacted by, and will play a large role in, the reduction or exacerbation of climate change. However, although urban dwellers are becoming more aware of the need to reduce their carbon usage and to implement adaptation strategies, education efforts on these strategies have not been comprehensive. To meet the needs of an informed and engaged urban population, a more systemic, multiplatform and coordinated approach is necessary. The Climate and Urban Systems Partnership (CUSP) is designed to explore and address this challenge. Spanning four cities-Philadelphia, New York, Pittsburgh, and Washington, DC-the project is a partnership between the Franklin Institute, the Columbia University Center for Climate Systems Research, the University of Pittsburgh Learning Research and Development Center, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, New York Hall of Science, and the Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences. The partnership is developing a comprehensive, interdisciplinary network to educate urban residents about climate science and the urban impacts of climate change.

  6. The hybrid outcome of urban change: global city, polarized city?

    OpenAIRE

    Ayat Ismail

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of studies supports the assumption that levels of socio-spatial polarization, segregation, and exclusion are rising in global cities over the past decades as a direct outcome of certain global processes, such as the deindustrialization process, its associated changes in division of labor, and declined redistributive power of the welfare state. However, that assumption – known as the polarization thesis – is criticized based on several contentions, including the oversimplification...

  7. CITY | NATURE BORDER ON TEST - [URBANISM STUDIO 2015}

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    - specific larger urban notes of city and park? And what if the shopping centre Fields is being opened up, and a new public main square across the highway becomes the new centre of Ørestad interlinking Amager north to south, east to west? This catalogue presents strategic development and design proposals for...... city-nature border conditions on Amager, Copenhagen. From November 2014 to February 2015, 33 students from eight countries with an equal number of foreign and Danish students explored possible solutions for new city-nature border conditions of Amager and Nature Park Amager seeking to unfold the future...

  8. Urban Futures: Cities as Agents of Globalization and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Boykova; Irina Ilyina; Mikhail Salazkin

    2011-01-01

    The increasing complexity of globalization is reflected in the rapid growth of urban areas and expanding mega cities, where the majority of the world’ population is concentrated and where new trends in society and economy develop. This paper addresses the need for a new paradigm for urban development studies. Experts tend to share the view that the radically changing global of urban growth requires rethinking. The urgent task is to move from the concept of “growth at any price” to a philosoph...

  9. Improving urban ecosystems resilience at a city level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Ferrreira, Carla S. S.; Malta, Miguel; Soares, Daniel D. J.; Pardal, João; Vilhena, José

    2013-04-01

    The sustainability of urban communities is at risk in a global change context, where environmental problems and the constraints posed by a limited access to key raw materials, energy and sanitation will cause profound changes on the way we interact with the natural environment. Major changes are expected on processes magnitude and connectivity at various scales, with profound impacts on the environmental and well-being problems posed by the packing of high density of people in restricted areas, that have to be dealt with. The conventional approach is to find technological solutions that are often expensive and inefficient, especially in what concerns the use of energy and raw materials, limiting long term sustainability and urban ecosystems' resilience, and consequent impacts on the quality of life and health of urban populations. To improve city resilience in face of global change threats (climatic change, growing world population, land use change, lower energy availability, reduced mobility as a result of fossil fuels stringency and costs), we need to develop a nested approach binding together various greening actions and management of green infrastructures at various scales (i.e. household, neighbourhood, city and urban/wildland interface). This paper presents the conceptual strategy being developed at the Coimbra City (Centre of Portugal) to increase the resilience of urban ecosystems, using them to reduce natural risk occurrence (such as flash floods), the promotion of human health and increasing city resilience towards an improve food self sufficiency. We present a discussion and evaluation of the different solutions designed and implemented to improve the overall urban sustainability at different scales of intervention, from the household solutions to more structural solutions such as the recover of riparian forests or the preservation and improvement of green corridors. Of paramount importance to improve urban ecosystem resilience is the development of new

  10. Traditional Islamic cities unveiled: the quest for urban design regularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Correia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Islamic cities have generally gathered orientalized gazes and perspectives, picking up from misconceptions and stereotypes that during the second half af the 19th century andwere perpectuated by colonialism. More recent scholarship has shed light on the urban organizationand composition of such tissues; most of them confined to old quarters or historical centres ofthriving contemporary cities within the Arab-Muslim world. In fact, one of the most striking featureshas been the unveiling of layered urban assemblages where exterior agents have somehowlaunched or interrupted an apparent islamicized continuum. Primarly, this paper wishes to search forexternal political factors that have designed regularly geometrized patterns in medium-sized Arabtowns. For that, two case studies from different geographies - Maghreb and the Near East - will bemorphologically analysed through updated urban surveys. Whereas Nablus (Palestine ows the urbanmatrix of its old town to its Roman past, in Azemmour’s medina (Morocco it is still possible to trackthe thin European early-modern colonial stratum. However, both cases show how regularity patternschallenge Western concepts of geometrical design to embrace levels of rationality related to tradionalIslamic urban forms, societal configurations and built environment. Urban morphology becomes afundamental tool for articulating the history with me processes of sedimentation and evolution in orderto read current urban prints and dynamics. Thus, the paper will also interpret alternative logics ofrational urban display in Azemmour and Nablus, linked to ways of living within the Islamic sphere.

  11. Urban Energy Generation and the Role of Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Niels Boje; Fertner, Christian; Große, Juliane

    Although a major part of energy consumption happens in cities, contemporary energy generation is less obviously connected to the urban structure. Energy based on fossil fuels and consumed in transportation is produced at global scale; energy for electricity is usually distributed through a national...... still feeding into the grid. Furthermore, through the ongoing liberalisation of energy markets and a subsequent change in the organisation structure of energy providers towards larger co-operations as well as the development of new technologies as ‘smart grid’-solutions, local authorities seem to lose...... cities can be twofold: (1) cities as producers and (2) cities as enablers or promoters. Furthermore, energy production (renewable or not) has to happen somewhere, potentially also in the city where consumption takes place, and is related to specific spatial conditions. We review the contemporary options...

  12. Urban street networks: a comparative analysis of ten European cities

    CERN Document Server

    Strano, Emanuele; Cardillo, Alessio; Costa, Luciano Da Fontoura; Porta, Sergio; Latora, Vito

    2012-01-01

    We compare the structural properties of the street networks of ten different European cities using their primal representation. We investigate the properties of the geometry of the networks and a set of centrality measures highlighting differences and similarities among cases. In particular, we found that cities share structural similarities due to their quasi planarity but that there are also several distinctive geometrical proprieties. A Principal Component Analysis is also performed on the distributions of centralities and their respective moments, which is used to find distinctive characteristics by which we can classify cities into families. We believe that, beyond the improvement of the empirical knowledge on streets network proprieties, our findings can open new perspectives in the scientific relation between city planning and complex networks, stimulating the debate on the effectiveness of the set of knowledge that statistical physics can contribute for city planning and urban morphology studies.

  13. Characterizing the fabric of the urban environment: A case study of Greater Houston, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Leanna Shea; Akbari, Hashem; Taha, Haider

    2003-01-15

    In this report, the materials and various surface types that comprise a city are referred to as the ''urban fabric.'' Urban fabric data are needed in order to estimate the impact of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city, and to design effective urban environmental implementation programs. We discuss the results of a semi-automatic Monte-Carlo statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and city-fabric makeup (percentage of various surface-types) using aerial color orthophotography. The digital aerial photographs for Houston covered a total of about 52 km2 (20 mi2). At 0.30-m resolution, there were approximately 5.8 x 108 pixels of data. Four major land-use types were examined: (1) commercial, (2) industrial, (3) educational, and (4) residential. On average, for the regions studied, vegetation covers about 39 percent of the area, roofs cover about 21 percent, and paved surfaces cover about 29 percent. For the most part, trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. At ground level, i.e., view from below the vegetation canopies, paved surfaces cover about 32 percent of the study area. GLOBEIS model data from University of Texas and land-use/land-cover (LULC) information from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) were used to extrapolate these results from neighborhood scales to Greater Houston. It was found that in an area of roughly 3,430 km2, defining most of Greater Houston, over 56 percent is residential. The total roof area is about 740 km2, and the total paved surface area (roads, parking areas, sidewalks) covers about 1000 km2. Vegetation covers about 1,320 km2.

  14. Transgressive urbanism: Borderlands and urban informality of american cities along the Pan-American Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Suau

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the ways in which political boundaries can be trespassed in order to develop subaltern forms of urbanism and edge conditions, mainly to the comparative study of border cities in the Americas, predominantly ruled by informal economies, and which are situated alongside the largest land-transport infrastructure on Earth called ‘Pan-American Highway’. This land transport corridor operates as a grand linear urbanism and constitutes the economical catalyst of emerging urban economies in scenarios of political regional integration (‘soft boundaries’ or fortification (demarcations. As result of border pressure, the process of ‘instantness’ has upgraded various informal urban economies to adequate standards of production, consumption and exchange. In terms of regional development, one of the direct impacts of the Pan-American Highway – from Alaska to Patagonia – has been the expansion of formal and informal economic and trade corridors along this main infrastructure network, which is shaping the urban structure of border cities or towns. On one hand, this study reflects on the border conditions of American border cities ruled by formal and informal economies. On another hand, it compares and critically reflects on the socio-spatial principles of infrastructural urbanism and the phenomenon of metapolisation (Ascher, 2004 of urban economies in selected border cities. The novelty of this study lies in the observation and mapping of new spatial schemes in border landscapes alongside the largest infrastructure on Earth.

  15. Teaching Urban Sociology and Urban Sustainability on Two Feet, Two Wheels, and in Three Cities: Our Experience Teaching Sustainable Cities in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Lars; Fischer, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe their experiences teaching Sustainable Cities in North America, a course on both urban sociology and urban sustainability. This course brought students to Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, British Columbia, and then compared those cities with Minneapolis, Minnesota, on various dimensions of urban sustainability. After…

  16. Urban Interaction Design: Towards City Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brynskov, M.; Carvajal Bermúdez, J.C.; Fernández, M.; Korsgaard, H.; Mulder, I.J.; Piskorek, K.; Rekow, L.; De Waal, M.

    2014-01-01

    This book is an effort to explore the newly emerging field of urban interaction design that addresses these issues. In the first part of the book, 'Foundations', we look into its origins. Where do its practitioners come from? How are they working together? What methodologies do they bring to the tab

  17. Sustainable Urban Development – Compact Cities or Consumer Practices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability in urban planning has a long history and it has been a widespread solution to build high and compact in order to minimise the need for transportation, land use and heating. Recent research, however, points towards the need for a supplementary approach, which includes the consumer...... behaviour of the household. This approach necessarily has to work from below and include the citizens, as it is their daily practices that have to be challenged. This article reviews selected literature and studies on whether compact cities leads to more sustainable cities, and it use lifestyle...... interpretations of urbane forms to challenge the compact cities approach. As an alternative or supplementary approach the article introduce practice theory as a way to understand consumption and it gives examples on how this approach can be used to inspire local authorities to alternative and supplementary...

  18. Birds and the City: Urban Biodiversity, Land Use, and Socioeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Kabisch

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined bird diversity in relation to land use and socioeconomic indicators in Leipzig, Germany. We used neighborhood diversity (ND and bivariate correlation to show that the potential to experience biodiversity in a city is associated with population density, household income, unemployment, and urban green space. People living in urban districts with high socioeconomic status experience the highest species richness around their homes, whereas lower social status increases the chance of living in species-poor neighborhoods. High-status districts are located along forests, parks, and rivers that have a high quantity and quality of green space. However, green space in general does not guarantee high bird diversity. We conclude that bird diversity mirrors land use and socioeconomic patterns within the compact European city of Leipzig. Therefore, urban planning should focus on decreasing these patterns and protecting the remaining species-rich green spaces.

  19. Urban environmental health: Respiratory illness and urban factors in Kuala Lumpur City, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Ling Hoon Leh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing urbanisation, more people are now staying in urban built environments, even though the conditions of the urban environments may not be conducive to urban residents' health. However, with the lack of health data of urban residents, very few studies have been conducted to examine the relationship between urban factors and city residents' health especially in developing countries. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to examine the rate of respiratory illness (acute respiratory infection and asthma among residents of Kuala Lumpur City and also to investigate the relationship between the respiratory health rate and urban factors. A questionnaire was distributed to 563 households in the study area. Human health (as measured by acute respiratory infection and asthma was found to be related to the land acreage of urban land use components, trip generated rate and other urban factors. An increase in shopping and office floor space, and trip frequencies, or decrease of green spaces were found to be related positively with the increasing rate of respiratory illness cases among people living in the Kuala Lumpur City.

  20. Planetary stewardship in an urbanizing world: beyond city limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzinger, Sybil P; Svedin, Uno; Crumley, Carole L; Steffen, Will; Abdullah, Saiful Arif; Alfsen, Christine; Broadgate, Wendy J; Biermann, Frank; Bondre, Ninad R; Dearing, John A; Deutsch, Lisa; Dhakal, Shobhakar; Elmqvist, Thomas; Farahbakhshazad, Neda; Gaffney, Owen; Haberl, Helmut; Lavorel, Sandra; Mbow, Cheikh; McMichael, Anthony J; Demorais, Joao M F; Olsson, Per; Pinho, Patricia Fernanda; Seto, Karen C; Sinclair, Paul; Stafford Smith, Mark; Sugar, Lorraine

    2012-12-01

    Cities are rapidly increasing in importance as a major factor shaping the Earth system, and therefore, must take corresponding responsibility. With currently over half the world's population, cities are supported by resources originating from primarily rural regions often located around the world far distant from the urban loci of use. The sustainability of a city can no longer be considered in isolation from the sustainability of human and natural resources it uses from proximal or distant regions, or the combined resource use and impacts of cities globally. The world's multiple and complex environmental and social challenges require interconnected solutions and coordinated governance approaches to planetary stewardship. We suggest that a key component of planetary stewardship is a global system of cities that develop sustainable processes and policies in concert with its non-urban areas. The potential for cities to cooperate as a system and with rural connectivity could increase their capacity to effect change and foster stewardship at the planetary scale and also increase their resource security. PMID:23076974

  1. Urban strategies and post-event legacy: the case of summer Olympic cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Mega-event strategies and their impact on host cities have drawn increasing interest, as organising large-scale urban events has become part of a deliberate urban policy strategy to promote local economic growth, improve the city image and put the host city on the world agenda. Most cities stressed

  2. Port Cities and Urban Waterfront: Transformations and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana Giovinazzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the wide and complex panorama of urban transformation, waterfront revitalisation is one of the most interesting phenomena of urban renewal of the last decades, bringing ‘cities on water’ around the world to a new leadership. After years of oblivion, the presence of the natural element –water– have shown to be of great appeal as an attractive pole for the quality of every day’s life. In particular, the visual contact with water together with pedestrian paths along the waterfronts and the implementation of waterborne transports, where possible, are giving an added value to these areas, becoming even more interesting in terms of Real Estate. Now spread out and developed at a global dimensions, involving both, big cities but also medium and smallscale cities at all latitudes and in all continents, waterfront regeneration is in many cases the starting point for the regeneration of the city itself and of its relocation in the international context. Under this point of view, marine, port and fluvial cities can be considered laboratories for the process of urban renewal in terms of residential, transports, public spaces and quality of the environment, in view of both, the broad range of cases and the quality of the results. In light of its 20-year long activity in terms of monitoring and studying best practices in the field of waterfront revitalisation, the Centre Cities on Water carried-out an international overview, developing a comparative analysis of the key element for the success of these operation. To this regards, a selection of case-studies has been identified at international level, according to the main ‘ingredients’ for a sustainable cohabitation between ports and cities and for a lasting success in waterfront regeneration processes. Water quality, public and free access and to water, public spaces, gradual and flexible development and shared participation in the entire process as well as a mix of functions and uses and the

  3. Urban agriculture in the transition to low carbon cities through urban greening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Thornbush

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture presents an opportunity to extend food production to cities. This could enhance food security, particularly in developing countries, and allow for adaptation to growing urbanization. This review paper examines current trends in urban agriculture from a global perspective as a mitigation-adaptation approach to climate change adaptation in the midst of a growing world population. Employing vegetation as a carbon capture and storage system encapsulates a soft-engineering strategy that can be easily deployed by planners and environmental managers. In this review, urban agriculture is presented as a land-use solution to counteract the effects of urbanization, and as a means to establish a continuum between cities and the countryside. It espouses the usefulness of urban agriculture to enhance food security while sequestering carbon. As part of urban greening (including newer approaches, such as green roofs and gardens as well as more established forms of greening, such as forests and parks, urban agriculture offers traditionally rural services in cities, thereby contributing to food resources as well as working to alleviate pressing social issues like poverty. It also provides a way to reduce stress on farmland, and creates opportunities for employment and community-building. As part of greening, urban agriculture provides a buffer for pollution and improves environmental (and well as human health and well-being. This review begins by addressing the physical factors of adopting urban agriculture, such as climate change and development, land use and degradation, technology and management, and experimental findings as well as human factors investigated in the published literature. As such, it presents an integrated approach to urban agriculture that is part of a social-ecological perspective.

  4. Deturned City Design as tool for Aesthetic Urban living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    way we are using urban spaces and interact in every day city life. This article presents concepts of performative architecture and urban scenography. It draws lines back to the artistic and architectural avant-garde in the 1960s. The aim is to evaluate the phenomenon of aesthetic experience in the......In an urban context - there is an increasing need to find adequate architectural responses to urban challenges, where tourism and the experience economy are in focus. New architectural concepts are looking away from modernism's strong attachment to ‘form and function’ towards ‘the sensual and the...... narrative’. In large prestige projects you often see that new expressive architecture is coupled with old industrial buildings in order to create strong stories about a future; similar art installations and temporary architecture are emerging providing the audience with spatial experiences questioning the...

  5. City at crisis proof: an opportunity to rebuild urban making?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication proposes summaries and synthesis of contributions to a conference which addressed the issues of urban sustainable development. The contributors notably discussed the consequences of public finance crisis in terms of social and economical impacts on territories and on increased inequalities between territories, the political challenge of urban growth management (objectives of housing construction in contradiction with the stoppage of farmland consumption), the current challenges of town governance (in terms of democracy, tax policy, or State commitment), the difficulties related to the existence of too many standards, to financing, to urban space organisation (gentrification, governance commitment), and to the lack of strong land policies. Other interveners comment the role and commitment of building companies, the various challenges faced by cities (resources, food supply, and land policy), the issue of policy and democracy. The issue of energy transition and its connection with urban policies are then addressed, and perspectives are discussed

  6. Urban physiology: city ants possess high heat tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Angilletta

    Full Text Available Urbanization has caused regional increases in temperature that exceed those measured on a global scale, leading to urban heat islands as much as 12 degrees C hotter than their surroundings. Optimality models predict ectotherms in urban areas should tolerate heat better and cold worse than ectotherms in rural areas. We tested these predications by measuring heat and cold tolerances of leaf-cutter ants from South America's largest city (São Paulo, Brazil. Specifically, we compared thermal tolerances of ants from inside and outside of the city. Knock-down resistance and chill-coma recovery were used as indicators of heat and cold tolerances, respectively. Ants from within the city took 20% longer to lose mobility at 42 degrees C than ants from outside the city. Interestingly, greater heat tolerance came at no obvious expense of cold tolerance; hence, our observations only partially support current theory. Our results indicate that thermal tolerances of some organisms can respond to rapid changes in climate. Predictive models should account for acclimatory and evolutionary responses during climate change.

  7. Energy systems for smart cities; Energiesysteme fuer Smart Cities. Intelligente und integrierte urbane Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, Rolf [Siemens AG, Nuernberg (Germany). Sektor Energy

    2010-05-31

    As of 2007, the number of people living in conurbations around the world surpassed that of those living in rural areas. As a consequence of this development, large cities worldwide account for 75 % of energy demand and, at the same time, are responsible for a large percentage of carbon dioxide emissions. A number of cities and greater city areas have therefore set ambitious goals for increasing the efficiency of their infrastructure to help reduce emissions, while at the same time providing the ever-increasing urban population with a continued high quality of life. (orig.)

  8. The road to liberating citizens While governing the urban areas. The tale of two cities: Cairo and buenos aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Sirry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The relation between the political agenda, the social and economic policies, and urban planning and fabric of cities as a product cannot be missed. And as cities are centres of national economic growth and given that the future of the world will be urban it is thus ironic that the majority of the population of almost all cities in almost all developing countries lives in houses that are below standards, in areas that lack services and basic infrastructure. Furthermore, the people who live in these areas suffer from high present of socio-economic problems such as unemployment and literacy. The poorest of the population have to pay more for their houses, service and infrastructure provision. And they lack access to formal credit and thus to opportunities (Sirry 2004. The cities have become places of frustration instead of places of hope and opportunities. It is not thus surprising that the world is witnessing a wave of upheavals all over its’ cities. In the two case studies the article will try to discuss the background of the country and the political, social, and economic conditions and the physical outcome that is manifested in the image of its cities specially the capital city and how can the change towards democracy help the country, its cities and the urban population. The period covered is called by many the contemporary period, it starts in 50’s in Egypt and 70’s in Argentine.

  9. Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flood risk in Can Tho city, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. L. Huong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, and also to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city – Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam – faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i climate change-driven sea-level rise and tidal effect, (ii increase river runoff due to climate change, (iii increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven micro-climatic change (urban heat islands. A set of model simulations were used to assess the future impact of the combination of these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land-use simulation model (Dinamica-EGO. A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF, coupled with a detailed land-surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM, was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood risk resulting from the changes. The results show that, if the city develops as predicted, the maximum of inundation depth and area in Can Tho will increase by about 20%. The impact of climate change on inundation is more serious than that of urbanization. The worse case may occur if the sea level rises 100 cm and

  10. Changes of Urban Wetland Landscape Pattern and Impacts of Urbanization on Wetland in Wuhan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuelei; NING Longmei; YU Jing; XIAO Rui; LI Tao

    2008-01-01

    In this study, remote sensing data of Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in 1996-2001 were selected to ex-tract wetland landscape information. Several landscape indices were used to evaluate the changes of landscape patternwithin the five years, including patch number, patch density, patch fractal dimension, landscape diversity, dominance,evenness, and fragmentation indexes. Then, transformation probabilities of wetland landscapes into non-wetland land-scapes were calculated based on Markov Model, and on these grounds the relationship between changes of wetlandlandscape pattern and urban construction was analyzed. The results showed that fragmentation degree of all wetlandtypes increased, lake area declined, and dominance of natural wetland decreased. The reasons for these results weremainly because of urban construction. According to the features of abundant wetland in Wuhan City, we suggested thatprotection of wetland landscape should cooperate with urban construction, which means wetland should become im-portant part of urban landscape.

  11. Urban DNA for cities evolutions. Cities as physical expression of dynamic equilibriums between competitive and cooperative forces

    CERN Document Server

    D'Acci, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Cities are physical manifestations of our competitive and cooperative behaviours. The tension between these two forces generates dynamic equilibriums whose material expressions are cities and their evolutions. In a Darwinian cooperative view, as Darwinism does not involve only competition, the public benefit obtained by cooperation, return in terms of private benefit too. An urban genetic code is proposed, according to which cities emerge connecting nature and urbanity, and as sum of multiuse, independent micro-areas, each one with its centrality, job locations, parks and daily shops-services and amenities. This mechanism, called Isobenefit Urbanism, is not static and pre-designed, but allows infinitely dynamic changes and expansions. Rather than describing The ideal city, which doesn't exist outside our own minds, Isobenefit Urbanism describes what a city should avoid to be in order to not become an unideal city. Its six principles are the urban DNA which does not give predetermined forms but indications to ...

  12. The ecology of city soundscape: a contribution to urban sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cuervo Pulido

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ecology of a city’s soundscape studies sounds in public spaces and the relationships between its inhabitants, which is an essential component for the sustainability and planning of contemporary cities. This re- search analyses the soundscape of Seventh Avenue between 26th and 72nd streets in Bogota in order to identify the areas with high levels of noise pollution and its relation with urban space. The positive impact that the National Park has had on the soundscape is demonstrated as well as the importance of incorporating sound design into urban space.

  13. Open spaces and urban morphology: discussions on climate impacts and urban sustainability: a study in cities of Alagoas, northeast Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Gianna Melo Barbirato; Simone Carnaúba Torres; Ricardo Victor Rodrigues Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    This article shows reflections on urban morphology, open spaces and its relation to climate adaptation and urban sustainability. These studies, based on climatic maps analysis and computational simulations of urban scenarios in the cities of Maceió and Arapiraca, State of Alagoas, Northeast Brasil, reveal that the urban settlement patterns, determined by current instruments of urban legislation, are not able to maximize the use of environmental conditions in urban areas. It highlights the nee...

  14. Walls of Crisis: Street Art and Urban Fabric in Central Athens, 2000–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos Leventis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Street art, an offspring of the global metropolis and a product of its socio-urban fabric, has inevitably grown on, and been sustained by, urban architecture. Individual taggers and graffiti crews have proliferated in European cities since the 1980s. In the beginning, they mirrored their North American counterparts’ socio-political preoccupations that were a product of deteriorating socio-economic and socio-urban conditions in depressed sectors of metropolitan areas. In the early 1990s, however, with economic development and the beginnings of urban regeneration processes came the first large-scale mutation of tagging into ‘graffiti art’. With larger and more recognizable works, and visual rather than textual content, by the late 1990s graffiti was accepted by increasingly broader sections of urban population as ‘street art’. A new form of public art, street art could claim a legitimate part in the forming and transforming of urban identities in both their visual and their spatial iterations.

  15. Interaction between Cities and Climate Change: Modelling Urban Morphology and Local Urban Planning Scenarios from Open Datasets across European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bart; Stevens, Catherine; Grommen, Mart

    2015-04-01

    Cities are characterised by a large spatiotemporal diversity of local climates induced by a superposition of various factors and processes interacting at global and regional scales but also at the micro level such as the urban heat island effect. As urban areas are known as 'hot spots' prone to climate and its variability over time leading to changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves, it is of crucial importance to capture the spatial heterogeneity resulting from variations in land use land cover (LULC) and urban morphology in an effective way to drive local urban climate simulations. The first part of the study conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission focusses on the extraction of land surface parameters linked to urban morphology characteristics from detailed 3D city models and their relationship with openly accessible European datasets such as the degree of soil sealing and disaggregated population densities from the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the Joint Research Centre (JRC). While it has been demonstrated that good correlations can be found between those datasets and the planar and frontal area indices, the present work has expanded the research to other urban morphology parameters including the average and variation of the building height and the sky view factor. Correlations up to 80% have been achieved depending on the considered parameter and the specific urban area including the cities of Antwerp (Belgium), Berlin (Germany) and Almada (Portugal) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. Moreover, the transferability of the established relations has been investigated across the various cities. Secondly, a flexible and scalable approach as a function of the required the level of detail has been elaborated to update the various morphology parameters in case of integration with urban planning data to analyse the local impact of future land use scenarios

  16. CREATIVE BUZZ DISTRICTS IN SMART CITIES: URBAN RETRO-FITTING AND URBAN FORWARD-FITTING PLANS

    OpenAIRE

    Karima Kourtit; Peter Nijkamp

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for evaluating ‘urban buzz’ districts as part of a general urban rehabilitation policy, in which forward-fitting plans are incorporated and play a key role. Such plans are part of smart city initiatives based on a blend of creativeness and intelligence. The so-called decompositional evaluation method based on a multicriteria analysis is illustrated for a case study in Amsterdam, viz. the NDSM area.

  17. Evaluation of life quality indicators in cities & improving urban environmental (Case Study: Boroujerd city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Olfaty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main urban issues is healthy life of residents. Today cities have created mental disaster due to some problems such as crowded, pollutions, high density population and etc. on the other hand , cities especially small cities have natural and appropriate conditions in order to improving urban life quality . So should be planned for using from them. This research is applied. Research method is "descriptive – analytical". Data collected is field. At first, was determined by using kukran method. The sample size is 384 people. In order to using from (GHQ-28 questionnaire (Human, 2005: 131. In this research was evaluated urban quality of Boroujerd city. In order to analyzing of data was used some technique such as: SPSS, Pierson correlation, T test, T Kendall, regression and keroskal. Also, was used questioner for determining sample size. The results shows, there is oriented relation between location and health of residents. Indeed, there is appropriate condition of life quality in welfare location. On the other hand, the most disorder between residents was stress that decreased urban life quality

  18. Soil in the City: Sustainably Improving Urban Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldip; Hundal, Lakhwinder S

    2016-01-01

    Large tracts of abandoned urban land, resulting from the deindustrialization of metropolitan areas, are generating a renewed interest among city planners and community organizations envisioning the productive use of this land not only to produce fresh food but to effectively manage stormwater and mitigate the impact of urban heat islands. Healthy and productive soils are paramount to meet these objectives. However, these urban lands are often severely degraded due to anthropogenic activities and are generally contaminated with priority pollutants, especially heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Characterizing these degraded and contaminated soils and making them productive again to restore the required ecosystem services was the theme of the "Soil in the City- 2014" conference organized by W-2170 Committee (USDA's Sponsored Multi-State Research Project: Soil-Based Use of Residuals, Wastewater, & Reclaimed Water). This special section of comprises 12 targeted papers authored by conference participants to make available much needed information about the characteristics of urban soils. Innovative ways to mitigate the risks from pollutants and to improve the soil quality using local resources are discussed. Such practices include the use of composts and biosolids to grow healthy foods, reclaim brownfields, manage stormwater, and improve the overall ecosystem functioning of urban soils. These papers provide a needed resource for educating policymakers, practitioners, and the general public about using locally available resources to restore fertility, productivity, and ecosystem functioning of degraded urban land to revitalize metropolitan areas for improving the overall quality of life for a large segment of a rapidly growing urban population. PMID:26828154

  19. Urban Energy Generation and the Role of Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Niels Boje; Fertner, Christian; Große, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Although a major part of energy consumption happens in cities, contemporary energy generation is less obviously connected to the urban structure. Energy based on fossil fuels and consumed in transportation is produced at global scale; energy for electricity is usually distributed through a national...... into the grid. Furthermore, through the ongoing liberalisation of energy markets and a subsequent change in the organisation structure of energy providers towards larger co-operations as well as the development of new technologies as ‘smart grid’-solutions, local authorities seem to lose further influence...... on energy generation and distribution. However, contemporary focus on sustainable and efficient use of resources and energy at local level, mainstreaming of renewable energy production and ideas of urban energy harvesting put energy generation again on the local agenda. The role of cities can be twofold: (1...

  20. The Invisible City: Exploring the Third Something of Urban Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Martinez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With this article I intend to contribute to the debate about how to study urban life. Firstly, I argue for the relevance of invisible and silent aspects of cities and inbetween sutures, which I understand to mean a third ’something’ beyond forms and flows. Secondly, I explore several examples and draw on arguments from Wittgenstein and Lefebvre to frame this hypothesis. Thirdly, I use the chess game as a metaphor to illustrate the multiplicity and unpredictability of engagements of urban life. Finnally, I propose to approach cities in an open-ended and ordinary way, paying attention to dialectically interconnected processes and the particular conditions of possibility for knowledge.

  1. Making Ground, Losing Space: Land Reclamation and Urban Public Space in Island Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Grydehøj

    2015-01-01

    This article foregrounds urban public space by considering land reclamation in island cities. Land reclamation is nearly ubiquitous in the urban development of coastal cities, and island cities in particular are subject to exceptionally dense urbanisation and thus exceptionally strong conflict over urban space. Drawing upon theories at the intersection of the land and the sea (liquid, archipelago, and aquapelago spatiality), we analyse socially problematic aspects of the creation of new urban...

  2. Urban agriculture in the metropolitan area of Mexico city

    OpenAIRE

    H. Losada; Rivera, J.; Cortes, J; Vieyra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Mexico City and the rest of the country do not escape from the social and economic inequalities of the present economic model applied worldwide.  Agriculture is a traditional activity in Mexico. This urban productive process has particular features: the predominance of smallholding, the restricted use of physical space, and the use of recycled materials and organic wastes. The population engaged in agriculture is heterogeneous, and includes women and children. There are a couple of production...

  3. Developing knowledge cities : aligning urban, corporate and university strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Den Heijer, A.C.; De Vries, J.C.; de Jonge, H.

    2011-01-01

    The successful development of knowledge cities increasingly depends on collaboration between urban and regional authorities, knowledge institutions and businesses. Policy makers and business strategists do acknowledge the interrelated objectives of these actors in the knowledge economy and their different roles in a common network. They also identify the physical settings as an important resource to achieve mutual goals. While a shift from awareness to active collaboration is taking place, th...

  4. A perceptive insight into cities patterns by visualizing urban economies

    OpenAIRE

    Piovano, Luca; Andréu, Alberto; Galloso Guitard, Iris; Feijoo Gonzalez, Claudio Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Urban economic activities are an essential facet in defining city identity. Traditional approaches rely very often on the most theoretical and quantitative features of the studies, excluding de-facto a direct association between those findings and the tangible subject of the analysis. To fill the gap, the Big Data era and information visualization methodologies could help analysts, stakeholders and general audience to gain a new insight on the field. In this paper, we want to provide some foo...

  5. Pedestrians and cyclists interaction in urban settings of Pardubice city

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Bulíček; Pavlína Brožová; Ivo Hruban; Matúš Šucha

    2014-01-01

    Presented paper is focused on questions of cyclist transport in urban settings, specifically in the city of Pardubice. Emphasis is put on analysis of potentially conflict places, especially in interaction with pedestrians. Direct terrain observation and consequent evaluation of conflict potential are used as method for data collecting. When cycling routes are designed, the requirements of the cyclists should be taken into account in order to ensure that the routes are accepted. In order to ma...

  6. Multifunctionality assessment of urban agriculture in Beijing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Liu, Zhicong; Liu, Yanxu; Hu, Xiaoxu; Wang, An

    2015-12-15

    As an important approach to the realization of agricultural sustainable development, multifunctionality has become a hot spot in the field of urban agriculture. Taking 13 agricultural counties of Beijing City as the assessing units, this study selects 10 assessing index from ecological, economic and social aspects, determines the index weight using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, and establishes an index system for the integrated agricultural function. Based on standardized data from agricultural census and remote sensing, the integrated function and multifunctionality of urban agriculture in Beijing City are assessed through the index grade mapping. The results show that agricultural counties with the highest score in ecological, economic, and social function are Yanqing, Changping, and Miyun, respectively; and the greatest disparity among those counties is economic function, followed by social and ecological function. Topography and human disturbance may be the factors that affect integrated agricultural function. The integrated agricultural function of Beijing rises at the beginning then drops later with the increase of mean slope, average altitude, and distance from the city. The whole city behaves balance among ecological, economic, and social functions at the macro level, with 8 out of the 13 counties belonging to ecology-society-economy balanced areas, while no county is dominant in only one of the three functions. On the micro scale, however, different counties have their own functional inclination: Miyun, Yanqing, Mentougou, and Fengtai are ecology-society dominant, and Tongzhou is ecology-economy dominant. The agricultural multifunctionality in Beijing City declines from the north to the south, with Pinggu having the most significant agricultural multifunctionality. The results match up well with the objective condition of Beijing's urban agriculture planning, which has proved the methodological rationality of the assessment to a certain extent

  7. Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flooding in Can Tho city, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. L. Huong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, as well as to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness is better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city – Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam – faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i the likely effect of climate change-driven sea level rise, (ii an expected increase of river runoff due to climate change as estimated by the Vietnamese government, (iii increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven, microclimatic change (urban heat islands. A set of model simulations were used to construct future scenarios, combining these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land use simulation model (Dinamica EGO. A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF, coupled with a detailed land surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM, was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood hazard resulting from the changes. The results show that under the combined scenario of significant change in river level (due to climate-driven sea level rise and increase of flow in the Mekong and "business as usual" urbanization, the flooding of Can Tho

  8. Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flooding in Can Tho city, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, H. T. L.; Pathirana, A.

    2013-01-01

    Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, as well as to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness is better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city - Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam) - faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i) the likely effect of climate change-driven sea level rise, (ii) an expected increase of river runoff due to climate change as estimated by the Vietnamese government, (iii) increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv) enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven, microclimatic change (urban heat islands). A set of model simulations were used to construct future scenarios, combining these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land use simulation model (Dinamica EGO). A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF), coupled with a detailed land surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM), was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo) was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood hazard resulting from the changes. The results show that under the combined scenario of significant change in river level (due to climate-driven sea level rise and increase of flow in the Mekong) and "business as usual" urbanization, the flooding of Can Tho could increase

  9. Socioeconomic impact of urban redevelopment in inner city of Ningbo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BACHOUR Bachir; DONG Wei

    2006-01-01

    Since market-oriented economy reform, China has experienced significant changes in urban landscapes and the internal structure of cities. Housing marketization provides an opportunity for households to choose their residences. Hwever, not all households benefit equally from residential relocation. Residential relocation in urban China has relatively strong association with the household's position within the spectrum from state redistribution to market reward than with life cycles and consequent adjustment of housing demand, which are the primary reasons for residential mobility in a mature market. In this research we focused on social aspects, mainly relating to the impact of urban redevelopment in inner city of Ningbo and the resultant potential housing problem. This research is based on a questionnaire survey that was conducted in three neighborhoods redeveloped at different time periods in the past fifteen years. The findings suggest that new strategy of redevelopment of the integrated environment of the old city while still improving the living condition for its residents can be heard due to the efforts of many people at various positions. Yet, many things need to be done to change people's ideas: information and education through newspapers,academic discussions through academic journals, conferences, and reports to decision makers.

  10. Urban life cycle analysis and the conservation of the urban fabric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Algreen-Ussing, Gregers; Hassler, U.; Kohler, N.

    2004-01-01

    This position paper has been prepared in the framework of the SUIT project - Sustainable Development of Urban Historical Areas Through an Active Integration within Towns. The SUIT project is supported by the EU Programm "Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development", Key Action 4: The City of...

  11. Canadian cities in transition: new sources of urban difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry S. Bourne

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities, increasingly, are the principal arenas in which global, national and local forces intersect.Canadian cities are no exception. Those cities are currently undergoing a series ofprofound and irreversible transitions as a result of external forces originating from differentsources and operating at different spatial scales. Specifically, this paper argues that Canadiancities are being transformed in a markedly uneven fashion through the intersection ofchanges in national and regional economies, the continued demographic transition, andshifts in government policy on the one hand, and through increased levels and new sourcesof immigration, and the globalization of capital and trade flows, on the other hand. Theseshifts, in turn, are producing new patterns of external dependence, a more fragmented urbansystem, and continued metropolitan concentration. They are also leading to increased socioculturaldifferences, with intense cultural diversity in some cities juxtaposed with homogeneityin other cities, and to new sets of urban winners and losers. In effect, these transitionsare creating new sources of difference - new divides - among and within the country=surban centres, augmenting or replacing the traditional divides based on city-size, location inthe heartland or periphery, and local economic base.

  12. Urban Groundwater Mapping - Bucharest City Area Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Bica, Ioan; Anghel, Leonard; Amine Boukhemacha, Mohamed; Ionita, Angela

    2013-04-01

    Urban Groundwater Mapping (UGM) is a generic term for a collection of procedures and techniques used to create targeted cartographic representation of the groundwater related aspects in urban areas. The urban environment alters the physical and chemical characteristics of the underneath aquifers. The scale of the pressure is controlled by the urban development in time and space. To have a clear image on the spatial and temporal distribution of different groundwater- urban structures interaction we need a set of thematic maps is needed. In the present study it is described the methodological approach used to obtain a reliable cartographic product for Bucharest City area. The first step in the current study was to identify the groundwater related problems and aspects (changes in the groundwater table, infiltration and seepage from and to the city sewer network, contamination spread to all three aquifers systems located in quaternary sedimentary formations, dewatering impact for large underground structures, management and political drawbacks). The second step was data collection and validation. In urban areas there is a big spectrum of data providers related to groundwater. Due to the fact that data is produced and distributed by different types of organizations (national agencies, private companies, municipal water regulator, etc) the validation and cross check process is mandatory. The data is stored and managed by a geospatial database. The design of the database follows an object-orientated paradigm and is easily extensible. The third step consists of a set of procedures based on a multi criteria assessment that creates the specific setup for the thematic maps. The assessment is based on the following criteria: (1) scale effect , (2) time , (3) vertical distribution and (4) type of the groundwater related problem. The final step is the cartographic representation. In this final step the urban groundwater maps are created. All the methodological steps are doubled

  13. 3D City Models and urban information: current issues and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Billen, R; Cutting-Decelle, A.F.; Marina, O.; Almeida, J. P.; Caglioni, M.; Falcuet, G.; LEDUC, T; Metral, C; Moreau, G.; Perret, J.; San Jose, R.; Y. Yatskiv; Zlatanova, S.

    2014-01-01

    Considering sustainable development of cities implies investigating cities in a holistic way taking into account many interrelations between various urban or environmental issues. 3D city models are increasingly used in different cities and countries for an intended wide range of applications beyond mere visualization. Could these 3D City models be used to integrate urban and environmental knowledge? How could they be improved to fulfill such role? We believe that enriching the semantics of c...

  14. Changing urban phosphorus metabolism: Evidence from Longyan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shenghui; Xu, Su; Huang, Wei; Bai, Xuemei; Huang, Yunfeng; Li, Guilin

    2015-12-01

    Rapid worldwide urbanization calls for a better understanding of phosphorus (P) metabolism and the interaction of the physical, ecological and social drivers of P cycling in urban systems. We quantified the P metabolism in Longyan, a city with a major agricultural economy, and analyzed its long-term trends over the rapid urbanization period of 1985-2010. Both input P (from 4811 t P to 14,296 t P) and output P (from 4565 t P to 13,509 t P) increased significantly. The agricultural subsystem contributed most to the P metabolism, accounting for 85% of total P input. The share of P input lost to the environment, i.e. discharge to water, accumulation in the soil and landfill, increased from 66% to 72%, while food production efficiency decreased from 48% to 29%. Per capita P input showed linear relationships with the Human Development Index (HDI), S-curve relationship with the urbanization rate, and logistic curve relationship with per capita disposable income. A more meat-based diet shift both in Longyan and surrounding cities greatly affected Longyan's food production structure. Our results demonstrate that P metabolic quantity, configuration, and efficiency in production systems can change drastically in response to changes in consumer and producer behavior as well as in socioeconomic structure. A larger regional scale should be considered in urban P management, when trying to mitigate the increase in P use. The results also imply that sustainable urban P management will require a system-wide, cross-sector and cross-boundary approach. PMID:26142189

  15. Urban branding strategies and the emerging Arab cityscape : the image of the Gulf city

    OpenAIRE

    Helmy, Mona

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970, oil has given the Arab Gulf cities the opportunity to break regional and international records in urban development and economic growth, experiencing dramatic changes in the political, economic and socio-cultural domains, and especially in architecture and urbanism. The development of oil urbanization was shaped by the different practices of "Urban Branding" and city marketing processes. More important, "Urban branding" presents the duality of the emerging cityscape, in which the ...

  16. Sustainable Food Systems for Future Cities: The Potential of Urban Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kubi Ackerman; Michael Conard; Patricia Culligan; Richard Plunz; Maria-Paola Sutto; Leigh Whittinghill

    2014-01-01

    Populations around the world are growing and becoming predominately urban, fueling the need to re-examine how urban spaces are developed and urban inhabitants are fed. One remedy that is increasingly being considered as a solution to inadequate food access in cities, is urban agriculture. As a practice, urban agriculture is beneficial in both post-industrial and developing cities because it touches on the three pillars of sustainability: economics, society, and the environment. Historically, ...

  17. Methods and principles for the reading, analysis and virtual reconstruction of urban fabrics that have disappeared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Calisi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research proposed in this short article, try to show one of the possible methods to analyze and study some urban fabric, in historic cities in the first place, that have been lost or have been heavily modified over the centuries, dramatically changing their appearance. In particular, the study is aimed at cataloging of archival records for the area of the Imperial Fora in Rome, especially, in this first phase, in the areas adjacent to the archaeological ruins. Therefore, the case study is undoubtedly one of the most complex in terms of urban stratification. The lost Alessandrino district, demolished to make way for the Via dell'Impeo has been carefully analyzed, the documents were redrawn in digital, and we are seeing to the three-dimensional reconstruction to the computer.

  18. Transforming Settlements of the Urban Poor in Uganda : A Secondary Cities Support Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Cities Alliance

    2010-01-01

    This report describes theTransforming Settlements of the Urban Poor in Uganda. A Secondary Cities Support Program (TSUPU), is the first national initiative within the Cities Alliance's global programme, Land, Services and Citizenship for the Urban Poor (LSC). The first premise of the Medium Term Strategy is that the Cities Alliance should prioritise working with those governments already ...

  19. The Pedagogical Benefits of "SimCity" in Urban Geography Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsung; Shin, Jungyeop

    2016-01-01

    This article investigated the pedagogical potential of the "SimCity" simulation game in an urban geography course. University students used "SimCity" to build their own cities and applied a wide range of theories to support their urban structures. Moreover, the students critically evaluated the logic and functioning of the…

  20. Cooperative Game Among Cities in Urban Agglomerations and Economical Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shah Weidong

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses redounded profits of cooperation and non-cooperation among cities in urban agglomerations based on game theory. It discusses the problems of economical development among cities with feeble cooperation, and deduces the conclusion that only cooperation of cities produces the maximum profits and realizes Pareto efficiency for cities and urban agglomerations. The paper states that cooperation is the cornerstone of economic sustainable development in urban agglomerations in profits produced by cooperation among cities.Some suggestions to accelerate cooperation among cities are proposed.

  1. Urban Agriculture:The Major Direction of Future Agricultural Development in Huainan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xing-ying

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the concept of urban agriculture, this paper analyses the necessity of developing urban agriculture in Huainan City as follows: it is the need of transformation and upgrading of agricultural industry; it is the need of development of urban-rural integration; it is the need of sustainable urban development; it is the need of solving the issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers effectively. Then this paper analyses the endowment of developing urban agriculture in Huainan City. And finally the basic conception in industrial form and spatial framework is put forward, to develop urban agriculture in Huainan City.

  2. The shrinking mining city: urban dynamics and contested territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina; Wu, Chung-Tong; Schatz, Laura K; Taira, Nobuhisa; Vargas-Hernández, José G

    2012-01-01

    Shrinking mining cities — once prosperous settlements servicing a mining site or a system of mining sites — are characterized by long-term population and/or economic decline. Many of these towns experience periods of growth and shrinkage, mirroring the ebbs and flows of international mineral markets which determine the fortunes of the dominant mining corporation upon which each of these towns heavily depends. This dependence on one main industry produces a parallel development in the fluctuations of both workforce and population. Thus, the strategies of the main company in these towns can, to a great extent, determine future developments and have a great impact on urban management plans. Climate conditions, knowledge, education and health services, as well as transportation links, are important factors that have impacted on lifestyles in mining cities, but it is the parallel development with the private sector operators (often a single corporation) that constitutes the distinctive feature of these cities and that ultimately defines their shrinkage. This article discusses shrinking mining cities in capitalist economies, the factors underpinning their development, and some of the planning and community challenges faced by these cities in Australia, Canada, Japan and Mexico. PMID:22518883

  3. Urban Smartness Vs Urban Competitiveness: A Comparison of Italian Cities Rankings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a part of the research carried out by the Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering (DICEA of the University of Naples “Federico II”, within the Project Smart Energy Master for the energy management of territory, financed by PON 04a2_E R&C Axis II, from 2012 to 2015. Today that the idea of smart city draws the attention of urban planners and policy makers and, at the same time, global competitiveness is considered essential for the success of a city, the paper aims to investigate the relationship between the concept of smart city and that of competitive city, identifying common characteristics and differences and answer the question: is “smartness” a new concept for urban studies? The analysis has been conducted in the Italian context, comparing the competitive structure of Italian provinces with their performance as smart cities. To rank Italian provinces because of their level of competitiveness, a previous ranking, carried out in 1995, has been updated with the most recent data available and the new hierarchy, thus obtained, has been compared with that of Italian smartest cities proposed by Forum PA.  The benchmarking shows that smartness and competitiveness are strictly connected: today, a city needs to improve its smart quotient in order to be more attractive and so more competitive, in fact, the efficiency and livability of cities, sought by potential citizens, can be improved by using ICTs, as supported by the advocates of smart cities, and represent a strategic factor for gaining a competitive advantage.

  4. SHARJAH’S ISLAMIC URBAN IDENTITY AND THE LIVING CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Amrousi, John Biln

    2012-04-01

    strategies and effects of this assemblage of neo-Islamic monuments in Sharjah, and considers how it effectively rethinks the possibilities of the contemporary Arab city.   Keywords:  Urban identity, Sharjah, Muslim heritage, Arab culture

  5. HOW TO ACHIEVE SMART CITIES THROUGH SMART COMMUNICATION AND REPRESENTATION OF URBAN DATA

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. Donolo; Donolo, M.

    2013-01-01

    Urban environment is developing in different, complex and rapid ways. The challenge of the moment is to face this issue within the model and the philosophy of the "smart city". The biggest obstacles to the implementation of a smart city model can be probably found in the structure of urban areas and in the stratification of old urban infrastructures that make difficult the setting of new technological infrastructures. Moreover it is difficult to implement the smart city model also in...

  6. Open spaces and urban morphology: discussions on climate impacts and urban sustainability: a study in cities of Alagoas, northeast Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Melo Barbirato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows reflections on urban morphology, open spaces and its relation to climate adaptation and urban sustainability. These studies, based on climatic maps analysis and computational simulations of urban scenarios in the cities of Maceió and Arapiraca, State of Alagoas, Northeast Brasil, reveal that the urban settlement patterns, determined by current instruments of urban legislation, are not able to maximize the use of environmental conditions in urban areas. It highlights the need to review and refinement of these to achieve the environmental suitability of spaces, emphasizing the possibility of stimulating density constructive patterns based on the carrying capacity of the urban system.

  7. Small and Medium-Sized City: The Main Battle Field of the New Urbanization Construction

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Small and medium-sized cities have played important roles in China¡¯s new urbanization strategies. Small and medium-sized cities can not only help large cities avert over-concentration of population, but also avoid excessively decentralizing rural industrialization in small towns. To develop small and medium-sized cities, characteristic industries and vocational education are required so that people can get employed in the cities and become residents easily. City infrastructure and public ser...

  8. Urban Sprawl Pattern and Effective Factors on Them: the Case of Urmia City, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Jamal; Asghar ZARABI; Omid MOBARAKI

    2012-01-01

    Urban sprawl has become a remarkable characteristic of urban development worldwide in the last decades. Urban sprawl refers to the extent of urbanization, which is a global phenomenon mainly driven by population growth and large scale migration. In developing countries like Iran, urban sprawl is taking its toll on the natural resources at an alarming pace. The purpose of this paper is to study urban growth and effective factors on them in the city of Urmia, Iran. We used quantitive data of th...

  9. Urban Growth Scenarios of a Future MEGA City: Case Study Ahmedabad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, A.; Kraus, V.; Steinnocher, K.

    2016-06-01

    The study of urban areas and their development focuses on cities, their physical and demographic expansion and the tensions and impacts that go along with urban growth. Especially in developing countries and emerging national economies like India, consistent and up to date information or other planning relevant data all too often is not available. With its Smart Cities Mission, the Indian government places great importance on the future developments of Indian urban areas and pays tribute to the large-scale rural to urban migration. The potentials of urban remote sensing and its contribution to urban planning are discussed and related to the Indian Smart Cities Mission. A case study is presented showing urban remote sensing based information products for the city of Ahmedabad. Resulting urban growth scenarios are presented, hotspots identified and future action alternatives proposed.

  10. City without borders: Urban-rural multilocality in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cielo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The social, economic and political dynamics in the Andean region depend fundamentally on the links between city and countryside. This article identifies fundamental characteristics of the mutual constitution of Bolivian rural and urban spheres, based on a collection of studies on the theme. It seeks to explore the consequences of the paradoxical lack of incorporation of these links into insti­tutional and state mechanisms. Although state policies of regularization and popular participation opened economic and political possibilities for the Bolivian rural and indigenous populations, the combination of institutional flexibility of these policies with their lack of attention to urban-rural realities increases the vulnerability of the most marginalized Bolivians. 

  11. The ecology of city soundscape: a contribution to urban sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Cuervo Pulido

    2015-01-01

    The ecology of a city’s soundscape studies sounds in public spaces and the relationships between its inhabitants, which is an essential component for the sustainability and planning of contemporary cities. This re- search analyses the soundscape of Seventh Avenue between 26th and 72nd streets in Bogota in order to identify the areas with high levels of noise pollution and its relation with urban space. The positive impact that the National Park has had on the soundscape is demonstrated as wel...

  12. Baseline assessment and best practices in urban water cycle services in the city of Hamburg

    OpenAIRE

    Bertram, Niels-Peter.; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis Johannes

    2013-01-01

    To assess the sustainability of municipal water utilities in Europe, a baseline assessment has been carried out within the European Research project TRUST (Transitions to the urban water services of tomorrow) for eleven cities and regions. Using the data collected, the Blue-City-Index for those cities and regions has been determined and the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg had a very good result. This article describes the baseline assessment regarding the sustainability of urban water cycl...

  13. Villages in the City: Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity in Rurality and Urbanity in Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Harini Nagendra; Hita Unnikrishnan; Sreerupa Sen

    2013-01-01

    Urban-rural distinctions are particularly challenging in the context of fast growing cities in the developing world. Through an example of the Indian city of Bangalore, we demonstrate the case for development of more continuous approaches of urban representation that are needed in many parts of the world. Thus even some of the oldest areas in Bangalore, which have been part of an urban center for centuries, exhibit aspects of rurality, as much as other recently developing peri-urban parts of ...

  14. Prioritizing action on health inequities in cities: An evaluation of Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) in 15 cities from Asia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Amit; Kano, Megumi; Dagg, Kendra Ann-Masako; Mori, Hanako; Senkoro, Hawa Hamisi; Ardakani, Mohammad Assai; Elfeky, Samar; Good, Suvajee; Engelhardt, Katrin; Ross, Alex; Armada, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Following the recommendations of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (2008), the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (HEART) to support local stakeholders in identifying and planning action on health inequities. The objective of this report is to analyze the experiences of cities in implementing Urban HEART in order to inform how the future development of the tool could support local stakeholders better in addressing health inequities. The study method is documentary analysis from independent evaluations and city implementation reports submitted to WHO. Independent evaluations were conducted in 2011-12 on Urban HEART piloting in 15 cities from seven countries in Asia and Africa: Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Mongolia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Local or national health departments led Urban HEART piloting in 12 of the 15 cities. Other stakeholders commonly engaged included the city council, budget and planning departments, education sector, urban planning department, and the Mayor's office. Ten of the 12 core indicators recommended in Urban HEART were collected by at least 10 of the 15 cities. Improving access to safe water and sanitation was a priority equity-oriented intervention in 12 of the 15 cities, while unemployment was addressed in seven cities. Cities who piloted Urban HEART displayed confidence in its potential by sustaining or scaling up its use within their countries. Engagement of a wider group of stakeholders was more likely to lead to actions for improving health equity. Indicators that were collected were more likely to be acted upon. Quality of data for neighbourhoods within cities was one of the major issues. As local governments and stakeholders around the world gain greater control of decisions regarding their health, Urban HEART could prove to be a valuable tool in helping them pursue the goal of health equity. PMID:26456133

  15. Spatial pattern of urban functional landscapes along an urban-rural gradient: A case study in Xiamen City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Sun, Caige; Li, Xinhu; Zhao, Qianjun; Zhang, Guoqin; Ge, Rubing; Ye, Hong; Huang, Ning; Yin, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Since there is an increasing demand for integrating landscape ecology and urban planning theories to study complex urban ecosystems and establish rational and ecological urban planning, we introduced a new concept-urban functional landscapes which can be reclassified based on detailed land use data to fulfill the various urban functions, such as residential, commercial, industrial, and infrastructure purposes. In this paper, urban functional landscapes were defined based on urban land use data produced from Pleiades images, and then landscape metrics and population density were combined to identify the urban functional zones along an urban-rural gradient. The features of urban functional landscape patterns and population density were also analyzed, and their relationship has been explored. The results showed that the pattern of urban functional landscapes and population density in the urban functional zones (Urban center, Urban peripheral area, Landscape barrier, Satellite city and Far-suburb) along the urban-rural gradient in Xiamen doesn't totally conform to the classical theories in spatial and social aspects. Urban functional landscapes is potential of acting as bridges between the landscape ecology and urban planning theories, providing scientific support for rational urban landscape planning and urban land use policy making.

  16. Urban particulate matter pollution: a tale of five cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Spyros N; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Florou, Kalliopi; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Hasa, Erion; Presto, Albert A

    2016-07-18

    Five case studies (Athens and Paris in Europe, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles in the United States, and Mexico City in Central America) are used to gain insights into the changing levels, sources, and role of atmospheric chemical processes in air quality in large urban areas as they develop technologically. Fine particulate matter is the focus of our analysis. In all cases reductions of emissions by industrial and transportation sources have resulted in significant improvements in air quality during the last few decades. However, these changes have resulted in the increasing importance of secondary particulate matter (PM) which dominates over primary in most cases. At the same time, long range transport of secondary PM from sources located hundreds of kilometres from the cities is becoming a bigger contributor to the urban PM levels in all seasons. "Non-traditional" sources including cooking, and residential and agricultural biomass burning contribute an increasing fraction of the now reduced fine PM levels. Atmospheric chemistry is found to change the chemical signatures of a number of these sources relatively fast both during the day and night, complicating the corresponding source apportionment. PMID:27310460

  17. Urban scaling and its deviations: revealing the structure of wealth, innovation and crime across cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís M A Bettencourt

    Full Text Available With urban population increasing dramatically worldwide, cities are playing an increasingly critical role in human societies and the sustainability of the planet. An obstacle to effective policy is the lack of meaningful urban metrics based on a quantitative understanding of cities. Typically, linear per capita indicators are used to characterize and rank cities. However, these implicitly ignore the fundamental role of nonlinear agglomeration integral to the life history of cities. As such, per capita indicators conflate general nonlinear effects, common to all cities, with local dynamics, specific to each city, failing to provide direct measures of the impact of local events and policy. Agglomeration nonlinearities are explicitly manifested by the superlinear power law scaling of most urban socioeconomic indicators with population size, all with similar exponents (1.15. As a result larger cities are disproportionally the centers of innovation, wealth and crime, all to approximately the same degree. We use these general urban laws to develop new urban metrics that disentangle dynamics at different scales and provide true measures of local urban performance. New rankings of cities and a novel and simpler perspective on urban systems emerge. We find that local urban dynamics display long-term memory, so cities under or outperforming their size expectation maintain such (disadvantage for decades. Spatiotemporal correlation analyses reveal a novel functional taxonomy of U.S. metropolitan areas that is generally not organized geographically but based instead on common local economic models, innovation strategies and patterns of crime.

  18. Urban Air Environmental Health Indicators for Kuala Lumpur City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air environmental health indicators were defined operationally as a combination of air quality and air-related health indicators. Clean air is a basic precondition of human health. Air pollutants had been identified with potential negative impact on health especially on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, studies are necessary to identify and understand the state of environmental health. This study was aimed to examine and analyses the air environmental health condition in city of Kuala Lumpur by using a set of indicators. House to house questionnaire survey was carried out to collect air-related health data, and air quality sampling was carried out to identify ambient air quality level of the city. In general, city of Kuala Lumpur was found to have a moderate level of air quality. Air-related illnesses indicated by acute respiratory infection and asthma were found to be higher in more developed or higher density zones, as compared to other zones. Besides, air-related illnesses were significantly correlated to respondents exposure to air pollution. The findings imply that human health can be improved by managing the urban development and its environmental quality properly. (author)

  19. Is City Marketing Opposed to Urban Planning? The Elaboration of a Pilot City Marketing Plan for the Case of Nea Ionia, Magnesia, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Deffner, Alex; Metaxas, Theodoros

    2006-01-01

    The role of city marketing has been increasingly important in Europe. Today it has become a necessity with regard to the processes of global competition of cities, tourist attraction, urban management, city branding and urban governance. Many European cities support their competitiveness through cultural and tourism development. In addition, the majority of the implemented city marketing policies relate with culture and tourism. City marketing has faced many criticisms, the main one being tha...

  20. Measuring Urban Sprawl Based on Massive Street Nodes and Natural Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Urban sprawl devours large amount of open space each year and subsequently leads to many environmental issues. To curb urban sprawl with proper policies, a major problem is how to effectively measure it. Existing studies heavily rely on population data and legally or administratively determined urban boundaries for the measurement, although satellite imagery has been used to automatically detect urban boundaries. In this paper, we develop a novel approach to measuring urban sprawl based on street nodes and naturally defined urban boundaries. The street nodes refer to street intersections and ends, while naturally defined urban boundaries constitute what we call natural cities. We find that the street nodes are significantly correlated with population of cities. Based on this finding, we set street nodes as a proxy of population to measure urban sprawl. We further find that street nodes have a linear relationship with city sizes, with a correlation coefficient up to 0.97. In the plot with the x axis representi...

  1. Acoustic Design in Urban Development : analysis of urban soundscapes and acoustic ecology research in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Pontén, Emeli

    2010-01-01

    The world is urbanizing rapidly with more than half of the global population now living in cities. Improving urban environments for the well-being of the increasing number of urban citizens is becoming one of the most important challenges of the 21st century. Even though it is common that city planners have visions of a ’good urban milieu’, those visions are concerning visual aesthetics or practical matters. The qualitative perspective of sound, such as sonic diversity and acoustic ecology ar...

  2. A study of the relation between the spatial structure of the city and the quality of urban development using Space Syntax A case study of Mashhad

    OpenAIRE

    Abbaszadegan, M; Mokhtarzadeh, S; R. Bidram

    2012-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionThe primary spatial patterns and the main structures of cities are now changing, due to the present sprawl development patterns. These factors have deconstructed the unified structure of cities and have caused spatial segregation of different parts of these settlements, especially central and old fabrics and finally resulted in their socio- economic segregation. On the other hand, external urban expansion led to a complicated physical and spatial structure, whic...

  3. Mining Urban Performance: Scale-Independent Classification of Cities Based on Individual Economic Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Sitko, Izabela; Tachet des Combes, Remi; Hawelka, B.; Murillo Arias, Juan; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Intensive development of urban systems creates a number of challenges for urban planners and policy makers in order to maintain sustainable growth. Running efficient urban policies requires meaningful urban metrics, which could quantify important urban characteristics including various aspects of an actual human behavior. Since a city size is known to have a major, yet often nonlinear, impact on the human activity, it also becomes important to develop scale-free metrics that capture qualitati...

  4. Urban environmental and economic performance linked to sustainability: Evidence from big and medium size Chinese cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter); Z. Mingshun (Zhang)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper is based on research in Chinese cities. It addresses the issues related to urban environmental performance and sustainability in emerging Chinese cities. The result shows that: (1) To basically control the degradation of urban environment the minimum per capita GDP should be a

  5. Urban Green Space Policies : A Comparative Study on Performance and Success Conditions in European Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Baycan-Levent, T.

    2004-01-01

    Urban green spaces play a key role in improving the liveability of our towns and cities. The quality and viability of cities depend largely on the design, management and maintenance of urban green as well as on open and public spaces that make up an important social constellation and offer a visu

  6. Smart about cities: visualizing the challenge for 21st century urbanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hajer; T. Dassen

    2014-01-01

    The discourse on ‘Smart Cities’ is everywhere. It promises an era of innovative urban planning, driven by smart urban technologies that will make cities safer, cleaner and, above all, more efficient. Efficiency seems uncontroversial but does it make for great cities? In this book, Maarten Hajer, Dir

  7. A Multi-City Analysis of the Natural and Human Drivers of the Urban Heat Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, William Frederick

    The world's population is increasingly moving to cities, with a present day urban population of over 3.6 billion that is expected to nearly double by 2050. One of the key features of the urban environment is an increase in temperature relative to the surrounding rural areas, called the urban heat island, which can have negative impacts on the health and wellbeing of urban dwellers. This study uses a novel approach of analyzing a large number of cities from around the world to investigate the similarities and differences in urban environments among cities to explore the behavior and drivers of the urban heat island. This methodology reveals two new conditions that increase the magnitude of the heat island---low dewpoint temperature and high air temperature. Many of the cities show increases in the magnitude of the heat island during hot or dry periods of 1.0°C or more during the daytime and 2.0°C at night relative to cool or humid periods. The heat wave results are of particular note due to the added stress on urban residents during periods when the population is already at risk. For cities in temperate climate regimes, differences among cities in vegetative cover or impervious surface area leads to increases in urban temperatures of up to 1.0°C during the summer, while cities with high pollution can see reductions in the heat island by 1.5°C. Cities in tropical or Mediterranean climates have the strongest heat islands during the dry season indicating that urban infrastructure is the key driver in these cities. These results indicate that mitigation of the urban heat island is possible by altering the urban landscape through changes in the urban vegetation and the structure of the built environment.

  8. Heavy metals in urban soils of the Granada city (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Gabriel; Sánchez-Marañón, Manuel; Bech, Jaume; Sartini, Alessandra; Martín-García, Juan Manuel; Delgado, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    Urban soils (Anthrosols, Technosols, and the remaining natural patches) are essential components of the city ecosystems influencing the quality of life for people. Unfortunately, because of the high concentration of matter and energy that occurs in any city, these soils might accumulate potentially toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds, pathogens, pharmaceuticals, and soluble salts. Contamination by heavy metals has been considered especially dangerous because they can affect human health via inhalation of dust, ingestion, or skin contact with soils. Children are the more exposed citizens in gardens and parks. Accordingly, our objective was to analyze the content of heavy metals in soils of the two most emblematic, extensive, and visited landscaped areas of the Granada city (Salón Garden, which dates back to 1612, and Federico García Lorca Park, opened since 1993) for assessing the health hazard. Using a composite sampling of 20-30 points chosen at random, we collected the upper soil (10 cm) of five representative plots for each landscaped area. We determined soil characteristics by routine procedures and metal elements using ICP-mass. From high to low concentration we found Mn, Ba, Pb, Zn, V, Sn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sb, Y, As, Sc, Co, Th, Au, U, Mo, Be, Bi, Tl, Cd, and In; the first 10 metals ranging between 478 and 22 ppm. Mn, Ba, and other trace elements were strongly correlated with soil properties suggesting the inheritance as a possible source of metal variation, especially in the soils of younger Park, where the materials used to build gardens in the five sampled plots seemed to be more variable (carbonates: 10-40%, clay: 18-26%, pH: 7.6-7.9, organic matter: 3-7%, free iron 0.5-1.1%). The content of many other metals measured in the sampled plots, however, were independent of soil material and management. On the other hand, compared to agricultural and native soils of the surroundings, our urban soils had obviously greater content in organic

  9. General Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urbanization: An Examination of 16 World Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is the most dramatic form of land use change that has profoundly influenced environmental and socioeconomic conditions around the world. To assess these impacts and promote urban sustainability, a better understanding of urbanization patterns is needed. Recent studies have suggested several spatiotemporal patterns of urbanization, but their generality is yet to be adequately tested with long-term data. Thus, the main goal of our study was two-fold: (1 to examine the spatiotemporal patterns of urbanization of 16 world cities over a period of 200 years (1800–2000; and (2 to test four prominent hypotheses of urbanization patterns. Using a set of landscape metrics, we quantified temporal changes in the urban landscape pattern of the 16 cities and examined the four hypotheses individually. Our results show that these cities exhibit several common urbanization patterns: the urban landscape becomes compositionally more diverse, structurally more fragmented and geometrically more complex as urbanization progresses. Our study also suggests that urbanization is a process of shifting dominance among three urban growth modes: infilling, edge expanding and leapfrogging. However, idiosyncrasies do exist for individual cities, as detailed attributes of urbanization patterns often depend on the environmental and socioeconomic settings of cities. In addition, the choice of specific landscape metrics and the scales of analysis both influence the urbanization patterns revealed. Our study examined the urbanization patterns, for the first time, on long-term and global scales. The findings shed new light on the patterns and processes of urbanization, with implications for future studies of the ecology, planning and sustainability of cities.

  10. Cities and Urban Landscapes in the Ancient Near East and Egypt with Special Focus on the City of Babylon

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersén, Olof; Sinclair, Paul; Hein, Irmgard (Hrsg.); Andersson, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The authors give a brief overview of socio-environmental interactions underpinning urbanism in the part of the world with the longest urban development, that is, the Ancient Near East and Egypt 5000–100 BC. Further details are presented for southern Mesopotamia, with a special focus on the city of Babylon during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II in the 6th century BC.

  11. Urban policy, economic policy, and the growth of large cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that despite a Chinese national urban policy large cities are still growing rapidly. Policy implementation is considered weak. It is suggested that a better strategy for increased urbanization in large Chinese cities would include integrating urban with economic policy, improving urban facilities, and planning and managing large cities. A short review is given of theories on city size and development in developing countries. Chinese economic reforms and their impact on urban growth are described. During 1978-90 the level of urbanization rose from 17.9% to 26.4%. Five periods during 1949 to present are identified as exhibiting distinct development profiles. Over the 40 year period, policies pertaining to cities of a particular population size changed constantly. During the early 1950s, development focused on major coastal cities and newly expanding industrial centers. After the 1950s and the Great Leap Forward (1958-60), rural areas and small urban places were the focus of Maoist development. Large cities were de-emphasized. The early 1970s emphasized the development of rural industries and small urban places in order to reduce rural-urban inequalities. A national urban policy was prepared in the early 1980s. The aim was to control the size of large cities, to develop medium sized cities, and to develop small cities. This policy was amended later and is now China's Urban Planning Law. However, the percentage of the nonagricultural population (NAP) living in cities of a million or more persons increased from 37.5% in 1978 to 41.6% in 1990. The share of NAP living in small cities increased to 21.5% in 1990. Temporary migrants were an estimated 5-15% of large city populations. Most cities were beyond their population control limit. Large cities had served important roles in development: greater efficiency in the industrial labor force and more profits; centers for culture, education, politics, and transportation; and links to foreign countries. Economic

  12. Urbanization and the Risk of Flooding In the Congo; Case of The City Of Brazzaville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nzoussi Hilaire Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is the process by which cities grow. For over a decade, African cities in general have had a very significant population growth. And Brazzaville, the political capital of the Republic of Congo has not remained on the sidelines of this exponential growth. This is probably due to the political and economic stability singularly marked by oil upturn. This rapid urbanization contributes to defy all the forecasts made in terms of urbanization and poses many problems. Population growth leads to an occupation with no real urbanization standards of public space in the city which causes uncontrolled building, with major flooding during rainy periods to disproportionate consequences.

  13. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides and fission products in brick samples fabricated and used in and around greater Dhaka city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured by using gamma ray spectroscopy in different types of brick samples (bangla, ceramic and picket) fabricated and used in the urban areas of Dhaka city and its suburbs. A knowledge of gamma radioactivity is necessary to adopt preventive measures to minimise the harmful effects of ionising radiation. The radium equivalent activity concentrations, external and internal hazard indices (Hext and Hint) in these brick samples were determined and were found to be comparable with those of other countries. (author)

  14. COLONIAL AND TRADITIONAL URBAN SPACE IN JAVA: A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF TEN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNARYO Rony Gunawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of morphological studies of cities in Java tended to place the elements of traditional urban space such as Alun-alun, Mosque, Palace and Market as the main elements of city. Other elements such as the colonial urban space Resident Office, Fort, Church, Park and so on are often considered separately or placed as a complementary part. Through a morphological study  by exploring ten cities in Java, I found both elements of traditional and colonial urban space were set in a unique and various pattern. There are some findings indicating that the elements of colonial urban space significantly influence the city structure as well as those of the traditional ones. Therefore, understanding the urban space form in Java should include and put elements of both of traditional and colonial urban space as an integral part.

  15. Diabetes City: How Urban Game Design Strategies Can Help Diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöll, Martin

    Computer Games are about to leave their “electronic shells” and enter the city. So-called Serious Pervasive Games (SPGs) [1] allow for hybrid - simultaneously physical and virtual - experiences, applying technologies of ubiquitous computing, communication and “intelligent” interfaces. They begin to focus on non-entertaining purposes. The following article a) presents game design strategies as a missing link between pervasive computing, Ambient Intelligence and user’s everyday life. Therefore it spurs a discussion how Pervasive Healthcare focusing on the therapy and prevention of chronic diseases can benefit from urban game design strategies. b) Moreover the article presents the development and work in progress of “DiabetesCity“ - an educational game prototype for young diabetics.

  16. The City from the Wire the Aerial Cable Transport for the Urban Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Romano Fistola

    2011-01-01

    The urban transfer by using ropeways can produce impacts and externalities which, if well-managed, can trigger processes reliever, sustainable development and promoting tourism inside the city. The article starts from the consideration of urban transport by ropeways as a viable, effective alternative to the collective transfer among different areas of the city, particularly in those cities characterized by unique morphological or hydrographic territory which are fit for being overcome by mobi...

  17. The fall and rise of neoliberal American cities: Towards more sustainable urban development strategies

    OpenAIRE

    E.W.T.M. Heurkens

    2012-01-01

    American cities can be seen as exponents of neoliberal planning concepts implemented throughout the last half century. Also cities worldwide have followed similar or related urban development strategies for establishing economic growth. But are American cities still fit for the 21st century? Are they able to take the lead in building more sustainable urban futures? This article explores some American ‘survival’ strategies to cope with the economic realities, societal changes and environmental...

  18. Effects of Climate Change on Urban Rainwater Harvesting in Colombo City, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Kwong Fai A. Lo; Suranjith Bandara Koralegedara

    2015-01-01

    Cities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to water-related issues due to rapid urbanization, installation of complex infrastructure and changes in rainfall patterns. This study aims at assessing the impacts of climate change on rainwater harvesting systems (RWH) in the tropical urban city, Colombo, Sri Lanka. The future climate change projections are downscaled from global circulation models to the urban catchment scale using the Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG), des...

  19. Urban agriculture : responding to the needs of the cities of yesterday, today and tomorrow

    OpenAIRE

    David Ingi Bustion 1992

    2016-01-01

    The cities of today have to house a variety of people coming from different places and cultural backgrounds in denser spaces than before. In this essay, we will see what role urban gardens can play in improving the cohabitation of a heterogeneous population by providing spaces that strengthen local communities on many different levels. The aim of this paper is to answer the following three questions: “What role has urban agriculture played in cities through history, what can urban agriculture...

  20. CA-Markov Analysis of Constrained Coastal Urban Growth Modeling: Hua Hin Seaside City, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendra Shrestha; Taravudh Tipdecho; Nitin Kumar Tripathi; Kritsana Kityuttachai

    2013-01-01

    Thailand, a developing country in Southeast Asia, is experiencing rapid development, particularly urban growth as a response to the expansion of the tourism industry. Hua Hin city provides an excellent example of an area where urbanization has flourished due to tourism. This study focuses on how the dynamic urban horizontal expansion of the seaside city of Hua Hin is constrained by the coast, thus making sustainability for this popular tourist destination—managing and planning for its local i...

  1. Characterizing the fabric of the urban environment: A case studyof Metropolitan Chicago, Illinois and Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem; Rose, Leanna Shea

    2001-10-30

    Urban fabric data are needed in order to estimate the impactof light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation(trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city, andto design effective implementation programs. In this report, we discussthe result of a semi-automatic Monte-Carlo statistical approach used todevelop data on surface-type distribution and city-fabric makeup(percentage of various surface-types) using aerial colororthophotography. The digital aerial photographs for metropolitan Chicagocovered a total of about 36 km2 (14 mi2). At 0.3m resolution, there wereapproximately 3.9 x 108 pixels of data. Four major land-use types wereexamined: commercial, industrial, residential, andtransportation/communication. On average, for the areas studied, atground level vegetation covers about 29 percent of the area (ranging 4 80percent); roofs cover about 25 percent (ranging 8 41 percent), and pavedsurfaces about 33 percent (ranging 12 59 percent). For the most part,trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and side-walks. In commercialareas, paved surfaces cover 50 60 percent of the area. In residentialareas, on average, paved surfaces cover about 27percent of the area.Land-use/land-cover (LULC) data from the United States Geological Surveywas used to extrapolate these results from neighborhood scales tometropolitan Chicago. In an area of roughly 2500 km2, defining most ofmetropolitan Chicago, over 53 percent is residential. The total roof areais about 680 km2, and the total paved surfaces (roads, parking areas,sidewalks) are about 880 km2. The total vegetated area is about 680km2.

  2. Urban transformation and social change in a Libyan city: an anthropological study of Tripoli

    OpenAIRE

    Elbendak, Omar Emhamed

    2008-01-01

    This PhD thesis is a study of urban transformation in a Libyan city. The case study focuses on the city of Tripoli, the capital of Libya. It is at the same time an old city as well as a modern city, and can be identified as a major world city. Libya has experienced one of the highest rates of urbanisation in the last few decades. Libya’s rate of urbanisation is 88%, putting it higher than that of all other African cities and, indeed, some European cities as well. The research explores the urb...

  3. Towards urban sustainability: Interdisciplinary European research and professional experience in the field of historic city management

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Drdácký, Tomáš

    Budapest : Department for the Protection of settlement heritage, 2004, s. 41-45 [Regional conference of the central and eastern european member cities of the organization of world heritage cities /5./. Budapest (HU), 21.09.2004-23.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : historic city * urban management * public participation Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  4. Characterizing the Fabric of the Urban Environment: A Case Study of Sacramento, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashen; Rose, L. Shea; Taha, Haider

    1999-12-01

    To estimate the impact of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on meteorology and air quality of a city, it is essential to accurately estimate the fraction of various urban surfaces. In this report, we estimate the fabric of Sacramento by analyzing high-resolution (0.30-m) aerial color photographs of about 65 square km of the urban area. The analysis show that in downtown Sacramento, vegetation as seen from above the canopy covers 30% of the area, whereas roofs cover 23% and paved surface 41%. Under-the-canopy fabric consists of 52% paved surfaces, 26% roofs, and 12% grass. In the industrial areas, vegetation covers 8-14% of the area, roofs cover 19-23%, and paved surfaces cover 29-44%. The surface-type percentages in the office areas are 21% trees, 16% roofs, and 49% paved surfaces. In commercial areas,vegetation covers 5-20%, roofs 19-20%, paved surfaces 44-68%. Residential areas exhibit a wide range of percentages of surface-types . On average, vegetation covers about 36% of the area, roofs cover about 20%, and paved surfaces about 28%. Trees mostly shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. Under the canopy the percentage of paved surfaces is significantly higher. In most non-residential areas, paved surfaces cover 50-70% of the area. In residential areas, on average, paved surfaces cover about 35% of the area. For an area of roughly 800 sq. km, defining most of metropolitan Sacramento, about half is residential. The total roof area is about 150 sq. km and the total paved surfaces (roads, parking areas, sidewalks) is about 310 sq. km. The total vegetated area is about 230 sq. km.

  5. Villages in the City: Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity in Rurality and Urbanity in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Nagendra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban-rural distinctions are particularly challenging in the context of fast growing cities in the developing world. Through an example of the Indian city of Bangalore, we demonstrate the case for development of more continuous approaches of urban representation that are needed in many parts of the world. Thus even some of the oldest areas in Bangalore, which have been part of an urban center for centuries, exhibit aspects of rurality, as much as other recently developing peri-urban parts of the city. We demonstrate the considerable heterogeneities in urbanity and rurality that exist in Bangalore, which constitutes complex mosaics of rural and urban systems. In contexts such as these, binary representations of the urban rural dichotomy break down, as does the gradient approach to urbanity. There does not appear to be any obvious relationship between the time span for which a site has been urbanized, and the degree to which rurality still maintains its influence on these fluid urban landscapes. New theories and methods are needed to fully represent the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of rurality and urbanity in these fluid landscapes, moving beyond traditional, discretized urban vs. rural classifications, as well as relatively simplistic gradient-based urban to rural analyses.

  6. Sustainability indices as a tool for urban managers, evidence from four medium-sized Chinese cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research in four medium-sized Chinese cities aims at measuring urban sustainability in China and focuses on three issues. First, the situation in these four cities with regard to urban sustainability is evaluated. Secondly, a number of relations between different aspects of urban sustainability is explored. Finally, it is indicated how urban managers can improve with sustainability indices as tools currently ineffective urban management practices. Although all four cities are moving towards sustainable development, the current situation shows still weak sustainability in three, and even non-sustainability in one city. The social and, in particular, the economic dimensions of urban sustainability make significant positive contributions to overall urban sustainability. However, the decline of natural resources and environmental degradation are influencing it negatively. It is therefore suggested that more priority should be assigned to urban environmental protection and management in China. The fundamental reason for environmental degradation is believed to be inefficient urban management. To implement effective urban management in China, there is an urgent need to redefine the role of local government, reform local organizational structure, enhance local participatory institutional capacity, properly distribute the urban welfare, and thus integrate economic, social and environmental objectives local strategic and action plans

  7. Green oriented urban development for urban ecosystem services provision in a medium sized city in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinico F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In southern Italy many cities are characterized by a lack of public urban greenspaces. Non-urbanized areas in these cities are suffering from surrounding urbanization pressures. These areas still provide important ecosystem services even if they are limited in size, highly fragmented and often neglected by local planning. New planning strategies are needed in order to protect and enhance the provision of ecosystem services delivered by existing Non-Urbanized areas, but municipalities usually have limited funds for acquiring public green areas via land expropriations. At the same time, requests for new urban development are still considerable. Consequently, it is not realistic to propose strategies for green areas that do not include new developments. The paper illustrates a strategy for a Green Oriented Urban Development (GOUD that has been applied for the Master Plan of Catania, a medium sized city in Sicily (southern Italy. The strategy includes a limited amount of developments as well as new greenspaces in selected areas (Resource Zones, through the transfer of property and development rights between the municipality and developers. The strategy will allow to enhance the provision of ecosystem services, especially cultural services (thanks to a dramatic increase of accessibility to new greenspaces, regulating services (through climate regulation by new green land covers and provisioning services such as urban agricultural products. Results show that it is possible to improve urban ecosystem services creating a more liveable and healthy urban environment at reduced cost for the municipal administrations.

  8. URBAN PLANNING FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM CITIES IN KURDISTAN REGION-IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoob khaleel Ismael,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Kurdistan Region, the residential activities concentrating in a limited number of cities which suffering from great growth either in its urban layout or its resident's size. This happened as a result ofaccumulated factors during last years. The most important factors are the continue immigration from the rural area, the permanent increasing of population, and the concentration of most urban activities and public services in the metropolitans.The research problem is that the small and medium cities in Kurdistan Region suffering from many urgent problems in many fields; urban, social, and economic. The aim is to illustrate the main problems and to underline the available opportunities in small and medium cities in Kurdistan Region. In conclusion, this research suggests a group of policies that could help to improve the urban performance and achieve urban development for small and medium cities of Kurdistan Region.

  9. Mining Urban Performance: Scale-Independent Classification of Cities Based on Individual Economic Transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Grauwin, Sebastian; Combes, Remi Tachet des; Hawelka, Bartosz; Arias, Juan Murillo; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Intensive development of urban systems creates a number of challenges for urban planners and policy makers in order to maintain sustainable growth. Running efficient urban policies requires meaningful urban metrics, which could quantify important urban characteristics including various aspects of an actual human behavior. Since a city size is known to have a major, yet often nonlinear, impact on the human activity, it also becomes important to develop scale-free metrics that capture qualitative city properties, beyond the effects of scale. Recent availability of extensive datasets created by human activity involving digital technologies creates new opportunities in this area. In this paper we propose a novel approach of city scoring and classification based on quantitative scale-free metrics related to economic activity of city residents, as well as domestic and foreign visitors. It is demonstrated on the example of Spain, but the proposed methodology is of a general character. We employ a new source of large...

  10. Making Ground, Losing Space: Land Reclamation and Urban Public Space in Island Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grydehøj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article foregrounds urban public space by considering land reclamation in island cities. Land reclamation is nearly ubiquitous in the urban development of coastal cities, and island cities in particular are subject to exceptionally dense urbanisation and thus exceptionally strong conflict over urban space. Drawing upon theories at the intersection of the land and the sea (liquid, archipelago, and aquapelago spatiality, we analyse socially problematic aspects of the creation of new urban space through land reclamation. Land reclamation occurs in island cities such as Bahrain, Copenhagen, Dubai, Hong Kong, Macau, New York City, and Xiamen in order to construct space for urban industrial, residential, and leisure functions while avoiding the social conflict that often accompanies urban renewal efforts. However, whether in the case of publically accessible leisure parks or secessionary island enclaves for the ultra-rich, land reclamation processes serve powerful societal forces and represent the capture of urban space for elite interests. This reduces the prospects for urban public space and limits the horizons for the development of more socially just future cities. The transformation of unclaimed fluid space into solid private space is a relative form of accumulation by dispossession, even if the public has never been aware of what it possessed.

  11. The adaptive city: A socio-technical interaction-driven approach towards urban systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psyllidis, A.; Biloria, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at establishing an associative relation between pervasive digital technologies, the physicality of the urban fabric and its inhabitants. It introduces a methodological framework for the development of an interactive urban system, installed within urban open public spaces, in the form

  12. Agromere: how to integrate urban agriculture in the development of the Dutch city of Almere?

    OpenAIRE

    Jansma, J.E.; Visser, A J; de, Wolf; Stobbelaar, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Urban agriculture produces green city areas with as an extra dimension providing food, energy, care, education or recreation for the civilians. And thus it can contribute to a more sustainable and liveable cities. The objective of the project Agromere is to create a process which will lead to a new residential quarter where agriculture is fully integrated in city live. Agromere is situated in the fast growing city of Almere, the Netherlands. In a combined stakeholder and design process a town...

  13. The tourism value of national heritages in the urban development in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Shih-Feng; Fu, Chao-Ching

    2012-01-01

    The heritages in a city could be considered as one of the important carriers represents urban culture. They are the media which the culture distribute and interchange, and the testimonies which recorded the historical and spatial transformation of the city in the past hundred years. They are also the witnesses of the glory and the fall of the city, and are also the witness of development process of the city. In Taiwan, cultural heritages, which had been built since almost 400 year...

  14. City pig farm: A design-based-research on urban livestock farming

    OpenAIRE

    Hackauf, U.D.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last centuries, the global food system has managed to provide a growing global population with more and better food. Yet, the system is criticised for its negative effects, like increasing food miles, monocultures, a lack of transparency and poor animal welfare. The recent trend to farm more food in an around cities (urban and peri-urban farming) seems to provide an alternative to the existing system. Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) comes with many potential benefits, from red...

  15. A study on sustainable urban water management in small and medium sized cities in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Along with the implementation of national urbanization and modernization strategy in China, the urban scale and quantity are increasing systematically. In this process, the role of water is irreplaceable. Urban water system is a multipurpose and integrated system. Considering China's economic and social development requirements, there are many rigorous problems in exploitation, utilization, operation and management of urban water resources comparing with some developed cities in the world. Cu...

  16. Global changes, national development and urban poverty: Political engagement among the poor in Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Vegelin, C.L.

    2016-01-01

    As the world approaches the point in which urban poverty is to become the primary characteristic of global poverty by 2030, understanding the drivers, contexts, and conditions for urban poverty is increasingly urgent. This dissertation contributes to such needed understandings by carrying out an historical, multi-scalar analysis of the politics of urban poverty within the context of urban and global restructuring. In Mexico City, where vast wealth has been generated in some sectors, poverty h...

  17. From Competing Urban Imaginaries to Cohesive City Brands - New Challenges for Local Governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdana NEAMŢU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the issue of city branding and endeavors to highlight several of the challenges that municipalities face in the process of creating a marketable brand for their cities. While there is only one “real” built city there is a variety of urban imaginaries that coexist and often compete against each other for dominance. Besides city agencies, the traditional actors involved in the process of city marketing, there are other entities like urban lifestyle magazines, businesses, services industry etc, which are interested in marketing their own representation or imaginary of the city. The paper has a threefold structure. In the first section, it critically analyzes the concept of city branding and tries to highlight how it differs from traditional, product and corporate branding strategies. The second section discusses specific steps and strategies that a city can undertake in order to create a successful brand and positions such efforts in the broader category of local economic development tools. The authors conclude that city branding is more effective when integrated into the strategic planning process undertaken by municipalities. The last section tries to raise some concerns and challenges regarding the concept of city branding. The analysis highlights the fact that it is more and more difficult to talk about a single brand or representation of a city. As long as different groups separated along the lines of race, ethnicity, education, income produce competing urban imaginaries, city branding is merely about one group imposing its representation over the others.

  18. Fractal-based exponential distribution of urban density and self-affine fractal forms of cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The model of urban population density differs from the common exponential function. ► Fractal landscape influences the exponential distribution of urban density. ► The exponential distribution of urban population suggests a self-affine fractal. ► Urban space can be divided into three layers with scaling and non-scaling regions. ► The dimension of urban form with characteristic scale can be treated as 2. - Abstract: Urban population density always follows the exponential distribution and can be described with Clark’s model. Because of this, the spatial distribution of urban population used to be regarded as non-fractal pattern. However, Clark’s model differs from the exponential function in mathematics because that urban population is distributed on the fractal support of landform and land-use form. By using mathematical transform and empirical evidence, we argue that there are self-affine scaling relations and local power laws behind the exponential distribution of urban density. The scale parameter of Clark’s model indicating the characteristic radius of cities is not a real constant, but depends on the urban field we defined. So the exponential model suggests local fractal structure with two kinds of fractal parameters. The parameters can be used to characterize urban space filling, spatial correlation, self-affine properties, and self-organized evolution. The case study of the city of Hangzhou, China, is employed to verify the theoretical inference. Based on the empirical analysis, a three-ring model of cities is presented and a city is conceptually divided into three layers from core to periphery. The scaling region and non-scaling region appear alternately in the city. This model may be helpful for future urban studies and city planning.

  19. Rich and Poor Cities in Europe. An Urban Scaling Approach to Mapping the European Economic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Emanuele; Sood, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the urban science make broad use of the notion of scaling. We focus here on the important scaling relationship between the gross metropolitan product (GMP) of a city and its population (pop). It has been demonstrated that GMP ∝ Y Ypopβ with β always greater than 1 and close to 1.2. This fundamental finding highlights a universal rule that holds across countries and cultures and might explain the very nature of cities. However, in an increasingly connected world, the hypothesis that the economy of a city solely depends on its population might be questionable. Using data for 248 cities in the European Union between 2005 and 2010, we found a double GMP/pop scaling regime. For West EU cities, β = 1 over the whole the period, while for post-communist cities β > 1 and increases from ∼1.2 to ∼1.4. The evolution of the scaling exponent describes the convergence of post-communist European cities to open and liberal economies. We propose a simple model of economic convergence in which, under stable political conditions, a linear GMP/pop scaling is expected for all cities. The results suggest that the GMP/pop super-linear scaling represents a phase of economic growth rather than a steady, universal urban feature. The results also suggest that relationships between cities are embedded in their political and economic context and cannot be neglected in explanations of cities, urbanization and urban economics. PMID:27551719

  20. Urban Efficiency and Sectoral Structure - Empirical Results for German Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Hitzschke, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation investigates different time-variable criteria of German cities within the period between 1998 and 2007. The empirical analysis is based on a data set with 112 larger cities which are classified as independent cities. Efficiency and its improvement are the major economic characteristics in the analysis. The main questions for this dissertation are: What is the effect of city size on industrial efficiency? Is there an optimal city size of the free German cities with respect to...

  1. URBAN GREEN SPACES – BASIC ELEMENTS IN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. CASE STUDY: THE CITY OF CLUJ NAPOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORINA COZEA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces- basic elements in sustainable tourism and urban development. Due to their multiple functions within the cities: landscape function, aesthetical, sanitary, utilitary, economic, protection, educational, scientific and social function, green spaces need to be extended, arranged and valorized in the most efficient ways. An average value of the green space surface per invididual has been established. Sustainable urban development involves the execution of works on lands, premises and buildings, as well as the adoption of social measures for the psychical and psychological confort of the population and for a rational development and arrangement of urban areas. The tourism potential of urban green space derives from the valorization of its biological and aesthetical function, the harmonisation and beautification of urban architectural complexes as well as from its specific urbanism elements.

  2. How to Achieve Smart Cities Through Smart Communication and Representation of Urban Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donolo, R. M.; Donolo, M.

    2013-05-01

    Urban environment is developing in different, complex and rapid ways. The challenge of the moment is to face this issue within the model and the philosophy of the "smart city". The biggest obstacles to the implementation of a smart city model can be probably found in the structure of urban areas and in the stratification of old urban infrastructures that make difficult the setting of new technological infrastructures. Moreover it is difficult to implement the smart city model also in the new urban areas, because these areas are often the result of recent urban sprawl and shapeless urbanization, and it is difficult to set the new technological infrastructures. But in this paper we would like to highlight that in addition to these problems, there is another obstacle in the implementation of the smart city model: the difficulties encountered by the authorities in the information of citizens about the problems and the resources of a city. We think that a smart information and communication system, with the support of web-GIS and smart visualization, will surely help the implementation of smart city models and smart grid models and the inclusion of citizens in the management of cities and countries.

  3. Empirical Analysis on the Rural Urbanization Development in Luoyang City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Development status of rural urbanization in Luoyang City is introduced.A total of 6 indices are selected,such as total households in townships,total population in townships,total grain output,financial budget income,balance of savings deposits at the end of the year,and per capita net income of farmers.According to the data in 2009 Luoyang Statistical Yearbook,cluster analysis of 53 designated towns is carried out.Result shows that 53 designated towns are divided into 4 types according to the economic strength.Problems in the development of rural urbanization in Luoyang City are analyzed,such as imperfect management system,lack of effective economic measures,irrational town layout,unbalanced regional development,inadequate urban infrastructure,limited population absorption,lack of main industry in small towns,insufficient development capital,serious environmental pollution,and great pressure on environmental protection of towns.Countermeasures for the development of rural urbanization in Luoyang City are put forward.For instance,judging from the dynamic mechanism,Luoyang City should gradually change its dynamic mechanism of urbanization into socialist market system.Judging from the scale of town,Luoyang City should actively develop the central city and cultivate strong counties and key towns.Judging from the function of town,Luoyang should select a special urban development mode with its own characteristics for its development of rural urbanization.

  4. Assessing the state of environmental quality in cities - A multi-component urban performance (EMCUP) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam

    2015-11-01

    Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities. PMID:26334706

  5. Landscapes of thermal inequity: disproportionate exposure to urban heat in the three largest US cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Bruce C.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-11-01

    Heat waves are the most significant cause of mortality in the US compared to other natural hazards. Prior studies have found increased heat exposure for individuals of lower socioeconomic status in several US cities, but few comparative analyses of the social distribution of urban heat have been conducted. To address this gap, our paper examines and compares the environmental justice consequences of urban heat risk in the three largest US cities: New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago. Risk to urban heat is estimated on the basis of three characteristics of the urban thermal landscape: land surface temperature, vegetation abundance, and structural density of the built urban environment. These variables are combined to develop an urban heat risk index, which is then statistically compared with social vulnerability indicators representing socioeconomic status, age, disability, race/ethnicity, and linguistic isolation. The results indicate a consistent and significant statistical association between lower socioeconomic and minority status and greater urban heat risk, in all three cities. Our findings support a growing body of environmental justice literature that indicates the presence of a landscape of thermal inequity in US cities and underscores the need to conduct comparative analyses of social inequities in exposure to urban heat.

  6. An Analysis of Urban Land Development Using Multi-Criteria Decision Model and Geographical Information System (A Case Study of Babolsar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Lotfi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The unplanned physical expansion of cities has been one of the most important problems of urban management in developing countries. Iran, like other developing world has experienced a high level of urbanization growth which transformed the physical fabric of urban areas. North of Iran is one of most rapid growing region of the country where the moderate climate and a tourism based economy encouraged many developers to investigate in housing sector. So, the primary outcome of such process was the out-growth of the city boundaries in the region. Approach: This research attempted to present an appropriate model for urban physical development. The study used different parameters such as environmental and socio-economic factors to provide a good understanding of the city behavior in its geographical setting. Through applying the Multi-Criteria Decision Model (MCDA and GIS, the most appropriate area introduced for near future development. Results: The results revealed that the integrated GIS and MCDA model has many potentials which allow the planner or user investigate the final decision for site selection for future urban physical development. Conclusion: Since the city is located in a fertile agricultural area where the general policy of the local government is to save the lands for strategic crops like rice, to select the right site for city development is quiet significant.

  7. Extreme Urban Stargazing: Outreach in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    There is a fundamental need for the professional community to cultivate and nurture active relationships with amateur organizations. The rewards of such work are highly beneficial to general public education and town-gown relations, but are time-consuming and hard-won. New York City and the surrounding area is both ideally suited and unambiguously ill-suited for astronomy public outreach. I will detail the results of three major outreach efforts in coordination with the Amateur Astronomers Association of New York. I will highlight large public-space observing in the context of the Transit of Venus and star parties at other locations. I will also outline outreach efforts at William Paterson University, where two public nights and a Curiosity EDL event created a clear impact in Northern New Jersey. I will detail methods for encouraging and bringing out amateur observers to events, urban crowd management, publicity issues, and the benefits and pitfalls of social media in the promotion and execution of large-scale and moderate events.

  8. The changing nature of urban public places in Dhaka City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashrur Rahman Mishu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history, public places have been asserted as one of the key components of urban life for their physical, social, political, symbolic and environmental roles. However, the nature and quality of public places in recent years have raised the question how far these places remain ‘public’ in true sense. The study systematically explores how the public places of Dhaka have transformed throughout the history in different time periods. It attempts to assess the ‘publicness’ of the existing public places focusing on the changing nature of these places and the tensions arise from different perspectives. The research is descriptive and employs a case study approach. Osmany Uddan, a park situated in the prime location in the city center and the Hatirjheel, a recently developed lakeside area, have been considered as two cases. The findings from the case studies reveal that although these places are public considering the ownership, their quality and characteristics as public place are diminishing day by day. Limited physical and social accessibility have narrowed the group of users who can use the public place for a variety of purposes. Another major phenomenon which can be attributed to the changing nature of public place is the growing private interest. In this backdrop, it needs planning and design considerations to make public place more inclusive to diverse groups of people as such these places can perform multiple functions in balance.

  9. Urban public health assessment and pattern analysis: comparison of four cities in different countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meirong; Chen, Chen; Lu, Weiwei; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin

    2013-06-01

    Urban public health is an important global issue, and receives extensive attention. It is necessary to compare urban public health status among different cities, so that each city can define its own health patterns and limiting factors. The following assessment indicators were established to evaluate urban public health status: living conditions, physical health, education and culture, environmental quality, and social security. A weighted-sum model was used in combination with these indicators to compare the urban public health status in four cities—Beijing, New York, London, and Tokyo—using data for 2000-2009. Although the urban public health level of Beijing was lower than that of the other cities, it showed the greatest increase in this level over the study period. Different patterns of urban public health were identified: London had the most balanced, steady pattern (almost all factors performed well and developed stably); New York and Tokyo showed balanced, but unsteady patterns (most factors remained high, though social security and environmental quality fluctuated); Beijing had the most unbalanced, unsteady pattern (the different factors were at different levels, and education and culture and social security fluctuated). For enhanced urban public health status, environmental quality and education and culture clearly need to be improved in Beijing. This study demonstrates that a comparison of different cities is helpful in identifying limiting factors for urban public health and providing an orientation for future urban development.

  10. The electric city newspaper: urban age electric city conference (Shoreditch Electric Light Station, London 6-7 December 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In 1879 Thomas Edison invented the light bulb and built the first power station in Pearl Street in Manhattan in 1882, while the German inventor Werner von Siemens installed the first electric elevator in Mannheim in 1880. Since then, electricity has powered – directly or indirectly – the shape and dynamics of urban life. In cities of the developed world, we take for granted that electricity feeds the complex systems which sustain and sometimes spectacularly fail us. In emerging cities of the ...

  11. Change in Environmental Benefits of Urban Land Use and Its Drivers in Chinese Cities, 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoqing; Chang, Kang-tsung; Yang, Liang; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Driven by rising income and urban population growth, China has experienced rapid urban expansion since the 1980s. Urbanization can have positive effects on the urban environment; however, improvement of urban environment quality, especially its divergence between relatively developed and undeveloped cities in China, is currently a rather rudimentary and subjective issue. This study analyzed urban environmental benefits among China’s prefectural cities based on their structure of urban land use in 2000 and 2010. First, we divided 347 prefectural cities into two groups, 81 coastal and capital cities in the relatively developed group (RD) and 266 other prefectural cities in the undeveloped group (RP). Then, we defined three areas of urban environmental benefits, including green infrastructure, industrial upgrade, and environmental management, and developed an assessment index system. Results showed that all prefectural cities saw improvement in urban environmental quality in 2000–2010. Although the RD cities had higher income and more population growth, they had less improvement than the RP cities during the same period. We also found that demographic and urban land agglomeration among RD cities restrained green infrastructure expansion, making green infrastructure unsuitable as a permanent solution to environmental improvement. It is therefore urgent for China to promote balanced improvement among the three areas of urban environmental benefits and between the RD and RP cities through regional differentiation policies. PMID:27240386

  12. The City from the Wire the Aerial Cable Transport for the Urban Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The urban transfer by using ropeways can produce impacts and externalities which, if well-managed, can trigger processes reliever, sustainable development and promoting tourism inside the city. The article starts from the consideration of urban transport by ropeways as a viable, effective alternative to the collective transfer among different areas of the city, particularly in those cities characterized by unique morphological or hydrographic territory which are fit for being overcome by mobility systems at high altitude. These features, in many international urban contexts, also contribute to enhance the amenity and the urban appeal. The paper intends to underline how the ropeways can become an efficient urban transport system between urban sites, often placed at different heights and for which there is a less accessibility by ground, and at the same time, a fascinating way of tourist mobility that allow people to observe the city from above (moving on it, in a sort of dynamic view. This interesting functional convergence has been often highlighted in the studies conducted on this mode of transportation, ,which in the past was considered one  of the real possibilities for urban moving. Many cities are characterized by this type of mobility and within which existing systems of lifts, oblique connections between parts of the city are provided by urbansystems, lifts, cable cars, escalators, moving walkways, etc.. A focus is also provided in relation to the ropeways, currently operating in many cities around the world, highlighting the effectiveness of mobility solutions at high altitude, although not necessarily intended for the slope, taken in metropolitan contexts outside of Europe since the Seventies. Furthermore a specific attention it is payed to the plants currently disused in Turin and in Naples with a special regard to the possible recovery prospects in a new urban mobility system. For the city of Naples it is presented also a new project

  13. Linking disaster resilience and urban sustainability: a glocal approach for future cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asprone, Domenico; Manfredi, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Resilience and sustainability will be two primary objectives of future cities. The violent consequences of extreme natural events and the environmental, social and economic burden of contemporary cities make the concepts of resilience and sustainability extremely relevant. In this paper we analyse the various definitions of resilience and sustainability applied to urban systems and propose a synthesis, based on similarities between the two concepts. According to the proposed approach, catastrophic events and the subsequent transformations occurring in urban systems represent a moment in the city life cycle to be seen in terms of the complex sustainability framework. Hence, resilience is seen as a requirement for urban system sustainability. In addition, resilience should be evaluated not only for single cities, with their physical and social systems, but also on a global scale, taking into account the complex and dynamic relationships connecting contemporary cities. PMID:25494959

  14. A fast and spatialized urban weather generator for long-term urban studies at the city-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bras, Julien; Masson, Valéry

    2015-06-01

    In order to make urban climate predictions at the city-scale and on long term experiment accessible to communities such as building engineers or urban planner, a method to calculate meteorological forcing for surface models is presented. This method is computed with weather data files from an operational measurement station outside of the city. The model, called the spatialized urban weather generator (SUWG) calculates the temperature field above the urban canopy level with an energy budget for each volume of the boundary layer considered and 2D lagrangian advection model in order to take wind advection into account.This method has multiple advantages. First, the files from operational weather stations can easily be found for a lot of cities, in most case in airports. Second, the calculated urban heat island (UHI) can be influenced by urban planning scenarios. The method has been validated with an operational weather station network giving temperatures over the region of Paris and by comparing the SUWG simulations to a complete high resolution atmospheric simulation (MesoNH model) done over the Paris region at 2km of resolution during years 2010 and 2011. The full atmospheric model and the SUWG give comparable results with comparison to the data over the period studied for each urban operational station.

  15. Urban development and air pollution: evidence from a global panel of cities

    OpenAIRE

    Christian A. L. Hilber; Palmer, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Study examines air pollution concentration in 75 urban areas between 2005 and 2011. Focuses specifically on the impacts of changes in the urban environment and transportation mode on pollution. A surprising finding of the research is that increasing car and population densities significantly reduce air pollution concentration in city centers where air pollution induced health risks are greatest. These effects are largely confined to cities in non-OECD countries. Two possible mechanisms for th...

  16. Right to the City (If You Want It):Marshall Berman and Urban Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Millington, Gareth Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how Marshall Berman’s writings on urban culture and politics illuminate and extends our understanding of the role that culture plays in Henri Lefebvre's emancipatory notion of the right to the city, a role that tends to be underplayed by contemporary critical urbanists. The article begins by summarising Berman’s arguments about culture and the right to the city. Berman understands culture in two ways that are helpful. The first is urban culture as spectacle and the secon...

  17. "What Is the City but the People?" Exploring Urban Activity Using Social Web Traces

    OpenAIRE

    Çelikten, Emre; Le Falher, Géraud; Mathioudakis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate GeoTopics, a system to explore geographical patterns of urban activity. The system collects publicly shared check-ins generated by Foursquare users, that reveal who spends time where, when, and on what type of activity. It then employs sparse probabilistic modeling techniques to learn associations between different regions of a city and multi-feature descriptions of urban activity. Through a web interface, users of the system can select a city of interest and explore visualizat...

  18. The Role of Green Space in City Branding:An Urban Governance Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gulsrud, Natalie Marie

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of the presented PhD study is to better understand how biophysically greenelements of urban green infrastructure (UGI) are currently incorporated into and impacted by greencity branding campaigns at the city level and beyond. This is achieved by examining the impacts ofthree diverse green city branding cases in Denmark, Singapore and the European Union. The casestudies are analyzed and operationalized through an urban governance theoretical frameworklinking changes in poli...

  19. Small City, Global Scopes: An Ethnography of Urban Change in Techiman, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Lamote, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Small City, Global Scopes - An Ethnography of Urban Change in Techiman, Ghana This dissertation is part of a larger research project initiated by Prof. Filip De Boeck, Prof. Ann Cassiman and Prof. Steven Van Wolleputte (IARA), and entitled: An Anthropology of Secondary cities in Africa: A Comparative Analysis. Based upon the literature on urbanisation in Sub-Saharan Africa and on multisided and long term fieldwork, it presents an ethnographic study of urban change in a small, or “secondary...

  20. Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Urban Waste Management in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hagos, Dagnew; Mekonnen, Alemu; Gebreegziabher, Zenebe

    2012-01-01

    Cities in developing countries experiencing rapid urbanization and population growth too often lack the financial resources and institutional capacity to provide needed municipal infrastructure for adequate solid waste management, despite citizens’ demand for it. This paper uses a cross-sectional survey of 226 randomly selected households in Mekelle City, Ethiopia, to assess the current municipal sanitation fees and the willingness to pay (WTP) of residents for improved urban waste management...

  1. On an alternative framework for building virtual cities: supporting urban contextual modelling on demand

    OpenAIRE

    Chengzhi Peng; Chang, David C; Peter Blundell Jones; Bryan Lawson

    2002-01-01

    For various purposes, virtual city applications have been developed around the globe to provide users with online resources and services over the Internet. Following our research on the Sheffield Urban Contextual Databank (SUCoD) project, this paper presents an alternative framework for building virtual cities, which goes beyond conventional static urban modelling. A three-tier system framework is described in conjunction with the design and implementation of the SUCoD prototype. We demonstra...

  2. Proceedings of the Cities of the Future - Transitions to the Urban Water Services of Tomorrow (TRUST)

    OpenAIRE

    Schwesig, David; Cabrera Rochera, Enrique; Estruch Juan, María Elvira

    2015-01-01

    The conference "Cities of the Future - Transitions to the Urban Water Services of Tomorrow (TRUST)" thus provided an opportunity to present and discuss leading-edge developments in the area of urban water services with an international audience of water utility personnel, researchers, engineers, technology providers, city planners, consultants, regulators and policy makers. It focused on the techniques, technologies and management approaches aiming at enabling and supporting the transition to...

  3. Toward low energy cities : A case study of the urban area of Liège

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Sigrid; Marique, Anne-Françoise

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of sustainable development, it is important to take into account environmental aspects of urban areas related to their energy use. In this article, a methodology is proposed for assessing residential energy uses for buildings and transport at the city scale. This method is based on the use of GIS tools combined with a statistical treatment of urban and transport criteria. The methodology allows to model buildings and transport energy use at the city scale, as well as to ...

  4. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF LARGE CITIES IN THE CONTEXT OF RAPID URBANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Korotkov P. A.; Trubyanov A. B.

    2014-01-01

    The article defines the basic characteristics of the environmental performance of urban areas. There was offered the system of environmental performance indicators, covering the basic characteristics of the environmental performance. There was developed the algorithm and calculating methodology of composite index of the environmental performance of major cities in the context of rapid urbanization. There was conducted the approbation of the methodology according to the data of major cities wh...

  5. Urban growth detection of Jilin City using multi-temporal remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yunfei; Chen, Shengbo; Meng, Linda

    2005-10-01

    Urban land use/land cover patterns change rapidly in response to economic, social, and environmental forces. Remote sensing offers an important means of detecting and analyzing temporal changes occurring in urban area. Effective detection of urban change using remote sensing data is essential for urban environmental research, urban planning, and natural resources management. Jilin City is the second biggest city in Jilin Province, Northeast China. Recently, Jilin City has been grown quickly with the economic development. As an example, the growth of Jilin City is detected using multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data acquired on 25 October 1987 and 30 August 1996, and Landsat Enhanced Thermatic Mapper plus (ETM +) data acquired on 18 September 2000. Many digital algorithms have been developed for change detecting purposes. These include image overlay, image differencing, image regression, image ratioing, vegetation index differencing, principal components analysis, and so on. Four change detection techniques (image differencing, image regression, Kauth-Thomas transformation, and Chi square transformation) were examined in Jilin City with the aforementioned Landsat TM/ETM+ data. Sixteen change images of Jilin City were achieved with different accuracies of urban growth by these four change detection techniques. And the regression and differencing of TM/ETM + band 3 images are the most accurate for urban growth detection. Therefore, the image differencing technique was performed to get two urban growth images of Jilin City during the period of 1987-1996 and 1996-2000 using TM/ETM + band 3 images in 1987, 1996, and 2000. To be surprised, the Jilin City in the period of 1987-1996 grew as quick as it in the period of 1996-2000.

  6. From urban form to urban relations: in search for a new kind of reflexive and critical knowledge in urban geography and city monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Bernard Racine

    2004-01-01

    The paper explores what unites the social environment the material environment. both the material form, and, jointly, the sensibility that echoes it. .It argues that urban geographers need to develop a research model drawing on urban geography, on urbanism and on land management and capable of integrating the thoughts, the emotions, the affects and the valu-es of city dwellers and citizens and therefore knowledge situated at a micro-social level. However, such research still would need to lea...

  7. Urban metabolism: Measuring the city's contribution to sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban metabolism refers to the assessment of the amount of resources produced and consumed by urban ecosystems. It has become an important tool to understand how the development of one city causes impacts to the local and regional environment and to support a more sustainable urban design and planning. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to measure the changes in material and energy use occurred in the city of Curitiba (Brazil) between the years of 2000 and 2010. Results reveal better living conditions and socioeconomic improvements derived from higher resource throughput but without complete disregard to environmental issues. Food intake, water consumption and air emissions remained at similar levels; energy use, construction materials and recycled waste were increased. The paper helps illustrate why it seems more adequate to assess the contribution a city makes to sustainable development than to evaluate if one single city is sustainable or not. - Highlights: • We assessed the urban metabolism of Curitiba (Brazil) in 2000 and 2010. • Living conditions improved due to higher material and energy use. • Socioeconomic expansion demands special attention to environmental changes. • One city cannot be sustainable by itself, as it depends on external resources. • Urban metabolism helps measuring a city's contribution to sustainable development. - The urban metabolism of Curitiba (Brazil) reveals improvement in living conditions due to increased material and energy use, but without disregard to the environment

  8. Urban NH3 levels and sources in six major Spanish cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, Cristina; Viana, Mar; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Cusack, Michael; Alastuey, Andrés; Artiñano, Begoña; Revuelta, M Aranzazu; López-Mahía, Purificación; Blanco-Heras, Gustavo; Rodríguez, Sergio; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Mantilla, Enrique; Tang, Y Sim; Querol, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    A detailed spatial and temporal assessment of urban NH3 levels and potential emission sources was made with passive samplers in six major Spanish cities (Barcelona, Madrid, A Coruña, Huelva, Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Valencia). Measurements were conducted during two different periods (winter-autumn and spring-summer) in each city. Barcelona showed the clearest spatial pattern, with the highest concentrations in the old city centre, an area characterised by a high population density and a dense urban architecture. The variability in NH3 concentrations did not follow a common seasonal pattern across the different cities. The relationship of urban NH3 with SO2 and NOX allowed concluding on the causes responsible for the variations in NH3 levels between measurement periods observed in Barcelona, Huelva and Madrid. However, the factors governing the variations in A Coruña, Valencia and Santa Cruz de Tenerife are still not fully understood. This study identified a broad variability in NH3 concentrations at the city-scale, and it confirms that NH3 sources in Spanish urban environments are vehicular traffic, biological sources (e.g. garbage containers), wastewater treatment plants, solid waste treatment plants and industry. The importance of NH3 monitoring in urban environments relies on its role as a precursor of secondary inorganic species and therefore PMX. Further research should be addressed in order to establish criteria to develop and implement mitigation strategies for cities, and to include urban NH3 sources in the emission inventories. PMID:25194477

  9. A research into the large-scaled spatial forms of cities based on urban design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JianGuo

    2009-01-01

    In the process of unprecedented urbanization in contemporary China, a great many of Chinese cities have witnessed a rapid expansion of urban scale to different degrees. With the continuous compilation,amendment and enforcement of urban planning, the functional structure, spatial environment, street patterns and textures and even the social aspect of cities have changed conspicuously, all of which have directly happened to the spatial forms of the dimension, or even the multi-dimension of a certain city. By describing and analyzing the structure, evolution and explicit tokens of the spatial forms of cities, this thesis attempts to set up a model of factors that affect urban forms, as well as discuss the attributes, protection, adjustment and development-potential of urban land closely associated with forms. In addition, on the basis of the professional features for urban design to participate in the mod-eling and construction-management of desirable spatial forms of cities, the author has put forward technical measures for quantitatively appraising and analyzing the large-scaled spatial forms of cities, thus offering technical support to municipal governments and management departments of planned construction.

  10. A research into the large-scaled spatial forms of cities based on urban design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the process of unprecedented urbanization in contemporary China, a great many of Chinese cities have witnessed a rapid expansion of urban scale to different degrees. With the continuous compilation, amendment and enforcement of urban planning, the functional structure, spatial environment, street patterns and textures and even the social aspect of cities have changed conspicuously, all of which have directly happened to the spatial forms of the dimension, or even the multi-dimension of a certain city. By describing and analyzing the structure, evolution and explicit tokens of the spatial forms of cities, this thesis attempts to set up a model of factors that affect urban forms, as well as discuss the attributes, protection, adjustment and development-potential of urban land closely associated with forms. In addition, on the basis of the professional features for urban design to participate in the modeling and construction-management of desirable spatial forms of cities, the author has put forward technical measures for quantitatively appraising and analyzing the large-scaled spatial forms of cities, thus offering technical support to municipal governments and management departments of planned construction.

  11. Urban Land-banking Planning: A New Instrument to Regulate Urban Land Supply-demand of Nanjing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Xiaosong; Pu Lijie; Huang Xianjin; Jin Xiaobin

    2008-01-01

    It is the major purpose of the paper to present the urban land-banking planning and its functions of promoting the urban land-banking system and land use administration. The urban land-banking system has the potential attribute of acting as an irreplaceable role in urban land administration, but its unexpected function-deviation has impacted its implementation effect in China. A few city governments are attempting to deal with the problem by the urban land-banking planning which is expected to contribute to the extension of urban function, optimization of urban patterns, promotion of urban core competitiveness and overall construction of the urban value chain. In this paper, we primarily discuss the necessity, functions, purposes and main contents of the urban land-banking planning. Subsequently, the implementing situation of the urban land-banking system in Nan-jing is analyzed, including its integrated mode, spatio-temporal quantitative distribution and main characteristics. Finally, the background and targets including total, compositions, space, and regulation points are gradually introduced to present the Nanjing land-banking planning version 2.

  12. Study on Urban Construction History and Culture of the Tortoise City of Ganzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper states the geographic environment and brief history of Ganzhou City, specially discussing the idea of YANG Junsong, the Master of Feng Shui, who planned and built Ganzhou City in the shape of tortoise and its cultural connotation. It analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of its site selection, and discusses the urban flood and flood control. It also expounds the history of urban planning and construction. Ganzhou City is regarded as an example and a book of city planning and construction in ancient China in terms of the masters’ selection of the site and construction of the city, the city walls with functions of military defense and flood control, and the urban canal system of Fushougou against water-logging, the historical streets and lanes, the cultural relics, landscapes, etc., which not only make Ganzhou City the birthplace of first urban scenic spots and splendid historical culture, but also embodies the great wisdom of ancient Chinese. Three masters, YANG Junsong, KONG Zonghan, and LIU Yi, are heroes in the history of urban construction of Ganzhou.

  13. The Role of Urban Financial Centers within the Economy of Global Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mionel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is no doubt that state economy refers to city economy. In other words, the most part of a state‘s GDP is given by the urban environment, especially by capitals, which are often the economic engine of this environment. There are also cities having great economic importance abroad, beyond the state and even continental borders. These are the so-called global cities where the financial activities play an important role. There are a few cities (New York, London, Hong Kong etc. centering financial activities which are influential for large geographic areas. This research highlights the importance of the financial sector within urban economy and, subsequently, how it consolidates the status of global city. These cities are the engine of the international financial system as they host the headquarters of the most important and famous international stock exchange markets, financial supervision institutions, law firms and consulting companies.

  14. Fractal-Based Exponential Distribution of Urban Density and Self-Affine Fractal Forms of Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    Urban population density always follows the exponential distribution and can be described with Clark's model. Because of this, the spatial distribution of urban population used to be regarded as non-fractal pattern. However, Clark's model differs from the exponential function in mathematics because that urban population is distributed on the fractal support of landform and land-use form. By using mathematical transform and empirical evidence, we argue that there are self-affine scaling relations and local power laws behind the exponential distribution of urban density. The scale parameter of Clark's model indicating the characteristic radius of cities is not a real constant, but depends on the urban field we defined. So the exponential model suggests local fractal structure with two kinds of fractal parameters. The parameters can be used to characterize urban space filling, spatial correlation, self-affine properties, and self-organized evolution. The case study of the city of Hangzhou, China, is employed to ...

  15. Centipede assemblages along an urbanization gradient in the city of Heraklion, Crete (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Papastefanou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Global urbanization is a major force that causes alteration and loss of natural habitats. Urban ecosystems are strongly affected by humans and there is a gradient of decreasing human influence from city centers to natural habitats. To study ecological changes along this continuum, researchers introduced the urban-rural gradient approach. The responses of centipedes to an urbanization gradient (urban-suburban-rural areas were studied using pitfall traps in and near the city of Heraklion, in the island of Crete, Greece, from November 2010 to November 2011. Our results do not support the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, in which suburban areas located in the transitional zone between urban and rural habitats failed to indicate significant increase in terms of species richness and diversity.

  16. Planning for sustainability in China's urban development: status and challenges for Dongtan eco-city project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid urbanization in China, the country faces significant challenges in sustainable urban development and actively explores novel ways to expand urban areas while conserving natural resources. Radical changes in city planning are being made to switch to sustainable development, with new cities being designed to be ecologically friendly guided by principles like carbon neutrality and self-sufficiency. This paper introduces the development of the Dongtan eco-city project on Chongming Island, Shanghai and describes how it addresses issues including energy, water, waste, transportation, ecosystem, and social and economic development in its design. The lessons and challenges of eco-city development based on the Dongtan experience are also discussed. If the vision of a zero-carbon emissions sustainable city is successfully realized, Dongtan will serve as a model for developing similar cities across China and the rest of the developing world. Currently, the development of this project is behind schedule and whether the eco-city plan will materialize or not is in question. Even though the project remains mostly on the drawing boards, the planning and preliminary development of Dongtan eco-city have generated significant enthusiasm for green buildings and influenced plans for other sustainable urban development projects in China. PMID:20082005

  17. Agromere: how to integrate urban agriculture in the development of the Dutch city of Almere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.E.; Visser, A.J.; Wolf, de P.L.; Stobbelaar, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Urban agriculture produces green city areas with as an extra dimension providing food, energy, care, education or recreation for the civilians. And thus it can contribute to a more sustainable and liveable cities. The objective of the project Agromere is to create a process which will lead to a new

  18. Ontology-based data integration from heterogeneous urban systems: A knowledge representation framework for smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psyllidis, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel knowledge representation framework for smart city planning and management that enables the semantic integration of heterogeneous urban data from diverse sources. Currently, the combination of information across city agencies is cumbersome, as the increasingly available da

  19. Slow Art in the Creative City: Amsterdam, Street Photography, and Urban Renewal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Lindner; M. Meissner

    2015-01-01

    Global cities have been studied predominantly in terms of speed and movement, acceleration and circulation. This article examines the relationship between globalization and cities in terms that run counter to such emphases, focusing instead on slowness as a condition in contemporary urban life. Draw

  20. Decoupling urban transport from GHG emissions in Indian cities-A critical review and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How to sustain rapid economic and urban growth with minimised detriment to environment is a key challenge for sustainable development and climate change mitigation in developing countries, which face constraints of technical and financial resources scarcity as well as dearth of infrastructure governance capacity. This paper attempts to address this question by investigating the driving forces of transport demand and relevant policy measures that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in the urban transport sector in Indian cities based on a critical review of the literature. Our overview of existing literature and international experiences suggests that it is critical to improve urban governance in transport infrastructure quality and develop efficient public transport, coupled with integrated land use/transport planning as well as economic instruments. This will allow Indian cities to embark on a sustainable growth pathway by decoupling transport services demand of GHG emissions in the longer term. Appropriate policy instruments need to be selected to reconcile the imperatives of economic and urban growth, aspiration to higher quality of life, improvements in social welfare, urban transport-related energy consumption and GHG emissions mitigation target in Indian cities. - Highlights: → Investigating the relevant policies that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in urban transport in Indian cities. → Determining the factors of increase in energy demand and carbon emissions in transport. → Improving urban governance in transport infrastructure with integrated transport planning. → Designing and implementing the policy and economic instruments for low-carbon urban transport in India.

  1. Scoping Study : Urban Mobility in Three Cities--Addis Ababa, Dar es Salaam, and Nairobi

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive investigative study was implemented in 2002, on the status, and development of urban mobility in three Sub-Saharan African cities - Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Nairobi, Kenya; and, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Its purpose was to gather information in terms of size, regional spread, and availability data, that would allow identification of issues affecting urban mobility in the relat...

  2. The governance of urban green spaces in selected EU-cities : Policies, Practices, Actors, Topics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, I.M.; Elands, B.H.M.; Mattijssen, T.J.M.; Jagt, A.P.N.; Ambrose, B.; Geroházi, E.; Santos, E.

    2015-01-01

    In a time of continuing urbanization, there is an increasing focus on developing attractive and healthy urban environments. Green spaces, ranging from woodlands and parks to allotment gardens and green roofs, provide a range of ecosystem services that contribute to better cities (Lovell and Taylor,

  3. Sustainable living in a Chinese city. Analysis and support for market-conscious urban planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, H.

    2014-01-01

    In the transition from a state-led industrial to a market-driven post-industrial urban economy, China’s planners are facing challenges in building sustainable living environment for the rapidly increasing and wealthier urban population.Citizens are the end-users of the sustainable city. Their prefer

  4. Adaptive urban development : a symbiosis between cities on land and water in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Rutger de

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive urban development is the design, construction and continuing evolution of urban areas to anticipate and react to changes in the environment and society. These changes include both processes within the city itself and external developments. It is expected that until 2100 a total of 5 billion

  5. Measuring Evapotranspiration in Urban Irrigated Lawns in Two Kansas Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkwiler, K. B.; Bremer, D.; Ham, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Conservation of water is becoming increasingly critical in many metropolitan areas. The use of automated irrigation systems for the maintenance of lawns and landscapes is rising and these systems are typically maladjusted to apply more water than necessary, resulting in water wastage. Provision of accurate estimates of actual lawn water use may assist urbanites in conserving water through better adjustment of automatic irrigation systems. Micrometeorological methods may help determine actual lawn water use by measuring evapotranspiration (ET) from urban lawns. From April - August of 2011, four small tripod-mounted weather stations (tripods, five total) were deployed in twelve residential landscapes in the Kansas cities of Manhattan (MHK) and Wichita (ICT) in the USA (six properties in each city). Each tripod was instrumented to estimate reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) via the FAO-56 method. During tripod deployment in residential lawns, actual evapotranspiration (ETactual) was measured nearby using a stationary, trailer-mounted eddy covariance (EC) station. The EC station sampled well-watered turf at the K-State Rocky Ford Turfgrass Center within 5 km of the study properties in MHK, and was also deployed at a commercial sod farm 15 - 40 km from the study residences in the greater ICT metro area. The fifth tripod was deployed in the source area of the EC station to estimate ETo in conjunction with tripods in the lawns (i.e., to serve as a reference). Data from EC allowed for computation of a so-called lawn coefficient (Kc) by determining the ratio of ETo from the tripods in residential lawns to ETo from the EC station (ETo,EC); hence, Kc = ETo,tripod / ETo,EC. Using this method, ETactual can be estimated for individual tripods within a lawn. Data suggests that it may be more accurate to quantify ET within individual lawns by microclimate (i.e., determine coefficients for "shaded" and "open/unshaded" portions of a lawn). By finding microclimate coefficients

  6. Urban megaprojects-based approach in urban planning: from isolated objects to shaping the city:The case of Dubai

    OpenAIRE

    Aoun, Oula

    2016-01-01

    Urban megaprojects are at the core of cities’ re-imaging and marketing. As large-scale development projects, they are considered as a globalization product, marked by a search for spectacle and visibility. In Dubai, UMPs have constituted in recent years the main tool in drawing a city image that aims to compete with the world global cities. Through UMPs, an economy based on spectacle and fascination is being deployed, within a complex system of governance that encompasses family ties, busines...

  7. Comprehensive Evaluation on Urban Sustainable Development of Harbin City in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Chunmiao; SHANG Jincheng

    2009-01-01

    It is an effective way in realizing urban coordinated and sustainable development to establish a series of indicators and to evaluate urban environmental and socioeconomic development. According to the characteristics of Harbin City in Northeast China, an indicator system including five subsystems and 37 indicators was established for comprehensive evaluation on urban sustainable development. The development indexes of all urban subsystems and complex system were calculated quantitatively using the comprehensively integrated methods composed of Principle Component Analysis, Analytic Hierarchy Process and weighed index method, and then the comprehensive level of urban sustainable development and the degree of urban interior coordination were analyzed. The results indicated that 1) the overall urban development presented an uptrend, however, the interior development was not well balanced from 1996 to 2006; 2) the development in each subsystem presented a strong fluctuation; and 3) the development in resources subsystem showed a downtrend. Based on those results, the suggestions of urban sustainable development were put forward at the end.

  8. The relevancy of Masdar City for low carbon urban development in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Moxnes, Irmelin Aamodt

    2015-01-01

    Masdar City has gained much attention for its carbon neutral and zero waste image. The thesis suggests that the carbon neutrality concept should be reconsidered as a worldwide development goal. Other more realistic and direct concepts, as low carbon development, should be used instead. The thesis studies the relevancy of Masdar City for low carbon urban development in Norway. This is conducted by studying the city planning and metabolism measures. Original goals are compared with current...

  9. City marketing - a significant planning tool for urban development in a globalised economy

    OpenAIRE

    Liouris, Christos; Deffner, Alex

    2005-01-01

    In our days it is a fact that what is projected as the 'image' of a city, can be more important than the reality of the city itself, in shaping visitors', investors', and even its own inhabitants' opinion of it. Marketing techniques are often used to help a city's transformation into a post-industrial centre of tourism, culture and redevelopment. In addition, urban tourism is playing an increasingly important role in deciding economic development strategies by the local governance authorities...

  10. The bumpy road toward low-energy urban mobility: Case studies from two UK cities

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Schwanen

    2015-01-01

    Cities are increasingly seen as the places where innovations that can trigger a sociotechnical transition toward urban mobility are emerging and maturing. Processes such as peak car, rail renaissance and cycling boom manifest themselves particularly in cities, and success stories of cities experimenting with specific types of low-energy mobility abound in the academic literature. Nonetheless, innovation is known to be a precarious process requiring favorable circumstances. Using document anal...

  11. REPRESENTING URBAN SPACE ACCORDING TO THE FEATURES OF THE IDEAL CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ELIZA DULAMĂ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on high school students’ representing the real and ideal urban spaces on plans and it also focused on their representing of these spaces in texts. Students worked in groups and we presented their results: the city plans created for three ideal cities. We analysed the represented geographical elements, the functions of those cities, and the difficulties that students had in perceiving and representing geographical space.

  12. Urban encounters: juxtapositions of difference and the communicative interface of global cities

    OpenAIRE

    GEORGIOU, Myria

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the communicative interface of global cities, especially as it is shaped in the juxtapositions of difference in culturally diverse urban neighbourhoods. These urban zones present powerful examples, where different groups live cheek by jowl, in close proximity and in intimate interaction — desired or unavoidable. In these urban locations, the need to manage difference is synonymous to making them liveable and one's own. In seeking (and sometimes finding) a location in the...

  13. Street Geometry Factors Influence Urban Microclimate in Tropical Coastal Cities: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Arezou; Manteghi, Golnoosh; Keyvanfar, Ali; Bin Lamit, Hasanuddin; Saito, Kei; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz

    2016-05-01

    Urban climatologists have moved smoothly towards urban geometry meso-scales as obstruction between buildings, streets, and urban environment. Urban climatologists and designers have expressed that urban geometry parameters affect urban microclimate conditions. Improper functioning of the geometry factors, particularly air temperature and wind speed, can increase the harshness of climate change and Urban Heat Island (UHI) defects, which are more critical in coastal cities of tropical regions. In this regard, the current study aimed to identify the impact of each street geometry factor on urban microclimate through a critical literature review. The research determined a total of twenty seven (27) factors within three clusters; 1) geometry factors, 2) meteorological factors, and 3) streetscape factors. The content analysis calculated the Depth of Citation (DoC) which refers to the cumulative importance level of each factor. The content analysis resulted air temperature (Ta) (DoC = 18 out of 28) is the most important street geometry factor that should be extensively considered in urban microclimate studies in coastal cities. In contrast, the factors (such as air pollution and traffic load) have received a minimum Doc (1 out of 28). The research has also analyzed the importance level of clusters through an expert input study using Grounded Group Decision Making (GGDM) method. The results show that meteorological cluster (92 %), streetscape cluster (86 %), and geometry cluster (85 %) have to be respectively implemented in urban microclimate studies in coastal cities. The research states there are new approaches have not yet been touched by urban climatologist affecting urban microclimate; included; surface materials, sea-borne dust and sand, user's satisfaction, user's thermal adaptive behavior. These approaches can potentially exacerbate UHI effects in coastal cities, which need further research.

  14. ALTERNATIVE URBAN REGENERATION POLICIES OF BROWN FIELDS LIKE OLD MILITARY CAMPS FOR THE CITY OF ALEXANDROUPOLIS

    OpenAIRE

    Portokalidis, Costas; Zygouri, Foteini

    2011-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the lack of free public spaces in Greek cities, is one of the most severe urban planning problems, not only in the central urban areas but also in the peripheral neighbourhoods. Furthermore, it is a fact that through the land use legal framework there have been efforts towards the implementation of a number of planning tools, regulations, thresholds, methods etc in order to obtain and secure an appropriate level of acceptable urban public space mainly for parks, ...

  15. Street Geometry Factors Influence Urban Microclimate in Tropical Coastal Cities: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafaghat Arezou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban climatologists have moved smoothly towards urban geometry meso-scales as obstruction between buildings, streets, and urban environment. Urban climatologists and designers have expressed that urban geometry parameters affect urban microclimate conditions. Improper functioning of the geometry factors, particularly air temperature and wind speed, can increase the harshness of climate change and Urban Heat Island (UHI defects, which are more critical in coastal cities of tropical regions. In this regard, the current study aimed to identify the impact of each street geometry factor on urban microclimate through a critical literature review. The research determined a total of twenty seven (27 factors within three clusters; 1 geometry factors, 2 meteorological factors, and 3 streetscape factors. The content analysis calculated the Depth of Citation (DoC which refers to the cumulative importance level of each factor. The content analysis resulted air temperature (Ta (DoC = 18 out of 28 is the most important street geometry factor that should be extensively considered in urban microclimate studies in coastal cities. In contrast, the factors (such as air pollution and traffic load have received a minimum Doc (1 out of 28. The research has also analyzed the importance level of clusters through an expert input study using Grounded Group Decision Making (GGDM method. The results show that meteorological cluster (92 %, streetscape cluster (86 %, and geometry cluster (85 % have to be respectively implemented in urban microclimate studies in coastal cities. The research states there are new approaches have not yet been touched by urban climatologist affecting urban microclimate; included; surface materials, sea-borne dust and sand, user’s satisfaction, user’s thermal adaptive behavior. These approaches can potentially exacerbate UHI effects in coastal cities, which need further research.

  16. Economic appraisal and agro-biodiversity development of urban agriculture in Hue city, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hankeová, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    Home gardens play an important role in household strategies as they contribute to their livelihood sustainability. They are a typical example of farming systems documented in urban or peri-urban areas. Vietnam has been witnessing fast economic development during the last twenty years and its cities now experience huge migration of population at rural-urban gradient. Together with personal income growth and increasing number of tourists, there is a growing demand for food, both in terms of qua...

  17. Urban Services Delivery and the Poor : The Case of Three Central American Cities, Volume 2. City Reports

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    The present study describes, and quantifies the provision of basic urban services to the poor, in three Central American cities in El Salvador, Honduras, and, Panama. It also identifies priority areas for government intervention, using specialized household surveys to quantify current deficits, and to rank households from poor to rich, using aggregate consumption as the measure of welfare....

  18. Impact of urbanization level on urban air quality: a case of fine particles (PM(2.5)) in Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng; Li, Li

    2014-11-01

    We examined and compared PM2.5 concentrations in urban and the surrounding regions, and further investigated the impact of urbanization on urban PM2.5 concentrations at the Chinese prefectures. Annual PM2.5 concentrations in most prefectures were greater than 10 μg/m(3), the air quality guideline of the World Health Organization. Those prefectures were mainly distributed along the east coast and southeast of Sichuan province; The urban PM2.5 concentrations ( [Formula: see text] ) in 85 cities were greater than (>10 μg/m(3)) those in the surrounding area. Those cities were mainly located in the Beijing-Sichuan and Shanghai-Guangxi belts. In addition, [Formula: see text] was less than (China or nearby mega cities; Significant positive correlations were found between [Formula: see text] and urban population (R(2) = 0.99, P industry fraction (R(2) = 0.71, P < 0.05), suggesting that urbanization had considerable impact on PM2.5 concentrations. PMID:25113968

  19. Monitoring Urban Markets: The Experience of Latin American Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Rojas

    1997-01-01

    This Urban Sector present Dissemination Note reports on the presentations made and discussions held in the Seminar organized by the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy of Cambridge, MA, on the Latin American experience in monitoring urban land markets. The Seminar gathered 10 representatives of private firms that, as part of their business, systematically gather data and sale information about urban real estate markets. Systematic information about urban land and real estate transactions play a ...

  20. Urban agriculture in the new framework of green cities.

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Boente, Isabel de; Briz de Felipe, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Urban Agriculture was a common practice in the old times. However after a period of low interest by urban population there is a movement of renaissance of urban agriculture especially in the new megalopolis. It is important to understand the role of UA in the new framework, and the interface of urban and rural agricultures, with their comparative advantages. Thus, we describe the impact of UA in several scenarios: political, socioeconomic and environmental. As a consequence several acti...

  1. Quantifying Urban Fragmentation under Economic Transition in Shanghai City, China

    OpenAIRE

    Heyuan You

    2015-01-01

    Urban fragmentation affects sustainability through multiple impacts on economic, social, and environmental cost. Characterizing the dynamics of urban fragmentation in relation to economic transition should provide implications for sustainability. However, rather few efforts have been made in this issue. Using the case of Shanghai (China), this paper quantifies urban fragmentation in relation to economic transition. In particular, urban fragmentation is quantified by a time-series of remotely ...

  2. Economic Cost Analysis of the Urban Sustainable Development——A Case of Guiyang City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the constitution identification of the urbanization economic costs,econometric model of urbanization economic costs is constructed from four aspects of the investment cost in employment opportunities,the investment cost in urban land use,the investment cost in urban infrastructure,and the investment cost in urban management.Taking Guiyang City as an example,economic cost for each additional urban population in Guiyang City is measured under the current level of social and economic development.Capital requirement for the urban development of Guiyang City in the next 10 years is forecasted.And it is pointed out that there will be significant financing gap in the sustainable development and urbanization process of Guiyang City in future,which provides the basis for the development speed and the reasonable goals of urban sustainable development in future.

  3. Cities ready for energy crisis: Building urban energy resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Keeffe, G.; Tillie, N.M.J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Various sources indicate that threats to modern cities lie in the availability of essential streams, among which energy. Most cities are strongly reliant on fossil fuels; not one case of a fully self-sufficient city is known. Engineering resilience is the rate at which a system returns to a single s

  4. The urban expansion trends in the city of Nanjing based on RS and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Pu, Yingxia

    2008-10-01

    With the acceleration of the Chinese urbanization, the problems between social economy and environment are increasingly serious, and the contradiction between men and land is even more evident. Therefore, how will the urban land growth in cities tend to change? How can we use urban land in an appropriate way? These have become hot topics among many scientific fields. In this paper, we take Nanjing city as an example, using remote sensing and GIS technology to reveal the spatial-temporal dynamics of urban expansion. According to the specific development stages of Nanjing, we classify the whole period into two phases which are 1988-1997, and 1997-2001, and use TM remote sensing images for the years 1988, 1997, 2001 as the basic data sources. In order to obtain the dynamic characteristics of urban land use, we divide the land use type into three types, which are urban land, watershed and green lands through Supervised Classification method. In this study, we use annual changing rate and the urban land expansion index to understand the urban expansion of each region in Nanjing city. Finally, we provide some suggestions to keep the urban land sustainable.

  5. Owning the city: New media and citizen engagement in urban design

    OpenAIRE

    de Lange, Michiel; de Waal, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, the term ‘smart cities’ has gained traction in academic, industry, and policy debates about the deployment of new media technologies in urban settings. It is mostly used to describe and market technologies that make city infrastructures more efficient, and personalize the experience of the city. Here, we want to propose the notion of ‘ownership’ as a lens to take an alternative look at the role of urban new media in the city. With the notion of ownership we seek to in...

  6. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF LARGE CITIES IN THE CONTEXT OF RAPID URBANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkov P. A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article defines the basic characteristics of the environmental performance of urban areas. There was offered the system of environmental performance indicators, covering the basic characteristics of the environmental performance. There was developed the algorithm and calculating methodology of composite index of the environmental performance of major cities in the context of rapid urbanization. There was conducted the approbation of the methodology according to the data of major cities which are the administrative centers of the Russian Federation for 2008, 2009 and 2011. There was carried out the rating of major Russian cities based on the composite index of the environmental performance

  7. Rethinking social power and the right to the city amidst China’s emerging urbanism

    OpenAIRE

    Junxi Qian; Shenjing He

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we engage with a theoretical reflection on the concept of the right to the city amidst China’s emerging urbanism. In particular, we conceptualize the right to the city as embedded within the complex geometries of power relations throughout the production process of China’s urban modernity; and in this sense assert the right to urban life is inevitably entangled with a social project of altering dominant power structures. We suggest that the rights of three social groups—namely s...

  8. Analysis of place distribution of urban services, based on people demanding (case study: Estahban city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Bazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1- IntroductionIn recent decades as the population in cities of country, which had been influenced by natural population growth of cities and migration of people in towns and rural to middle cities and metro polices, increases city spaces and infrastructures, which are needed have not been equipped.Urban services are the means for managing urban development and a prominent cause in continuing city life, which without it the life of citizens has been stopped. Its optimal and systematic distribution consistent with the people’s demands in the process of urban planning is very important.Urban services have been considered as one of clear indicators of civilization from many years ago.Today as the civilization increases, urban services and their qualities have been regarded by experts, planners and citizens, so urban services have been followed by urbanization development.2- Methodology In this study through library studies, referring to the relevant agencies, field observation and analysis and evaluation the questionnaire given to residents of various neighborhoods in Estahban city with SPSS were presented.To evaluate the proportion of urban services and people demand six neighborhoods were chosen among 15 neighborhoods of Estahban. (Two neighborhoods of each region. These neighborhoods were chosen based on place- cluster sampling and also economic-social conditions of them and detailed plan of Estahban. In this research a wealthy neighborhood and poor neighborhood were chosen in each region. By using general Cochran formula we obtained 300 sample size . So 300 questionnaires had been distributed among the residents.3- DiscussionAfter 1350, Estahban city faces numerous problems in supplying urban services, because of population growth, physical development in addition to injustice distribution of urban services. These problems have also been strengthened by people who live in more deprived parts of the township to use the urban

  9. Urban Marketing and its Impact over the Touristic Attractiveness of the Cities – A Conceptual Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Alexa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the current issues the urban centers are dealing with, the amplified city competitiveness and the increased demand of qualitative public services, it appears the need to apply new urban management approaches, more oriented toward the market and the current needs of the city. The competitive environment pressure creates the need to pass from an entirely administrative approach to a more managerial one, in all aspects regarding the current problems of the cities. Thus, the urban stakeholders borrow more and more often working methods and techniques specific until now only for the private sector, in order to increase the public service’s performance and to sustainable develop their community. Urban marketing came as a natural response to the cities needs to bring added value to their urban management strategies. The final objective is to increase the cities attractiveness for different target groups: starting with the current and future inhabitants, continuing with tourists and finishing with potential investors, which by relocating their business, could become a part of the faster and more sustainable urban development.

  10. City Planning Evolution - Urban Development Directions in the Transition Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Grigorovschi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban evolution post 1989 has a series of specific characteristics mainly on a spatial-territorial plane. Determination of the main developing factors and urban evolution directions (dimensions, rhythm, expansion level, centrifugal and axial character, concentric, centripetal, functional evolution, tendencies and social implications, etc. represents a necessity and obligation for action from professionals in urban and landscaping fields. This necessity even arises from the perspective of the need for realizing strategies, planning, documentation and urban studies, which must intervene correctively in the evolution of areas with structural problems and to guide urban evolution towards the main goal namely the growth in residential quality of life in human settlements.

  11. Negotiation and Design for the Self-Organizing City. Gaming as a method for Urban Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekim Tan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of cities as open systems whose agents act on them simultaneously from below and above, influencing urban processes by their interaction with them and with each other, is replacing the simplistic debate on urban participation which asks whether cities should be organized bottom-up or top-down. This conceptualization of cities as complex systems calls for new collaborative city-making methods: a combination of collaborative planning (which already embraces various agencies and derives decision-making from negotiations between them and collaborative design (existing methods rely on rule-based iterative processes which control spatial outcomes. While current collaborative planning methods are open and interactive, they fail to simulate realistic power negotiations in the evolution of the physical environments they plan; collaborative design methods fall short in modelling the decision-making mechanisms of the physical environments they control. This research is dedicated to building an open negotiation and design method for cities as self-organizing systems that bridges this gap.Gaming as a tool for knowledge creation and negotiation serves as an interface between the more abstract decision-making and material city-making. Rarely involved in the creation of our environment, it has the unexplored potential of combining the socio-spatial dimensions of self-organizing urban processes. Diverse agents, the collaborations and conflicts within and between interest groups, and the parameters provided by topological data can all be combined in an operational form in gaming: potentially a great unifier of multiple stakeholder negotiations and individual design aspirations through which to generate popularly informed policies or design.The simple language and rules of games will allow jargon-free communication between stakeholders, experts and non-experts alike. The interactive and iterative nature of city gaming encourages the development of

  12. Planning regulations in the USA and their implications on urban design in the central city zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinić Milena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 20th century, urban planning of the American cities was founded on the strong capitalist system and vast available land area. After a long period of planning, which was suited for the use of automobiles, nowadays the deficiencies both in the urban structure and social sphere are very obvious. Modern planning is striving to prescribe guidelines for urban design and thus create a continuity of cityscape and emphasize the pedestrian character of the area, particularly in central city zones. Town planning in the USA comprises local regulations which are suited to the needs of individual cities. Particularly important are the implications which certain town planning regulations have on the design of physical structures in the central city zone, which is the research goal of this paper.

  13. URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OF GUWAHATI CITY IN NORTH-EAST INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta Kumar Pradhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW management has been one of the most environmental concerns for all urban areas of India. Most of the urban centers have neither adequate land nor any facility for MSW disposal. In view of scarcity of lands for making landfill sites, solid wastes can be used for energy recovery resulting in volume reduction, thus requires less area for its disposal. Guwahati is one such city of North-East India, having the potential to recover the energy from solid wastes and at the same time the waste management system of the city can be improved. This paper attempts to characterize the urban solid waste of the city as well as its energy potential for various uses. Results showed that the average generation rate of MSW was 0.7 kg/capita/day and the city has the potential to generate the power of 30 MW from the solid waste.

  14. The urban heat island dynamics during heat waves: a study of cities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Leiqiu

    2016-04-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) is a common phenomenon describing that metropolitan areas are usually warmer than their rural surroundings. This effect is compounded by extreme heat events, which are a leading cause of weather-related human mortality in many countries worldwide. However, the spatial and diurnal variability of temperature and humidity in urban and adjacent rural areas during extreme heat events is not well measured and therefore not well understood. The recently developed dataset of near-surface air and dew temperature from MODIS atmospheric profiles and the new method for the UHI quantification--urban heat island curve are used to quantify the urban climatic changes during heat waves in cities of the United States. The enhanced and weakened UHIs are observed in various cities. The causes of UHI changes during heat waves are discussed, including climate region, vegetation type and amount, city geolocation, etc.

  15. Superlinear and sublinear urban scaling in geographical network model of the city

    CERN Document Server

    Yakubo, K; Korošak, D

    2014-01-01

    Using a geographical scale-free network to describe relations between people in a city, we explain both superlinear and sublinear allometric scaling of urban indicators that quantify activities or performances of the city. The urban indicator $Y(N)$ of a city with the population size $N$ is analytically calculated by summing up all individual activities produced by person-to-person relationships. Our results show that the urban indicator scales superlinearly with the population, namely, $Y(N)\\propto N^{\\beta}$ with $\\beta>1$ if $Y(N)$ represents a creative productivity and the indicator scales sublinearly ($\\beta<1$) if $Y(N)$ is related to the degree of infrastructure development. These coincide with allometric scaling observed in real-world urban indicators. We also show how the scaling exponent $\\beta$ depends on the strength of the geographical constraint in the network formation.

  16. The Impact of the Urban Heat Island during an Intense Heat Wave in Oklahoma City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Basara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During late July and early August 2008, an intense heat wave occurred in Oklahoma City. To quantify the impact of the urban heat island (UHI in Oklahoma City on observed and apparent temperature conditions during the heat wave event, this study used observations from 46 locations in and around Oklahoma City. The methodology utilized composite values of atmospheric conditions for three primary categories defined by population and general land use: rural, suburban, and urban. The results of the analyses demonstrated that a consistent UHI existed during the study period whereby the composite temperature values within the urban core were approximately 0.5∘C warmer during the day than the rural areas and over 2∘C warmer at night. Further, when the warmer temperatures were combined with ambient humidity conditions, the composite values consistently revealed even warmer heat-related variables within the urban environment as compared with the rural zone.

  17. URBAN POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF CONTEMPORARY URBANISATION PROCESSES AND DEVELOPMENT ISSUES OF POLISH CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy J. PARYSEK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The great dynamics and wide range of contemporary Polish processes of urbanisation as well as problems of city development and operation require setting objectives, formulating rules and implementing urban policy. Its aim should be to support municipalities in their attempt to solve primary problems. What makes such a policy necessary is the fact that, while cities play a crucial role in global socio-economic development, they also experience financial, demographic, social, environmental, housing and other problems most severely. Therefore in many cases cities cannot be generators of development and cannot be responsible for the implementation of the Lisbon Strategy, as stipulated by the European Union. The aim of this paper is to present the principles of urban policy which could be implemented in Poland taking into account both, the existing situation and the position of the European Union on this matter. It is assumed that urban policy will be implemented at two levels: supra-local (the European Union, state and regional and local. The first of these levels will apply to all European cities, Polish cities and those of a particular region, while the other, to a particular city and its spatial components. The policy principles will result from EU documents for which urban policy is a component of regional policy. Primarily, it is the Leipzig Charter on Sustainable European Cities and the Green Paper on Territorial Cohesion: Turning territorial diversity into strength.

  18. Do cities simulate climate change? A comparison of herbivore response to urban and global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Dale, Adam G.; Terando, Adam; Dunn, Robert R.; Frank, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Cities experience elevated temperature, CO2, and nitrogen deposition decades ahead of the global average, such that biological response to urbanization may predict response to future climate change. This hypothesis remains untested due to a lack of complementary urban and long-term observations. Here, we examine the response of an herbivore, the scale insect Melanaspis tenebricosa, to temperature in the context of an urban heat island, a series of historical temperature fluctuations, and recent climate warming. We survey M. tenebricosa on 55 urban street trees in Raleigh, NC, 342 herbarium specimens collected in the rural southeastern United States from 1895 to 2011, and at 20 rural forest sites represented by both modern (2013) and historical samples. We relate scale insect abundance to August temperatures and find that M. tenebricosa is most common in the hottest parts of the city, on historical specimens collected during warm time periods, and in present-day rural forests compared to the same sites when they were cooler. Scale insects reached their highest densities in the city, but abundance peaked at similar temperatures in urban and historical datasets and tracked temperature on a decadal scale. Although urban habitats are highly modified, species response to a key abiotic factor, temperature, was consistent across urban and rural-forest ecosystems. Cities may be an appropriate but underused system for developing and testing hypotheses about biological effects of climate change. Future work should test the applicability of this model to other groups of organisms.

  19. An urban heat island in tropical area investigated by remote sensing: Belo Horizonte City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inappropriate urbanization process in tropical areas causes local climatic alterations forming heat islands over the cities. In order to guide urban planning in the control of the environmental urban quality, as for the thermal comfort is concerned, it has developed a method to evaluate the thermal behavior of built and urban green areas. Two TM-LANDSAT images from Belo Horizonte City, the study area, were chosen based on summer and winter typical days statistically characterized. Bands 3 and 4 of these images were combined to produce a local vegetation index map. Band 6 was used to observe the warmer and cooler areas in the city. Some heat nucleons were identified through data analysis of remote sensing, meteorological and urban land use. The mean maximum temperature of the principal heat nuclei exceeds, in summer, the limit value of diurnal thermal comfort for the city climate, using Givoni's Bioclimatic Chart. During the day period, the areas with a lower vegetation index, more density and predominating horizontal settlements were the most warmer. The cooling effect of urban green areas was very local. Thus, it should be regularly distributed in the built areas. The limits of occupation density and edification could be fixed, too, considering its impacts on the urban thermal environment

  20. Alteration of Carbon Fluxes in Cities during Urbanization: Methodology and a Global Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Chen, B.

    2014-12-01

    Cities are increasingly important drivers in altering global biogeochemical cycles. Yet, we still have a limited understanding of the magnitudes and patterns of carbon profile in urban areas. The modelling of carbon profile enables the determination of the interactions between urban systems and natural ecosystems. In this study, we develop a systems approach to accounting for both economic and natural sources and sinks of carbon emissions. We quantify the carbon emissions associated with each economic sectors and household consumers and assess how these emissions changes with different climatic and socio-economic conditions between urban systems. In addition, the relationship between ecosystem services and carbon emissions is analyzed. The case study of a set of major global cities indicates that the value of ecosystem services has a negative correlation with carbon emissions. We argue that the modelling of urban carbon profile is vital not only for guiding cities towards more effective actions towards reducing carbon footprint, but also for looking into the changing ecosystem function and services in urban systems during urbanization. Keywords: carbon emissions, ecosystem services; urbanization; global cities

  1. Impact of urbanization patterns on the local climate of a tropical city, Singapore: An ensemble study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Koh, Tieh-Yong; Panda, Jagabandhu; Norford, Leslie K.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of urbanization and urbanization pattern on the thermal environment and local rainfall is investigated in the tropical coastal city, Singapore. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is employed with 5 one-way nested domains and the highest horizontal resolution is 300 m. The urban effect is taken into account by a single-layer urban canopy model. Several scenarios with idealized urbanization patterns are designed and simulated for an ensemble of 28 members. In the asymmetric urbanization scenarios, in which either the southern or northern part of Singapore is urbanized while the other part is forest, the magnitude of urban heat island (UHI) intensity is higher than that in the symmetric urbanization scenario, in which the urban and forest land use is homogeneously distributed in Singapore. The anthropogenic heat (AH) associated with the urban areas will exacerbate the UHI intensity. Most of the rainfall in the examined cases occurs from late morning to afternoon when the sea breeze blows northeastward. The results suggest that sea breezes have stronger influence on the rainfall than the urbanization pattern since the downwind part always gets more rainfall than the upwind part. The urbanization and associated AH can have two opposite effects on the rainfall amount: increasing rainfall through increasing buoyancy by AH and decreasing rainfall through reducing evaporation by converting greenery to impervious surfaces. The ultimate effect is dependent on the relative strength of these two influences.

  2. Why are large cities faster? Universal scaling and self-similarity in urban organization and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, L. M. A.; Lobo, J.; West, G. B.

    2008-06-01

    Cities have existed since the beginning of civilization and have always been intimately connected with humanity's cultural and technological development. Much about the human and social dynamics that takes place is cities is intuitively recognizable across time, space and culture; yet we still do not have a clear cut answer as to why cities exist or to what factors are critical to make them thrive or collapse. Here, we construct an extensive quantitative characterization of the variation of many urban indicators with city size, using large data sets for American, European and Chinese cities. We show that social and economic quantities, characterizing the creation of wealth and new ideas, show increasing returns to population scale, which appear quantitatively as a power law of city size with an exponent β≃ 1.15 > 1. Concurrently, quantities characterizing material infrastructure typically show economies of scale, namely β≃ 0.8 < 1. The existence of pervasive scaling relations across city size suggests a universal social dynamics common to all cities within an urban system. We sketch some of their general ingredients, which include the acceleration of social life and a restructuring of individual social networks as cities grow larger. We also build simple dynamical models to show that increasing returns in wealth and innovation can fuel faster than exponential growth, which inexorably lead to crises of urban organization. To avoid them we show that growth may proceed in cycles, separated by major urban adaptations, with the unintended consequence that the duration of such cycles decreases with larger urban population size and is now estimated to be shorter than a human lifetime.

  3. Quantifying urban heat island effects and human comfort for cities of variable size and urban morphology in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.; Koopmans, S.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Hove, van B.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the canopy layer urban heat island (UHI) and human comfort in a range of small to large cities and villages in the Netherlands. So far, this subject has not been substantially studied in the Netherlands, since it has a relatively mild Cfb climate and impact was assumed to be mi

  4. Global Climate Change and Solutions for Urban Sustainability of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Phan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC, the largest city in Vietnam, is steadily growing, certainly towards a mega city in the near future. Like other mega cities at the boom stage, it has to face with serious environmental matters insolvable for many years. The situation may be worse under the effects of global climate change, geological subsidence due to non-standard construction and sea level rise. The situation of HCMC can be damaged or even broken by resonant effects of unsolved environmental matters and latent impacts of climate change. This article shows the challenges to the urban sustainable development under the duo effect of urban environmental matters and climate change in Ho Chi Minh City. Opportunities and strategic directions to overcome the challenges are also analyzed and recommended.

  5. Urban Skylines: building heights and shapes as measures of city size

    CERN Document Server

    Schläpfer, Markus; Bettencourt, Luís M A

    2015-01-01

    The shape of buildings plays a critical role in the energy efficiency, lifestyles, land use and infrastructure systems of cities. Thus, as most of the world's cities continue to grow and develop, understanding the interplay between the characteristics of urban environments and the built form of cities is essential to achieve local and global sustainability goals. Here, we compile and analyze the most extensive data set of building shapes to date, covering more than 4.8 million individual buildings across several major cities in North America. We show that average building height increases systematically with city size and follows theoretical predictions derived from urban scaling theory. We also study the allometric relationship between surface area and volume of buildings in terms of characteristic shape parameters. This allows us to demonstrate that the reported trend towards higher (and more voluminous) buildings effectively decreases the average surface-to-volume ratio, suggesting potentially significant ...

  6. Satellite remote sensing for urban growth assessment in Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAMADAN Elnazir; FENG Xue-zhi (冯学智); CHENG Zheng (程征)

    2004-01-01

    Urban growth represents specific response to economic, demographic and environmental conditions. Rapid urbanization and industrializations have resulted in sharp land cover changes. The present investigation was carried out from Shaoxing City to quantify satellite-derived estimates of urban growth using a three-epoch time series Landsat TM data for the years 1984, 1997 and ETM 2000. The methodology used was based on post classification comparison. The use of GIS allowed spatial analysis of the data derived from remotely sensed images. Results showed that the built-up area surrounding Shaoxing City has expanded at an annual average of 7 km2. Analysis of the classified map showed that the physical growth of urban area is upsetting the other land cover classes such as farming, water resources, etc. The study conclusion mainly emphasized the need for sustainable urban capacity.

  7. On the Nexus of the Spatial Dynamics of Global Urbanization and the Age of the City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Sebastian; Haase, Dagmar; Volk, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A number of concepts exist regarding how urbanization can be described as a process. Understanding this process that affects billions of people and its future development in a spatial manner is imperative to address related issues such as human quality of life. In the focus of spatially explicit studies on urbanization is typically a city, a particular urban region, an agglomeration. However, gaps remain in spatially explicit global models. This paper addresses that issue by examining the spatial dynamics of urban areas over time, for a full coverage of the world. The presented model identifies past, present and potential future hotspots of urbanization as a function of an urban area's spatial variation and age, whose relation could be depicted both as a proxy and as a path of urban development. PMID:27490199

  8. Masdar City : A Model of Urban Environmental Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Bajaj

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Masdar City is an archeology project in Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates. Its core is a planned city, which is being built by Masdar, a subsidiary of Mubadala Development Company, with the majority of seed capital provided by the government of Abu Dhabi. Designed by the British architectural firm Foster and Partners and engineering and environmental consultancy Mott MacDonald, the city will rely entirely on solar energy and other renewable energy sources, with a zero waste ecology. It initially aimed to be a sustainable zero-carbon car-free city. . This article is a case study about "Masdar City," a planned carbon-neutral town in Abu Dhabi. The article describes the key characteristics of Masdar City.

  9. Contagion processes on urban bus networks in Indian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan; Jagannathan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Bus transportation is considered as one of the most convenient and cheapest modes of public transportation in Indian cities. Due to their cost-effectiveness and wide reachability, they help a significant portion of the human population in cities to reach their destinations every day. Although from a transportation point of view they have numerous advantages over other modes of public transportation, they also pose a serious threat of contagious diseases spreading throughout the city. The pres...

  10. Masdar City : A Model of Urban Environmental Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Kapil Bajaj

    2014-01-01

    Masdar City is an archeology project in Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates. Its core is a planned city, which is being built by Masdar, a subsidiary of Mubadala Development Company, with the majority of seed capital provided by the government of Abu Dhabi. Designed by the British architectural firm Foster and Partners and engineering and environmental consultancy Mott MacDonald, the city will rely entirely on solar energy and other renewable energy sources, with a zero waste ecology. It i...

  11. URBAN SPRAWL AND SUSTAINABLE CITY DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary Nnaemeka-Okeke

    2016-01-01

    Urban environmental problems are of different dimensions and are mostly due to geologic, climatic and cultural factors. However, the cultural factors seems to be more pronounced in the Nigerian context because most of the identified urban environmental issues are so much associated with the way of life of the people, either as reactions to urbanization or their spatial heritage. Their effects are far reaching on efforts to attain sustainable development in the country. Since no section of the...

  12. City Planning Evolution - Urban Development Directions in the Transition Period

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Grigorovschi

    2010-01-01

    Urban evolution post 1989 has a series of specific characteristics mainly on a spatial-territorial plane. Determination of the main developing factors and urban evolution directions (dimensions, rhythm, expansion level, centrifugal and axial character, concentric, centripetal, functional evolution, tendencies and social implications, etc.) represents a necessity and obligation for action from professionals in urban and landscaping fields. This necessity even arises from the perspective of the...

  13. Pattern and mechanism of urban spatial growth in Nanjing City,1979-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-long; MA Guo-qiang

    2010-01-01

    Urban spatial growth has become a hot topic of geographic science and urban research.Exploring the patterns and mechanisms of urban growth is the prerequisite to understand the urbanization process of China.The paper provides a spatial analysis method of using Remote Sensing(RS)and Geographic Information System(GIS),and presents major patterns and mechanisms of urhan spatial growth during the period from 1979 to 2007 in Nanjing City.Firstly,the paper introduces the data,study area and methodology of the research.Then,the patterns of urban spatial growth are identified.Subsequently,the main mechanisms of urban spatial growth are analyzed.Finally,some conclusions are drawn definitely.The features of urban spatial growth in Nanjing are as follows: during 1979-1988,urban spatial growth of each district was slow,and the inner growth was in excess of suburban growth;during the period of 1988-2000.urban growth of suburban was in excess of inner city the most insensitive growth appeared in the southeast,and the growth of each aspect was relatively insensitive expect east and west; during the period of 2000-2007,urban growth of suburban was violent,the most insensitive growth appeared in the southeast,and the urban growth of each direction was insensitive except the west.The mechanisms of urban.spatial growth are complex,the main ones of which are social and economic development.Besides,the guiding of urban planning and influence of urban spatial structure are quite obvious.

  14. Examination of an Urban City Bus Operating Conditions and Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Soylu, Seref (Coordinador); Bal, Ayda; Semercioglu, Hulya; Ay, Eyup Fatih

    2010-01-01

    It was observed that real world driving characteristics of the city bus don’t correlate well with that of the ETC, which is the certification cycle for the city bus engines. For this reason it is not realistic to expect emission levels lower than corresponding EURO standards from the city bus during real world driving. City bus NOx emissions in terms of grams per second are increasing with engine load and speed but the total NOx emissions for entire trip are the maximum at the locations whe...

  15. Utility of Urban Public Facilities of Haikou City Based on Behavioral Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun; YUAN

    2013-01-01

    From functions,ornament and art,on the basis of the behavioral theory,the utility of urban public facilities was surveyed and studied with Longhua District of Haikou City as an example.It summed up the basis for designing urban public facilities behind behavior habits of residents,in the hope of making future urban construction and management more humanized.Accordingly,it is expected to set up appropriate concept of public facilities,and play especially important role in creating favorable urban living environment.

  16. The Linkage of Urban and Energy Planning for Sustainable Cities: The Case of Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    implemented. Municipalities, as local authorities and responsible entity for land-use planning, have a direct influence on urban patterns and energy use, which makes them key actors in the transition towards sustainable cities. Hence, synchronizing urban planning with energy planning offers great potential to...... transitions towards a holistic urban energy planning procedures were identified....... increase society’s energy-efficiency; this has a high significance to reach GHG-reduction targets. In this paper the actual linkage of urban planning and energy planning in Denmark and Germany was assessed; substantive barriers preventing their integration and driving factors that lead to successful...

  17. Urban management and institutional change: An integrated approach to achieving ecological cities

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Meine Pieter

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this contribution I will deal with the following topics in this order: 1. Urban Management an integrated approach! 2. Reforms to improve the performance of the municipality 3. What is new in Urban Management: the New Public Management 4. Autonomy OK, but what is accountability? 5. What are the issues? Lets analyze it 6. What about the dynamics of cities? 7. How can we finance urban development alternatively? 8. Who is the real urban manager and what are some relevant books on u...

  18. On Index System and Quantitative Assessment of Eco-cities:A Case Study on Urban Agglomeration of the Yangtze Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yali; Jiang Dahe; Wang Dan

    2007-01-01

    Urban agglomeration of the Yangtze Delta(UAYD),one of the most developed regions of China,has witnessed an increasing prevalence in building ecological cities when the ecological cities are pursued by many modem cities,and great achievements have been made in this regard.It is inevitable,however,that certain problems exist during the construction of ecological city,which include but not limited to non-harmonious development of urban complex ecosystem,and the difficulty in quantifying eco-city construction or incomplete quantification in assessing the construction of present and future eco-city.Based on the analysis on social-economic conditions and regional conditions of the UAYD,this paper attempts to set up an index system of eco-cities combining with local characteristics,and to adopt the indices of eco-city,urban harmony,and eco-city colligate to evaluate the ecological level,urban harmonious development and eco-city construction of cities within the UAYD.Results indicate that among 15 cities in UAYD,Suzhou City ranks the highest in terms of eco-city construction,whereas Nantong ranks relatively lower;sustainable eco-city construction is possible only when cities are developed in every respect of harmony.

  19. Urban energy use and carbon emissions from cities in China and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban areas contain 40% of the population and contribute 75% of the Chinese national economy. Thus, a better understanding of urban energy uses is necessary for Chinese decision-makers at various levels to address energy security, climate change mitigation, and local pollution abatement. Therefore, this paper addresses three key questions: What is the urban contribution to China's energy usage and CO2 emissions? What is the contribution of large cities, and what alternate energy-economy pathways are they following? How have energy uses and CO2 emissions transformed in the last two decades in key Chinese cities? This three-tier analysis illustrates the changes in urban energy uses and CO2 emissions in China. The results show that the urban contributions make up 84% of China's commercial energy usage. The 35 largest cities in China, which contain 18% of the population, contribute 40% of China's energy uses and CO2 emissions. In four provincial cities, the per capita energy usage and CO2 emissions have increased several-fold. Rapid progress was made in reducing the carbon intensity of economic activities in cities throughout the 1990s, but alarmingly, such progress has either slowed down or been reversed in the last few years. These results have important policy implications.

  20. Alcohol, drugs, and urban violence in a small city trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, T F; Abdu, R; Walker, J R

    1995-01-01

    Substance abuse and urban trauma go hand in hand. But research focuses on large cities served by major academic medical centers. Do small cities face the same problems? Two hundred thirty-three urban trauma inpatients from a metro area of 250,000 were studied using patient interviews and medical records. As in large cities, one half used alcohol or drugs when attacked. Seventy percent were likely to be young, male, poor African-Americans. Only 3% were gang members, but demographic characteristics failed to explain substance abuse as they have for larger cities. A culture of violence pervades the small city, as it does in large urban ghettos. Two fifths were repeat urban trauma victims. Two fifths witnessed assaults in the past year. One third carried a knife or gun. Fifteen percent used a weapon on another person in the last year. Contextual variables, like being hurt in a bar, were related to drinking and drugs. The best predictor of present substance abuse and urban trauma was medical history of substance abuse. The need for (a) toxicology screens for all trauma victims, (b) referrals to substance abuse programs, (c) targeting at-risk populations for prevention, and (d) eliminating environments fostering violence and substance abuse is supported. PMID:7623393

  1. Concentrations of heavy metals in urban soils of Havana city, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe in the top-soils (0-10 cm) of Havana city urbanized and un-urbanized areas were measured by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The mean Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb contents in the urban topsoil samples from Havana City (151 ± 90, 13.9 ± 4.1, 66 ± 26, 101 ± 51, 240 ± 132 and 101 ± 61 mg.kg-1, respectively) were compared with mean concentrations for other cities around the world. The results revealed higher concentrations of heavy metals in topsoil samples from industrial sites. Lowest heavy metal contents were determined in the un-urbanized areas. The comparison with Dutch soil quality guidelines showed a slightly contamination with Cr, Co, Ni Cu and Zn in all studied sites and with Pb in industrial soils. On the other hand, the metal-to-iron normalisation using Earth crust contents as background showed that soils from urbanized areas in Havana city (industrial sites, parks and school grounds) are moderately enriched by zinc, moderately to severe enriched (city parks and school grounds) and severe enriched (industrial sites) by lead. (Author)

  2. Housing the Urban Poor: Planning, Business and Politics: A Case Study of Duaripara Slum, Dhaka city, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nahiduzzaman, Kh. Md.

    2006-01-01

    This study is conducted on Duripara slum of Dhaka city which is one of the fastest growing megalopolis and primate cities not only among the developing but also among the developed countries. The high rate of urbanization has posed a challenging dimension to the central, local govt. and concerned development authority. In Dhaka about 50% of the total urban population is poor and in the urbanization process the poor are the major contributors which can be characterized as urbanization of pover...

  3. AN URBAN ECONOMIC MODEL OF ILEGAL SETTLEMENTS IN FLOOD PRONE AREAS IN PALANGKARAYA CITY, INDONESIA -A PARTIAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS-

    OpenAIRE

    Indrawan PERMANA; Yuzuru MIYATA

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study regarding occupations of flood prone areas by illegal settlements in urban area of Palangkaraya city, Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. Such unusual urban land use pattern has been observed in many urbanized cities particularly in developing countries. However, scientific explanations about the urban phenomena were not formulated yet as well as literatures on that topic are quite rare. We developed a partial equilibrium model employing bid rent ap...

  4. Urban agriculture, food production and city planning in a medium sized city of Turin metropolitan area: a preliminary note which compares geography and local policies

    OpenAIRE

    Artuso, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This research is stated on a main question: do urban and periurban agriculture be considered a valuable source for food supply, environmental, economic and social development in a medium sized city? This question has been addressed considering urban agriculture management in the planning policies of Nichelino, a 48.000 inhabitants city in the Turin Metropolitan area. The results addressed the issue of urban and periurban agriculture considering their spatial distribution and relationships wit...

  5. Planetary stewardship in an urbanizing world: beyond city limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seitzinger, S.P.; Svedin, U.; Crumley, C.L.; Steffen, W.; Abdullah, S.A.; Alfsen, C.; Broadgate, W.J.; Biermann, F.; Bondre, N.R.; Dearing, J.A.; Deutsch, L.; Dhakal, S.; Elmqvist, T.; Farahbakhshazad, N.; Gaffney, O.; Haberl, H.; Lavorel, S.; Mbow, C.; McMichael, A.J.; Demorais, J.M.; Olsson, P.; Pinho, P.F.; Seto, K.C.; Sinclair, P.; Stafford Smith, M.; Sugar, L.

    2012-01-01

    Cities are rapidly increasing in importance as a major factor shaping the Earth system, and therefore, must take corresponding responsibility. With currently over half the world's population, cities are supported by resources originating from primarily rural regions often located around the world fa

  6. Urban sprawl in Iranian cities and its differences with the western sprawl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimpour-Masoumi Houshmand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently a number of studies have focused on urban sprawl in the Iranian cities and the negative impacts of such development pattern. Although in a general view the phrase “urban sprawl” is used for fast and sometimes uncontrolled urbanizations, but there are dissimilarities between the urban sprawl in the western societies with the so-called Iranian urban sprawl. This paper discusses these differences as part of five main aspects that are mentioned in the internationally recognized urban sprawl definitions. Suburban sprawl, single-use developments/zoning, disconnected street network, low accessibility of the new developments, and commercial strip development are the aspects that are descriptively discussed as the main differences between the two types of sprawl. The main point of the discussion is that due to the wide range of similarities, which are briefly introduced, the type of the fast outward urban growth that is observed in the periphery of the Iranian cities can be defined as a part of the universal urban sprawl trend. Finally a definition is suggested for explaining urban sprawl in Iran.

  7. Languages, perceptions and urban tensions in the global city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Acierno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The city is a subject of narration under different points of view – technical, scientific, literary and artistic ones  – expressing themselves through specific languages. Besides these “external languages” there is also a typical language of the city which constantly writes and rewrites parts, configuring the city as a palimpsest. The city tells itself to the user-observer of its external spaces, who perceives the city’s messages through the senses and re-elaborates them through mental filters, translating them into perceptions. In the contemporary city a sense of disorientation is being perceived, giving rise to worries, anxiety, fears; “tensions” in one word. The reasons of this discomfort may be found also in the effects of globalisation, which has generated an imbalance between the virtual and the real, the global and the local, introducing discontinue fragments of globalism in the neighbourhoods, exasperating fears and mistrust, and consolidating differences, exclusion and segregation.

  8. Brewery in the city, the city in the brewery - architectural and urban redevelopment of a brewery in Znojmo

    OpenAIRE

    Pončík, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The solved site is located in the historic town of Znojmo, on the site of the former castle. Its unique position not only adds significant urban areas, but are an integral part of the city skyline. There is one of the most important monuments in the country, Rotunda of St. Catherine (annually visited by tourists to 20000) and former brewery Hostan. The operation ended here and the city bought the land with buildings. There is now the question of what to do with the place and where to get fund...

  9. Analysis of Urban Expansion and Driving Forces in Xuzhou City Based on Remote Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhao-ling; DU Pei-jun; GUO Da-zhi

    2007-01-01

    Based on satellite remote sensing TM/ETM+ images of Xuzhou city, land use forms of the city in 1987, 1994 and 2000 were extracted by using a neural network classification method. The expansion contribution rate and annual expansion intensity index of each administrative district have been calculated and the contribution rate matrices and spatial distribution maps of land use changes were obtained. Based on the above analysis, the characteristics of urban expansion from 1987 to 2000 have been explored. From 1987 to 1994, the expansion contribution rate of Quanshan district reached 46.80%, the highest in all administrative districts of Xuzhou city; Tongshan town was in a high-speed expansion period; both Quanshan and Yunlong districts were experiencing fast-speed expansion periods while the entire city was expanding at a medium-speed with an annual expansion intensity index of 0.98; the city spread eastwards and southwards. From 1994 to 2000, the expansion contribution rate of Quanshan district reached 43.67%, the highest in Xuzhou; the entire city was in a medium-speed expansion period with an annual expansion intensity index of 1.04; the city has rapidly been extended towards the southeast. According to the contribution rate matrices of land use changes, urban expansion mainly usurps cropland and woodland. A quantitative analysis found that population growth, industrialization and economic development are the primary driving forces behind urban expansion.

  10. The Bumpy Road toward Low-Energy Urban Mobility: Case Studies from Two UK Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Schwanen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cities are increasingly seen as the places where innovations that can trigger a sociotechnical transition toward urban mobility are emerging and maturing. Processes such as peak car, rail renaissance and cycling boom manifest themselves particularly in cities, and success stories of cities experimenting with specific types of low-energy mobility abound in the academic literature. Nonetheless, innovation is known to be a precarious process requiring favorable circumstances. Using document analysis and in-depth interviews, this study examines the nature of low-energy innovation in the everyday mobility of people in two UK cities with favorable conditions for a transition away from fossil fuels—Brighton and Oxford. It shows that clear differences exist between the two cities in the sorts of innovation that emerge and diffuse as a result of path dependencies, local politics, and financial support from supra-local governments and agencies. While low-energy mobility currently has substantial momentum in both cities, the majority of low-carbon innovations in urban mobility are incremental rather than radical in nature, and their future is often imbued with uncertainty. The autonomy of small- and medium-sized cities as agents in bringing about transformational change toward low-energy urban mobility should not be overestimated.

  11. STUDY ON ECOLOGICAL SPACE OF URBAN AGGLOMERATION--Taking Wuxi City as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From the angle of ecology, urban agglomeration presents relevant types of landscape structure, which in-clude Patch, Corridor and Matrix. There are different landscape features and different problems in different developmentphases. This paper has put forward five basic conditions for security pattern of landscape ecology of urban agglomeration,described quantitatively the features for landscape ecology in Wuxi, and analyzed ecological background of spatial expan-sion and spatial organization of urban development in Wuxi. From the angle of ecological land use and non-ecological landuse, the paper has analyzed the features of land use and ecological distribution of land in the urban area. The spatial mod-el of cities and towns in Wuxi is composed of one metropolis, two urban zones and three development axes. This thesishas planned preliminarily ecological protection network at four levels in the urban region according to four layers. At last,combining landscape ecology with urban space, a tentative security pattern of landscape ecology has been p1anned in Wux-i, namely Source-Buffer Zone and Metropolis, Radiating Routes and Expansion Direction of City, Strategic Point and Interac-tion between Cities and Towns, Inter-Source Linkage-Corridor of a Stable Landscape Structure.

  12. Port, city, territory: economic development and urban quality in the case study of Salerno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Annunziata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities are the collective expression of a society and in seaside cities this phenomenon acquires peculiar values, since maritime communities share a unitary identity in the remarkable link with maritime essence, ships and navigation. Maritime urban landscape may be really perceived only from the sea and during navigation, through a dynamic perception able to give its complexity back. Architecture in seaside cities is rooted in the sea itself, which shapes the urban landscape, fosters the cultural evolution, affects social dynamics and makes economy be on the move. The ever rising sea trades, brought about markets’ globalization, fostered port’s development, which, if well run, is still today able to provide new opportunities for sea towns. The approach to an urban planning focused on a “from the sea” perspective suggests to deal with both the port and urban dimensions. Through this kind of approach, the Port may acquire a new leading role in the renewal of urban coastal areas, becoming, thus, the driving force of its (selfdevelopment and, at the same time, of the local urban sustainable development. Rather than being univocal, the relationship between city and port constitutes a quite complex continuous process, which calls for physical and cultural changes, often difficult to deal with and fulfill; a process in which different subjects and resources, often at odds, are involved. In this study approach we will focus on Salerno, where, through the cultural continuity of maritime tradition, the rise of port activities has been matched with an urban vision designed to reshape the urban waterfront (Fig.1. Salerno has identified policies and methods designed to undertake a renewal — along with Administration, Port Authority and Private Citizens — by sharing actions and projects to make waterfront more suitable and “tantalizing”, to improve the quality of urban life and, simultaneously, to take advantage of the potential of these

  13. Analysis urban life quality, case study residents of Rostamabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ali Reza poor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main issues raised about sustainable development and the quality of human life. Life quality, economic, social, physical, biological, cultural and political advocacy. City Rostamabad Narmashir city center, which is located in the South East province. Based on the material provided above, the present study is the evaluation of quality of life in the city Rostamabad. The purpose of this studies the physical aspects of quality of life, economic, social and Rostamabad is in the city. Research question is: subjective quality of life of residents in the city Rostamabad (Narmashir How so? This study is a descriptive analysis. Data collection methods include observation, enterprise statistics, and library resources, and Inventory. Quality of Life Questionnaire research tool households. They Collection data by, correlations Statistical tests, Binomial T test, Wilcoxon, and one sample T- test were analyzed. Findings indicated the objective quality of life of city residents Rostamabad is desirable and less desirable in some areas. The results showed the following subjective satisfaction with the quality of this type of service, cost, access time, and so is low. The subjective quality of life in the next few social good and is close to the average. While the have become more favorable for quality of life in all three dimensions of economic, social, and spatial - ecological status of the city.

  14. Quantifying Urban Fragmentation under Economic Transition in Shanghai City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyuan You

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban fragmentation affects sustainability through multiple impacts on economic, social, and environmental cost. Characterizing the dynamics of urban fragmentation in relation to economic transition should provide implications for sustainability. However, rather few efforts have been made in this issue. Using the case of Shanghai (China, this paper quantifies urban fragmentation in relation to economic transition. In particular, urban fragmentation is quantified by a time-series of remotely sensed images and a set of landscape metrics; and economic transition is described by a set of indicators from three aspects (globalization, decentralization, and marketization. Results show that urban fragmentation presents an increasing linear trend. Multivariate regression identifies positive linear correlation between urban fragmentation and economic transition. More specifically, the relative influence is different for the three components of economic transition. The relative influence of decentralization is stronger than that of globalization and marketization. The joint influences of decentralization and globalization are the strongest for urban fragmentation. The demonstrated methodology can be applicable to other places after making suitable adjustment of the economic transition indicators and fragmentation metrics.

  15. Wilderness in the city: the urbanization of Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deplazes, Peter; Hegglin, Daniel; Gloor, Sandra; Romig, Thomas

    2004-02-01

    A distinct increase in fox populations, particularly in urban areas, has been observed in Europe. This is of particular concern in endemic regions of the small fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the aetiological agent of human alveolar echinococcosis. Novel tools have facilitated the investigation of the ecology of urban foxes and have demonstrated the urban wildlife cycle of E. multilocularis. Such studies are essential for estimating the risk of transmission to humans and to determine the basics for the development of control strategies. PMID:14747021

  16. City Size, Density and Sectoral Structure: Exploring Urban Sustainability in the Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirejeva-Hopkins, Anastasia

    2010-05-01

    For the first time in history, the Global population is more urban than rural and the trend is obvious at various scales. Cities do not serve just as dynamic centres of activities, jobs and consumption markets, social interactions and cultural expressions, but also carry the weight of the main environmental problems of current times and the near future. Global Warming, air and water pollution, population growth and recourse constraints, i.e. reduction of carrying capacity of the environment are among the well known ones. The overall aim of this research is to develop mitigation (at various scales) and adaptation systems, tailored to urban settlements. They should be effective at the very local as well as regional levels, assess and introduce innovative urban technologies and policies, reduce ecological footprint of cities and increase recycling efficiency. We propose the empirical method of urban sustainability assessment, that supports our hypothesis that city functioning, the changes in its population and area growth depends on the size, average and internal densities and the geographical form. The existing cities of three regions are examined: Western and Eastern Europe (incl. Russia), Latin America and China. There are fundamental urban developmental differences and also within the first region, namely between EU countries and the Eastern part of European geographical region. The cities are considered not only as some agglomerates of areas with dense population but from the ecological point of view, namely examining inflow of food and energy and outflow of waste products across the boundaries. There are major differences between the patterns of urbanisation in the studied regions, urban systems functioning and resilience. Continuous investigation of these differenced helps building regional scenarios of cities development, population allocation and pollution management for the 21st century.

  17. Unified Data Model of Urban Air Pollution Dispersion and 3D Spatial City Models: Groundwork Assessment towards Sustainable Urban Development for Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of urban air pollution is important en route for sustainable urban development (SUD). Malaysia is on its mission to be a developed country by year 2020 comprehends dealing with air pollution is one of the indicators headed towards it. At present monitoring and managing air pollution in urban areas encompasses sophisticated air quality modeling and data acquisition. However, rapid developments in major cities cause difficulties in acquiring the city geometries. The e...

  18. Rapid Urbanization as a Source of Social and Ecological Decay: A Case of Multan City, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Yasin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the relationship between rapid urbanization and socio-ecological problems. The major objective of this study is to analyze the unplanned and haphazard urbanization that is giving birth to environmental issues such as; pollution, poor drainage system, poor quality of drinking water and poor hygienic conditions. This research carried out in Multan city, Pakistan through field survey of 200 respondents using multistage sampling technique. Self-administrated questionnaire was used as a tool of data collection and the binary logistic regression was employed for the analysis of the data. The results depict that urbanization is one of the major causes of converging joint family system to the nuclear family system and its changing function as a consequence. It is also a source of reduction of greenery and trees in the city. It is causing problem of poor sanitation system and quality of drinking water. Pollution is another outcome of haphazard and unplanned urbanization. The researcher also found that due to migration from rural to urban areas, the life in the city implicates adversely the quality of life. This study provides better insight on the problems of urbanization in urban areas and will also help policy makers to focus on major areas of improvement such as to check the migration from rural to urban. To enforce the urban laws to reduce the problems of sanitation, check on transport system, quality of drinking water, domestic and industrial waste. The researcher suggests the monitoring of the migration from rural to urban areas through provision of basic facilities in rural areas. On the other hand awareness campaigns and provision of basic facilities to the rural people (educational facilities, health facilities, food and empowerment in basic decision making can reduce this problem.

  19. A porous urban fabric: the structures and scales of London's peri-urban development from 1880 to 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanani, A. N.; Vaughan, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how the fringes of cities develop spatially at both the local scale and in relation to the wider urban area that they are linked to. Through an analysis of Greater London over a period of 150 years the changing structure of the street network of Surbiton and South Norwood on the south-western and south-central (respectively) edge is studied. The period covers their transformation from being relatively independent settlements to forming parts of the urban f...

  20. Tree Canopy Cover Mapping Using LiDAR in Urban Barangays of Cebu City, Central Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejares, J. A.; Violanda, R. R.; Diola, A. G.; Dy, D. T.; Otadoy, J. B.; Otadoy, R. E. S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates tree canopy cover mapping of urban barangays (smallest administrative division in the Philippines) in Cebu City using LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) was used to extract tree canopy cover. Multi-resolution segmentation and a series of assign-class algorithm in eCognition software was also performed to extract different land features. Contextual features of tree canopies such as height, area, roundness, slope, length-width and elliptic fit were also evaluated. The results showed that at the time the LiDAR data was collected (June 24, 2014), the tree cover was around 25.11 % (or 15,674,341.8 m2) of the city's urban barangays (or 62,426,064.6 m2). Among all urban barangays in Cebu City, Barangay Busay had the highest cover (55.79 %) while barangay Suba had the lowest (0.8 %). The 16 barangays with less than 10 % tree cover were generally located in the coastal area, presumably due to accelerated urbanization. Thirty-one barangays have tree cover ranging from 10.59--27.3 %. Only 3 barangays (i.e., Lahug, Talamban, and Busay) have tree cover greater than 30 %. The overall accuracy of the analysis was 96.6 % with the Kappa Index of Agreement or KIA of 0.9. From the study, a grouping can be made of the city's urban barangays with regards to tree cover. The grouping will be useful to urban planners not only in allocating budget to the tree planting program of the city but also in planning and creation of urban parks and playgrounds.

  1. Temporal trend and determinants of river water quality across urbanization gradients in a coastal city, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Zhu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Water contamination in rivers embedded in urbanizing areas is increasingly affected by anthropogenic factors. The impacts may vary with location, time and water variables particularly in rapidly growing areas with clear urbanization gradients. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible divers to water quality changes in areas with different urbanization intensity could greatly improve our knowledge about human-water interactions. We employed geographically weighted regression (GWR) to interpret the determinants of river water quality changes in four urban development zones, i.e. central urban, suburban, central county and rural areas. Monitoring data of 8 variables- permanganate (CODMn), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammonium (NH3-N), petroleum (oil), volatile phenol (VP), phosphorus (TP), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) from 33 stations were collected from 2004, 2008 and 2010. Five determinants were identified: urban land use intensity, environmental policies, industrial zone expansion, land use composition, and gross domestic product (GDP). Relationships between these identified determinants and water quality changes showed great variations due to their different nature and sensitivity. Typically, for zones with higher urbanization intensity located in central cities and central counties, urban land use had positive impacts on river water quality improvement. However, in less urbanized areas, rapid urban expansion indicated rapid river water degradation. Environmental policies had distinct influences on river pollution control in highly-urbanized areas, but led to unexpected negative impacts in areas beyond the management priorities. Industrial activities were the major contributor to heavy metal pollution in suburban areas while boosted N, P decrease in central cities. Our study highlighted the importance of "local" management instead of one-size-fits-all system in mitigating undesirable impacts of urbanization on water environment.

  2. Trees and the City: Diversity and Composition along a Neotropical Gradient of Urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ortega-Álvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we assessed tree species richness, density, and composition patterns along a gradient of urbanization of a megacity. Our results show that total, native, and exotic tree densities were highest in green areas where larger spaces are considered for greening purposes. Conversely, total, native, and exotic tree species richness were highest in land uses with intermediate levels of urban development (residential, residential-commercial areas. Not finding highest tree species richness in less developed urban areas suggests that cultural factors may shape the array of species that are planted within cities. Supporting this, tree composition analyses showed that green areas are comprised of different tree species when compared to the rest of the studied urban land uses. Thus, our results suggest that, to increase the ecological quality of cities, residents and managers should be encouraged to select a greater variety of trees to promote heterogeneous green areas.

  3. Urban agricultural typologies and the need to quantify their potential to reduce a city's environmental 'foodprint'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    2014-01-01

    . One possible mitigation strategy to these issues is increasing food production in and around cities using urban agriculture (UA). Through a literature review, we found claims surrounding UA as a way to attenuate a cornucopia of environmental burdens due to urban food needs, but that their veracity......Presently, the supply chain supporting urban food consumption is placing stress on the environment at the planetary, regional and local scales. Despite the urban origin of global food demands, cities supply little of their own food, and are susceptible to disruptions across the global supply chain...... remains inconclusive. A comprehensive analysis of the environmental performance of dominant UA forms is therefore needed. However, the review also found paucity in meaningful systematics that described UA systemsbased on attributes important to environmental performance. We addressed this by developing...

  4. Contagion processes on urban bus networks in Indian cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Jagannathan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Bus transportation is considered as one of the most convenient and cheapest modes of public transportation in Indian cities. Due to their cost-effectiveness and wide reachability, they help a significant portion of the human population in cities to reach their destinations every day. Although from a transportation point of view they have numerous advantages over other modes of public transportation, they also pose a serious threat of contagious diseases spreading throughout the city. The presence of numerous local spatial constraints makes the process and extent of epidemic spreading extremely difficult to predict. Also, majority of the studies have focused on the contagion processes on scale-free network topologies whereas, spatially-constrained real-world networks such as, bus networks exhibit a wide-spectrum of network topology. Therefore, we aim in this study to understand this complex dynamical process of epidemic outbreak and information diffusion on the bus networks for six different Indian cities usin...

  5. Pedestrians and cyclists interaction in urban settings of Pardubice city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Bulíček

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper is focused on questions of cyclist transport in urban settings, specifically in the city of Pardubice. Emphasis is put on analysis of potentially conflict places, especially in interaction with pedestrians. Direct terrain observation and consequent evaluation of conflict potential are used as method for data collecting. When cycling routes are designed, the requirements of the cyclists should be taken into account in order to ensure that the routes are accepted. In order to make planning user oriented one has to know which criteria are important for cyclists` route choice. Until now not many studies were conducted on this topic in Czech Republic. Theoretical background used states 5 basic requirements for cycle routes. These are: 1. Coherence (the cycling infrastructure forms a coherent unit and links with all departure points and destinations of cyclist, 2. Directness (the cycling infrastructure continually offers the cyclists as direct a route as possible, so detours are kept to a minimum, 3. attractiveness (the cycling infrastructure is designed and fitted to the surroundings in such a way that cycling is attractive, 4. safety (the cycling infrastructure guarantees the road safety of cyclists and other road users, 5. comfort (the cycling infrastructure enables a quick and comfortable flow of bicycle traffic.. Planners need a clear understanding of what influences bicycling behavior to develop effective strategies to increase use of those modes. Transportation practitioners have largely focused on infrastructure and the built environment, although researchers have found that attitudes are also very important. Theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985 - intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in

  6. URBAN SPRAWL AND SUSTAINABLE CITY DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Nnaemeka-Okeke

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban environmental problems are of different dimensions and are mostly due to geologic, climatic and cultural factors. However, the cultural factors seems to be more pronounced in the Nigerian context because most of the identified urban environmental issues are so much associated with the way of life of the people, either as reactions to urbanization or their spatial heritage. Their effects are far reaching on efforts to attain sustainable development in the country. Since no section of the country’s urban environment is immune to environmental effects, there is urgent need to seek workable solutions by the application of planning, economic, legal, institutional and educational tools as have been suggested here.

  7. City Guide: Service Composition in an Urban Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Blakstad, Eirik

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis has been to develop and validate the user interface of a service composition tool for creating mobile tourist services in a city environment. The project has been conducted in cooperation with SINTEF and the Norwegian research project UbiCompForAll. As part of this thesis, a number of scenarios were created initially, showing what kind of functionalities accessed using mobile devices might be useful for tourists in the city. Based on these scenarios, the graphical user...

  8. Urban Structure and Housing Prices: Some Evidence from Australian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano Kulish; Anthony Richards; Christian Gillitzer

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies determinants of some aspects of the structure of cities, including density and the price of land and housing. We use a version of the Alonso-Muth-Mills model, calibrated to broadly match some of the features of a representative large city. While the calibrated model omits many real-world features, it can nonetheless be used to explore the impact of factors such as: (i) the provision of transport infrastructure; (ii) zoning policies that limit housing density; (iii) friction...

  9. Fat City: The Relationship Between Urban Sprawl and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Jean; Overman, Henry G.; Puga, Diego; Turner, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    We study the relationship between urban sprawl and obesity. Using data that tracks individuals over time, we find no evidence that urban sprawl causes obesity. We show that previous findings of a positive relationship most likely reflect a failure to properly control for the fact the individuals who are more likely to be obese choose to live in more sprawling neighborhoods. Our results indicate that current interest in changing the built environment to counter the rise in obesity is misguided.

  10. Fat City: Questioning the Relationship Between Urban Sprawl and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Jean; Overman, Henry G.; Puga, Diego; Matthew A. Turner

    2007-01-01

    We study the relationship between urban sprawl and obesity. Using data that tracks individuals over time, we find no evidence that urban sprawl causes obesity. We show that previous findings of a positive relationship most likely reflect a failure to properly control for the fact the individuals who are more likely to be obese choose to live in more sprawling neighbourhoods. Our results indicate that current interest in changing the built environment to counter the rise in obesity is misguided.

  11. Big Data and Big Cities: The Promises and Limitations of Improved Measures of Urban Life

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward Ludwig; Kominers, Scott Duke; Luca, Michael; Naik, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    New, “big” data sources allow measurement of city characteristics and outcome variables higher frequencies and finer geographic scales than ever before. However, big data will not solve large urban social science questions on its own. Big data has the most value for the study of cities when it allows measurement of the previously opaque, or when it can be coupled with exogenous shocks to people or place. We describe a number of new urban data sources and illustrate how they can be used to imp...

  12. Creative industries in the capital cities of the Baltic States: Are there innovations in urban policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafel-Viia Külliki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of urban policy, resulting from ‘creative industries’ policy developments, is explored in this article, with respect to the Baltic capitals. Policy initiatives in the creative industries in Central and Eastern European cities have predominantly developed through policy transfers from Western Europe, with its long-term market economy experience. How adaptable are such policies for post-socialist cities? Using the concept of social innovation, this article describes mechanisms that facilitate policy acceptance and examines whether and how the development of creative industries has resulted in urban policy renewal in the Baltic capitals.

  13. Does the Nomination Scheme of the City Manager Matter for Urban Development Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Garmann, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the causal effect of a change in the nomination scheme of the city manager from appointment by the local council to election by the citizens on urban development policies. Using the fact that the timing of the reform was as good as random in municipalities of the German state Hesse, I can utilize a difference-in-difference framework to estimate this causal effect. I find that when the city manager is elected by the voters, there is significantly less urban development than...

  14. A survey of urban heat island studies in two tropical cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, C. P.

    Studies on the urban heat island effects in two adjacent tropical cities, Singapore and Kuala Lumpur, are surveyed. Past efforts have concentrated on surface temperature mapping relying largely on spot measurements, which, although are inadequate, do indicate the existence of warm spots associated with urbanization. Examination of station records have indicated perceptible temperature increases in both cities, though there has been no concerted effort to facilitate comparative studies. Recent work includes implementation of more systematic data acquisition, the use of the remote technology, as well as surface energy balance modelling. Directions for future work is discussed.

  15. Urban Turism in the city of Växjö : Current development and future limits

    OpenAIRE

    Lösche, Max

    2010-01-01

    This essay discusses the development of urban tourism in the Swedish city of Växjö. It targets current development measures and possible future threats the tourism planners might encounter. As the concept of urban tourism is relatively new, there are plenty of opportunities, as well as obstacles to consider. The essay discusses factors that makes cities attractive to visitors and later on applies these factors to the case study of Växjö, alongside with an analysis of current measures and idea...

  16. Development of urban bird indicators using data from monitoring schemes in two large European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrando, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bird monitoring projects have provided valuable data for developing biological indicators to evaluate the state of natural and agricultural habitats. However, fewer advances have been made in urban environments. In this study we used bird monitoring data from 2002 to 2012 in two cities with different climates (Brussels and Barcelona, to generate two multi–species urban indicators to evaluate temporal trends on abundance of urban avifauna. To do this we used two different conceptual approaches, one based on a list of widespread species in European cities (WSEC and another based exclusively on species widespread at city level (WCS regardless of the birds occurring in other cities. The two indicators gave a similar general pattern, although we found a 3% difference in the mean annual change in both cities, thus suggesting that the values provided by urban indicators may differ depending on the conceptual approach and, hence, by the species list used to generate them. However, both indicators may have their own value and could be treated as complementary indices.

  17. Monitoring the urban expansion of Sparta and Nafplio cities using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervakou, Alexandra D.; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Tsombos, Panagiotis I.; Papanikolaou, George P.

    2008-10-01

    During the last four decades, Greece has suffered from an enormous internal immigration. The majority of small villages were abandoned and the population has been gathered into urban areas, usually into the prefectural capital cities. Because of the significant increase of population, the urban expansion was excessive and in some cases catastrophic. A lot of changes have been occurred to the landforms, drainage networks and landuse. The Institute of geology and Mineral Exploration of Greece (I.G.M.E.), in the frame of CSF 2000 - 2006 (Community Support Framework 2000-2006), has been implementing the pilot project titled "Collection, Codification and Documentation of geothematic information for urban and suburban areas in Greece - pilot applications". Four different cities (Drama - North Greece, Nafplio & Sparta -Peloponnesus and Thrakomakedones - Attica) were selected as pilot areas.For these cities we have tried to detect and map the urban extent and expansion and estimate their growth rate, using GIS and remote sensing techniques. Multitemporal and multiresolution satellite data covering the period 1975-2007 and topographic maps at a scale of 1:5.000 were used for the urban growth mapping and observation.The qualitative and quantitative results for the cities of Nafplio & Sparta are presented in this study.

  18. Strategic Planning and Urban Development by Using the SWOT Analysis. The Case of Urmia City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMID MOBARAKI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A strategic planning is an important tool to guide the urban planning. It will help maintain a focused, long-term vision of the urban mission and purpose, and aid decisions about the urban development. In reality review and understanding of urban development, its strengths and weaknesses are of major importance in the strategic planning. Today, awareness of strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats are a necessity for urban development plans and programs. Urmia City, despite being rich in natural and human resources, it faces difficulties in terms of unsustainable development due to the lack of proper utilization of resources and environmental degradation of agricultural land suitable for industrial and residential land uses. The aim of the current research is to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in Urmia city. This study is applied and it utilizes both descriptive and analytical methods, but also the AHP and SWOT methods. The result of the study indicates that, for the development of Urmia City, the overcoming strategy has the maximum score (4.07, whereas the negatives control strategy has the minimum score (1.77. Therefore, Urmia City should make the maximum use of strengths and opportunities in order to reduce weaknesses and threats.

  19. Constructing a centre on the periphery: urbanization and urban design in the island city of Nuuk, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grydehoj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Both islands and cities are often conceptualized in terms of centre-periphery relationships. Scholarly attempts to nuance popular associations of islands with peripherality and cities with centrality reflect awareness of underlying power relationships. Drawing upon island studies and urban studies knowledge, the case of Nuuk, Greenland, is used to explore how centring and peripheralizing processes play out in an island city. Greenland as a whole came to be regarded as a peripheral region under Danish colonialism, but since the 1950s, Danes and Greenlanders have sought to transform Greenland into its own centre. Nuuk grew into a city and a political, administrative and economic centre relative to Greenland’s small settlements, which came to be seen as central to Greenlandic culture. Nuuk’s rapid growth – dependent on imported Danish designs, materials, technologies, policies and labour – has resulted in an island city of immense contrasts, with monumental modern buildings standing alongside dilapidated 1960s apartment blocks and with strongly differentiated neighbourhoods. Nuuk is both at the centre and on the periphery, enmeshed in power relationships with other Greenlandic settlements and with Denmark. Nuuk is a result of urban design processes that are conditioned by both infrastructural systems and a confluence of spatio-temporal factors.

  20. THE CONTEXT OF THE GEOMORPHOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN URBAN AREA OF PIATRA-NEAMȚ CITY

    OpenAIRE

    CĂTĂLINA-ELENA ROȘU; I. A. IRIMUȘ

    2014-01-01

    The context of the geomorphological processes in urban area of Ppiatra-Neamț city. The paper approches the issue induced by the geomorphological processes in the development and planning of Piatra-Neamț city. The methodology used for this study has implied the identification of the slope`s geomorphological processes: rock fallings and landslides produced due to the clay bedrock, precipitation`s water infiltration, deforestation and other human interventions. The identification of these proces...

  1. Urban transition and sustainability. The case of the city of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra DJURASOVIC; Joerg KNIELING

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses the historical trajectory of development processes in the city of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), in order to offer insights into newly-shaping planning systems in South East Europe during the late phase of post-socialist transition. The paper argues that slow development of small transitional cities can suggest new models of sustainable urban development, but societal complexity makes transition more difficult and creates boundaries to a sustainable path development....

  2. The Ecological Service Function Development of Urban Modern Agriculture in Tianjin City and Corresponding Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Jing; Li, Jin; Sun, Guoxing

    2013-01-01

    Based on the current situation of ecological environment of agriculture in Tianjin City, we divide the ecological service function of urban modern agriculture in Tianjin City into seven types: air regulation, climate regulation, water conservation, soil formation and protection, waste disposal, biodiversity conservation, and ecological entertainment. According to the method for assessing the value of natural ecosystem, coupled with the ecological service value equivalency factor table of Chin...

  3. Ontology-based data integration from heterogeneous urban systems: A knowledge representation framework for smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    Psyllidis, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel knowledge representation framework for smart city planning and management that enables the semantic integration of heterogeneous urban data from diverse sources. Currently, the combination of information across city agencies is cumbersome, as the increasingly available datasets are stored in disparate data silos, using different models and schemas for their description. To overcome this interoperability barrier, the presented framework employs a modular and scalabl...

  4. Do urban social enterprises benefit from agglomeration? Evidence from four UK cities

    OpenAIRE

    Pinch, Steven; Sunley, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pinch S. and Sunley P. Do urban social enterprises benefit from agglomeration? Evidence from four UK cities, Regional Studies. This paper examines the relevance of clustering theory for an understanding of the location of social enterprises (SEs). This is accomplished through an analysis of the extent to which managers of SEs in four major UK cities perceive themselves to benefit from agglomeration effects. The paper concentrates on two broad sets of agglomeration processes: the first is Mars...

  5. Cities of Consumption: The Impact of Corporate Practices on the Health of Urban Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Galea, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    The increasing concentration of the world’s population in cities and the growing accumulation of political and economic power by corporations create new threats to health and opportunities for improving global health. By considering the intersection of these two fundamental social determinants of well-being, we elucidate some of the mechanisms by which they influence the health of urban populations. After reviewing the changing historical impact of corporations on cities, we focus on the grow...

  6. Densifying the city: urban recycle as a strategic system to refurbish the built environment

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorino Belpoliti; Paola Borin; Pietromaria Davoli; Nicola Marzot

    2015-01-01

    The persisting economic crisis and the necessity for more sustainable construction processes imply the need for innovative strategies to reuse the existing building stock. Retrofit and recycling plans are already active for whole city districts, adopting the urban densification strategy to reduce the consumption of resources, promoting the functional, technological, and energy refurbishment of the existing city districts The study introduces considerations and tools to increase the efficiency...

  7. BOOK REVIEW ON THE CITY AND THE URBAN COMPETITION, AUTHOR: IRINA POPESCU

    OpenAIRE

    Alpopi, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    The book “The city and the urban competition / Orasul si competitia urbana”, written by Irina Popescu, has recently been published at Economic Publishing House of Bucharest, Romania. The book is structured in 4 parts and it is very rich in concepts, ideas, theories, principles and comparative studies, representing an important contribution of the author to the development of the literature concerning the study of the city.

  8. The urban question revisited: the importance of cities for social movements

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholls, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    What roles do cities play in fostering general social movements? This article maintains that cities facilitate particular types of relations that are good at making high-quality resources available to mobilizations operating at a variety of spatial scales. However, while large and complex urban systems may be well suited for these types of relations, whether they actually develop depends on the nature of local power relations between political authorities and civic organizations. In certain c...

  9. The city as frontier: urban development and identity processes in Goma

    OpenAIRE

    Vlassenroot, Koen; Büscher, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This innovative paper from the Crisis States Research Centre challenges traditional studies that explore sites located on borders from a central or capital city perspective. Focusing on processes and expressions of identity in the city of Goma, (capital of the North Kivu's, DRCongo), this paper illustrates how the struggle for political, social and economic control impacts local urban life and has broader implications for regional relationships and realities. Conclusions from this research su...

  10. Eddy covariance flux measurements of pollutant gases in urban Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco, E; S. Pressley; Grivicke, R.; E. Allwine; T. Coons; Foster, W; B. T. Jobson; Westberg, H.; Ramos, R.; Hernández, F.; Molina, L. T.; Lamb, B.

    2009-01-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of the atmosphere/surface exchange of gases over an urban area are a direct way to improve and evaluate emissions inventories, and, in turn, to better understand urban atmospheric chemistry and the role that cities play in regional and global chemical cycles. As part of the MCMA-2003 study, we demonstrated the feasibility of using eddy covariance techniques to measure fluxes of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and CO2 fro...

  11. Informal Urbanism: Legal Ambiguity, Uncertainty, and the Management of Street Vending in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, Ryan Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In New York City conflict over street vending has evolved over the years, reflecting the political, economic, and social context of particular eras. This dissertation is focused primarily on the current era of vending regulation in New York and, more broadly, is concerned with the ways in which urban subjects are managed and urban space administered under neoliberalism. In New York, rather than being regulated in a straightforward manner that is guided by formal laws, the practice of street v...

  12. New Climatic Indicators for Improving Urban Sprawl: A Case Study of Tehran City

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel M. Costa; José L. Calvo-Rolle; Orosa, José A.; Abdolazim Ghanghermeh; Gholamreza Roshan

    2013-01-01

    In the modern world, the fine balance and delicate relationship between human society and the environment in which we exist has been affected by the phenomena of urbanisation and urban development. Today, various environmental factors give rise to horizontal dispersion, spread and growth of cities. One of the most important results of this is climatic change which is directly affected by the urban sprawl of every metropolis. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between the va...

  13. Baseline assessment and best practices in urban water cycle services in the city of Hamburg

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, C.J.; Bertram, N.P.

    2013-01-01

    Megatrends (e.g. demographic changes, water scarcity, water pollution and climate change) pose urgent water challenges in cities. This is highlighted in the European Union (EU) project TRUST (Transitions to the Urban Water Services of Tomorrow; www.trust-i.net/index.php). The main objective of TRUST is to support water authorities and utilities in Europe in formulating and implementing appropriate urban water policies as well as new technology and management solutions in order to enhance urba...

  14. Patterns of Quality - The distribution of urban services among the residents of the city of Villahermosa

    OpenAIRE

    Iso-Markku, Elina

    2012-01-01

    This thesis digs deep into patterns of urban service distribution among the residents of different neighbourhoods in the city of Villahermosa in Southeastern Mexico. Urban research has for a long time debated whether services offered in poor neighbourhoods are of worse quality than those in other areas. Using political ecology as its theoretical framework, this thesis identifies processes that influence the quality of public and private services as well as the residents’ access to them in d...

  15. Sustainable living in a Chinese city. Analysis and support for market-conscious urban planning

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, H

    2014-01-01

    In the transition from a state-led industrial to a market-driven post-industrial urban economy, China’s planners are facing challenges in building sustainable living environment for the rapidly increasing and wealthier urban population.Citizens are the end-users of the sustainable city. Their preferences generate the market demands for real estate and transport, which are the basis to promote sustainable planning in the market. To achieve sustainability goals in China, planners need to adopt ...

  16. THE REPRESENTATION OF URBAN UPPER MIDDLE CLASS AMERICAN WOMEN'S COMMUNITY IN SEX AND THE CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Yola Damayanti Gani

    2005-01-01

    The portrayal of urban upper middle class American women's community in Sex and the City-SATC-is built upon constructed symbols related to the position of urban upper middle class American Women's community and how cosmopolitan the women are. The symbol's construction is characterized by singleness, upper middle class social status, well-established career, alienation, consumptiveness, independence, gender consciousness, and open mindedness in their sexual knowledge. Television has helped to ...

  17. Content-based Cognitive Interference Control for City Monitoring Applications in the Urban IoT

    OpenAIRE

    Baidya, Sabur; Levorato, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In the Urban Internet of Things devices and systems are interconnected at the city scale to provide innovative services to the citizens.However, the traffic generated by the sensing and processing systems may overload local access networks. A coexistence problem arises where concurrent applications mutually interfere and compete for available resources. This effect is further aggravated by the multiple scales involved and heterogeneity of the networks supporting the urban IoT. One of the main...

  18. Virtual Urbanity: A parametric tool for the generation of virtual cities

    OpenAIRE

    Bakolas, R.

    2007-01-01

    Which are the underlying rules that govern urban growth and the structure of the street network? Which are the distinctive characteristics that define highways and the differentiation of the various street patterns? How can we combine the above information and incorporate them in a computer aided urban simulation in order to successfully model a virtual city in which people will be able to successfully orientate and navigate? This research aims to address and investigate the...

  19. Rapid Urbanization as a Source of Social and Ecological Decay: A Case of Multan City, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Yasin; Sumaira Sattar; Farhan Ahmad Faiz

    2012-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the relationship between rapid urbanization and socio-ecological problems. The major objective of this study is to analyze the unplanned and haphazard urbanization that is giving birth to environmental issues such as; pollution, poor drainage system, poor quality of drinking water and poor hygienic conditions. This research carried out in Multan city, Pakistan through field survey of 200 respondents using multistage sampling technique. Self-administrated questionnai...

  20. Urbanismo vs urbanización: distintas modalidades de hacer ciudad. / Town planning versus urbanization. Different ways of doing city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardenas Jirón, Luz Alicia

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available El Plan Regulador Comunal es el instrumento normativo de planeación urbanística chilena, cuya formulación pretende regular en el ámbito comunal básicamente los siguientes aspectos: los usos de suelo, las condiciones de edificación y subdivisión del suelo, la red vial estructurante y los limites urbanos.Se cree que este instrumento es imperfecto toda vez que no incorpora en la normativa una dimensión clave del urbanismo: la morfología urbana, entendida como el sistema espacial tridimensional de la ciudad. Por el contrario, el análisis empírico demuestra que factores como la forma urbana son respuestas del libre juego de fuerzas económicas y sociales modeladoras del espacio. En consecuencia, lo que domina es un patrón de urbanización en vez de un proyecto de urbanismo; las cuales son modalidades muy distintas de hacer ciudad.Este articulo pretende demostrar que la forma urbana, derivada de la aplicación del instrumento normativo en una comuna perimetral metropolitana como es Maipú, es uno de los impactos no previstos por el Plan Regulador, pero que podría incorporarse en un nuevo instrumento de planificación urbana./ Metropolitan Santiago is one of the many Latin American cities which has been developed according to a spread model of urbanisation. This pattern has caused at least two types of consequences: economic and physical ones. The former is shown in the speculation of land value at the rural fringe of the metropolitan area which has low prices, these have suddenly increased after the normative changes in the land use, from rural to urban. The later shows location of massive low-income housing and commercial malls regardless connection to the urban fabric and spatial shaping of the existing city. This results in a chaotic urban form resembling a "patchwork".This paper reviews the scope of a Chilean policy instrument called "Plan Regulador" used to control physical urban growth, particularly sprawled on the fringe of the

  1. Urban policies and citizenship. Some mechanisms for the production of urban space in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rocco

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the historical reasons for the present conditions in the city of Sao Paolo, attempts at managing the place, preparation of the master plan, problems with establishment of particular mechanisms for creating urban space and reasons for success or failure of particular endeavours. An important aspect in solving physical problems of future development is prevention of social and physical segregation. Urban policies are presented with three types of measures. In conclusion, two examples of policy implementation are shown.

  2. a Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Urban Heat Island in Basin City Utilizing Remote Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Tung

    2016-06-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) has been becoming a key factor in deteriorating the urban ecological environment. Spatial-temporal analysis on its prototype of basin city's UHI and quantitatively evaluating effect from rapid urbanization will provide theoretical foundation for relieving UHI effect. Based on Landsat 8, ETM+ and TM images of Taipei basin areas from 1900 to 2015, this article has retrieved the land surface temperature (LST) at summer solstice of each year, and then analysed spatial-temporal pattern and evolution characters of UHI in Taipei basin in this decade. The results showed that the expansion built district, UHI area constantly expanded from centre city to the suburb areas. The prototype of UHI in Taipei basin that showed in addition to higher temperatures in the centre city also were relatively high temperatures gathered boundaries surrounded by foot of mountains side. It calls "sinking heat island". From 1900 to 2000, the higher UHI areas were different land use type change had obvious difference by public infrastructure works. And then, in next 15 years till 2015, building density of urban area has been increasing gradually. It has the trend that UHI flooding raises follow urban land use density. Hot spot of UHI in Taipei basin also has the same characteristics. The results suggest that anthropogenic heat release probably plays a significant role in the UHI effect, and must be considered in urban planning adaptation strategies.

  3. Detailed Urban Heat Island Projections for Cities Worldwide: Dynamical Downscaling CMIP5 Global Climate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Lauwaet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new dynamical downscaling methodology to analyze the impact of global climate change on the local climate of cities worldwide is presented. The urban boundary layer climate model UrbClim is coupled to 11 global climate models contained in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 archive, conducting 20-year simulations for present (1986–2005 and future (2081–2100 climate conditions, considering the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 climate scenario. The evolution of the urban heat island of eight different cities, located on three continents, is quantified and assessed, with an unprecedented horizontal resolution of a few hundred meters. For all cities, urban and rural air temperatures are found to increase strongly, up to 7 °C. However, the urban heat island intensity in most cases increases only slightly, often even below the range of uncertainty. A potential explanation, focusing on the role of increased incoming longwave radiation, is put forth. Finally, an alternative method for generating urban climate projections is proposed, combining the ensemble temperature change statistics and the results of the present-day urban climate.

  4. Increasing impact of urban fine particles (PM2.5) on areas surrounding Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng

    2015-07-01

    The negative impacts of rapid urbanization in developing countries have led to a deterioration in urban air quality, which brings increasing negative impact to its surrounding areas (e.g. in China). However, to date there has been rare quantitative estimation of the urban air pollution to its surrounding areas in China.We thus evaluated the impact of air pollution on the surrounding environment under rapid urbanization in Chinese prefectures during 1999 - 2011. We found that: (1) the urban environment generated increasing negative impact on the surrounding areas, and the PM2.5 concentration difference between urban and rural areas was particularly high in large cities. (2) Nearly half of the Chinese prefectures (156 out of 350) showed increased impact of urban PM2.5 pollution on its surrounding areas. Those prefectures were mainly located along two belts: one from northeast China to Sichuan province, the other from Shanghai to Guangxi province. Our study demonstrates the deterioration in urban air quality and its potential impacts on its surrounding areas in China. We hope that the results presented here will encourage different approaches to urbanization to mitigate the negative impact caused by urban air pollution, both in China and other rapidly developing countries.

  5. Eco-urbanism and the Eco-city, or, Denying the Right to the City?

    OpenAIRE

    Caprotti, Federico

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically analyses the construction of eco-cities as technological fixes to concerns over climate change, Peak Oil, and other scenarios in the transition towards “green capitalism”. It argues for a critical engagement with new-build eco-city projects, first by highlighting the inequalities which mean that eco-cities will not benefit those who will be most impacted by climate change: the citizens of the world's least wealthy states. Second, the paper investigates the foundation of ...

  6. Illuminance Level in the Urban Fabric and in the Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Anne; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    effect of the exterior illuminance levels on fac¸ades with the interior illuminance levels on the working plane. The paper also explains an easy to use tool (EvUrbanplan) developed by the authors, which was applied to their findings in the early stages of urban planning to ensure daylight optimisation in...

  7. Assessment of Urban Infrastructure Impact on New York City Neighborhoods Thermal Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, R.; Ghandehari, M.; Karimi, M.; Vant-hull, B.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2013-12-01

    New York City (NYC) is a highly urbanized city with most of the population living in tall buildings. Despite technological improvements and stricter regulations, cities still show increasing signs of environmental stress such as traffic congestion, noise and air quality degradation. Rethinking the current models of city planning could enable to limit these detrimental effects of urbanization. In addition, the built environment creates a new climatic regime which needs a better understanding. Building density, height and emission has a major impact on local temperature and other air quality indicators. Studies have shown that during extreme weather conditions and heat waves the mortality rate in urban areas increases. Cities are comprised of a wide variety of urban settings and various neighborhoods have different physical responses to meteorological events, so it is expected that the temperature and heat stress across a given city to fluctuate sharply. Therefore, this research has focused on neighborhood-scale field campaigns to downscale temperature and air quality predictions from city to neighborhood scale in NYC. In order to assess the temperature variability within the city at street level, during the hottest part of the day, this project used eight mobile units bearing temperature and relative humidity sensors, as well as ten weather stations mounted on light poles in various NYC neighborhoods. This study also looks at fine scale structures in the urban heat island of Manhattan at street level through an infrared camera with the spectral range of 7.5-13 μm in order to relate heat and emissions from building surfaces to land surface characteristics such as building density, vegetation coverage, proximity to water, and albedo. LandSat TM5 images were used (with 30 m resolution) for land surface classification. During the summer and early fall of 2011, 2012 and 2013 extensive field campaigns were performed, the results of which show some persistent patterns

  8. Urban heat island by means of city clusters: a statistical assessment of size influence and seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Rybski, Diego; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades, influence factors of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect have been intensively investigated and further broadened through a variety of studies around the world. Briefly, compared to non-built surroundings, built-up areas of cities differ considerably in albedo, thermal capacity, roughness, etc. which can significantly modify the surface energy budget and make downtown areas of cities hotter than their vicinities. Most previous studies were built upon a limited number of cities, and suffered from inconsistency and instability with regard to the urban-rural definition, which hinders the inter-comparison between results. To overcome this limitation in the number of considered cities, we perform a systematic study of all cities in Europe to assess the Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) intensity by means of land surface temperature data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. After defining cities as spatial clusters of urban land cover based on CORINE data, we determine a boundary around the urban cluster of approximately equal area to the cluster area. SUHI intensity is thus defined as the difference between the mean temperature in the cluster and that of the surroundings. We investigate the relationships of the SUHI intensity, respectively with the cluster size and with the temperature of the surroundings. Our results show that in Europe, the SUHI intensity in summer has a strong correlation with the cluster size, which can be well fitted by an empirical sigmoid model. Furthermore, we find a pronounced seasonality of the SUHI intensity for individual clusters in the form of hysteresis-like curves. Characterizing the shape by means of Fourier series approximation and consequential work of clustering, we identify apparent regional patterns which suggest a climatological basis for the heterogeneity of UHI.

  9. The Role of Efficient Urban Governance in Managing Kuala Lumpur City-Region Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah Jusoh; Jalaluddin Abdul Malek; Azmizam Abdul Rashid

    2009-01-01

    This paper discuss on the preliminary study on the concept of efficient in urban governance towards managing development of Kuala Lumpur City-Region. City-region development has been a major issue in the country’s latest development agenda. The issue is more obvious in city-region due to its role as an engine of growth economy development. Now, with its sights set on attaining the economic level of a fully developed nation by 2020, Malaysia must focus on securing a credible share of the lead ...

  10. Optimal Strategic Plan for Sustainable Urban Transport System in Kathmandu City Centre : Using Decision Support Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Amit

    2012-01-01

    There are many factors associated with an urban environment that enrich or  diminish the experience of the environment. These factors have a significant influence on how  an urban morphology is appraised within the social, economical, and environmental  framework. One of such factors is the urban transport system that represents the mobility of  the people and accessibility to public services. This thesis is an assessment of a current  transport system in Kathmandu city centre in comparison t...

  11. The Heart of the City: Continuity and Complexity of an urban design concept

    OpenAIRE

    Zuccaro Marchi , L.

    2013-01-01

    The “Heart of the City” theme is proposed by the MARS group as title of the 8th Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM), held in Hoddesdon, England, from the 7th to the 14th of July 1951. Two opposite urban conditions are considered by Sert, President of CIAM, as main issues which the Heart discourse should face: from the disappearance of city centres because of the destruction of the War to the negation of the urban centrality because of urban sprawl and the infinite constant en...

  12. THE REPRESENTATION OF URBAN UPPER MIDDLE CLASS AMERICAN WOMEN'S COMMUNITY IN SEX AND THE CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yola Damayanti Gani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The portrayal of urban upper middle class American women's community in Sex and the City-SATC-is built upon constructed symbols related to the position of urban upper middle class American Women's community and how cosmopolitan the women are. The symbol's construction is characterized by singleness, upper middle class social status, well-established career, alienation, consumptiveness, independence, gender consciousness, and open mindedness in their sexual knowledge. Television has helped to fracture traditional conventions about how women should place themselves in the midst of their society and constructed urban upper middle class American women's image and identity.

  13. Visualizing the data city social media as a source of knowledge for urban planning and management

    CERN Document Server

    Ciuccarelli, Paolo; Simeone, Luca

    2014-01-01

    This book investigates novel methods and technologies for the collection, analysis, and representation of real-time user-generated data at the urban scale in order to explore potential scenarios for more participatory design, planning, and management processes. For this purpose, the authors present a set of experiments conducted in collaboration with urban stakeholders at various levels (including citizens, city administrators, urban planners, local industries, and NGOs) in Milan and New York in 2012. It is examined whether geo-tagged and user-generated content can be of value in the creation

  14. Geomatics for Smart Cities: Obtaining the Urban Planning Baf Index from Existing Digital Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, V.; Franzini, M.; De Lotto, R.

    2016-06-01

    The urban analytics expression is spreading out. To our understanding, it deals with the capability of measuring cities and their communities, as a support to their effective planning and management. In other words, being an analytically well-known city is a precondition for pursuing smartness. Urban planning is a very important item for city management and is interrelated with many layers, including urban environmental quality, air quality and well-being. Effective urban planning is based on the knowledge of quantitative parameters such as the biotope area factor (BAF), which was originally proposed for the city of Berlin and is currently used in other cities. The BAF index is used to evaluate the degree of soil permeability and measures, to a certain extent and from a specific point of view, how a city is eco-friendly. The usual way of evaluating the BAF is based on the manual construction of dedicated maps, using existing orthophotos and oblique imagery as a support. But this method is expensive, time-consuming and non-objective, as it is prone to different interpretations. The paper presents a newly-developed methodology for calculating the BAF. It is based on the use of existing digital cartography and on the application of geoprocessing techniques from GIS science: it is therefore fully automated and objective. The Pavia city (Northern Italy) is used as a testsite and a careful validation of the developed methodology is carried out, by comparison to 12 manually surveyed test areas, corresponding to 5% of the built-up areas of the municipality.

  15. URBAN GROWTH MODELING USING AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK A CASE STUDY OF SANANDAJ CITY, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammady

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Land use activity is a major issue and challenge for town and country planners. Modelling and managing urban growth is a complex problem. Cities are now recognized as complex, non-linear and dynamic process systems. The design of a system that can handle these complexities is a challenging prospect. Local governments that implement urban growth models need to estimate the amount of urban land required in the future given anticipated growth of housing, business, recreation and other urban uses within the boundary. There are so many negative implications related with the type of inappropriate urban development such as increased traffic and demand for mobility, reduced landscape attractively, land use fragmentation, loss of biodiversity and alterations of the hydrological cycle. The aim of this study is to use the Artificial Neural Network (ANN to make a powerful tool for simulating urban growth patterns. Our study area is Sanandaj city located in the west of Iran. Landsat imageries acquired at 2000 and 2006 are used. Dataset were used include distance to principle roads, distance to residential areas, elevation, slope, distance to green spaces and distance to region centers. In this study an appropriate methodology for urban growth modelling using satellite remotely sensed data is presented and evaluated. Percent Correct Match (PCM and Figure of Merit were used to evaluate ANN results.

  16. Urban Growth Modeling Using AN Artificial Neural Network a Case Study of Sanandaj City, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammady, S.; Delavar, M. R.; Pahlavani, P.

    2014-10-01

    Land use activity is a major issue and challenge for town and country planners. Modelling and managing urban growth is a complex problem. Cities are now recognized as complex, non-linear and dynamic process systems. The design of a system that can handle these complexities is a challenging prospect. Local governments that implement urban growth models need to estimate the amount of urban land required in the future given anticipated growth of housing, business, recreation and other urban uses within the boundary. There are so many negative implications related with the type of inappropriate urban development such as increased traffic and demand for mobility, reduced landscape attractively, land use fragmentation, loss of biodiversity and alterations of the hydrological cycle. The aim of this study is to use the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to make a powerful tool for simulating urban growth patterns. Our study area is Sanandaj city located in the west of Iran. Landsat imageries acquired at 2000 and 2006 are used. Dataset were used include distance to principle roads, distance to residential areas, elevation, slope, distance to green spaces and distance to region centers. In this study an appropriate methodology for urban growth modelling using satellite remotely sensed data is presented and evaluated. Percent Correct Match (PCM) and Figure of Merit were used to evaluate ANN results.

  17. Confronting limitations: new solutions required for urban water management in Kunming City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Bin; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth; Schertenleib, Roland; Gujer, Willi

    2007-07-01

    Despite continuous investment and various efforts to control pollution, urban water environments are worsening in large parts of the developing world. In order to reveal potential constraints and limitations of current practices of urban water management and to stimulate proactive intervention, we conducted a material flow analysis of the urban water system in Kunming City. The results demonstrate that the current efficiency of wastewater treatment is only around 25% and the emission of total phosphorous from the city into its receiving water, Dianchi Lake, is more than 25 times higher than its estimated tolerance. With regard to the crisis of water quantity and quality, the goal of a sustainable urban water environment cannot be attained with the current problem-solving approach in the region due to the technical limitations of the conventional urban drainage and treatment systems. A set of strategies is therefore proposed. The urban drainage system in Zurich is used as a reference for a potential best-available technology for conventional urban water management (BAT) scenario in terms of its low combined frequency of sewer overflow. PMID:16857309

  18. Gender and urban infrastructural poverty experience in Africa: A preliminary survey in Ibadan city, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimi. A. Asiyanbola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines gender differences in the urban infrastructural poverty experience in an African city – Ibadan, Nigeria. The result of the cross-sectional survey of 232 households sampled in Ibadan city shows that there is intra-urban variation in the women and men urban infrastructure experience in Ibadan. The result of the correlation analysis shows that there is significant relationship between women and men urban infrastructure experience and the household income, educational level, household size and the stage in the life cycle; only with the urban infrastructure experience of the women is a significant relationship found with the occupation and the responsibility in the household. The result of the multiple linear regression analysis shows that the impact/effect of the socio-cultural, demographic and economic characteristics are more on women experience of urban infrastructure than on men’s experience. While the relative contributions of the economic characteristics, family characteristics and socio-cultural characteristics in that order are all significant in explaining the variance in women’s experience of urban infrastructure, only economic characteristics and family characteristics in that order are found to be significant in the case of the men. Also, the most important socio-cultural demographic and economic variables as shown by the beta coefficients for women are household income, household size, and responsibility in the household, while for men are the household income and the household size. Policy implications of the findings are highlighted in the paper.

  19. Making Cities Better Livelihood programs change the lives of urban residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2011-01-01

    For decades Chinese cities have vied with each other to top national and international development rankings.However,the triennial nationa st of cities with an advanced living environment judges candidates according to less conventional criteria.Cities across the country are evaluated not for their GDP,skylines or historical attractions,but for their cleanliness,government efficiency,public order and the courtesy of their citizens.The first version of the list,which included nine cities and three districts,was published in October 2005 by the Publicity Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in order to uplift urban environments across China.The second batch of 11 cities and three districts was certified in January 2009.

  20. The cognitive map's role in urban planning and landscaping. Application to Braila City, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA GHIOCA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning and urban planning represent aspects of urban dynamics. They have a complex character and aim to identify some ways of eliminating the territorial disparities, for ensuring the territorial functionality, following up the sustainable develo pment principles. The territorial reality, that is to be investigated for this purpose, can be represented using the mental maps that present the subjective perception of the residents on the environment where they are living. This cognitive perception out lines an urban overview that reflects the local failures. Therefore, the urban overview can function as an instrument of urban rebranding, by its diagnosis and prognosis functions. As regards Brăila City, attractive, repulsive and neutral spaces were ident ified, being created in this way the premises for the appearance of some strategies of territorial planning, in accordance with reality

  1. Wandering in cities: a statistical physics approach to urban theory

    CERN Document Server

    Louf, Rémi

    2015-01-01

    The amount of data that is being gathered about cities is increasing in size and specificity. However, despite this wealth of information, we still have little understanding of what really drives the processes behind urbanisation. In this thesis we apply some ideas from statistical physics to the study of cities. We first present a stochastic, out-of-equilibrium model of city growth that describes the structure of the mobility pattern of individuals. The model explains the appearance of secondary subcenters as an effect of traffic congestion, and predicts a sublinear increase of the number of centers with population size. Within the framework of this model, we are further able to give a prediction for the scaling exponent of the total distance commuted daily, the total length of the road network, the total delay due to congestion, the quantity of CO2 emitted, and the surface area with the population size of cities. In the third part, we focus on the quantitative description of the patterns of residential segr...

  2. Urban planning practices for bikeable cities - the case of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Skov-Petersen, Hans; Agervig Carstensen, Trine

    2013-01-01

    Cities are increasingly looking to cycling as a means to promote sustainability, liveability, and public health. Denmark is one of the European countries where cycling has remained significant – even in the motor age, and national strategies now aim to support and further increase cycling. The...

  3. Sex in the city: gender mainstreaming urban governance in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zebracki, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews gender mainstreaming in practices of urban governance in Europe by comparing Sweden and Italy, which have distinct welfare-state systems: that of the former is firmly embedded in institutional and social structures, whereas that of the latter is markedly more familistic. This re

  4. The Perception Regarding the Urban Environment in Romanian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper brings forth an analysis of the urban inhabitants’ perception regarding the quality of environmental factors. The research is based on a secondary analysis using data provided by the Flash Eurobarometer 277: Urban Audit Perception Survey. The main conclusion of this paper is centered on the fact that Romanian urban inhabitants give little attention to environmental factors, their priorities targeting other areas like work and health connected issues. A greater amount of attention to environmental factors is given by the more educated population which is more aware of the environmental factors’ importance for their daily life. The practical conclusion of the study consists in the necessity to make the whole population aware of the environmental problems, in view of adopting an appropriate behavior and attitudes regarding urban surroundings. The public administration has to play a key role in this respect, thus the paper tries to underline the possible outcomes that this situation can have on the decisions made by local authorities.

  5. Unified Data Model of Urban Air Pollution Dispersion and 3D Spatial City Models: Groundwork Assessment towards Sustainable Urban Development for Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, Uznir; Anton, François; Rahman, Alias Abdul

    2013-01-01

    (OSPM). This research proposed the implementation of three-dimensional (3D) spatial city model as a new physical data input for OSPM. The five Level of Details (LOD) of 3D spatial city model shows the scale applicability for the dispersion model implementtation. Subsequently 3D spatial city model data......Understanding the behavior of urban air pollution is important en route for sustainable urban development (SUD). Malaysia is on its mission to be a developed country by year 2020 comprehends dealing with air pollution is one of the indicators headed towards it. At present monitoring and managing...... air pollution in urban areas encompasses sophisticated air quality modeling and data acquisition. However, rapid developments in major cities cause difficulties in acquiring the city geometries. The existing method in acquiring city geometries data via ground or space measurement inspection such as...

  6. Urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health-new concepts, methods and tools to improve health in cities

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of people live in cities and urbanization is continuing worldwide. Cities have long been known to be society’s predominant engine of innovation and wealth creation, yet they are also a main source of pollution and disease. Methods We conducted a review around the topic urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health and describe the findings. Results Within cities there is considerable variation in the levels of environmental exposures such as air poll...

  7. Urban Space as a Primary Source: Local History and Historical Thinking in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how local history can be used by teachers to help develop historical thinking skills such as source analysis, the collection of data, and the creation of historical arguments. Using New York City as a case study, this article argues that urban spaces and local communities provide historical evidence that can be read and…

  8. The Great Cities Commitment: Leadership, Resources, Rewards and the Identity of the Urban Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David

    2011-01-01

    The article is meant to assess the ways in which the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) and its Great Cities Commitment can serve as a model of academic institutional change that anchors or is, otherwise, foundational to academic institutional achievement and urban development. Through both normative discussion and case study, the article…

  9. Lost Youth in the Global City: Class, Culture and the Urban Imaginary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Anoop; Williamson, Howard; Bjork, Mikela; Restler, Victoria; Anyon, Jean

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of "Lost youth in the global city: class, culture and the urban imaginary," by Jo-Anne Dillabough and Jacqueline Kennelly. In many ways the "juke-box boys" would today form a stratum of the "lost youth" that Jo-Anne Dillabough and Jacqueline Kennelly discuss in their thoughtful account of young people on the urban…

  10. The City Image and the Local Public Administration: a Working Tool in Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Cristian NEACȘU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study consist of identifyingand testing in operational terms the concept of cityimage in the decision-making processes, both asfar as the urban planning and the future policies oflocal and regional development are concerned or inthe management of public spaces. It is well-knownthe fact that the simple series of statistical dataand the models based upon them do not sketchout a complete image regarding the urban reality,the perception of habitants at a micro-scale levelabout habituation conditions, illustrated by thecity image, presenting itself as a barometer of thedysfunctionalities encountered in the city. Thus, thepractical implications of this concept based on anew vision in the philosophy of the managementof urban spaces are likely to be interestingenough. Using this tool in the policies and in theactivity of public administration, in urbanism etc.,complementarily to statistical analyses, shouldaccompany any type of local development policyin order to enhance life quality and to transmit acertain life style, well appreciated by the residentswhich should bestow the city distinctiveness anda particular status in the regional and nationalhierarchy. The conceptual scheme of this studyis based on three elements: theory (what doesthe city image represent?, method (how could wemap at a micro-scale level?, case study (whichare the results and the tests of the applicability inthe city of Ploieşti.

  11. Climate Change, Disaster Risk, and the Urban Poor : Cities Building Resilience for a Changing World

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    Poor people living in slums are at particularly high risk from the impacts of climate change and natural hazards. They live on the most vulnerable land within cities, typically areas deemed undesirable by others and thus affordable. This study analyzes the key challenges facing the urban poor, given the risks associated with climate change and disasters, particularly with regard to the del...

  12. Manage Data - Manage Hazards: Development of Urban Hazard Information Infrastructure for the City of Windhoek, Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merson, Maura Ewa; Montoya, Lorena; Paresi, Chris; Gomez, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    This work aims at developing guidelines and methods for establishing urban hazard information infrastructure (UHII) for the City of Windhoek (CoW) in Namibia, to set up an institutional and technical framework for spatial data exchange and sharing in development control and hazard management. An ana

  13. Urban air quality improvement by using a CNG lean burn engine for city buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merétei, T.; Ling, J.A.N. van; Havenith, C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled lean-burn city bus engines has a significant potential for air quality improvement in urban areas. Particularly important is the reduction of NO, as well as particulate and non regulated HC-emissions. For this reason, a CNG-fuelled, lean-burn, turbocha

  14. Vertical Cities of the Future: Implications for the Study and Teaching of Urban Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael L.

    1974-01-01

    The implications of a vertical city, of which the John Hancock Center in Chicago is a prototype, should be considered by teachers of urban studies. Questions clustering around nine discussion areas indicate the kinds of expanded, critical, and interdisciplinary thinking that planning and teaching for the future require. (JH)

  15. Critical Trends in Urban Education: Fifth Biennial Survey of Americas Great City Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sharon; Ceperich, Janice; Jepson, Jack

    This report presents the fifth in a series of polls that ask leaders in major U.S. urban public school systems about challenges they face and expectations for the future. The polls survey board members, superintendents, and other leadership staff. In January 2002, surveys were mailed to Great City School district leaders and senior staff and board…

  16. Eco-Polycentric Urban Systems: An Ecological Region Perspective for Network Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Botequilha-Leitão

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper is a work in progress. It provides linkages between the author’s earlier research under the sustainable land planning framework (SLP and emergent ideas and planning and design strategies, centered on the (landscape ecological dimension of cities’ sustainability. It reviews several concepts, paradigms, and metaphors that have been emerging during the last decade, which can contribute to expand our vision on city planning and design. Among other issues, city form—monocentric, polycentric, and diffused—is discussed. The hypothesis set forth is that cities can improve the pathway to sustainability by adopting intermediate, network urban forms such as polycentric urban systems (PUS under a broader vision (as compared to the current paradigm, to make way to urban ecological regions. It discusses how both the principles of SLP and those emergent ideas can contribute to integrate PUS with their functional hinterland, adopting an ecosystemic viewpoint of cities. It proposes to redirect the current dominant economic focus of PUS to include all of the other functions that are essential to urbanites, such as production (including the 3Rs, recreation, and ecology in a balanced way. Landscape ecology principles are combined with complexity science in order to deal with uncertainty to improve regional systems’ resilience. Cooperation in its multiple forms is seen as a fundamental social, but also economic process contributing to the urban network functioning, including its evolving capabilities for self-organization and adaptation.

  17. Baseline assessment and best practices in urban water cycle services in the city of Hamburg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, C.J.; Bertram, N.P.

    2013-01-01

    Megatrends (e.g. demographic changes, water scarcity, water pollution and climate change) pose urgent water challenges in cities. This is highlighted in the European Union (EU) project TRUST (Transitions to the Urban Water Services of Tomorrow; www.trust-i.net/index.php). The main objective of TRUST

  18. Mapping urban geology of the city of Girona, Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Miquel; Torrades, Pau; Pi, Roser; Monleon, Ona

    2016-04-01

    A detailed and systematic geological characterization of the urban area of Girona has been conducted under the project '1:5000 scale Urban geological map of Catalonia' of the Catalan Geological Survey (Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya). The results of this characterization are organized into: i) a geological information system that includes all the information acquired; ii) a stratigraphic model focused on identification, characterization and correlation of the geological materials and structures present in the area and; iii) a detailed geological map that represents a synthesis of all the collected information. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment pre-existing cartographic documentation (geological and topographical), core data from compiled boreholes, descriptions of geological outcrops within the urban network and neighbouring areas, physico-chemical characterisation of representative samples of geological materials, detailed geological mapping of Quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits and, 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces. The stratigraphic model is structured in a system of geological units that from a chronostratigrafic point of view are structured in Palaeozoic, Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary and Anthropocene. The description of the geological units is guided by a systematic procedure. It includes the main lithological and structural features of the units that constitute the geological substratum and represents the conceptual base of the 1:5000 urban geological map of the Girona metropolitan area, which is organized into 6 map sheets. These map sheets are composed by a principal map, geological cross sections and, several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also represents the main artificial deposits, features related to geohistorical processes, contours of outcrop areas, information obtained in stations, borehole data, and contour

  19. SPATIAL GRADIENT ANALYSIS OF URBAN GREEN SPACES COMBINED WITH LANDSCAPE METRICS IN JINAN CITY OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Fan-hua; Nobukazu NAKAGOSHI; YIN Hai-wei; Akira KIKUCHI

    2005-01-01

    Urban green spaces have been arisen growing concern responded to the social and environmental costs of urban sprawl. A wide range of planning and policies has been and/or will be designed to protect urban green spaces and optimize their spatial pattern. A better design or planning of urban green space can make a major contribution to quality of environment and urban life, and furthermore can decide whether we can have a sustainable development in the urban area. Information about the status quo of urban green spaces can help planners design more effectively.However, how to quantify and capture such information will be the essential question we face. In this paper, to quantify the urban green space, a new method comprising gradient analysis, landscape metrics and GIS was developed through a case of Jinan City. The results demonstrate: 1) the gradient analysis is a valid and reliable instrument to quantify the urban green space spatial pattern precisely; 2) using moving window, explicit landscape metrics were spatially realized. Compared with quantifying metrics in the entire landscape, it would be better to link pattern with process and establish an important basis for analyzing the ecological and socioeconomic functions of green spaces.

  20. Functional Zoning and Urban Development Tendencies of Bucharest City/Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Iuliana; Dumitrascu, Silvia

    2010-05-01

    Any form of urban development policy for environmental management should be based on the differentiation of the structure of a territory that can be found in the shape of functional zoning. Identifying the patterns of morphological structure of the urban space can provide essential clues concerning the proper measures to take into consideration during the activity of urban planning. In this sense, the Bucharest municipality study case provides the example of a dynamic urban space with a complex and distinctive evolutionary structure. The aim of the study is to set out the main events that shaped the Bucharest city space and the patterns resulted from their impact at the functional level of the Romanian capital. In order to identify the development tendencies of the Bucharest municipality, a series of aspects concerning urban morphology should be highlighted that reveal the impact of the socio-economical policies at the structural level of the territory. In this sense, three images of the urban space stand out, representative for the period when they materialized: the Post-Byzantine (XV-XVIII), the Fanariot (XVIII) and the Modern periods (XIX-XX). The corresponding cartographic documents analyzed are: the Franz Purcel Plan (dated 1789), the Romanian Guide Print Plan and, respectively, the AGC Busman Print Plan. The analysis reveals three distinctive morphological types: radial-concentric in the 17th century, polynuclear in the 18th century, leading to the mixed character in the Modern period. The latest trait of the urban territory is based on the concentric character of the street network (three circles were identified at the level of the capital city that point out the evolution of the urban space: Dacia bv-Mircea Vulcanescu, Stefan cel Mare bv-Iancu de Hunedoara and the last circle outlined by the ring road) and the presence of multiple nuclei that accumulate the commercial, administrative and business functions of the city.

  1. Improvement of urban water environment of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, by ecotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Kaohsiung City is the second largest city in Taiwan and suffers from serious floods during the wet season, but it also badly needs water during the dry season. As economic development advances and pollutants increase, water pollution and shortage of water resources become issues of concern for local people in Kaohsiung. A project has been proposed by the city government and executed by the authors to establish a system of sustainable water management in urban areas. In this system, the Caogong Canals, irrigation channels which were established 170 years ago during the Ching Dynasty of China and are still used today for irrigation, were renovated to bring stable and clean water to the urban areas. It is planned to pump clean water into the canal from a river near the city. In this project, 12 constructed wetland systems, functioning as wetland parks, stormwater storage tanks or eco-detention ponds, were built in the city, and the Caogong Canals are planned to connect all these urban constructed wetlands in the second stage of the project. PMID:22766859

  2. Rehumanasing Urban Space for Night Activities with Particular Reference to Principal 24 hours Cities in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Momenian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present the solutions for enhancing the usage of urban spaces at night based on principles of twenty-four hour cities. Urban space is essentially built for use by human beings in their lifespan; it has gone through many changes due to the influences of modern trends. One main point needing reconsideration is urban spaces and their usage in different times especially in day and night. Now what is the main problem that most urban spaces are not able to provide their expected service in different times and are less used? Data collection procedure is a combination of library methods and field studies. Data taken from diagnostic interviews was analyzed using descriptive-analytical techniques. Comparison of case study of night and day usage and identification of challenges for nightly usage of urban spaces will be introduction to providing required strategies and solutions. Such strategies will be effective and useful in transforming Iranian cities especially Tehran to a twenty-four hour city.

  3. Integrated urban flood risk assessment – adapting a multicriteria approach to a city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kubal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk assessment is an essential part of flood risk management. As part of the new EU flood directive it is becoming increasingly more popular in European flood policy. Particularly cities with a high concentration of people and goods are vulnerable to floods. This paper introduces the adaptation of a novel method of multicriteria flood risk assessment, that was recently developed for the more rural Mulde river basin, to a city. The study site is Leipzig, Germany. The "urban" approach includes a specific urban-type set of economic, social and ecological flood risk criteria, which focus on urban issues: population and vulnerable groups, differentiated residential land use classes, areas with social and health care but also ecological indicators such as recreational urban green spaces. These criteria are integrated using a "multicriteria decision rule" based on an additive weighting procedure which is implemented into the software tool FloodCalc urban. Based on different weighting sets we provide evidence of where the most flood-prone areas are located in a city. Furthermore, we can show that with an increasing inundation extent it is both the social and the economic risks that strongly increase.

  4. Prioritizing Preferable Locations for Increasing Urban Tree Canopy in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter H. Locke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a set of Geographic Information System (GIS methods for identifying and prioritizing tree planting sites in urban environments. It uses an analytical approach created by a University of Vermont service-learning class called “GIS Analysis of New York City's Ecology” that was designed to provide research support to the MillionTreesNYC tree planting campaign. These methods prioritize tree planting sites based on need (whether or not trees can help address specific issues in the community and suitability (biophysical constraints and planting partners’ existing programmatic goals. Criteria for suitability and need were based on input from three New York City tree-planting organizations. Customized spatial analysis tools and maps were created to show where each organization may contribute to increasing urban tree canopy (UTC while also achieving their own programmatic goals. These methods and associated custom tools can help decision-makers optimize urban forestry investments with respect to biophysical and socioeconomic outcomes in a clear and accountable manner. Additionally, the framework described here may be used in other cities, can track spatial characteristics of urban ecosystems over time, and may enable further tool development for collaborative decision-making in urban natural resource management.

  5. Urbanity

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlfeldt, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    I define a composite amenity that provides aesthetic and consumption value to local residents: Urbanity. A novel data set of geo-tagged photos shared in internet communities serves as a proxy for urbanity. From the spatial pattern of house prices and photos I identify the value of urbanity in two of the largest European cities, Berlin and London. I find an elasticity of indirect utility with respect to urbanity of about 1%. The aggregated willingness to pay equates to about $1 bn per year in ...

  6. A city is not a building- architectural concepts for public square design in Dutch urban climate contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzholzer, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article elaborates on an architectural approach to urban design ¿ to the idea of `city as a building¿ in relation to user¿s perceptions and urban microclimate based on Dutch examples. A brief analysis of urban square design approaches in The Netherlands since WW II reveals a prominent tendency

  7. 19 Urban Questions: Teaching in the City. Second Edition. Counterpoints: Studies in Postmodern Theory of Education, Vol. 215

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Shirley R., Ed

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of "19 Urban Questions: Teaching in the City" adds new questions to those in the original volume. Continuing the developing conversation in urban education, the book is provocative in style and rich in detail. Emphasizing the complexity of urban education, Shirley R. Steinberg and the authors ask direct questions about what…

  8. Prevalence of tobacco use in urban, semi urban and rural areas in and around Chennai City, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolappan Chockalingam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco use leads to many health complications and is a risk factor for the occurrence of cardio vascular diseases, lung and oral cancers, chronic bronchitis etc. Almost 6 million people die from tobacco-related causes every year. This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of tobacco use in three different areas around Chennai city, south India. METHODS: A survey of 7510 individuals aged > = 15 years was undertaken covering Chennai city (urban, Ambattur (semi-urban and Sriperumbudur (rural taluk. Details on tobacco use were collected using a questionnaire adapted from both Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Global Adults Tobacco Survey. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of tobacco use was significantly higher in the rural (23.7% compared to semi-urban (20.9% and urban (19.4% areas (P value <0.001 Tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.3%, 13.9% and 12.4% in rural, semi-urban and urban areas respectively. The corresponding values for smokeless tobacco use were 9.5%, 7.0% and 7.0% respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of using tobacco (with smoke or smokeless forms was significantly higher among males, older individuals, alcoholics, in rural areas and slum localities. Behavioural pattern analysis of current tobacco users led to three groups (1 those who were not reached by family or friends to advice on harmful effects (2 those who were well aware of harmful effects of tobacco and even want to quit and (3 those are exposed to second hand/passive smoking at home and outside. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco use prevalence was significantly higher in rural areas, slum dwellers, males and older age groups in this region of south India. Women used mainly smokeless tobacco. Tobacco control programmes need to develop strategies to address the different subgroups among tobacco users. Public health facilities need to expand smoking cessation counseling services as well as provide pharmacotherapy where necessary.

  9. Modeling of urban solid waste management system: The case of Dhaka city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a system dynamics computer model to predict solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation from solid waste and to assess the needs for waste management of the urban city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Simulated results show that solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation potential from solid waste increase with time. Population, uncleared waste, untreated waste, composite index and public concern are projected to increase with time for Dhaka city. Simulated results also show that increasing the budget for collection capacity alone does not improve environmental quality; rather an increased budget is required for both collection and treatment of solid wastes of Dhaka city. Finally, this model can be used as a computer laboratory for urban solid waste management (USWM) policy analysis

  10. Modeling of urban solid waste management system: the case of Dhaka city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a system dynamics computer model to predict solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation from solid waste and to assess the needs for waste management of the urban city Dhaka Bangladesh. Simulated results show that solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation potential from solid waste increase with time. Population, uncleared waste, untreated waste, composite index and public concern are increasing with time for Dhaka city. Simulated results also show that increasing the budge for collection capacity alone does not improve the environmental quality rather increased budget is required for both collection and treatment of solid wastes of Dhaka city. Finally, this model can be used as a compute laboratory for urban solid waste management (USWM) policy analysis. (author)

  11. Decarbonizing urban transport in European cities: four cases show possibly high co-benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cities worldwide are increasingly becoming agents of climate change mitigation, while simultaneously aiming for other goals, such as improved accessibility and clean air. Based on stakeholder interviews and data analysis, we assess the current state of urban mobility in the four European cities of Barcelona, Malmö, Sofia and Freiburg. We then provide scenarios of increasingly ambitious policy packages, reducing greenhouse gas emissions from urban transport by up to 80% from 2010 to 2040. We find significant concurrent co-benefits in cleaner air, reduced noise ambience, fewer traffic-related injuries and deaths, more physical activity, less congestion and monetary fuel savings. Our scenarios suggest that non-motorized transport, especially bicycles, can occupy high modal shares, particularly in cities with less than 0.5 million inhabitants. We think that this kind of multi-criteria assessment of social costs and benefits is a useful complement to cost–benefit analysis of climate change mitigation measures. (letter)

  12. The Spatialities of Urban Economic Geographies: New Industrial Spaces in the Outer City of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on the transformation of the industrial structure and the location dynamics on the edge of the metropolitan region of Copenhagen with the aim of explaining the rise of new spaces in the urban economic geography. The main concern of the paper is the role the transformation of the...... outer city plays in the urban economy of Copenhagen. The centre of attention is on the changing industrial structure, the progressively higher complexity of firm location, and the division of labour that have emerged in the past decade of growth as a result of the resurgence of the metropolitan region...... of Copenhagen. The recent changes in the economic geographies of the outer city of Copenhagen are used as a launch pad for discussing the theoretical and analytical challenges in understanding the industrial change in new urban forms....

  13. Green urban places and their impact on the health of the city population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Santana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Walkable urban green spaces (WUGS have immediate as well as indirect effects on health, improving not only the general health of the population but also the quality of the environment. However, in creating these new green urban places the health situation is not given due consideration. This article deals with the relationship between green urban places and physical exercise and the impact on public health in the city of Amadora, located in the metropolitan area of Lisbon. The results of this study show interesting relationships between the location of the green areas, the characteristics of the settlements and the types of greenery provided, indicating the necessity of an urgent interdisciplinary effort for the well-being of the future city

  14. Urban governance and the systems approaches to health-environment co-benefits in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jose A Puppim de; Doll, Christopher N H; Siri, José; Dreyfus, Magali; Farzaneh, Hooman; Capon, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    The term "co-benefits" refers to positive outcomes accruing from a policy beyond the intended outcome, often or usually in other sectors. In the urban context, policies implemented in particular sectors (such as transport, energy or waste) often generate multiple co-benefits in other areas. Such benefits may be related to the reduction of local or global environmental impacts and also extend into the area of public health. A key to identifying and realising co-benefits is the adoption of systems approaches to understand inter-sectoral linkages and, in particular, the translation of this understanding to improved sector-specific and city governance. This paper reviews a range of policies which can yield health and climate co-benefits across different urban sectors and illustrates, through a series of cases, how taking a systems approach can lead to innovations in urban governance which aid the development of healthy and sustainable cities. PMID:26648361

  15. Urban microbiomes and urban ecology: how do microbes in the built environment affect human sustainability in cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary M

    2014-09-01

    Humans increasingly occupy cities. Globally, about 50% of the total human population lives in urban environments, and in spite of some trends for deurbanization, the transition from rural to urban life is expected to accelerate in the future, especially in developing nations and regions. The Republic of Korea, for example, has witnessed a dramatic rise in its urban population, which now accounts for nearly 90% of all residents; the increase from about 29% in 1955 has been attributed to multiple factors, but has clearly been driven by extraordinary growth in the gross domestic product accompanying industrialization. While industrialization and urbanization have unarguably led to major improvements in quality of life indices in Korea and elsewhere, numerous serious problems have also been acknowledged, including concerns about resource availability, water quality, amplification of global warming and new threats to health. Questions about sustainability have therefore led Koreans and others to consider deurbanization as a management policy. Whether this offers any realistic prospects for a sustainable future remains to be seen. In the interim, it has become increasingly clear that built environments are no less complex than natural environments, and that they depend on a variety of internal and external connections involving microbes and the processes for which microbes are responsible. I provide here a definition of the urban microbiome, and through examples indicate its centrality to human function and wellbeing in urban systems. I also identify important knowledge gaps and unanswered questions about urban microbiomes that must be addressed to develop a robust, predictive and general understanding of urban biology and ecology that can be used to inform policy-making for sustainable systems. PMID:25224504

  16. The Urban Environmental Monitoring/100 Cities Project: Legacy of the First Phase and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Wentz, Elizabeth A.; Brazel, Anthony; Netzband, Maik; Moeller, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) project, now known as the 100 Cities Project, at Arizona State University (ASU) is a baseline effort to collect and analyze remotely sensed data for 100 urban centers worldwide. Our overarching goal is to use remote sensing technology to better understand the consequences of rapid urbanization through advanced biophysical measurements, classification methods, and modeling, which can then be used to inform public policy and planning. Urbanization represents one of the most significant alterations that humankind has made to the surface of the earth. In the early 20th century, there were less than 20 cities in the world with populations exceeding 1 million; today, there are more than 400. The consequences of urbanization include the transformation of land surfaces from undisturbed natural environments to land that supports different forms of human activity, including agriculture, residential, commercial, industrial, and infrastructure such as roads and other types of transportation. Each of these land transformations has impacted, to varying degrees, the local climatology, hydrology, geology, and biota that predate human settlement. It is essential that we document, to the best of our ability, the nature of land transformations and the consequences to the existing environment. The focus in the UEM project since its inception has been on rapid urbanization. Rapid urbanization is occurring in hundreds of cities worldwide as population increases and people migrate from rural communities to urban centers in search of employment and a better quality of life. The unintended consequences of rapid urbanization have the potential to cause serious harm to the environment, to human life, and to the resulting built environment because rapid development constrains and rushes decision making. Such rapid decision making can result in poor planning, ineffective policies, and decisions that harm the environment and the quality of human life

  17. Urbanization effects on stream habitat characteristics in Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, T.M.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Zappia, H.; Coles, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Relations between stream habitat and urban land-use intensity were examined in 90 stream reaches located in or near the metropolitan areas of Salt Lake City, Utah (SLC); Birmingham, Alabama (BIR); and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urban intensity was based on a multi-metric index (urban intensity index or UII) that included measures of land cover, socioeconomic organization, and urban infrastructure. Twenty-eight physical variables describing channel morphology, hydraulic properties, and streambed conditions were examined. None of the habitat variables was significantly correlated with urbanization intensity in all three study areas. Urbanization effects on stream habitat were less apparent for streams in SLC and BIR, owing to the strong influence of basin slope (SLC) and drought conditions (BIR) on local flow regimes. Streamflow in the BOS study area was not unduly influenced by similar conditions of climate and physiography, and habitat conditions in these streams were more responsive to urbanization. Urbanization in BOS contributed to higher discharge, channel deepening, and increased loading of fine-grained particles to stream channels. The modifying influence of basin slope and climate on hydrology of streams in SLC and BIR limited our ability to effectively compare habitat responses among different urban settings and identify common responses that might be of interest to restoration or water management programs. Successful application of land-use models such as the UII to compare urbanization effects on stream habitat in different environmental settings must account for inherent differences in natural and anthropogenic factors affecting stream hydrology and geomorphology. The challenge to future management of urban development is to further quantify these differences by building upon existing models, and ultimately develop a broader understanding of urbanization effects on aquatic ecosystems. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  18. Urban food consumption and associated water resources: The example of Dutch cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D; Mak, T N; Gawlik, B M

    2016-09-15

    Full self-sufficiency in cities is a major concern. Cities import resources for food, water and energy security. They are however key to global sustainability, as they concentrate a rapidly increasing and urbanising population (or number of consumers). In this paper, we analysed the dependency of urban inhabitants on the resource water for food consumption, by means of Dutch cities. We found that in extremely urbanised municipalities like Amsterdam and Rotterdam, people eat more meat and cereals and less potatoes than in other Dutch municipalities. Their current water footprint (WF) related to food consumption is therefore higher (3245l/cap/day) than in strongly urbanised cities (3126l/cap/day). Dutch urban citizens who eat too many animal products, crop oils and sugar can reduce their WF (with 29 to 32%) by shifting to a healthier diet. Recommended less meat consumption has the largest impact on the total WF reduction. A shift to a pesco-vegetarian or vegetarian diet would require even less water resources, where the WF can be reduced by 36 to 39% and 40 to 42% respectively. Dutch cities such as Amsterdam have always scored very high in international sustainability rankings for cities, partly due to a long history in integrated (urban) water management in the Netherlands. We argue that such existing rankings only show a certain - undoubtedly very important - part of urban environmental sustainability. To communicate the full picture to citizens, stakeholders and policy makers, indicators on external resource usage need to be employed. The fact that external resource dependency can be altered through changing dietary behaviour should be communicated. PMID:27173841

  19. Geochemical legacies and the future health of cities: A tale of two neurotoxins in urban soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Filippelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The past and future of cities are inextricably linked, a linkage that can be seen clearly in the long-term impacts of urban geochemical legacies. As loci of population as well as the means of employment and industry to support these populations, cities have a long history of co-locating contaminating practices and people, sometimes with negative implications for human health. Working at the intersection between environmental processes, communities, and human health is critical to grapple with environmental legacies and to support healthy, sustainable, and growing urban populations. An emerging area of environmental health research is to understand the impacts of chronic exposures and exposure mixtures—these impacts are poorly studied, yet may pose a significant threat to population health. Acute exposure to lead (Pb, a powerful neurotoxin to which children are particularly susceptible, has largely been eliminated in the U.S. and other countries through policy-based restrictions on leaded gasoline and lead-based paints. But the legacy of these sources remains in the form of surface soil Pb contamination, a common problem in cities and one that has only recently emerged as a widespread chronic exposure mechanism in cities. Some urban soils are also contaminated with another neurotoxin, mercury (Hg. The greatest human exposure to Hg is through fish consumption, so eating fish caught in urban areas presents risks for toxic Hg exposure. The potential double impact of chronic exposure to these two neurotoxins is pronounced in cities. Overall, there is a paradigmatic shift from reaction to and remediation of acute exposures towards a more nuanced understanding of the dynamic cycling of persistent environmental contaminants with resultant widespread and chronic exposure of inner-city dwellers, leading to chronic toxic illness and disability at substantial human and social cost.

  20. Subsurface information for risk-sensitive urban spatial planning in Dhaka Metropolitan City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Andreas; Aziz Patwary, Mohammad Abdul; Bahls, Rebecca; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun; Jabeen, Sarwat

    2016-04-01

    Dhaka Metropolitan City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six- or lower storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing city areas are projected in marshy terrains modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In most areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions within 30 meters. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development Authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Dhaka Metropolitan City area (approx. 1700 km2). Geo-information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, geospatial information in form of a geomorphic map, a digital terrain model and a 3-D subsurface model covering the whole city area have been generated at a scale of 1 : 50000. An extensive engineering geological data base consisting of more than 2200 borehole data with associated Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) and lab data has been compiled. With the field testing (SPT) and engineering geological lab data, the 3-D subsurface model can be parameterized to derive important spatial subsurface information for urban planning like bearing capacity evaluations for different foundation designs or soil liquefaction potential assessments for specific earthquake scenarios. In conjunction with inundation potential evaluations for different flooding scenarios, comprehensive building ground suitability information can be derived to support risk

  1. Imagining the recursive city: explorations in urban simulacra

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, M.; Hudson-Smith, A.

    2007-01-01

    Cities are microcosms of societies, worlds within worlds, which repeat themselves atdifferent spatial scales and over different time horizons. In this essay, we argue that suchrecursion is taken to an entirely new level in the digital age where we can represent citiesnumerically, embed them within computers, scale and distort their representations so thatwe can embed them within one another, even believing them to be ?computers? in theirown right. We begin with the conundrum of recursion, sho...

  2. A survey of urban climate change experiments in 100 cities

    OpenAIRE

    Castán Broto, V.; Bulkeley, H.

    2013-01-01

    Cities are key sites where climate change is being addressed. Previous research has largely overlooked the multiplicity of climate change responses emerging outside formal contexts of decision-making and led by actors other than municipal governments. Moreover, existing research has largely focused on case studies of climate change mitigation in developed economies. The objective of this paper is to uncover the heterogeneous mix of actors, settings, governance arrangements and technologies in...

  3. Assesment of urban sustainable development: example of Rezekne city

    OpenAIRE

    Litavniece, Lienīte

    2015-01-01

    Since 90s of the 20th century sustainable development has become a global issue which is receiving increasing attention. Successful sustainable development is only possible from the bottom to the top, which means that the human and environmental mutual relations must be taken into account not only on a global scale as a whole, but also focus on the much smaller territorial units.The role of the city as the administrative territorial unit has significantly increased in recent years, the acknow...

  4. Keeping Our Cities Clean: Urban Solid Waste Management in Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Madhushree Sekher

    2004-01-01

    This paper broadly examines the process of municipal waste management in our cities, focusing on the situation in Karnataka. The paper is reflective in nature, drawing on a case study of solid waste management process in Bangalore. It highlights the characteristic of municipal waste generated, the management practices involved and the stakeholders in the refuse collection and disposal services, and thereupon attempts to identify future interventions to strengthen the delivery of public munici...

  5. A disaster resilient built environment in urban cities

    OpenAIRE

    Malalgoda, Chamindi; Amaratunga, Dilanthi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This research aims at making recommendations to empower the Sri Lankan local governments in creating a disaster resilient built environment. Disasters make a huge impact on the built environment. In turn, failure of the built environment can create significant impacts on social and economic activities. Thus, when moving towards safer cities, it is important to develop the built environment in such a way that it can withstand threats posed by natural disasters. Various stakeholder...

  6. CARBON SEQUESTRATION BY URBAN TREES ON ROADSIDES OF VADODARA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sandhya Kiran,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A potential enhancement of the Earth's greenhouse effect is a critical environmental problem. Carbon Dioxide (CO2 is the most significant contributor to the human influence on the greenhouse effect. Because CO2 emissions are directly linked to many economically prosperous activities, it is difficult for the society to quickly accomplish large reductions in its production. As trees grow, they remove CO2 from the atmosphere during the process of photosynthesis. The CO2 is fixed as organic carbon accumulating in the form of biomass. Our own findings suggest that 73.59 tones of CO2 is removed by trees planted on road sides of Vadodara city whichrepresents 22% of the City's estimated total CO2 production. Total CO2 Emission at major roads was found around 159.47 tones because of more number of automobiles as it is the third most-populated city in the Indian state of Gujarat. Results are restricted to the CO2 that is sequestered by trees planted only on road sides excluding other carbon sinks. It is therefore evident that tree planting on roadside are an effective method of offsetting CO2 from human sources.

  7. Carbon sequestration by urban trees on roadsides of Vadodara city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran, G.S.; Kinnary, S. [M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara (India). Dept. of Botany

    2011-07-01

    A potential enhancement of the Earth's greenhouse effect is a critical environmental problem. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the most significant contributor to the human influence on the greenhouse effect. Because CO{sub 2} emissions are directly linked to many economically prosperous activities, it is difficult for society to quickly accomplish large reductions in its production. As trees grow, they remove CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere during the process of photosynthesis. The CO{sub 2} is fixed as organic carbon accumulating in the form of biomass. Our own findings suggest that 73.59 tonnes of CO{sub 2} is removed by trees planted on roadsides of Vadodara city which represents 22% of the city's estimated total CO{sub 2} production. Total CO{sub 2} emission at major roads was found around 159.47 tonnes because of increase in number of automobiles as it is the third most-populated city in the Indian state of Gujarat. Results are restricted to the CO{sub 2} that is sequestered by trees planted only on roadsides excluding other carbon sinks. It is therefore evident that tree planting on roadsides is an effective method of offsetting CO{sub 2} from human sources.

  8. PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG URBAN SCHOOL CHILDREN OF KOCHI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiji K.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of obesity and overweight among urban school children in Kochi. SETTING AND DESIGN: Secondary data analysis of a school - based cross sectional study of an urban school of K ochi . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: A cross - sectional study was conducted in a private school in Kochi, India. A total of 1 178 school children in the age group of 6 - 15 years were studied. Weight and height of each student was measured using standard measures and body mass index (BMI was calculated. For children and teens, after BMI is calculated, the BMI number is plotted on the CDC BMI - for - age growth charts (for either girls or boys to obtain a percentile ranking. Statistical analysis: Chi - square test. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight (≥85th percentile among children was 10.1% and prevalence of obesity (>95th percentile was 5.6%. Boys had the highest prevalence of overweight ( 11.5 % and obesity (6.53%. Male children from private schools and urban areas were at greater risk of being overweight and obese. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood obesity is a problem in boys and requires timely intervention for its control .

  9. Urban life cycle analysis and the conservation of the urban fabric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Algreen-Ussing, Gregers; Hassler, Uta; Kohler, Niklaus

    2004-01-01

    consideration some new and emerging cultural aspects and to integrate them into adapted conservation procedures. This enlarged and more complex view on urban built heritage conservation problems has driven the SUIT project to propose introducing a new concept: the "active conservation". The definition of......Urban projects, plans and other programmes falls under present Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) directive as well as the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) directive. There is a need to adopt more comprehensive understanding of urban built heritage, one that would enable taking into...... strategic objectives related to urban fragments heritage active-conservation and their management on long-term is a collective action that necessitates the ability to evaluate the quality of an urban fragment as a whole....

  10. Managing Urban Trees and Their Soil Envelopes in a Contiguously Developed City Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, C. Y.

    2001-12-01

    Urban Hong Kong is covered by high building, road, and population densities. Its urban morphology is inherently not conducive to extensive or high-grade greening. Recent renewal of old areas has squeezed out some limited interstitial plantable space, although in new development areas modest spaces have been earmarked for greenery. The study aims at evaluating the major constraints to urban trees and their companion urban soil envelopes and at providing specific recommendations to improve tree management in the city. The analysis covers the above-ground confinements that dampen tree performance, the less tangible but rather difficult institutional restrictions that impose a somewhat unnecessary lid on tree planting, the multiplicity of players and stakeholders involved in urban-tree management that militates against coordination and cooperation, the widespread occupation of underground space by utility lines often to the exclusion of trees, and the extremely poor quality of urban soils that are often used without amelioration to support tree growth. The management recommendations furnish practical suggestions and hints to improve the short- and long-term welfare of trees in terms of quality, quantity, and spatial distribution. The conclusion enumerates some concrete measures for consideration by decision-makers to upgrade the city's greenery to close the gap between science and policy.

  11. Quantifying urban heat island effects and human comfort for cities of variable size and urban morphology in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, G. J.; Koopmans, S.; Heusinkveld, B. G.; van Hove, L. W. A.; Holtslag, A. A. M.

    2011-10-01

    This paper reports on the canopy layer urban heat island (UHI) and human comfort in a range of small to large cities and villages in the Netherlands. To date, this subject has not been substantially studied in the Netherlands, since it has a relatively mild oceanic (Cfb) climate and impact was assumed to be minor. To fill this knowledge gap, this paper reports on observations of a selected network of reliable hobby meteorologists, including several in The Hague and Rotterdam. A number of alternative measures were also used to quantify UHI, i.e., the generalized extreme value distribution and return periods of UHI and adverse human comfort; its uncertainties were estimated by the statistical method of bootstrapping. It appeared essential to distinguish observations made at roof level from those made within the urban canyon, since the latter related more closely to exposure at pedestrian level and to urban canyon properties in their close neighborhood. The results show that most Dutch cities experience a substantial UHI, i.e., a mean daily maximum UHI of 2.3 K and a 95 percentile of 5.3 K, and that all cities experience a shadow effect in the morning when cities remain cooler than the rural surroundings. Also, an evident relation between the median of the daily maximum UHI and its 95 percentile was discovered. Furthermore, the 95 percentile of the UHI appears well correlated with population density. In addition, we find a significant decrease of UHI and the percentage of surface area covered by green vegetation, but the relation with open water remains unclear.

  12. A comparative study of Beijing and three global cities:A perspective on urban livability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao WANG; Meirong SU; Bin CHEN; Shaoqing CHEN; Chen LIANG

    2011-01-01

    A so-called global city that plays an important role in regional and global economic,political and cultural development should perform well in terms of its livability.The livability level of Beijing was compared with those of three acknowledged global cities,i.e.,New York City,Greater London,and Tokyo-to to clarify whether Beijing has great potential to grow into a global city.From the aspects of social development,living standard and environmental quality,the livable level integrated index (LLⅡ)was established in this paper to evaluate the urban livability,while the linear weighted sum was applied as the assessment model.After analyzing the situations of the four cities during 2000-2009,it was indicated that the LLIIs of Beijing,New York City,Greater London,and Tokyo-to were respectively 38.76,52.93,50.95,and 40.65in 2000.By comparison,the LLIIs in 2009 were 38.96,59.23,69.24 and 52.15,respectively.Further analysis showed that a big gap exists between the environmental quality of Beijing and those of three global cities and the performance of social development for Beijing declined in the last decade.To accelerate the transformation of Beijing to a global city,much more attention should be paid to improve the environmental quality,especially the atmospheric quality and water quality.

  13. ARC3.2 Summary for City Leaders Climate Change and Cities: Second Assessment Report of the Urban Climate Change Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Solecki, W.; Romero-Lankao, P.; Mehrotra, S.; Dhakal, S.; Bowman, T.; Ibrahim, S. Ali

    2015-01-01

    ARC3.2 presents a broad synthesis of the latest scientific research on climate change and cities. Mitigation and adaptation climate actions of 100 cities are documented throughout the 16 chapters, as well as online through the ARC3.2 Case Study Docking Station. Pathways to Urban Transformation, Major Findings, and Key Messages are highlighted here in the ARC3.2 Summary for City Leaders. These sections lay out what cities need to do achieve their potential as leaders of climate change solutions. UCCRN Regional Hubs in Europe, Latin America, Africa, Australia and Asia will share ARC3.2 findings with local city leaders and researchers. The ARC3.2 Summary for City Leaders synthesizes Major Findings and Key Messages on urban climate science, disasters and risks, urban planning and design, mitigation and adaptation, equity and environmental justice, economics and finance, the private sector, urban ecosystems, urban coastal zones, public health, housing and informal settlements, energy, water, transportation, solid waste, and governance. These were based on climate trends and future projections for 100 cities around the world.

  14. City-ecological perspectives of the development of high urbanized multifunctional centers of the largest Russian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnikov Sergey Anatol’evich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some results of the author’s dissertation research dedicated to formation of an architectural typology of high urbanized multifunctional units of urban structure of the largest cities (further HUMUUS as centers of social activity, which include buildings, constructions, transportation equipment and open spaces, where human flows transpose, start and end with the purpose of bringing into this space a concentrated maximum of goods, services and information with minimum time expenditures. This article draws attention to the development analysis of the structure-forming functions of HUMUUS and their town planning and environmental impact on the surrounding area. The study of planning structures of the largest Russian cities (Samara, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod made it possible to identify a number of main objects, in which structure-forming functions of HUMUUS are materialized: railroad complex (historically formed, developed, dominated, system-wide road junction, transport interchange hub (providing intraurban messages, public office and business centers, leisure and entertainment centers, shopping centers. Basing on researches of Russian and foreign experience, it is possible to predict with full confidence the following trends and streams of environmental and urban development of HUMUUS in the near-term perspective: Strengthening of the environmental and urban frame by network evolution of HUMUUS; Inclusion of green areas of HUMUUS in the system of citywide green areas; Increment of the interest of the investors to the public road junction for the purpose of reorganization of them to full HUMUUS with all characteristics of high-urbanized and environmental and urban reorganization (separation of traffic and pedestrian flows, maximum capacity, multiple-level system, multifunctional, increase in landscaped green space, reconstruction of engineering systems and communications, the use of modern ecological building designs and

  15. Characterization of urban and peri-urban agroecosystems in three West African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulkadir, A.; Dossa, L.H.; Lompo, D.J.P.; Abdu, N.; Keulen, van H.

    2012-01-01

    Systems of urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) take many forms in terms of integration of different activities, production intensities and production orientations. The present study is aimed at a refined characterization of the diversity in terms of production orientation, resource endowments and

  16. Municipal property acquisition patterns in a shrinking city: Evidence for the persistence of an urban growth paradigm in Buffalo, NY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mark Silverman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine municipal property acquisition patterns in shrinking cities. We use data from the City of Buffalo’s municipal property auction records to analyze the spatial distribution of properties offered for sale in its annual tax foreclosure auction. In addition to these data, we examine demolition and building permit records. Our analysis suggests that cities like Buffalo follow strategies based on an urban growth paradigm when responding to abandonment. This paradigm operates under the assumption that growth is a constant and urban development is only limited by fiscal constraints, underdeveloped systems of urban governance, environmental degradation, and resistance by anti-growth coalitions. We recommend that planners in shrinking cities de-emphasize growth-based planning and focus on rightsizing strategies. These strategies are based on the assumption that growth is not a constant. Consequently, urban revitalization is concentrated in a smaller urban footprint.

  17. The creative city - a sustainable city?: An exploration of the impact of sustainable innovation and sustainable urban development on the performance of creative industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, J.J.; Romein, A.

    2011-01-01

    Since at least ten years the creative city concept is very much en vogue. Culture and creativity are regarded drivers of urban economic development, and are therefore important elements of urban economic policy. At the same time, however, concerns about for instance climate change and liveability ha

  18. The Beach and the Labyrinth: Experimental Urban Landscapes of the Human (Dark City, 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vidal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Dark City (Alex Proyas, 1998, people live in a city that is constantly in the dark. The city is in fact a laboratory constructed by a race of Strangers who live below the urban surface to do experiments aimed at discovering what makes human beings human. The Strangers will survive only by becoming like them. To find out what humanity is, but assuming it is essentially related to memory, every day they paralyze all human activity, extract memories from individuals, mix them, and inject them back. When people wake up, they are totally different persons – but do not know it. This article examines how, starting with such a situation, Dark City explores the role of memory in personhood, the problem of authenticity, and the status of “false” memories in making the self, and how the connect to the experimental psychology and the neuroscience of memory.

  19. Descentralizing memory. Two logics of urban space intervention on the city of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sanjurjo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban space is one of the surfaces where the marks are inscribed to keep memory of the genocide perpetrated by the last military dictatorship in Argentina. In the last yeards, various initiatives have intervened on urban space to produce a “descentralized memory” —not exclusionarily anchored—, in the so-called memory places. We began our inquiry by asking whether there is a single recognizable logic behind the practices of “memory descentralization” or whether, on the contrary, these practices of marking urban space correspond to different yuxtaposed grammars. This reflection will focus on the public space signalling policy the Buenos Aires City Government has made, on one hand, and on the actions of urban space intervention made by the various commissions of collective “Neighborhoods for Memory and Justice”, especially the initiative intitled “Tilings for Memory”.

  20. A comparative analysis of urban energy governance in four European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cities are at the forefront of efforts to combat climate change and in this paper, we examine the influence of urban energy governance on these policy goals. An innovative framework for quantifying the combined governance of cities and energy systems is presented before focusing on a detailed study of London, Paris, Berlin and Copenhagen. By applying an optimization model to assess the lowest cost technology pathways to achieve emission reduction targets, the links between the governance of urban energy systems and the cost of achieving carbon targets are shown. Additionally a novel metric of scenario similarity is introduced in order to evaluate the difficulty of hypothesized energy system transitions. The results indicate that these tools can be valuable in identifying similar cities for the sharing of best practice, for performing comparative evaluations of energy transitions, and for reinforcing the need to complement quantitative assessments with a more holistic appreciation of local context. - Highlights: • Novel framework for comparing urban energy systems and their governance is presented. • Applied to four European cities with focus on climate change issues. • Bhattacharyya's distance introduced as measure of energy system scenario similarity. • Results suggest Paris is closest to its 2020 climate goals, London furthest

  1. Spatio-temporal pattern analysis of urban thermal environment of different types of cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cities with different functions show variable thermal patterns. This study directs at horizontal contrasting the heat island effect of cities and towns in the same latitude. The data source was Landsat TM, by which the thermal infrared bands is used with the algorithm of ARTIS inversion of Heilongjiang Province to acquire the surface temperature of Ha-Qi different types of cities in 1995(1989), 2006 and 2010. In this paper we analyzed the land surface temperature(LST) of temporal, spatial and regional. The results show that a high zone is mainly centralized in the old city and industrial zone. Impervious surface increase leads to temperature rise. Relatively high and low zone fluctuation is due to human activities influence. Climate is one of the key factors to affect the LST, such as precipitation and drought. Through the analysis of urban thermal environment, the process of urbanization can be monitored, to provide accurate information for the quality evaluation of urban thermal environment and heat source survey

  2. A study of urban traffic based on the temporal maps: the case of Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenling; Li Yawen; Li Shangzhi; Tang Yuanfang

    2008-01-01

    Temporal map is an isoehronal map taking time as a measuring unit. It traces out the isochrones according to the discrepancy of the time distance between the different sites from the outside of the city and the down town. It can be clear and intuitional to show the different temporal relationships between the outside of the city and the city centre with the temporal map. The problem of traffic congestion, with its potential for urban chaos, has increased dramatically with a growing number of vehicles and the continuing aerial expansion of Guangzhou. Both transit rid-ers and drivers find it is a great difficulty to try to acquire the necessary information.from urban spatial movements.Valuable time is lost due to the absence of good transportation information. So, the paper analyzes a case in Guang-zhou communication with Geographic Information System (GIS), and uses the most popular vehicles, including buses and taxis that are used to measure the temporal distance in the city, and then proposes the design of a new map that better reflects the status of urban communication, and attempts to change the relationship between one point and another point of travel. Reducing the amount of time allocated to such, often complex, movements. This paper also points out the obstacles associated with Guangzhou's existing traffic congestion, and puts forward a strategy aimed at better defining the need of linking the temporal map to spatial map of Guangzhou.

  3. The Effect of a Denser City over the Urban Microclimate: The Case of Toronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Berardi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, several studies have revealed how critical the urban heat island (UHI effect can be in cities located in cold climates, such as the Canadian one. Meanwhile, many researchers have looked at the impact of the city design over the urban microclimate, and have raised concerns about the development of too dense cities. Under the effect of the “Places to Growth” plan, the city of Toronto is experiencing one of the highest rates of building development in North America. Over 48,000 and 33,000 new home permits were issued in 2012 and 2013 respectively, and at the beginning of 2015, almost 500 high-rise proposals across the Greater Toronto Area were released. In this context, it is important to investigate how new constructions will affect the urban microclimate, and to propose strategies to mitigate possible UHI effects. Using the software ENVI-met, microclimate simulations for the Church-Yonge corridor both in the current situation and with the new constructions are reported in this paper. The outdoor air temperature and the wind speed are the parameters used to assess the outdoor microclimate changes. The results show that the new constructions could increase the wind speed around the buildings. However, high-rise buildings will somewhat reduce the air temperature during day-time, as they will create large shadow areas, with lower average mean radiant temperature.

  4. Listening to a town: The urban soundscape as an image of the city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semidor, Catherine

    2001-05-01

    City dwellers often have a visual representation of their town. They are able to identify some areas from pictures. But, urban sounds are also a characteristic part of the city's identity. A previous paper [C. Semidor, Proceedings 20th PLEA, Santiago, Chile (2003)] shows the possibility to distinguish the soundscape of a ``car-free'' Sunday from the soundscape of a Sunday with cars. The proposed method based on the so-called soundwalk could be very illustrative for this suggestion. These soundwalks are sound recordings made with a ``dummy'' head and a DAT recorder, on walks following a trajectory with different urban forms and, in this case study, in different towns where a tramway is running. The acoustical images (time versus frequency graphs) of the sound signals could be a representation of these soundscapes. This type of information could help urban planners and other town designers to improve the acoustic comfort of the cities. The objective of this approach is to valorize what is pleasant and agreeable in the urban sound environment.

  5. New Climatic Indicators for Improving Urban Sprawl: A Case Study of Tehran City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel M. Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world, the fine balance and delicate relationship between human society and the environment in which we exist has been affected by the phenomena of urbanisation and urban development. Today, various environmental factors give rise to horizontal dispersion, spread and growth of cities. One of the most important results of this is climatic change which is directly affected by the urban sprawl of every metropolis. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between the various horizontally distributed components of Tehran city and changes in essential microclimate clusters, by means of the humidex index. Results showed that, when the humidex was calculated for each of the obtained clusters, it was evident that it had increased with time, in parallel with Shannon’s entropy, as a consequence of the average temperature and relative humidity of each cluster. At the same time, results have shown that both temperature and relative humidity of the study area are related with urban sprawl, urbanisation and development, as defined by Shannon’s entropy and, in consequence, with humidex. In consequence, this new concept must be considered in future research works to predict and control urban sprawl and microclimate conditions in cities.

  6. Connecting cities and their environments: Harnessing the water-energy-food nexus for sustainable urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of years of development have made the production and consumption of water, energy, and food for urban environments more complex. While the rise of cities has fostered social and economic progress, the accompanying environmental pressures threaten to undermine these benefits. The compounding effects of climate change, habitat loss, pollution, overexploitation (in addition to financial constraints make the individual management of these three vital resources incompatible with rapidly growing populations and resource-intensive lifestyles. Nexus thinking is a critical tool to capture opportunities for urban sustainability in both industrialised and developing cities. A nexus approach to water, energy, and food security recognises that conventional decisionmaking, strictly confined within distinct sectors, limits the sustainability of urban development. Important nexus considerations include the need to collaborate with a wide spectrum of stakeholders, and to “re-integrate” urban systems. This means recognising the opportunities coming from the interconnected nature of cities and metropolitan regions, including links with rural environments and wider biophysical dynamics.

  7. Urban land use and ground water vulnerability in Washington, DC: Environmental equity by city ward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.; O' Conner, J.V.; Wade, C.; Chang, F.M. (Univ. of the District of Columbia, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The DC WRRC initiated a USGS-funded study on impacts of urban land use on the city's ground water. Its main objective is the development of pollution potential maps using available physical and land use data for the District of Columbia. A second goal is the design of a ground water protection strategy applicable to a heterogeneous urban setting. The multitude of data required for this project were compiled using a Geographic Information System (GIS). GIS maps show the four hydrogeologic settings, traditional land use categories, specific urban pollution sources, and management units. A coding matrix was developed to create a rating hierarchy of the pollution potential of various land use/pollution source combinations. Subsequent superposition with the ground water vulnerability map allowed the city-wide spatial assessment of land use impacts on ground water quality. Preliminary results can be displayed by voting ward and used to educate residents on environmental conditions. Field trips and technical notes coupled with exposure to new laws and historic maps can heighten public and political awareness of the ground water resource. A city-wide GIS based on voting wards can enhance understanding of the dynamic urban hydrologic cycle and thus aid in establishing environmental equity.

  8. Urban effects and summer thunderstorms in a tropical cyclone affected situation over Guangzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With data mainly from Guangzhou mesonet Automatic Weather Stations (AWS), Guangzhou Doppler Radar and satellite TBB data, characteristics and evolution of the urban heat island (UHI) over Guangzhou City were analyzed in a tropical cyclone affected situation for early August 2005. In particular, two thunderstorms occurring during this period respectively at the night of 4 August and in the afternoon of 7 August were investigated to study the relationships between the development of thunderstorms and the UHI. Results showed that two thunderstorms were associated with the UHI effects. UHI induced local air convergence and initiated the thunderstorm convections. Both cases showed a general agreement in time and space for the locations of maximum UHI, convergence, convection, and precipitation. Convection was found to be more favorable to developing in time periods and locations with stronger intensity of UHI. Analysis also showed that, due to the urban effects, both thunderstorms got strengthened when moving over Guangzhou City, with maximum radar echoes observed right over the urban area and precipitation located within the city. All these features reveal that two thunderstorms were urban-induced storms.

  9. New York City's Urban Dome: Past and Present CO2 Concentration Patterns from an Urban to Rural Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, D.; Griffin, K.; McGillis, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    Urban centers may act as an important but often un-quantified point source for carbon dioxide (CO2) release and are a nexus between population growth, air quality and climate change. In addition, elucidating the effects of urbanization on plant physiology and function is critically important to understand how our natural ecosystems will respond to anthropogenic change. Tree ring 14C isotope composition can provide a localized historical record of an area’s fossil fuel-derived CO2 levels making it is possible to reconstruct an area’s anthropogenic CO2 history. Data from meteorological stations set up in and around New York City were utilized for the analysis of current CO2 levels. The focus here will be on the past 150 year record of CO2 concentrations in 10-year segments from an urban to rural transect in the greater New York City greater area. Furthermore, a 60 year record in 5-year increments were obtained from Commodore Barry Park, a highly industrialized, concrete-heavy area downwind from Manhattan, and the other in Forest Park, a densely vegetated park in Queens. Contemporary daily and seasonal variations of CO2 at a high temporal scale were measured as well. Variations in daily temperature ranges (DTR) will also be considered. Over the past century, the tree core data show that Central Park was approximately on average 15 ppm higher than the “clean” record of Mauna Loa and the Siple Ice Core. At a finer temporal scale, the current meteorological data show a similar overall trend, however, differences are much more variable and there are instances where urban CO2 can be as low as rural CO2, depending on the season and meteorological conditions of the region. Differences between an urban (Harlem) to rural (LDEO) site, for example, can vary 30.6 ppm in the winter and 13.7 in the summer, with similar seasonal trends at our other sites. The maximum average nighttime temperature difference between an urban (Harlem) and a rural (BRF) site reached 5.95

  10. The collaborative image of the city: mapping the inequality of urban perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salesses, Philip; Schechtner, Katja; Hidalgo, César A

    2013-01-01

    A traveler visiting Rio, Manila or Caracas does not need a report to learn that these cities are unequal; she can see it directly from the taxicab window. This is because in most cities inequality is conspicuous, but also, because cities express different forms of inequality that are evident to casual observers. Cities are highly heterogeneous and often unequal with respect to the income of their residents, but also with respect to the cleanliness of their neighborhoods, the beauty of their architecture, and the liveliness of their streets, among many other evaluative dimensions. Until now, however, our ability to understand the effect of a city's built environment on social and economic outcomes has been limited by the lack of quantitative data on urban perception. Here, we build on the intuition that inequality is partly conspicuous to create quantitative measure of a city's contrasts. Using thousands of geo-tagged images, we measure the perception of safety, class and uniqueness; in the cities of Boston and New York in the United States, and Linz and Salzburg in Austria, finding that the range of perceptions elicited by the images of New York and Boston is larger than the range of perceptions elicited by images from Linz and Salzburg. We interpret this as evidence that the cityscapes of Boston and New York are more contrasting, or unequal, than those of Linz and Salzburg. Finally, we validate our measures by exploring the connection between them and homicides, finding a significant correlation between the perceptions of safety and class and the number of homicides in a NYC zip code, after controlling for the effects of income, population, area and age. Our results show that online images can be used to create reproducible quantitative measures of urban perception and characterize the inequality of different cities. PMID:23894301

  11. The collaborative image of the city: mapping the inequality of urban perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Salesses

    Full Text Available A traveler visiting Rio, Manila or Caracas does not need a report to learn that these cities are unequal; she can see it directly from the taxicab window. This is because in most cities inequality is conspicuous, but also, because cities express different forms of inequality that are evident to casual observers. Cities are highly heterogeneous and often unequal with respect to the income of their residents, but also with respect to the cleanliness of their neighborhoods, the beauty of their architecture, and the liveliness of their streets, among many other evaluative dimensions. Until now, however, our ability to understand the effect of a city's built environment on social and economic outcomes has been limited by the lack of quantitative data on urban perception. Here, we build on the intuition that inequality is partly conspicuous to create quantitative measure of a city's contrasts. Using thousands of geo-tagged images, we measure the perception of safety, class and uniqueness; in the cities of Boston and New York in the United States, and Linz and Salzburg in Austria, finding that the range of perceptions elicited by the images of New York and Boston is larger than the range of perceptions elicited by images from Linz and Salzburg. We interpret this as evidence that the cityscapes of Boston and New York are more contrasting, or unequal, than those of Linz and Salzburg. Finally, we validate our measures by exploring the connection between them and homicides, finding a significant correlation between the perceptions of safety and class and the number of homicides in a NYC zip code, after controlling for the effects of income, population, area and age. Our results show that online images can be used to create reproducible quantitative measures of urban perception and characterize the inequality of different cities.

  12. Soil pollution by PAHs in urban soils: a comparison of three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, E; Romero, A S; Maqueda, C; Madrid, L; Ajmone-Marsan, F; Grcman, H; Davidson, C M; Hursthouse, A S; Villaverde, J

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of urban soil from three European cities: Glasgow (UK), Torino (Italy) and Ljubljana (Slovenia). Fifteen PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene) were measured in urban soil samples, using harmonised sampling, sample extraction and analyte quantification methods. Although the mean concentration of each PAH in urban soils of each city showed a wide range of values, high levels of contamination were only evident in Glasgow, where the sum of concentrations of 15 PAHs was in the range 1487-51,822 microg kg(-1), cf. ranges in the other two cities were about ten-fold lower (89.5-4488 microg kg(-1)). The three predominant PAHs were phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene, with the sum of these compounds about 40% of the total PAH content. These data, together with some special molecular indices based on ratios of selected PAHs, suggest pyrogenic origins, especially motor vehicle exhausts, to be the major sources of PAHs in urban soils of the three cities. The largest concentrations for PAHs were often found in sites close to the historic quarters of the cities. Overall, the different climatic conditions, the organic carbon contents of soil, and the source apportionment were the dominant factors affecting accumulation of PAHs in soil. PMID:17726562

  13. Geochemical Legacies and the Future Health of Cities: An Analysis of two Neurotoxins in Urban Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippelli, G. M.; Risch, M.

    2015-12-01

    The past and future of cities are inextricably linked, a linkage that can be seen clearly in the long-term impacts of urban geochemical legacies. As loci of population as well as the means of employment and industry to support these populations, cities have a long history of co-locating contaminating practices and people, sometimes with negative implications for human health. Working at the intersection between geochemical processes, communities, and human health is critical to grapple with environmental legacies and to support healthy, sustainable, and growing urban populations. An emerging area of environmental health research is to understand the impacts of chronic exposures and exposure mixtures—these impacts are very poorly studied, yet have materialized as perhaps the greatest threat to large-scale population health. Acute exposure to lead (Pb), a powerful neurotoxin to which children are particularly susceptible, has largely been eliminated in the U.S. and other countries through policy-based restrictions on leaded gasoline and lead-based paints. But these legacy Pb sources are still around in the form of surface soil Pb contamination, a common problem in cities and one that has only recently emerged as a pernicious and widespread chronic exposure mechanism in cities. Some urban soils are also contaminated with another neurotoxin, mercury (Hg), although very little work has been done to understand human exposures to low levels of this element in soils. The most documented human exposure to Hg is through fish consumption, so eating fish caught in urban areas presents risks for above average dietary Hg exposure. The potential double impact of chronic exposure to these two neurotoxins is pronounced in cities. Many aspects of the dose-response curves for individual elements and mixtures are poorly understood, especially at lower levels, leaving unanswered several interesting and provocative questions about environmental impacts on neurological and

  14. Development of Urban Agriculture:A Case Study of Qianjin Village,Jiangxia District,Wuhan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We take the case of Qianjin Village,Jiangxia District,Wuhan City,to research how to establish the system of urban agriculture with distinctive features relying on the advantage of urban resources.Under the guidance of guiding ideology,basic principles and overall objectives of urban agriculture development planning,we analyze the specific construction planning of urban agriculture in Qianjin Village,mainly including the construction of growing areas and construction of leisure areas.Then we put forth the security system of development of urban agriculture as follows: land transfer is the prerequisite of development of urban agriculture;policy support is the important foundation of development of urban agriculture; agricultural science and technology is strong support for development of urban agriculture;good leadership is the organizational guarantee for development of urban agriculture;the industrialization of agriculture is the main objective of development of urban agriculture.

  15. Urban regeneration in the digital era: how to develop Smart City strategies in large european cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bolici

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study documented in this paper has been carried out in order to acquire new knowledge concerning the development processes of smart city strategies. This aim has been achieved through the analysis of the initiatives proposed by the municipal administrations of Amsterdam and Barcelona. Two successful cases that have allowed to outline a step-by-step roadmap in which a possible approach for developing smart city strategies in large European cities is described. Despite its early stage of development, this procedure provides new knowledge, innovative research perspectives, and a conceptual framework for supporting future comparative research and theory- building. Activities that are fundamental to ensure its continuous growth and the refinement of its structure. 

  16. Urban sustainable energy development: A case study of the city of Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriou, Iraklis

    This study explores the role of cities in sustainable energy development through a governance-informed analysis. Despite the leading position of municipalities in energy sustainability, cities have been mostly conceptualized as sites where energy development is shaped by external policy scales, i.e. the national level. A growing body of research, however, critiques this analytical perspective, and seeks to better understand the type of factors and dynamics that influence energy sustainability within a multi-level policy context for urban energy. Given that particular circumstances are applicable across cities, a context-specific analysis can provide insight regarding how sustainable energy development takes place in urban areas. In applying such an analytical perspective on urban energy sustainability, this study undertakes a qualitative case study analysis for the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by looking at four key local policy initiatives relevant to building energy efficiency and solar electricity development at the municipal government and city-wide level. The evaluation of the initiatives suggests that renewable electricity use has increased substantially in the city over the last years but the installed capacity of local renewable electricity systems, including solar photovoltaics, is low. On the other hand, although the city has made little progress in meeting its building energy efficiency targets, more comprehensive action is taken in this area. The study finds that the above outcomes have been shaped mainly by four factors. The first is the city government's incremental policy approach aiming to develop a facilitative context for local action. The second is the role that a diverse set of stakeholders have in local sustainable energy development. The third is the constraints that systemic policy barriers create for solar power development. The fourth is the ways through which the relevant multi-level policy environment structures the city

  17. An analysis of the consequences of the phenomenon of urbanization, and pollution of the cities, using economic evaluation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouzar Fathi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concerns about global warming and climate change in recent is more serious. Weather problems, along with the accumulation of dirt on the economy and other aspects of human life, they affect. Urban growth and urbanization, the most striking feature of social change - the economy, has been in the last two centuries. Presently the growth of cities, especially in developing countries under led to urbanization, coupled with the loss of environmental and human ecology is. In this period, urbanization rate increased so, see a lot of opportunities for improving the quality of life is severely limited. High rates of population growth and the growth of cities and urbanization, and the more it increases the number of vehicles, some of which increase the energy consumption in this country. Of, the consequences of urbanization society, including its effects on air pollution-which is itself a factor in the reduced quality of life in cities and towns, is limited comfort range-necessity in field studies, geography, economics, urban planning and ecological environment can be. The effects of urban growth and urbanization-as is variable in modern times, especially in recent decades, cause large changes in the spatial structure of economic and Iran-In addition, variables such as energy consumption and emissions of air pollution on per capita income,, will be analyzed.  The results show that, with the growth of cities and urbanization in Iran has been a shift to increased energy consumption and more pollution.

  18. The Ecological Service Function Development of Urban Modern Agriculture in Tianjin City and Corresponding Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; QIN; Guoxing; SUN; Jin; LI

    2013-01-01

    Based on the current situation of ecological environment of agriculture in Tianjin City,we divide the ecological service function of urban modern agriculture in Tianjin City into seven types: air regulation,climate regulation,water conservation,soil formation and protection, waste disposal,biodiversity conservation,and ecological entertainment. According to the method for assessing the value of natural ecosystem, coupled with the ecological service value equivalency factor table of China’s ecosystem formulated by domestic scholars,we estimate the ecological value in Tianjin City. The results show that the actual ecological value of agriculture in Tianjin City was 30. 752 billion yuan in 2010,close to the agricultural economic value ( 31. 733 billion yuan) in 2010. Finally we put forth the following countermeasures for the ecological function development of urban modern agriculture in Tianjin City: strictly protecting arable land,and raising the standards of compensation for agricultural land requisition; actively and prudently developing facility agriculture,and preventing the blind scale expansion of facility agriculture to better give play to its ecological function; strengthening the construction of ecological agriculture,and promoting the market conversion of the ecological service value of agriculture; improving the environment,to form relatively complete agro-ecological system.

  19. Sustainable urban transport indicators: tool for evaluating transport sustainability in the mega cities of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban Transport is an important sector to accomplish the goal of sustainable development in Pakistan. This is important because of the high growth of the transport sector's energy consumption, road crashes and greenhouse gas emissions. This becomes significant in the Pakistani cities where motor vehicle fleet is growing at two to three times the rate of population. Transport Policies has resulted high growth of urban road traffic, increasing air and noise pollution throughout the country. This situation raised the question how to achieve sustainable urban transport in the mega cities of Pakistan? Development of sustainable urban transport indicators will provide an opportunity to analyze current transport policies to assess Pakistan progress towards or away from sustainability. Medium Term Development Framework (2005-10) has selected to analyze against establish sustainable urban transport indicators for Pakistan. On the basis of analysis, it has found that MWF has tried to address transport problem in a piecemeal manner, rather than adopting a holistic approach. Implementing MTDF policies on transport is not fully matched with a long term commitment to achieving sustainable development in Pakistan. (author)

  20. Water-energy links in cities: the urban metabolism of London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijic, A.; Ruiz Cazorla, J.; Keirstead, J.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid urbanisation results in increased water consumption in cities, requiring improved tools for understanding adaptive measures for water resources management under climate change. The energy sector is facing the same challenges and requires equally comprehensive solutions. More frequent water shortages due to climate and land use changes and potential limits on CO2 emissions from fossil fuels that science demands indicate clearly that the next step in the sustainable city development will be to look for the most efficient use of these highly interdependent resources. One of the concepts that could be used for quantifying fundamental flows in an urban environment such as water and energy is the urban metabolism framework. This paper will examine the concept of urban metabolism by quantifying amounts and trends of water and energy consumed in London by four main sectors: residential, industrial, commercial and public. Key data requirements at the sector level will be identified and initial mapping of critical factors for urban sustainability will be provided. Finally, the work will examine the potential of urban metabolism framework to provide data and information for implementing water, energy and greenhouse emissions trade-off 'fit-for-purpose' strategy for water supply security. The paper is a part of the Panta Rhei Research Initiative of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) under the working group of Energy and Food Impacts on Water.

  1. CA-Markov Analysis of Constrained Coastal Urban Growth Modeling: Hua Hin Seaside City, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Shrestha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thailand, a developing country in Southeast Asia, is experiencing rapid development, particularly urban growth as a response to the expansion of the tourism industry. Hua Hin city provides an excellent example of an area where urbanization has flourished due to tourism. This study focuses on how the dynamic urban horizontal expansion of the seaside city of Hua Hin is constrained by the coast, thus making sustainability for this popular tourist destination—managing and planning for its local inhabitants, its visitors, and its sites—an issue. The study examines the association of land use type and land use change by integrating Geo-Information technology, a statistic model, and CA-Markov analysis for sustainable land use planning. The study identifies that the land use types and land use changes from the year 1999 to 2008 have changed as a result of increased mobility; this trend, in turn, has everything to do with urban horizontal expansion. The changing sequences of land use type have developed from forest area to agriculture, from agriculture to grassland, then to bare land and built-up areas. Coastal urban growth has, for a decade, been expanding horizontally from a downtown center along the beach to the western area around the golf course, the southern area along the beach, the southwest grassland area, and then the northern area near the airport.

  2. Tooling up urban planning for climate change mitigation in Malaysian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The city's 2-dimensional spatial structure and 3-dimensional form significantly influence its energy and GHG emission intensity. In rapidly developing urban-regions, the ability of the local planning authorities to quantify the spatial structure and form of existing urban areas, new developments and the emergent urban-region in terms of GHG emission is vital to any effective local, national and global climate change mitigation effort. While a wide array of tools has been developed for assessing built environment sustainability at various spatial scales, these are predominantly eco-efficiency rating tools that do not model the 'spatial structure-GHG' relationship and do not illustrate the GHG implications of urban structure and form, which crucially inform local planning decisions with respect to climate change mitigation. This paper takes the first steps in analysing three spatial-based planning models (Envision Tomorrow, GHGProof, URBEMIS) that estimate GHG emissions towards assessing their adaptability for application in Malaysian cities. It looks into the models' inner working, unpacking the variables and their relationships; assumptions and conversion rates used; and their data requirement and structure. The models' characteristics and features are critically compared to evaluate their capabilities, limitations and relevance to the Malaysian urban planning context, particularly in terms of data availability

  3. Effects of Urban Configuration on Human Thermal Conditions in a Typical Tropical African Coastal City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Lubango Ndetto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A long-term simulation of urban climate was done using the easily available long-term meteorological data from a nearby synoptic station in a tropical coastal city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study aimed at determining the effects of buildings’ height and street orientations on human thermal conditions at pedestrian level. The urban configuration was represented by a typical urban street and a small urban park near the seaside. The simulations were conducted in the microscale applied climate model of RayMan, and results were interpreted in terms of the thermal comfort parameters of mean radiant (Tmrt and physiologically equivalent (PET temperatures. PET values, high as 34°C, are observed to prevail during the afternoons especially in the east-west oriented streets, and buildings’ height of 5 m has less effect on the thermal comfort. The optimal reduction of Tmrt and PET values for pedestrians was observed on the nearly north-south reoriented streets and with increased buildings’ height especially close to 100 m. Likewise, buildings close to the park enhance comfort conditions in the park through additional shadow. The study provides design implications and management of open spaces like urban parks in cities for the sake of improving thermal comfort conditions for pedestrians.

  4. Rich and Poor Cities in Europe. Urban Scaling to Mapping European Economic Convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Strano, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the urban science make broad use of the notion of scaling. We focus here on the important scaling relationship between the gross metropolitan product (GMP) of a city and its population (pop). It has been demonstrated that GMP $\\propto$ Y pop $^{\\beta}$ with $\\beta$ always greater than 1 and close to 1.2. This fundamental finding highlights a universal rule that holds across countries and cultures and might explain the very nature of cities. However, in an increasingly connected world, the hypothesis that the economy of a city solely depends on its population might be questionable. Using data for 248 cities in the European Union between 2005 and 2010, we found a double GMP/pop scaling regime. For West EU cities, $\\beta$ = 1 over the whole the period, while for post-communist cities $\\beta >$1 and increases from $\\sim$1.2 to $\\sim$1.4. The evolution of the scaling exponent describes the convergence of post-communist European cities to open and liberal economies. We propose a simple model of e...

  5. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin R. Sears

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural–urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural–urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural–urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural–urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  6. The geological incidence in the urban growth of Montevideo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ThIs work tries to demostrate the importance of Geology in a correct territorial arranging. Past, present and future of Montevideo were taken into account as the best known example. Five main historic periods were analyzed: its foundation in 1726, the Spanish colonial period along XVIII Century; its free Nation development in XIX Century;main changes during the XX Century and the next future. Beahces will not be affected by global level oceanic waters rise; underground train is quickly necessary; a policy must be developed to avoid population increment because there are not enough sand, potable waater neither bricks' raw materials. In order to avoid the historical rate o growth, some geologic characteristics outside Montevideo will be considered for urban planning; high quality mineral water, 999% silica ground quartz and bricks industries development as well as a program for repopulation of the Canelones department.

  7. City Core - detecting the anthropocene in urban lake cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, K. H.; Ilsøe, P.; Andresen, C. S.; Rasmussen, P.; Andersen, T. J.; Frei, R.; Schreiber, N.; Odgaard, B.; Funder, S.; Holm, J. M.; Andersen, K.

    2011-12-01

    Here, we presents the preliminary results from lake cores taken in ditches associated with the historical fortifications enclosing the oldest - central Copenhagen to achieve new knowledge from sediment deposits related to anthropogenic activities. We have examined sediment cores with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzers to correlate element patterns from urban and industrial emissions. Thus, we aim to track these patterns back in time - long before regular routines of recording of atmospheric environment began around 1978. Furthermore, we compare our data to alternative sources of information in order to constrain and expand the temporal dating limits (approximately 1890) achieved from 210Pb activity. From custom reports and statistic sources, information on imported volumes from coal, metal and oil was obtained and related contaminants from these substances to the sediment archives. Intriguingly, we find a steep increase in import of coal and metals matching the exponential increase of lead and zinc counts from XRF-recordings of the sediment cores. In this finding, we claim to have constrain the initiation of urban industrialization. In order to confirm the age resolution of the lake cores, DNA was extracted from sediments, sedaDNA. Thus we attempt to trace plantation of well documented exotic plants to, for instance, the Botanical Garden. Through extraction and sampling of sedaDNA from these floral and arboreal specimens we intend to locate their strataigraphic horizons in the sediment core. These findings may correlate data back to 1872, when the garden was established on the area of the former fortification. In this line of research, we hope to achieve important supplementary knowledge of sedaDNA-leaching frequencies within freshwater sediments.

  8. Assessing the impact of urbanization on urban climate by remote satellite perspective: a case study in Danang city, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang Khanh Linh, N.; Van Chuong, H.

    2015-04-01

    Urban climate, one of the challenges of human being in 21 century, is known as the results of land use/cover transformation. Its characteristics are distinguished by different varieties of climatic conditions in comparison with those of less built-up areas. The alterations lead to "Urban Heat Island", in which temperature in urban places is higher than surrounding environment. This happens not only in mega cities but also in less urbanized sites. The results determine the change of land use/cover and land surface temperature in Danang city by using multi-temporal Landsat and ASTER data for the period of 1990-2009. Based on the supervised classification method of maximum likelihood algorithm, satellite images in 1990, 2003, 2009 were classified into five classes: water, forest, shrub, agriculture, barren land and built-up area. For accuracy assessment, the error metric tabulations of mapped classes and reference classes were made. The Kappa statistics, derived from error matrices, were over 80% for all of land use maps. An comparison change detection algorithm was made in three intervals, 1990-2003, 2003-2009 and 1990-2009. The results showed that built-up area increased from 8.95% to 17.87% between 1990 and 2009, while agriculture, shrub and barren decreased from 12.98% to 7.53%, 15.72% to 9.89% and 3.88% to 1.77% due to urbanization that resulted from increasing of urban population and economic development, respectively. Land surface temperature (LST) maps were retrieved from thermal infrared bands of Landsat and ASTER data. The result indicated that the temperature in study area increased from 39oC to 41oC for the period of 1990-2009. Our analysis showed that built-up area had the highest LST values, whereas water bodies had the least LST. This study is expected to be useful for decision makers to make an appropriate land use planning which can mitigate the effect to urban climate.

  9. Urban GHG emissions and resource flows: Methods for understanding the complex functioning of cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper sums up the recent developments in concepts and methods being used to measure the impacts of cities on environmental sustainability. It differentiates between a dominant trend in research literature that concentrates on the accounting and allocation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use to cities, and a re-emergence of studies focusing on the direct and indirect urban material and resource flows. The availability of reliable data and standard protocols is greater in the GHG accounting field and continues to grow rapidly

  10. Housing prices, income and urban quality of life : an empirical study across 35 cities in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Beirong; 付蓓蓉

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the mobility and globalization of firms make it possible for people to choose their favorite working cities worldwide. Thus beyond employment and income, more and more attention has been paid to the comparison of urban quality of life (UQOL). As housing cost usually consists of the largest share of household budget which is thought as a “ticket” to live in a city, housing prices surely have great impact on the relative value of income and UQOL when one makes a relocation decision. W...

  11. Insect faunal diversity of Salt Lake City – an urbanized area adjacent to Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallab Maity

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salt Lake City or Bidhannagar, a part of East Kolkata Wetland, is an advanced township adjacent to Kolkata. A total of 266 insect species of 206 genera under 74 families belonging to the eleven order are reported in this communication. Of them, Lepidoptera shared maximum species (73 species, followed by Odonata (46 species, Diptera (44 species, Coleoptera (42 species, Hemiptera (25 species, Hymenoptera (17 species, Orthoptera (10 species and Blattaria (06 species. The orders Ephemeroptera, Dermaptera and Mantodea shared single species respectively. Present work is the baseline data of insect faunal diversity of Salt Lake City, an urbanized area in the vicinity of Kolkata, West Bengal.

  12. URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OF GUWAHATI CITY IN NORTH-EAST INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanta Kumar Pradhan; C.r.mohanty; A. K. Swar; Mohapatra, P.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been one of the most environmental concerns for all urban areas of India. Most of the urban centers have neither adequate land nor any facility for MSW disposal. In view of scarcity of lands for making landfill sites, solid wastes can be used for energy recovery resulting in volume reduction, thus requires less area for its disposal. Guwahati is one such city of North-East India, having the potential to recover the energy from solid w...

  13. Increasing nutrient use efficiency through improved feeding and manure manegement in urban and peri-urban livestock units of a West African city: A scenario analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diogo, V.; Schlecht, E.; Buerkert, A.; Rufino, M.C.; Wijk, van M.T.

    2013-01-01

    In many African cities urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) plays a major role in creating jobs and contributing to food security. However, many small-scale UPA systems are characterised by excessive nutrient inputs to the livestock unit and poor handling of manure. To assess the impact of improve

  14. Urban population vulnerability to climate extremes: mitigating urban heat through technology and water-sensitive urban design in Australian cities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    Australia recently endured what was arguably its worst drought in 200 years. The 'Millennium Drought' lasted from 1999 until 2009, producing acute water shortages for several major Australian cities. Towards the end of the drought an extreme heat wave with temperatures approaching 50 C claimed the lives of several hundred people in Melbourne and Adelaide. One outcome of the extreme conditions was that the spectre of climate change and its impacts became very real for most Australians and contributed to the 2007 signing of the Kyoto Protocol by the Australian Government. Issues of extreme heat and water security also led to increased interest in adapting Australian cities to climate change. These concerns ultimately led to the establishment of the Australian Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) for Water Sensitive Cities, a $110 million research initiative to utilise storm water in Australian cities to create cooler and more liveable environments with increased levels of water security. This paper provides an overview of the work being undertaken within the urban climate program of the CRC to identify heat-health vulnerability in our cities and to evaluate the efficacy of irrigated green infrastructure to produce more liveable environments. This papers discusses some of the early research outputs that involve measurement, modelling and remote sensing at a range of scales in Australian cities.

  15. Relationship Between Observed Heat Trends and Urban Heat Island in Manaus City, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, D. O.; Alvalá, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    In this work, the Urban Heat Island (UHI) of the city of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, was evaluated. Initially, a statistical study of the evolution of temperature and precipitation fields in the past 50 years was performed. A heating trend of +0.74oC in the temperature dataset was observed, as well as an increase in the annual accumulated precipitation, which are possibly related to the intense urbanization of the study area. The impact of urbanization on the microclimate of Manaus was also evaluated with a comparison between NCEP reanalysis and data collected in the urban area. This comparison show that have a difference about +2.09oC, which could be related with the urbanization. Also, differences were observed in temperature and humidity between the urban area and adjacent forest, which provides evidence for an UHI. Analyses of the UHI showed that it has become more intense during the end of the dry season, having been observed that on average the city is up to 2.98oC warmer than the forest. The UHI intensity diurnal cycle presented distinct behavior from those found in various studies, exhibiting two peaks of highest intensity, one at 8 (LT) and one between the 15 and 17 (LT). It also highlighted that the urban area tends to heat first and more slowly and cool down later and faster than the forest, which explains the distinct behavior of the diurnal cycle of the UHI. Other characteristic of the microclimate of Manaus is that the local circulations, the river breeze, presented a pattern related with the UHI intensity. Furthermore, these heating extremes can possibly be associated with the liberation of heat from automobile and industrial sources, as well as with changes in the energy partitioning between the urban and forest areas. The obtained results provide evidence for the presence of an UHI in the city of Manaus and its influence on the local microclimate, showing that the process of urbanization is directly related with the heating trends observed in

  16. Strategic Environmental Assessment: A New Tool for Ecological Urbanization of Coastal Cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Qinhua; Zhang Luoping; Hong Huasheng; Chen Weiqi; Jiang Yuwu; Chen Bin

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing concerns about environmental issues related to urbanization in China. The intense natural resources utilization and increasing population has brought great pressure,especially in coastal areas, consequently affecting the sustainable development of coastal cities. In 2002,Environmental Impact Assessment Act (EIA Act) was enacted in China. Environmental impact assessment targeted at planning, one level of strategic environmental assessment (SEA), thus became a legislative requirement.This paper considers SEA to be one of the important approaches not only to control coastal pollution, but also to conserve coastal ecosystems and finally to achieve sustainable development during urbanization, thus it will be a set an example for other areas of China. The experience of SEA in Xiamen, a coastal city in southeast China, illustrates the potentials of SEA. This paper first briefly introduces the concept and potentials of SEA,then compares two SEA cases and a project EIA case in Xiamen, and finally identifies the key characteristics of SEA.

  17. Design as a Policy Tool in Urban Development in Western Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Sökmen

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic priorities which were given to design in the built environment have changed considerably in recent years. The development of global economy and capitalistic process has brought new understanding and explanations concerning cities and their development within which the design of the built environment is seen not only in an aesthetic, but also in a social context. Furthermore, in the new concept of strategic city planning, urban identity and built environment, thus urban design, have gained the potential to be important policy tools. In order to respond to new expectations, a new concept of design has developed which is more comprehensive and more politicised. The restructuration of the institutions and values required by this new concept is intimately related to some social referances which are its base. Among the difficulties that developing countries as Turkey meet in such a field, the lack or inefficiency of these referances seem to be of primary importance.

  18. Several Multiplexes in the same City: The role of wealth differences in urban mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Lotero, Laura; Hurtado, Rafael; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    In this work we analyze the architecture of real urban mobility networks from the multiplex perspective. In particular, based on empirical data about the mobility patterns in the cities of Bogota and Medell\\'{\\i}n, each city is represented by six multiplex networks, each one representing the origin-destination trips performed by a subset of the population characterized a particular wealth status. The nodes of each multiplex are the different urban locations whereas links represent the existence of a trip from one node (origin) to another (destination). On the other hand, the different layers of each multiplex correspond to the different existing transportation modes. By exploiting the characterization of multiplex transportation networks combining different means of transportation we aim at characterizing the mobility patterns of each subset of the population. Our results show that the socioeconomic characteristics of the population have an extraordinary impact in the layer organization of these multiplex sys...

  19. A tale of many cities: universal patterns in human urban mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Noulas, Anastasios; Lambiotte, Renaud; Pontil, Massimiliano; Mascolo, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    The advent of geographic online social networks such as Foursquare, where users voluntarily signal their current location, opens the door to powerful studies on human movement. In particular the fine granularity of the location data, with GPS accuracy down to 10 meters, and the worldwide scale of Foursquare adoption are unprecedented. In this paper we study urban mobility patterns of people in several metropolitan cities around the globe by analyzing a large set of Foursquare users. Surprisingly, while there are variations in human movement in different cities, our analysis shows that those are predominantly due to different distributions of places across different urban environments. Moreover, a universal law for human mobility is identified, which isolates as a key component the rank-distance, factoring in the number of places between origin and destination, rather than pure physical distance, as considered in some previous works. Building on our findings, we also show how a rank-based movement model accura...

  20. TREE CANOPY COVER MAPPING USING LiDAR IN URBAN BARANGAYS OF CEBU CITY, CENTRAL PHILIPPINES

    OpenAIRE

    Ejares, J. A.; Violanda, R. R.; Diola, A. G.; Dy, D. T.; Otadoy, J. B.; R. E. S. Otadoy

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates tree canopy cover mapping of urban barangays (smallest administrative division in the Philippines) in Cebu City using LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) was used to extract tree canopy cover. Multi-resolution segmentation and a series of assign-class algorithm in eCognition software was also performed to extract different land features. Contextual features of tree canopies such as height, area, roundness, slope, length-width and ell...

  1. Detailed Urban Heat Island Projections for Cities Worldwide: Dynamical Downscaling CMIP5 Global Climate Models

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Lauwaet; Hans Hooyberghs; Bino Maiheu; Wouter Lefebvre; Guy Driesen; Stijn Van Looy; Koen De Ridder

    2015-01-01

    A new dynamical downscaling methodology to analyze the impact of global climate change on the local climate of cities worldwide is presented. The urban boundary layer climate model UrbClim is coupled to 11 global climate models contained in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 archive, conducting 20-year simulations for present (1986–2005) and future (2081–2100) climate conditions, considering the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 climate scenario. The evolution of t...

  2. From urban catastrophe to 'model' city?: politics, security and development in post-conflict Kigali

    OpenAIRE

    Goodfellow, Tom; Smith, Alyson

    2013-01-01

    In the years immediately after the 1994 Rwandan genocide, Kigali was a site of continuing crisis amid extraordinary levels of urban population growth, as refugees returned to Rwanda in their millions. Yet unlike many post-conflict cities that spiral into endemic crime and instability, it was rapidly securitised in the context of political consolidation and large amounts of foreign aid, and hailed by the UN as a ‘model, modern city’. This paper analyses the government’s approach to securitisin...

  3. Prioritizing Preferable Locations for Increasing Urban Tree Canopy in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Dexter H. Locke; J. Morgan Grove; Lu, Jacqueline W.T.; Austin Troy; Jarlath P.M. O'Neil-Dunne; Beck, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a set of Geographic Information System (GIS) methods for identifying and prioritizing tree planting sites in urban environments. It uses an analytical approach created by a University of Vermont service-learning class called “GIS Analysis of New York City's Ecology” that was designed to provide research support to the MillionTreesNYC tree planting campaign. These methods prioritize tree planting sites based on need (whether or not trees can help address specific issues in ...

  4. Motor Vehicle Emission Modeling and Software Simulation Computing for Roundabout in Urban City

    OpenAIRE

    Haiwei Wang; Huiying Wen; Feng You; Jianmin Xu; Hailin Kui

    2013-01-01

    In urban road traffic systems, roundabout is considered as one of the core traffic bottlenecks, which are also a core impact of vehicle emission and city environment. In this paper, we proposed a transport control and management method for solving traffic jam and reducing emission in roundabout. The platform of motor vehicle testing system and VSP-based emission model was established firstly. By using the topology chart of the roundabout and microsimulation software, we calculated the instant...

  5. Carbon monoxide pollution from cities and urban areas observed by the Terra/MOPITT mission

    OpenAIRE

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Edwards, David P.; Deeter, Merritt; Emmons, Louisa; Lamarque, Jean-François; Tie, Xue Xi; Massie, Steve T.; Gille, John

    2008-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a key species for tracking pollution plumes. The Measurement Of Pollution in The Troposphere (MOPITT) mission onboard the Terra satellite has already provided 7.5 years of CO atmospheric concentration measurements around the globe. Limited sensitivity to the boundary layer is well known to be a weakness of nadir looking thermal infrared sounders. This paper investigates the possibility of using the MOPITT surface measurements to detect CO emitted by cities and urban ce...

  6. The role of public space as urban development support in small Slovenian cities case study

    OpenAIRE

    Vertelj Nared, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The study of ten small Slovenian cities is used in this doctoral dissertation to explore the connections between public open space state and inhabitants’ use and satisfaction with it. Deriving from the assumption that well-managed public open space improves the quality of life and stimulates urban development, the hypothesis has been formed that a well-managed and diverse public open space is more important for inhabitants’ satisfaction and spatial use than the overall quantity of public open...

  7. Urban development and transport disadvantage: Methodology to evaluate social transport needs in Latin American cities

    OpenAIRE

    Lizarraga, Carmen; Jaramillo, Ciro; Alejandro L. Grindlay

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the theoretical framework for accessibility, social exclusion and provision of public transport. The socio-economic and urban characteristics of Latin American cities require the creation of specific indices to determine social needs for public transport. In the article an index of social transport needs is drawn up. It can be used to highlight a problem which is severely affecting wide groups in Latin America who suffer social exclusion aggravated by a deficient provisi...

  8. A new concept of wildland-urban interface based on city clustering algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevski, M.; Champendal, A.; Vega Orozco, C.; Tonini, M.; Conedera, M.

    2012-04-01

    Wildland-Urban-Interface (WUI) is a widely used term in the context of wild and forest fires to indicate areas where human infrastructures interact with wildland/forest areas. Many complex problems are associated to the WUI; but the most relevant ones are those related to forest fire hazard and management in dense populated areas where fire regime is dominated by anthropogenic-induced ignition fires. This coexistence enhances both anthropogenic-ignition sources and flammable fuels. Furthermore, the growing trend of the WUI and global change effects may even worsening the situation in the near future. Therefore, many studies are dedicated to the WUI problem, focusing on refinement of its definition, development of mapping methods, implementation of measures into specific fire management plans and the validation of the proposed approaches. The present study introduces a new concept of WUI based on city clustering algorithm (CCA) introduced in Rosenfeld et al., 2008. CCA was proposed as an automatic tool for studying the definition of cities and their distribution. The algorithm uses demographic data - either on a regular or non-regular grid in space - where a city (urban zone) is detected as a cluster of connected populated cells with maximal size. In the present study the CCA is proposed as a tool to develop a new concept of population dynamic analysis crucial to define and to localise WUI. The real case study is based on demographic/census data - organised in a regular grid with a resolution of 100 m and the forest fire ignition points database from canton Ticino, Switzerland. By changing spatial scales of demographic cells the relationships between urban zones (demographic clusters) and forest fire events were statistically analyzed. Corresponding scaling laws were used to understand the interaction between urban zones and forest fires. The first results are good and indicate that the method can be applied to define WUI in an innovative way. Keywords: forest fires

  9. The City Effect: Urban Institutions, Peripheries and Political Participations in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Cielo, Maria Cristina Malong

    2010-01-01

    Mass mobilizations by historically marginalized citizens of Bolivia have radically reconfigured the country's social and political landscape in the last decade. Their protests, struggles, and eventual ascent to state power have demanded new state-society relations that challenge "modern" forms of propertied citizenship and representative democracy. Among the principal actors in these transformations are the urban poor who live in precarious, informal areas at the edges of cities, known as "pe...

  10. Spatial database for the management of "urban geology" geothematic information: the case of Drama City, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelias, Eustathios; Zervakou, Alexandra D.; Tsombos, Panagiotis I.; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.

    2008-10-01

    The aggregation of population in big cities leads to the concentration of human activities, economic wealth, over consumption of natural resources and urban growth without planning and sustainable management. As a result, urban societies are exposed to various dangers and threats with economical, social, ecological - environmental impacts on the urban surroundings. Problems associated with urban development are related to their geological conditions and those of their surroundings, e.g. flooding, land subsidence, groundwater pollution, soil contamination, earthquakes, landslides, etc. For these reasons, no sustainable urban planning can be done without geological information support. The first systematic recording, codification and documentation of "urban geology" geothematic information in Greece is implemented by the Institute of Geological and Mineral Exploration (I.G.M.E.) in the frame of project "Collection, codification and documentation of geothematic information for urban and suburban areas in Greece - pilot applications". Through the implementation of this project, all geothematic information derived from geological mapping, geotechnical - geochemical - geophysical research and measurements in four pilot areas of Greece Drama (North Greece), Nafplio & Sparti (Peloponnesus) and Thrakomakedones (Attica) is stored and processed in specially designed geodatabases in GIS environment containing vector and raster data. For the specific GIS application ArcGIS Personal Geodatabase is used. Data is classified in geothematic layers, grouped in geothematic datasets (e.g. Topography, Geology - Tectonics, Submarine Geology, Technical Geology, Hydrogeology, Soils, Radioactive elements, etc) and being processed in order to produced multifunctional geothematic maps. All compiled data constitute the essential base for land use planning and environmental protection in specific urban areas. With the termination of the project the produced geodatabase and other digital data

  11. Urban vegetation and thermal patterns following city growth in different socio-economic contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronova, I.; Clinton, N.; Yang, J.; Radke, J.; Marx, S. S.; Gong, P.

    2015-12-01

    Urban expansion accompanied by losses of vegetated spaces and their ecological services raises significant concerns about the future of humans in metropolitan "habitats". Despite recent growth of urban studies globally, it is still not well understood how environmental effects of urbanization vary with the rate and socioeconomic context of development. Our study hypothesized that with urban development, spatial patterns of surface thermal properties and green plant cover would shift towards higher occurrence of relatively warmer and less vegetated spaces such as built-up areas, followed by losses of greener and cooler areas such as urban forests, and that these shifts would be more pronounced with higher rate of economic and/or population growth. To test these ideas, we compared 1992-2011 changes in remotely sensed patterns of green vegetation and surface temperature in three example cities that experienced peripheral growth under contrasting socio-economic context - Dallas, TX, USA, Beijing, China and Kyiv, Ukraine. To assess their transformation, we proposed a metric of thermal-vegetation angle (TVA) estimated from per-pixel proxies of vegetation greenness and surface temperature from Landsat satellite data and examined changes in TVA distributions within each city's core and two decadal zones of peripheral sprawl delineated from nighttime satellite data. We found that higher economic and population growth were coupled with more pronounced changes in TVA distributions, and more urbanized zones often exhibited higher frequencies of warmer, less green than average TVA values with novel patterns such as "cooler" clusters of building shadows. Although greener and cooler spaces generally diminished with development, they remained relatively prevalent in low-density residential areas of Dallas and peripheral zones of Kyiv with exurban subsistence farming. Overall, results indicate that the effects of modified green space and thermal patterns within growing cities

  12. Multi-Temporal Satellite Imagery for Urban Expansion Assessment at Sharjah City /UAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change detection is the process of identifying differences in land cover over time. As human and natural forces continue to alter the landscape, it is important to develop monitoring methods to assess and quantify these changes. Recent advances in satellite imagery, in terms of improved spatial and temporal resolutions, are allowing for efficient identification of change patterns and the prediction of areas of growth. Sharjah is the third largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It is located along the northern coast of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula. After the discovery of oil and its export in the last four decades at UAE, it has experienced very rapid growth in industry, economy and population. The main purpose of this study is to detect urban development in Sharjah city by detecting and registering linear features in multi-temporal Landsat images. This paper used linear features for image registration that were chosen since they can be reliably extracted from imagery with significantly different geometric and radiometric properties. Derived edges from the registered images are used as the basis for change detection. Image registration and pixel-pixel subtraction has been implement using multi- temporal Landsat images for Sharjah City. Straight-line segments have been used for accurate co-registration as well as main element for a reliable change detection procedure. Results illustrate that highest range of growth that represented by linear features (building and roads) have been accrued during 1976 – 1987 and stand for 36.24% of the total urban features inside Sharjah city. Moreover, result shows that since 1976 to 2010, the cumulative urban expansion inside Sharjah city is 71.9%

  13. [Distribution and bioavailability of nitrogen and phosphorus species in the urban dusts from Hefei City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru-Zhong; Zhou, Ai-Jia; Tong, Fang; Li, Feng; Qian, Jia-Zhong

    2012-04-01

    To find out the distribution and bioavailability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) species in the urban dusts of Hefei City, 52 samples were collected from impervious areas with six different urban land-use types. The contents of ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+) -N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-) -N), exchangeable P (Ex-P), Al-bound P (Al-P), Fe-bound P (Fe-P), occluded P (Oc-P), Ca-bound P (Ca-P), detrital apatite P (De-P), organic P (Or-P) as well as total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were measured by sequential extraction methods. The studies on spatial distribution, correlation and bioavailability of nitrogen and phosphorus species were made according to the analyzed data. The results show that the TN is composed mainly of organic nitrogen (Or-N) while the TP consists chiefly of inorganic phosphorus (IP) in the urban dusts of Hefei City, and the spatial variability of nitrogen and phosphorus species contents are greatly affected by the mode of urban land-use type. In addition, there are significant correlations among partial nitrogen and phosphorus forms in dusts. Corresponding to different urban land-use types such as industrial area, commercial area, residential area, educational area, traffic area and public landscapes and city squares, the average ratios of bioavailable nitrogen content (the sum of NH4(+) -N and NO3(-) -N) to TN are 8.87%, 9.60%, 6.68%, 9.37%, 8.20% and 8.17%, respectively, while the mean ratios of bioavailable phosphorus content (the sum of Ex-P, Al-P and Fe-P) to TP, are equal to 6.70%, 18.19%, 10.10%, 9.69%, 10.64% and 14.03%, respectively. PMID:22720560

  14. THE CONTEXT OF THE GEOMORPHOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN URBAN AREA OF PIATRA-NEAMȚ CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLINA-ELENA ROȘU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The context of the geomorphological processes in urban area of Ppiatra-Neamț city. The paper approches the issue induced by the geomorphological processes in the development and planning of Piatra-Neamț city. The methodology used for this study has implied the identification of the slope`s geomorphological processes: rock fallings and landslides produced due to the clay bedrock, precipitation`s water infiltration, deforestation and other human interventions. The identification of these processes was followed by their clasification and inventory and was continued with the mapping process of the affected areas from the territory, such as: southern and western sides of Cozla Hill, the south-western side of Pietricica Hill, Bâtca Doamnei Hill, Humăriei Hill and Vulpea Hill. The geomorphological processes from the study area induce restriction in the development and planning of the city through their associated risks. Furthermore is necesary to search a new methodology to approach the risks induces by the geomorphological processes and this shall imply predictibility, control, risk studies and preservation of the affected areas. The given study is practicaly useful in identifying the development measures for the urban areas by being part of the territorial planning and urban studies.

  15. Urban Domestic Gardens (XIV): The Characteristics of Gardens in Five Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loram, Alison; Warren, Philip H.; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2008-09-01

    Domestic gardens make substantial contributions to the provision of green space in urban areas. However, the ecological functions provided by such gardens depend critically on their configuration and composition. Here, we present the first detailed analysis of variation in the composition of urban gardens, in relation to housing characteristics and the nature of the surrounding landscape, across different cities in the United Kingdom. In all five cities studied (Belfast, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Leicester, and Oxford), garden size had an overwhelming influence on garden composition. Larger gardens supported more of the land-use types recorded, in greater extents, and were more likely to contain particular features, including tall trees and mature shrubs, areas of unmown grass and uncultivated land, vegetable patches, ponds, and composting sites. The proportional contribution of non-vegetated land-uses decreased as garden area increased. House age was less significant in determining the land-use within gardens, although older houses, which were more likely to be found further from the urban edge of the city, contained fewer hedges and greater areas of vegetation canopy >2 m in height. Current UK government planning recommendations will ultimately reduce the area of individual gardens and are thus predicted to result in fewer tall trees and, in particular, less vegetation canopy >2 m. This might be detrimental from ecological, aesthetic, social, and economic stand points.

  16. Analysis of Urban Expansion of the Resort City of Al Ain Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, S.; Al Shuwaihi, A.

    2009-12-01

    The urban growth of AL Ain city has been investigated using remote sensing data for three different dates, 1972, 1990 and 2000. We used three Landsat images together with socio-economic data in a post-classification analysis to map the spatial dynamics of land use/cover changes and identify the urbanization process in Al Ain resort city, United Arab Emirates. Land use/cover statistics, extracted from Landsat Multi-spectral Scanner (MSS). Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM +) images for 1972. 1990 and 2000 respectively, revealed that the built-up area has expanded by about 170.53km2. The city was found to have a tendency for major expansion in four different directions: along the Abu Dhabi highway, along Dubai highway, Myziad direction and Hafeet recreational area. Expansion in any direction was found to be governed by the availability of road network, suitability for construction, utilities, economic activities, geographical constraints, and legal factors (boundary with Sultanate of Oman). The road network in particular has influenced the spatial patterns and structure of urban development, so that the expansion of the built-up areas has assumed an accretive as well as linear growth along the major roads. The research concludes that the development is based on conservation of agricultural areas (oases) and reclamation of the desert for farming and agricultural activities. The integration of remote sensing and GIS was found to be effective in monitoring LULC changes and providing valuable information necessary for planning and research.

  17. Variability in concentrations of potentially toxic elements in urban parks from six European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, L; Diaz-Barrientos, E; Ruiz-Cortés, E; Reinoso, R; Biasioli, M; Davidson, C M; Duarte, A C; Grcman, H; Hossack, I; Hursthouse, A S; Kralj, T; Ljung, K; Otabbong, E; Rodrigues, S; Urquhart, G J; Ajmone-Marsan, F

    2006-11-01

    Use of a harmonised sampling regime has allowed comparison of concentrations of copper, chromium, nickel, lead and zinc in six urban parks located in different European cities differing markedly in their climate and industrial history. Wide concentrations ranges were found for copper, lead and zinc at most sites, but for chromium and nickel a wide range was only seen in the Italian park, where levels were also considerably greater than in other soils. As might be expected, the soils from older cities with a legacy of heavy manufacturing industry (Glasgow, Torino) were richest in potentially toxic elements (PTEs); soils from Ljubljana, Sevilla and Uppsala had intermediate metal contents, and soils from the most recently established park, in the least industrialised city (Aveiro), displayed lowest concentrations. When principal component analysis was applied to the data, associations were revealed between pH and organic carbon content; and between all five PTEs. When pH and organic carbon content were excluded from the PCA, a distinction became clear between copper, lead and zinc (the "urban" metals) on the one hand, and chromium and nickel on the other. Similar results were obtained for the surface (0-10 cm depth) and sub-surface (10-20 cm depth) samples. Comparisons with target or limit concentrations were limited by the existence of different legislation in different countries and the fact that few guidelines deal specifically with public-access urban soils intended for recreational use. PMID:17075623

  18. Urban land use and geohazards in the Itanagar Capital city, Arunachal Pradesh, India: Need for geoethics in urban disaster resilience governance in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharjee, Swapna

    2013-04-01

    The capital city, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India is exposed to the multiple geohazards as the city is located in the region which experiences extreme physical phenomenon due to changing climate in the tectonically active North-Eastern Himalayas. The geohazards in Itanagar includes landslides, floods, soil erosion and earthquakes. The high decadal growth rate of 111.36% in 1991-2001 census has brought in many challenges with respect to the capital city developmental planning. Due to rapid and haphazard growth in urban land use the people residing in the city are gradually becoming more vulnerable to the geohazards in the past decades. The city condition at present has raised issues of grave concern related to effective hazard management. It is observed that geoscientific approach is violated at many places in the urban developmental activities along the central spine, the National Highway-52A of the capital city. There is an urgent need of geoscientists to apprise the urban populace about land suitability and stability in terms of rock types, soil, slope, geomorphology, groundwater condition etc. and the vulnerability of the existing urban land use to landslides, flood, soil erosion and earthquakes. In this paper major issue, critical issues and elements at risk are discussed in the context of ethics in geohazard management and developmental planning for urban disaster resilience governance in a changing climate.

  19. Using Citygml to Deploy Smart-City Services for Urban Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandi, F.; De Amicis, R.; Piffer, S.; Soave, M.; Cadzow, S.; Gonzalez Boix, E.; D'Hont, E.

    2013-05-01

    The rapid technological evolution, which is characterizing all the disciplines involved within the wide concept of smart cities, becomes a key factor to trigger true user-driven innovation. In this context 3D city models will play an increasingly important role in our daily lives and become an essential part of the modern city information infrastructure (Spatial Data Infrastructure). The goal of this paper is to introduce the i-SCOPE (interoperable Smart City services through an Open Platform for urban Ecosystems) project methodology and implementations together with key technologies and open standards. Based on interoperable 3D CityGML UIMs, the aim of i-Scope is to deliver an open platform on top of which it possible to develop, within different domains, various "smart city" services. Moreover, in i-SCOPE different issues, transcending the mere technological domain, are being tackled, including aspects dealing with social and environmental issues. Indeed several tasks including citizen awareness, crowd source and voluntary based data collection as well as privacy issue concerning involved people should be considered.

  20. Mothers and children nutritional status and food habits in the city of Vientiane as related to the level of urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Bénéfice, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Vientiane city is experiencing rapid urban and economic growth. How these changes are impacting on the nutritional status and health of mother and babies? In order to answer these questions a nutritional study was set up in 2007. Material and methods A repeated measurement design was chosen, beginning in 2007 and finishing in December 2009. A sample of 160 young mothers, who had given birth in 2007 and belonging to 3 different urban strata of the city, was enrolled. Women completed ...