WorldWideScience

Sample records for city supermarket accessibility

  1. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: Supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilliland Jason

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario by using a geographic information system (GIS to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. Results The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Conclusion Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes.

  2. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: Supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristian; Gilliland, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Background A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario) by using a geographic information system (GIS) to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. Results The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Conclusion Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes. PMID:18423005

  3. Obesity and Supermarket Access: Proximity or Price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. Methods. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Results. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk = 0.34; 95% confidence interval = 0.19, 0.63) Conclusions. Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another. PMID:22698052

  4. The case of Montréal's missing food deserts: Evaluation of accessibility to food supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloutier Marie-Soleil

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to varied, healthy and inexpensive foods is an important public health concern that has been widely documented. Consequently, there is an increasing interest in identifying food deserts, that is, socially deprived areas within cities that have poor access to food retailers. In this paper we propose a methodology based on three measures of accessibility to supermarkets calculated using geographic information systems (GIS, and on exploratory multivariate statistical analysis (hierarchical cluster analysis, which we use to identify food deserts in Montréal. Results First, the use of three measures of accessibility to supermarkets is very helpful in identifying food deserts according to several dimensions: proximity (distance to the nearest supermarket, diversity (number of supermarkets within a distance of less than 1000 metres and variety in terms of food and prices (average distance to the three closest different chain-name supermarkets. Next, the cluster analysis applied to the three measures of accessibility to supermarkets and to a social deprivation index demonstrates that there are very few problematic food deserts in Montréal. In fact, census tracts classified as socially deprived and with low accessibility to supermarkets are, on average, 816 metres away from the nearest supermarket and within 1.34 kilometres of three different chain-name supermarkets. Conclusion We conclude that food deserts do not represent a major problem in Montréal. Since geographic accessibility to healthy food is not a major issue in Montréal, prevention efforts should be directed toward the understanding of other mechanisms leading to an unhealthy diet, rather than attempting to promote an even spatial distribution of supermarkets.

  5. Different Supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何峣杰

    2012-01-01

    There are three big supermarkets in our city. They are Better Life St, permarket, Wangli Supermarket and Jiahui Supermarket. We can buy all kinds of things in the supermarkets. We can buy skirts. T-shirts, fried chicken, bread, backpack and so on.

  6. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity an...

  7. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity and fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2000-2006 at the county level. We used 2006 Census Zip Code Business Patterns data to compute population-weighted mean distance to supermarket at the county level for different sizes of supermarket. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to test whether population-weighted mean distance to supermarket was associated with both obesity and F/V consumption and to determine whether these relationships varied for urban (metropolitan) versus rural (nonmetropolitan) areas. Results Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. The odds of obesity increased and odds of consuming F/V five times or more per day decreased as distance to supermarket increased in metropolitan areas for most store size categories. In nonmetropolitan areas, however, distance to supermarket had no associations with obesity or F/V consumption for all supermarket size categories. Conclusions Obesity prevalence increased and F/V consumption decreased with increasing distance to supermarket in metropolitan areas, but not in nonmetropolitan areas. These results suggest that there may be a threshold distance in nonmetropolitan areas beyond which distance to supermarket no longer impacts obesity and F/V consumption. In addition, obesity and food environments in nonmetropolitan areas are likely driven by a more complex set of social, cultural, and physical factors than a single

  8. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimberly Michael C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity and fruit and vegetable (F/V consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2000-2006 at the county level. We used 2006 Census Zip Code Business Patterns data to compute population-weighted mean distance to supermarket at the county level for different sizes of supermarket. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to test whether population-weighted mean distance to supermarket was associated with both obesity and F/V consumption and to determine whether these relationships varied for urban (metropolitan versus rural (nonmetropolitan areas. Results Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. The odds of obesity increased and odds of consuming F/V five times or more per day decreased as distance to supermarket increased in metropolitan areas for most store size categories. In nonmetropolitan areas, however, distance to supermarket had no associations with obesity or F/V consumption for all supermarket size categories. Conclusions Obesity prevalence increased and F/V consumption decreased with increasing distance to supermarket in metropolitan areas, but not in nonmetropolitan areas. These results suggest that there may be a threshold distance in nonmetropolitan areas beyond which distance to supermarket no longer impacts obesity and F/V consumption. In addition, obesity and food environments in nonmetropolitan areas are likely driven by a more complex set of social, cultural, and physical

  9. The relationship between diet and perceived and objective access to supermarkets among low-income housing residents

    OpenAIRE

    Caspi, Caitlin E.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S.V.; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Sorensen, Glorian

    2012-01-01

    In the U.S., supermarkets serve as an important source of year-round produce (Chung & Myers, 1999), and yet access to supermarkets may be scarce in “food deserts,” or poor, urban areas that lack sources of healthy, affordable food (Cummins & Macintyre, 2002). This study examined objective distance to the nearest supermarket and participant-report of supermarket access in relation to fruit and vegetable intake. Street-network distance to the closest supermarket was calculated using GIS mapping...

  10. Buying behavior in Chinese supermarkets: A comparison across four major cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    of imported food products in four major Chinese cities (i.e., Bejing, Shanghai, Gaungzhou, and Chengdu). Knowledge about potential differences in supermarket structure and buying behaviour between regions will be a prerequisite to foreign food suppliers trying to capitalise on increased consumer demands......The purpose of this paper is to report a study of buying behaviour of imported food products in Chinese supermarkets. Imports of food products to China have increased substantially in the past decade. The present study offers the results from an investigation of retailers' buying behaviour...... for their products. In this study we examined retailers' structure and seafood buying behaviour, using data collected from personal interviews in 192 supermarkets in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Chengdu. The comparison across the four cities revealed significant differences with regard to the importance...

  11. Supermarket and fast food accessibility in Copenhagen: associations with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Nordahl Jensen, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte;

    -economic indicators in 2006. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators for all neighborhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n = 400). We applied area-level socio-economic and demographic information from Statistics Denmark. Counts of fast food outlets and supermarkets were...

  12. Profile of establishments in the supermarket sector with respect to good practices in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina Bauermann Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the compliance of the supermarket sector with respect to the Good Practice Program standards of the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. Sixty nine establishments were verified using a checklist of good practices for the supermarket sector in Santa Maria, RS (Brazil, from April to July 2011. The data were collected by a food safety and quality professional using this checklist. The results showed that the overall adequacy of the establishments surveyed was 29.07%. The highest percentage of compliance was found for storage at ambient temperature (64.13%. The lowest compliance percentage was also found in different sections and areas in the supermarkets such as bakery and confectionery (14.93%, water supply (18.30%, food handling (21.01%, sausage and cold meat (or deli meat (36.38%, and documentation-related items (4.97%. None of the supermarkets evaluated had the necessary documentation for the implementation of good practices. The results of this study show the importance of effectively implementing a good practice program and quality systems by raising awareness among technicians and professionals of the importance of quality programs used in food companies and the need for more thorough inspection delivered by competent authorities to ensure food safety for consumers.

  13. An In-Store Experiment on the Effect of Accessibility on Sales of Wholegrain and White Bread in Supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wijk, René A; Maaskant, Anna J; Polet, Ilse A; Holthuysen, Nancy T E; van Kleef, Ellen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H

    2016-01-01

    Even though whole grain foods have various health benefits, consumers have been found not to eat enough of them. Nudging interventions are built on the premise that food purchases and consumption are strongly influenced by the environment in which decisions are made. Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of a small and inexpensive nudging intervention on bread choices in a real-life supermarket context. An in-store experiment was conducted in two six-week periods in two supermarkets to investigate the effects of accessibility on consumers' purchase of healthier whole grain and other types of bread. In the high accessibility condition, healthier bread was placed in a more convenient location for the shopper on the left side of the shelves where it was encountered first. In the low accessibility condition, it was placed on the right side. There were consistent significant differences in sales between supermarkets, types of bread, day of the week, but not between low and high accessibility. Additional research is needed to better understand the effects of convenience and accessibility on bread choices.

  14. An In-Store Experiment on the Effect of Accessibility on Sales of Wholegrain and White Bread in Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wijk, René A.; Maaskant, Anna J.; Polet, Ilse A.; Holthuysen, Nancy T. E.; van Kleef, Ellen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.

    2016-01-01

    Even though whole grain foods have various health benefits, consumers have been found not to eat enough of them. Nudging interventions are built on the premise that food purchases and consumption are strongly influenced by the environment in which decisions are made. Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of a small and inexpensive nudging intervention on bread choices in a real-life supermarket context. An in-store experiment was conducted in two six-week periods in two supermarkets to investigate the effects of accessibility on consumers’ purchase of healthier whole grain and other types of bread. In the high accessibility condition, healthier bread was placed in a more convenient location for the shopper on the left side of the shelves where it was encountered first. In the low accessibility condition, it was placed on the right side. There were consistent significant differences in sales between supermarkets, types of bread, day of the week, but not between low and high accessibility. Additional research is needed to better understand the effects of convenience and accessibility on bread choices. PMID:27010704

  15. Does distance decay modelling of supermarket accessibility predict fruit and vegetable intake by individuals in a large metropolitan area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul L; Dominguez, Fred.; Teklehaimanot, Senait.; Lee, Martin; Brown, Arleen; Goodchild, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity, a major risk factor for hypertension, diabetes, and other chronic diseases is influenced by a person’s local environmental setting. Accessibility to supermarkets has been shown to influence nutritional behaviors and obesity rates; however the specific local environmental conditions and behavioral mechanisms at work in this process remain unclear. Purpose To determine how individual fruit and vegetable consumption behavior was influenced by a distance decay based gravity model of neighborhood geographic accessibility to supermarkets, across neighborhoods in Los Angeles County, independent of other factors that are known to influence nutritional behaviors. Methods A distance decay based accessibility model (gravity model) was specified for a large sample (n=7,514) of urban residents. The associations between their fruit and vegetable consumption patterns and their local accessibility to supermarkets were explored, while controlling for covariates known to influence eating behaviors. Results Significant variation in geographic accessibility and nutritional behavior existed by age, gender, race and ethnicity, education, marital status, poverty status, neighborhood safety and knowledge of nutritional guidelines. Logistic regression showed an independent effect of geographic accessibility to supermarkets, even after the inclusion of known controlling factors. Conclusion A basic gravity model was an effective predictor of fruit and vegetable consumption in an urban population, setting the stage for inclusion of supply and demand parameters, and the ability to estimate local directions and magnitudes of the factors that contribute to the differential obesity rates found in United States urban areas. This knowledge will facilitate more targeted interventions that can help eliminate health disparities. PMID:23395954

  16. 大城市内部连锁超市空间分布格局及其区位选择——以南京市苏果超市为例%Spatial pattern and location decision of chain supermarkets within large cities:A case study of Suguo supermarkets in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖琛; 陈雯; 袁丰; 程绍铂

    2013-01-01

    连锁超市已成为中国大城市内部零售商业的主要业态.针对目前研究中对城市内部尺度连锁超市空间布局问题关注不足,本文以南京市苏果超市为例,从空间格局演化、集聚分布状况、不同类型超市的区位选择等方面进行分析.研究方法包括点模式分析、空间密度分析和空间自相关分析等.结果发现:南京市苏果超市的空间总体分布呈中心到外围递减的倒“U”型集聚特征;不同类型苏果超市的分布特征不同,华润卖场的空间分布相对分散,社区店、便利店的分布相对集聚;空间分布热点呈蔓延扩散与等级扩散混合模式.运用Binary Logistic二分逻辑回归对影响超市区位选择的因素进行计量分析,结果表明经济发展情况、消费者规模、交通通达性、居民购买力、城乡差别、公司战略等多种因素,通过综合作用机制,共同推动了南京市苏果超市的空间分布格局.%Chain supermarkets have been main formats of retail business within large cities of China. Current studies pay little attention to spatial distribution of chain supermarkets on the scale of internal city. Taking Suguo supermarkets in Nanjing as an example, this paper focuses on spatial pattern evolution, agglomeration, and location decisions of different types of supermarkets using research methods including point pattern analysis, space density analysis and spatial autocorrelation analysis. The results show that Suguo supermarkets present an inverted-U-shaped pattern with the mode of extending to the surrounding area around the core of the downtown area. Different types of supermarkets present different distribution characteristics. Resource stores are relatively disperse while community and convenience stores are relatively concentrated. The spatial distribution of hot spots shows a mixed mode of spreading diffusion within the main city and hierarchical diffusion from the main city to the suburbs

  17. Mapping City Accessibility: Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comai, Sara; Kayange, Daniel; Mangiarotti, Raffaella; Matteucci, Matteo; Ugur Yavuz, Secil; Valentini, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of prototypes, studies, and applications for the mapping of city accessibility, focusing mainly on sidewalks accessibility. Moreover, it presents the results of two focus groups that we organized both with electric and with manual wheelchairs to attain requirements and insights to design a user-friendly app for the collection and visualization of information about the accessibility of urban pedestrian pathways.

  18. Knowledge about genetically modified food: a study with supermarket clients situated in noble area of Fortaleza city - doi:10.5020/18061230.2004.p72

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Gondim Calvasina; Cíntia Maria Torres Rocha Silva; Gilka de Albuquerque Forte Aguiar; Milena Rebouças Aguiar; Helena Alves de Carvalho Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic foods had appeared as result of the scientific and technological advances of genetic engineering applied to agriculture, configuring themselves in a current quarrel and sufficient controversy, about how much the benefits and curses brought to the consumers and the proper environment. In this intention, this study has as objective to verify the level of knowledge of customers of a supermarket of the noble area of the city of Fortaleza, on the thematic of the transgenic. Question...

  19. Accessibility in the Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available FIABA is a cultural route for all, its aim is to promote a Global Accessibility and a Universal Usability through the removal of architectural, cultural, psychological and sensory barriers. FIABA is carrying out a real change and a cultural renewal in the name of equal opportunities. Respect for the environment in which we live is also a duty towards the younger generations to whom we must deliver a world in which free movement and the normal use of spaces are goals already achieved. There are millions of citizens who, because of their physical conditions are prisoners in their homes because there isn’t any elevator or any elevator maintenance. FIABA project aims at implementing “a Space for all” or “a landscape for all” following the path of the ONU Convention on the Rights of People with disabilities with an emphasis on architectural, cultural, and psychological barriers, the last ones in particular, create barriers to equal opportunities and they are often carriers of discrimination. The principle of accessibility is invoked in Article 9 of the Convention which confirms the principle that people have a right to live independently and participate fully in all spheres of life and thus States are required to take all necessary measures to ensure accessibility to physical environment, transport, information and communications, including systems and technologies of information and communication and other facilities and services open to the public, both in urban and rural areas.

  20. Mobility and accessibility in historic cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Carla; Paschoalin, Rachel Filgueiras; Castañon, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The historic cities of Brazil, despite its colonial structure, don't fail to go through transformations that affect contemporary cities, which is the main source of problems, leading to new approaches to urban issues such as mobility and accessibility. The uncontrolled growth of tourism in the historic cities can be considered as a big problem, because at the same time, they have committed to the conservation of its built heritage and demand control of the activities that occur in their areas without harm. Then, a permanent dialogue between conservatives and planners could be accomplished by joining the various sectoral policies. The study of urban mobility in historical sites was in fact the focus of this work because of their peculiarities, such as its specific characteristics of urban structure, morphology and occupation. In fact, the development of tourism in historic centers generates specific demands, such as adaptation to new uses of the houses, intensive movement of people and vehicles, illegal parking, among others. Beyond threatening the city preservation, does not provide mobility and accessibility to tourists, because these cities were not designed for the tourism conditions and needs of contemporary life. Characteristic features of Brazilian baroque cities, such as topography , the narrow streets, narrow or nonexistent sidewalks, steep turns and ramps strong, are not suitable for heavy vehicles, traffic and pedestrian circulation. Thus, studies concerning conservation urban integrated are aimed at an approach to interaction between historic preservation of the environment with the dynamic socio-economic of the local.

  1. Does the choice of neighbourhood supermarket access measure influence associations with individual-level fruit and vegetable consumption? A case study from Glasgow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have provided mixed evidence with regards to associations between food store access and dietary outcomes. This study examines the most commonly applied measures of locational access to assess whether associations between supermarket access and fruit and vegetable consumption are affected by the choice of access measure and scale. Method Supermarket location data from Glasgow, UK (n = 119), and fruit and vegetable intake data from the ‘Health and Well-Being’ Survey (n = 1041) were used to compare various measures of locational access. These exposure variables included proximity estimates (with different points-of-origin used to vary levels of aggregation) and density measures using three approaches (Euclidean and road network buffers and Kernel density estimation) at distances ranging from 0.4 km to 5 km. Further analysis was conducted to assess the impact of using smaller buffer sizes for individuals who did not own a car. Associations between these multiple access measures and fruit and vegetable consumption were estimated using linear regression models. Results Levels of spatial aggregation did not impact on the proximity estimates. Counts of supermarkets within Euclidean buffers were associated with fruit and vegetable consumption at 1 km, 2 km and 3 km, and for our road network buffers at 2 km, 3 km, and 4 km. Kernel density estimates provided the strongest associations and were significant at a distance of 2 km, 3 km, 4 km and 5 km. Presence of a supermarket within 0.4 km of road network distance from where people lived was positively associated with fruit consumption amongst those without a car (coef. 0.657; s.e. 0.247; p0.008). Conclusions The associations between locational access to supermarkets and individual-level dietary behaviour are sensitive to the method by which the food environment variable is captured. Care needs to be taken to ensure robust and conceptually appropriate measures of

  2. Does the choice of neighbourhood supermarket access measure influence associations with individual-level fruit and vegetable consumption? A case study from Glasgow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton Lukar E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have provided mixed evidence with regards to associations between food store access and dietary outcomes. This study examines the most commonly applied measures of locational access to assess whether associations between supermarket access and fruit and vegetable consumption are affected by the choice of access measure and scale. Method Supermarket location data from Glasgow, UK (n = 119, and fruit and vegetable intake data from the ‘Health and Well-Being’ Survey (n = 1041 were used to compare various measures of locational access. These exposure variables included proximity estimates (with different points-of-origin used to vary levels of aggregation and density measures using three approaches (Euclidean and road network buffers and Kernel density estimation at distances ranging from 0.4 km to 5 km. Further analysis was conducted to assess the impact of using smaller buffer sizes for individuals who did not own a car. Associations between these multiple access measures and fruit and vegetable consumption were estimated using linear regression models. Results Levels of spatial aggregation did not impact on the proximity estimates. Counts of supermarkets within Euclidean buffers were associated with fruit and vegetable consumption at 1 km, 2 km and 3 km, and for our road network buffers at 2 km, 3 km, and 4 km. Kernel density estimates provided the strongest associations and were significant at a distance of 2 km, 3 km, 4 km and 5 km. Presence of a supermarket within 0.4 km of road network distance from where people lived was positively associated with fruit consumption amongst those without a car (coef. 0.657; s.e. 0.247; p0.008. Conclusions The associations between locational access to supermarkets and individual-level dietary behaviour are sensitive to the method by which the food environment variable is captured. Care needs to be taken to ensure robust and conceptually

  3. Supermarket Proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, William G.; Bullerwell, Lornie D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity on enzymes. Uses common items found in the supermarket that contain protease enzymes, such as contact lens cleaner and meat tenderizer. Demonstrates the digestion of gelatin proteins as part of enzymatic reactions. (Author/SOE)

  4. 中小型城市本地连锁超市发展趋势与应对策略探讨%On development trend and countermeasures of small and medium city local supermarket chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶锐

    2012-01-01

      The small and medium city supermarket retail industry is facing a massive industry tycoon marchs, local supermarket chain urgently transition and change. First in the small city of local supermarket chain SWOT analysis, on the basis, analysis of small and medium city supermarket retail industry trends, and based on the development trend put forward to coping strategies the supermarket chain in all aspects.%  中小型城市的超市零售业正在面临大规模的行业巨头进军,本地连锁超市亟待转型与变革。首先对中小型城市本地连锁超市进行SWOT分析,在此基础上分析中小型城市超市零售业的行业发展趋势,并依据发展趋势提出本地连锁超市在各方面的应对策略。

  5. Supermarket Giants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISABEL DING

    2008-01-01

    @@ In the 15 months since Chen Yaochang (陈耀昌) became CEO of Wal-Mart China, the supermarket chain has gone into overdrive. Last year Wal-Mart opened 30 new stores on the Chinese mainland, almost double the rate of growth in 2006.

  6. Supermarket Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, George

    2010-01-01

    As soon as they graduate from arm-length viewing in shopping-cart seats, children take off to adventure in aisles, touching just about everything. Kids will pocket fallen signs and lug unusual, empty shelves and packaging materials in hopes of taking them home. Kids recognize and compliment supermarket artists--stock clerks who create container…

  7. Supermarket Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Geoff E.; Harper, John D. I.

    2009-01-01

    Supermarket Botany is a frequently-used teaching resource or strategy. It draws on a student's existing familiarity with plant-based foods to explore plant structure and life cycles. One of its strongest points is that it is adaptable to many age levels--from lower primary school to university and general interest groups. We have designed a unique…

  8. Geographic access to food shelves among racial/ethnic minorities and foreign-born residents in the Twin Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Lopez, Amy Maheswaran; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2016-01-01

    Place-based disparities in access to affordable food sources (e.g., supermarkets) have been well documented, but geographic access to emergency food sources (e.g., food panties, also known as food shelves) is unknown. This study examined the geography of emergency food in the Twin Cities, MN. U.S. Census and American Community Survey data were used to estimate the average distance to the closest food shelf according to area racial/ethnic composition and foreign-born group composition. In adjusted models, areas with the highest proportion of minority groups had shorter distances to the nearest food shelf (0.13-1.03 log-transformed miles, p ethnic minorities and foreign-born groups may have access to emergency food, but efforts are needed to evaluate the healthfulness and culturally relevance of these offerings.

  9. Knowledge about genetically modified food: a study with supermarket clients situated in noble area of Fortaleza city - doi:10.5020/18061230.2004.p72

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gondim Calvasina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transgenic foods had appeared as result of the scientific and technological advances of genetic engineering applied to agriculture, configuring themselves in a current quarrel and sufficient controversy, about how much the benefits and curses brought to the consumers and the proper environment. In this intention, this study has as objective to verify the level of knowledge of customers of a supermarket of the noble area of the city of Fortaleza, on the thematic of the transgenic. Questionnaires structuralized with questions on transgenic foods with consumers of a situated supermarket in noble area of the city of Fortaleza in the period of March of 2003 had been applied. Sixty consumers had participated of the study who at the moment were making purchases in the supermarket. It was presented the end of the interview, to each consumer, a list of products, removed of the guide of the transgenic food consumer and not transgenic, available on the Greenpeace. In each list, people would have to recognize or not products of its habitual consumption. It was verified that 50% of the interviewed people had higher level of school knowledge, with 63,3% answering that they knew what transgenic foods are; 53,3% always look at the label during the purchase, being that the majority (76,7% never saw, in the label, mention if the product is or not transgenic. It was evidenced, when interrogating on the possible risks to the health, that 33.3% find that they cause illnesses, however 51.7% would not be imported in consuming them. The opinion of the people regarding the release of these products is major (73,3% in agreeing that the Federal Government must wait more research. From the list of products presented to the interviewed, 60% had told that they consume enter 5 to 9 products. It was evidenced that still a lack knowledge exists on the presence of transgenic in industrialized products, as well as how much to the risks consuming it. It has necessity of

  10. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  11. Overweight and obesity: Can we reconcile evidence about supermarkets and fast food retailers for public health policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Deborah; Arno, Peter S.; Maroko, Andrew R.; Schechter, Clyde B.; Sohler, Nancy; Rundle, Andrew; Neckerman, Kathryn M.; Maantay, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether access to fast food outlets and supermarkets is associated with overweight and obesity in New York City neighborhoods. We use a Bayesian ecologic approach for spatial prediction and consistent with prior research, we find no association between fast food density and overweight or obesity. Consistent with prior research, we find that supermarket access has a salutary impact on overweight and obesity. Given the lack of empirical evidence linking fast food retailers with adverse health outcomes, policymakers should be encouraged to adopt policies that incentivize the establishment of supermarkets and the modification of existing food store markets and retailers to offer healthier choices. Reaching within neighborhoods and modifying the physical environment and public health prevention and intervention efforts based on the characteristics of those neighborhoods may play a key role in creating healthier communities. PMID:23719294

  12. A comparative study of the sodium content and calories from sugar in toddler foods sold in low- and high-income New York City supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Lalitha; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey Hannah; Samuel, Benny

    2014-05-07

    Information from the nutrition facts labels of toddler foods marketed in low- and high-income New York City zip codes were analyzed for sodium content, the proportion of sugar-derived calories, and presence of sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup as an added sweetener in the list of ingredients. Among the 272 toddler foods analyzed, more than a quarter were high in sodium, over one-third derived at least 20% their calories from sugar, and more than 41% of the foods had sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup listed among the first five ingredients. The proportion of foods with such nutritional characteristics did not significantly differ between the low- and high-income neighborhood supermarkets. Median sodium content was highest among "side dishes" and "meals." The proportion of calories derived from sugar was found to be highest among "snacks and yogurt blends" in both low- and high-income neighborhoods and "breakfast foods and cereals" in low-income neighborhoods. When compared to high-income neighborhoods, more than three times the proportion of total calories in "breakfast foods and cereals" sold in low-income neighborhoods were derived from sugar. Since taste preferences established during childhood can have long-lasting influence on dietary habits, it is imperative to limit the promotion of toddler foods that are high in sodium and sugar as well as educate parents to make nutritionally sound decisions at the point of purchase.

  13. 基于GIS的上海中心城区大卖场可达性与商圈定量分析%The Quantitative Analysis of Big Scale Supermarkets Accessibility and Trade Areas Delimitation based on GIS in Central Shangha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商硕; 蒋海兵

    2012-01-01

    Recently most relative quantitative modeling study on retail location did not simultaneously consider those factors including traffic network, traffic grade, store attraction and competition based on GIS. This paper aims at these shortages and attempt to integrate above factors and make quantitative analysis about large scale shops based on accessibility method, Huff model and GIS technique. This study takes the large scale supermarket of Shanghai central city for example. On one hand, make use of trip cost by GIS analysis to investigate quantitatively supermarket accessibility and visualize the results. On the others, simulate delimitating market area based on trip cost analysis and Huff model which can make received market area more close to actual instance and discuss differences and the same points between market area features of two methods. The result indicates that accessibility of large scale super- market in Shanghai central city is good, the west of city is better than east. Trade areas between inner loop and middle loop are smaller. Market size near out loop and inside inner loop is greater. Market scale of between inner loop and middle loop is smaller. There is polarization among shops' market areas and size. The above characteristic shows that the intense competitive market area coexists with the vulnerable competitive region.%目前多数基于GIS的商圈模型与技术研究,未全面考虑交通网络、道路等级、网点吸引力与竞争因素.以上海中心城区大卖场为例,借助GIS技术平台,依托可达性方法、Huff模型与商业区位理论等,尝试综合考虑上述因素探讨了大卖场可达性与商圈特征.采用了行进成本分析法测试卖场的可.达性与基于可达性的商圈,并在此基础上,根据HuⅡ模型叠加了卖场吸引力因素,得到基于Huff模型商圈.结果表明,上海中心城区整体可达性较高,浦西优于浦东,5—15min卖场可达面积比重最大.

  14. Mr. Wizard's Supermarket Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Don

    Activities which can be done with items purchased in supermarkets form the basis of this book. The activities are arranged into sections by type of item; breakfast foods; dried foods; soups; baking ingredients; gelatin; condiments; coffee; salad dressing; dairy products; meats; cleaning supplies; cookware; juices; picnic supplies; paper towels;…

  15. The Intellectual Supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demb, Ada

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how separating undergraduate education into its two primary components--general education and the major--and then applying the perspective of a supermarket analogy leads to startling conclusions about possible transformations of the production and distribution system for higher education at the undergraduate level and for implementing…

  16. Science in the Supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobden, John

    2000-01-01

    Outlines how a structured visit to the supermarket can support the scientific study of food and farming. Describes various ways that teachers can use an industry-produced curriculum package in conjunction with a field trip to the grocery store and classroom study. (WRM)

  17. Diet And Perceptions Change With Supermarket Introduction In A Food Desert, But Not Because Of Supermarket Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Cohen, Deborah A; Beckman, Robin; Steiner, Elizabeth D; Hunter, Gerald P; Flórez, Karen R; Huang, Christina; Vaughan, Christine A; Sloan, Jennifer C; Zenk, Shannon N; Cummins, Steven; Collins, Rebecca L

    2015-11-01

    Placing full-service supermarkets in food deserts--areas with limited access to healthy food--has been promoted as a way to reduce inequalities in access to healthy food, improve diet, and reduce the risk of obesity. However, previous studies provide scant evidence of such impacts. We surveyed households in two Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, neighborhoods in 2011 and 2014, one of which received a new supermarket in 2013. Comparing trends in the two neighborhoods, we obtained evidence of multiple positive impacts from new supermarket placement. In the new supermarket neighborhood we found net positive changes in overall dietary quality; average daily intakes of kilocalories and added sugars; and percentage of kilocalories from solid fats, added sugars, and alcohol. However, the only positive outcome in the recipient neighborhood specifically associated with regular use of the new supermarket was improved perceived access to healthy food. We did not observe differential improvement between the neighborhoods in fruit and vegetable intake, whole grain consumption, or body mass index. Incentivizing supermarkets to locate in food deserts is appropriate. However, efforts should proceed with caution, until the mechanisms by which the stores affect diet and their ability to influence weight status are better understood.

  18. Access to healthcare resources in the cities of west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satar Rezaei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The healthcare sector is one of the most important sectors in the development of each country, and the disparities in the distribution of health resources will reduce the level of development. The aim of this study was to examine the physical accessibility and degree of development in healthcare resources in the cities of five western provinces, including Kermanshah, Kurdistan, Ilam, Lorestan and Hamadan by numerical taxonomy method in 2012. Methods: The study sample of this cross-sectional study included 51 cities of five Western provinces of Iran. The physical accessibility and degree of development of healthcare resources were evaluated by numerical taxonomy technique using 23 indicators of health resources. Data were obtained from the statistical yearbooks of provinces in 2012. The data analysis was done by Excel and Arc GIS software. Results: The cities of Kermanshah and Salas-e-Babajani had the highest (F=0.59 and lowest (F=1.07 degree of development in terms of access to healthcare resources, respectively. Also, 50% of Kermanshah cities, 40% of Kurdistan cities, 37.5% of Ilam cities, 40% of Lorestan cities and about 88.8% of Hamadan cities were found to have good and very good status in access to healthcare services.. Conclusion: This study showed a large gap between the cities of one province and among the western provinces in access to healthcare resources.

  19. The supermarket game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A supermarket game is considered with N FCFS queues with unit exponential service rate and global Poisson arrival rate N λ. Upon arrival each customer chooses a number of queues to be sampled uniformly at random and joins the least loaded sampled queue. Customers are assumed to have cost for both waiting and sampling, and they want to minimize their own expected total cost. We study the supermarket game in a mean field model that corresponds to the limit as N converges to infinity in the sense that (i for a fixed symmetric customer strategy, the joint equilibrium distribution of any fixed number of queues converges as N → ∞ to a product distribution determined by the mean field model and (ii a Nash equilibrium for the mean field model is an ε-Nash equilibrium for the finite N model with N sufficiently large. It is shown that there always exists a Nash equilibrium for λ N.

  20. Loyalty in the Supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Damacena

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Loyalty has been a hot topic in marketing management, not only for academics, but also for managers. In that sense, the main goal of this paper is to identify the variables that discriminate loyalty groups. Therefore, seven hypotheses have been proposed which might have an impact on loyalty groups. Based on discriminant analysis, the paper analyzes and discusses the data, and presents a conclusion that the more important variables on loyalty in the supermarket are affective commitment, satisfaction with its environment and value provided by supermarket experiences. Moreover, the results also indicated that the theoretical model achieved a variance in the loyalty construct of canonical R-squared = 0.78. It could be considered a good value to the final model. Final considerations and study limitations conclude the paper.

  1. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida Mae; Jensen, Helene Nordahl; Glumer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v...

  2. Access to health in city slum dwellers: The case of Sodom and Gomorrah in Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Frances E. Owusu-Ansah; Harry Tagbor; Mabel Afi Togbe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rapid rural-urban migration of people to cities is a reality around the globe that has increased city slum dwellers. Sodom and Gomorrah is a city slum located in the heart of Accra, Ghana. Like other slums, it lacks basic amenities necessary for dwellers’ quality of life. This study describes residents’ access to health and factors associated with the use of healthcarefacilities.Methods: Questionnaires were administered in systematically selected shacks across the entire slum. Dat...

  3. The Supermarket Game

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiaming

    2012-01-01

    A supermarket game is considered with $N$ FCFS queues with unit exponential service rate and global Poisson arrival rate $N \\lambda$. Upon arrival each customer chooses a number of queues to be sampled uniformly at random and joins the least loaded sampled queue. Customers are assumed to have cost for both waiting and sampling, and they want to minimize their own expected total cost. We study the supermarket game in a mean field model that corresponds to the limit as $N$ converges to infinity in the sense that (i) for a fixed symmetric customer strategy, the joint equilibrium distribution of any fixed number of queues converges as $N \\to \\infty$ to a product distribution determined by the mean field model and (ii) a Nash equilibrium for the mean field model is an $\\epsilon$-Nash equilibrium for the finite $N$ model with $N$ sufficiently large. It is shown that there always exists a Nash equilibrium for $\\lambda <1$ and the Nash equilibrium is unique with homogeneous waiting cost for $\\lambda^2 \\le 1/2$. Fu...

  4. 呼和浩特市乳制品三聚氰胺残留情况调查%Survey on melamine residue of dairy products sampled from supermarkets in Hohhot city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莎莎; 高玎玲; 木其尔; 顾翔宇; 刘莉敏; 郭军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the situation of melamine residue in dairy products in Hohhot. Methods A total of 69 milk powder of leisure dairy food and Mongolian conventional cheese and “milk-skin” samples, as well 128 liquid milk samples of 4 brands were collected from supermarkets of Hohhot city. Melamine residue was test by a high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method and an immune colloidal gold test kit (ICGT). Results Except 7 milk powder made leisure foods and 2 dairy factory made cheese samples were suspicious (±), the remaining of 197 dairy samples were melamine free (−).Conclusion The HPTLC methods was not as sensitive as the ICGT, however, it is a cheaper method for daily melamine residues screening.%目的:了解呼和浩特市乳制品中三聚氰胺残留情况。方法从超市采集69份奶粉制备的休闲乳制品及奶酪和奶皮等传统乳制品,另外采集4个品牌128份液态奶。采用高效薄层色谱法和免疫胶体金检测卡进行三聚氰胺残留检验。结果197份样品中除了7份奶粉制备的休闲乳制品和2个工厂制作奶酪免疫胶体金法检验结果可疑外,其他样品检验结果均为阴性。结论高效薄层色谱法虽不如免疫胶体金法灵敏,但检测成本较低,适合进行日常大规模筛查性检验。

  5. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    the hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models which are fitted with a computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer......This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour...

  6. The Making of a Sustainable Wireless City? Mapping Public Wi-Fi Access in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the global information economy, ready access to the Internet is critical to a city’s competitiveness, which has prompted a number of cities to launch plans to establish wireless networks. Most literature on the development of wireless cities focuses on cities in Western countries, and few have discussed how Chinese cities have adopted wireless technologies in their urban infrastructure development efforts. This paper examines recent development and spatial distribution of public Wi-Fi access in Shanghai, a leading business hub in China. We mapped Wi-Fi hotspots through the government sponsored “i-Shanghai” project and China Mobile Communications Corporation (CMCC. We find that while telecommunication providers have been proactively deploying WLAN (wireless local area network,a proxy of public Wi-Fi or wireless access hotspots in Shanghai, neither government sponsored WLAN hotspots nor facilities established by CMCC could cover the old traditional neighborhoods in the central city and sub-districts in remote rural areas. We also address the development of a more sustainable wireless city in Shanghai with a particular focus on digital divide and social equity issues.

  7. Accessibility to Essential Medicines in New York City by Zip Code Income Levels and Boroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Addo-Atuah, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to essential medicines is fundamental to medication adherence, continuity of care and hence population health outcomes and overall quality of life. Disparities in the availability and the cost of these medications in New York City, especially for low income neighborhoods, would compound the underlying health disparities in these neighborhoods. This study examined the physical and financial accessibility to 8 of the 150 Most Frequently Prescribed Drugs in New York, 2 each for Asthma, Diabetes, Hypertension, and Hyperlipidemia, 4 conditions that are among the top 10 most costly conditions in the United States. The study did not find any significant differences in mean drug prices between the high, medium, and low income neighborhoods in the City. However, the significantly different income levels and uninsured rates across neighborhood income strata in the City (p<0.001 for both, coupled with the high disease burden and other underlying disparities in low income neighborhoods, would point to potential affordability challenges for needed medications in these neighborhoods. On the other hand, significant differences in mean prices between the 5 City boroughs were found for 3 of the study drugs: Advair®, p=0.009; Amlodipine 10mg, p<0.001; and Lisinopril 10mg, p=0.046. No such significant differences were observed for the mean prices of the other 5 study drugs-Proventil HFA,® Metformin HCL 500mg, Glipizide ER 5mg, Simvastatin 20mg, and Atorvastatin 10mg. The study findings did not also suggest that drug prices are dictated by the number of pharmacies in a neighborhood.Further studies would be needed to better understand the complexities associated with the accessibility of essential medicines in New York City. These studies could include qualitative ones which would examine the perceptions and experiences of City residents with respect to the accessibility of prescribed medications as the basis for targeted interventions directed at promoting

  8. Solar access of residential rooftops in four California cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Pomerantz, Melvin

    2010-05-14

    Shadows cast by trees and buildings can limit the solar access of rooftop solar-energy systems, including photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors. This study characterizes residential rooftop shading in Sacramento, San Jose, Los Angeles and San Diego, CA. Our analysis can be used to better estimate power production and/or thermal collection by rooftop solar-energy equipment. It can also be considered when designing programs to plant shade trees. High-resolution orthophotos and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) measurements of surface height were used to create a digital elevation model of all trees and buildings in a well-treed 2.5-4 km{sup 2} residential neighborhood. On-hour shading of roofing planes (the flat elements of roofs) was computed geometrically from the digital elevation model. Values in future years were determined by repeating these calculations after simulating tree growth. Parcel boundaries were used to determine the extent to which roofing planes were shaded by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels. For the subset of S+SW+W-facing planes on which solar equipment is commonly installed for maximum solar access, absolute light loss in spring, summer and fall peaked about two to four hours after sunrise and about two to four hours before sunset. The fraction of annual insolation lost to shading increased from 0.07-0.08 in the year of surface-height measurement to 0.11-0.14 after 30 years of tree growth. Only about 10% of this loss results from shading by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels.

  9. Market access and the heterogeneous effect of shocks on wages : Evidence from Chinese cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno-Monroy, Ana Isabel

    2011-01-01

    New Economic Geography (NEG) models predict that locations with market access advantages have higher wages and larger labour inflows. Using comprehensive prefecture-city level data for China, the study estimates a wage equation derived from a NEG model. The results support the NEG explanation for wa

  10. Regulating Power from Supermarket Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the demand response capabilities of a supermarket refrigeration system, with a particular focus on the suitability for participation in the regulating power market. An ARMAX model of a supermarket refrigeration system is identified using experimental data from...... the Danfoss refrigeration test centre. The complexities of modelling demand response are demonstrated through simulation. Simulations are conducted by placing the identified model in a direct-control demand response architecture, with power reference tracking using model predictive control. The energylimited...... nature of demand response from refrigeration is identified as the key consideration when considering participation in the regulating power market. It is demonstrated that by restricting the operating regions of the supermarket refrigeration system, a simple relationship can be found between the available...

  11. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark. Every hour the hourly electrical load for refrigeration is forecasted for the following 42 h. The forecast models are adaptive linear time series models. The model has two regimes; one for opening hours and one for closing hours, this is modeled by a regime switching model and two different......This paper presents a novel study of models for forecasting the electrical load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...

  12. Measuring spatial accessibility of urban parks: a case study of Qingdao City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haiwei; Song, Yongjun; Kong, Fanhua; Qi, Yi

    2007-06-01

    Urban parks are the important recreation site for citizens, viewed as basal green infrastructure and crucial amenities in urban areas, and usually perform important ecological and socio-economic functions. With socio-economic development, Chinese people and governments pay much more attention to urban green spaces, especially urban parks, and more and more citizens have the desire for contact with nature, and are willing to live and work close to urban parks. Consequently, governments plan to optimize urban parks allocation in order to meet citizens' increasing needs. Quantification of accessibility of urban parks is a prerequisite to appraise and allocate them with equity as a tool for decision-making in planning. In this paper, supported by Remote Sensing and GIS, the accessibility of urban parks based on high resolution data was analyzed with minimum nearest distance method at the house level and container method at block groups scale, through a case study of Qingdao city, China. The distances between houses (origins) and urban parks (destinations) are measured as the Euclidian (straight-line) distance. Four levels of access, very good, good, poor and very poor, were classified based on the distance between residence and the nearest urban park, and the area of urban park per capita. Results demonstrate that the spatial patterns of accessibility are consentaneous on the whole by using two different methods, for the spatial pattern is relation to the distribution of urban parks. However, the accurateness in results is quite different. The accessibility of urban parks acquired by the minimum nearest distance method is more accurate and appropriate than under the container method. The results calculated with the container measure show that 58.07 % of block groups have very poor or poor access level, which means the accessibility of urban parks is not good in Qingdao city as a whole. In addition, the spatial pattern of the accessibility is not equipoise. The southern

  13. Link-up between Farmers and Supermarket based on China’s Fresh Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-ying; TANG Bu-long

    2012-01-01

    Link-up between farmers and supermarket is a new move adopted actively by the current government, conducive to consumers, farmers and circulation enterprises. At present, link-up between farmers and supermarket is launched in China’s 15 provinces and cities, which will set off the revolution in the field of agricultural circulation. Based on the current situation of link-up between farmers and supermarket and the existing problems, we put forth the following recommendations: promoting the quality of farmers’ cooperative organizations; establishing the logistics center of fresh agricultural products; using economies of scale to reduce the fresh logistics costs; improving the operation and management level of fresh agricultural products in supermarket.

  14. Pengaruh Citra Supermarket Terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan Di Metro Supermarket

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna, Soneta

    2010-01-01

    Consumer Loyalty as a measure of consumers' attachment to particular supermarket, has become an important notion in consumer behavior. The producers understand that better retain existing customers than new customers. Therefore, in order to build consumer affinity with the product, then developed the concept of brand community. A community based on shared commitment to a particular product, brand and consumer activities. Store image expected to be able to contribute in building consumer attit...

  15. Biochemistry: from supermarket to laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    F. R. Freitas-Rego; Pereira, M. G.; S. O. Loureiro; M. T. de Santana; R. G. Garrido; F. de S.R.G Garrido

    2007-01-01

    After new campi as Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde (IMS/UFBA) startedworking, it was necessary to develop practical classes using domestic reagents atBiochemistry to Pharmacy (IMS078). Firstly, students visited a supermarket to readnutritional information at label and select possible products to be used in class. Moreover,chemical processes and fermentation were discussed as different foods and drinks wereanalysed. Some food were token to laboratories so that biomole cules qualitative ana...

  16. Dynamics of the supermarket model

    CERN Document Server

    MacPhee, I M; Vachkovskaia, M

    2010-01-01

    We consider the long term behaviour of a Markov chain \\xi(t) on \\Z^N based on the N station supermarket model. Different routing policies for the supermarket model give different Markov chains. We show that for a general class of local routing policies, "join the least weighted queue" (JLW), the N one-dimensional components \\xi_i(t) can be partitioned into disjoint clusters C_k. Within each cluster C_k the "speed" of each component \\xi_j converges to a constant V_k and under certain conditions \\xi is recurrent in shape on each cluster. To establish these results we have assembled methods from two distinct areas of mathematics, semi-martingale techniques used for showing stability of Markov chains together with the theory of optimal flows in networks. As corollaries to our main result we obtain the stability classification of the supermarket model under any JLW policy and can explicitly compute the C_k and V_k for any instance of the model and specific JLW policy.

  17. City-scale accessibility of emergency responders operating during flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel; Yu, Dapeng; Pattison, Ian; Wilby, Robert; Bosher, Lee; Patel, Ramila; Thompson, Philip; Trowell, Keith; Draycon, Julia; Halse, Martin; Yang, Lili; Ryley, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Emergency responders often have to operate and respond to emergency situations during dynamic weather conditions, including floods. This paper demonstrates a novel method using existing tools and datasets to evaluate emergency responder accessibility during flood events within the city of Leicester, UK. Accessibility was quantified using the 8 and 10 min legislative targets for emergency provision for the ambulance and fire and rescue services respectively under "normal" no-flood conditions, as well as flood scenarios of various magnitudes (1 in 20-year, 1 in 100-year and 1 in 1000-year recurrence intervals), with both surface water and fluvial flood conditions considered. Flood restrictions were processed based on previous hydrodynamic inundation modelling undertaken and inputted into a Network Analysis framework as restrictions for surface water and fluvial flood events. Surface water flooding was shown to cause more disruption to emergency responders operating within the city due to its widespread and spatially distributed footprint when compared to fluvial flood events of comparable magnitude. Fire and rescue 10 min accessibility was shown to decrease from 100, 66.5, 39.8 and 26.2 % under the no-flood, 1 in 20-year, 1 in 100-year and 1 in 1000-year surface water flood scenarios respectively. Furthermore, total inaccessibility was shown to increase with flood magnitude from 6.0 % under the 1 in 20-year scenario to 31.0 % under the 1 in 100-year flood scenario. Additionally, the evolution of emergency service accessibility throughout a surface water flood event is outlined, demonstrating the rapid impact on emergency service accessibility within the first 15 min of the surface water flood event, with a reduction in service coverage and overlap being observed for the ambulance service during a 1 in 100-year flood event. The study provides evidence to guide strategic planning for decision makers prior to and during emergency response to flood events at the city

  18. Retail redlining in New York City: racialized access to day-to-day retail resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Loh, Ji Meng; White, Kellee; Saldana, Nelson

    2013-08-01

    Racial residential segregation is associated with health inequalities in the USA, and one of the primary mechanisms is through influencing features of the neighborhood physical environment. To better understand how Black residential segregation might contribute to health risk, we examined retail redlining; the inequitable distribution of retail resources across racially distinct areas. A combination of visual and analytic methods was used to investigate whether predominantly Black census block groups in New York City had poor access to retail stores important for health. After controlling for retail demand, median household income, population density, and subway ridership, percent Black was associated with longer travel distances to various retail industries. Our findings suggest that Black neighborhoods in New York City face retail redlining. Future research is needed to determine how retail redlining may perpetuate health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantage.

  19. Access to health in city slum dwellers: The case of Sodom and Gomorrah in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances E. Owusu-Ansah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid rural-urban migration of people to cities is a reality around the globe that has increased city slum dwellers. Sodom and Gomorrah is a city slum located in the heart of Accra, Ghana. Like other slums, it lacks basic amenities necessary for dwellers’ quality of life. This study describes residents’ access to health and factors associated with the use of healthcarefacilities.Methods: Questionnaires were administered in systematically selected shacks across the entire slum. Data on demographic characteristics, existent health facilities and number of users, health-insured residents and knowledge of common diseases were collected.Results: Majority of the residents were from the northern parts of Ghana, relative to the south and a few of them come from other parts of West Africa. Seventy-one percent of residents had never visited a health facility in the last 5 years. When necessary, they access health care from drug stores (61.1% or hospitals (33.1%. Residents’ age, educational status, income, health knowledge and membership of National Health Insurance Scheme were significantly (p < 0.05 associated with the use of healthcare facilities. Younger residents and those without National Health Insurance Scheme membership, formal education, no knowledge of common illnesses and regular income were significantly less likely to use a healthcare facility. For most residents, neither distance (73.2% nor transportation to health facilities was a problem (74.1%.Conclusion: Conditions of profound environmental hazards, overcrowding, poor-quality housing and lack of health care in Sodom and Gomorrah pose grave threats to the health of the inhabitants. Multisectoral interventions and resource mobilisation championed by the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development are needed to alter the trend.Keywords: Slum dwellers, health, access, Sodom and Gomorra, Ghana

  20. Musculoskeletal disorders self-reported by supermarket employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Almeida M. da Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported pains in employees of a supermarket chain. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study conducted in a supermarket chain in the city of São Paulo from January 2011 to February 2012, with a sample of 300 employees. Information on sociodemographics, physical activity and characterization of the labor process were collected. It was assumed as the outcome the reports of symptoms of musculoskeletal pain obtained through The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. For statistical analysis, frequencies and percentages were calculated. Results: The population was mostly composed of young, single women who attended up to the 2nd year of high school. Only 25 % of employees performed physical activities. All employees had presented sometype of musculoskeletal symptoms in the last 12 months, and half of them (50% had three or more symptoms. The pain predominantly occurred in the lower limbs, followed by the thoracic and lumbar spine. Age may be associated with the onset of neck pain. In addition, the job is associated with pain in elbows, lumbar spine and legs. Finally, the lumbar spine is the region with the highest association among the independent variables. Conclusion: It was verified that the employees investigated in the supermarket chain presented a prevalence of pains or some type of musculoskeletal symptom in the past 12 months in the lower limb, regions that make up the spine, wrists, fingers and hands. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p13

  1. The analysis of Hengkelong Supermarket Management Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓霜

    2010-01-01

    With the development of local retail industry,Hengkelong Supermarket win fat profit.Yet how can it maintain its business advantage in the fierce competition with foreign business giants? This paper analyzes the management behavior of Hengkelong Supermarket,intending to give relevant policy recommendations.

  2. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  3. Lighting designs for supermarket applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, C.S.

    1996-05-01

    Designers of lighting systems for supermarket applications face a number of challenges when the goals are to present merchandise in an attractive environment, but to do so in an energy-efficient manner. The Defense Commissary Agency (DeCA) operates several hundred stores worldwide, and more than 150 within the United States. DeCA is a federal agency that was organized in 1991 to operate commissaries that had previously been operated by the various armed services. As a federal agency, DeCA is also under a federal executive order to reduce its total energy consumption per square foot of floor space by 20 percent by the year 2005, compared to energy use in the year 1990. On the average, lighting consumes more than 20 percent of a store`s total energy use. Lighting retrofit projects offer opportunities to save significant energy costs with reasonable cost payback. The variety of ages and architectural styles of the commissaries offer opportunities for analysis and design of a wide diversity of projects. These projects range from simple replacements of lamps and ballasts to luminaire replacements and complete redesign of systems, including circuits. The requirements of merchandising products (illumination) also affect system designs. Several types of lighting retrofit projects are discussed. Problems that were encountered and solutions that were developed are shown. Because commissaries are supermarkets, lighting system designs are applicable to commercial establishments.

  4. Access to health services in six Colombian cities: limitations and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Vargas J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the characteristics of access to the General System of Social Security in health (SGSS, from the perspective of doctors, nurses, administrators and users. Methodology: based on the grounded theory we present a study in six cities in Colombia: Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Bogota, Leticia, Medellín and Pasto, for which interviews were conducted in-depth with health professionals involved in service delivery and focus groups with service users. Results: The findings indicate that insurance has become an end in itself, and being affiliated to SGSSS does not guarantee effective access to services. The dominance of the market, the financial profitability of insurers, imposed cost-containment mechanisms over the right to health. There are limitations from the rules, benefit plans that create geographical, economic and cultural barriers from the various actors involved in the chain of decisions. Additionally, display individual and institutional ethical shortcomings, clientelism and corruption in the management of resources, coupled with poverty and geographical dispersion of communities, mean that further limiting access to health services.

  5. Store Image Attributes and Customer Satisfaction in Supermarkets in Campo Grande-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eluiza Alberto de Morais Watanabe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between image attributes and consumer satisfaction in supermarkets. Specifically, we sought to: a identify the variables which make up the image attributes of supermarkets and group them into factors, and b assess the impact of image attributes on consumer satisfaction. We conducted a quantitative study, which met quotas by region and city income class, among 400 individuals from Campo Grande, MS, southwest Brazil, who were responsible for purchasing supermarket products for their families. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and Structural Equation Modeling were used for the data analysis. The results revealed that the attributes are grouped into five factors. The constructs “environment” and “promotions” were not considered significant in determining satisfaction, while the attributes “ personell”, “product” and “price” had a positive effect on satisfaction, with the latter having the greatest impact.  

  6. Inner-city hospital closures: financial decision or impediment to access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, Kathryn J; Goldberg, Gerson M; Cutting, Alan C

    2012-01-01

    This article applies a financial ratio model and a behavioral model of health services use' to examine inner-city hospital closures. We use Medicare Cost Report financial information and demographics to find evidence that hospitals with high debt, less severity of illness, and lower occupancy rates are more likely to close, as expected. We also find that urban hospitals with a high elderly population are more likely to remain open. However, hospitals in our study with a high proportion of Medicare patients and a high minority population are more likely to close. This last finding may have important public policy consequences for access to health care for vulnerable populations, particularly in a recessionary economy under health care reform.

  7. Gis-Based Accessibility Analysis of Urban Emergency Shelters: the Case of Adana City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, M.; Uslu, C.

    2016-10-01

    Accessibility analysis of urban emergency shelters can help support urban disaster prevention planning. Pre-disaster emergency evacuation zoning has become a significant topic on disaster prevention and mitigation research. In this study, we assessed the level of serviceability of urban emergency shelters within maximum capacity, usability, sufficiency and a certain walking time limit by employing spatial analysis techniques of GIS-Network Analyst. The methodology included the following aspects: the distribution analysis of emergency evacuation demands, the calculation of shelter space accessibility and the optimization of evacuation destinations. This methodology was applied to Adana, a city in Turkey, which is located within the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system, the second major earthquake belt after the Pacific-Belt. It was found that the proposed methodology could be useful in aiding to understand the spatial distribution of urban emergency shelters more accurately and establish effective future urban disaster prevention planning. Additionally, this research provided a feasible way for supporting emergency management in terms of shelter construction, pre-disaster evacuation drills and rescue operations.

  8. Meltsiveski Konsumist saab korteritega supermarket / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Meltsiveski Konsumi kõrvale ehitatakse uus hoone, kus saab olema 30 korterit ja supermarket ning viimase katusel mängu- ja puhkeala. Juurdeehituse projekteeris arhitektuuribüroo Pluss arhitekt Indrek Allmann

  9. Sustainability in the supermarket; Nachhaltigkeit im Supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmannshofer, Robert

    2010-11-15

    The food retailing discovered the sustainable construction. The prototypes of energy-saving supermarkets already are established and partly certified or decorated with prices. However, it will take time until the concepts are recognized.

  10. REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large refrigeration systems are found in several applications including supermarkets, cold storage warehouses, and industrial processes. The sizes of these systems are a contributing factor to their problems of high refrigerant leak rates because of the thousands of connections, ...

  11. Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C Peter; Minten, Bart

    2012-07-31

    A "supermarket revolution" has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the "newcomers"--India and Vietnam--have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been "precocious" penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a "hub" or "platform" or "park" the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including "bringing modern markets to farmers" by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets.

  12. Stocking the genetic supermarket: reproductive genetic technologies and collective action problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyngell, Chris; Douglas, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs) allow parents to decide whether their future children will have or lack certain genetic predispositions. A popular model that has been proposed for regulating access to RGTs is the 'genetic supermarket'. In the genetic supermarket, parents are free to make decisions about which genes to select for their children with little state interference. One possible consequence of the genetic supermarket is that collective action problems will arise: if rational individuals use the genetic supermarket in isolation from one another, this may have a negative effect on society as a whole, including future generations. In this article we argue that RGTs targeting height, innate immunity, and certain cognitive traits could lead to collective action problems. We then discuss whether this risk could in principle justify state intervention in the genetic supermarket. We argue that there is a plausible prima facie case for the view that such state intervention would be justified and respond to a number of arguments that might be adduced against that view.

  13. Using urban commuting data to calculate a spatiotemporal accessibility measure for food environment studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Michael J; Farber, Steven; Neutens, Tijs; Horner, Mark W

    2013-05-01

    Improving spatial access to healthy foods in urban regions is recognized as an important component of reducing the prevalence of chronic illness and achieving better health outcomes. Previously, researchers exploring this domain have calculated accessibility measures derived from the travel cost from home locations to nearby food stores. This approach disregards additional opportunities that present themselves as residents move throughout the city. A time-geographic accessibility measure is utilized to explore how single-occupancy automobile commuting affords access to supermarkets. Results show residents in some TAZs have more access when accounting for their commuting behavior than when measuring access from their home. This finding suggests more nuanced calculations of accessibility are necessary to fully understand which urban populations have greater access to healthy food.

  14. Changes in Diet after Introduction of a Full Service Supermarket in a Food Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Cohen, Deborah A.; Beckman, Robin; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Hunter, Gerald P.; Flórez, Karen R.; Huang, Christina; Vaughan, Christine A.; Sloan, Jennifer C.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Cummins, Steven; Collins, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Placing full-service supermarkets in food deserts (areas with limited access to healthy foods) has been proposed as an important policy strategy to confront inequalities in healthy food access. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, we enrolled n=1,372 randomly selected households from two comparable neighborhoods, one of which received a full-service supermarket in 2013. We looked at the impact on residents’ diet, perceived access to healthy foods and satisfaction with one’s neighborhood as a place to live. Baseline data was collected in 2011, and follow-up in 2014. Relative to the comparison neighborhood, we found a net positive change in the intervention neighborhood in overall dietary quality, total kilocalories, added sugars, and solid fats, alcohol and added sugars (SoFAAS). However, we did not observe differential improvement in fruit and vegetable intake, whole grain consumption or body mass index (BMI). Regular users of the new supermarket had significantly improved perceived access to healthy foods compared to others, but use of the new supermarket was not related to dietary changes or to improvements with neighborhood satisfaction. Our study is the first to our knowledge to have found significant improvements in multiple dietary outcomes and neighborhood satisfaction among residents of a food desert, following the opening of a supermarket. Our study supports the Healthy Food Financing Initiative and other policies that incentivize food retail venues to locate in food deserts, but we recommend further efforts proceed with caution until research has clarified the mechanisms through which diet is improved and associations with weight status/obesity have been observed. PMID:26526243

  15. Cloud and the City: Facilitating Flexible Access Control over Data Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wen Qiang; Lim, Hock Beng; Datta, Anwitaman

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of sensing devices create plethora of data-streams, which in turn can be harnessed to carry out sophisticated analytics to support various real-time applications and services as well as long-term planning, e.g., in the context of intelligent cities or smart homes to name a few prominent ones. A mature cloud infrastructure brings such a vision closer to reality than ever before. However, we believe that the ability for data-owners to flexibly and easily to control the granularity at which they share their data with other entities is very important - in making data owners feel comfortable to share to start with, and also to leverage on such fine-grained control to realize different business models or logics. In this paper, we explore some basic operations to flexibly control the access on a data stream and propose a framework eXACML+ that extends OASIS's XACML model to achieve the same. We develop a prototype using the commercial StreamBase engine to demonstrate a seamless combination of strea...

  16. Biochemistry: from supermarket to laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Freitas-Rego

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available After new campi as Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde (IMS/UFBA startedworking, it was necessary to develop practical classes using domestic reagents atBiochemistry to Pharmacy (IMS078. Firstly, students visited a supermarket to readnutritional information at label and select possible products to be used in class. Moreover,chemical processes and fermentation were discussed as different foods and drinks wereanalysed. Some food were token to laboratories so that biomole cules qualitative analysiswere carried on. Domestic use reagents as pharmaceutical iodine solutions, commercialNaOH and vegetable pigments were used. The substances identified were reductant glycid,starch, fatty acid, triacylglycerol and protein. Reactions allowed to identify fungi andvegetable tissues. Moreover, invertase and alfa-amilase activities were determined. Afterdiscussions in class, students could improve biochemical knowledge as well as distinguishbetween milk or lactic drink, animal fat or vegetable hydrogenated fat, honey or glucose.After that, students produced kits and wrote laboratorial notes for use in classes with therest of the group.

  17. Closed supermarket refrigerator and freezer cabinets. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligthart, F.A.T.M. [ECN Energy in the Built Environment, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The City of Amsterdam's Environmental and Building Department commissioned the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) to calculate the time needed to recoup the cost of closing the existing refrigerator and freezer display cabinets used in supermarkets. We were asked to give particular consideration to the following aspects: (1) The cabinet's energy consumption; (2) The energy price; and (3) The cost of closing the cabinet. The payback period has been calculated by dividing the investment required to close the cabinet by the amount saved on energy each year, less any additional costs incurred as a result of the scheme. For existing upright refrigerator cabinets, that period works out at 2.9 years with a margin error of {+-}0.9 years. In the case of chest freezers, it is approximately 2.4 years, with a maximum of 2.5 and a minimum of 1.3 years. For chest refrigerators, the payback period is 9.4 years. If units are closed overnight only, the time needed to payback the cost of that measure ranges between 1.8 and 4.1 years. Moreover, research shows that closing refrigerator and freezer display units will not reduce turnover. In addition, it will significantly improve the ambient climate in supermarkets.

  18. MEASURING LAND USES ACCESSIBILITY BY USING FUZZY MAJORITY GIS-BASED MULTICRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS CASE STUDY: MALAYER CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Taravat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Public spaces accessibility has become one of the important factors in urban planning. Therefore, considerable attention has been given to measure accessibility to public spaces on the UK, US and Canada, but there are few studies outside the anglophone world especially in developing countries such as Iran. In this study an attempt has been made to measure objective accessibility to public spaces (parks, school, library and administrative using fuzzy majority GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis. This method is for defining the priority for distribution of urban facilities and utilities as the first step towards elimination of social justice. In order to test and demonstrate the presented model, the comprehensive plan of Malayer city has been considered for ranking in three objectives and properties in view of index per capital (Green space, sport facilities and major cultural centers like library and access index. The results can be used to inform the local planning process and the GIS approach can be expanded into other local authority domains. The results shows that the distribution of facilities in Malayer city has followed on the base of cost benefit law and the human aspect of resource allocation programming of facilities (from centre to suburbs of the city.

  19. Field Testing and Modeling of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems as a Demand Response Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, Michael; Hirsch, Adam; Clark, Jordan; Anthony, Jamie

    2016-08-26

    Supermarkets offer a substantial demand response (DR) resource because of their high energy intensity and use patterns; however, refrigeration as the largest load has been challenging to access. Previous work has analyzed supermarket DR using heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; lighting; and anti-sweat heaters. This project evaluated and quantified the DR potential inherent in supermarket refrigeration systems in the Bonneville Power Administration service territory. DR events were carried out and results measured in an operational 45,590-ft2 supermarket located in Hillsboro, Oregon. Key results from the project include the rate of temperature increase in freezer reach-in cases and walk-ins when refrigeration is suspended, the load shed amount for DR tests, and the development of calibrated models to quantify available DR resources. Simulations showed that demand savings of 15 to 20 kilowatts (kW) are available for 1.5 hours for a typical store without precooling and for about 2.5 hours with precooling using only the low-temperature, non-ice cream cases. This represents an aggregated potential of 20 megawatts within BPA's service territory. Inability to shed loads for medium-temperature (MT) products because of the tighter temperature requirements is a significant barrier to realizing larger DR for supermarkets. Store owners are reluctant to allow MT case set point changes, and laboratory tests of MT case DR strategies are needed so that owners become comfortable testing, and implementing, MT case DR. The next-largest barrier is the lack of proper controls in most supermarket displays over ancillary equipment, such as anti-sweat heaters, lights, and fans.

  20. Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

  1. A Computational Method based on Radio Frequency Technologies for the Analysis of Accessibility of Disabled People in Sustainable Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Gilart-Iglesias

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability strategy in urban spaces arises from reflecting on how to achieve a more habitable city and is materialized in a series of sustainable transformations aimed at humanizing different environments so that they can be used and enjoyed by everyone without exception and regardless of their ability. Modern communication technologies allow new opportunities to analyze efficiency in the use of urban spaces from several points of view: adequacy of facilities, usability, and social integration capabilities. The research presented in this paper proposes a method to perform an analysis of movement accessibility in sustainable cities based on radio frequency technologies and the ubiquitous computing possibilities of the new Internet of Things paradigm. The proposal can be deployed in both indoor and outdoor environments to check specific locations of a city. Finally, a case study in a controlled context has been simulated to validate the proposal as a pre-deployment step in urban environments.

  2. Associations of Supermarket Characteristics with Weight Status and Body Fat: A Multilevel Analysis of Individuals within Supermarkets (RECORD Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Basile; Bean, Kathy; Daniel, Mark; Zenk, Shannon N.; Kestens, Yan; Charreire, Hélène; Leal, Cinira; Thomas, Frédérique; Karusisi, Noëlla; Weber, Christiane; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Simon, Chantal; Merlo, Juan; Pannier, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Previous research on the influence of the food environment on weight status has often used impersonal measures of the food environment defined for residential neighborhoods, which ignore whether people actually use the food outlets near their residence. To assess whether supermarkets are relevant contexts for interventions, the present study explored between-residential neighborhood and between-supermarket variations in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and investigated associations between brands and characteristics of supermarkets and BMI or WC, after adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics. Methods Participants in the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris Region, France, 2007–2008) were surveyed on the supermarket (brand and exact location) where they conducted their food shopping. Overall, 7 131 participants shopped in 1 097 different supermarkets. Cross-classified multilevel linear models were estimated for BMI and WC. Results Just 11.4% of participants shopped for food primarily within their residential neighborhood. After accounting for participants' residential neighborhood, people shopping in the same supermarket had a more comparable BMI and WC than participants shopping in different supermarkets. After adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics, participants shopping in specific supermarket brands, in hard discount supermarkets (especially if they had a low education), and in supermarkets whose catchment area comprised low educated residents had a higher BMI/WC. Conclusion A public health strategy to reduce excess weight may be to intervene on specific supermarkets to change food purchasing behavior, as supermarkets are where dietary preferences are materialized into definite purchased foods. PMID:22496738

  3. Online load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    in Denmark. Every hour the hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are time adaptive linear time-series models. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer functions. The system operates in two regimes: one......This paper presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...

  4. A Picture of the Healthful Food Environment in Two Diverse Urban Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Local food environments influence fresh produce purchase and consumption, and previous research has found disparities in local food environments by income and ethnicity. Other existing studies have begun to quantify the distribution of food sources, but there has been limited attention to important features or types of healthful food that are available or their quality or cost. Two studies assessed the type, quantity, quality and cost of healthful food from two diverse urban cities, Kansas City, Kansas and Missouri and Honolulu, Hawaii, and evaluated differences by neighborhood income and ethnic composition. Method: A total of 343 food stores in urban neighborhoods were assessed using the one-page Understanding Neighborhood Determinants of Obesity (UNDO Food Stores Assessment (FSA measuring healthful foods. US Census data were used to define median household income and ethnic minority concentration. Results: In Study 1, most low socioeconomic status (SES, high ethnic minority neighborhoods had primarily convenience, liquor or small grocery stores. Quality of produce was typically lower, and prices of some foods were more than in comparison neighborhoods. In Study 2, low SES neighborhoods had more convenience and grocery stores. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets had the best produce availability and quality, and farmers’ markets and pharmacies had the lowest prices. Conclusions: Messages emphasizing eating more fruits and vegetables are not realistic in urban, low SES, high ethnic concentration neighborhoods. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets provided the best opportunities for fresh produce. Increasing access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets or reducing prices could improve the local food environment.

  5. Supermarket Defrost Cycles As Flexible Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    This work analyses how supermarket defrost cycles can be used as flexible reserve in a smart grid context. The consumption flexibility originates from being able to shift defrost cycles in time, while adhering to the underlying refrigeration systems constraints. It is shown how this time constrai...

  6. Spatial accessibility to vaccination sites in a campaign against rabies in São Paulo city, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Gina; Acosta, Carlos Mera; Dias, Ricardo Augusto

    2013-08-01

    It is estimated that the city of São Paulo has over 2.5 million dogs and 560 thousand cats. These populations are irregularly distributed throughout the territory, making it difficult to appropriately allocate health services focused on these species. To reasonably allocate vaccination sites, it is necessary to identify social groups and their access to the referred service. Rabies in dogs and cats has been an important zoonotic health issue in São Paulo and the key component of rabies control is vaccination. The present study aims to introduce an approach to quantify the potential spatial accessibility to the vaccination sites of the 2009 campaign against rabies in the city of São Paulo and solve the overestimation associated with the classic methodology that applies buffer zones around vaccination sites based on Euclidean (straight-line) distance. To achieve this, a Gaussian-based two-step floating catchment area method with a travel-friction coefficient was adapted in a geographic information system environment, using distances along a street network based on Dijkstra's algorithm (short path method). The choice of the distance calculation method affected the results in terms of the population covered. In general, areas with low accessibility for both dogs and cats were observed, especially in densely populated areas. The eastern zone of the city had higher accessibility values compared with peripheral and central zones. The Gaussian-based two-step floating catchment method with a travel-friction coefficient was used to assess the overestimation of the straight-line distance method, which is the most widely used method for coverage analysis. We conclude that this approach has the potential to improve the efficiency of resource use when planning rabies control programs in large urban environments such as São Paulo. The findings emphasize the need for surveillance and intervention in isolated areas.

  7. Equity of access to reproductive health services among youths in resource-limited suburban communities of Mandalay City, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thin Zaw Phyu Phyu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequity of accessibility to and utilization of reproductive health (RH services among youths is a global concern, especially in resource-limited areas. The level of inequity also varies by cultural and socio-economic contexts. To tailor RH services to the needs of youths, relevant solutions are required. This study aimed to assess baseline information on access to and utilization of RH services and unmet needs among youths living in resource-limited, suburban communities of Mandalay City, Myanmar. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in all resource-limited, suburban communities of Mandalay City, Myanmar. A total of 444 randomly selected youths aged between 15 and 24 years were interviewed for three main outcomes, namely accessibility to and utilization of RH services and youth's unmet needs for these services. Factors associated with these outcomes were determined using multivariate logistic regression. Results Although geographical accessibility was high (79.3%, financial accessibility was low (19.1% resulting in a low overall accessibility (34.5% to RH services. Two-thirds of youths used some kind of RH services at least once in the past. Levels of unmet needs for sexual RH information, family planning, maternal care and HIV testing were 62.6%, 31.9%, 38.7% and 56.2%, respectively. Youths living in the south or south-western suburbs, having a deceased parent, never being married or never exposed to mass media were less likely to access RH services. Being a young adult, current student, working as a waste recycler, having ever experienced a sexual relationship, ever being married, ever exposed to mass media, having a high knowledge of RH services and providers or a high level of accessibility to RH services significantly increased the likelihood of utilization of those services. In addition to youths’ socio-demographic characteristics, exposure to mass media, norm of peer exposure and knowledge

  8. A Comparative Study on the Environmental Impact of CO2 Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems have high environmental impact due to their large refrigerant charge and high leak rates. Accordingly, the interest in using natural refrigerants, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), and new refrigerant blends with low GWP in such systems is increasing. In this paper, an open-source Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) framework is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of three supermarket refrigeration systems. These systems include a transcritical CO2 booster system, a cascade CO2/N-40 system, and a baseline R-404A multiplex direct expansion system. The study is performed for cities representing different climates within the USA using EnergyPlus to simulate the systems' hourly performance. Finally, a parametric analysis is performed to study the impact of annual leak rate on the systems' LCCP.

  9. Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C. Peter; Minten, Bart

    2012-01-01

    A “supermarket revolution” has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the “newcomers”—India and Vietnam—have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been “precocious” penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a “hub” or “platform” or “park” the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including “bringing modern markets to farmers” by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets. PMID:21135250

  10. ESO2 Optimization of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Madsen, Henrik; Heerup, Christian

    in low efficiency and high wear of the compressor, because the compressor has to work much harder for short periods of time. The problem increases when the load is small compared to the available compressor capacity, which it is in the winter time, at night and when only a few cooling sites are present....... A second solution is investigated where only the compressor control is considered. This controller try to feed-forward the measured disturbances, i.e. opening and closing of the cooling site AKV’s. Last a performance analysis of the refrigeration system is performed.......Supermarket refrigeration systems consists of a number of display cases, cooling cabinets and cold rooms connected to a central compressor pack. This configuration saves energy compared to placing a compressor at each cooling site. The classical control setup of a supermarket refrigeration system...

  11. New End Markets, Supermarket Expansion, and Shifting Social Standards

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Northern supermarket chains have internationalized rapidly and Southern supermarket chains have expanded their footprint in emerging markets. As they have done so, questions have arisen about the impact of such supermarkets and the extent of consumer demand for social standards (labour standards and fair trade). While standards have been more (or less) codified in their Northern counterparts over recent decades, it remains an empirical question whether –and if so how—they...

  12. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration / Heat Recovery Systems. Annex 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings (16 papers) of a workshop (held in Stockholm, Sweden, 2-3 October 2000) on Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/ Heat Recovery Systems. Sessions at the workshop discussed: The supermarket as a system, Analysis and modelling, Field experiences and Energy-efficient equipment. The 16 papers presented at the workshop provide a useful information source for all involved in supermarket refrigeration.

  13. PEMETAAN PREFERENSI KONSUMEN SUPERMARKET DENGAN METODE KANO BERDASARKAN DIMENSI SERVQUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriswanto Widiawan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of supermarket usually has some assumptions about the customers' expectation. Sometimes these assumtions do not reflect the nature of customers' expectations. Because of this miss perception, the supermarket looses its profit and becomes inefficient. This research was carried out in order to find out the customers' expectation on facilities and services of the supermarkets according to the servqual dimensions. The outcomes will be mapped into Kano categorizations. The researcher asked the customer dan manager of four supermarkets to fill the prepared questionnaires. Based on the result of customers' questionnaires, tangible, reliability and assurance dimensions were categorized as one dimensional. While responsiveness and emphaty dimensions were categorized as indifferent. Based on the result of managers' questionnaires, all servqual dimensions were categorized as one dimensional. After comparing the results of customers' and managers' questionnaires, there are three of four supermarkets which are match each other. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Manajemen supermarket pada umumnya memiliki asumsi-asumsi mengenai harapan konsumen yang belum tentu sama dengan harapan konsumen sesungguhnya. Akibat ketidaktahuan informasi penting tersebut, tidak sedikit supermarket yang mengalami kerugian atau kinerjanya tidak efisien. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui harapan konsumen tentang fasilitas dan layanan supermarket menurut dimensi servqual yang dipetakan ke dalam kategori Kano. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap konsumen dan manajer dengan cara memberikan kuesioner. Menurut responden konsumen supermarket, dimensi servqual yang tergolong kategori one dimensional adalah tangible, reliability dan assurance. Sedangkan dimensi responsiveness dan emphaty termasuk kategori indifferent. Sementara itu, responden manajer supermarket berpendapat semua dimensi servqual termasuk kategori one dimensional. Dari empat supermarket yang diteliti, diketahui

  14. Academics in the aisles: Establishing a university-supermarket partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy-Joe Milliron

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the US is a serious public health problem. Supermarkets in the US are responding to the obesity epidemic by providing the unique asset of food, pharmacy and registered dietitians in one location to help grocery shoppers manage diseases and improve nutrition. Recent studies report that supermarket point-of-purchase interventions focusing on improving healthy food purchasing behaviours are feasible and potentially efficacious. We describe our experiences and lessons learned while developing a university-supermarket partnership and pilot testing a supermarket POP intervention (Healthstyles-Eat Smart© prior to its dissemination throughout the region. Barriers to and facilitators of developing university-supermarket partnerships and strategies to increase the feasibility of supermarket POP research are discussed. We conclude that strong university-supermarket partnerships are essential to conducting supermarket intervention research and are worth the time and effort it takes to build them. Keywords: Fruit and vegetable purchases, point-of-purchase intervention, supermarket partnership, shopping behaviour

  15. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/ Heat Recovery Systems - Workshop Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, P.

    2001-06-15

    This CD ROM brings together proceedings of the Annex 26 Workshop 'Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/ Heat Recovery Systems' held in Sweden, 2-3 October 2000. Sessions at the workshop were: Session 1: The supermarket as a system, Session 2: Analysis and modeling, Session 3: Field experiences, Session 4: Energy-efficient equipment. Annex 26 investigates candidate advanced system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption for both refrigeration and heating/ air conditioning in supermarkets. Advanced supermarket refrigeration system concepts to be considered include, but are not limited to secondary loop systems, distributed compressors systems, and self-contained display cases.

  16. Associations of supermarket characteristics with weight status and body fat: a multilevel analysis of individuals within supermarkets (RECORD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Chaix

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Previous research on the influence of the food environment on weight status has often used impersonal measures of the food environment defined for residential neighborhoods, which ignore whether people actually use the food outlets near their residence. To assess whether supermarkets are relevant contexts for interventions, the present study explored between-residential neighborhood and between-supermarket variations in body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, and investigated associations between brands and characteristics of supermarkets and BMI or WC, after adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics. METHODS: Participants in the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris Region, France, 2007-2008 were surveyed on the supermarket (brand and exact location where they conducted their food shopping. Overall, 7 131 participants shopped in 1 097 different supermarkets. Cross-classified multilevel linear models were estimated for BMI and WC. RESULTS: Just 11.4% of participants shopped for food primarily within their residential neighborhood. After accounting for participants' residential neighborhood, people shopping in the same supermarket had a more comparable BMI and WC than participants shopping in different supermarkets. After adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics, participants shopping in specific supermarket brands, in hard discount supermarkets (especially if they had a low education, and in supermarkets whose catchment area comprised low educated residents had a higher BMI/WC. CONCLUSION: A public health strategy to reduce excess weight may be to intervene on specific supermarkets to change food purchasing behavior, as supermarkets are where dietary preferences are materialized into definite purchased foods.

  17. Effects of Information Technology on Reducing Perishable Waste in Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipkulei, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Leaders within retail supermarkets struggle to manage perishable waste that has been at least partly attributed to shoppers' desire to buy fresh food; however, supermarket managers do not always exhaust the stock of fresh food as scheduled. Based on disruptive innovation theory, the purpose of this case study was to explore employee use of an…

  18. Developing GAP Training for Growers: Perspectives from Pennsylvania Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Daniel; Thomson, Joan; LaBorde, Luke; Bagdonis, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Major supermarket chains increasingly are requiring their produce suppliers to provide evidence of compliance with on-farm food safety standards, known as Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). To develop a relevant GAP training curriculum that meets the needs of Pennsylvania growers, supermarkets that operate in the state were surveyed to determine…

  19. STRATEGY, COMPETENCES AND LEARNING: A SUPERMARKET CASE IN THE CITY OF SOROCABA ESTRATEGIA, COMPETENCIAS Y APRENDIZAJE: EL CASO DE UN SUPERMERCADO EN LA CIUDAD DE SOROCABA ESTRATÉGIA, COMPETÊNCIAS E APRENDIZAGEM: O CASO DE UM SUPERMERCADO NA CIDADE DE SOROCABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Luiz Marietto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the link among strategy, skills and learning, based on a supermarket case in the city of Sorocaba. The paper takes learning as beliefs changes that has impact over strategies and argue how the competences are based on customers’ value perceptions, the Critical Success Factors (FCS. To take the FCS in this case it using the trade-off matrix to set the preferences for a number of people in a set of variables. The experiment involved the preferences investigation of two hundred customers of a supermarket with relation to seven attributes related to services provision. The research revealed the misalignment between what the company considered competence and what the customers really valorized. The finding starts a learning process with beliefs replace, strategic reorientation and investment in new business competences. Another point to be noted is the use of Trade-off matrix as research technique appropriate to Micro and Small Enterprises due a low cost and also  not requires hard procedures of technological knowledge for use the tool enabling reliable results and capable of changing the Micro and Small Enterprises learning structure.Este trabajo examina la relación entre estrategia, competencias y aprendizaje, teniendo como base el caso de un supermercado en la ciudad de Sorocaba, en el Estado de São Paulo. El artículo considera el aprendizaje como un cambio de creencias que tiene impacto en las  estrategias, y  discurre sobre la forma por la cual las competencias derivan de las percepciones de valor de los clientes, en los factores críticos de éxito (FCE. Para aprehender los FCE, en el caso en cuestión, se utilizó la Matriz  Trade-off, con el objetivo de definir preferencias de un grupo de personas en relación con un conjunto de variables. El experimento incluyó la investigación de las preferencias de doscientos clientes de un supermercado relativas a siete atributos relacionados a la prestaci

  20. Cooperative relationships and competitiveness in supermarket sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Centenaro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This article aims to investigate the influence of cooperative relations in the performance of companies in the supermarket sector, comparing the companies associated networks with companies not associated. Design/methodology/approach – The research method employed was a survey research with 31 companies. Findings – The results indicate that the cooperative relationships with suppliers have a positive impact on companies of performance, while the cooperative relationships with competitors and local institutions do not influence the performance. Moreover, it appears that there is no relationship between participation in a network of cooperation and achieving superior performance. However, companies linked to the network present better cooperative relationships with suppliers, which positively impacts the performance and therefore have competitive advantages over companies not associated to networks. Originality/value – The cooperative relationships with suppliers can provide benefits such as reducing logistics costs, improved product portfolio, better negotiating prices and terms, partnership for conducting marketing strategies among others, thus increasing the competitiveness of companies in the supermarket sector.

  1. "To Trust in My Root and to Take That to Go Forward": Supporting College Access for Immigrant Youth in the Global City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe-Walter, Reva; Lee, Stacey J.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing numbers of immigrant youth are coming of age within global cities that are characterized by growing inequalities and few opportunities for social mobility. These youth face numerous educational obstacles that complicate college and labor market access. This article draws from an ethnographic study of public high schools serving…

  2. Service preferences differences between community pharmacy and supermarket pharmacy patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominelli, Angela; Weck Marciniak, Macary; Jarvis, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Differences in service preferences between patrons of supermarket and chain pharmacies were determined. Subjects fell into two groups: patrons of a supermarket chain's pharmacies and patrons of the same supermarket chain who patronized other community chain pharmacies for prescription drug purchases. Subjects were asked to prioritize services in terms of convenience and impact on pharmacy selection. Differences in service preferences emerged. Community pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate easy navigation through a pharmacy and 24 X 7 hours of operation as key services. Supermarket pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate one-stop shopping and adequate hours of operation as priorities. Both groups rated basic services such as maintenance of prescription and insurance information as priorities. Pharmacies should stress the delivery of basic services when trying to attract customers.

  3. Super-Exponential Solution for a Retrial Supermarket Model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan-Lin; Wang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a new and effective approach for studying super-exponential solution of a retrial supermarket model with Poisson arrivals, exponential service times and exponential retrial times and with two different probing-server numbers. We describe the retrial supermarket model as a system of differential equations by means of density-dependent jump Markov processes, and obtain an iterative algorithm for computing the fixed point of the system of differential equations. Based on the fixed point, we analyze the expected sojourn time that a tagged arriving customer spends in this system, and use numerical examples to indicate different influence of the two probing-server numbers on system performance including the fixed point and the expected sojourn time. Furthermore, we analyze exponential convergence of the current location of the retrial supermarket model to the fixed point, and apply the Kurtz Theorem to study density-dependent jump Markov process given in the retrial supermarket model, whic...

  4. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Supervisory Control in Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Rasmussen, Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    A modular modeling approach of supermarket refrigeration systems (SRS) which is appropriate for smart grid control purposes is presented in this paper. Modeling and identification are performed by just knowing the system configuration and measured data disregarding the physical details. So...... regarding their power/energy consumptions in the future smart grids. Moreover, the developed model is validated by real data collected from a supermarket in Denmark. The utilization of the produced model is also illustrated by a simple simulation example....

  5. Ensuring safe access to medication for palliative care while preventing prescription drug abuse: innovations for American inner cities, rural areas, and communities overwhelmed by addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Francoeur RB

    2011-01-01

    Richard B FrancoeurSchool of Social Work, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA; Center for the Psychosocial Study of Health and Illness, Columbia University, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This article proposes and develops novel components of community-oriented programs for creating and affording access to safe medication dispensing centers in existing retail pharmacies and in permanent or travelling pharmacy clinics that are guarded by assigned or off-duty police officers. Pharmacists at th...

  6. Towards an Accessible City: Empirical Measurement and Modeling of Access to Urban Opportunities for those with Vision Impairments, Using Remote Infrared Audible Signage

    OpenAIRE

    Marston, James R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the problems of defining and measuring access for blind travelers in an urban transit environment. Current accessibility measures do little to account for individual differences or the barriers faced by people with restricted mobility. Independent access to transit and activities in the urban environment are often denied or restricted for those with vision impairments. Their freedom of movement is not blocked by physical obstacles, but by information, signs, and spatial kn...

  7. [Social inequities and food: an ecological study of the food sales of a supermarket chain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Sigler, D; Márquez Calderón, S; Colomer Revuelta, C

    1994-01-01

    With the aim of finding out the pattern of food consumption in different socioeconomic areas of the city of Valencia and examining if the sales data from the supermarkets make up an information source which is capable of detecting inequalities and revealing trends, the sales figures of a chain of supermarkets, referring to 10 food products during 1989 and 1990 were studied. Foods were considered as "healthier" (fruit, vegetables, skimmed milk, fresh fish and chicken), "less healthy" (pork, butter and cakes) and foods indicative of a "new style of eating" (pre-cooked frozen foods and frozen food products). The ratio of between "healthier" food sales and sales of "less healthy" foods is directly related to the socio-economic level of the population. The higher the socioeconomic level, the higher, the ratio of proportions of "healthier" and less healthy" food. This pattern was similar for 1989 (2.78 in lower level districts and 3.32 in higher level districts, and in 1990 (2.92 and 4.09 respectively) (p < 0.01). From these results, we deduce the need for developing different activities for the promotion of healthy foods according to social groups.

  8. Impact of HVAC control improvements on supermarket humidity levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattar, M.; Henderson, H.I. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents field-monitored data from two supermarkets where the impact of implementing minor HVAC control improvements was evaluated. The control improvements were intended to increase the dehumidification capacity of the HVAC system and lower space humidity levels. Direct digital control (DDC) was installed at each store to monitor system performance and implement the control improvements. At the first test store, a 33,400 ft{sup 2} (3,104 m{sup 2}) supermarket near Minneapolis, a conventional 50 ton (176 kW) split system conditioned the sales area. At the second store, a 50,000 ft{sup 2} (4,647 m{sup 2}{minus}) supermarket near Indianapolis, three rooftop units (RTUs) with a total capacity of 98 tons (344 kW) conditioned the store. The results from both supermarkets confirm the impact that supply airflow and part-load control of evaporator coil temperatures can have on dehumidification performance. Seemingly minor control adjustments can often have a big impact on the performance of supermarket HVAC systems. Even enhanced dehumidification technologies, such as heat pipe-assisted evaporator coils, can benefit from minor system tuning.

  9. Reducing cancer risk in rural communities through supermarket interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Barent N; Lyford, Conrad P; Hensarling, Natalie; Pence, Barbara; McCool, Audrey C; Thapa, Janani; Belasco, Eric; Carter, Tyra M

    2013-09-01

    Cancer risk is high, and prevention efforts are often minimal in rural communities. Feasible means of encouraging lifestyles that will reduce cancer risk for residents of rural communities are needed. This project developed and tested a model that could be feasibly adopted by rural communities to reduce cancer risk. This model focuses on incorporating multi-faceted cancer risk education in the local supermarket. As the supermarket functions both as the primary food source and an information source in small rural communities, the supermarket focus encourages the development of a community environment supportive of lifestyles that should reduce residents' risk for cancer. The actions taken to implement the model and the challenges that communities would have in implementing the model are identified.

  10. INTELLIGENT APRIORI ALGORITHM FOR COMPLEX ACTIVITY MINING IN SUPERMARKET APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ganesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As shopping becomes a shared experience and joint process with friends or family members nowadays, the most important problems arise with variety of products and the product information available in the supermarkets. This study proposes a system that uses Intelligent Apriori algorithm to support consumers in getting the required items from various supermarkets. Also this work intelligently suggests the best movement and reducing unwanted movement of the customer and quickly finds out the next operation which includes the next supermarket which is visited by the customer for the next item he/she purchases. This approach can further be extended to the world of mobile communication where the next movement of the mobile user can be predicted and used intelligently to arrange necessary requirements at the destination before he actually reaches. The feasibility of this approach is tested under simple conditions and the results are presented in this study.

  11. Competition and product quality in the supermarket industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsa, David A

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the effect of competition on a supermarket firm's incentive to provide product quality. In the supermarket industry, product availability is an important measure of quality. Using U.S. Consumer Price Index microdata to track inventory shortfalls, I find that stores facing more intense competition have fewer shortfalls. Competition from Walmart—the most significant shock to industry market structure in half a century—decreased shortfalls among large chains by about a third. The risk that customers will switch stores appears to provide competitors with a strong incentive to invest in product quality.

  12. MEPR versus EEPR valves in open supermarket refrigerated display cabinets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, A.; Bansal, P.K. [Auckland Univ, (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents the comparative experimental field performance of mechanical evaporator pressure regulating valves (MEPR) and electronic evaporator pressure regulating valves (EEPR) under the identical operating conditions of supermarket open multi-deck refrigerated display cabinets. The main goal of the supermarket refrigeration system design is to keep the displayed product at the required constant temperature, while minimising the cooling load to increase the overall energy efficiency of the system. Field tests have shown that the electronic evaporator pressure valve has a significant effect on improving the cabinet temperature and reducing the rate of frost formation on the evaporator coils with subsequent improvements in the air curtain strength. (author)

  13. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems. Country Report, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard; Christensen, K. G.

    Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because the great...... conclusions as far energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusion justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system analyses...

  14. A Mixed-Method Assessment of a New Supermarket in a Food Desert: Contributions to Everyday Life and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisinger, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Initiatives to build supermarkets in low-income areas with relatively poor access to large food retailers ("food deserts") have been implemented at all levels of government, although evaluative studies have not found these projects to improve diet or weight status for shoppers. Though known to be influential, existing evaluations have neglected in-store social dynamics and shopper behaviors. Surveys and walking interviews were used with shoppers (n = 32) at a supermarket developed through the Pennsylvania Fresh Food Financing Initiative in Philadelphia, PA. Key informant interviews with stakeholders in the supermarket's development and operations provided additional context to these shopper experiences. Data were collected in July and September 2014 and qualitatively analyzed in NVivo 10.0. Participants described how the retailer helped them adapt or cope with difficult shopping routines and how it presented a reliable high-quality option (in terms of cleanliness, orderliness, and social atmosphere) in contrast to other neighborhood retailers. Health concerns were also identified, especially among those managing chronic disease for themselves or a family member. These issues underscored multiple points of challenge required to adjust shopping and eating behavior. In-store supports that reflect these challenges are warranted to more fully address food deserts and reduce health disparities.

  15. Accessibility of urban green spaces in Hangzhou City%杭州城市休闲绿地可达性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑丽杰; 舒永钢; 祝炜平; 苏飞

    2013-01-01

    Urban leisure green space is a typical green open space very important for maintenance of urban ecological security and human health.Accessibility to urban leisure green spaces directly affects the quality of services for city dwellers and reflects the region's urbanization level.Accessibility to urban green spaces can be used as an indicator to assess the effectiveness of providing ecological services to residents of the green areas in current system and long-term future system.With socio-economic development,Chinese people and governments are paying much more attention to urban green spaces,and more and more citizens have the desire of contact with nature,and are willing to live close to urban green spaces.Consequently,governments plan to develop and optimize urban green space allocation to meet these demands.In this paper,a quantitative method based on landscape accessibility of green space in Hangzhou City was employed to improve index systems.Aided by GIS technique,this paper conducts analysis on the accessibility and service ability which considers the population densities of every district,applying the methods of buffer zone,minimum distance and travel.The results indicate that:(1) In Hangzhou City,on average it takes 3.8 minutes from a residential area to a urban leisure green space,and 92.11 percent of urban residents have access to a leisure green space within 10 minutes; the residential areas with poor accessibility are the outskirt areas of the city.(2) As to scenic-spot green spaces,their accessible time is 20.33 minutes.Xihu and Xixi are found to be much more accessible than other scenic spots.(3) The accessibility exhibits a structure of annulations centered around Xihu,the farther the distance is away from Xihu,the poorer the accessibility is.The work of this paper will help improve the key index system for assessing urban green spaces in China,and can provide planners and policymakers with important and valuable information for urban green space

  16. Aggregation and Control of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems in a Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Schwensen, John; Biegel, Benjamin;

    2014-01-01

    In this work, control strategies for aggregation of a portfolio of supermarkets towards the electricity balancing market, is investigated. The supermarkets are able to shift the power consumption in time by pre-cooling the contained foodstuff. It is shown how the flexibility of an individual...... supermarket can be modeled and how this model can be used by an aggregator to manage the portfolio to deliver upward and downward regulation. Two control strategies for managing the portfolio to follow a power reference are presented and compared. The first strategy is a non-convex predictive control strategy...... of supermarkets. Two simulations are conducted based on high-fidelity supermarket models: a small-scale simulation with 20 supermarkets where the performance of the two strategies are compared and a large-scale simulation with 400 supermarkets which only the PI/dispatch controller is able to handle. The large...

  17. Ensuring safe access to medication for palliative care while preventing prescription drug abuse: innovations for American inner cities, rural areas, and communities overwhelmed by addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoeur RB

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard B FrancoeurSchool of Social Work, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA; Center for the Psychosocial Study of Health and Illness, Columbia University, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This article proposes and develops novel components of community-oriented programs for creating and affording access to safe medication dispensing centers in existing retail pharmacies and in permanent or travelling pharmacy clinics that are guarded by assigned or off-duty police officers. Pharmacists at these centers would work with police, medical providers, social workers, hospital administrators, and other professionals in: planning and overseeing the safe storage of controlled substance medications in off-site community safe-deposit boxes; strengthening communication and cooperation with the prescribing medical provider; assisting the prescribing medical provider in patient monitoring (checking the state prescription registry, providing pill counts and urine samples; expanding access to lower-cost, and in some cases, abuse-resistant formulations of controlled substance medications; improving transportation access for underserved patients and caregivers to obtain prescriptions; and integrating community agencies and social networks as resources for patient support and monitoring. Novel components of two related community-oriented programs, which may be hosted outside of safe medication dispensing centers, are also suggested and described: (1 developing medication purchasing cooperatives (ie, to help patients, families, and health institutions afford the costs of medications, including tamper- or abuse-resistant/deterrent drug formulations; and (2 expanding the role of inner-city methadone maintenance treatment programs in palliative care (ie, to provide additional patient monitoring from a second treatment team focusing on narcotics addiction, and potentially, to serve as an untapped source of opioid medication for pain that is less subject to abuse

  18. Optimising performance in steady state for a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Kinnaert, Michel; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh;

    2012-01-01

    Using a supermarket refrigeration system as an illustrative example, the paper postulates that by appropriately utilising knowledge of plant operation, the plant wide performance can be optimised based on a small set of variables. Focusing on steady state operations, the total system performance...

  19. Optimising Performance in Steady State for a Supermarket Refrigeration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Kinnaert, Michel; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh;

    2012-01-01

    Using a supermarket refrigeration system as an illustrative example, the paper postulates that by appropriately utilising knowledge of plant operation, the plant wide performance can be optimised based on a small set of variables. Focusing on steady state operations, the total system performance...

  20. Analysis of synchronization in a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Leth, John-Josef; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2014-01-01

    In a supermarket refrigeration, the temperature in a display case, surprisingly, influences the temperature in other display cases. This leads to a synchronous operation of all display cases, in which the expansion valves in the display cases turn on and off at exactly the same time. This behavio...

  1. Determinants of asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R.; Lopata, A.L.; Sander, I.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Bateman, E.D.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Robins, T.G.; Jeebhay, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    While baker's asthma has been well described, various asthma phenotypes in bakery workers have yet to be characterised. Our study aims to describe the asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers in relation to host risk factors and self-reported exposure to flour dust. A cross-sectional study of

  2. Determinants of asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R.; Lopata, A.L.; Sander, I.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Batemane, E.D.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.; Robins, T.G.; Jeebhay, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    While baker's asthma has been well described, various asthma phenotypes in bakery workers have yet to be characterised. Our study aims to describe the asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers in relation to host risk factors and self-reported exposure to flour dust. A cross-sectional study of

  3. Synchronization and Desynchronizing Control Schemes for Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Thybo, Claus Thybo; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh;

    2007-01-01

    A supermarket refrigeration system is a hybrid system with switched nonlinear dynamics and discrete-valued input variables such as opening/closing of valves and start/stop of compressors. Practical and simulation studies have shown that the use of distributed hysteresis controllers to operate the...

  4. Supermarket Refrigeration System - Benchmark for Hybrid System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Lars Finn; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a supermarket refrigeration system as a benchmark for development of new ideas and a comparison of methods for hybrid systems' modeling and control. The benchmark features switch dynamics and discrete valued input making it a hybrid system, furthermore the outputs are subjected...

  5. Teaching Students to Write across a Border: A Writing Curriculum for Inner-City College Access Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Jennifer Kwon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the development of the Summer Tools, Information, Motivation, and Education (SummerTIME) Writing Program, the only program of its kind in Los Angeles that conducts self-assessment. The author describes the geographical and political boundaries separating inner-city Los Angeles high school graduates from higher education,…

  6. 中国旅游城市交通通达性对比研究%Comparative Study on Transportation Accessibility of Tourism Cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春华; 吴晋峰; 周芳如

    2016-01-01

    Transportation accessibility can truly reflect the current situation and existed prob-lems of the regional tourism development in the aspect of transportation construction.With the rapid development of aviation and railway construction in China,the remote long-distance travel is becoming more and more easily.For tourist cities,how to attract the remote tourists is an im-portant issue that cannot be neglected.Based on the above consideration,this paper selected 33 main tourist cities over the country and comparatively analyzed their Transportation accessibility level from two aspects of aviation and railway,and then put forward the corresponding develop-ment countermeasures on the basis of the different types of tourist cities.%交通通达性能够客观真实地反映出地区旅游业发展在交通建设方面的现状以及存在的问题。随着我国航空和铁路建设的快速发展,远程长途旅游变得越来越容易,对于旅游城市来说,如何吸引远程游客成为一个不可忽视的重要问题。基于以上考虑,本文在全国范围内选取了33个主要旅游城市,从航空和铁路两个角度对比分析城市交通通达水平,并在此基础上对不同类型的旅游城市提出了相应的发展对策。

  7. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case

  8. A fault tolerant superheat control strategy for supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Rasmussen, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    in a plug & play fashion. The strategy is outlined by means of procedural steps as well as a flow chart that also illustrates the process of automatic tuning of the maximum slope-seeking controller. Test results are furthermore presented for a display case in a full scale CO2 supermarket refrigeration......In this paper, a fault tolerant control (FTC) strategy is proposed for evaporator superheat control in supermarket refrigeration systems. Conventional control uses a pressure and temperature sensor for this purpose, however, the pressure sensor can fail to function. A contingency control strategy......, based on a maximum slope-seeking control method and only a single temperature sensor, is developed to drive the evaporator outlet temperature to a level that gives a suitable superheat of the refrigerant. The FTC strategy requires no a priori system knowledge or additional hardware and functions...

  9. IS CATEGORY MANAGEMENT IN SMALL SUPERMARKETS WORTH THE EFFORT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Angotti Guissoni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Category management (CM is an important tool to strengthen the relationship between manufacturers and retailers. This process has been associated with large corporate retailers; however, some recent researches show that CM is open to companies of any type or size. This possibility is important in emerging markets, where neighborhood supermarkets are still representative and are often considered an alternative for manufacturers to achieve higher margins compared to big chains. In this context, the aim of this research was to analyze the results of a CM initiative in small neighborhood supermarkets from a manufacturer perspective. Data for the study comes from a food manufacturer in Brazil that implemented a CM process with 180 small retailers. A quantitative analysis was conducted in order to analyze the effect of the program on the food manufacturer’s sales and market share. Our analysis suggests an overall positive effect of the program on both, sales and market share

  10. A new heat pump desiccant dehumidifier for supermarket application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R. M.; Castellotti, F. [Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, Vicenza (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    Recently a new equipment for dehumidification was put onto the market. It is a self-regenerating liquid desiccant cooling system able to dehumidify, heating or cooling the ambient air by an electric heat pump that is a part of the equipment. Its operation is here studied in a supermarket application where air temperature and relative humidity play a very important role and the air-conditioning becomes necessary not only to assure a suitable thermal comfort, but also to make the refrigerated display cabinets operate properly. In this paper possible energy savings, compared to a traditional mechanical dehumidification, are evaluated by means of a numerical model that simulates a typical Italian supermarket. (author)

  11. The supermarket model with arrival rate tending to one

    CERN Document Server

    Brightwell, Graham

    2012-01-01

    In the supermarket model, there are $n$ queues, each with a single server. Customers arrive in a Poisson process with arrival rate $\\lambda n$, where $\\lambda = \\lambda (n) \\in (0,1)$. Upon arrival, a customer selects $d=d(n)$ servers uniformly at random, and joins the queue of a least-loaded server amongst those chosen. Service times are independent exponentially distributed random variables with mean~1. In this paper, we analyse the behaviour of the supermarket model in a regime where $\\lambda(n)$ tends to~1, and $d(n)$ tends to infinity, as $n \\to \\infty$. For suitable triples $(n,d,\\lambda)$, we identify a subset ${\\cal N}$ of the state space where the process remains for a long time in equilibrium. We further show that the process is rapidly mixing when started in ${\\cal N}$, and give bounds on the speed of mixing for more general initial conditions.

  12. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Demand-Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Stoustrup

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of supermarket refrigeration systems for supervisory control in the smart grid is presented in this paper. A modular modeling approach is proposed in which each module is modeled and identified separately. The focus of the work is on estimating the power consumption of the system while estimating the cold reservoir temperatures as well. The models developed for each module as well as for the overall integrated system are validated by real data collected from a supermarket in Denmark. The results show that the model is able to estimate the actual electrical power consumption with a high fidelity. Moreover a simulation benchmark is introduced based on the produced model for demand-side management in smart grid. Finally, a potential application of the proposed benchmark in direct control of the power/energy consumption is presented by a simple simulation example.

  13. Supermarkets in Portugal: corporate social responsibility image, attitude towards the brand and purchase intention

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Inês Veiga

    2010-01-01

    Recently, companies developed strategies which may influence their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) image. This paper discusses the image of four different supermarkets with stores in Portugal. The research compares CSR image and brand attitude of the four supermarkets. Empirical evidence shows that different supermarkets belonging to the same company have different CSR image and brand attitude. The research also confirms that there is positive correlation between CSR imag...

  14. Eat for health: a nutrition and cancer control supermarket intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, L; Tenney, J; Portnoy, B; Kessler, L; Rodgers, A B; Patterson, B; Mathews, O; Katz, E; Blair, J E; Evans, S K

    1989-01-01

    The growing evidence linking dietary patterns to the incidence and prevention of chronic disease has prompted a number of prominent health and scientific agencies to publish dietary guidelines for the public. Some dietary guidelines address specific diseases, such as cancer or heart disease; others focus on overall health promotion. This situation has created a demand for nutrition education and information programs for the public. Increasingly, supermarkets are seen as potential sites for effective consumer education. Eat for Health is a joint research study by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and Giant Food Inc., a regional supermarket chain in the Washington-Baltimore area. The study's goal was to test the feasibility of supermarkets as a site for consumer nutrition education. Eat for Health's educational focus was diet and cancer control issues in the context of dietary patterns that promote health. Particular attention was paid to reduction of fat intake and increases in consumption of dietary fiber from grains, vegetables, and fruits. Analysis of program results is currently underway; data should be available in early 1990.

  15. Design and Implementation of Smart Supermarket System for Vision Impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kavitha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The visually impaired people face a lot of challenges in their routine life. One such challenge is that they have to depend completely on others for purchasing. In this paper a solution hasbeen given to identify and purchase products in the supermarket. This system uses PIC microcontroller and RFID technology. The blind people are provided with low power RFID reader when they step into the supermarket. In the supermarket, products are segregated and placed in the shelves. Each shelf is integrated with a passive RFID tag along with unique ID which describes the category of the product andits specification. The passive tag information is read by the RFID reader and sent to microcontroller. The read tag ID is matched with recorded audio file in the APR9600 IC and played through the speaker which is embedded with the RFID reader. As the recorded audio file is unique to each product and clearly specifies about the product, they can decide about acquiring the item by listening to the audio. Onimplementing this method, blind people can satisfy their purchasing needs without others support.

  16. Energy Efficiency and Environmental Impact Analyses of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Zha, Shitong [Hillphoenix

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents energy and life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analyses of a variety of supermarket refrigeration systems to identify designs that exhibit low environmental impact and high energy efficiency. EnergyPlus was used to model refrigeration systems in a variety of climate zones across the United States. The refrigeration systems that were modeled include the traditional multiplex DX system, cascade systems with secondary loops and the transcritical CO2 system. Furthermore, a variety of refrigerants were investigated, including R-32, R-134a, R-404A, R-1234yf, R-717, and R-744. LCCP analysis was used to determine the direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the operation of the various refrigeration systems over their lifetimes. Our analysis revealed that high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration systems may result in up to 44% less energy consumption and 78% reduced carbon dioxide emissions compared to the baseline multiplex DX system. This is an encouraging result for legislators, policy makers and supermarket owners to select low emission, high-efficiency commercial refrigeration system designs for future retrofit and new projects.

  17. Analytic Network Process on Financial Access of the Small and Medium Enterprise in Sharia Banking in Tasikmalaya City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Suryanto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprise (SME has a significant role in national economic development. The increase of Small and Medium Enterprise is followed by the rise in employment absorbment and equity in income distribution. The capital constraint and the impedance of banking financial access have become the main problem to the Small and Medium entrepreneurs. The objectives of this research: 1 To identify the main factors as problems of Small and Medium Enterprises in having access to the financial institutions.2 To find the solutions of the research problems. This research used qualitative approach i.e. Analytic Network Process (ANP. For applying this method, it is expected to help the researchers in making measurement and sinthesis of some factors regarding the topic analyzed as well as finding the solution for problems faced by the SMEs. Data used in this research is primary data collected from questionaires and indepth interview with experts, practitioners, SMEs and regulators which then analyzed by structuringthe hierarchi into homogen clusters of the SMEs problems and solutions, measuring into ratio scale and building sinthesis. As the result, it becomes clear what factors impeding the financial access of the SMEs to banks. The results of this research shows that the difficulties of SMEs in accessing financial support in islamic financial institutions are internal problems of islamic banking i.e. 1 lack of financial assistance given to the SMEs, 2 the functions of islamic banking as business partners for SMEs is not optimal. Whereas the external problems in the SMEs is the disability in meeting the financial requirements asked by islamic banking that is collateral and business history. The solutions are: 1 internal solution; islamic banking should give business mentoring to SMEs that have received financial supports to minimalize the bad credits level. 2 external solution; the government should socialize islamic financial mechanism to SMEs as

  18. Climate-friendly refrigerators for supermarkets. Comparative assessment of supermarket refrigeration systems; Klimafreundlich Kuehlen im Supermarkt. Vergleichende Bewertung von Supermarktkaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-10-15

    On 5 September 2008, a meeting was held at the Federal Environmental Office (Umweltbundesamt, UBA) at Dessau where the results of the research project ''Comparative evaluation of the climate relevance of refrigeration plants and systems for supermarkets'' were presented and discussed among more than 50 experts. Towards the end of the meeting, the discussions became more heated as the underlying data base became the subject of attention. (orig.)

  19. Application of spatial analysis technology to the planning of access to oral health care for at-risk populations in Australian capital cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almado, Haidar; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Australians are one of the healthiest populations in the world but there is strong evidence that health inequalities exist. Australia has 23.1 million people spread very unevenly over -20 million square kilometres. This study aimed to apply spatial analysis tools to measure the spatial distribution of fixed adult public dental clinics in the eight metropolitan capital cities of Australia. All population data for metropolitan areas of the eight capital cities were integrated with socioeconomic data and health-service locations, using Geographic Information Systems, and then analysed. The adult population was divided into three subgroups according to age, consisting of 15-year-olds and over (n = 7.2 million), retirees 65 years and over (n = 1.2 million), and the elderly, who were 85 years and over (n = 0.15 million). It was evident that the States fell into two groups; Tasmania, Northern Territory, Australian Capital Territory and Western Australia in one cluster, and Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia in the other. In the first group, the average proportion of the population of low socioeconomic status living in metropolitan areas within 2.5 km of a government dental clinic is 13%, while for the other cluster, it is 42%. The clustering remains true at 5 km from the clinics. The first cluster finds that almost half (46%) of the poorest 30% of the population live within 5km of a government dental clinic. The other cluster of States finds nearly double that proportion (86%). The results from this study indicated that access distances to government dental services differ substantially in metropolitan areas of the major Australian capital cities.

  20. Ensuring safe access to medication for palliative care while preventing prescription drug abuse: innovations for American inner cities, rural areas, and communities overwhelmed by addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, Richard B

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes and develops novel components of community-oriented programs for creating and affording access to safe medication dispensing centers in existing retail pharmacies and in permanent or travelling pharmacy clinics that are guarded by assigned or off-duty police officers. Pharmacists at these centers would work with police, medical providers, social workers, hospital administrators, and other professionals in: planning and overseeing the safe storage of controlled substance medications in off-site community safe-deposit boxes; strengthening communication and cooperation with the prescribing medical provider; assisting the prescribing medical provider in patient monitoring (checking the state prescription registry, providing pill counts and urine samples); expanding access to lower-cost, and in some cases, abuse-resistant formulations of controlled substance medications; improving transportation access for underserved patients and caregivers to obtain prescriptions; and integrating community agencies and social networks as resources for patient support and monitoring. Novel components of two related community-oriented programs, which may be hosted outside of safe medication dispensing centers, are also suggested and described: (1) developing medication purchasing cooperatives (ie, to help patients, families, and health institutions afford the costs of medications, including tamper-or abuse-resistant/deterrent drug formulations); and (2) expanding the role of inner-city methadone maintenance treatment programs in palliative care (ie, to provide additional patient monitoring from a second treatment team focusing on narcotics addiction, and potentially, to serve as an untapped source of opioid medication for pain that is less subject to abuse, misuse, or diversion).

  1. Survey & Analysis on Park Accessible Signs Design in Tianjin City%天津市公园无障碍标识设计调研与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾巍杨; 王小荣

    2015-01-01

    Urban parks are green spaces beneficial for the elderly, disabled people and al kinds of people. Accessible signs in landscape environment are significant guides and notes. Though investigation on distribution and accessibility of signs from 27 major parks in Tianjin city, the existing design problems are identified. Under the guidance of universal design theories, according to the types of signs, physical features of al sorts of disabled people, with the method of subjective and quantitative analysis, the accessible design recommendations on each design element of landscape signs are summarized and put forward, including mounting height, signage scale, graphics, color, fonts, space spirit, maintenance etc.%城市公园是老年人、残疾人等各类人群活动的绿色场所,而无障碍标识在园林空间环境中具有重要的引导和提示作用。通过调研天津市27座主要公园的无障碍标识配置现状找出设计存在的问题,以通用设计理论为指导,根据标识的类型、障碍人群的类型及其生理特点,通过主观与量化分析相结合的方法进行研究,归纳和提出园林标识各设计要素的无障碍设计要点,包括安装高度、标识尺度、图形、色彩、字体、场所精神、管理维护等方面。

  2. Investigation and Heath Risk Assessment of Quinolone Antibiotics in Vegetables:Taking Supermarket Vegetables of Guangzhou City for an Exemple%蔬菜中喹诺酮类抗生素污染探查与风险评价:以广州市超市蔬菜为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小莲; 莫测辉; 李彦文; 王纪阳; 苏青云; 黄显东; 屈相龙

    2011-01-01

    Quinolones ( QNs ) including norfloxacin ( NOR ) , enrofolxacin ( ENR ), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and lomefloxacin ( LOM ) in vegetables sampled from supermarkets of Guangzhou were determined using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The detected frequencies of four quinolone compounds in vegetables were all above 90%. The maximum concentration of individual compounds was about 150 μg/kg. Total concentrations of quinolones ( ∑ QNs ) ranged from 10.16 to 193.25 μg/kg( D. W. ), with the average of 74.38 μg/kg and the orders for different kinds of vegetables as followed: melon-fruit vegetable ( 91.29 μg/kg ) > rhizome vegetable ( 82. 09 μg/kg ) > leafy vegetable ( 52.30 μg/kg ), and green vegetable ( 104.49 μg/kg) > pollution-free vegetable( 79.06 μg/kg) > organic vegetable ( 62.38 μg/kg) > routinely cultivated vegetable( 61.23 μg/kg).The average intake and the maximum intake of CIP + ENR for human body via vegetable consumption were 1.8 μg and 3.7 μg respectively,which were lower than those with the maximum intake limit (10 μg) via meat consumption. So it can be concluded that quinolone antibiotics in vegetables were frequently detected. Though their concentrations and health risks to human body were relatively lower, potential health risk should not be neglected for long term intake and synergism of various antibiotics.%基于超声提取-固相萃取(MW-SPE)预处理方法和高效液相色谱-串联质谱(HPLC-MS/MS)分析技术,对广州市超市蔬菜中4种喹诺酮类抗生素(QNs)的污染状况进行探查与健康风险评价.结果表明,4种喹诺酮类化合物的检出率均大于90%,蔬菜(干重,下同)中单个化合物最高含量约150μg/kg,总含量(∑QNs)在10.16~193.25μg/kg之间,平均为74.38μg/kg,其中瓜果类(91.29μg/kg)>根茎类(82.09μg/kg)>叶菜类(52.30μg/kg),绿色蔬菜(104.49μg/kg)>无公害蔬菜(79.06μg/kg)>有机蔬菜(62.38μg/kg)>普通蔬菜(61.23μg/kg

  3. Qualidade de produtos minimamente processados e comercializados em gôndolas de supermercados nas cidades de Lavras - MG, Brasília - DF e São Paulo - SP Quality of fresh-cut produce commercialized on supermarket shelves in the cities of Lavras-MG, Brasília-DF, and São Paulo-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Ranieli Ferreira de Paula

    2009-02-01

    quality of fresh-cut produce collected from shelves of supermarkets in Lavras, Brasília and São Paulo as so to guide their suppliers and consumers for the need for an increased quality control due to the risks of contamination of raw material by pathogenic and decay-causing microorganisms. 144 samples were submitted to pH, titratable acidity, soluble solid analyses and microbiological analyses (coliforms at 45ºC, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli. The results showed significant alterations in pH values. A decrease in acidity and soluble solids during storage was found. Contamination by coliforms at 45ºC during manufacture was verified in 50% of the presence verified. We have isolated Escherichia coli, which evidences contamination coming from inadequately cleaned raw material or by their presence on the handlers. However, no contamination by Salmonella sp. was detected. Our results indicate the need of the implementation of the Good Handling Practices for the quality control of these produce.

  4. Determinants of Food Label Use among Supermarket Shoppers: A Singaporean Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Santosh; Lwin, May O.; Chao, Jiang; Au, Cyndy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Examining factors influencing food label use among Singapore's supermarket shoppers using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A point-of-purchase survey among general shoppers in 2 supermarkets. Setting: Singapore, a country whose population is exposed to a wide range of food labeling formats because of the import-dependent nature…

  5. A Comparison of the Sodium Content of Supermarket Private-Label and Branded Foods in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Haskelberg, Hila; Wu, Jason H Y

    2015-08-21

    Supermarket private-label products are perceived to be lower quality than their branded counterparts. Excess dietary sodium in foods contributes to high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Sodium concentrations in products are an important indicator of quality. We compared the sodium content of 15,680 supermarket private-label and branded products, available in four Australian supermarkets between 2011-2013, overall and for 15 food categories. Mean sodium values were compared for: (1) all products in 2013; (2) products in both 2011 and 2013; and (3) products only in 2013. Comparisons were made using paired and unpaired t tests. In each year the proportion of supermarket private-label products was 31%-32%, with overall mean sodium content 17% (12%-23%) lower than branded products in 2013 (p ≤ 0.001). For products available in both 2011 and 2013 there was a ≤2% (1%-3%) mean sodium reduction overall with no difference in reformulation between supermarket private-label and branded products (p = 0.73). New supermarket private-label products in 2013 were 11% lower in sodium than their branded counterparts (p = 0.02). Supermarket private-label products performed generally better than branded in terms of their sodium content. Lower sodium intake translates into lower blood pressure; some supermarket private-label products may be a good option for Australians needing to limit their sodium intake.

  6. Vegetable Supply Chains of Supermarkets in Sichuan, China and the Implications for Supply Chain Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Fu, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of supermarkets in the inland province of Sichuan in China over the past decade, with special attention to vegetable products. Both foreign and domestic supermarkets are expanding in the region with different store formats. Five types of vegetable p

  7. A Point-of-Purchase Intervention Featuring In-Person Supermarket Education Affects Healthful Food Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). Setting and Participants: A supermarket in a…

  8. A Comparison of the Sodium Content of Supermarket Private-Label and Branded Foods in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Trevena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Supermarket private-label products are perceived to be lower quality than their branded counterparts. Excess dietary sodium in foods contributes to high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Sodium concentrations in products are an important indicator of quality. We compared the sodium content of 15,680 supermarket private-label and branded products, available in four Australian supermarkets between 2011–2013, overall and for 15 food categories. Mean sodium values were compared for: (1 all products in 2013; (2 products in both 2011 and 2013; and (3 products only in 2013. Comparisons were made using paired and unpaired t tests. In each year the proportion of supermarket private-label products was 31%–32%, with overall mean sodium content 17% (12%–23% lower than branded products in 2013 (p ≤ 0.001. For products available in both 2011 and 2013 there was a ≤2% (1%–3% mean sodium reduction overall with no difference in reformulation between supermarket private-label and branded products (p = 0.73. New supermarket private-label products in 2013 were 11% lower in sodium than their branded counterparts (p = 0.02. Supermarket private-label products performed generally better than branded in terms of their sodium content. Lower sodium intake translates into lower blood pressure; some supermarket private-label products may be a good option for Australians needing to limit their sodium intake.

  9. "But Pasta Is Pasta, It Is All the Same": The Language, Literacy and Numeracy Challenges of Supermarket Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastwell, Kim; Strauss, Pat; Kell, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an ethnographically based study of entry level supermarket work. The study, carried out in a large suburban supermarket in Auckland, New Zealand, focused on the literacy and numeracy practices of supermarket assistants, all who had English as an additional language. It found that skills such as oral communication, personal…

  10. A survey to access knowledge and practice among dentists regarding local anesthetic dosage in three cities of Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Singh Kaira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Local anesthetics are the most commonly used drugs in routine dentistry. Although they are considered effective and safe in controlling pain during dental procedures, complications related to their use appear inevitable. Many dentists use these drugs routinely but are unaware of the dose calculations required and the maximum safe and effective dose of the drug. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed to determine the knowledge that general dental practitioners and dental specialists, in three different cities in India, have regarding dose calculations and the maximum-dose required of the most commonly used local anesthetics. A one page survey questionnaire was used in this study and data were analyzed using standard SPSS statistical program version 11, software (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois, USA. Results: The respondents comprised 71.4% general dental practitioners and 28.5% dental specialists, with ages ranging from 26 to 50 years; Nearly 75% of the total respondent was males and 25% females. Nearly 69% of the respondents were unaware of the maximum recommended dose for use on adult, healthy patients and 81% were still confused about the maximum numbers of syringes containing 2% lignocaine with adrenaline that can be given to a patient. A total of 49% of general dental practitioners and specialists do not perform aspiration when injecting local anesthetics, whereas only 38% performed the aspiration in inferior nerve block technique, while only 12% performed aspiration in all types of injection techniques. A high percentage of the dentists (84% who responded are unaware of how to calculate the local anesthetic dose and 31% of them encountered complications during, or after, local anesthetic administration. Conclusion: General practitioners and dental specialists appear to have an inadequate knowledge about local anesthetics maximum-dose and dose calculations; further educational courses are recommended to update them regarding such

  11. Breakeven Prices for Photovoltaics on Supermarkets in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Clark, N.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-03-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) breakeven price is the PV system price at which the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. This point is also called 'grid parity' and can be expressed as dollars per watt ($/W) of installed PV system capacity. Achieving the PV breakeven price depends on many factors, including the solar resource, local electricity prices, customer load profile, PV incentives, and financing. In the United States, where these factors vary substantially across regions, breakeven prices vary substantially across regions as well. In this study, we estimate current and future breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets in the United States. We also evaluate key drivers of current and future commercial PV breakeven prices by region. The results suggest that breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets vary significantly across the United States. Non-technical factors -- including electricity rates, rate structures, incentives, and the availability of system financing -- drive break-even prices more than technical factors like solar resource or system orientation. In 2020 (where we assume higher electricity prices and lower PV incentives), under base-case assumptions, we estimate that about 17% of supermarkets will be in utility territories where breakeven conditions exist at a PV system price of $3/W; this increases to 79% at $1.25/W (the DOE SunShot Initiative's commercial PV price target for 2020). These percentages increase to 26% and 91%, respectively, when rate structures favorable to PV are used.

  12. A mixed-method examination of food marketing directed towards children in Australian supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah; James, Erica L; Stacey, Fiona G; Bowman, Jennifer; Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of children's food requests, and parents' experiences of food marketing directed towards children, in the supermarket environment. A mixed-method design was used. Firstly, intercept interviews were conducted with parents accompanied by a child/children on exiting supermarkets (sampled from a large regional centre in Australia). Parents were asked about the prevalence and types of food requests by child/children during their supermarket visit and whether they purchased these foods. Secondly, focus groups (n = 13) and telephone interviews (n = 3) were conducted exploring parents' experiences of supermarket shopping with children and the impact of child-directed marketing. Of the 158 intercept survey participants (30% response rate), 73% reported a food request during the supermarket visit. Most requested food items (88%) were unhealthy foods, with chocolate/confectionery being the most common food category requested (40%). Most parents (70%) purchased at least one food item requested during the shopping trip. Qualitative interviews identified four themes associated with food requests and prompts in the supermarket: parents' experience of pester power in the supermarket; prompts for food requests in the supermarket; parental responses to pestering in the supermarket environment, and; strategies to manage pestering and minimize requests for food items. Food requests from children are common during supermarket shopping. Despite the majority of the requests being unhealthy, parents often purchase these foods. Parents reported difficulties dealing with constant requests and expressed desire for environmental changes including confectionery-free checkouts, minimization of child friendly product placement and reducing children's exposure to food marketing.

  13. Study of the incidence of intestinal parasites in vegetables commercializes in free trade fair and supermarket Londrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ruzzon Nomura

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the presence of intestinal parasites in samples of lettuce and chicory sold in street market and supermarket Londrina city, Paraná. For this purpose, eight samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa and eight samples of chicory (Cichorium intybus were collected and analyzed. The analysis was performed at the Laboratory for Extension and Research in Enteroparasitosis – L.E.P.En. Cysts of Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, Hookworm larvae and eggs, and eggs of Ascaris spp were found in the samples. These results demonstrate the need for hygienic-sanitary measures, aimed at educating the community, enabling the improvement in living conditions of the population.

  14. Open refrigerating display case 'MAX series' for supermarkets; Supermarket muke denki reizo open showcase (MAX series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, E.; Sudo, H.; Aoyama, Y. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-10

    Fuji Electric has developed the open refrigerating display case 'MAX Series' for supermarkets which has further pursued 'articles easy to see, select, and take out' on the concept of 'friendliness' as well as friendliness to customers and installation workers. Its main advantages are (1) The dimensions were determined based on human engineering and improved the display effect of articles. This enables the exhibits to strongly appeal to customers. (2) The air curtain optimized through simulation realizes uniform temperature in the case, reduction in energy consumption, and high freshness control. (author)

  15. Aquifer thermal storage (ATES) for air-conditioning of a supermarket in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paksoy, H.O.; Turgut, B.; Dikici, D.; Evliya, H. [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Faculty of Arts and Sciences; Gurbuz, Z. [Gurbuz Engineering Co., Adana (Turkey)

    2004-10-01

    A heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system with integrated aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) was designed for a supermarket building in Mersin, a city near the Mediterranean coast in Turkey (36{sup o} 49' N and 34{sup o} 36' E). This is the first ATES application carried out in Turkey. The peak cooling and heating loads of the building are 195 and 74 kW, respectively. The general objective of the system is to use the groundwater from the aquifer to cool down the condenser of the HVAC system and at the same time storing this waste heat in the aquifer. Cooling with groundwater at around 18 {sup o}C instead of utilizing outside summer air at 30-35 {sup o}C decreases consumption of electrical energy significantly. In addition, stored heat can be recovered when it is needed in winter. The HVAC system with ATES started operation in August 2001 in cooling mode with an average coefficient of performance (COP) of 4.18, which is almost 60% higher than a conventional system. (author)

  16. Hybrid HVAC systems with chemical dehumidification for supermarket applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozzoli, Alfonso; Mazzei, Pietro; Minichiello, Francesco; Palma, Daniele [DETEC, University of Naples Federico II, P.le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Naples (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    HVAC systems in supermarkets must assure both thermal comfort for occupants and suitable climatic conditions for refrigerated cases, which operate better with low ambient relative humidity (40-45%). Since open display cases substantially reduce sensible load and moderately reduce latent load, ambient sensible/total heat load ratio is less than usual. Thus, if dehumidification is carried out with a traditional cooling coil, over-sizing of the coil and re-heating of the treated air are necessary, with energy and economic waste. To offset these disadvantages, hybrid HVAC systems with chemical dehumidification may be employed. In this paper a case study is presented in which a traditional HVAC system is compared to hybrid systems with chemical dehumidification. Dynamic simulation codes (DOE and DesiCalc{sup (}TM)) and test reference year data (TRY), opportunely elaborated, have been used. Annual operating costs have been estimated and large savings have been obtained with hybrid systems. Considerable reduction of electric energy demand as well as better control of thermal-hygrometric conditions were noted. A simple payback of about 1 year has been obtained. Finally, a virtual retrofitting operation on 30% of the existing HVAC systems in Italian supermarkets has shown significant operating cost savings. [Author].

  17. Analysis of synchronization in a supermarket refrigeration system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafael WISNIEWSKI; John LETH; Jakob G. RASMUSSEN

    2014-01-01

    In a supermarket refrigeration, the temperature in a display case, surprisingly, influences the temperature in other display cases. This leads to a synchronous operation of all display cases, in which the expansion valves in the display cases turn on and off at exactly the same time. This behavior increases both the energy consumption and the wear of components. Besides this practical importance, from the theoretical point of view, synchronization, likewise stability, Zeno phenomenon, and chaos, is an interesting dynamical phenomenon. The study of synchronization in the supermarket refrigeration systems is the subject matter of this work. For this purpose, we model it as a hybrid system, for which synchronization corresponds to a periodic trajectory. To examine whether it is stable, we transform the hybrid system to a single dynamical system defined on a torus. Consequently, we apply a Poincar ´e map to determine whether this periodic trajectory is asymptotically stable. To illustrate, this procedure is applied for a refrigeration system with two display-cases.

  18. Energy-efficient lighting applications in a supermarket environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammer, D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the application of energy-efficient lighting in a retail environment, specifically a supermarket. It will reveal the general theory behind Big V`s chosen lighting design, and then discuss two examples of the application: one, a retrofit to an existing supermarket; the other, the adaption of the design to a new store. The factors that influence Big V`s lighting design are: (1) the best presentation of product for merchandising purposes, and (2) the lowest operating cost. These two factors can often be mutually exclusive. For merchandising purposes, the best design would make the product `jump off the shelf` at a customer, preferably into his/her shopping cart. Such an arrangement would include high footcandle levels along with a very high color rendering index (CRI). To design only to these requirements would result in very high original and operating costs for the lighting system. However, to base the design on cost considerations alone would result in low light levels at a very low CRI. Since neither option is acceptable, Big V`s design is a compromise, combining the best light quality at a reasonable cost.

  19. Is a reduction in distance to nearest supermarket associated with BMI change among type 2 diabetes patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Tara; Laraia, Barbara A; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Blanchard, Samuel D; Warton, E Margaret; Moffet, Howard H; Karter, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    We examined whether residing within 2 miles of a new supermarket opening was longitudinally associated with a change in body mass index (BMI). We identified 12 new supermarkets that opened between 2009 and 2010 in 8 neighborhoods. Using the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry, we identified members with type 2 diabetes residing continuously in any of these neighborhoods 12 months prior to the first supermarket opening until 10 months following the opening of the last supermarket. Exposure was defined as a reduction (yes/no) in travel distance to the nearest supermarket as a result of a new supermarket opening. First difference regression models were used to estimate the impact of reduced supermarket distance on BMI, adjusting for longitudinal changes in patient and neighborhood characteristics. Among patients in the exposed group, new supermarket openings reduced travel distance to the nearest supermarket by 0.7 miles on average. However, reduced distance to nearest supermarket was not associated with BMI changes. Overall, we found no evidence that reduced supermarket distance was associated with reduced levels of obesity for residents with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Investigation of Energy-Efficient Supermarket Display Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.H.

    2005-01-21

    Supermarkets represent one of the largest energy-intensive building groups in the commercial sector, consuming 2 to 3 million kWh/yr per store (ES-1). Over half of this energy use is for the refrigeration of food display cases and storage coolers. Display cases are used throughout a supermarket for the merchandising of perishable food products. The cases are maintained at air temperatures ranging from -10 to 35 F, depending upon the type of product stored. The operating characteristics and energy requirements of the refrigeration system are directly related to the refrigeration load. The sources of the display case refrigeration load consist of: (1) Moist and warm air infiltration through the open front of the case--air curtains are employed to inhibit this infiltration, but some ambient air is entrained, which adds a substantial portion to the refrigeration load. (2) Heat conduction through case panels and walls. (3) Thermal radiation from the ambient to the product and display case interior. (4) Internal thermal loads--the use of lights, evaporator fans, periodic defrosts, and antisweat heaters adds to the refrigeration load of the display case as well as directly consuming electric energy. The impact of each of these elements on the refrigeration load is very dependent upon case type (Figure ES-1). For example, air infiltration is the most significant portion of the refrigeration load for open, multi-deck cases, while radiation is the largest part of the load for tub-type cases. The door anti-sweat heaters represent a major share of the refrigeration load for frozen food door reach-in cases. Figure ES-2 shows the distribution of display cases in a typical supermarket (ES-2). Open, multi-deck, medium temperature display cases typically comprise about half of the refrigerated fixtures in a store (ES-3). In addition, medium temperature fixtures and storage coolers account for roughly 70 to 75 percent of the total store refrigeration load with open, multi-deck cases

  1. AGENT AND RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION BASED ARCHITECTURE FOR SUPERMARKET INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Al-Sakran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the acceptance of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology in business environments has been increasing rapidly due to its competitive business value. Adopting a suitable RFID-based information system has become increasingly important for supermarkets. However, most supermarkets still use conventional barcode-based systems to manage their information processes, which are consistently reported as one of the most unenthusiastic aspects of supermarket shopping for both customers and management. We propose an RFID agent-based architecture that adopts intelligent agent technology with an RFID based applications. RFID provides capability to uniquely identify an object within a supermarket area, while agents are able to establish a channel of communication which can be used to facilitate communications between a RFID device and supermarket back-end system. The proposed framework includes a design of intelligent mobile shopping cart equipped with both RFID and agent technologies. As a result of using the proposed RFID agent based architecture, the customer shopping experience will be improved due to ease of retrieving of the detailed information on items and quick checkout by scanning all items at once, thus eliminating queues. From supermarket management point of view the proposed architecture will reduce the cost of operation e.g., decreasing cost of goods sold which comes in the form of labor efficiency in areas of checkout operation, inventory management and alerting the supermarket management when a certain product is running out of stock and needs to be restocked.

  2. Introduction to the RFID Technology in the Application of the Smart Supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Binbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RFID technology is no stranger to more or less have contacted various of industries in nowadays. Premier wen Jiabao put forward the “experience China” in 2009, after the application of IOT (Internet of things is rocketed development and RFID technology is absolutely necessary as the core of IOT. On the experiment background of campus supermarket, this paper briefly introduces the application of RFID technology in the intelligent supermarket that mainly included four parts. Through analysis of system, it detailed interpretation that IOT bring changes to campus supermarket.

  3. Effect of production system, supermarket and purchase date on the vitamin D content of eggs at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Kliem, Kirsty E; Lovegrove, Julie A; Givens, D I

    2017-04-15

    The vitamin D content of eggs from three retail outlets was measured over five months to examine the effects of production system (organic vs. free range vs. indoor), supermarket and purchase date on the concentration of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Results demonstrated a higher vitamin D3 concentration in free range (57.2±3.1μg/kg) and organic (57.2±3.2μg/kg) compared with indoor (40.2±3.1μg/kg) (PD synthesis by birds having more access to sunlight, while 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration was higher (PD may relate to some incorrect labelling. Concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was higher (PD concentrations in eggs from different sources, thus highlighting the importance of accurate labelling.

  4. Anti-synchronizing control for supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Thybo, Claus; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—A supermarket refrigeration system is a hybrid system with switched nonlinear dynamics and discrete-valued input variables such as opening/closing of valves and start/stop of compressors. Practical and simulation studies have shown that the use of distributed hysteresis controllers...... to operate the valves leads to synchronization, meaning that the opening and closing actions of the valves coincide. Consequently, the compressor periodically has to work hard resulting in low efficiency, inferior control performance and a high wear on the compressor. In this paper we propose two control...... schemes of low complexity for desynchronizing the valve operations while improving performance. Simulation results indicate the potential increase in efficiency and reduction in wear comparing with traditional control schemes....

  5. Tracking genes from seed to supermarket: techniques and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Carol A

    2003-12-01

    Analytical techniques to track plant genes in the environment and the food chain are essential for environmental risk assessment, government regulation and production and trade of genetically modified (GM) crops. Here, I review laboratory techniques to track plant genes during pre-commercialization research on gene flow and post-commercialization detection, identification and quantification of GM crops from seed to supermarket. At present, DNA- and protein-based assays support both activities but the demand for fast, inexpensive, sensitive methods is increasing. Part of the demand has been generated by stringent food labeling and traceability regulations for GM crops. The increase in GM crops, changes in GM crop design, evolution of government regulations and adoption of risk-assessment frameworks will continue to drive development of analytical techniques.

  6. Supermarket refrigerators with natural refrigerants; Supermarktkaelteanlagen mit natuerlichen Kaeltemitteln. Erfahrungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaf, S.; Heinbokel, B. [Linde AG, Koeln (Germany). Gechaeftsbereich Linde Kaeltetechnik

    2002-09-01

    In view of the high contribution to global warming of H-CFC refrigerants, substitution has been a key concern for several years now. Leakage protection measures were enhanced, and Linde also installed many supermarket refrigerators with natural refrigerants, i.e. ammonia, propene and carbon dioxide. The environmental and economic aspects are assessed on the basis of the experience gained, and the systems are compared with H-CFC refrigeration systems. [German] Wegen des betraechtlichen Treibhauspotentials von HFKW-Kaeltemitteln werden seit Jahren Anstrengungen unternommen, um den von diesen Stoffen ausgehenden Treibhauseffekt zu reduzieren. Neben Massnahmen zur Verminderung von Leckagen sowie zur Verringerung von Kaeltemittel-Fuellmengen wurden im Laufe der letzten 10 Jahre von Linde auch zahlreiche Kaelteanlagen mit den natuerlichen Kaeltemitteln Ammoniak, Propen und Kohlendioxid in Supermaerkten installiert. Auf Basis der gesammelten Erfahrungen wird eine Einschaetzung der umweltspezifischen und wirtschaftlichen Aspekte im Vergleich zu Anlagen mit HFKW-Kaeltemitteln vorgenommen. (orig.)

  7. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems with EnergyPlus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Supermarket refrigeration capabilities were first added to EnergyPlus in 2004. At that time, it was possible to model a direct expansion (DX) rack system with multiple refrigerated cases. The basic simulation software handles all the building energy uses, typically on a 5 to 10 minute time step throughout the period of interest. The original refrigeration module included the ability to model the sensible and latent interactions between the refrigerated cases and the building HVAC system, along with some basic heat recovery capabilities. Over the last few years, the refrigeration module has been expanded to handle more complex systems, such as secondary loops, shared condensers, cascade condensers, subcoolers, and walk-in coolers exchanging energy with multiple conditioned zones.

  8. When Supermarket Consumers get Stocked in the Middle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Møller Jensen, Jan; Stubbe Solgaard, Hans

    2011-01-01

    at medium prices are “stocked in the middle” even though their value package may seem fair when calculated as value=quality/price. Specifically, consumers with a high-quality/low-price preference structure can more easily justify visits to retailers providing either high quality at high prices or low...... quality at low prices; this being the case even though their value preference is only partially served....../or preferences are met. Design/methodology/approach – Survey data were collected from 130 consumers using self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to test the authors' proposed hypotheses. Findings – According to consumers, not many supermarkets offer high quality at low prices...

  9. Discounts on fruit and vegetables combined with a space management intervention increased sales in supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, U; Winkler, L L; Mikkelsen, B E

    2017-01-01

    management intervention to promote F&V sales was performed in two large discount supermarkets on Bornholm in Denmark for 3 months (September-November 2012). In addition, a 20% discount on F&V was introduced for 3 months in one of the supermarkets ('space + price'). The effect was evaluated using sales data...... the price intervention period, the index number for sales of fresh vegetables increased by 22.2% (P=0.001) in the 'space + price' intervention supermarket compared with the control supermarkets. Furthermore, the index number for the sale of organic fresh fruit and vegetables increased by 12.1% (P=0...... were found. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, a 20% price reduction on F&V significantly increased sales of F&V. The effect was most pronounced on vegetables and no negative/unhealthy substitution effects were found.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 1 February 2017; doi:10...

  10. Plant-wide dynamic and static optimisation of supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh;

    2013-01-01

    Optimising the operation of a supermarket refrigeration system under dynamic as well as steadystate conditions is addressedin thispaper. For thispurpose anappropriateperformance function that encompasses food quality, system efficiency, and also component reliability is established. The choice...

  11. Trends and perspectives for supermarket refrigeration systems; Trends und Perspektiven fuer Supermarkt-Kaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffeld, M. [Hochschule Karlsruhe - Technik und Wirtschaft (Germany). Inst. fuer Kaelte-, Klima- und Umwelttechnik

    2008-04-15

    This paper describes the latest trends and perspectives in supermarket refrigeration. Focus is on improving energy efficiency, reducing refrigerant charge and using natural refrigerants. Several alternative systems such as indirect, distributed, cascade and two-stage are described. (orig.)

  12. Marketing Strategies: own brands as a competitive differential in the supermarket market

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Tereza de; Queiroz, Tatiana Silva de; Campos,Domingos Fernandes; Vieira, Ricardo Sergio Gomes

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study marketing strategies and customer’s perception in relation to the own-brand offered by the supermarket sector. The research had an exploratory and descriptive feature. In the exploratory phase the managers of three great networks of supermarkets were interviewed; in the descriptive phase 240 customers were interviewed by using a structured gathering tool, originally compounded by closed questions, directed to the apprehension of data about their behavior...

  13. Isolated Sub-Dehumidification Strategies in Large Supermarkets and Grocery Stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with reducing the relative humidity in the vicinity of refrigerated display cases in supermarkets, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of maintaining a relatively higher and uniform humidity level throughout the entire supermarket. Existing and new strategies for maintaining lower relative humidity levels near the vicinity of refrigerated display cases were analyzed to determine their effectiveness and limits of application.

  14. Antitrust analysis of supermarkets: global concerns playing out in local markets

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic components of antitrust analysis for the supermarket industry, including definition of product and geographic markets and the measurement of market power. The analysis of prices and profits in a market structure context remains important, especially in countries such as Australia with very high supermarket concentration. Firm and brand level New Empirical Industrial Organisation models of demand and oligopoly pricing also provide insights for evaluating antitrust ...

  15. Market Basket Analysis for a Supermarket based on Frequent Itemset Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loraine Charlet Annie M.C.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Market basket analysis is an important component of analytical system in retail organizations to determine the placement of goods, designing sales promotions for different segments of customers to improve customer satisfaction and hence the profit of the supermarket. These issues for a leading supermarket are addressed here using frequent itemset mining. The frequent itemsets are mined from the market basket database using the efficient K-Apriori algorithm and then the association rules are generated.

  16. An Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of Different Commercial Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01

    Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the environmental impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.

  17. Modeling Analysis of Accessibility in City Catering Industry Baes d on 2 SFCA and Model Builder%基于2 SFCA 和 Model Builder 的城市餐饮服务业可达性建模分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华辰

    2015-01-01

    城市餐饮服务业是第三产业的重要支柱。合理地分析城市餐饮服务业在空间上的可达性是合理规划产业布局的重要前提,也是商家选址的重要依据。本文采用两步移动搜索分析法(2SFCA),基于Python语言和ArcGIS的Model Builder建模,以镇江城区为例,采用不同的服务半径阈值,分析了目前镇江城区的餐饮服务业可达性分异情况。研究结果表明:商家服务能力的提升和消费者的生活习惯很大程度影响着餐饮业的可达性指数,Model Builder的流程化建模在一定程度上简化了传统操作流程。%The city catering industry is an important part of the tertiary industry.Legitimately analyzing the accessibility of the city ca-tering industry on space is an important prerequisite for industry planning and business site selection.This paper uses two step floating catchment area method (2SFCA), is based on Python programming language and “Model Builder” module of ArcGIS, selects city part of Zhenjiang as a case, uses different thresholds of service radius, analyzes the accessibility differentiation of city catering industry in the city part of Zhenjiang.The results shows that accessibility value of city catering industry is deeply affected by business service improving and consumers’ consumption habits, and geoprocessing Modeling by Model Builder to some extent simplifies the traditional steps in accessibility analysis.

  18. Investigation on supermarket infestation of cockroaches and the control measures%大型超市蜚蠊侵害调查与防治措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张育富; 褚宏亮; 杨维芳; 刘大鹏; 陈志龙; 刘慧; 孙俊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the infestation and population distribution of cockroaches in supermarkets in Nanjing city, providing scientific basis for the control of cockroaches in supermarkets. Methods Four large supermarkets located in different positions in Nanjing city were selected and sticky trap method was applied to determine the encroachment rate and the density of cockroaches. The cockroach species were identified with the number counted and the encroachment rate and the density of cockroaches calculated. Results A total of 8894 cockroaches, all of which were Blattella germanica, were captured. It was found that the infestation of cockroaches in the supermarkets was serious with the encroachment rate amounting to 72.64% and the density being 16.78 per piece. Cockroaches were mainly distributed in storehouse, fresh section, deli section, produce section, food section and bakery of the supermarkets, where there were food and water. But relatively light infestation was seen in the department sections. Conclusion B. germanica has become the dominant species in the supermarkets, where infestation of cockroaches is serious, especially in the areas that are rich in food and water. Comprehensive control measures should be taken to effectively reduce the encroachment rate and the density of cockroaches.%目的 了解南京市大型超市蜚蠊侵害及种群分布等情况,探讨其防治措施,为超市蜚蠊防治提供科学依据.方法 选择南京市不同方位4家大型超市,采用粘捕法调查侵害率和密度,现场鉴定蜚蠊种类并计数,了解超市不同区域的蜚蠊分布情况,并分析其原因.结果 共捕获蜚蠊8894只,均为德国小蠊;超市蜚蠊侵害严重,侵害率达72.64%,密度为16.78只/张,主要分布在食源和水源丰富的库房、生鲜区、熟食区、蔬果区、食品区和面包房,百货区蜚蠊侵害程度相对较轻.结论 德国小蠊已成为超市侵害的优势种,以食源和水源丰富的区域

  19. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  20. Analysis of China's Rural Supermarket Chain Logistics Distribution%探析我国农村连锁超市的物流配送

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史纪

    2011-01-01

    连锁经营配送已成为一种现代的流通经营方式和组织形式,也是现代经济发展新的增长点。然而农村连锁经营配送是一个相对于城市物流的概念,它服务于农业生产和农村居民生活的需要。我国农村连锁超市的配送市场才刚刚起步,连锁超市的配送在拓展农村市场中还不完善,仍存在很多的问题。文章针对当前农村连锁超市配送市场中存在的几个主要问题进行了分析,并探讨几条解决问题的途径。%Distribution of chain retail business to become a modern circulation mode of operation and organizational forms,also is the modern new growth point of economic development.However the rural distribution of chain retail business is a relative to the concept of city logistics,it serves for agricultural production and rural residents needs.China's rural supermarket chain distribution market has just started,supermarket chain distribution in expanding the rural market is not perfect,there are still many problems.The article in view of the current rural supermarket chain distribution market in the presence of some problems are analyzed,and to explore the ways to solve the problem.

  1. Regional Difference of Spatial Distribution and Its Transport Accessibility of Chinese Excellent Tourism Cities%中国优秀旅游城市空间分布及其交通可达的地区差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡浩

    2013-01-01

    中国优秀旅游城市产生发展的过程是旅游城市宏观管理和基础设施空间效益组织的过程,也是伴随着中国现代旅游和城市建设逐步发展的过程.中国优秀旅游城市近20 a的理论探索和实践建设,取得巨大成绩的同时也存在着其空间分布的地域差异和交通可达的空间效益差异.基于ArcGIS空间定位和空间分析技术,对全国尺度、省级尺度、地市尺度下中国优秀旅游城市的空间格局及其1h、2h、3h交通可达的地区差异进行宏、中、微观的对比分析,结果发现:中国优秀旅游城市交通可达的地区差异与其全国范围的空间分布差异具有高度的一致性,以大理市到黑河市3h交通可达范围的连线为界限,呈明显的东多西少,南多北少的地理格局形态,不同时间距离的区域经济差异同时表现出以优秀旅游城市为中心的距离衰减特征,中国优秀旅游城市的发展建设有待进一步提高.%The process of emerging and developing in Chinese Excellent Tourism City is the process of macroscopic management and organization of tourism cities and its infrastructure spatial effect is also going hand in hand with the process of China's modem tourism development and China's city construction.In the past 20 years,theoretical exploration and practice construction have made great progress though there are also some problems in the spatial distribution and its spatial effect of the transport accessibility.In this article,regional differences of the spatial distribution and its transport accessibility in 1 hour,2 hours,3 hours of the Chinese Excellent Tourism Cities were compared with the ArcGIS spatial orientation and spatial analysis technology.And the results showed that:the regional differences of transport accessibility of Chinese Excellent Tourism Cities have a high degree of consistency to the nationwide spatial distribution differences.Firstly,there are a large number of Chinese

  2. Supermarket and Grocery Store–Based Interventions to Promote Healthful Food Choices and Eating Practices: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinen, Amy M.; Nitzke, Susan A.; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increasingly high rates of obesity have heightened interest among researchers and practitioners in identifying evidence-based interventions to increase access to healthful foods and beverages. Because most food purchasing decisions are made in food stores, such settings are optimal for interventions aimed at influencing these decisions. The objective of this review was to synthesize the evidence on supermarket and grocery store interventions to promote healthful food choices. Methods We searched PubMed through July 2012 to identify original research articles evaluating supermarket and grocery store interventions that promoted healthful food choices. We categorized each intervention by type of intervention strategy and extracted and summarized data on each intervention. We developed a scoring system for evaluating each intervention and assigned points for study design, effectiveness, reach, and availability of evidence. We averaged points for each intervention category and compared the strength of the evidence for each category. Results We identified 58 articles and characterized 33 interventions. We found 7 strategies used alone or in combination. The most frequently used strategy was the combination of point-of-purchase and promotion and advertising (15 interventions); evidence for this category was scored as sufficient. On average, of 3 points possible, the intervention categories scored 2.6 for study design, 1.1 for effectiveness, 0.3 for reach, and 2 for availability of evidence. Three categories showed sufficient evidence; 4 showed insufficient evidence; none showed strong evidence. Conclusion More rigorous testing of interventions aimed at improving food and beverage choices in food stores, including their effect on diet and health outcomes, is needed. PMID:23578398

  3. One sound velocity profile collected aboard the NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 1 in Berwick Bay near Morgan City, Louisiana on October 4, 2006 (NODC Accession 0013777)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A sound velocity profile was collected using a sound velocimeter cast in Berwick Bay near Morgan City, Louisiana on 04 October 2006 as part of project number...

  4. [Health on the borders: access to and demands on the Brazilian National Health System by foreigners and non-resident Brazilians in cities along the border with MERCOSUR countries from the perspective of municipal health secretaries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Ligia; Guimarães, Luisa; Nogueira, Vera Maria Ribeiro; Lobato, Lenaura de Vasconcelos Costa; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira

    2007-01-01

    In the context of forming common markets, border areas require special attention, since they anticipate the effects of integration processes. Along borders, different political, monetary, security, and social systems coexist; the intensification of flows resulting from integration raises challenges for the health systems, requiring specific policies focused on guaranteeing the right to health. This article presents the results of a study on the conditions for access to (and demands for) health services in the MERCOSUR border cities. A survey was performed with municipal health secretaries in the 69 Brazilian cities in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, and Mato Grosso do Sul that border on the other MERCOSUR countries. The study attempted to identify the services demanded by the border population, mechanisms used for access, flows between services and systems, response strategies, and local agreements. Initiatives for cooperation between Brazilian and foreign local administrators were identified in nearly half of the municipalities and can orient the formulation of guidelines for border situations, allowing improvement in comprehensive access to health care.

  5. Tourism Potential Analysis of the Medium and Small-sized Cultural Tourist Cities Based on Accessibility%基于可达性的中小文化旅游城市旅游潜力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡浩; 王姣娥; 金凤君

    2012-01-01

    Tourism potential is an important part of tourism industry planning studies. As the antecedent condition of tourism development and potentiality exploitation of cities, tourism traffic accessibility is always the key to breakthrough the bottleneck of tourism, especially in the medium and small sized cultural tourist cities that are under the effect of shielding in tourism development. There is a large quantity of tourism potential measure- ments and evaluations based on a certain type of tourism from the perspectives of markets and resources in the large and medium-sized cities, but relatively few studies are available on the tourism potential study of the medi- um and small sized cultural tourist cities by using accessibility concepts of tourism affected by the traffic of dif- ferent scales of regions. With the building of evaluation index system, this article evaluates the tourism traffic ac- cessibility for the nationwide 34 medium and small sized cultural tourist cities from macro scale, and analyzes the tourism traffic accessibility in the region of time accessibility hinterland based on lh, 2h and 3h traffic cir- cles on the micro scale. Combined with the evaluation and analysis results, we analyzed the tourism potential un- der the influence of the tourism traffic accessibility, and drew the conclusions that the tourism potential displays a high coefficient of correlation with the coefficient of traffic accessibility in medium and small sized cultural tourist cities. What is more, near the Sichuan Basin, the downstream and delta of the Yangtze River, cities with a high traffic accessibility coefficient will enhance the tourism accessibility of the small and medium-sized tour- ist cities under their governance, and will become the tourists stopover stations or important tourists potential markets of the medium and small sized cultural tourist cities. The higher economic output and better traffic con- ditions of the country regions and the adjacent areas

  6. 农村连锁超市客户配送体系建设研究%Study on Construction of Rural Chain Supermarket Customer Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉杰

    2012-01-01

    在商务部“万村千乡市场工程”的推动下,我国农村连锁超市有了巨大的发展.农村地区由于受特殊的经济和社会条件限制,对连锁超市的客户配送有着与城市不同的要求.只有建设完善的客户配送体系,农村连锁超市才能不断向纵深发展,创造更多的经济和社会效益.%In this paper we argued that due to the unique economic and social conditions of the rural area, customer distribution of chain supermarkets there are under different requirements as that in the cities and only through building a complete customer distribution system could chain supermarkets in rural areas create more economic and social benefits.

  7. 基于B2 M模式的城镇连锁超市商业模式研究%Based on the Pattern of B2M Town Supermarket Chain Business Model Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立鑫; 刘丙午; 李俊韬

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,with the vigorous development of the economy,under the background of gradually improvement of urbanization level,to carry out the supermarket chain business model of urbanization conditions has matured.However,because of the special background of urbanization,the economic developed area supermarket chain business model cannot be applied to general town city development.So in this paper,a special background,combining existing business model and rural environment, put forward appropriate B2M supermarket chain mode of urbanization development,and the model systematic analysis and research.%近年来,随着经济的蓬勃发展,在城镇化水平逐渐提高的背景下,开展城镇化连锁超市的商业模式的条件日渐成熟。然而由于城镇化的特殊背景,经济发达地区的连锁超市商业模式无法应用于普通城镇城市发展。因此就这一特殊背景,将现有商业模式与乡镇环境相结合,提出适宜城镇化发展的连锁超市B2 M模式,并就这一模式进行系统性分析研究。

  8. Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Archana P; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Liese, Angela D

    2013-09-01

    A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy).

  9. Total Energy. Sustainable cooling and heating in supermarkets; Total Energy. Duurzame koeling en verwarming supermarkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    In 8 articles attention is paid to different aspects of cooling and heating in supermarkets: new coolants in the food retail sector, the climate plan of the Dutch Food Retail Association (CBL), he Round Table discussion with between CBL and supermarket chains about research results, approach and targets, the use of CO2 refrigeration in supermarkets, leakage of coolants from refrigerators and freezers in Dutch supermarkets, the energy efficient and environment-friendly refrigerator and freezer equipment of the distribution centre of supermarket chain C1000 in Raalte, Netherlands, changes for cooling techniques in the EIA energy list (Energy investment deduction scheme) and finally education options for the refrigeration industry in the Netherlands. [Dutch] In 8 artikelen wordt aandacht geschonken aan verschillende aspecten m.b.t. koeling en verwarming in supermarkten: nieuwe koelmiddelen in de 'food retail sector, het klimaatplan van de brancheorganisatie Centraal Bureau Levensmiddelenhandel (CBL), het Rondetafel overleg met de CBL en supermarktketens over onderzoeksresultaten, aanpak en doelen, de toepassing van CO2 koeling in supermarkten, lekkage van koelmiddelen uit koel- en vriesinstallaties in Nederlandse supermarkten, de energiezuinige en milieuvriendelijke koel-vriesinstallatie van het distributiecentrum van de supermarktketen C1000 in Raalte, wijzigingen voor koeltechniek in de EIA energielijst (Energie Investeringsaftrek subsidieregeling), en tenslotte opleidingsmogelijkheden voor de koeltechnische sector in Nederland.

  10. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration - Heat Recovery Systems. Annex 26. Final report. Volume 2. Country reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    Annex 26 has produced three deliverables: (1) Workshop (October 2000) proceedings Stockholm, Sweden, on CD-ROM (HPP-AN26-1); (2) Final report, Volume 1, Executive Summary, as report (HPP-AN26-2); and (3) Final report, Volume 2, Country reports (described in this record). Each of these reports, available from the HPC, provide valuable information for practitioners (designers, installers) and manufacturers of supermarket refrigeration systems. Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating purposes seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because there are world-wide a great number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food and further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase substantially in the near future. Annex 26 analysed several advanced supermarket refrigeration systems and came to remarkable conclusions as far as energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusions justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system cost analyses and proposals for cost reductions are given.

  11. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration - Heat Recovery Systems. Annex 26. Final report. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. (ed.) [Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Annex 26 has produced three deliverables: (1) Workshop (October 2000) proceedings Stockholm, Sweden, on CD-ROM (HPP-AN26-1); (2) Final report, described in this record; and (3) Final report, Volume 2, Country reports, on CD-ROM (HPP-AN26-3). Each of these reports, available from the HPC, provide valuable information for practitioners (designers, installers) and manufacturers of supermarket refrigeration systems. Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating purposes seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because there are world-wide a great number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food and further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase substantially in the near future. Annex 26 analysed several advanced supermarket refrigeration systems and came to remarkable conclusions as far as energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusions justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system cost analyses and proposals for cost reductions are given.

  12. A NEW PARADIGM FOR INDIAN SUPERMARKET RETAILERS BASED ON CUSTOMER-CENTRIC STRATEGIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema S. Shenoy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Supermarket retailers in India admist fierce competition and the only way out is through the attainment of competitive advantage. Strategy is the route to attain competitive advantage that could facilitate firms attain superior performance. The objective of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework on customer-centric retail strategy, to facilitate supermarket retailers in India attain competitive advantage. The paper draws heavily from existing literature on retail strategies and competitive advantage in order to ascertain the most effective customer-centric strategies. Adding strength to the research is the result derived from interviews of supermarket managers and customers; and also the results of pilot study .The work involves identification of constructs and research hypothesis for the proposed framework. The framework contributes to literature by emphasizing on not just effective customer-centric strategies but also, on specific performance outcomes that supermarket retailers could be enjoying riding on these strategies. A new dimension to attainment of competitive advantage and superior performance has definitely been recognized by this research effort. Supermarket retailers in India can be certain of attaining competitive advantage by riding on the proposed strategies.

  13. Socioeconomic Status, Energy Cost, and Nutrient Content of Supermarket Food Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Johnson, Tricia J.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Whited, Matthew C.; Ventrelle, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relative affordability of energy-dense versus nutrient-rich foods may promote socioeconomic disparities in dietary quality and obesity. Although supermarkets are the largest food source in the American diet, the associations between SES and the cost and nutrient content of freely chosen food purchases have not been described. Purpose To investigate relationships of SES with the energy cost ($/1000 kcal) and nutrient content of freely chosen supermarket purchases. Methods Supermarket shoppers (n=69) were recruited at a Phoenix AZ supermarket in 2009. The energy cost and nutrient content of participants’ purchases were calculated from photographs of food packaging and nutrition labels using dietary analysis software. Data were analyzed in 2010–2011. Results Two SES indicators, education and household income as a percentage of the federal poverty guideline (FPG), were associated with the energy cost of purchased foods. Adjusting for covariates, the amount spent on 1000 kcal of food was $0.26 greater for every multiple of the FPG, and those with a baccalaureate or postbaccalaureate degree spent an additional $1.05 for every 1000 kcal of food compared to those with no college education. Lower energy cost was associated with higher total fat and less protein, dietary fiber, and vegetables per 1000 kcal purchased. Conclusions Low-SES supermarket shoppers purchase calories in inexpensive forms that are higher in fat and less nutrient-rich. PMID:22424253

  14. Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E.; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Liese, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

  15. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY OF A FINANCIAL SUPERMARKET, AS A MODEL OF INNOVATIVE FINANCIAL BEHAVIOR OF BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latynin D. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formation of an innovative financial behavior of banks by applying the strategy of financial supermarket. The author developed a corresponding algorithm of assessing the effectiveness of the credit and financial institutions financial supermarket strategy in practice, and an assessment of the effectiveness of its implementation in banks

  16. Research on Supply Chain Operation of Connecting Agriculture with Supermarkets Based on Agricultural Brokers System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expounding the research results of using relevant knowledge about Game Theory for supply chain of agricultural products at home and abroad,we use principal-agent model in Game Theory to research the new function that the supermarkets entrust supervision and control over quality of agricultural products to agricultural brokers in the circulation model of connecting agriculture with supermarkets;then design the optimal incentive contract and influencing factors between agricultural broker and supermarket,and explain the fundamental role of agricultural brokers in the process of circulation;finally in light of the role of government in promoting development and application of agricultural brokers,put forward corresponding policy suggestions:establish government support policy;set relevant standard of industry;establish cooperative organizations of agricultural brokers.

  17. Energy efficient refrigeration. CO{sub 2} in Supermarket Refrigeration. Project 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawalha, Samer; Suleymani, Arash [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology; Rogstam, Joergen [IUC, Sveriges energi- och kylcentrum, Katrineholm (Sweden)

    2006-06-15

    The objective of this project is to develop, test, and evaluate an energy efficient supermarket system working with CO{sub 2} as the refrigerant. Based on the experience in designing the system, running and evaluating it, modifications should be applied in order to conclude an efficient optimized CO{sub 2} system for a medium size supermarket in Sweden. Emphasize is on using environmentally friendly refrigerants and the choice was to use natural fluids. A refrigeration system solution for a medium size Swedish supermarket has been built in IUC laboratory in Katrineholm. The system is equipped with extensive instrumentations to collect data and perform online diagnosis. Several variations of the system solution are applied for validation and possible modifications. In this report we present the system under investigation and some of the experimental results that have been obtained under the project period. Overall system validation and evaluations of the main components are described.

  18. Marketing Strategy of Rural Supermarket Chain in Ningxia Based on the Long Tail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the Long Tail,the political,economical,social and technological environment for the development of rural supermarket chain in Ningxia is analyzed.The problems in the marketing strategy of Ningxia rural supermarket chain are pointed out,including single products and uneven level of quality,the products,which can not satisfy farmers’ needs;low quality of the personnel and imperfect information system,thus the traditional way of marketing is challenged.In the end,from the perspective of products,position,price,and personnel,the marketing strategies for the development of Ningxia rural supermarket chain based on the Long Tail Theory are put forward.

  19. Supermarket baker's asthma: how accurate is routine health surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, A; Nightingale, S; Berriman, J; Sharp, C; Welch, J; Newman, T; Cullinan, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Regular health surveillance is commonly recommended for workers exposed to occupational antigens but little is known about how effective it is in identifying cases. Aims: To report one large company's surveillance and compare its findings with those of a standard cross-sectional survey in the same workforce. Methods: A supermarket company with 324 in-store bakeries producing bread from raw ingredients conducted a three-stage health surveillance programme in around 3000 bakery employees. The first stage involved the administration of a simple respiratory questionnaire. If chest symptoms were present a second questionnaire focusing on their work relationship was administered. If positive a blood sample was requested for the measurement of specific IgE to flour and fungal α-amylase. The results were compared to an independent cross-sectional survey of employees in 20 of the company's stores. Results: Two hundred and ninety nine (92%) of the company's bakeries took part in surveillance. The overall employee response for the first stage was 77%; a quarter of those with respiratory symptoms reported that they were work related. Seventy four (61%) of those with work related chest symptoms had a measurement of specific IgE to either flour or fungal α-amylase, of whom 30 (41%) had a positive result. Surveillance estimated that 1% of bakery employees (1% bakers, 2% managers, 0.6% confectioners) had work related symptoms with specific IgE. This compared with 4% (7.5% bakers, 3.3% managers, 0% confectioners) in the cross-sectional survey (n = 166, 93% response). Conclusion: Comparison with a standard cross-sectional survey suggests that routine surveillance can underestimate the workplace burden of disease. The reasons may include technical or resource issues and uncertainties over confidentiality or the perceived consequences of participation. More research needs to be done looking into the design and efficacy of surveillance in occupational asthma. PMID

  20. Bisphenol A in supermarket receipts and its exposure to human in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shao-You; Chang, Wen-Jing; Sojinu, Samuel O; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2013-08-01

    Paper receipt has been documented as one major source of bisphenol A (BPA) for human exposure but little has been done by researchers to elaborate the potential health risk caused by handling paper receipt up to date. In the present study, BPA was analyzed in 42 supermarket receipts collected from Shenzhen, China. BPA was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from 2.58 to 14.7mgg(-1). In most cases, the total amount of BPA on the receipt was at least one thousand times the amount found in the epoxy lining of a food can, another controversial use of the chemical. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of BPA via handling of supermarket receipt ranged from 2 to 347μgday(-1) (mean, 40.4μgday(-1)) for a supermarket cashier and from 0.24 to 3.98μgday(-1) (mean, 0.69μgday(-1)) for general population. Based on the cumulative probability distribution of the calculated daily exposure to BPA via handling supermarket receipt, the EDI at the 0.1th and 1th percentile for supermarket cashier and general population, were already larger than 100ng (kgbw)(-1)day(-1), while at the 0.2th and 71th percentile, the EDI for both populations reached 1000ng (kgbw)(-1)day(-1). Considering the adverse endocrine disruptive effects of BPA and the dosage exposure level (from tens to hundreds ng (kgbw)(-1)day(-1)), human exposure to BPA in Shenzhen deserves more attention. Sensitivity analysis result showed that the handling time and frequency of supermarket receipts are the most important variables that contributed to most of the total variance of exposure.

  1. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton Lukar E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Melbourne. Methods Within-store audits of 35 Melbourne supermarkets. Supermarkets were sampled from the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs within 30 km of the Melbourne CBD. We measured the availability of crisps, chocolate, confectionery, and soft drinks (diet and regular at the checkouts, in end-of-aisle displays, and in island bin displays. Results Snack food displays were most prominent at checkouts with only five stores not having snack foods at 100% of their checkouts. Snack foods were also present at a number of end-of-aisle displays (at both the front (median 38% and back (median 33% of store, and in island bin displays (median number of island displays: 7; median total circumference of island displays: 19.4 metres. Chocolate items were the most common snack food item on display. There was no difference in the availability of these snack food displays by neighbourhood disadvantage. Conclusions As a result of the high availability of snack food displays, exposure to snack foods is almost unavoidable in Melbourne supermarkets, regardless of levels of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Results of this study could promote awareness of the prominence of unhealthy food items in chain-brand supermarkets outlets.

  2. The Welfare Effects of Price Advertising with Basket Shopping: Structural Estimates from Supermarket Promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically examines welfare effects of the informative price advertising in the supermarket retail industry, using structural estimation approaches and individual scanner data. Supermarket retailers use promotions (advertised price cuts) to announce sales as a competing instrument. Us...... as a means of business stealing. Finally, a counterfactual experiment of online shopping, in which transportation costs are removed, is found welfare-improving........ Using a spatial model that accounts for consumer shopping behavior and retailer pricing behavior, I structurally estimate consumer demand and the marginal costs of promotion, following the discrete choice literature and moment inequality approach. The simulation results numerically show that the private...

  3. On subcooler design for integrated two-temperature supermarket refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Chun-Lu [College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, No. 4800, Cao An Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The energy saving opportunity of supermarket refrigeration systems using subcooler between the medium-temperature (MT) refrigeration system and the low-temperature (LT) refrigeration system has been identified in the previous work. This paper presents a model-based comprehensive analysis on the subcooler design. The optimal subcooling control is discussed as well. With optimal subcooler size and subcooling control, the maximum energy savings of integrated two-temperature supermarket refrigeration system using R404A or R134a as working fluid can achieve 27% or 20%, respectively. The load ratio of MT to LT system and the operating conditions have considerable impact on the energy savings. (author)

  4. Development of supermarket refrigerators with reduced energy consumption; Entwicklung von Supermarkt - Kaelteanlagen mit reduziertem Energiebedarf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, C.; Wobst, E. [Inst. fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik gGmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Supermarket refrigeration is a considerable energy consumption factor. In this research project, dynamic simulations and experimental verifications were carried out of supermarket refrigeration systems. Experiments on systems in operation are difficult, so that appropriate computer models are required. The project was carried out as a cooperative project of two research institutes and two industrial organisations. The findings of the project were to be used for system optimisation. The findings suggest that savings of more than 10 percent are possible with comparatively little effort. The paper outlines the goals of the project, the procedure, and preliminary results. (orig.)

  5. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems Vol 1 - Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-15

    Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating purposes seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because there are world-wide a great number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food under further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase substantially in the near future. This volume of the IEA Annex 26 final report contains a detailed summary of the Annex activities including principal conclusions from each participant.

  6. On the Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Jensen, Jørgen Bauck; Skogestad, Sigurd

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the trade-off between energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient conditions, in supermarket refrigeration systems. Compared with the traditional operation with pressure control, a large potential for energy savings without extra loss of food quality is demonst......This paper studies the trade-off between energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient conditions, in supermarket refrigeration systems. Compared with the traditional operation with pressure control, a large potential for energy savings without extra loss of food quality...

  7. Study on Inventory of Supply Chain of Supermarket-oriented Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong; HUO; Xin; SHEN; Zhipeng; Huang

    2013-01-01

    Using principle and method of the system dynamics,this paper takes a qualitative analysis on the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-oriented agricultural products,and compares with the supply chain of wholesale-oriented agricultural products. Two inventory models are established for these two different modes of supply chain. Through simulation of two models in the case of random demand and quantitative analysis of results,it is found that the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-oriented agricultural products has smaller fluctuation than that of wholesaler-oriented agricultural products. Besides,both the inventory level and bullwhip effect of above chain are lowered.

  8. Retail private label’s strategies: A case study in a large brazilian Supermarket chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bulamah Spineli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study approaches the advantages and risks related to private labels under a retailers’ perspective, as well as the private label strategies and its growth in the Brazilian market. The paper analyses the strategies used by a large Brazilian supermarket chain with regards to its private labels’ management, using the case study method. The results showed the existence of two private label lines of products, with different strategies: one line of light products (proprietary brand and another line of products that carry the name of the supermarket under study (retail brand endorsement, both classified as using the fantasy positioning strategy.

  9. 76 FR 45403 - Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Prepaid Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ..., such as coffee vendors or fast food restaurants, convenience was the reason for offering closed loop... as pharmacies, convenience stores, supermarkets, discount stores or any of a number of other types of..., as some commenters pointed out, prepaid access devices and vehicles may be sold in convenience...

  10. PENGGUNAAN METODE FUZZY c-COVERING UNTUK ANALISA MARKET BASKET PADA SUPERMARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Satia Budhi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining application with fuzzy c-covering method for market basket analysis on supermarket. As one of data mining applications, market basket analysis is generally performed using apriori method. However this method tends to searh the association degree of items by only counting how many times the items appears on the overall transaction without considering the items quantity on each transaction. Therefore, we propose a new method which is based on perception that the more items bought in a transaction, the weaker the relation between items on that transaction. For the experimental purpose of the realization the concept, we collect a month sales transaction data from a supermarket. The data are transformed to another form that can be used by the software. Then, an algorithm is created to process the data in order to generate association rule of items in transaction. The rules can be previewed in a table or graphic. Borland Ceplhi 7 and MS Access 2003 is used to build this experiment software. By using the output of this software, which are the association rules, association degree of items, can be obtained which is useful to help the decision maker to make market policies. Based on the testing result, it can concluded that the smaller minimum support and confidence, the more rule to be generated and the more processing time needed. Also, the higher the combination count to be searched, the less processing time needed. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sebagai salah satu aplikasi data mining, market basket analysis umumnya dilakukan dengan memakai metode Apriori. Metode ini mencari asosiasi antar item dengan hanya menghitung berapa kali item-item tersebut muncul dalam keseluruhan transaksi tanpa memperhatikan quantitas item dalam transaksi. Oleh karena itu, peneliti mengusulkan metode Fuzzy c-Covering. Metode ini didasarkan pada persepsi bahwa semakin banyak item yang dibeli dalam suatu transaksi, maka hubungan antar item dalam transaksi

  11. The battle for health and beauty : What drives supermarket and drugstore category-promotion lifts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lin, A.I.J.G.; Gijsbrechts, Els

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies promotion-induced competition between supermarkets and drugstores, resulting from increased channel blurring and category overlap. It documents the relative impact of price cuts and feature ads at the two channels, and establishes substantive factors underlying their differences i

  12. Strengthening environmental and educational nutrition programmes in worksite cafeterias and supermarkets in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, I H; Van Assema, P; Glanz, K

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess conditions for the adoption and continued implementation of different healthy nutrition programmes in worksite cafeterias and supermarkets, i.e. an educational programme and two environmental programmes (a food labelling programme and a food supply programme). Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of worksite cafeterias and supermarkets. Concepts of theories of diffusion were used as a framework for the study. Questions were formulated about the attributes of the innovation, and organizational and personal characteristics that might influence programme adoption and implementation. Results indicated that educational and environmental programmes in both worksite cafeterias and supermarkets should meet specific requirements regarding programme design, methods and materials in order to be adopted and implemented. Besides, some important implementation strategies of the educational and environmental programmes were identified. It is concluded that it seems feasible to conduct educational and environmental intervention programmes in worksite cafeterias and supermarkets, but that certain conditions for adoption and continued implementation have to be met. Based on the implications of this study, the development of an educational programme, a labelling programme and a food supply programme was completed.

  13. Comparative study on the microorganisms present in ground meat in supermarkets and local markets in Ecatepec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rosales-Garnica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Meat is one of the most perishable foods due to that are high in the water and nutrients that promotes the growth of microorganisms. Ground meat tends to have more contamination than fresh meat because of the milling process where the microorganisms that were polluting the inside surface. Five stores were sampled from a supermarket chain and five markets in the municipality of Ecatepec. Ground beef was used for analysis of aerobic plate counts, total coliforms, Staphylococcos, fungi and yeasts. The results show that aerobic mesophilic count is within the limits of the Standard (NOM-092-SSA1-1994, the amount of Staphylococcos exceeds the Standard in the markets but within the limits of the Standard in supermarkets, coliforms and molds and yeasts are present in markets and supermarkets but are not considered in the Standard. We conclude that ground beef is sold in markets and supermarkets in the municipality of Ecatepec has lots of coliforms and Staphylococcos, which are responsible for many toxic infections. It is necessary to update the regulations in force, to be given greater monitoring.

  14. Model Identification for Control of Display Units in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff;

    in a supermarket refrigeration system. The grey-box modelling approach is adopted, using stochastic differential equations to define the dynamics of the model, combining prior knowledge of the physical system with data-driven modelling. Model identification is performed using the forward selection method...

  15. Fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents: SES and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    backgrounds. Methods Data from the Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6,034) were supplemented with geocoded information regarding supermarkets and fast food outlets, 300 meters from each school (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine the relationship between infrequent...

  16. Energy-Efficient Supermarket Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning in Humid Climates in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Supermarkets are energy-intensive buildings that consume the greatest amount of electricity per square foot of building of any building type in the United States and represent 5% of total U.S. commercial building primary energy use (EIA 2005). Refrigeration and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are responsible for a large proportion of supermarkets’ total energy use. These two systems sometimes work together and sometimes compete, but the performance of one system always affects the performance of the other. To better understand these challenges and opportunities, the Commercial Buildings team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory investigated several of the most promising strategies for providing energy-efficient HVAC for supermarkets and quantified the resulting energy use and costs using detailed simulations. This research effort was conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) (Baechler et al. 2012; Parrish et al. 2013; Antonopoulos et al. 2014; Hirsch et al. 2014). The goal of CBP was to reduce energy use in the commercial building sector by creating, testing, and validating design concepts on the pathway to net zero energy commercial buildings. Several CBP partners owned or operated buildings containing supermarkets and were interested in optimizing the energy efficiency of supermarket HVAC systems in hot-humid climates. These partners included Walmart, Target, Whole Foods Market, SUPERVALU, and the Defense Commissary Agency.

  17. Shop 'til you hear it drop - Influence of Interactive Auditory Feedback in a Virtual Reality Supermarket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikström, Erik; Høeg, Emil Rosenlund; Mangano, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe an experiment aiming to investigate the impact of auditory feedback in a virtual reality supermarket scenario. The participants were asked to read a shopping list and collect items one by one and place them into a shopping cart. Three conditions were presented randomly, ...

  18. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce flour dust exposures in supermarket bakeries in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, Roslynn; Meijster, Tim; Heederik, Dick; Sander, Ingrid; Jeebhay, Mohamed F.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: A recent study of supermarket bakery workers in South Africa demonstrated that 25% of workers were sensitised to flour allergens and 13% had baker's asthma. Evidence on exposure reduction strategies using specifically designed interventions aimed at reducing the risk of baker's asthma is

  19. Making Economics Relevant: A Project for Measuring Price Discrimination in Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, William F.

    1974-01-01

    This note describes a supermarket discrimination study which involves students in a controversial question of concern to them and their community, requiring the application of economic principles to achieve a basic understanding of the meaning and implications of the problem and thus providing students with "relevant" economics education. (JH)

  20. Learning, Knowing and Controlling the Stock: The Nature of Employee Discretion in a Supermarket Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Alison; Kakavelakis, Kostas; Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick; Unwin, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of the relationship between Head Office and stores in a large British supermarket chain. It focuses on the role played by a range of technological tools available for managing the stock and connecting different parts of the productive system and the implications this has for employee learning in stores. The evidence…

  1. Combined cooling and heating using a gas engine in a supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidment, G.G. [South Bank Univ., London (United Kingdom). School of Engineering Systems and Design; Zhao, X.; Riffat, S.B. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of the Built Environment

    2001-07-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation into the practical and economic viability of an integrated combined heating and cooling system in a supermarket. This system consists of a direct-drive screw compressor, which is powered by a throttle controlled gas engine. The waste heat from the engine is used to provide hot water for space heating and for general usage within the catering and toilet facilities in the supermarket. In this paper, the working principle of the novel system is first described. This details how the gas engine system may be integrated into the typical supermarket. The paper then describes a model, which is used to simulate the energy consumption of the supermarket. This is used to calculate the energy consumed by the conventional system and that used by a number of alternative combined heating and cooling system configurations, which are also described. The additional capital cost of each configuration is estimated and this is used to calculate the payback period. The results show that a payback period of 4.2 years may be achieved with a system that uses approximately 500,000 kWh per annum less primary energy than a conventional system. Finally, comparison between this system and a traditional Combined Heat and Power (CHP) installation is given. (author)

  2. Process Evaluation of a Comprehensive Supermarket Intervention in a Low-Income Baltimore Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ryan M; Rothstein, Jessica D; Gergen, Jessica; Zachary, Drew A; Smith, Joyce C; Palmer, Anne M; Gittelsohn, Joel; Surkan, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    Supermarket-based interventions are one approach to improving the local food environment and reducing obesity and chronic disease in low-income populations. We implemented a multicomponent intervention that aimed to reduce environmental barriers to healthy food purchasing in a supermarket in Southwest Baltimore. The intervention, Eat Right-Live Well! used: shelf labels and in-store displays promoting healthy foods, sales and promotions on healthy foods, in-store taste tests, increasing healthy food products, community outreach events to promote the intervention, and employee training. We evaluated program implementation through store environment, taste test session, and community event evaluation forms as well as an Employee Impact Questionnaire. The stocking, labeling, and advertising of promoted foods were implemented with high and moderate fidelity. Taste test sessions were implemented with moderate reach and low dose. Community outreach events were implemented with high reach and dose. Supermarket employee training had no significant impact on employees' knowledge, self-efficacy, or behavioral intention for helping customers with healthy purchasing or related topics of nutrition and food safety. In summary, components of this intervention to promote healthy eating were implemented with varying success within a large supermarket. Greater participation from management and employees could improve implementation.

  3. Supermarket refrigeration on the way to sustainability; Supermarktkaelte auf dem Weg zur Nachhaltigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, H. [FKW-Forschungszentrum fuer Kaeltetechnik und Waermepumpen GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Technical developments so far in supermarket refrigeration are presented in view of the current environmental challenges. Systems, refrigerants, energy consumption and CO2 emissions are presented. System assessment on the basis of eco-efficiency is gone into, and the current situation on the way to sustainable power supply is described. (orig.)

  4. The Effectiveness of Supermarket Posters in Helping to Find Missing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, James Michael; Arnal, Jack; Hicks, Jason L.

    2009-01-01

    One approach used to help find missing children is to place posters of them at the exits of supermarkets. The present research addresses the question of how effective that approach is likely to be. Posters of 8 missing children were displayed on a bulletin board at a cooperating grocery store. Customers leaving the store completed a survey and…

  5. A point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person supermarket education impacts healthy food purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase (POP) intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention to usual care (no treatment). Setting A supermarket in a socioeconomically diverse region of Phoenix, Arizona. Participants One-hundred fifty-three adult shoppers were recruited on-site. Intervention The intervention consisted of brief shopping education by a nutrition educator and an explanation and promotion of a supermarket POP healthy shopping program that included posted shelf signs identifying healthy foods, sample shopping lists, tips, and signage. Main Outcome Measures Outcomes included purchases of total, saturated, and trans fat (g/1000 kcals), and fruits, vegetables, and dark green and bright yellow vegetables (servings/1000 kcals) derived through nutritional analysis of participant shopping baskets. Analysis Analysis of covariance compared the intervention and control groups on food purchasing patterns while adjusting for household income. Results The intervention resulted in greater purchasing of fruit and green and yellow vegetables. No other group differences were observed. Conclusions and Implications Long-term evaluations of supermarket interventions should be conducted to improve the evidence base, and to determine the potential for impact on food choices associated with decreased chronic disease. PMID:22104016

  6. Super-Exponential Solution in Markovian Supermarket Models: Framework and Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Marcel F. Neuts opened a key door in numerical computation of stochastic models by means of phase-type (PH) distributions and Markovian arrival processes (MAPs). To celebrate his 75th birthday, this paper reports a more general framework of Markovian supermarket models, including a system of differential equations for the fraction measure and a system of nonlinear equations for the fixed point. To understand this framework heuristically, this paper gives a detailed analysis for three important supermarket examples: M/G/1 type, GI/M/1 type and multiple choices, explains how to derive the system of differential equations by means of density-dependent jump Markov processes, and shows that the fixed point may be simply super-exponential through solving the system of nonlinear equations. Note that supermarket models are a class of complicated queueing systems and their analysis can not apply popular queueing theory, it is necessary in the study of supermarket models to summarize such a more general framework which...

  7. Research on Performance Evaluation of Integrates with Agriculture Food Base and Supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of integrate with agriculture food base and supermarket is a research hotspot and difficulty in the theory and practice research of agriculture super-docking mode. The study presents an evaluation indicator system and a fuzzy neural network evaluation algorithm for evaluating performance of integrates with agriculture food base and supermarket. Firstly, a performance evaluation indicator system is designed through analyzing the similarities of general performance evaluation and the specialties of the evaluation of integrates with agriculture food base and supermarket; Secondly, the study integrates the advantages of fuzzy evaluation methods and BP neural network evaluation methods, designs a new algorithm structure, selects different learning methods and analyzes the algorithm performance, then presents a new fuzzy neural network evaluation algorithm; Finally, three integrates are taken for experimental examples and the results illustrate that the improved algorithm can be used for evaluating the performance of integrates with agriculture food base and supermarket feasibly and effectively and can provide reference for evaluating other complex systems.

  8. Diet quality of supermarket sales circulars measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine how closely the contents of weekly supermarket sales circulars conform to current dietary guidance and how closely the diet quality of those foods compare to that of the U.S. population’s intakes. Food and beverage items (n = 9,151) in 52 weekly circulars ...

  9. Preventing refrigerated foodstuffs in supermarkets from being discarded on hot days by mpc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Stoustrup, Jakob; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization strategy for supermarket refrigeration systems. It deals with one special condition when the extremely high outdoor temperature causes the compressor to saturate, and work at its maximum capacity. In a traditional control, refrigerated foodstuffs inside display...

  10. Spatial monopoly of multi-establishment firms : An empirical study for supermarkets in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelder, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-establishment firms can create local spatial monopolies in the form of clusters of own establishments without competition. This paper examines the existence of spatial monopolies for Dutch supermarkets in 2009. It is found that 23 percent of consumers can be qualified as being locked-in in a s

  11. Nutritional Informatics: Mining Supermarket Sales Data as a Nutritional Assessment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, Kristina Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Many nutritional assessment techniques, including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour dietary recalls have innate limitations such as expensive protocols, high respondent burden, and self-reporting biases. Supermarket sales data have shown promise as a new, indirect, inexpensive nutritional assessment method in recent studies. The…

  12. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak, E-mail: burak.demirel@boun.edu.tr; Onay, Turgut T.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. • High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. • Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. • Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH{sub 4}) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  13. Say Yes to Education: Leading a Movement to Improve Access to Postsecondary Learning Opportunities in Cities Nationwide. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case Study No. 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeroff, Gene I.

    2014-01-01

    What incentive could be stronger in a community than full-tuition college scholarships for all graduates of a public school system? Could this be an answer to the question of how the nation can support children growing up in poverty so that they may access middle-class opportunities? When George Weiss, a successful young money manager, pledged to…

  14. Application of stochastic models to determine customers lifetime value for a Brazilian supermarkets network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annibal Parracho Sant'Anna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies strategies to access customer lifetime value (CLV. Traditionally, heuristics based on recency, frequency and monetary value variables (RFM are used to determine the best customers. Here, some forms of directly exploring these parameters to predict CLV are compared to an approach based on fitting a stochastic model. The model employed is a composition of a model for the number of transactions along the residual lifetime and a model for the value spent. New evidence is raised on the effect of aggregating transactions monthly. The data analyzed refer to two years of purchases of a group of customers of the same entrance cohort of a fidelity program cadastre of a supermarkets network in Rio de Janeiro. Using the first year to calibrate and the second year to validate the models, good fit of both models to the series of individual data and coherent CLV predictions are obtained.Este artigo estuda estratégias para avaliar o valor do tempo de vida do cliente (CLV. Tradicionalmente, heurísticas baseadas em variáveis medindo recência, freqüência e valor monetário (RFM são utilizadas para determinar os melhores clientes. Aqui, algumas formas de explorar diretamente estes parâmetros para predizer o CLV são comparadas com uma abordagem baseada no ajustamento de um modelo estocástico. O modelo utilizado é uma composição de um modelo para o número de transações ao longo da vida útil residual e um modelo para o valor gasto. Nova evidência é levantada sobre o efeito de agregação das transações mensalmente. Os dados analisados referem-se a dois anos da compras de um grupo de clientes da mesma coorte de ingresso no cadastro de um programa de fidelidade de uma rede de supermercados do Rio de Janeiro. Usando o primeiro ano para calibrar e o segundo ano para validar os modelos, bom ajuste dos dois modelos para as séries de dados individuais e previsões coerentes para o CLV são obtidas.

  15. Research on Supermarket's Participation in Agriculture-supermarket Jointing under the Bounded Rationality Perspective%有限理性视角下超市参与“农超对接”行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹华

    2014-01-01

    通过对超市管理人理性认知模式和决议选择的分析,探讨在有限理性视角下的超市管理人的行为机理,得出,有限理性视角下的超市管理人的博弈行为对我国能否有效顺利实施“农超对接”起着关键作用,本文从有限理性经济人的角度出发,通过博弈模型剖析超市参与“农超对接”行为,发现“农超对接”实施中存在的根本问题,为促进我国“农超对接”快速发展提供理论依据。%This article analyzes the rational cognitive mode and the resolution selection of the supermarket manager, and explores the behavior mechanism of supermarket manager under bounded rationality perspective. It is concluded that, under the bounded rationality perspective, the gambling behavior of supermarket manager is key factor that affect China's effective implementation of agriculture-supermarket jointing. From the perspective of limited rational economic man, this paper analyzes supermarket's participation in agriculture-supermarket jointing through game model, and finds out the fundamental problems in agriculture-supermarket jointing, in order to provide theoretical basis for the rapid development of China's agriculture-supermarket jointing.

  16. The happy hen on your supermarket shelf: what choice does industrial strength free-range represent for consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Christine; Brunswick, Carly; Kotey, Jane

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates what "free-range" eggs are available for sale in supermarkets in Australia, what "free-range" means on product labelling, and what alternative "free-range" offers to cage production. The paper concludes that most of the "free-range" eggs currently available in supermarkets do not address animal welfare, environmental sustainability, and public health concerns but, rather, seek to drive down consumer expectations of what these issues mean by balancing them against commercial interests. This suits both supermarkets and egg producers because it does not challenge dominant industrial-scale egg production and the profits associated with it. A serious approach to free-range would confront these arrangements, and this means it may be impossible to truthfully label many of the "free-range" eggs currently available in the dominant supermarkets as free-range.

  17. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  18. The virtual supermarket: An innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. Results The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66) revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. Conclusions The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food purchasing behaviour. The

  19. The virtual supermarket: An innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steenhuis Ingrid HM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. Results The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66 revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. Conclusions The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food

  20. Empirical Study of Factors Influencing Guests'Perceptive Value of Community Supermarket Based on LOHAS Marketing%社区超市顾客感知价值影响因素研究--基于乐活营销视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锦; 姜含春

    2014-01-01

    基于Dabholkar零售业服务模型理论,文章构造了乐活营销的社区超市顾客感知价值影响因素模型,分析了影响社区超市顾客感知价值的六大因素,包括实体环境乐活因素、商品乐活因素、人员乐活因素、顾客导向政策乐活因素、现代技术手段乐活因素和感知成本乐活因素。通过对合肥市社区超市的实地问卷调查,验证了六大因素对于社区超市实施乐活营销的相对重要性;结果显示现代技术手段因素对社区超市实施乐活营销尤为重要。%Based on the theory of retail service models proposed by Dabholkar ,the models of factors in‐fluencing the guests'perceptive value of community supermarket with lifestyles of health and sustain‐ability(LOHAS) marketing in Hefei City are constructed .The results indicate that there are six major factors which influence the guests'perceptive value of community supermarket including LOHAS fac‐tors of physical environment , commodity , personnel , customer‐oriented policy , modern technical means and perceptive cost .The relative importance of the six factors to community supermarket with LOHAS marketing is validated by the questionnaire survey research of Hefei City ,and the results show that the modern technical means is very important to community supermarket with LOHAS marketing .

  1. Airport as city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, M.

    2011-01-01

    The airport city is a two-fold phenomenon: the areas surrounding the airport develop due to their proximity and accessibility to the terminal complex, and the terminal complex itself develops in to a pseudo-urban centre. This situation is manifest to varying extents in all major airports of the worl

  2. 寒地城市公交系统无障碍优化设计策略%THE ACCESSIBLE OPTIMIZATION DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR THE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM OF A CITY IN THE FRIGID ZONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩芳垣; 陈辉; 李淑平

    2011-01-01

    无障碍公共交通在给残疾人和老年人带来安全、方便的同时,也给全体民众一种全新的感受,是城市文明进步的标志.论文系统分析了寒地城市公共交通无障碍设计存在的问题,提出了寒地城市公共交通无障碍设计的优化方法,以期对设计工作和相关规范的修订具有一定的借鉴意义.%The accessible public transportion brings the disabled and the elderly people security and convenience and brings all the people a new feeling. This is a sign of urban civilization and progress. The paper systematically analyzes the problems in the accessible design for the public transportation system of a city in the frigid zone and proposes the optimization ways in hope of helping the design work and the related formal amendments.

  3. 构建无障碍交通体系,建设和谐城市%SETTING UP AN ACCESSIBLE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM, CONSTRUCT A HARMONIOUS CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩芳垣; 赵运铎; 孙世钧

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of construction of the accessible transportion system is to reduce or eliminate the barriers to the urban roads and to bring convenience to the urban pepole. The usage of the vulnerable groups such as: the disabled , the old, the young, the weak and the sick must be taken into considerations. The accessible transportion system brings convenience and safety to the majority of the handicapped , creates an equal and involved environment , benefits the system of all people and expresses “people-oriented and creating a harmonious society” policy in our country.%减少或消除城市道路的障碍,以方便城市道路中的人群.重点考虑残疾、老、幼、弱、病等弱势人群的使用.无障碍交通体系是为广大障碍人群提供行动方便和安全空间,创造一个"平等、参与"的环境,同时惠及所有人群的体系,体现了我国"以人为本,创建和谐社会"的政策.

  4. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-01-01

    interventions have been carried out in retail grocery/supermarket settings as part of an effort to understand and influence consumption of healthful foods. The review’s key outcome variable is sale/purchase of healthy foods as a result of the interventions. This systematic review sheds light...... on the effectiveness of food store interventions intended to promote the consumption of healthy foods and the methodological quality of studies reporting them. Methods Systematic literature search spanning from 2003 to 2015 (inclusive both years), and confined to papers in the English language was conducted. Studies...... fulfilling search criteria were identified and critically appraised. Studies included in this review report health interventions at physical food stores including supermarkets and corner stores, and with outcome variable of adopting healthier food purchasing/consumption behavior. The methodological quality...

  5. First supermarket with heat and cold storage; Eerste supermarkt met warmte/koudeopslag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuiper, N.

    2008-04-15

    A short overview is provided of the energy saving measures that were taken by a supermarket in Almere, the Netherlands. This supermarket is the first in the Netherlands to make use of heat and cold storage. Heat from the soil is feeding the underfloor heating. Moreover, extra insulation measures, energy efficient tubular lighting and sliding doors and sliding windows are covering cooling and freezing equipment. [mk]. [Dutch] Een kort overzicht wordt gegeven van de maatregelen die zijn genomen voor een supermarkt in Almere, Nederland, om energie te besparen. De supermarkt is de eerste in Nederland die gebruik maakt van de opslag van warmte en koude. Warmte uit de bodem voedt de vloerverwarming. Daarnaast wordt gebruik gemaakt van extra isolatie, energiezuinige TL-buizen en schuifdeuren en schuiframen die de koel- en diepvriesmeubelen afsluiten.

  6. Modeling and performance analyses of evaporators in frozen-food supermarket display cabinets at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getu, H.M.; Bansal, P.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents modeling and experimental analyses of evaporators in 'in situ' frozen-food display cabinets at low temperatures in the supermarket industry. Extensive experiments were conducted to measure store and display cabinet relative humidities and temperatures, and pressures, temperatures and mass flow rates of the refrigerant. The mathematical model adopts various empirical correlations of heat transfer coefficients and frost properties in a fin-tube heat exchanger in order to investigate the influence of indoor conditions on the performance of the display cabinets. The model is validated with the experimental data of 'in situ' cabinets. The model would be a good guide tool to the design engineers to evaluate the performance of supermarket display cabinet heat exchangers under various store conditions. (author)

  7. HFC-134A and HCFC-22 supermarket refrigeration demonstration and laboratory testing. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Aspen Systems and a team of nineteen agencies and industry participants conducted a series of tests to determine the performance of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and CFC-502 for supermarket application. This effort constitutes the first phase of a larger project aimed at carrying out both laboratory and demonstration tests of the most viable HFC refrigerants and the refrigerants they replace. The results of the Phase I effort are presented in the present report. The second phase of the project has also been completed. It centered on testing all viable HFC replacement refrigerants for CFC-502. These were HFC-507, HFC-404A, and HFC-407A. The latter results are published in the Phase II report for this project. As part of Phase I, a refrigeration rack utilizing a horizontal open drive screw compressor was constructed in our laboratory. This refrigeration rack is a duplicate of one we have installed in a supermarket in Clifton Park, NY.

  8. Supporting the Supermarket Shopping Experience through a Context-Aware Shopping Trolley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.

    2009-01-01

    of the system is to support shopping in supermarkets through context-awareness and acquiring user attention. Thus, the interactive trolley guides and directs shoppers in the handling and finding of groceries. An empirical evaluation showed that shoppers using CAST adapted in different shopping behavior than...... traditional trolley shoppers by exhibiting a more uniform behavior in terms of product sequence collection and ease of finding products and thus, CAST supported the shopping experience.......Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim...

  9. Supporting the Supermarket Shopping Experience through a Context-Aware Shopping Trolley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.

    2009-01-01

    Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim...... of the system is to support shopping in supermarkets through context-awareness and acquiring user attention. Thus, the interactive trolley guides and directs shoppers in the handling and finding of groceries. An empirical evaluation showed that shoppers using CAST adapted in different shopping behavior than...... traditional trolley shoppers by exhibiting a more uniform behavior in terms of product sequence collection and ease of finding products and thus, CAST supported the shopping experience....

  10. Syringe Access, Syringe Sharing, and Police Encounters among People Who Inject Drugs in New York City: A Community-Level Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beletsky, Leo; Heller, Daliah; Jenness, Samuel M.; Neaigus, Alan; Gelpi-Acosta, Camila; Hagan, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Background Injection drug user (IDU) experience and perceptions of police practices may alter syringe exchange program (SEP) use or influence risky behaviour. Previously, no community-level data had been collected to identify the prevalence or correlates of police encounters reported by IDUs in the United States. Methods New York City IDUs recruited through respondent-driven sampling were asked about past-year police encounters and risk behaviours, as part of the National HIV Behavioural Surveillance study. Data were analysed using multiple logistic regression. Results A majority (52%) of respondents (n=514) reported being stopped by police officers; 10% reported syringe confiscation. In multivariate modelling, IDUs reporting police stops were less likely to use SEPs consistently (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.40–0.89), and IDUs who had syringes confiscated may have been more likely to share syringes (AOR=1.76; 95% CI=0.90–3.44), though the finding did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Findings suggest that police encounters may influence consistent SEP use. The frequency of IDU-police encounters highlights the importance of including contextual and structural measures in infectious disease risk surveillance, and the need to develop approaches harmonizing structural policing and public health. PMID:23916801

  11. A microbiological survey of fresh meat in the supermarket trade. Part 2: beef retail cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortjé, G L; Nel, L; Jordaan, E; Naudé, R T; Holzapfel, W H; Grimbeek, R J

    1989-01-01

    An assessment was made of the microbiological quality of the final product (different retail cuts), produced by two different retail supermarket groups (A & B). The influence of sanitary conditions on the microbiological quality of the final product was evaluated, and the possible influences on shelf life were determined. Supermarket group A (Sup group A) received carcasses with significantly lower surface counts of micro-organisms than supermarket group B (Sup group B), while the latter had a more efficient overall sanitation programme than supermarket group A. Five cuts were monitored for the presence of total aerobic counts, psychrotrophic counts, lactobacilli, Enterobacteriaceae and numbers of Pseudomonadaceae present. A shelf life study was also executed by repeating these enumerations on the same meat samples after refrigerated storage at 5°C for 2 and 4 days, respectively. It is generally accepted that a good refrigeration or chilling regime will preserve the inherent meat quality, but in this study it was found that neither served as a guarantee of quality. The more stringent hygiene at retail level of Sup group B yielded consistently lower mean counts of the different bacterial groups for all the meat cuts monitored and, thus meat with an extended shelf life. The total count (at 30°C) on meat cuts was the highest, followed by the psychrotrophs, the Pseudomonadaceae the Enterobacteriaeae and the lactobacilli. Minced meat generally had the highest mean aerobic total microbial counts. This count on minced meat might be a suitable indicator for monitoring the overall sanitary condition of a retail premises. The results re-emphasized the multi-factorial complexity of fresh meat quality and shelf life. The microbial quality of the raw material (carcasses), the maintenance of the cold chain, sanitary condition of premises, equipment and personnel surfaces and general management practices are factors that collectively determine the microbiological quality of the

  12. Supermarket refrigeration. Optimization of suction pressure in existing refrigerators; Supermarktkaelte. Saugdruck optimieren in Bestandskaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Philipp; Mueller, Markus [Eckelmann AG, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The new E*LDS firmware E*COP{sup +} from Eckelmann AG (Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany) for the optimization of the suction pressure supplies a demand-oriented adaptation of the suction pressure. The new feature is ideal for an update of existing systems with thermostatic expansion valves. Using this update operators of supermarket operators may save about 10% energy with little effort.

  13. Binocular Glaucomatous Visual Field Loss and Its Impact on Visual Exploration - A Supermarket Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aehling, Kathrin; Heister, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Schiefer, Ulrich; Papageorgiou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glaucomatous visual field loss may critically interfere with quality of life. The purpose of this study was to (i) assess the impact of binocular glaucomatous visual field loss on a supermarket search task as an example of everyday living activities, (ii) to identify factors influencing the performance, and (iii) to investigate the related compensatory mechanisms. Ten patients with binocular glaucoma (GP), and ten healthy-sighted control subjects (GC) were asked to collect twenty different products chosen randomly in two supermarket racks as quickly as possible. The task performance was rated as “passed” or “failed” with regard to the time per correctly collected item. Based on the performance of control subjects, the threshold value for failing the task was defined as μ+3σ (in seconds per correctly collected item). Eye movements were recorded by means of a mobile eye tracker. Eight out of ten patients with glaucoma and all control subjects passed the task. Patients who failed the task needed significantly longer time (111.47 s ±12.12 s) to complete the task than patients who passed (64.45 s ±13.36 s, t-test, p<0.001). Furthermore, patients who passed the task showed a significantly higher number of glances towards the visual field defect (VFD) area than patients who failed (t-test, p<0.05). According to these results, glaucoma patients with defects in the binocular visual field display on average longer search times in a naturalistic supermarket task. However, a considerable number of patients, who compensate by frequent glancing towards the VFD, showed successful task performance. Therefore, systematic exploration of the VFD area seems to be a “time-effective” compensatory mechanism during the present supermarket task. PMID:25162522

  14. Binocular glaucomatous visual field loss and its impact on visual exploration--a supermarket study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sippel

    Full Text Available Advanced glaucomatous visual field loss may critically interfere with quality of life. The purpose of this study was to (i assess the impact of binocular glaucomatous visual field loss on a supermarket search task as an example of everyday living activities, (ii to identify factors influencing the performance, and (iii to investigate the related compensatory mechanisms. Ten patients with binocular glaucoma (GP, and ten healthy-sighted control subjects (GC were asked to collect twenty different products chosen randomly in two supermarket racks as quickly as possible. The task performance was rated as "passed" or "failed" with regard to the time per correctly collected item. Based on the performance of control subjects, the threshold value for failing the task was defined as μ+3σ (in seconds per correctly collected item. Eye movements were recorded by means of a mobile eye tracker. Eight out of ten patients with glaucoma and all control subjects passed the task. Patients who failed the task needed significantly longer time (111.47 s ±12.12 s to complete the task than patients who passed (64.45 s ±13.36 s, t-test, p < 0.001. Furthermore, patients who passed the task showed a significantly higher number of glances towards the visual field defect (VFD area than patients who failed (t-test, p < 0.05. According to these results, glaucoma patients with defects in the binocular visual field display on average longer search times in a naturalistic supermarket task. However, a considerable number of patients, who compensate by frequent glancing towards the VFD, showed successful task performance. Therefore, systematic exploration of the VFD area seems to be a "time-effective" compensatory mechanism during the present supermarket task.

  15. Binocular glaucomatous visual field loss and its impact on visual exploration--a supermarket study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Katrin; Kasneci, Enkelejda; Aehling, Kathrin; Heister, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Schiefer, Ulrich; Papageorgiou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glaucomatous visual field loss may critically interfere with quality of life. The purpose of this study was to (i) assess the impact of binocular glaucomatous visual field loss on a supermarket search task as an example of everyday living activities, (ii) to identify factors influencing the performance, and (iii) to investigate the related compensatory mechanisms. Ten patients with binocular glaucoma (GP), and ten healthy-sighted control subjects (GC) were asked to collect twenty different products chosen randomly in two supermarket racks as quickly as possible. The task performance was rated as "passed" or "failed" with regard to the time per correctly collected item. Based on the performance of control subjects, the threshold value for failing the task was defined as μ+3σ (in seconds per correctly collected item). Eye movements were recorded by means of a mobile eye tracker. Eight out of ten patients with glaucoma and all control subjects passed the task. Patients who failed the task needed significantly longer time (111.47 s ±12.12 s) to complete the task than patients who passed (64.45 s ±13.36 s, t-test, p visual field defect (VFD) area than patients who failed (t-test, p visual field display on average longer search times in a naturalistic supermarket task. However, a considerable number of patients, who compensate by frequent glancing towards the VFD, showed successful task performance. Therefore, systematic exploration of the VFD area seems to be a "time-effective" compensatory mechanism during the present supermarket task.

  16. A postura no trabalho dos operadores de checkout de supermercados: uma necessidade constante de análises Supermarket checkout operators posture at work: The continuous need for analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Concepción Batiz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As condições de trabalho nas quais os operadores de checkout de supermercados realizam suas atividades têm sido uma preocupação dos especialistas nos últimos tempos. Essa pesquisa foi realizada em oito supermercados de duas cidades do Brasil com o objetivo de conhecer as condições em que os operadores realizam suas atividades, detectando os fatores de risco para propor medidas que eliminem ou minimizem o aparecimento de efeitos adversos nos trabalhadores. Foi aplicado um questionário e o método RULA a uma amostra de 80 trabalhadores. O estudo mostrou que o mobiliário não está adaptado às características antropométricas da população, a maioria das posturas analisadas é inadequada, não existem revezamento nem pausas que poderiam ajudar a minimizar a situação, existência de sobrecarga, mental e física, entre outras. Conclui-se que a atividade pode representar riscos à saúde dos operadores de caixa de supermercados.The work conditions in which supermarket checkout operators perform activities have been a recent concern to specialists. This research was carried out in eight supermarkets of two cities in Brazil with the aim of knowing the conditions under which operators work, in order to detect risk factors and to propose procedures that could eliminate or minimize their adverse effects on workers. Structured questionnaire and the RULA method was applied to a sample of 80 workers. Major findings of the study as follows: furniture was not adapted to anthropometric characteristics of the workers, most of analyzed positions are not adequate, there was no rotation or pauses that could reduce the risk, there was a significant amount of mental and physical work overload. We conclude that, under current conditions, checkout operations at supermarkets poses health risk to operators.

  17. Eco-efficiency evaluations of supermarket refrigeration plants; Oekoeffizienzbetrachtungen von Supermarktkaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehlmann, A. [Solvay Management Support GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Jakobs, R. [Informationszentrum Waermepumpen und Kaeltetechnik, Hannover (Germany); Meurer, C. [Solvay Fluor GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In order to evaluate technical systems information must be summarised and prepared in the best possible way. The used methods are very often rather complex and the results are not very transparent. The concept of eco-efficiency that describes the relation between value creation and generated environmental loads is a useful alternative in order to alleviate the joint evaluation of economic and ecological aspects. In order to describe the present state of technology and to find rewarding targets of future developments the eco-efficiency method was applied for various concepts of cold generation in supermarkets. The data needed for evaluation was provided by an experienced experts' group. The results of the investigation confirm that the major environmental loads of supermarket refrigeration plants are caused by their operation. In terms of life-cycle costs the main load occurs in the fields of acquisition and energy costs. It could be shown that systems using the refrigerant R134a in the range of standard cold are superior in terms of eco-efficiency to alternative plant concepts (R404A and HKW-free alternatives) in all investigated environmental efficiency categories. The increase of eco-efficiency by investments in optimised plant technology and thus minimised operating costs for supermarket refrigeration plants could be proved as well. (orig.)

  18. Business Concept as a Relational Message: Supermarket vs Independent Grocery as Competitors for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Mikkola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with competition for sustainability between two business concepts, the supermarket and the independent grocery, both selling local and organic food. The paper is based on Finnish case evidence with very oligopolistic retail structure and its empirical and the theoretical interest focuses on the nature of economic exchange relations of these business concepts. The study shows how the supermarket is driven by market and hierarchic as well as power relations, regarding both suppliers and consumers. The business concept includes weak choice editing and indicates ‘consumer versus producer via retailer’ set-up. The independent grocery is at its core a social and partnership based endeavour, entailing strong choice editing for sustainability through the ‘consumer cum producer via retailer’ set-up. However, the supermarket may include more local and organic food in its product range on market conditions, in need of customer management, while the grocery can expand by decentralized multiplication of its business concept. The grocery also adds a new market channel for family farmers enabling better use of local resources, thereby renewing the market. This study shows the importance of the business concept as a condition and limitation for further growth, and explains the business concept as a relational message for sustainability.

  19. Customer Perception of a Supermarket Nutrition Centre Staffed by a Registered Dietitian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, KATE; Taper, JANETTE; Quintal, DEBORAH

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' attitudes toward a supermarket nutrition centre staffed full time by a registered dietitian. A questionnaire was administered over three consecutive days in that store and in a control store that was similar to the experimental site in every way, except for the absence of a nutrition centre. Participants were chosen randomly at timed intervals in specific areas of the store. Of 428 customers approached, 232 agreed to participate in the survey. At the experimental site, 75% of the participants were extremely satisfied with the registered dietitian's services and 69% ranked having a registered dietitian on staff in any store as extremely important, compared to 31% at the control site (p < 0.05). In ranking the importance of 13 required and optional services offered by the supermarkets, 15% of participants at the experimental site ranked having a registered dietitian on staff in the top five, compared with 4% at the control site (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that participants at the experimental site view the nutrition centre as a valuable service. There may therefore be an expanded role for registered dietitians in the supermarket setting.

  20. Carbon footprint and energy use of food waste management options for fresh fruit and vegetables from supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mattias; Spångberg, Johanna

    2017-02-01

    Food waste is a problem with economic, environmental and social implications, making it both important and complex. Previous studies have addressed food waste management options at the less prioritised end of the waste hierarchy, but information on more prioritised levels is also needed when selecting the best available waste management options. Investigating the global warming potential and primary energy use of different waste management options offers a limited perspective, but is still important for validating impacts from the waste hierarchy in a local context. This study compared the effect on greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use of different food waste management scenarios in the city of Växjö, Sweden. A life cycle assessment was performed for four waste management scenarios (incineration, anaerobic digestion, conversion and donation), using five food products (bananas, tomatoes, apples, oranges and sweet peppers) from the fresh fruit and vegetables department in two supermarkets as examples when treated as individual waste streams. For all five waste streams, the established waste hierarchy was a useful tool for prioritising the various options, since the re-use options (conversion and donation) reduced the greenhouse gas emissions and the primary energy use to a significantly higher degree than the energy recovery options (incineration and anaerobic digestion). The substitution of other products and services had a major impact on the results in all scenarios. Re-use scenarios where food was replaced therefore had much higher potential to reduce environmental impact than the energy recovery scenarios where fossil fuel was replaced. This is due to the high level of resources needed to produce food compared with production of fossil fuels, but also to fresh fruit and vegetables having a high water content, making them inefficient as energy carriers. Waste valorisation measures should therefore focus on directing each type of food to the waste

  1. Practice and Exploration of Rural Sci-tech Service Supermarket:A Case Study of Jurong Economic Forest and Fruit Industrial Branch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weizhong; LIU; Yabo; LIU; Jianying; ZHANG; Nini; MAO; Zhijian; WANG

    2013-01-01

    The rural sci-tech supermarket in Jiangsu Province is an innovative model of rural sci-tech service. With reference to the concept of modern commodity supermarket, this model integrates variety, technology and achievement information into the sci-tech supermarket platform, provides various agricultural sci-tech services, and improves farmers recognition and acceptance of science and technology, so as to accelerate conversion of scientific and technological achievements and demonstration and popularization of new varieties, new technologies and new models. This paper analyzes practice of Jurong economic forest and fruit industrial branch and presents recommendations for building Jiangsu rural sci-tech service supermarket.

  2. 广州中心城区公园绿地空间格局及可达性分析%Spatial pattern and accessibility of urban park greenland in center of Guangzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡彦庭; 文雅; 程炯; 魏建兵

    2011-01-01

    Urban park greenland is one of typical green open space. It is very important for the maintenance of urban ecological security and human health. Spatial pattern and accessibility of urban park greenland will directly affect service quality for city dwellers. In this paper, the features of spatial pattern, accessibility and its relationship with service level are analyzed in the center of Guangzhou city by using GIS with landscape indexes. The results show that: 1) Municipal park account for 84.71%of total area of urban parks in center of Guangzhou. Its contagion index is 92.44. The landscape type and spatial pattern of urban park greenland are less reasonable. 2) Based GIS network analysis, only 22.35%of the study area and 44.67%of residents can easily access urban park greenland. The accessibility of park greenland and its service quality of Guangzhou centre area are not good enough. 3) The number and distribution are important factors influencing the accessibility and service quality of urban park greenland.%公园绿地是城市中一类典型的开敞空间,对维护城市生态与人居环境健康具有重要意义,其空间布局的合理性与可达性直接影响其对城市居民的服务水平.以广州中心城区为例,借助GIS技术和景观格局指数,分析城市公园绿地景观格局、可达性和服务状况,并探讨城市公园绿地空间格局对其可达性影响.结果表明:①市级公园其面积占公园绿地总面积的84.71%,城市公园绿地聚集度为92.44,广州中心城区公园绿地景观类型和空间格局不尽合理;②网络分析表明研究区仅有22.35%的面积和44.67%的人口能够较便捷地到达邻近公园绿地,广州中心城区公园绿地的可达性和服务效果不理想;③城市公园绿地数量与空间格局是影响其可达性与服务水平的重要因子.

  3. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  4. Serving up Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    When low-income students returned to Chicago public schools this fall, many had better access to technology, thanks to a public-private partnership. Chicago families with children enrolled in the National School Lunch Program are eligible for subsidized computers and Internet connections through an agreement between the city and telecom giant…

  5. Traffic Management in Motorcycle Dependent Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Khuat, Viet Hung

    2007-01-01

    Many Asian cities, such as Hanoi, Bangkok, and Taipei, experience a special situation, the so-called motorcycle dependence. In these cities, urban transport system is dominated by the motorcycle. This domination influences urban form and land use pattern of the cities by remaining and growing of many two-wheeler accessed only blocks and motorcycle-based land uses. Nowadays, people in motorcycle dependent cities (MDCs) are quickly shifting to travelling by car instead of motorcycle. Under the ...

  6. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever,...... and urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  7. A multi-jurisdiction outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 135 associated with purchasing chicken meat from a supermarket chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Michelle E; Fielding, James E; Telfer, Barbara; Stephens, Nicola; Combs, Barry G; Rice, Belinda A; Fitzsimmons, Gerard J; Gregory, Joy E

    2006-01-01

    A multi-jurisdiction case control study was conducted after an increase of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 135 notifications (a local designated subgroup) was observed throughout Australia. Hypothesis generating interviews conducted in three jurisdictions identified consumption of chicken, eggs, beef and bagged carrots as common among cases and that a high proportion of cases (> 80%) reported purchasing their groceries from a particular supermarket chain (Supermarket A). We conducted a case control study to test whether S. Typhimurium 135 infections were associated with these food items and the purchasing of these products from Supermarket A. The study comprised 61 cases and 173 controls. Cases were younger than controls (p = 0.003) and their distribution by jurisdiction was also significantly different (p Supermarket A (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.2,9.0) or having eaten chicken from a fast food outlet (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.0,7.7) compared to controls. Two positive S. Typhimurium 135 results were obtained through a chicken sampling survey conducted at four Supermarket A stores in Victoria. The results of this study were presented to industry and retail representatives, which facilitated better communication between these groups.

  8. Cooling sausage and cheese with solar power. A concept for the future. Rewe commissioned its first green supermarket; Solarstrom kuehlt Wurst und Kaese. Konzept mit Zukunft. Rewe eroeffnete seinen ersten gruenen Supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naundorf, Antje

    2010-02-15

    In only five months, the Rewe Markt GmbH constructed its first ''Green Building'', a supermarket building which may serve as a model for the whole food production industry. The supermarket consumes 50 percent less energy than a conventional supermarket building, and most of the energy consumed is also produced on site. (orig.)

  9. Mapping the Gendered City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almahmood, Mohammed Abdulrahman M; Scharnhorst, Eric; Carstensen, Trine Agervig;

    2017-01-01

    Walking is a mode of perceiving the city which also contributes to health and social benefits. This paper studies the influence of the socio-cultural aspects on the practice of walking and the meaning of walkscapes in Riyadh, one of the most auto-dependent and gender-segregated cities on the Arab...... Peninsula, where socio-cultural values and restrictions regulate men and women’s use and access to public spaces. The methodology used is a combination of movement tracking data using GPS technology and map-based workshops where participants can reflect on their walking behaviour and spatial preferences....... The results of mapping where the respondents walk show a city consisting of gender-specific walkscapes. Indoor environments, such as shopping malls, function as ‘urban shelters’ for women, so they use such spaces for walking. On the other hand, young men mainly walk in urban streets, which provide greater...

  10. Empirical analysis of consumer's demand for organic agricultural products in supermarkets%超市业态下有机农产品消费需求实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方平; 周保吉; 刘茜; 陆受义; 苏翔

    2011-01-01

    [Objective ]The aim of the study was to investigate the factors affecting consumer' s willingness for purchasing organic food in supermarkets in Nanning City in order to provide some theoretical references for improving the sales mode for organic agricultural product. [Method]Sampling survey method was used to investigate the consumer's willingness to purchase organic food in supermarkets of Nanning City, and the characteristics of consumer' s purchasing behavior were analyzed. Based on the analysis, Logit regression model was established and used to analyze the relationship between different influencing factors and consumer s willingness to purchase organic agricultural products from supermarkets. [Result] The analysis showed that the most affecting factors were the monthly income of the family, confidence level of organic agricultural products and acceptance of organic agricultural products in supermarket. Market place and presence of children and old persons in family were also the important influencing factors. However, the factors of consumer' s age, education background, concern about health and knowledge about organic agricultural products slightly affected the consumer' s purchasing willingness. [Suggestion]In order to promote the sale of organic agricultural products in supermarket, some suggestions have been put forward which included strengthening the supervision of organic agricultural product quality, realization of scale operation, decrease in the cost of production and retail, perfection sale methodology, etc.%[目的]对南宁市消费者在超市业态下购买有机农产品意愿的影响因素进行调查分析,为促进有机农产品营销模式的优化提供理论参考.[方法]对南宁市有机农产品的消费市场需求进行抽样调查,分析不同消费个体的特性,并建立Logit回归模型,分析各影响因素与消费者在超市购买有机农产品的相关程度.[结果]超市有机农产品的购买意愿受消费者家

  11. 农村连锁超市物流策略研究%Research on Rural Supermarket Chain Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳娜; 唐义

    2014-01-01

    超市作为当今发展最迅速的连锁经营业态,代表着流通领域的先进生产力,已成为我国流通领域新的经济增长点。我国连锁超市在农村拓展才刚刚起步,连锁超市在拓展农村市场中不免存在很多问题。针对我国农村连锁超市发展的现状,关于物流方面问题是其发展初期的主要瓶颈。文中针对当前连锁超市在农村市场拓展,物流方面存在的问题进行了分析,从而为连锁超市在制定合理的物流策略方面提出了更多的选择余地。%As of today the fastest growing supermarket chain business conditions,represents the flow field of advanced productive forces,has become a new economic growth point in the field of circulation. Our supermarket chains in rural development has just started,there are many problems inevitably supermarket chain in expanding rural markets. The status quo of China's rural development supermarket chains,on the logistics aspects of the main bottleneck of its early development. In this paper,the current expansion of supermarket chains in the rural market,the existence of logistics problems were analyzed,so as supermarket chains made more reasonable choice in the development of the logistics strategy.

  12. Refrigeration Playbook. Heat Reclaim; Optimizing Heat Rejection and Refrigeration Heat Reclaim for Supermarket Energy Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Johnson, Tim [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this playbook and accompanying spreadsheets is to generalize the detailed CBP analysis and to put tools in the hands of experienced refrigeration designers to evaluate multiple applications of refrigeration waste heat reclaim across the United States. Supermarkets with large portfolios of similar buildings can use these tools to assess the impact of large-scale implementation of heat reclaim systems. In addition, the playbook provides best practices for implementing heat reclaim systems to achieve the best long-term performance possible. It includes guidance on operations and maintenance as well as measurement and verification.

  13. Model-Based Predictive Control Scheme for Cost Optimization and Balancing Services for Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weerts, Hermanus H. M.; Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    A new formulation of model predictive control for supermarket refrigeration systems is proposed to facilitate the regulatory power services as well as energy cost optimization of such systems in the smart grid. Nonlinear dynamics existed in large-scale refrigeration plants challenges the predictive...... control design. It is however shown that taking into account the knowledge of different time scales in the dynamical subsystems makes possible a linear formulation of a centralized predictive controller. A realistic scenario of regulatory power services in the smart grid is considered and formulated...

  14. Recruitment and selection for the packer position in a supermarket network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Moraes Cardoso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of personnel recruitment and selection is a common practice to hire people in organizations. The goal of this study is to report and to reflect about this process in a supermarket chain, which operates in food and non-food retail in the state of Sao Paulo. The purpose of the present intervention was to facilitate the recruitment and selection process for the packer position. After the intervention, we noticed an improvement on the hiring process, on the working conditions and a turnover reduction in this position.

  15. Ammonia in supermarket refrigerators; Einsatz von Ammoniak in Supermarkt-Kaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presotto, A. Jr.; Sueffert, C.G. [SPM Engenharia S/C Ltda, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Hillerns, F. [Forschung und Entwicklung Tyforop Chemie GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    The contribution describes the function of indirect supermarket refrigerators with ammonia as refrigerant. Cold is transported where it is needed with the aid of a cooling brine. Technical and economic advantages and shortcomings of the system are compared with a conventional R 22 direct evaporator systems. [German] Der Artikel beschreibt die Arbeitsweise indirekter Supermarkt-Kaelteanlagen, in denen Ammoniak als Kaeltemittel fungiert und die ''Kaelte'' mittels einer Kuehlsole zu den Kuehlstellen transportiert wird. Die Vor- und Nachteile, die solche Kaeltetraegersysteme in technischer und oekonomischer Hinsicht aufweisen, werden denen konventioneller R 22-Direktverdampferanlagen gegenueber gestellt. (orig.)

  16. Ecological balance for supermarket refrigeration in Switzerland; Oekobilanz fuer Supermarkt-Kaelteanlagen in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frischknecht, R. [ESU-services, Uster (Switzerland)

    2000-04-01

    In the context of an ecological balance of heat pumps and refrigeration plants for the area supermarket cooling was stated that in respect of the environmental the greenhouse effect and ozone depletion give first priority to the selection of the refrigerant and the consistent minimization of the losses of refrigerant. The monitoring of the losses of refrigerant can be strongly improved. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen einer Oekobilanz von Waermepumpen und Kaelteanlagen wurde fuer den Bereich Supermarktkaelte festgestellt, dass bei den Umweltwirkungen Treibhauseffekt und Ozonschichtabbau der Wahl des Kaeltemittels und der konsequenten Minimierung der Kaeltemittelverluste erste Prioritaet zukommt. Das Monitoring der Kaeltemittelverluste ist stark verbesserungsfaehig. (orig.)

  17. Energy saving by optimized controls for supermarket stores; Energie sparen mit optimierter Regeltechnik im Supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelborn, Horst [Danfoss GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Danfoss has been delivering for 20 years the optimizing ADAP-KOOL(R) control system. It enables the store to save 30% of the yearly energy bill, compared to a store with electronic standard controls. Over years the stores took the cheap standard solution, but now several German supermarket chains decide to take the best for the investment and lifecycle cost. This article describes the main control circuits and shows the measurements of the energy consumption of two stores with standard and optimized controls. This control system is available for chemical and for the natural refrigerant R744. (orig.)

  18. Application of combined heat-and-power and absorption cooling in a supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidment, G.G. [South Bank Univ., School of Engineering Systems and Design, London (United Kingdom); Zhao, X. [Taiyuan Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Shanxi (China); Riffat, S.B. [Nottingham Univ., School of the Built Environment, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Prosser, G. [Stal Refrigeration Ltd., Uxbridge (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    In recent years, it has become standard practice to consider Combined Heat-and-Power (CHP) systems for commercial buildings. CHPs schemes are used, because they are an efficient means of power generation. Unlike conventional power stations, they produce electricity locally and thus minimise the distribution losses, however, they also utilise the waste heat from the generation processes. In applications where there is a combined heating and electricity requirement, a very efficient means of energy production is achieved compared to the conventional methods of providing heating and electricity. With new initiatives from the UK government on reduced energy-use, energy-efficient systems such as CHP have been considered for new applications. This paper summarises the results of an investigation into the viability of CHP systems in supermarkets. The viability of conventional CHP has been theoretically investigated using a mathematical model of a typical supermarket. This has demonstrated that a conventional CHP system may be practically applied. It has also been shown that compared to the traditional supermarket design, the proposed CHP systems will use slightly less primary energy and the running costs will be significantly reduced. An attractive payback period of approximately 4 years has been calculated. Despite these advantages considerable quantity of heat is rejected to atmosphere with this system and this is because the configuration utilises the heat mainly for space heating which is only required for part of the year. To increase the utilisation time, a novel CHP/absorption system has been investigated. This configuration provides a continuous demand of the waste heat, which is used to drive an absorption chiller that refrigerates propylene glycol to -10degC for cooling the chilled-food cabinets. The results show this concept to be theoretically practical. the systems has also been shown to be extremely efficient, with primary energy savings of approximately 20

  19. Control system for the whole supermarket; Regeltechnik fuer den kompletten Supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelborn, H. [Danfoss GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    The electronic control system for refrigerated cabinets and refrigeration installations allows the operators of supermarkets to save energy. By integrating the controller for refrigeration, heating, ventilation and air conditioning into an overall communication concept, a monitoring and evaluation system is produced, which supplies the plant operator with data for the analysis of the operational data of their markets. (orig.) [German] Die elektronische Regeltechnik fuer Kuehlmoebel und Kaelteanlagen erlaubt den Betreibern von Supermaerkten einen Energie sparenden Anlagenbetrieb. Durch die Einbindung der Regelung fuer Kaelte, Heizung, Lueftung und Klimatisierung in ein gesamtes Kommunikationskonzept entsteht ein Ueberwachungs- und Bewertungssystem, das dem Anlagenbetreiber Daten zur betriebswirtschaftlichen Analyse seiner Maerkte liefert. (orig.)

  20. Application of neural networks for the prediction of energy use in supermarket buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, T.J.; Tassou, S.A.; Datta, D. [Brunel Univ., Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Marriott, D. [Safeway Stores 6 Millington, Middx (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the application of neural networks to predict energy consumption in commercial buildings. To date, many researchers have demonstrated that neural networks can be more reliable energy predictors than the traditional statistical approaches and can also form the basis for predictive controllers of HVAC equipment. This paper shows the preliminary results of research work at Brunel University for predicting the variation of electricity consumption in a supermarket building based on a neural network. A comparison of the prediction performance of the neural network and a traditional regression approach is presented.

  1. Cost Efficient Optimization Based Supervisory Controller for Supermarket Subsystems with Heat Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minko, Tomasz; Wisniewski, Rafal; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple modelling approach for a thermal system, which consists of heating, ventilation, air conditioning system (HVAC) and a vapor compression cycle (VCC) system, with one loop heat recovery. In addition a simple model for water tank is presented, in which the reclaimed...... controllers of supermarkets subsystems. We find that when reliable information about the high price period is available, it is profitable to use the refrigeration system to generate heat during the low price period, store it and use it to substitute the conventional heater during the high price period....

  2. Energy and environmental performance assessment of R744 booster supermarket refrigeration systems operating in warm climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullo, Paride; Elmegaard, Brian; Cortella, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical comparison among different commercial refrigeration systems in terms of annual energy consumption and environmental impact. Eight configurations were studied: a R744/R134a cascade refrigeration system (baseline), a conventional and an improved R744 booster system...... as on the running modes of a conventional European supermarket. A transition zone, which occurred between sub critical and transcritical operations, was adopted.The results showed that all the enhanced configurations may achieve a comparable energy saving to the one of the baseline in both the selected locations...

  3. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    s moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city......, the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing...

  4. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated by the st......This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  5. The Stockouts Study: an Examination of the Extent and the Causes in the São Paulo Supermarket Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Rigato Vasconcellos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Stockouts remain a significant retail problem. Progress has been limited, as estimates of stockout rates in the past forty years have consistently averaged above 8 percent. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance and extent of the stockout problem in the supermarket sector in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, from the perspective of the supermarket managers themselves. Results suggest that the level of stockouts is high. Generally, the suppliers are mentioned as being the ones mainly responsible for stockouts. These results suggest that managers have significant opportunities to reduce retail stockouts by taking preventative actions.

  6. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-09-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005-2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on

  7. Atypical Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  8. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography.......This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...

  9. Políticas, vigilancia y acceso de los menores de edad a los cigarros en la Ciudad de México Policies, monitoring and minors access to cigarettes in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Antonio Kuri-Morales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En México y otros países, la accesibilidad que tienen los menores de edad a productos derivados del tabaco -sobre todo cigarros- es un factor primordial que contribuye al desarrollo del tabaquismo, que hoy día constituye uno de los principales desafíos de la salud pública en todo el mundo. En la lucha contra esta adicción, la existencia de una legislación eficaz para disminuir la producción, distribución y venta de productos derivados del tabaco es indispensable para crear las condiciones necesarias y lograr una sociedad libre de tabaco. La venta de cigarros a menores es un acto que posee características específicas en cada lugar y tiempo en que se evalúa. En particular, en el Distrito Federal la falta de vigilancia en el cumplimiento de las disposiciones oficiales contribuye a que los menores de edad consigan los cigarros en la mayoría de los comercios y los adquieran de forma directa.In Mexico and other countries, the accessibility that minors have to products derived from tobacco -mainly cigarettes- is a primary contributing factor to smoking, and is currently one of the main public health challenges worldwide. In the fight against tobacco use, effective legislation for decreasing production, distribution and the sale of tobacco products is indispensable to the creation of conditions necessary for achieving a tobacco-free society. The sale of cigarettes to minors is an act that has unique characteristics according to the particular location, particularly in Mexico City, and the time in which it is evaluated. The lack of monitoring compliance with official regulations contributes to the fact that minors directly obtain cigarettes from most of the stores.

  10. Brand perception: an analysis of supermarket retail of Aracaju after acquisitions of international companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Pinto Correia dos Santos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The study under review proposes to investigate how three of the most important brand´s supermarket - representatives of multinational retailed - are perceived. In this article they will be named by P, W and C. Specifically, demanded up: identify the socioeconomics and psychograph customers in PDV and it´s influential´s areas at store; and investigate the perception of brands values of supermarkets under review. Through the method descriptive and quantitative, were applied some questionnaires in 288 costumers of the principals stores about the brands studied and their surroundings, using a probabilistic systematic sampling, looking for answer the constitutive hypotheses made in study. The data were analyzed with software SPSS help (Statistical Package for Social Sciences and were applied in statistical tests: ANOVA, T-Student and Tukey, and Cluster Analysis. The result allows concluding that despite of consumers of the studied brands has in general similar characteristics, there some differences that may have directed strategies. About the aspect of brand equity (loyalty, memory/association and perceived quality, it is possible affirm that C brand stands out with better perception of its proximity aspects within the studied public.

  11. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Produce from Open Air Markets and Supermarkets in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Pierangeli G.; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B.; Widmer, Kenneth W.; Rivera, Windell L.

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first in the Philippines to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of bacterial pathogens and somatic phages in retailed fresh produce used in salad preparation, namely, bell pepper, cabbage, carrot, lettuce, and tomato, using culture and molecular methods. Out of 300 samples from open air and supermarkets, 16.7% tested positive for thermotolerant Escherichia coli, 24.7% for Salmonella spp., and 47% for somatic phages. Results show that counts range from 0.30 to 4.03 log10 CFU/g for E. coli, 0.66 to ≥2.34 log10 MPN/g for Salmonella spp., and 1.30 to ≥3.00 log10 PFU/g for somatic phages. Statistical analyses show that there was no significant difference in the microbial counts between open air and supermarkets (α = 0.05). TaqMan and AccuPower Plus DualStar real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to confirm the presence of these organisms. The relatively high prevalence of microorganisms observed in produce surveyed signifies reduction in shelf-life and a potential hazard to food safety. This information may benefit farmers, consumers, merchants, and policy makers for foodborne disease detection and prevention. PMID:24963502

  12. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak; Onay, Turgut T

    2014-01-01

    Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW+DPW+MW+SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH4) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added), respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  13. Mathematical modelling of supermarket refrigeration systems for design, energy prediction and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Y.T.; Tassou, S.A. [Brunel Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Uxbridge (United Kingdom)

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model developed to simulate the performance of supermarket refrigeration systems. Such a model can be used for the comparison of different systems and control strategies in terms of their energy and total equivalent warming impact. The model is based on a larger number of component models which have been linked together within the TRNSYS environment. Major component models include the compressor, air-cooled condenser, thermostatic expansion valve, display cabinet and control. The overall system model has been validated against monitored data obtained from both a laboratory-based system and a full-scale system in a supermarket in Scotland. The value of the model is illustrated by determining and comparing the effectiveness of head pressure and variable-speed control against fixed head pressure and constant speed control. It is shown that even at summer ambient conditions the system can be operated without problems at much lower head pressures than is done in practice under fixed-pressure control strategies. The use of variable-speed control on one of the compressors can also provide better control of the suction pressure and a substantial (up to 23 per cent) energy savings compared to on-off control. (Author)

  14. Microbiological quality of fresh produce from open air markets and supermarkets in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Pierangeli G; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B; Widmer, Kenneth W; Rivera, Windell L

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first in the Philippines to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of bacterial pathogens and somatic phages in retailed fresh produce used in salad preparation, namely, bell pepper, cabbage, carrot, lettuce, and tomato, using culture and molecular methods. Out of 300 samples from open air and supermarkets, 16.7% tested positive for thermotolerant Escherichia coli, 24.7% for Salmonella spp., and 47% for somatic phages. Results show that counts range from 0.30 to 4.03 log10 CFU/g for E. coli, 0.66 to ≥ 2.34 log10 MPN/g for Salmonella spp., and 1.30 to ≥ 3.00 log 10 PFU/g for somatic phages. Statistical analyses show that there was no significant difference in the microbial counts between open air and supermarkets (α = 0.05). TaqMan and AccuPower Plus DualStar real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to confirm the presence of these organisms. The relatively high prevalence of microorganisms observed in produce surveyed signifies reduction in shelf-life and a potential hazard to food safety. This information may benefit farmers, consumers, merchants, and policy makers for foodborne disease detection and prevention.

  15. [Biomechanical risk assessment of manual material handling in vegetables and fruit departments of supermarkets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draicchio, F; Silvetti, A; Badellino, E; Vinci, F

    2007-01-01

    There is little in the literature about the risks of manual handling of material in supermarkets and what there is refers solely to storehouse work. This contrasts with the substantial number of studies of the risk of repeated arm movements among supermarket cash-desk staff. The scarcity of information is partly due to the difficulties of applying widely employed, standardized evaluation methods in this sector. One of the conditions limiting the application of the NIOSH protocol in this retail sector is that lifting tasks are so often closely tied to transport. The biomechanical analysis method we used brought to light considerable risks in many of the steps investigated: unpacking the pallet, unloading the crates from the pallet to the ground, lifting them from the floor onto display stands, and filling the boxes on the stands with goods before the shop opens. Images acquired on site were analyzed in the laboratory. We selected the most indicative images, which were then studied as regards posture and biomechanics using Apalys 3.0 software (ILMCAD GmbH, Ilmenau, Germany). Biomechemical analysis was done on the following movements: unloading crates from the pallet, positioning them on fruit and vegetable department display stands, and filling the boxes on the stands. We obtained a prediction of 2720 to 5472 N for the load at the lumbosacral junction (L5-S1). Simulation of the NIOSH index gave a value of 2.69 in the only case where the Waters protocol could be applied.

  16. Fault Detection and Isolation for a Supermarket Refrigeration System - Part One

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Rasmussen, Karsten B.; Kieu, Anh T.;

    2011-01-01

    Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) using the Kalman Filter (KF) technique for a supermarket refrigeration system is explored. Four types of sensor fault scenarios, namely drift, offset, freeze and hard-over, are considered for two temperature sensors, and one type of parametric fault scenario, n....... The test results show that the EKF-based FDI method generally performances better and faster than the KF-based method does. However, both methods can not handle the isolation between sensor faults and parametric fault.......Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) using the Kalman Filter (KF) technique for a supermarket refrigeration system is explored. Four types of sensor fault scenarios, namely drift, offset, freeze and hard-over, are considered for two temperature sensors, and one type of parametric fault scenario...... isolation purpose, a bank of KFs arranged by splitting measurements is constructed for sensor fault isolation, while the Multi-Model Adaptive Estimation (MMAE) method is employed to handle parametric fault isolation. All these approaches are extended and checked by using Extended KF technique afterwards...

  17. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Produce from Open Air Markets and Supermarkets in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangeli G. Vital

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first in the Philippines to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of bacterial pathogens and somatic phages in retailed fresh produce used in salad preparation, namely, bell pepper, cabbage, carrot, lettuce, and tomato, using culture and molecular methods. Out of 300 samples from open air and supermarkets, 16.7% tested positive for thermotolerant Escherichia coli, 24.7% for Salmonella spp., and 47% for somatic phages. Results show that counts range from 0.30 to 4.03 log10 CFU/g for E. coli, 0.66 to ≥2.34 log10 MPN/g for Salmonella spp., and 1.30 to ≥3.00 log10 PFU/g for somatic phages. Statistical analyses show that there was no significant difference in the microbial counts between open air and supermarkets (α=0.05. TaqMan and AccuPower Plus DualStar real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to confirm the presence of these organisms. The relatively high prevalence of microorganisms observed in produce surveyed signifies reduction in shelf-life and a potential hazard to food safety. This information may benefit farmers, consumers, merchants, and policy makers for foodborne disease detection and prevention.

  18. Supermarket market-channel participation and technology decisions of horticultural producers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Y. Mainville

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the relationships between growers’ choice of market channel (emphasizing the supermarket market-channel versus others, technology use, and grower characteristics such as human capital and farm size. Three key findings emerged. First, both tomato and lettuce growers selling to the supermarket market-channel had more human capital than those not participating. Second, while farm size was important in whether lettuce growers sell to supermarkets, it was not important for tomato growers. Third, technology use was significantly more capital-intensive among lettuce growers selling to the supermarket channels, however, that was generally not the case for tomato growers. These results are important to agribusiness researchers and policymakers interested in technology design and research and extension to enable producers to adapt to the needs of changing agrifood markets, with new requirements of attributes of products and transactions, which in turn have implications for technology adoption and human capital investment among growers. This is particularly pressing in places like Brazil where the market for horticultural products is changing quickly, conditioned by the rapid rise of supermarkets.Este artigo analisa as relações entre a escolha dos canais de distribuição dos produtores (enfatizando distribuição por meio de supermercados versus outros canais, o uso da tecnologia e as características dos produtores como capital humano e tamanho da propriedade. Foram identificados três resultados principais. O primeiro revela que produtores de tomate e alface que distribuem por meio de supermercados apresentaram maior capital humano que aqueles que não utilizam esse canal. O segundo resultado indica que enquanto o tamanho da propriedade foi importante para produtores de alface decidirem distribuir por meio de supermercados, essa variável não foi importante para produtores de tomate. O terceiro resultado sugere que o uso da

  19. Limits to growth in organic sales : price elasticity of consumer demand for organic food in Dutch supermarkets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, F.H.J.; Galen, van M.A.; Kuiper, W.E.; Bakker, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    This report determines how sensitive consumer demand for organic products is to changes in the prices of organic products. The report is based on the analysis of scanner data for supermarkets in ten Dutch communities. In the framework of the analysis, an experiment has been performed in which the pr

  20. Multi-ejector concept for R-744 supermarket refrigerators; Multi-Ejektoren Konzept fuer R-744 Supermarkt-Kaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, Armin [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Foersterling, Sven [TLK-Thermo GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Banasiak, Krzystof [Silesian Univ. of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2012-07-01

    Supermarkets are commercial buildings with major energy consumption and contribute also to relatively large direct emissions of greenhouse (GHG) through emissions of refrigerants from the refrigeration plants and the air conditioning system installed. The huge majority of these systems, which are installed in European supermarkets, are applying HFC-404A as working fluid. Average annual leakage rates in Europe are in the range of 15-20 % of the total charge. Worldwide the figure is about 30 % and HCFC-22 being the main refrigerant in use. Restrictions on the use of synthetic refrigerants are coming into force in several countries. There is a need for a natural refrigerant which allows for a safe investment in efficient refrigeration systems which will not be forced to be retrofitted by legislation in the future. Systems applying R-744 as the only refrigerant have been developed and more than 500 supermarkets exist in Europe, mainly in northern and mid-European countries. However, the systems still have large potential in development with respect to energy efficiency, heat recovery and cost efficiency. The paper describes the calculation method to identify the possible annual energy savings for different supermarket systems layout. The adoption of non-controlled ejectors and additional function such as heat recovery are evaluated. Results show relevant improvements in system efficiency when heat recovery has been adopted. Ejector usage is not widely spread at the moment. Thus, a theoretical analysis applying the programming language Modelica has been carried out. (orig.)

  1. Real-life memory and spatial navigation in patients with focal epilepsy: ecological validity of a virtual reality supermarket task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, P; Lahr, D; Kohsik, A; Dyck, E; Markowitsch, H J; Bien, C G; Botsch, M; Piefke, M

    2014-02-01

    Ecological assessment and training of real-life cognitive functions such as visual-spatial abilities in patients with epilepsy remain challenging. Some studies have applied virtual reality (VR) paradigms, but external validity of VR programs has not sufficiently been proven. Patients with focal epilepsy (EG, n=14) accomplished an 8-day program in a VR supermarket, which consisted of learning and buying items on a shopping list. Performance of the EG was compared with that of healthy controls (HCG, n=19). A comprehensive neuropsychological examination was administered. Real-life performance was investigated in a real supermarket. Learning in the VR supermarket was significantly impaired in the EG on different VR measures. Delayed free recall of products did not differ between the EG and the HCG. Virtual reality scores were correlated with neuropsychological measures of visual-spatial cognition, subjective estimates of memory, and performance in the real supermarket. The data indicate that our VR approach allows for the assessment of real-life visual-spatial memory and cognition in patients with focal epilepsy. The multimodal, active, and complex VR paradigm may particularly enhance visual-spatial cognitive resources.

  2. INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA EQUIPMENT CONFIGURATIONS FOR SUPERMARKET REFRIGERATION APPLICATIONS. Project Summary (EPA/600/SR-95/028)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study that provided information regarding the merits of using ammonia with a secondary brine loop for supermarket refrigeration systems. The ammonia systems were compared with an equivalent R-22 system. The models used in the study are provided with...

  3. Project CHOICE: #171. A Career Unit for Grades K-2. The Supermarket. (Marketing and Distribution Occupations Career Cluster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This teaching unit on the supermarket is part of the Marketing and Distribution Occupations Career Cluster included in a series of career guidebooks developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education). The units are designed to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking first and second…

  4. Serial devices for heating/cooling/air conditioning in supermarkets; Seriengeraete fuer Heizen/Kuehlen/Klimatisieren im Supermarkt. Betriebserfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolles, Arndt; Tadajewski, Klaus [DAIKIN Airconditioning Germany GmbH, Unterhaching (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Awarded for its energy efficiency Daikin Conveni-Pack is a system that provides heating, refrigeration and air conditioning for supermarkets. It s able to use heat recovered from refrigeration units and coldrooms to heat the building when necessary. Thus it is saving energy and CO{sub 2} emissions in comparison to conventional systems. (orig.)

  5. Study about simulation of supermarket queuing system%超市排队系统仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琦琮; 杨公平; 张福强

    2011-01-01

    针对超市顾客等候过久问题,基于Agent范型,建立了顾客排队系统仿真模型.将顾客、收银台抽象为不同的Agent,并引入收银台管理Agent和引导员Agent.通过不同Agent之间的交互仿真超市排队系统的运行.模型中给出了一种收银台快速结算动态调整算法.实验数据和分析显示,该模型不仅可以真实地模拟超市排队系统运行现象,而且减少了顾客平均等待时间,降低了超市运营成本.%For the problem of the wait time of customers being too long in supermarkets, based on the agent paradigm, a simulation model of supermarket queuing system is established.The customers and check-outs are abstracted as different agents.Guide agent and check-out management agent are also introduced.The interaction among agents simulates the situation of supermarket queuing system.In the model a fast-track checkout scheduling algorithm based on dynamic adjustment is pro-posed.The experimental result and analysis show that the system not only can simulate the situation of supermarket queuing system actually,but also reduces the waiting time of customers and the operating costs of supermarket.

  6. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  7. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  8. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, M.

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  9. Supermarket Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    超市里有很多商品,但每件商品都不是随便摆放的。下面的这篇有关于超市科学的文章将会使我们对超市有更深入的了解,也能让我们具有更理智的消费观念。

  10. Shoulder disorders related to work organization and other occupational factors among supermarket cashiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, I; Landre, M F; LeClerc, A; Bourgeois, F; Franchi, P; Chastang, J F; Marignac, G; Mereau, P; Quinton, D; Du Noyer, C R; Schmaus, A; Vallayer, C

    1998-01-01

    The study was designed to examine, in 210 supermarket cashiers, the cross-sectional relationships between shoulder disorders according to location and chronicity of pain as well as personal and occupational factors and store and workstation characteristics. The factors associated with shoulder disorders differed for the right and left sides. Age and psychological disorders were significant risk factors. Among occupational factors, duration of employment, job control, wage dependence on efficiency, exposure to cold, movements and postures such as stooping, working with arms above shoulder level and holding heavy loads in position, and using a laser scanner were associated with shoulder disorders, especially on the left. These results confirm the multifactorial origin of shoulder disorders, and show the importance of psychosocial work factors, movements and postures, and the laser scanner as occupational risk factors, and the need to consider right and left shoulder disorders in cashiers separately.

  11. Influence of information systems on stock management in little and middle sized supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Luis Pick

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting a multiple case study in which was analyzed the influence of information systems usage on the stock management processes in medium and little-sized retailers. We assessed four supermarkets from the inner land of Rio Grande do Sul, with different status in information systems development. The performance in stock management was appraised with the aid of five numerical indicators, defined in focus group sections with experts, led by researcher. The main observed influences were: average inventory, stock cycle, percentage of shortages and GM-ROI. WE observed high negative correlations between these variables and the level of usage of information systems: the more the company uses it, the less the variables grew, what is a desirable behavior. We do not found influence of the information system on sales volumes.

  12. Neoliberal austerity and corporate crime: the collapse of the Maxima supermarket in Riga, Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfson, Charles; Juska, Arunas

    2014-01-01

    The roof collapse of the Maxima supermarket in Riga, Latvia on November 21, 2013 left 54 dead. This analysis identifies the disaster as a "safety crime." Neoliberal deregulatory measures, intensified by the global economic and financial crisis and a programme of radical austerity, together with corporate and state disregard of public safety and well-being, combined to produce the disaster. The wider context and underlying causes of catastrophic safety failure exemplify the inherently contradictory character of the neoliberal "Baltic model" of austerity, recently much in vogue with international policymakers in both Europe and the United States. The authors conclude that the current renewed drive by the European Commission towards reducing regulation for business, especially in the aftermath of the crisis, further justifies longstanding anti-regulatory preferences of neoliberal domestic elites, with the result that the costs of disregard for public safety are externalized onto the general populace.

  13. Improvement of air distribution in refrigerated vertical open front remote supermarket display cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, I.; Luscombe, P.; McLean, L.; Sarathy, C.S.P.; Sheahen, P.; Srinivasan, K. [Frigrite Refrigeration Pty. Ltd, 27 Grange Road, Cheltenham, Vic. 3192 (Australia)

    2008-08-15

    This paper presents some of the results derived from extensive experimentation on display cases for supermarkets and derives some possible improvements to augment temperature uniformity and energy performance. The effect of the perforation pattern of the rear duct on the distribution of airflow between these and the front curtain is brought out. The critical component is air infiltration across the curtain, which is governed by internal air distribution and curtain characteristics. It is observed that a 70-30 distribution of flow between the curtain and the rear duct perforations yields a performance that satisfies the standards. Further, a judicious distribution of perforations on the rear duct at various levels and across is necessary. Correlations available in the literature are useful in making a qualitative assessment of the results. (author)

  14. Armazenagem de chás no setor supermercadista Tea storage in the supermarket sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Carneiro Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de pesquisa exploratória-descritiva realizada no setor supermercadista visando avaliar a qualidade e adequabilidade do acondicionamento (embalagem e local de armazenagem de chás frente à legislação vigente. Além de proporcionar um panorama geral da situação de armazenagem de chás, também se buscou gerar um instrumento-base para incrementar a inspeção sanitária neste setor de comercialização. A coleta de dados foi efetuada a partir de visitas a 6 supermercados selecionados, no período de 2 a 30 de abril de 2001, observando-se a seção de mercearia seca no interior da loja e depósito anexo, quando permitido. Adicionalmente, efetuaram-se entrevistas com técnicos responsáveis pelos citados setores, para esclarecimentos e conferência de práticas de armazenagem. De modo geral, a maioria das lojas analisadas foi categorizada como portadora de boa (quatro lojas à excelente (duas lojas qualidade de armazenagem de chás. Os depósitos visitados apresentavam-se com qualidade boa (3 à regular (1. A avaliação detalhada do formulário básico de coleta de dados permitiu evidenciar que o problema mais freqüentemente registrado, tanto nas lojas quanto nos depósitos, refere-se à falta de controle de temperatura e umidade adequada (ausentes na totalidade dos estabelecimentos visitados. Um outro problema, que igualmente foi registrado com relativa freqüência, refere-se ao espaçamento mínimo requerido. Com menor freqüência, foram evidenciadas inadequações quanto à limpeza do local de armazenagem e luminárias, proximidade de produtos tóxicos além de forma e qualidade do empilhamento.This paper presents the results of a survey conducted in the supermarket sector to evaluate the quality and adequacy of tea packaging and storage areas, considering the current legislation. In addition to providing a general view of tea storage practices, this survey aimed to generate a basic instrument to develop

  15. UTC/Carrier PureComfort Chiller installation in a supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, J. [The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Co., Woodcliff Lake, NJ (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation discusses a UTC/Carrier PureComfort Chiller installation in a Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Co. supermarket. The presentation discusses the project team, the pre-assembled integrated microturbine system, the PureComfort 240M skid, and provides images of the system. It discusses the system integration including the 240 kW of electricity, chilled water, hot water and desiccant regeneration. It provides a schematic of the system integration heat recovery, electrical, EMS controls, and rooftop. The presentation discusses the system installation challenges such as the roof top installation, weight of system, requirement of crane to install, special permitting for delivery, unfamiliarity of utility and mechanical and electrical engineers with technology. It also discusses the benefits of pre-fabrication, costs of system installation, utility interconnection, commissioning and issues to consider. tabs., figs.

  16. Influence of supermarket environmental parameters on the frosting and defrosting of vertical multideck display cabinets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassou, S.A.; Datta, D.

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports on results of investigations to identify and quantify the effect of in-store environmental conditions on frost accumulation on the evaporator coils of open multideck refrigerated display cabinets. Field and environmental chamber-based tests have shown that both ambient relative humidity and temperature of a store have a significant effect on the rate of frost formation on the evaporator coils, with the effect of relative humidity being much more pronounced than the effect of temperature. In supermarkets where a fixed-time defrost control strategy is employed, it is possible that cabinets are defrosted too infrequently at high relative humidities, resulting in high product temperatures, and too frequently at low relative humidities, resulting in excessive energy consumption. Considerable opportunity exists for the application of more sophisticated defrost control strategies, both to save energy and improve temperature control.

  17. The joint determination of price, quality, and capacity: An application to supermarket operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jess S. Boronico

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a service provider who, faced with competition, must determine the optimal price and level of service quality to provide in order to maximize profits. Service quality and price are assumed to impact jointly on demand for services. Both demand and service quality impact on the cost of providing service. While a considerable literature exists on the impact of service quality on demand or cost, less work has focused on the explicit impact of service quality jointly on both demand for and the cost of providing services. A service quality constraint is appended to the formulation in order to guarantee that a declared service standard is met. Conditions are developed which characterize optimal solutions, together with comparative statics. Illustrative results are presented based on empirical data obtained from a supermarket study.

  18. Fault Detection and Isolation for a Supermarket Refrigeration System - Part Two

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Rasmussen, Karsten B.; Kieu, Anh T.;

    2011-01-01

    be isolated by using a bank of UIOs. Thereby, a complete FDI approach is proposed by combining the Extended-Kalman-Filter (EKF) and UIO methods, after an extensive comparison of KF-, EKF- and UIO-based FDI methods is carried out. The simulation tests show that the complete FDI approach has a good......The Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) using the Unknown Input Observer (UIO) for a supermarket refrigeration system is investigated. The original system's state $T_{goods}$ (temp. of the goods) is regarded as a system unknown input in this study, so that the FDI decision is not disturbed...... by the system uncertainties relevant to this state dynamic and the original system disturbance $Q_{airload}$ (the thermal feature of the air). It has been observed that a single UIO has a very good detection capability for concerned sensor and parametric faults. However, only the parametric fault can...

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of transcritical CO{sub 2} booster refrigeration systems in supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Y.T., E-mail: yunting.ge@brunel.ac.u [Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Tassou, S.A. [Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The CO{sub 2} booster systems are widely applied in supermarket refrigeration. {yields} Control optimisation can improve the performance of the CO{sub 2} refrigeration systems. {yields} The effects of some important parameters on the system performance are examined. {yields} The optimal high-side pressure in the transcritical cycles is established and derived. -- Abstract: Due to less environmental impact, the CO{sub 2} booster refrigeration system has been widely applied in the modern supermarket as a substitute for the conventional R404A multiplex system. However, the performance efficiency of the CO{sub 2} system still requires further improvement in order to save energy; thus, one of the most efficient techniques would be to investigate and employ the optimal controls for refrigerant high side pressures at various operating states. In this paper, the possible parameters affecting system efficiency of the CO{sub 2} system in the transcritical cycle at a higher ambient air temperature are identified through thermodynamic analysis, but cannot be quantified mathematically because of the high non-linearity involved. Instead, sensitive analysis of the system by means of the thermodynamic model is used to examine the effects of parameters including high side refrigerant pressure, ambient air temperature, refrigerant intermediate pressure, and medium and low evaporating temperatures, superheating, effectiveness of suction line heat exchanger, and compressor efficiency on system performance. Consequently, the optimal high side pressure in the transcritical cycle is established and derived as a function of three important parameters consisting of ambient air temperature, the effectiveness of suction line heat exchanger and compressor efficiency. In addition, optimal operating parameters such as the intermediate pressure are also proposed to improve the system performance.

  20. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from vegetables with regards to the marketing stage (farm vs. supermarket).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karin; Helmke, Katharina; Hölzel, Christina Susanne; Bauer, Johann

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this study was to elucidate whether and to what extent fresh produce from Germany plays a role as a carrier and reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. For this purpose, 1001 vegetables (fruit, root, bulbous vegetables, salads and cereals) were collected from 13 farms and 11 supermarkets in Germany and examined bacteriologically. Phenotypic resistance of Enterobacter cloacae (n=172); Enterobacter gergoviae (n=92); Pantoea agglomerans (n=96); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=295); Pseudomonas putida (n=106) and Enterococcus faecalis (n=100) against up to 30 antibiotics was determined by using the microdilution method. Resistance to ß-lactams was most frequently expressed by P. agglomerans and E. gergoviae against cefaclor (41% and 29%). Relatively high resistance rates were also observed for doxycycline (23%), erythromycin (21%) and rifampicin (65%) in E. faecalis, for spectinomycin (28%) and mezlocillin (12%) in E. cloacae, as well as for streptomycin (19%) in P. putida. In P. aeruginosa, relatively low resistance rates were observed for the aminoglycosides amikacin, apramicin, gentamicin, neomycin, netilmicin and tobramycin (4%); 11% was resistant to streptomycin. No glycopeptide-resistant enterococci were observed. Resistance rates of bacteria isolated from farm samples were higher than those of the retail markets whenever significant differences were observed. This suggests that expressing resistance is at the expense of bacterial viability, since vegetables purchased directly at the farm are probably fresher than at the supermarket, and they have not been exposed to stress factors. However, this should not keep the customer from buying directly at the farm, since the overall resistance rates were not higher than observed in bacteria from human or animal origin. Instead, peeling or washing vegetables before eating them raw is highly recommended, since it reduces not only the risk of contact with pathogens, but also that of ingesting and spreading

  1. The microbial content of unexpired pasteurized milk from selected supermarkets in a developing country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Melisa Anderson; Patrice Hinds; Stacyann Hurditt; Princena Miller; Donovan McGrowder; Ruby Alexander-Lindo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presence and levels of microbes in unexpired pasteurized milk from randomly selected supermarkets in Kingston, Jamaica. Methods: The quantitative study used a stratified random sampling technique in the selection of the 20 representative milk samples from six (6) supermarkets. Microbiological tests such as methylene blue reduction, standard plate count (SPC), coliform plate count (CPC), purity plate culture, gram staining and biochemical tests were performed to examine the microbes in purchased unexpired pasteurized milk. Results: One sample (BCr016) had a pH of 4.0, a rancid odour and curdled appearance. It decolourized within one hour during the methylene blue reduction test and was classified as class 4 milk. Seven of the samples were sterile with no microbe growth on the plate count agar and violet red bile salt agar (VRBA). The milk samples that appeared to be safe for consumption were all 10, 11, 12 and 13 days before expiration. The VRBA sample BCr016, had a colony count of 13 400 CFU/ mL. There was the presence of Escherichia coli in sample LCr021 which had a standard plate count of 1 580 SPC/mL and a coliform count of 500 CFU/mL. Enterobacter sp. was present in colonies from BCr016 and all the other milk samples. Conclusions: Unacceptable levels of Enterobacter spp. and Escherichiacoli were found in most of the samples. Effective measures to ensure safe milk for human consumption such as the phosphatase test and methylene blue reduction test should be routinely performed on each batch of milk processed by dairy plants.

  2. Smart cities of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  3. Process evaluation of two environmental nutrition programmes and an educational nutrition programme conducted at supermarkets and worksite cafeterias in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.H.M. Steenhuis; P. van Assema (Patricia); A. Reubsaet; G.J. Kok (Gerjo)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis article describes the process evaluation of two environmental programs and a educational nutrition program, implemented at supermarkets and worksite cafeterias. Studies conducted earlier, indicated that the programs had no effect on consumers’ eating behavior. Consequently, the more

  4. Analysis:Development Strategy for Chain Supermarkets in Ningbo%宁波市本土连锁超市发展战略探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓燕; 冯革群

    2014-01-01

    With more and more foreign chain supermarkets entering Ningbo, the competition between the domestic and foreign chain supermarkets has been growing intense. How to overcome the disadvantage and get a share in market is worth discussing for local chain supermarkets. This article first analyzes the state in quo in the field and then discusses the development strategies of chain supermarkets in Ningbo.%在外资连锁超市纷纷入驻宁波的今天,宁波连锁超市业已形成了本土与外资对峙的局面。笔者从外部经济、竞争优势、环境趋势3个方面分析了宁波连锁超市发展现状,并探讨了本土连锁超市的发展战略。

  5. Community Perspectives on Access to and Availability of Healthy Food in Rural, Low-Resource, Latino Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Zulema; Ramírez, A. Susana; Estrada, Erendira; Grassi, Kathleen; Nathan, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attention has focused on the food environment as a result of the growing concern with obesity rates among Latinos in rural areas. Researchers have observed associations between a lack of physical access to affordable produce in areas where supermarkets and grocery stores are limited and poor dietary intake and obesity; these associations are high in rural, low-resource neighborhoods with a high population of Latino residents. We aimed to engage residents of low-resource, Latino-m...

  6. A ground water source heat pump for the air-conditioning of a supermarket; Une PAC sur nappe phreatique pour climatiser un hypermarche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-04-01

    A thermodynamical solution involving a ground water source heat pump and 19 roof top air-conditioners has been retained for the air-conditioning of a 41000 m{sup 2} supermarket of Colmar (Alsace, France). The supermarket is also equipped with a computer-monitored refrigeration system for the food products and a centralized technical management for the optimization of the installation operation. (J.S.)

  7. Conversion of a deep freezer to a non-ozone-depleting refrigerant. Pilot project in an Edeka supermarket; Tiefkuehlanlage auf ozonunschaedliche Kaeltemittel umgeruestet. Pilotprojekt in Edeka-Supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2007-04-15

    The R22 refrigerator systems of the Edeka supermarket Neukauf Hofmann at Fulckbrueck-Doernhagen were converted to a non-ozone-depleting refrigerant. This included conversion of an ISceo MO29 deep freezer by DuPont. In all, a total of 122 kg of R22 was replaced, 67 kg in the standard chiller and 55 kg in the deep freezer system. The conversion was achieved in a single day without interrupting the supermarket business. Technical modifications were not required. (orig.)

  8. Towards Smart City Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Stan, Catalin; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    2015-01-01

    We present an approach to geometry learning that is based on a didactic theory, which builds on play in order to discover and learn about geometry. Inspired by this theory, a mobile and location-aware game has been developed that aims at embodying geometric concepts in the real world. To this end......, the concept of smart city learning is exploited to situate learning about geometric shapes in concrete buildings and thus make them more accessible for younger children. In close collaboration with a local school a game for 3rd graders was developed and tested on a field trip and in class. A mixed measures...

  9. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project exploring sustainable ways of urban living. The project renders a scenario comprised of an array of simple conversions of existing urban spaces and buildings, in the attempt to tie strategies ranging from urban planning to interior design into a coherent vision...... of a sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  10. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin...... down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning"....

  11. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services......, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of - or willingness...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  12. A Study of Water Accessibility Landscape of City Watercourses:A Case Study of River Bank Landscape Design along Xu Xiake Avenue,Ninghai%城市河道亲水景观研究——以宁海徐霞客大道大溪两岸景观设计为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈倩倩; 马军山

    2012-01-01

    城市河道是特殊的滨水环境,文中以宁海徐霞客大道大溪两岸景观设计为例,阐述城市河道亲水景观设计的理念及其内容并提出亲水景观营造的方法。%Water is an element of vitality,and waterbody brings life and vigor to its surrounding environment.City watercourse is a special waterfront environment.Taking the river bank landscape design along Xu Xiake Avenue in Ninghai as the example,the paper described the concept and content of water accessibility landscape design along city watercourses,and elaborated the methods for the landscape building.

  13. The Interior City. Infinity and Concavity in the No-Stop City(1970-1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Martínez Capdevila

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn the late 60s it had become clear how the environment technification had allowed some typologies (supermarkets, car parks, factories to reach potentially unlimited built depths becoming, therefore, independent from the outside. The No-Stop City is born from a very simple idea: to extend this technification to the totality of built reality encompassing, not only almost all functions, but ultimately, the whole city. This operation has paradoxical effects: as architecture grows, it loses most of the features that have traditionally defined it. A dissolution by hypertrophy that gives rise to an homogeneous, concave and potentially infinite space.But beyond the pure technical feasibility, there are two key influences, seemingly contradictory, that explain this endeavor for an interior and endless city: Marxism and Pop Art. The project is, in many senses, a built manifesto reflecting the militancy of the group members within the Italian Marxism. But it is also the embodiment of the group's declared interest in Pop Art, popular culture and mass society. The cross-influence of communism and consumerism explains this "quantitative utopia" in which the society and the factory, the production and consumption, would match. A city based on the centrality of consumer products and the subsequent loss of prominence of architecture, in which the urban phenomenon, while spreading endlessly over territory, ignoring its rural exteriority, dissolves the home as a sphere of privacy, ignoring its domestic interiority.A project, also in the wake of Marshall McLuhan, that illustrates like few others the conversion of the urbane into a virtually omnipresent "condition" and that still interrogates us with questions that are, on the other hand, eternal: What is a building? What is a city?Key wordsBranzi, dissolution, pop, Marxism, neo-avant-garde

  14. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  15. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    /assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  16. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  17. Vacant city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzot, N.

    2013-01-01

    Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if not recognized by any in

  18. Sin City?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, Pieter A.; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city

  19. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling.

  20. 农村连锁超市选址研究%Research on the Site Selection of Rural Chain Supermarket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向隅

    2012-01-01

    According to the actual situation of rural areas, a site selection evaluation model of rural chain supermarket consisting of the indices of natural environment, traffic environment, business environment and public environment was established, and the model was then solved by an improved TOPSIS method. The method provides references for the reasonable site selection of some chain supermarkets in rural areas.%根据农村的实际情况,建立了以自然环境、交通环境、经营环境、公共环境为评价指标的农村连锁超市选址评价模型,并运用改进的TOPSIS方法对模型进行了求解.该方法可为大型超市在农村扩张中合理选择超市地址提供依据.

  1. Only CO2 as coolant for supermarket Plus Vermaning, Olst, Netherlands; Alleen CO2 als koudemiddel bij Plus Vermaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jans, R. [Coolsultancy, Rucphen (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    Early July 2009 the Dutch supermarket Plus Vermaning in Olst was reopened. The cooling installation in this supermarket is among the first in the Netherlands equipped with only the natural cooling agent R744 (CO2) and is also equipped with a heat recovery system. A gas connection is no longer required in this store. The time has come to list the experiences. [Dutch] Begin juli 2009 is in Olst, Nederland, de supermarkt van Plus Vermaning heropend. De koelinstallatie in deze supermarkt is als een van de eersten in Nederland uitgevoerd met uitsluitend het natuurlijke koudemiddel R744 (CO2) en is verder voorzien van een warmteterugwinning (WTW) systeem. Een gasaansluiting is in de winkel niet meer aanwezig. Nu is het tijd de ervaringen op een rij te zetten.

  2. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompon Wanwimolruk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits and also the maximum residue limits (MRL regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015. MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice. This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. Methods These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Results Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets and 99% (supermarkets for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets and 100% (supermarkets for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets and 97% (supermarkets for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets and 35% (supermarkets for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets and 55% (supermarkets for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets and 49% (supermarkets for the morning glory. Discussion These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold

  3. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phopin, Kamonrat; Boonpangrak, Somchai; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2016-01-01

    Background The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits) and also the maximum residue limits (MRL) regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015). MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice). This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory) purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. Methods These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Results Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets) and 99% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets) and 100% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets) and 97% (supermarkets) for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets) and 35% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets) and 55% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets) and 49% (supermarkets) for the morning glory. Discussion These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL) obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold in

  4. Agar Plates Made from Common Supermarket Substances and Bacillus subtilis Natto as an Inexpensive Approach to Microbiology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz-Josef Scharfenberg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To address the possible limitations that financial restrictions may have on students’ independent experimentation at school, we developed and implemented an inexpensive approach for basic microbiology education. We describe four nutrient agars consisting only of everyday substances available from the supermarket or online that we developed to replace standard agars and specific agars. Additionally, we selected Bacillus subtilis natto as an example of a pure-culture species. Our tip first reports the four supermarket-substance agar variants; second, it suggests utilizing them to introduce basic microbiological techniques; and third, it introduces B. subtilis natto in the context of the antibacterial effects of antibiotics as well as of supermarket products which students can bring to class from home. We implemented our approach in microbiology education at school as well as in pre-service teacher education and in in-service teacher professional development courses at our university. Finally, our paper provides worksheets for all the experiments. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory safety section of the ASM Curriculum Recommendations: Introductory Course in Microbiology and the Guidelines for Biosafety in Teaching Laboratories, available at www.asm.org. The Editors of JMBE recommend that adopters of the protocols included in this article follow a minimum of Biosafety Level 1 practices. If the soil plates described in the activity are opened, a minimum of Biosafety Level 2 is required.

  5. A Review of the Passiv Haus Concept and an Examination of How This Was Applied to a Supermarket in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Wegner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to garner a full understanding of low energy construction across a variety of sectors in countries throughout the world, and then investigate how the Passiv Haus concept was applied to a Supermarket in Ireland. In order to carry out this investigation, a case study was performed on the energy efficiency and performance of a Tesco store in Tramore. It was found that its electrical cosumption was 24% lower than equivalent stores which were not built to the high specification of the Passiv Haus Standard. As this supermarket is the first of its kind in the world, and with both the SEAl and the European Parliament pushing for this method of construction to be adopted,i11 this standard will most likely in some shape or form become a new building standard in Ireland. This supermarket offers a unique insight into what can be expected in bui lding design and const ruction in this sector if it is undertaken.

  6. Buying Food on Sale: A Mixed Methods Study With Shoppers at an Urban Supermarket, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Stites, Shana D.; Singletary, S. Brook; Cooblall, Clarissa; DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The obesity epidemic has drawn attention to food marketing practices that may increase the likelihood of caloric overconsumption and weight gain. We explored the associations of discounted prices on supermarket purchases of selected high-calorie foods (HCF) and more healthful, low-calorie foods (LCF) by a demographic group at high risk of obesity. Methods Our mixed methods design used electronic supermarket purchase data from 82 low-income (primarily African American female) shoppers for households with children and qualitative data from focus groups with demographically similar shoppers. Results In analyses of 6,493 food purchase transactions over 65 weeks, the odds of buying foods on sale versus at full price were higher for grain-based snacks, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages (odds ratios: 6.6, 5.9, and 2.6, respectively; all P < .001) but not for savory snacks. The odds of buying foods on sale versus full price were not higher for any of any of the LCF (P ≥ .07). Without controlling for quantities purchased, we found that spending increased as percentage saved from the full price increased for all HCF and for fruits and vegetables (P ≤ .002). Focus group participants emphasized the lure of sale items and took advantage of sales to stock up. Conclusion Strategies that shift supermarket sales promotions from price reductions for HCF to price reductions for LCF might help prevent obesity by decreasing purchases of HCF. PMID:25188276

  7. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svastisalee, Chalida M.; Holstein, Bjørn E.; Due, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6, 096) with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow = 1.60; CI:  1.02–2.45; ORmid = 1.40; CI:  1.03–190). Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR = 1.79; CI:  0.99–3.21). Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds. PMID:22988491

  8. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalida M. Svastisalee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n=6,096 with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n=80. We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow=1.60; CI:  1.02–2.45; ORmid=1.40; CI:  1.03–190. Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR=1.79; CI:  0.99–3.21. Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds.

  9. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities ...... of being mobile, as well as profoundly altering the process and perspective of data collection and feedback to governments, businesses and citizens.......This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid...

  10. NH3/CO2 Supermarket Refrigeration System with CO2 in the Cooling and Freezing Section. Technical, Energetic and Economical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Riessen, G. J.

    2004-08-01

    The application of the natural refrigerant CO2 in combination with NH3 has shown a large increase in industrial refrigeration over the last few years. Until April 2004, all supermarkets in the Netherlands were still working with systems using the environmentally harmful HFCs (greenhouse gases) or even HCFCs (ozone depleting substances). The advantages of a CO2 supermarket system seem to be overshadowed by fear of owners of supermarkets and installers for an unfamiliar system with higher installation costs. The natural refrigerants NH3 and CO2 are now introduced in the Dutch commercial refrigeration. The first supermarket refrigeration system in the Netherlands with only natural refrigerants has become operational in March 2004 and is located in Bunschoten. The NH3/CO2 cascade system has NH3 as primary refrigerant evaporating at -16C in two parallel cascade heat exchangers, where CO2 is condensing at -12C. One CO2 circuit is used for the cooling, which is an innovation for supermarket refrigeration. From the cascade heat exchanger, CO2 is pumped into the cooling section. In the other CO2 circuit, direct expansion and a CO2 compressor provides the freezing section with CO2 of -30C. The most experiments with CO2 in supermarkets in Europe have been restricted to the application of CO2 in the freezing section. Therefore, the application of CO2 as a phase changing secondary refrigerant in the cooling section is an interesting innovation. The technical, energetic and economical aspects of the installation are considered. The technical operation of the cascade refrigeration system in a supermarket is discussed. The energy savings are calculated and the installation and running costs evaluated. Experiences and problems during the installation and control of the installation will be discussed.

  11. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from Oregon Pump Station by City of Oregon and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2015-06-20 to 2016-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0130547)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130547 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  12. ASSESSING SUPERMARKET FOOD SHOPPER REACTION TO HORSEMEAT SCANDAL IN THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Amofa Yamoah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumer reaction to food scares has been given considerable research attention but insights into specific shopper segments’ reactions to food scares, especially those that do not pose direct health risk to the public is limited. This paper examines how different life-stage shopper segments reacted to the horsemeat scandal in the UK. This paper draws on the analysis of supermarket loyalty card dataset of 1.7 million beef burger shoppers to establish the effect of the horsemeat scandal on retail sales value and volume as well as the rate of withdrawal of life-stage shopper segments from the affected products. The results show consistent weekly decline in retail sales value and volume across all life-stage segments over six consecutive weeks after the first horsemeat scandal announcement. Young families, pensioners and young adults segments withdrew from affected products in accordance with their typical perception and attitudes to risk. Contrary to expectation older adults withdrew faster than young families from the affected products. The findings of the study offer useful insights and strategic direction for managers working to ensure that food scares are managed to the benefit of the public and the food industry.

  13. Packing products for customers: an ergonomics evaluation of three supermarket checkouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, C; Coleman, N; Healey, S; Lusted, M

    1995-04-01

    The introduction of laser scanners at supermarket checkout areas has resulted in previous ergonomics studies focusing specifically on the scanning process and associated cumulative trauma disorders in the hands and arms. Few studies have evaluated the increased musculoskeletal load and exertion of checkout staff when they are also expected to pack the products into bags for the customers. This paper describes an ergonomics evaluation of three different designs of checkout workstation, which require the operator to stand when they scan the products, pack them into plastic bags and transfer the packed bags to the customer. Musculoskeletal load and exertion associated with the different checkouts were measured using OWAS, heart rate recordings and ratings of perceived exertion. In addition, subjective rankings of the workstations were obtained and the productivity associated with each design examined as part of the evaluation. Some of the variables measured showed significant differences in postural load between the workstations. The results of the evaluation formed the basis of recommendations for an improved workstation design. Some of the suggestions made to reduce postural load and increase productivity include positioning the weigh scale to the side and the bag frame beneath the scanner.

  14. Biomechanical evaluation of supermarket cashiers before and after a redesign of the checkout counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draicchio, Francesco; Trebbi, Martina; Mari, Silvia; Forzano, Federico; Serrao, Mariano; Sicklinger, Andreas; Silvetti, Alessio; Iavicoli, Sergio; Ranavolo, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out on supermarket cashiers to evaluate the time, kinematic and electromyographic changes, in both sitting and standing positions, following the redesign of a checkout counter. The novelty of the prototype checkout counter is a disk wheel placed in the bagging area, which is designed to avoid the cashier having to manually push products along the bagging area. The kinematic evaluation was based on the upper limb and trunk range of motions (RoM). The electromyographic parameters assessed were mean and maximum muscular activations. Three factors were taken into account: design (before and after redesign), posture (standing or sitting) and bagging area (anterior or posterior). The results show that the RoM values are lowest after the intervention and in the standing position. Mean and maximum muscular activation patterns are similar. Differences related to the bagging area in which the goods were released also emerged. The disk wheel represents a valid aid for reducing biomechanical overload in cashiers; the standing position is biomechanically more advantageous. Practitioner Summary: EMG and optoelectronic motion analysis systems are useful for the quantitative assessment of the effects of the redesign of the workplace biomechanical risk. Our results suggest that a disk wheel positioned in the bagging area reduces the biomechanical risk for cashiers and increases time spent resting.

  15. Implementation of ANP Method in Determining Supplier to Improve Service towards Supermarket Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyanto, A.; Amalia, T. H.; Novian, D.; Kaluku, M. R. A.

    2017-03-01

    Performance assessment on the supplier by the supermarket manager is relatively difficult to conduct and implies subjectivity, because there is no measureable and objective performance indicator. This study aims to assist in the decision making process and to look for alternative solutions in assessing the performance of each supplier, so that the service towards the customers will improve as well. ANP method is used to find the weight of each sub-criteria that will be used to measure the supplier performance. The weight result of each sub-criteria derived from the ANP method is used again in measuring the performance and to rank the performance of each supplier by using TOPSIS method. Performance measuring by using the ANP and TOPSIS that generates the highest value of the supplier is 0.71666 while the lowest value is 0.24825. The result of this study shows that the ANP and TOPSIS methods can be used to measure the supplier performance therefore it can assist the selection of supplier which can increase service towards the mart’s consumers.

  16. Incidence of Larval Anisakiosis in Ocean Fish Sold Through Network of Supermarket Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Negrea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations conducted on a sample of 33 ocean fish of consumption, mackerel and herring uneviscerated and frosen, packed in plastic bags, different weights and purchased from supermarket chain stores, concerning the incidence and intensity of parasitism by larvae of Anisakis sp. to gut and visceral level, lesion picture caused and also some morphological measurements, reveals an incidence of anisakiasis of 60.0% to 72.2% in mackerel and respectively in herring. Regarding the infestation intensity of Anisakis larvae sp., infestations dominate weakly the mackerel (44.4%, followed by medium (33.3% and massive (22.0%. In contrast to the herring are dominant the medium infestations (46.1%, followed by massive (30.7% and low infestations (23.1%.Table of lesion caused by larval stages in gut and visceral level is characterized by intestinal congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and hemoragico – necrotic and the presence of larval cystic foci on serous of gut, kidneys, liver and gonads. Morphological investigations carried out on a sample of 20 larvae, collected from herring and mackerel, regarding biometric aspects, cuticular and of color, body size variables highlights from 13.0 mm / 0.6 mm minimum to 27.0 / 0.6 mm maximum, with an average of 20.0 mm / 0.5 mm, comparable to those presented in the speciality literature.

  17. Selective Cooperation in the Supermarket : Field Experimental Evidence for Indirect Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Eggert, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Numerous laboratory experiments suggest that mechanisms of indirect reciprocity might account for human cooperation. However, conclusive field data supporting the predictions of indirect reciprocity in everyday life situations is still scarce. Here, we attempt to compensate for this lack by examining the determinants of cooperative behavior in a German supermarket. Our methods were as follows: Confederates of the experimenter lined up at the checkout, apparently to buy a single item. As an act of cooperation, the waiting person in front (the potential helper) could allow the confederate to go ahead. By this means, the potential helper could take a cost (additional waiting time) by providing the confederate with a benefit (saved waiting time). We recorded the potential helpers' behavior and the number of items they purchased as a quantitative measure proportional to the confederate's benefit. Moreover, in a field experimental design, we varied the confederates' image by manipulating the item they purchased (beer vs. water). As predicted, the more waiting time they could save, the more likely the confederates were to receive cooperation. This relationship was moderated by the confederates' image. Cost-to-benefit ratios were required to be more favorable for beer-purchasing individuals to receive cooperation. Our results demonstrate that everyday human cooperation can be studied unobtrusively in the field and that cooperation among strangers is selective in a way that is consistent with current models of indirect reciprocity.

  18. Alternative refrigerants for supermarket refrigerators; Alternative Kaeltemittel fuer Supermarkt-Kaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaf, S.; Heinbokel, B. [Linde AG, Geschaeftsbereich Kaeltetechnik, Koeln (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Most supermarket refrigerators are still equipped with H-CFC (R404A and R134a), which contribute to global warming. Natural refrigerants were tested as substitutes, i.e. NH{sub 3}, propene and CO{sub 2}, but H-CFC systems are still the best solution. Attempts are now made to reduce refrigerant filling levels and prevent leakage. [German] Die in Supermarkt-Kaelteanlagen ueberwiegend eingesetzten HFKW-Kaeltemittel R404A und R134a weisen betraechtliche Treibhauspotentiale auf. Im Zusammenhang mit auftretenden Kaeltemittel-Leckagen wirkt sich dies auf die Hoehe des gesamten Treibhauseffekts TEWI derartiger Anlagen aus. Im Laufe der letzten Jahre wurde von Linde eine grosse Anzahl von Anlagen mit den natuerlichen Kaeltemitteln NH{sub 3}, Propen und fuer die Tiefkuehlung auch mit CO{sub 2} installiert. Waehrend die Betriebssicherheit dieser Anlagen als gut bezeichnet werden kann, weisen die Anlagen mit NH{sub 3} und Propen, bei denen die Kuehlung der Verbraucher ueber Kaeltetraegerkreislaeufe erfolgt, deutlich hoehere Energieverbraeuche und Investitionskosten auf. Gute Chancen fuer eine wirtschaftliche Betriebsweise bieten hingegen CO{sub 2}-Kaskadenanlagen fuer die Tiefkuehlung. Da fuer den Bereich der Normalkuehlung kurzfristig keine akzeptable Loesung mit CO{sub 2} als Kaeltemittel zur Verfuegung stehen wird, bilden Anlagen mit HFKW-Kaeltemitteln weiterhin die beste Loesung, wobei weitere Reduzierung der Kaeltemittel-Fuellmengen und Leckagen zur Steigerung der Umweltfreundlichkeit notwendig und moeglich sind. (orig.)

  19. Analysis on energy saving potential of integrated supermarket HVAC and refrigeration systems using multiple subcoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); China R and D Center, Carrier Corporation, No. 3239 Shen Jiang Road, Shanghai 201206 (China); Zhang, Chun-Lu [China R and D Center, Carrier Corporation, No. 3239 Shen Jiang Road, Shanghai 201206 (China)

    2010-02-15

    The paper presents a model-based analysis on the energy saving potential of supermarket HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning) and refrigeration systems using multiple subcoolers among the high-temperature HVAC system, the medium-temperature refrigeration system, and the low-temperature refrigeration system. The principle of energy reduction is to have the higher COP (coefficient of performance) system generate more cooling capacity to increase the cooling capacity or reduce the power consumption of the lower COP system. The subcooler could be placed between the medium-temperature and low-temperature systems, between the high-temperature and medium-temperature systems, and between the high-temperature and low-temperature systems. All integration scenarios of adding one, two and three subcoolers have been investigated. The energy saving potential varies with the load ratio between high-, medium- and low-temperature systems, COP of three systems, and the ''on-off'' duty time of HVAC system. The optimal sequence of adding subcoolers is also proposed. (author)

  20. Factors Influencing Consumption "Green": A Study on Buying Behavior in the Supermarket Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Silva Braga Júnior

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, companies have incorporated into their daily and strategic planning, elements of social and environmental management. This has been implemented in an attempt to adapt to new consumer trends that have come to appreciate such initiatives in its product evaluation and to align with new legal obligations relating to environmental issues. It is is justified both for the supermarket retail industry and for the field of sustainability studies to examine the main factors influencing consumers to buy retail market consumer products considered "green." A survey was conducted with a sample of 174 students in postgraduate courses. The regression lines of each factor were evaluated according to the categorical variables: gender, family income, age group and marital status. The results show differences concerning gender and marital status. There are differences in the factor “reduction of environmental impacts” regarding the variables family income and age. This analysis indicates that the views of the sample is homogeneous (everyone pays attention to product information and there is an apparent concern with environmental issues and with the purchase of green products.DOI:10.5585/remark.v10i1.2213

  1. Linking supermarket sales data to nutritional information: an informatics feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, Kristina M; Brewster, Philip J; Clark, Edward B; Jordan, Kristine C; Cummins, Mollie R; Hurdle, John F

    2011-01-01

    Grocery sales are a data source of potential value to dietary assessment programs in public health informatics. However, the lack of a computable method for mapping between nutrient and food item information represents a major obstacle. We studied the feasibility of linking point-of-sale data to USDA-SR nutrient database information in a sustainable way. We analyzed 2,009,533 de-identified sales items purchased by 32,785 customers over a two-week period. We developed a method using the item category hierarchy in the supermarket's database to link purchased items to records from the USDA-SR. We describe our methodology and its rationale and limitations. Approximately 70% of all items were mapped and linked to the SR; approximately 90% of all items could be mapped with an equivalent expenditure of additional effort. 100% of all items were mapped to USDA standard food groups. We conclude that mapping grocery sales data to nutritional information is feasible.

  2. [Acceptance of yoghurt with different functional ingredients among consumers in supermarkets in southern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Shene, Carolina; Rubilar, Mónica; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Lobos, Germán

    2010-12-01

    In view of the interest in the role of foodstuffs in improving wellbeing and health, the object of this study is to distinguish consumer typologies in Temuco, La Araucanía Region, Chile, according to their preferences for different functional ingredients, flavouring, colouring and price in yoghurt. A semi-structured survey was applied to 400 supermarket customers. The respondents ordered eight alternative yoghurts according to their preferences, with different functional ingredients (fibre, antioxidants), flavourings (sugar, sweetener), colouring (natural, artificial) and three price options, for a conjoint analysis with fractional factorial design. Variables affecting knowledge of "functional food" were evaluated using a binomial logit model. It was determined by conjoint analysis that in general a preference existed for yoghurt containing fibre, sweetener, natural colouring, and at the lowest price. Three typologies were distinguished by analysis of hierarchical conglomerates: the majority segment (48.8%) displayed a greater preference for fibre; the second (41.7%) also preferred fibre, but gave first priority to artificial colouring and preferred a higher price. The minority (9.5%) was the only segment to prefer antioxidants. The typologies differed significantly in satisfaction with their food-related life, knowledge of the function of fibre and presence of cancer and obesity in some member of the respondent's family. The binomial logit model was significant (P sweetener.

  3. Numerical investigation of an R744 liquid ejector for supermarket refrigeration systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haida Michal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical investigation of an R744 liquid ejector applied to a supermarket refrigeration system. The use of the liquid ejector enables the operation of the evaporator in a flooded mode and recirculates the R744 liquid phase, which improves the energy efficiency of the refrigeration system. The investigation was performed using two ejectors of different sizes installed in a multi-ejector block. The numerical model was formulated based on the homogenous equilibrium model and validated with the experimental results. The influence of the pre-mixer, mixer and diffuser dimensions on the ejector performance measured using the mass entrainment ratio is presented. The results show that the best liquid ejector performance was obtained for the short lengths of the pre-mixer and mixer compared to the broadly investigated two-phase ejectors connected to the evaporator port. In addition, wide diffuser angles improved the mass entrainment ratio of both liquid ejectors, which may lead to a reduction in the diffuser length.

  4. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmer Andrew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84, service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58 and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86. Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater

  5. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spicer, Neil

    2011-07-13

    Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with

  6. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  7. On Problems and Countermeasures of the Chain Opera-tion of Renrenle Supermarket%人人乐超市连锁经营的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑少华; 夏彭娟

    2015-01-01

    超市连锁经营的业态在我国零售业中存在的历史并不长,却以独特的经营魅力赢得了消费者的喜爱。但是,在目前众多外资超市进入中国市场的前提下,本土超市现状不容乐观。本文主要就人人乐超市连锁经营存在的问题及发展对策展开了分析。%The chain operation of supermarkets has a short history in China' retail industry, but it has gained the favor of customers with its unique charming style of operation. However, under the situation that a large number of foreign supermarkets are swarm-ing into the Chinese supermarket, the current situation of local supermarkets is pessimistic. This paper mainly carries out an analysis on the problems and countermeasures of the chain oper-ation of Renrenle Supermarket.

  8. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  9. City Level of Income and Urbanization and Availability of Food Stores and Food Service Places in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Liao

    Full Text Available The contribution of unhealthy dietary patterns to the epidemic of obesity has been well recognized. Differences in availability of foods may have an important influence on individual eating behaviors and health disparities. This study examined the availability of food stores and food service places by city characteristics on city level of income and urbanization.The cross-sectional survey was comprised of two parts: (1 an on-site observation to measure availability of food stores and food service places in 12 cities of China; (2 an in-store survey to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits in all food stores. Trained investigators walked all the streets/roads within study tracts to identify all the food outlets. An observational survey questionnaire was used in all food stores to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits. Urbanization index was determined for each city using a principal components factor analysis. City level of income and urbanization and numbers of each type of food stores and food service places were examined using negative binomial regression models.Large-sized supermarkets and specialty retailers had higher number of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits sold compared to small/medium-sized markets. High-income versus low-income, high urbanized versus low urbanized areas had significantly more large-sized supermarkets and fewer small/medium-sized markets. In terms of restaurants, high urbanized cities had more western fast food restaurants and no statistically significant difference in the relative availability of any type of restaurants was found between high- and low-income areas.The findings suggested food environment disparities did exist in different cities of China.

  10. Access to food outlets and children's nutritional intake in urban China: a difference-in-difference analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Rui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years supermarkets and fast food restaurants have been replacing those “wet markets” of independent vendors as the major food sources in urban China. Yet how these food outlets relate to children’s nutritional intake remains largely unexplored. Method Using a longitudinal survey of households and communities in China, this study examines the effect of the urban built food environment (density of wet markets, density of supermarkets, and density of fast food restaurants on children’s nutritional intake (daily caloric intake, daily carbohydrate intake, daily protein intake, and daily fat intake. Children aged 6–18 (n = 185 living in cities were followed from 2004 to 2006, and difference-in-difference models are used to address the potential issue of omitted variable bias. Results Results suggest that the density of wet markets, rather than that of supermarkets, positively predicts children’s four dimensions of nutritional intake. In the caloric intake model and the fat intake model, the positive effect of neighborhood wet market density on children’s nutritional intake is stronger with children from households of lower income. Conclusion With their cheaper prices and/or fresher food supply, wet markets are likely to contribute a substantial amount of nutritional intake for children living nearby, especially those in households with lower socioeconomic status. For health officials and urban planners, this study signals a sign of warning as wet markets are disappearing from urban China’s food environment.

  11. Profitability, third-party reimbursement, and access to community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, N V; Miederhoff, P A; Waters, L W

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent to which third-party reimbursement programs have affected the profitability and availability of community pharmacies. Data were taken from records maintained by the Virginia Board of Pharmacy and a survey of 177 community pharmacies. Between 1989 and 1994, 258 outpatient pharmacies opened and 342 closed. Chain and independent pharmacies suffered net losses, and supermarket and mass merchandiser pharmacies experienced net increases. Few significant changes occurred in the distribution of pharmacies over the study period. Fifty-nine chain and independent pharmacies and 1 supermarket pharmacy chain provided usable profit and reimbursement data. These pharmacies experienced declines in profits and increases in the percentage of prescriptions reimbursed by private third-party prescription programs over the last several years. Regression analyses indicated that higher ratios of sales of private third-party prescriptions to private-pay prescriptions were associated with lower profits. All respondents indicated that changes in private third-party reimbursement had substantially reduced profits over the past 5 years. The results indicate that the growth of private third-party payment has led to lower pharmacy profits but has not yet resulted in problems of consumer access.

  12. Why Do the Poor Live in Cities?

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.; Jordan Rappaport

    2000-01-01

    More than 17 percent of households in American central cities live in poverty; in American suburbs, just 7.4 percent of households live in poverty. The income elasticity of demand for land is too low for urban poverty to be the result of wealthy individuals' wanting to live where land is cheap (the traditional urban economics explanation of urban poverty). Instead, the urbanization of poverty appears to be the result of better access to public transportation in central cities, and central cit...

  13. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  14. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  15. Impact of High-speed Railway on Accessibility and Economic Linkage of Cities along the Railway in Henan Province, China%高速铁路对河南沿线城市可达性及经济联系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟德友; 陆玉麒

    2011-01-01

    高速铁路建设对沿线地区最直接的影响就是缩短地区间的时空距离,提升地区问的交通可达性水平,进而促进地区间社会经济联系和空间相互作用强度.从可达性和空间经济联系两方面探讨徐兰、京广客运专线建设前后河南省12个沿线地市的省内可达性和空间经济联系的变化状况,以及全国"四纵四横"高速铁路网络的构建对河南沿线城市的省际可达性和空间经济联系的影响.通过对河南省高速铁路沿线城市的省内和省际可达性及经济联系的对比分析,从客观上论证了高速铁路建设的重要性和必要性,也有利于廓清各地市经济发展的空间导向,有利于协调省内地区间和省际地区间的经济联系与合作,为区域空间发展战略的制定提供参考.%As a new convenient and faster transportation mode, the high-speed railway (HSR) construction and operation will make great impacts on the transportation condition, economic growth and human being' s working and living conditions in areas along the railway. The accessibility level will be promoted and the socio-economic linkage will be strengthened which are the most basic and direct impacts of HSR. Taking Henan as an example,the evolution of accessibility and spatial economic linkage among the 12 cities along the railway are probed before and behind the construction of HSR. The impact of “four vertical and four horizontal" HSR network all through the country on the inter-provincial accessibility and economic linkage of cities along the rail in Henan are also analyzed deeply. Results show that: 1 ) the travel time among cities along the rail will be greatly reduced under the construction of HSR from Xuzhou to Lanzhou and from Beijing to Guangzhou, and the economic region within 2 h will be formed basically. The pattern of “one vertical and one horizontal HSRs" constitutes the main channel of economic linkage, and the main directions of economic

  16. The Accessibility of Internet Information Linkages Between Cities in China Based on the Transmission Speed%基于传输速度的中国城市节点间互联网信息联系通达性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路紫; 杨东; 张秋娈; 王文娟

    2014-01-01

    通过对网站信息传输速度数据连续6个月的采集,编制出中国31个城市节点间信息传输速度矩阵。运用因子分析法计算出各城市节点对应的综合得分,并划分出等级,进而对最优等级/最差等级所涉及的城市节点进行频次统计,以分析信息联系通达性的等级特征。通过传输速度的等级划分,揭示高速连接线路和较高速连接线路的空间特征,最后对若干影响因素进行解释。研究发现:城市节点的输出和输入速度不一致,输出最优节点都处于主干网或与北京直接相连,输入最优节点与主干网关系不密切,输出和输入最差节点多处在网络末端;互联网信息联系通达性与传统城市等级间的正向对应关系发生偏转,传统等级靠前的城市节点信息传输通达性较弱;影响信息联系通达性的因素包括网络设置与网络组织、信息化建设与城市等级、网络服务运营商及其互通等,互联网服务商的供给和用户需求的对接有待改善。%As a clear indicator, transmission speed has a significant effect on describing transmission accessibili-ty of Internet information between the city nodes. Through the data of information transmission speed on the ta-chometer site, this article constructs the matrix of information transmission speed between the 31 cities nodes in China. It used factor analysis, to calculate the cities node corresponding composite scores and divide them into grades, to count the frequency the optimal grade/worst grade of city nodes, and to analyze the grade char-acteristics of information linkages accessibility. And then, through the hierarchies of the transmission speed, the spatial characteristic of the high-speed and higher-speed connection lines are revealed. Finally, several in-fluence factors are explained. The research findings are as follows. The output speed and input speed city nodes is not consistent. The optimal

  17. 超市营运系统的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of the Supermarket Operating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宗佳

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of the information age, supermarket operating system has been widely used in the supermarket management filed. This paper describes the database design of supermarket operating system and the design and implementation of system management, sales management, statistics and the print of four functional modules.%随着信息时代的到来,超市营运系统在超市管理领域得到广泛的应用。本文主要阐述超市营运系统的数据库设计与系统中的系统管理、销售管理、统计和打印四个功能模块的设计与实现。

  18. Organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables from farms, markets, and a supermarket around Kwan Phayao Lake of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapbamrer, Ratana; Hongsibsong, Surat

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated organophosphorus (OP) residues in vegetables from 27 farms, 106 markets, and 1 supermarket around Kwan Phayao Lake, Northern Thailand, between August and September 2013. Types of vegetables sampled were all vegetables cultivated or sold around the study site. The most common OP pesticides detected in farm samples were chlorpyrifos (50 %), malathion (31.8 %), monocrotophos (31.8 %), diazinon (13.6 %), omethoate (13.6 %), and dicrotophos (9.1 %). The most common OP pesticides detected in market samples were chlorpyrifos (33.9 %), diazinon (18.6 %), parathion-methyl (3.4 %), profenofos (3.4 %), primiphos-ethyl (3.4 %), and fenitrothion (1.7 %). The OP pesticides detected in supermarket samples were chlorpyrifos (33.3 %), and diazinon (66.7 %). Among the compounds detected, chlorpyrifos was detected in most of the vegetable samples from all sources. The highest chlorpyrifos level in farm samples were found in lemon balm (2.423 mg/kg) followed by Vietnamese coriander (0.835 mg/kg), and cowpea (0.027 mg/kg). The highest level in markets samples were found in garlic (7.785 mg/kg) followed by Chinese cabbage (2.864 mg/kg) and Vietnamese coriander (1.308 mg/kg). Residues from supermarket samples were found only in parsley (0.027 mg/kg). The findings showed that 16 samples (59.3 %) from farms and 14 samples (13.2 %) from markets contained OP residues at or above the maximum residue limits established by the European Union. It is concluded that awareness, safety education, and strict regulation of pesticide use are necessary.

  19. On-line Auto-Tuning of PI Control of the Superheat for a Supermarket Refrigeration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Andersen, Casper; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2011-01-01

    An online PI auto-tuning method is proposed for superheat control for a type of supermarket refrigeration systems. The proposed procedure consists of three serial steps: Step-One uses one of the two proposed empirical methods, namely multi-step method and relay method, for modeling initialization...... controller is auto-tuned based on the obtained FOPDT model and the SIMC method in Step-Three. The proposed method is implemented on a real-sized physical system and the experimental results showed a promising potential to apply the proposed method into commercial development....

  20. Supermarket installations with natural refrigerants, controlled by ADAP-KOOL; Supermarkt met natuurlijke koudemiddelen, bestuurd door ADAP-KOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Herwaarden, J. [Danfoss, Schiedam (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    The first supermarket in The Netherlands with natural refrigerants is made by means of the ADAP-Kool Refrigeration control system. The decision to use this system was based on the high potential of energy savings. This article describes the influence of suction pressure optimisation and modulating temperature control as applied in the plant. [Dutch] Dankzij innovatie en het gebruik van vernieuwende technieken kunnen in de dagelijkse koeltechniek milieu- en energiesparende installaties worden gerealiseerd. Door het hanteren van de normale, gangbare normen ten aanzien van de interne en externe veiligheid en een goed overleg met de lokale overheid en Milieudienst Gewest Eemland werd plaatsing binnen een bebouwde omgeving geaccepteerd.

  1. Nutritional content of supermarket ready meals and recipes by television chefs in the United Kingdom: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the energy and macronutrient content of main meals created by television chefs with ready meals sold by supermarkets, and to compare both with nutritional guidelines published by the World Health Organization and UK Food Standards Agency. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Three supermarkets with the largest share of the grocery market in the United Kingdom, 2010. Samples 100 main meal recipes from five bestselling cookery books by UK television chefs and 100 own brand ready meals from the three leading UK supermarkets. Main outcome measures Number of meals for which the nutritional content complied with WHO recommendations, and the proportion of nutrients classified as red, amber, or green using the UK FSA’s “traffic light” system for labelling food. Results No recipe or ready meal fully complied with the WHO recommendations. The ready meals were more likely to comply with the recommended proportions of energy derived from carbohydrate (18% v 6%, P=0.01) and sugars (83% v 81%, P=0.05) and fibre density (56% v 14% P<0.01). The recipes were more likely to comply with the recommended sodium density (36% v 4%, P<0.01), although salt used for seasoning was not assessed. The distributions of traffic light colours under the FSA’s food labelling recommendations differed: the modal traffic light was red for the recipes (47%) and green for ready meals (42%). Overall, the recipes contained significantly more energy (2530 kJ v 2067 kJ), protein (37.5 g v 27.9 g), fat (27.1 g v 17.2 g), and saturated fat (9.2 g v 6.8 g; P<0.01 for all) and significantly less fibre (3.3 g v 6.5 g, P<0.01) per portion than the ready meals. Conclusions Neither recipes created by television chefs nor ready meals sold by three of the leading UK supermarkets complied with WHO recommendations. Recipes were less healthy than ready meals, containing significantly more energy, protein, fat, and saturated fat, and less fibre per portion than the ready meals. PMID:23247976

  2. Cash management system 'CEREUS-SM'; Supermarket muke kinsen shoriki 'CEREUS-SM'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niizuma, N.; Fukushima, Y.; Kinoshita, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-10

    The adjustment system with change in coin has reduced cashier work in supermarkets, and has spread as the standard peripheral equipment of the point of sales (POS) system. Recently, there have been customer needs for a type with change in bill and coin. Fuji Electric has developed cash management system 'CEREUS-SM' which is as small as the current system only with change in coin and can be handled by anyone, including a part-timer or a student worker. (author)

  3. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis identifies an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Montevideo infection associated with a supermarket hot food outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlfall, E J; Hampton, M D; Ward, L R; Richardson, I R; Lanser, S; Greener, T

    1999-09-01

    In February 1996 Salmonella enterica serotype Montevideo infection in a patient in the North Tyneside area was attributed to consumption of cooked chicken bought from a supermarket hot food outlet. Isolates from the patient, leftover food, and environmental samples were indistinguishable by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE also demonstrated that an outbreak of infection with S. Montevideo associated with the hot food outlet had occurred in late 1995 and early 1996. This study shows the importance of microbial strain discrimination in outbreak investigations and illustrates the value of close liaison between microbiologists, epidemiologists, and environmental health officers in the control of salmonella outbreaks.

  4. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers,...

  5. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers, Pool...

  6. Expats rank Chinese cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Lv Dong

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, April The results of the "2011 Amazing China- The Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners" election are released. Expats choose Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities as Chinas 10 most attractive cities for foreigners.

  7. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  8. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  9. Comparing access for all: disability-induced accessibility disparity in Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, David S.; Ascensão, Fernando; Raposo, Nuno; Figueiredo, António Pedro

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that individual impairments create disparities in the accessibility of individuals to opportunities, lengthening the distances or time needed to reach them or even completely impeding access. However, the accurate calculation and representation of these disparities remain a major challenge for urban and transportation planners. In this paper, we adopt the concept of accessibility disparity, originally applied to measure place accessibility by different modes of transport, to measure and represent the accessibility of individuals with physical disabilities compared to those without disabilities. We use spatial network analysis to calculate spatial connectivity and the accessibility of Lisbon's city center, revealing what we define as `disability-induced accessibility disparity'. Our results reveal not only the locations responsible for reduced accessibility, i.e., barriers and/or deterrents to movement, but also how much any given disparity reduces the accessibility of an individual, allowing the use of this methodology by planners to identify critical areas and to design inclusive public spaces.

  10. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  11. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinquan; Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  12. The Nowadays Isfahan! Green space city? Or black highway city?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Taghvaei

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   In between urban land use, green spaces are part of the frameworks of the cities, which we refer to as the animate part of the framework structure of the city, and in correlation with inanimate part of the city; they create the texture and appearance of it. But according to importance of expansion of green space in cities, instead of the development and expansion of these spaces in isfahan which was someday regarded as the model of Islamic garden –town with appropriate green space, the focus in the recent years have been more on the development of framework- residential, commercial, structures and roads, parking lots etc. but among the prior ones and roads have the sixth rank in planning. Therefore, it is clear that the current approach has a one – dimensional theory for planning and using all these users and the relation between these spaces with each other has been almost forgotten. For instance, in the current conditions, many of city planners focus on development of cross over and streets to diminish traffic, but regarding the high demands for travel, volume of automobile arrival, easy automobile buying and owning, the preference of citizens for using personal cars and the gradual increase in urban travels due in appropriate access to urban services, the expansion of streets and changing urban textures in to cross avers and devoting a substantial part of urban budgets to creating roads, highways , autobahns and parking lots, to what extent we can have control over cities , and isn’t it the time take aside the conventional planning for urban lands and do something to solve these problems? If the current process continues, soon in looking downward from the sky to this city, well see a black city with black links connected together, not a green city with green links connected together .so this paper analyzes the irregular increase in roads and crossovers and parking lots with a comparing – analyzing method and in turn

  13. THE DIFFICULTIES FACED BY MICRO AND SMALL ENTERPRISES IN THE FORMAL MARKET ACCESS: THE CASE IN SMALL AND MICRO ENTERPRISES IN THE CITIES OF MAKASSAR AND KABUPATEN GOWA SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Rahman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze about the difficulties faced by micro and smallenterprises in accessing markets in sustaining and expanding the operation and the survivalof their businesses. Samples taken from the 45 micro and small businesses (UMK chosendeliberately from the entire population. Design research in the applied ResearchExploratory. Data collection is done with in depth interviews with business owners(industry to obtain data that is associated with this research. From a sample of researchfound that very few micro and small businesses (UMK managed to access the formalmarket, the main reason is the inability of their products to meet the requirements set bythe institution of a formal marketing, they are only able to do marketing. The conclusionsof the research are: a. skills principals UMK on marketing management are generally verylow, b. quality of the resulting product is still low so as to make their difficulties indealing with competitors in the market, c continuity in serving customers/partner has yetto be secured, d difficulty in using modern production technology, because of lack ofcapital, e slow in doing the response to changes in the market. Recommended: that theGovernment should also play a more active role in facilitating the ease of access to theformal market, by helping UMK in partnerships, and the provision of facilities for productmarket UMK on any area in the form of marketing outlets adopted the model AlphaMarch.

  14. Smart City Planning Can Cut Deadly Diseases, Improve Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161133.html Smart City Planning Can Cut Deadly Diseases, Improve Air ... to shop; availability and safety of bike paths; parking costs; and access to public transportation. Specifically, the ...

  15. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  16. 广佛环线对珠三角地区城际轨道交通网通达性的影响%The Effect of the Guangfo Circle Line on the Accessibility of Inter City Rail Transit Network in Zhusanjiao Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰鹏

    2011-01-01

    Guangfo circle line is the inter city circle line in Guangfo area,which belongs to the geometric categories of the rail traffic network's spheres and layers.It connects a great number of important transit hubs;and joins eight inter city rail transit lines.It is the most important circle line in the "three circle"of the line network.Through analyzing the function and calculation for the accessibility of the Guangfo circle line,it shows that:the Guangfo circle line not meets the passenger flow requirements and promotes the process of the Guangfo city,but also improves the accesibility of the line network and service efficiency.%广佛环线属于轨道交通网络中图层的几何范畴,为广佛都市圈的城际环线.该线连接了广佛地区重要的交通枢纽,并与珠三角地区城际轨道交通线网规划中8条城际轨道交通线路衔接,是珠三角地区城际轨道交通网"三环"中最为重要的"一环".通过对广佛环线功能定位分析和通达性计算表明:该线不仅满足了沿线地区客流需求,推动了广佛同城化进程,同时还将以广州为中心的放射形线路紧密的组合在一起,提高了珠三角地区城际轨道交通线网的通达性,提升了线网服务效率.

  17. Hemodialysis access - self care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - ...

  18. Are gluten-free foods healthier than non-gluten-free foods? An evaluation of supermarket products in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason H Y; Neal, Bruce; Trevena, Helen; Crino, Michelle; Stuart-Smith, Wendy; Faulkner-Hogg, Kim; Yu Louie, Jimmy Chun; Dunford, Elizabeth

    2015-08-14

    Despite tremendous growth in the consumption of gluten-free (GF) foods, there is a lack of evaluation of their nutritional profile and how they compare with non-GF foods. The present study evaluated the nutritional quality of GF and non-GF foods in core food groups, and a wide range of discretionary products in Australian supermarkets. Nutritional information on the Nutrition Information Panel was systematically obtained from all packaged foods at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia in 2013. Food products were classified as GF if a GF declaration appeared anywhere on the product packaging, or non-GF if they contained gluten, wheat, rye, triticale, barley, oats or spelt. The primary outcome was the 'Health Star Rating' (HSR: lowest score 0.5; optimal score 5), a nutrient profiling scheme endorsed by the Australian Government. Differences in the content of individual nutrients were explored in secondary analyses. A total of 3213 food products across ten food categories were included. On average, GF plain dry pasta scored nearly 0.5 stars less (Pgluten intolerance.

  19. Observations of parent-child co-shoppers in supermarkets: children's involvement in food selections, parental yielding, and refusal strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Story, Mary; Stang, Jamie

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed to collect descriptive information on the decision-making processes of adult shoppers around food purchases when young children are present. Anthropological field observations were conducted on adult-child grocery shoppers. Eleven supermarkets in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan region. A convenience sample (n = 142) of adult-child shoppers at 8 budget and 3 deluxe supermarkets located in diverse urban and suburban areas. Observations registered adult-child interactions over food selections, including parental yielding or refusal strategies and child engagement in shopping. Means and frequencies were calculated for food items considered. In 67 (50.4%) of the total 133 observations, a child initiated a request. Half (55.2%) of the requests were for sweets or snacks. Nearly half (47.8%) of adults yielded to the child's request. Brands and marketing techniques appeared to be a factor in 28.6% of selections. The most frequent adult refusals either provided an explanation or ignored the request. Adults yield to children's requests for sweets and snacks nearly as often as they refuse them. However, effective refusal strategies are used by many adults. Opportunities exist in the grocery store for adults to reinforce young children's interest in food and nutrition.

  20. Trans fatty acid content in Malaysian supermarket foods: a field-to-laboratory approach in assessing food risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Tan, Hui Kuen; Ong, Wei Wen; Tan, Choon Heen; Sundram, Kalyana

    2014-01-01

    The extent of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply is unknown in Malaysia, whilst TFA disclosure on food labels is not mandatory by Malaysian food standards. Supermarket foods such as dairy products, fats and oils, meat products, snack foods, soups, and confectionery are commonly cited to be major contributors of TFA in the diet. A consumer survey (n = 622) was used to develop a food listing of these 'high risk' foods. TFA content of high-risk foods were analysed by gas chromatography. Food samples (n = 158) were analysed and their total TFA content were compared with Malaysian Food Standards. A wide variation in TFA content within food categories was indicated. Of the foods containing TFA, many food labels did not cite TFA content or the use of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) as an ingredient. Hypothesised estimates of TFA intake from these supermarket foods in a sample day's menu providing 2000 kcal projected a minimum intake of 0.5 g and a maximum intake of 5.2 g TFA. This study found there was no voluntary disclosure of TFA content on food labels or identifying PHVO as an ingredient. It appears that health education targeting consumers to minimise TFA consumption is required supported by mandatory PHVO disclosure on the food label.

  1. A Research on Marketing Strategy of Foreign Supermarkets%外资超市营销策略探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳军强

    2011-01-01

    本文对目前已经进入我国的沃尔玛、家乐福等大型外资超市,从经营策略中的商品结构、品类管理、自有品牌,到价格策略中的参照定价法、毛利率法、折扣定价法、特卖商品定价法,以及促销策略中的发展客户关系、非凡事件营销和供应链治理等方面,进行了系统分析,以便为我国本土的超市经营提供可资借鉴的经验和有益的启示。%For the purpose of providing some valuable experiences and inspirations to the domestic supermarkets,this paper analyzed the operation,pricing,and marketing promotion strategies adopted by the large foreign supermarket in China,such as Wal-Mart and Carrefour.

  2. Examining the effect of retail service quality dimensions on customer satisfaction and loyalty: The case of the supermarket shopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beneke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Post Apartheid, the South African supermarket industry has rapidly increased in size and stature, yet customer satisfaction and fostering goodwill don't appear to have kept pace with growth. This research considers which aspects of retail service quality impact upon customer satisfaction and, ultimately, pay dividends in terms of generating store loyalty amongst urban shoppers in the middle to upper market segments. Design/methodology/approach: A survey approach was used to collect data from 307 respondents within a major metro pole area, as well as through an online interface. This was used to test our path model using Partial Least Squares (PLS analysis. Findings: The results from the analysis concluded that two constructs, namely Physical Aspects and Personal Interaction, had a direct relationship with Customer Satisfaction. Customer satisfaction was also confirmed to be positively linked to customer loyalty. Originality/Value: This research uncovers which aspects of service are most coveted by consumers in an emerging market context, as well as their effect on generating repeat business. If supermarket chains are to move beyond mere profit generation and build meaningful relationships with customers, they would best be advised to focus on the attributes of service that have a direct bearing on customer satisfaction and, in turn, long-term repeat patronage.

  3. Effects of integrated cockroach control in supermarkets%超市蜚蠊综合防治效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚宏亮; 张育富; 刘大鹏; 杨维芳; 刘慧; 陈志龙; 孙俊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of integrated cockroach control in supermarket. Methods Three supermarkets, two as experimental sites and one as control, were selected for test. Integrated control measures, which comprised environmental improvement assisted by chemical control, were taken in the experimental sites. The control effects were evaluated with relative density decrease rate as the indicator. Results All the cockroaches captured in the supermarkets were Blattella germanica. Cockroaches were mainly distributed in the fresh food section, cooked food section, storehouse, bakery, food section, vegetable and fruit section, etc., while the cockroach density in the grocery section was relatively low. The cockroach densities in the two experimental sites decreased by 89.96% and 81.38% three days after integrated control measures, by 93.89% and 90.21% three weeks after the measures, and by 95.05% and 89.27% two months after the measures. Conclusion Cockroaches invade the supermarkets seriously, with B. Germanica as the dominant species. Integrated control measures can be used to quickly and effectively decrease the cockroach density in supermarket, and the control effects were durable.%目的 评价综合防治措施对超市蜚蠊的防治效果.方法 选择3家超市,其中2家作为试验场所,1家作为对照.试验场所采取环境治理为主,化学防治为辅的综合防治措施;以相对密度下降率为指标评价防治效果.结果 超市蜚蠊种类均为德国小蠊;主要侵害生鲜区、熟食区、库房、面包房、食品区和蔬果区等,百货区密度较低;采取综合防治措施3d后蜚蠊密度明显下降,超市A及超市B密度下降率分别为89.96%和81.38%;3周后密度下降率分别为93.89%和90.21%;2个月后密度下降率分别为95.05%和89.27%.结论 超市蜚蠊侵害严重,优势种为德国小蠊;综合防治措施可快速有效地降低蜚蠊密度,并且具有较长的持效期.

  4. Green cities and health: a question of scale?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, E.A.; Mitchell, R.; Hartig, T.; Vries, de S.; Astell-Burt, T.; Frumkin, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cities are expanding and accommodating an increasing proportion of the world's population. It is important to identify features of urban form that promote the health of city dwellers. Access to green space has been associated with health benefits at both individual and neighbourhood level

  5. Measured impacts of supermarket humidity level on defrost performance and refrigerating system energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, H.I.; Khattar, M.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents field-monitor data from two supermarkets where the impact of space humidity on refrigerating system energy use was evaluated. Direct digital control (DDC) systems were used at both stores to collect 15-minute monitored data. At Store A in Minneapolis, the DDC system was used to monitor system performance as well as to implement temperature-terminated control in place of time-terminated control on 16 refrigerated zones using hot gas defrost. At Store B in Indianapolis, the DDC system was used to quantify the performance trends for the single compressor rack system with electric defrost. The results at Store B showed that refrigerating system energy use decreases by nearly 10 kWh/day for each 1% drop in space relative humidity, or about 0.4% of average annual system energy use. This value includes the impact of reduced latent loads, the reduction in direct energy use and imposed load from reduced electric defrost heater operation, and the smaller imposed load from reduced anti-sweat heater energy use. The measured reductions agree well with the impact predicted using the calculation methods developed by Howell (1933b) in ASHRAE Research Project 596. At Store A, the measured data show that implementing temperature-terminated defrost reduced refrigerating system energy use by nearly 70 kWh/day over the winter period when the average space humidity was 22% RH. The savings from temperature-terminated defrost increase by 4 kWh/day per each 1% drop in relative humidity. At both stores, the same type of mechanical controls were used to duty cycle the anti-sweat heaters based on store dew point. Anti-sweat heater electricity use was observed to decrease by 4.6 kWh/day at Store B and 3.4 kWh/day at Store A for each 1% drop in relative humidity. At Store A, a more aggressive control scheme was implemented with the DDC system that reduced anti-sweat heater energy use by 7.8 kWh/day per % RH. The more aggressive control approach was reported to properly

  6. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  7. "Supermarket Column Chromatography of Leaf Pigments" Revisited: Simple and Ecofriendly Separation of Plant Carotenoids, Chlorophylls, and Flavonoids from Green and Red Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Alice M.; Ferreira, Maria La Salete

    2015-01-01

    A simple and ecofriendly procedure was developed in order to prepare extracts from red and green leaves. This procedure enables the separation of yellow, green, and red band pigments and optimizes the previously reported baking soda "supermarket column". The same extract also led to a novel and colorful potato starch column, which can…

  8. On Questionnaire Design and Statistical Analysis of Supermarket Product Demand%超市产品需求调查问卷设计及统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏巍

    2012-01-01

    设计一份高质量的超市产品需求调查问卷能够真实反映出受访者对超市产品客观需求、对超市产品服务质量的真实意见。文章利用统计方法,试从问卷调查设计思路及步骤和统计分析方法视角研究超市调查问卷的设计范例,为提高超市管理水平和生成科学严谨的市场调查报告提供有力的数据支撑。%The design of high quality questionnaire of supermarket products’ demand can truly reflect the objective product demands of respondents and real opinions towards the service quality of products in supermarkets.Based on strategic methods,the paper studies the design case of supermarket investigation questionnaire from questionnaire design process and ways of thinking,and provides articulate data support for upgrading management in supermarket and forming the scientific market investigation report.

  9. Discussion on Business Model of Fresh Produce in Supermarket%刍议超市生鲜农产品经营模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊华

    2013-01-01

    The supermarket operation of fresh produce is the trend. Supermarket chains have a unique advantage in operating the fresh produce, at the same time face many challenges. By enhancing the brand management, category management, sourcing from base, distribution system, quality and safety, information platform six aspects, it can improve the business model of supermarket fresh produce, reduce costs, improve efficiency and quality, and ultimately increase consumer satisfaction and business performance of supermarket chains.%  生鲜农产品的超市化经营是大势所趋。连锁超市在生鲜农产品经营方面有着独特的优势,同时面临着诸多挑战。通过对品牌经营、品类管理、基地直采、配送体系、质量安全、信息平台六个方面进行提升,可以改善连锁超市生鲜农产品的经营模式,从而降低成本、提高效率及改善质量,最终提高消费者满意度和连锁超市的经营绩效。

  10. Diet quality of items advertised in supermarket sales circulars compared to diets of the US population, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Supermarkets use sales circulars to highlight specific foods, usually at reduced prices. Resulting purchases help form the set of available foods within households from which individuals and families make choices about what to eat. Objective: The purposes of this study were to determin...

  11. 基于人口离散化和交通网络分析的西安市城市公园绿地可达性研究与评价%Research and Evaluation of Accessibility of Xi’an City Park Green Space Based on Population Discretization and Transportation Network Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄曦涛; 李怀恩; 张瑜; 谢露蓉

    2014-01-01

    本文基于西安市两景同期 Landsat5和 QuickBird 卫星影像,在 Erdas9.2、Envi4.2及 ArcGIS9.2等软件的支持下,通过提取西安市土地利用信息、NDVI 指数及 MNDWI 指数,对西安市第六次全国人口普查数据进行离散化处理,对研究区城市公园绿地的入口进行交通网络分析,研究西安市城市公园绿地的可达性,旨在为西安市城市绿地规划建设提供参考依据。研究结果表明:基于地表分类的人口离散方法更加简单合理;将人口离散化和交通网络分析相结合的研究方法,能够定量确定西安市城市公园绿地的服务人口和服务面积。%Based on the same period of Landsat5 TM and QuickBird images,this article extracted the land use information, NDVI and MNDWI index,discretizated the sixth national population census data of Xi’an city,then performed traffic network analysis using city park entrance data,and quantitatively studied the accessibility of city parks in Xi’an city supported by ERDAS9.2,ENVI4.2 and ArcGIS9.2 software,which is in order to research some feasible methods for the environmental monitoring part of national geographic conditions in Shaanxi Province.The results show that:the method of population discretion based on the surface classification is more simple and reasonable;the study based on population discretization and traffic network analysis can quantitatively determine service population and service area of the park green space in Xi’an.

  12. 承接长三角产业转移背景下的皖江示范区通达性分析%ASSESSMENT ON ACCESSIBILITY OF WANJIANG CITY BELT UNDER THE BACKGROUND OF TAKING OVER INDUSTRY TRANSFER OF THE YANGTZE RIVER DELTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈惊宏; 陆玉麒; 段保霞

    2011-01-01

    In the thesis, under the background of Wanjiang representative area taking over industry transfer of the Yangtze River Delta, aiming at logistics and passenger flow, we research accessibility and smooth in the representative area on the basis of index of time and fare with spatial Analysis, network analysis and ESDA. The results show that on the whole accessibility entering the representative area from 12 towns of the Yangtze River Delta is based on spatial distance. Road network leads to local change of it. Road network and spatial distance form four city zones of accessibility. The 4- city zones parallel 12 towns entering Wanjiang representative area in the Yangtze River Delta in northeast-southwest, and its local contour follow with directivity of height class roads obviously; On smooth of passenger flow, accessibility spatial distribution of time and fare presents similarities and differences: both of them form circles of double cores-isolated island; Spatial distribution of time accessibility presents directivity of high- way and spatial distribution of fare accessibility presents directivity of railway. Towns in the area represents positive spatial autocorrelation, local areas have obvious difference.%以皖江示范区承接长三角产业转移为背景,立足于示范区的物流和客流两个层面,运用CIS栅格分析和网络分析以及ESDA分析技术从时间指标和费用指标,研究了示范区物流可进出性和区内客流的顺畅性.结果表明:由长三角12门户城镇进入示范区的可进入性大体上是以空间距离为基础,局部上由于路网的作用两者共同形成了可进人性的四大城市区;四大城市区以东北-西南向布局平行于进入皖江城市带的长三角12城镇,其局部轮廓有着明显的高等级公路指向性;客流顺畅性上,时间和费用可达性空间格局两者有很大的相似,都是以"双核-隔离岛"形成的圈层结构,时间可达性上呈现高速公路指向性,而

  13. M|M|c| Queuing Model and Its Application in the Supermarket Management%M|M|c|∞排队模型及其在超市管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丙参; 李玉玲; 魏艳华

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the supermarket queuing system by using Random dynamic theory, establishes queuing mode and obtains the supermarket queue indexes by testing Poisson distribution with spss software which can provide reference for the supermarket management.%文章采用随机动态理论对超市排队系统进行研究,建立了M|M|c|∞模型,用spss软件对客流量进行泊松检验,得到了超市的一些排队指标,对超市的人员管理具有一定的参考价值.

  14. 中小型超市发展模式的研究%Research on Development Mode of Small and Medium-sized Supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓虹

    2011-01-01

    连锁超市已经逐步成为中国商业、零售业的主流,为扩大内需、拉动经济增长做出重大贡献。但其在迅速的发展经营过程中也暴露出很多问题,基于我国的国情和经济水平,今后我国超市发展的注意力不应只注重大型综合超市,更应注重中小型超市的发展。随着社区的涌现,人们生活水平的提高,中小型超市企业迎来新的发展契机。基于SWOT分析方法,对我国的中小型超市企业进行深入的分析,为中小型超市企业的发展提出建设性意见。%Supermarket chains have gradually become the mainstream of Chinese business and retail,which has made significant contributions in expanding domestic demand and promoting economic growth.But many problems are exposed in its rapid development.Based on China's national conditions and economic level,attention should not be only focused on the large-scale comprehensive supermarket,but also should be paid to the development of small and medium-sized supermarkets.With the emergence of community and the improved living standard of people,small and medium-sized supermarkets enterprise is facing with new development opportunity.This paper gave an in-depth analysis of the small and medium-sized supermarkets enterprise in China based on the method of SWOT analysis,and put forward a constructive suggestion for the development of these enterprises.

  15. Metal and PAH concentrations in fruit of Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. (Lowbush Blueberry) : a comparison among Whitney Pier, North Sydney and supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, B. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Land Resource Science

    2004-07-01

    The concentration of various metals in the fruit harvested from Lowbush blueberry plants in Whitney Pier, Sydney, Nova Scotia (NS), North Sydney (NS) and supermarket were quantified in this report. The concentrations were compared among the 3 sources to determine whether the metal and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the blueberries from Whitney Pier were higher or lower compared to the reference blueberries from North Sydney and the supermarket. Mean values for each of the analytes were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study determined whether washed berries have lower concentrations of contaminants than unwashed berries. The risk to human health of exposure to metals and PAHs through consumption of blueberry samples was also calculated. It was concluded that concentrations of selenium and zinc are elevated in blueberries from Whitney Pier compared to berries from North Sydney and the supermarket, but are well within safe levels. Other elements such as arsenic, titanium, vanadium, lead, copper and molybdenum were similar, and only thallium was elevated in supermarket berries relative to those from Whitney Pier and North Sydney. Chromium was not detected in any samples. It was determined that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the metals analyzed, regardless of whether they were Whitney Pier samples or reference samples. Only 2 PAHs were detected in one of the unwashed samples from Whitney Pier. No PAHs were found in washed berries or unwashed berries from the supermarket or North Sydney. It was concluded that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the PAHs. Washed and unwashed samples had similar metal concentrations, indicating that surface contamination did not occur. A full methodology of the testing program was provided. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. The effects of a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables: results of a randomized trial in a three-dimensional web-based supermarket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Lowering the price of fruit and vegetables is a promising strategy in stimulating the purchase of those foods. However, the true effects of this strategy are not well studied and it is unclear how the money saved is spent. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables on food purchases in a supermarket environment. Methods A randomized controlled trial with two research conditions was conducted: a control condition with regular prices (n = 52) and an experimental condition with a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables (n = 63). The experiment was carried out using a three-dimensional web-based supermarket, which is a software application in the image of a real supermarket. Data were collected in 2010 in the Netherlands. Participants received a fixed budget and were asked to buy weekly household groceries at the web-based supermarket. Differences in fruit and vegetable purchases, differences in expenditures in other food categories and differences in total calories were analyzed using independent samples t-tests and multiple linear regression models accounting for potential effect modifiers and confounders. Results The purchased amount of fruit plus vegetables was significantly higher in the experimental condition compared to the control condition (Δ984 g per household per week, p = .03) after appropriate adjustments. This corresponds to a 25% difference compared to the control group. Both groups had similar expenditures in unhealthier food categories, including desserts, soda, crisps, candy and chocolate. Furthermore, both groups purchased an equal number of food items and an equal amount of calories, indicating that participants in the discount condition did not spend the money they saved from the discounts on other foods than fruits and vegetables. Conclusion A 25% discount on fruits and vegetables was effective in stimulating purchases of those products and did neither lead to higher expenditures in

  17. DESIGNING TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR SUPERMARKET FREEZERS%超市冷柜温度监测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚仲敏; 李强

    2014-01-01

    针对大中型超市冷柜中的食品温度需要进行实时监测,进而保证食品质量的问题,提出基于 Lab VIEW 的超市冷柜温度监测系统。采用 ZigBee 无线通信技术,通过星形网络实现主从节点之间数据采集与传输。子节点温度传感器将所采集到的信息传送给协调器,协调器负责接收子节点传来的温度信息。在监控机房,协调器与 PC 机利用串口连接,通过监测界面实时监测各冷柜的温度,同时完成对采集数据的保存。既实现了采集监测和超值报警的功能,又可以实现本机历史查询和远程登录数据库查询,节省人力和资源的同时,方便上级对各连锁超市的考核工作。%We propose a Lab VIEW-based supermarket freezer temperature monitoring system in light of the problem that the food temperatures in freezers at the large and medium-sized supermarkets need to be monitored and thus to ensure the qualities of the foods.ZigBee wireless communication technology is used,and the data collection and transmission between the master and slave nodes are realised through the star networks.The temperature sensor of the child node transmits the collected information to coordinator,and the coordinator is responsible for receiving the temperature information from the child node.In monitor room,the coordinator and the PC monitor the temperatures of each freezer timely using the serial port connection and through the monitoring interface,and complete the preservation of the collected data at the same time.This system realises the functions of collection and monitoring as well as over-temperature alarming,besides,it also realises the local machine history query and the telnet logon database query.While saving the manpower and resources,the system is also convenient for the higher-ups to examine the works of every chained supermarket.

  18. City health development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Geoff; Acres, John; Price, Charles; Tsouros, Agis

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this evaluation was to review the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the Healthy Cities Network organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 56 cities which participated in Phase III (1998-2002) of the Network. Evidence was gathered from documents either held in WHO archives or made available from Network cities and from interviews with city representatives. CHDPs were the centrepiece of Phase III, evolving from city health plans developed in Phase II. They are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed three types of CHDP, reflecting the realpolitik of each city. For many cities, the process of CHDP was as important as the plan itself.

  19. Professional Supermarkets of Community Agricultural Produets:New Development of Link between Farmers and Supermarkets%社区农产品专业超市:“农超对接”的新发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝文艺

    2013-01-01

    当前,我国农产品流通渠道中广泛存在环节多、损失大、成本高等问题,将“农超对接”现代流通方式引入农产品流通领域,可大大提高农产品流通效率。立足“农超对接”发展的客观实际、结合国家号召,开展“农超对接”的有关政策要求。采用对比的方法,评价了目前农产品流通模式及其存在的问题,分析了我国社区农产品专业超市的优势,研究架构了社区农产品专业超市的基本组织模式,最后提出了我国社区农产品专业超市发展出路。%At present,there widely exists some problems as high costs ,high losses and too many links in the circulation channel of agricultural products in china.Link between farmers and supermarkets was a modern circulation way in the field of agricultural products circulation,which could improve the efficiency greatly. Based on the objective reality and combined with the national relevant policies,the current agricultural product circulation patterns and their problems were evaluated by the comparative methods and the advantages of chinese professional supermarkets of community agricultural produets was analyzed and theis basic organization pattern was constructed and the development outlet was proposed.

  20. Toward a typology of sustainability for cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Doust

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability responses must accelerate to avoid major risks to cities. Climate change impact on cities, likely to be significant if global sustainability initiatives are not quickened, is a paramount example of the risk. World wide meetings of city planning practitioners and researchers agree that an urgent agenda is to work together to empower cities and their governments with funds, tools and mentoring to make the responses needed. In the spirit of this urgent agenda, this paper introduces some practical methods for assessing sustainability associated with transport and urban form in our cities. A concept of strategic scans of future scenarios, which underpins the backcasting approach, has been introduced at the 12 th World Conference on Transport Research (WCTR in 2010 and has broken urban and transport planning trend. These strategic scans are based on a sustainability framework, the elements of which provide evidence based drivers of sustainability. The framework culminates in metric visualisations for each of the three pillars of sustainability. The paper details some of the operational aspects of these metrics in the form of environmental sustainability-accessibility space, putting into practice measures of environmental stewardship, social equity, economic efficiency, and the relationship among them. The paper concludes with a call of developing a typology of sustainability performance using the strategic scan methodology to extend the principles of the methodology into a useful tool for city governments and contribute to assembling a daTablease of city forms, transport structures, and their sustainability performances.

  1. Mercury in fish available in supermarkets in Illinois: Are there regional differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States) and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey (United States)]. E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey (United States); Environmental and Community Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854 (United States)

    2006-08-31

    Media coverage has made the public aware of both the benefits and the risks from eating self-caught fish, but information on contaminants in commercial fish is much more limited, especially on a local level. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration website provides methylmercury data for a variety of fish, but for many species sample sizes are small and data are more than a decade old, whereas commercial fish sources are highly dynamic. A few state agencies are beginning to provide contaminant information for commercial fish, including canned tuna. We examined the mercury concentration of six types of fish purchased in supermarkets in Chicago, Illinois in 2005. We measured total mercury (methylmercury accounts for about 90% of the total mercury in fish). One key question was whether the concentrations of mercury in fish available locally were similar to those reported in other areas of the country and in the FDA U.S. national data base. Such information is critical for the public, especially pregnant women or those planning on pregnancy, making decisions about types and quantities of fish to consume. Some fish are available generally throughout the U.S., but others are more locally available, suggesting a need for site-specific information. This research was stakeholder driven, and reflected local interest in the safety of local fish. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations among the fish, ranging from a mean of 0.03 {mu}g/g (ppm-wet weight) for salmon (Salmo spp.) to 1.41 ppm for swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Maximum values for three species of fish (orange roughy Hoplostethus atianticus, swordfish walleye Sander vitreus) were over 1 ppm (FDA action level), and all of the fish except salmon had some values above 0.5 ppm, the action level set by some states and countries. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations among three types of canned tuna (Thunnus spp): 'gourmet tuna' had the least amount of mercury, and white

  2. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets? —a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-01-01

    on the effectiveness of food store interventions intended to promote the consumption of healthy foods and the methodological quality of studies reporting them. Methods Systematic literature search spanning from 2003 to 2015 (inclusive both years), and confined to papers in the English language was conducted. Studies...... fulfilling search criteria were identified and critically appraised. Studies included in this review report health interventions at physical food stores including supermarkets and corner stores, and with outcome variable of adopting healthier food purchasing/consumption behavior. The methodological quality...... of all included articles has been determined using a validated 16-item quality assessment tool (QATSDD). Results The literature search identified 1580 publications, of which 42 met the inclusion criteria. Most interventions used a combination of information (e.g. awareness raising through food labeling...

  3. Averaging over fast variables in the fluid limit for Markov chains: application to the supermarket model with memory

    CERN Document Server

    Luczak, M J

    2010-01-01

    We set out a general procedure which allows the approximation of certain Markov chains by the solutions of differential equations. The chains considered have some components which oscillate rapidly and randomly, while others are close to deterministic. The limiting dynamics are obtained by averaging the drift of the latter with respect to a local equilibrium distribution of the former. Some general estimates are proved under a uniform mixing condition on the fast variable which give explicit error probabilities for the fluid approximation. Mitzenmacher, Prabhakar and Shah \\cite{MPS} introduced a variant with memory of the `join the shortest queue' or `supermarket' model, and obtained a limit picture for the case of a stable system in which the number of queues and the total arrival rate are large. In this limit, the empirical distribution of queue sizes satisfies a differential equation, while the memory of the system oscillates rapidly and randomly. We illustrate our general fluid limit estimate in giving a ...

  4. OLAP在连锁超市中的应用研究%Application of OLAP in chain supermarket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍行素; 熊艰

    2011-01-01

    Some basic conception of OLAP is introduced. Considering the feature and the need of present chain supermarket, a designing method of multi-dimensional analytical way of data warehouse is brought forward, and also a kind of MDX to query and to operate data is given, thus the necessary basis is prepared for the data analyzing of data warehouse.%在OLAP技术的基础上,针对我国大、中型连锁超市的特点,提出了数据仓库多维分析模型设计方法,并用多维立方体查询语言进行数据的查询与操作,为数据仓库的数据分析提供了必要的基础.

  5. Utilization of process energy from supermarket refrigeration systems. Coupling of cooling and heating; Prozessenergienutzung von Supermarktkaelteanlagen. Kaelte-Waerme-Kopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirsching, Alexander [TEKO Gesellschaft fuer Kaeltetechnik mbH, Altenstadt (Germany). Technologie und Kommunikation

    2010-03-15

    The efficiency is defined as the relation between utility and expenditure. Thus, it is obvious for the specialist of refrigeration to tackle with the expenditure (energy consumption) since the utilization conventionally is defined as the produced/need cooling performance of a refrigeration plant. If refrigeration plants are regarded according to their function (withdrawal of heat from a refrigeration chamber and delivery to the environment), the heating system is the producer of the requirement for cooling in 'the winter' (heating season). Thus, the refrigeration plant perhaps already has a marvellous efficiency, and the separate heating system too - however in interaction. The broad view moves into the focus. The possible approaches and effects are described in the contribution under consideration using the example of a Discount supermarket with a sales area of 800 square meters and a requirement of cooling of more than 30 kW.

  6. How natural are natural refrigerants in the supermarket sector?; Hoe natuurlijk zijn natuurlijke koudemiddelen voor de supermarktbranche?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jans, R.

    2007-12-15

    Promoting the use of ammonia and the lack of unambiguous, transparent, calculations are the most important factors for the stay behind of the supermarket sector with respect to related to the use of natural refrigerants. A transcritical booster CO2 design in combination with heat recovery shows one of the best potentials in the near future for the development of a new 'green' standard. [Dutch] Het pushen van ammoniak en het ontbreken van eenduidige, transparante, haalbaarheidsberekeningen zijn de belangrijkste factoren voor het achterblijven van de supermarktbranche m.b.t. de inzet van natuurlijke koudemiddelen. Een transcritical booster CO2 concept uitgevoerd met een WTW systeem heeft de beste potentie om in de toekomst uit te groeien tot een nieuwe 'groene' standaard.

  7. Modelling and Assessment of the Capabilities of a Supermarket Refrigeration System for the Provision of Regulating Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Pinson, Pierre

    This report presents an analysis of the demand response capabilities of a supermarket refrigeration system, with a particular focus on the suitability of this resource for participation in the regulating power market. An ARMAX model of the system is identified from experimental data, and the model...... are revealed that would complicate the task of devising bids on a conventional power market. These complexities are incurred due to the physical characteristics and constraints of the system as well as the particular characteristics of the control frameworks employed. Simulations considering the provision...... of the system this behaviour can be simplified. These restrictions result in a loss of optimality, but a result in a resource that can be communicated to the market operator in the form of a bid containing a quantity of power for up- or down-regulation and the duration for which the service can be provided....

  8. Living in a simulacrum: how TV and the supermarket redefines reality in Don DeLillo’s White Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghashmari, Ahmad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of simulation, hyperreality, and consumerism on Don Delillo's novel "White Noise". It discusses how the novel pictures technology and mass media as an empire of signs and codes that erase or implode meaning. TV, radio reports and tidbits, and medical imaging devices are intertwined with many aspects of people's lives in this late capitalist culture. Futhermore, the paper will shed some light on the issue of hyperreality which is generated by simulations. We will see how this new type of reality becomes more real than reality itself. Then, the influence of the supermarket and the emergence of consumer culture will be discussed. We will see how production and consumption have gained a new different meaning in this new "superficial" society and how it reshapes people's undestanding and interaction with reality.

  9. Hirarki Wilayah Kota Ternate Pasca Pengembangan Kawasan Waterfront City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdawaty Marasabessy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternate waterfront city development 2006-2015 initiative was triggered by the limitation of land use due to high population increase, geographical, and topographical constraints of the region, the threat of catastrophic volcanic eruption as well as national and provincial development strategy. The purpose of this study was to analyse the urban service hierarchy inside the city. The methodology used in this research was scalogram analysis with infrastructure variable. The regional hierarchy analysis after the development of waterfront city (2005-2011 showed that there were aspect of the development of infrastructure and accessibility, where coastal village was more development than non coastal village has waterfront city area.

  10. Food Sources and Accessibility and Waste Disposal Patterns across an Urban Tropical Watershed: Implications for the Flow of Materials and Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. Garcia-Montiel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Appraising the social-ecological processes influencing the inflow, transformation, and storage of materials and energy in urban ecosystems requires scientific attention. This appraisal can provide an important tool for assessing the sustainability of cities. Socioeconomic activities are mostly responsible for these fluxes, which are well manifested in the household unit. Human behavior associated with cultural traditions, belief systems, knowledge, and lifestyles are important drivers controlling the transfer of materials throughout the urban environment. Within this context, we explored three aspects of household consumption and waste disposal activities along the Río Piedras Watershed in the San Juan metropolitan area of Puerto Rico. These included: the source of food consumed by residents, recycling activities, and trends in connection to the municipality's sewerage system. We randomly interviewed 440 households at 6 sites along the watershed. We also conducted analysis to estimate accessibility to commercial food services for residents in the study areas. Our surveys revealed that nearly all interviewed households (~97% consumed products from supermarkets. In neighborhoods of the upper portion of the watershed, where residential density is low with large areas of vegetative cover, more than 60% of residents consumed food items cultivated in their yards. Less than 36% of residents in the in densely urbanized parts of the lower portion of the watershed consumed items from their yards. Accessibility to commercial stores for food consumption contrasted among study sites. Recycling activities were mostly carried out by residents in the lower portion of the watershed, with better access to recycling programs provided by the municipality. The surveys also revealed that only 4 to 17% of residences in the upper watershed are connected to the sewerage system whereas the large majority uses septic tanks for septic water disposal. For these residents

  11. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  12. Researches on the difficulties and countermeasues of the chained supermarket developing rural market in Fujian%福建省连锁超市开拓农村市场的困难与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹

    2012-01-01

    连锁超市作为最有活力的一种经营业态,在福建有良好的发展土壤,但其开拓农村市场的进程却并不顺利。文章分析了福建省连锁超市开拓农村市场的困难以及可行条件,提出福建省连锁超市开拓农村市场的具体对策。%Chained supermarket is one of the most dynamic mode of operations, there' s a good foundation for the development of chained supermarket in Fujian. This paper analyzed the difficulties and the feasibilities of the chained supermarket developing rural markets, putting fbrward some countermeasues about rural market development for the chained supermarket in Fujian.

  13. A Crowded City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Over 4 million vehicles on road challenge Beijing’s city management Beijing, the city once known as the kingdom of bicycles, has become clogged with automobiles, the Beijing Municipal Government Publicity Office said on December 18.

  14. Build a Green City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUYING; HAOXUE

    2005-01-01

    MA'ANSHAN,dubbed ""City of Iron and Steel,""is on the south bank of the Yangtze River in eastern Anhui Province, bordering Jiangsu Province. One of the city's most impressive features is its clean environment.

  15. Finding Food Deserts: A Comparison of Methods Measuring Spatial Access to Food Stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskiewicz, Lara; Block, Daniel; Chavez, Noel

    2016-05-01

    Public health research has increasingly focused on how access to resources affects health behaviors. Mapping environmental factors, such as distance to a supermarket, can identify intervention points toward improving food access in low-income and minority communities. However, the existing literature provides little guidance on choosing the most appropriate measures of spatial access. This study compared the results of different measures of spatial access to large food stores and the locations of high and low access identified by each. The data set included U.S. Census population data and the locations of large food stores in the six-county area around Chicago, Illinois. Six measures of spatial access were calculated at the census block group level and the results compared. The analysis found that there was little agreement in the identified locations of high or low access between measures. This study illustrates the importance of considering the access measure used when conducting research, interpreting results, or comparing studies. Future research should explore the correlation of different measures with health behaviors and health outcomes.

  16. 我国中小型连锁超市物流配送的发展研究%Research on Development of Logistics of Small and Midium-sized Chain Supermarket in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙婷

    2014-01-01

    As the continous development of the chain-store operation, the scale of chain supermarket increasingly develops, which largely depends on the logistics, especially the development of logistics. The distribution model adopted by chain supermarket does not coincide with the actual development of chain supermarket, which is the main barrier in the development of supermarket. By the detailed analysis of advantages and disadvantages of chain supermarket logistics distribution model, this paper proposes the corresponding distribution models to different types of chain supermarket, and solves how to choose logistics distribution models of chain supermarket from the perspective of the management and development strategy of supermarket.%随着我国连锁经营的不断发展,连锁超市的发展规模也越来越大,而连锁超市的大力发展在很大程度上取决于物流特别是物流配送的发展。而目前我国连锁超市所采用的配送模式与连锁超市的实际发展情况不相匹配,成为了阻碍超市发展的主要瓶颈。本文通过对我国连锁超市物流配送模式优缺点进行详细分析,针对不同类型的连锁超市给出了相应的配送模式建议,从超市经营发展的战略高度出发,解决了连锁超市物流配送模式的选择问题。

  17. Intersecciones entre Violencia de Género, Pobreza y Acceso a la Justicia: El Caso de la Ciudad de La Plata (Links between Gender-based Violence, Poverty and Access to Justice: The Case of the City of La Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Graciela González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical reflection on the experience at Courts of female victims of gender violence is the aim of this paper. Provincial, national and international laws are the framework for the analysis. The raw material are their reports ( assesed from the perspective of the newest writings on the issue which stress the differences between the official discourse of the Administration of Justice and the victims' "accounts". Three different questions have been asked to guide our research: Are gender violence and poverty , factors linked to the lack of an effective Access to Justice? Which are the new factors observed everywhere and those which are present only in Latin America?Are there any changes in the social stereotypes which clear and ease the womens' path towards the administration of justice? En este artículo reflexionamos críticamente sobre la situación de las mujeres en La Plata-Argentina que padecen violencia de género cuando acceden a la administración de justicia. Para ello tomamos como marco referencial la normativa provincial, nacional e internacional. Utilizamos como insumo los testimonios de las mujeres, analizados a la luz de la literatura actual, que polemiza sobre la compleja y a veces contradictoria relación entre el discurso "oficial" de la Administración de justicia y los "relatos" de las mujeres. Nos interrogamos sobre tres ejes de trabajo que han orientado nuestra producción: ¿Qué intersecciones visualizamos entre violencia de género y pobreza como factores que obstaculizan el acceso a la justicia?¿Qué factores nuevos aparecen en contextos globalizados, y cuales son específicos de América Latina?¿Se observan cambios en los estereotipos sociales que despejan el camino de las mujeres a la administración de justicia? DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2611592

  18. The Creative Cities Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Creative Cities Network, started by UNESCO in 2004, is one of the world’s highest-level non-governmental organizations in creative industry. The network focuses on the excellence of its member cities as its main product, and finds ways to maintain relevance in city life, local economy

  19. Revisiting city connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a new perspective on city connectivity in order to analyze non-hub cities and their position in the world economy. The author revisits the different approaches discussed in the Global Commodity Chains (GCC), Global Production Networks (GPN) and World City Network (WCN) discou

  20. Farmácia: a porta de entrada para o acesso a medicamentos para idosos residentes em Santos Pharmacy: a gateway to access to medicines for elderly individuals living in the city of Santos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vieira de Moura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos conhecer o perfil dos medicamentos utilizados pelos idosos, com ênfase na associação entre aqueles de uso contínuo mais utilizados e outros fármacos sem indicação médica e avaliar a função social do farmacêutico nas farmácias privadas. O método utilizado foi a pesquisa qualitativa de natureza compreensiva e explicativa, realizada no município de Santos, em 2008, em bairros com maior concentração de idosos (IBGE,2000. Nesses bairros, foram identificadas três farmácias privadas, que autorizaram a realização da pesquisa por um período de uma semana, quando foram realizadas as entrevistas, a partir de um roteiro estruturado.Os resultados evidenciaram um maior consumo dos idosos para as classes farmacológicas dos medicamentos de uso contínuo (os anti-hipertensivos, antidiabéticos, diuréticos e o antiagregante plaquetário. Dentre os medicamentos adquiridos sem prescrição médica, destacaram-se a compra de: analgésicos/antitérmicos, antigripais, antiinflamatórios e fitoterápicos. Alguns dos que compõem esse conjunto são tarjados e exigiriam a apresentação do receituário. As evidências obtidas apontam para o fato de que o consumo autoindicado, associado ao uso de medicamentos de uso contínuo, é uma prática rotineira entre os idosos.This study aimed to profile the consumption of drugs by seniors,with emphasis on the association between the most commonly purchased drugs of continueduse and other drugs without medical prescription,and to evaluate the social role of the pharmacist in private pharmacies.The method was qualitative research, of the comprehensive and explanatory type, carried outin the city of Santos in 2008, inneighborhoods with high concentration of elderly people(IBGE 2000. In these neighborhoods, three private pharmacieswere identified.They authorized the conductionof the research for one week. During this period,interviews were performedbasedon a structured script

  1. Logistics supermarket construction based on customer delivered value theory%基于顾客让渡价值理论物流型超市构建研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鸿飞; 高伟

    2012-01-01

    国内外关于超市这种零售业态方面的研究,大多集中在超市的零售经营与管理等方面,在借鉴已有的研究成果基础上,以顾客让渡价值的理论为依据,对传统超市经营现状进行分析,重构零售类超市的供应链,创新性的提出一种新型的零售业态——物流型超市,将物流型超市与网上超市进行分析比较,探讨这种新型零售模式的优势与发展前景。%The researches and practices largely focus on retail operation and management about supermarket in china and abroad.This article mostly analyzes the management situation of the traditional supermarket on the basis of existing research results,remodeling the supply chain of retail supermarket based on customer delivered value theory.This paper innovatively proposing the concept of a new retailing format——logistics supermarket,making a comparison between logistics supermarket and online supermarket.Furthermore,development prospect and advantages of the new retailing format are discussed.

  2. Acesso de pessoas deficientes auditivas a serviços de saúde em cidade do Sul do Brasil Access by hearing-disabled individuals to health services in a southern Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Buchrieser Freire

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo transversal, de base populacional, tem como objetivo comparar o acesso dos portadores de deficiência auditiva incapacitante a serviços assistenciais e de prevenção com os ouvintes de Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A amostra incluiu 1.842 pessoas com 15 anos ou mais, sendo a maioria mulheres (52,9%. A renda individual de dois salários mínimos ou mais foi a mais freqüente (42,7%. As pessoas com deficiência auditiva incapacitante tiveram 30% maior probabilidade de ter consultado nos dois meses anteriores à entrevista (RP = 1,3, IC95%: 1,10-1,51 e ter sido internado nos 12 meses anteriores à entrevista (RP = 2,1, IC95%: 1,42-3,14. Nas variáveis relativas à saúde mental, os deficientes auditivos tiveram 1,5 mais probabilidade de terem consultado para problemas de nervos (IC95%: 1,18-1,95 e 4,2 mais probabilidades de terem sido internados em hospital psiquiátrico que os ouvintes (IC95%: 2,17-8,16. Assim como encontrado na literatura, as mulheres deficientes auditivas realizaram menos auto-exame das mamas e exame citopatológico de colo uterino. Os dados encontrados indicam a necessidade de investir em educação em saúde e campanhas específicas para o grupo de pessoas investigado.This cross-sectional study aimed to compare access to health services and preventive measures by persons with hearing disability and those with normal hearing in Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The sample included 1,842 individuals 15 years or older (52.9% of whom were females. The most frequent income bracket was twice the minimum wage or more, or approximately U$360/month (42.7%. Individuals with hearing disability were more likely to have visited a physician in the previous two months (PR = 1.3, 95%CI: 1.10-1.51 and to have been hospitalized in the previous 12 months (PR = 2.1, 95%CI: 1.42-3.14. Regarding mental health, individuals with hearing disability showed 1.5 times greater probability of health care due to mental disorders

  3. Me, the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for identity of cities looks rather urgent and attracts attention of many researchers. Addressing this issue, the article draws an analogy between a human person and a city. Like a city, a human being needs to comprehend his self-identity in order to resist depressive tendencies. It is shown that a person’s depressive symptoms are similar to those of cities. The city identity necessary to resist depression can be searched for both historically and geographically. The historical aspect consists of local myths and legends about the city and the citizens. The geographical aspect of identity comprises features of the terrain, climate, flora and fauna of the region where the city is located.

  4. 临汾万佳福仓储超市的仓库布局规划设计%Warehousing Planning and Design for Linfen WONGEF Warehousing & Supermarket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建英

    2011-01-01

    Through investigating the warehouse deployment of Linfen WONGEF Warehousing & Supermarket, the paper deals with the problems afflicting the supermarket such as too large a stock on too few shelves, inadequate facility and slack warehouse management, etc., by maximizing warehouse acreage saving and arranging a visually and functionally clear-cut layout for the warehouse, etc. and proposes three implementation plans.%对万佳福后仓布置情况进行分析,针对万佳福货物多,货架少,设施少以及仓库管理不严格的问题,利用节省仓库面积最大化,仓库布局直观清晰等的布局规划方法对万佳福的后仓进行布局规划设计,提出了三种设计方案.

  5. Nitrogen isotopes as a screening tool to determine the growing regimen of some organic and nonorganic supermarket produce from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Karyne M

    2008-06-11

    An isotopic study was performed on nine varieties of organically and conventionally grown vegetables from an organic food market and a chain supermarket in New Zealand. The main aim of the study was to assess the applicability of stable nitrogen isotopes as a screening tool to differentiate between organic and conventional growing conditions of various vegetable types sampled directly off supermarket shelves. This could be further used as the basis of a simple authentication tool to detect noncompliant organic farming practices and false labeling of organic produce. In this study, nitrogen isotopes are found to be an excellent way of identifying faster growing organic vegetables (maturity time to harvest of 80 days), more information would be required to understand isotopic variations and fractionation effects between vegetables and soil over time as the technique does not discriminate organic from conventional regimens for these vegetables with as much certainty.

  6. Research on Optimization of Spatial Layout for Rural Chain Supermarket%农村连锁超市空间布局优化方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦波; 孔慧珍

    2012-01-01

    The optimization model of spatial layout for rural chain supermarket was designed based on trading area theory and data envelopment analysis (DEA) ,which can be used evaluating the service conditions and the efficiency of stores. The model could provide scientific basis for layout adjusting of rural supermarket.%依据商圈理论和数据包络分析方法(DEA)评估区域内服务的需求状况和网点的运营效率,建立了农村连锁超市的空间布局优化模型,以期为区域网点的布局调整提供科学依据.

  7. Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Eva R.; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets. PMID:25841285

  8. Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Eva R; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets.

  9. Acessibilidade organizacional de crianças com paralisia cerebral à reabilitação motora na cidade do Recife Organizational access to motor rehabilitation for children with cerebral paralysis in the city of Recife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleide Karine Vieira Tôrres

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar acessibilidade organizacional de crianças com paralisia cerebral aos serviços de reabilitação motora. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, censitário, efetuado de janeiro a junho/2009, em três serviços de reabilitação do Recife. Participaram 38 menores de cinco anos, portadores do agravo, residentes no Recife. Utilizou-se questionário para obter informações de acompanhantes e prontuários das crianças. As variáveis foram descritas segundo serviço atual, primeiro serviço utilizado e número de serviços utilizados. RESULTADOS: entre os acompanhantes, 94,7% eram responsáveis pela criança (76,3% mãe e 68,4% das crianças tinham entre 25-59 meses de idade. Metade usou mais de um serviço, ocorrendo utilização simultânea em 26,3%. Para 28,2% reabilitação iniciou-se mais de seis meses após diagnóstico. As crianças foram encaminhadas por médico (75,8% e 86,4% tiveram um tempo máximo de espera para primeira consulta com fisioterapeuta de 30 dias. As responsáveis encontraram dificuldade para agendar primeira consulta (68,4%. Uma maior dificuldade para continuar fisioterapia foi identificada entre aqueles que usaram de dois e mais serviços. CONCLUSÕES: constatou-se demanda reprimida. Utilização de mais de um serviço e superposição de serviços sugeriram insatisfação com atenção. Os processos políticos e organizacionais voltados à estruturação do sistema de referência/contrarreferência necessitam priorização.OBJECTIVES: to characterize organizational access to motor rehabilitation services for children with cerebral paralysis. METHODS: a descriptive, retrospective, censusbased study, carried out between January and June 2009, at three rehabilitation services in Recife. The study covered 38 children aged less than five years, with the disorder, residing in Recife. A questionnaire was used to obtain information from the individual accompanying the child and the child's medical

  10. FUTURE ESTIMATION OF CONVENIENCE LIVING FACILITIES WITHDRAWAL DUE TO POPULATION DECLINE ALL OVER JAPAN FROM 2010 TO 2040 - FOCUS ON SUPERMARKETS, CONVENIENCE STORES AND DRUGSTORES

    OpenAIRE

    NISHIMOTO, Yuka; Akiyama, Yuki; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-01-01

    Population explosion is considered to be one of the most crucial problems in the world. However, in Japan, the opposite problem: population decline has become serious now. Japanese population is estimated to decrease by twenty millions in 2040. This negative situation will cause to increase areas where many residents cannot make a daily living all over Japan because many convenience living facilities such as supermarkets, convenience stores and drugstores will be difficult to maintai...

  11. Evaluation on Service Quality of Retail Chain Supermarkets%连锁零售超市服务质量的评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭军; 向隅

    2012-01-01

    连锁零售超市的服务质量评价是目前研究的热点,建立科学、合理的服务质量评价体系,可全面客观地揭示用户对连锁零售超市服务质量的评价。结合连锁零售超市管理的实际情况,建立由5个评价要素和25个评价指标组成的连锁零售超市服务质量评价体系,并采用AHM确定各指标权重,运用改进的TOPSIS方法进行评价,从而可为超市管理者提高和改进服务质量提供参考借鉴。%Evaluation on the service quality of retail chain supermarkets is a hot topic at present. Establish- ing a scientific and rational evaluation system of service quality can reveal the comment of customers on the service quality of retail chain supermarkets in a whole and objective way. In terms of the actual situation of retail chain supermarkets, an evaluation system of retail chain supermarket consisting of 5 evaluation elements and 22 evaluation indexes is established with AHM determining the weight of each index and the improved TOPSIS method making assessment, which provides a scientific evaluation method for the management to improve the service quality.

  12. Development of supermarket chains RFID management system and inventory optimization%连锁超市RFID管理系统开发及库存优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗昊; 李仁旺; 朱泽飞; 吴新丽; 饶楚楚

    2011-01-01

    Forsimplifying the processes of supermarket chains about tedious commodity quotatons statistcs, sales statistics, inventory and so on, the convenience and effectiveness about using RFID wireless communication technology in supermarket chains is analyzed.In addition, some researches of the inventory optimization and a mathematical model are given. Then the development of supermarket chains management system and inventory research is achieved based on intemet of things concept. With the commodity procurement and sales situation showed in computer by network timely, all departments can grasp the latest product information to organize work realtime, so that supermarket chains enterprises can achieve a quick, efficient and reliable management.%为了简化连锁超市繁琐的商品报价统计、销售统计、出入库记录等过程,分析了RFID无线通信技术在连锁超市的应用及其方便有效性,并对库存优化技术进行了一定的研究并给出了数学模型,完成了连锁超市RFID管理系统实现.通过网络传输直接显示各商品的采购、销售数量,使各部门及时掌握商品信息,实时安排工作,让连锁超市企业实现更快捷、更高效和更可靠的管理.

  13. Future Estimation of Convenience Living Facilities Withdrawal due to Population Decline all Over Japan from 2010 TO 2040 - Focus on Supermarkets, Convenience Stores and Drugstores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Yuka; Akiyama, Yuki; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-06-01

    Population explosion is considered to be one of the most crucial problems in the world. However, in Japan, the opposite problem: population decline has become serious now. Japanese population is estimated to decrease by twenty millions in 2040. This negative situation will cause to increase areas where many residents cannot make a daily living all over Japan because many convenience living facilities such as supermarkets, convenience stores and drugstores will be difficult to maintain their market area population due to future population decline. In our research, we used point data of convenience living facilities developed by address geocoding of digital telephone directory and point data of future population projection developed by distribution of Japanese official population projection data proportionally among the building volume of digital residential map, which can monitor building volumes all over Japan. In conclusion, we estimated that various convenience living facilities in Japan will shrink and close by population decline in near future. In particular, it is cleared that approximately 14.7% of supermarkets will be possible to withdraw all over Japan by 2040. In addition, it is cleared that over 40% of supermarkets in some countryside prefectures will be possible to withdraw by 2040. Thus, we estimated future distributions of convenience living facilities that cannot maintain their market area population due to future population decline. Moreover, we estimated the number of people that they will become inconvenience in buying fresh foods.

  14. Jiangxi Province Farmers Docking with the Supermarket Present Situation and Countermeasures%江西省农超对接的现状与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦莉莉

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the practice of three basic types of farmers to dock with the supermarket situation ,on the basis of analyzing the status quo of jiangxi farmers to dock with the supermarket ,find the problems existing in the docking ,put forward the countermeasures to promote the development of jiangxi farmers to dock with the supermarket.Since the 1970 s, transgenic technology as the core of the modern biotechnology industry began to flourish.%文中在探讨实践中三种基本的农超对接情况的基础上,分析了江西省农超对接的现状,发现在农超对接中存在的问题,提出促进江西省农超对接发展的对策。20世纪70年代以来,以转基因技术为核心的现代生物技术产业开始蓬勃发展。

  15. Health marketing in the supermarket: using prompting, product sampling, and price reduction to increase customer purchases of lower-fat items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine-Andrews, A; Francisco, V T; Fawcett, S B; Johnston, J; Coen, S

    1996-01-01

    Reducing purchase and consumption of higher-fat foods is an important health objective for the nation since these behaviors are associated with cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Public health agents attempt to promote health-related behaviors, such as purchases of lower-fat foods, by changing key features of relevant environments. This study examined the effects of a marketing intervention in a supermarket on customer purchases of lower-fat products. Customers of one store of a major supermarket chain participated in this study. Direct observations of customer purchases of lower-fat milk, salad dressings, and frozen desserts were conducted. The supermarket intervention consisted of prompting, product sampling, and price reduction (store coupons). Using an interrupted time series design with switching replications, we found low to moderate increases for the lower-fat counterparts of milk, frozen desserts, and salad dressing. The greatest increase in purchases was found with frozen desserts. Findings from this study suggest that prompting, product sampling, and price reduction can increase customer purchases of some lower-fat products. Implications of these findings for the development and evaluation of health marketing interventions are discussed.

  16. Logistics Distribution of Fujian Provincial Rural Area Supermarket Chains%福建省农村连锁超市物流配送研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭阔东; 刘丹

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there are a lot of problems in the logistics distribution of Fujian provincial rural area supermarket chains, which restricts the development of rural area supermarket chains. This paper analyzes the current situation and problems of the logistics distribution of Fujian provincial rural area supermarket chains, studies the basic factors to develop logistics distribution, and poses countermeasures to improve it%福建省是我国经济较为发达的地区之一,随着当地农村经济的发展,农民生活水平的提高,农村连锁超市成为农村零售形式的一种重要的渠道。然而,目前福建省农村连锁超市发展的物流配送存在诸多问题,成为制约农村连锁超市发展的一大瓶颈。本文分析了福建省农村连锁超市物流配送的现状和问题,分析了发展物流配送的基本条件,提出了改善福建农村连锁超市物流配送的对策。

  17. The energy efficient supermarket - A global view on energy use, economy and environmental impacts. Phase 2 - Indoor climate, parasitic losses and heat recycling. Final report; Den energieffektiva butiken - ett helhetsgrepp paa energianvaendning, ekonomi och rniljoekonsekvenser. Fas 2 - inomhusklimat, parasitfoerluster och vaermeaatervinning. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Jaime; Melinder, Aake; Lundqvist, Per [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2005-06-01

    This work is designated as a continuation of the project 'the energy effective supermarket in theory and practice' that was conducted in order to clarify energy effective system solutions for supermarkets. The main objective of the new project is to create a user-friendly simulation program with focus on supermarkets indoor climate where the influences from cabinets, lightings, occupants, equipment, HVAC system and outdoor climate are simulated. Some results from the simulation program and from measurements carried out in different supermarkets are presented in the report.

  18. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  19. CO2 Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Southeast Asia and the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the annual energy consumption of these refrigeration systems in eighty eight cities from all climate zones in Southeast Asia. Also, the performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems is compared to the baseline R404A multiplex direct expansion (DX) system. Finally, the overall performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems in various climatic conditions in Southeast Asia is compared to that in the United States. For the refrigeration systems investigated, it was found that the Transcritical Booster System with Bypass Compressor (TBS-BC) performs better or equivalent to the R404A multiplex DX system in the northern regions of Southeast Asia (China and Japan). In the southern regions of Southeast Asia (India, Bangladesh, Burma), the R404A multiplex DX system and the Combined Secondary Cascade (CSC) system performs better than the TBS-BC.

  20. Neighborhood deprivation, vehicle ownership, and potential spatial access to a variety of fruits and vegetables in a large rural area in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective There has been limited study of all types of food stores, such as traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, and grocery stores, convenience stores, and non-traditional (dollar stores, mass merchandisers, and pharmacies as potential opportunities for purchase of fresh and processed (canned and frozen fruits and vegetables, especially in small-town or rural areas. Methods Data from the Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP are combined with 2000 U.S. Census data for 101 Census block groups (CBG to examine neighborhood access to fruits and vegetables. BVFEP data included identification and geocoding of all food stores (n = 185 in six rural counties in Texas, using ground-truthed methods and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables in all food stores. Access from the population-weighted centroid of each CBG was measured using proximity (minimum network distance and coverage (number of shopping opportunities for a good selection of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables. Neighborhood inequalities (deprivation and vehicle ownership and spatial access for fruits and vegetables were examined using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test and multivariate regression models. Results The variety of fruits or vegetables was greater at supermarkets compared with grocery stores. Among non-traditional and convenience food stores, the largest variety was found at dollar stores. On average, rural neighborhoods were 9.9 miles to the nearest supermarket, 6.7 miles and 7.4 miles to the nearest food store with a good variety of fresh fruits and vegetables, respectively, and 4.7 miles and 4.5 miles to a good variety of fresh and processed fruits or vegetables. High deprivation or low vehicle ownership neighborhoods had better spatial access to a good variety of fruits and vegetables, both in the distance to the nearest source and in the number of shopping opportunities. Conclusion

  1. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2011-01-01

    for innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden....... It is shown that the cities have the potential to significantly contribute to a more sustainable development through increased material recycling and energy recovery. Waste prevention may increase this potential. For example, instead of constituting 3% of the total greenhouse gas emission problem, it seems......There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth...

  2. 基于消费者决策的连锁超市品类管理研究%Research on the Chain Supermarket Category Management Based on Consumer Decision-making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林冬辉

    2015-01-01

    连锁超市品类管理是连锁超市基础性和核心性的管理工作,科学的连锁超市品类管理有利于提升消费者满意度,做到对消费者决策的正确引导,实现对连锁超市经济利益和长远发展的保证。以消费者决策机制为中心,在分析消费者决策机制影响因素的基础上,阐述了连锁超市品类管理的概念和理论,提供了从管理意识、结构建设、反馈机制、数据分析等方面建设连锁超市品类管理新体系的建议,为连锁超市进行科学品类管理提供参考。%Category management in supermarket is a supermarket chain based key management,the science of category management in supermarket is conducive to enhancing customer satisfaction and do the correct guide to the consumer decision-making,guarantee to realize the chain supermarket economic interests and long-term development.On the consumer decision-making mechanism as the center,through the analysis of the influencing factors of consumer decision-making mechanism based on,this paper expounds the concept and theory of category management in supermarket,provides for the supermarket chains of science category management to provide the reference from the management consciousness, building structure,feedback mechanism,data analysis and other aspects of the construction of the chain supermarket category management new system is proposed.

  3. The effects of a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables: results of a randomized trial in a three-dimensional web-based supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waterlander Wilma E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lowering the price of fruit and vegetables is a promising strategy in stimulating the purchase of those foods. However, the true effects of this strategy are not well studied and it is unclear how the money saved is spent. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables on food purchases in a supermarket environment. Methods A randomized controlled trial with two research conditions was conducted: a control condition with regular prices (n = 52 and an experimental condition with a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables (n = 63. The experiment was carried out using a three-dimensional web-based supermarket, which is a software application in the image of a real supermarket. Data were collected in 2010 in the Netherlands. Participants received a fixed budget and were asked to buy weekly household groceries at the web-based supermarket. Differences in fruit and vegetable purchases, differences in expenditures in other food categories and differences in total calories were analyzed using independent samples t-tests and multiple linear regression models accounting for potential effect modifiers and confounders. Results The purchased amount of fruit plus vegetables was significantly higher in the experimental condition compared to the control condition (Δ984 g per household per week, p = .03 after appropriate adjustments. This corresponds to a 25% difference compared to the control group. Both groups had similar expenditures in unhealthier food categories, including desserts, soda, crisps, candy and chocolate. Furthermore, both groups purchased an equal number of food items and an equal amount of calories, indicating that participants in the discount condition did not spend the money they saved from the discounts on other foods than fruits and vegetables. Conclusion A 25% discount on fruits and vegetables was effective in stimulating purchases of those products and did neither lead to

  4. Investigation on the cockroach' s infestation situation in Kaifeng city%开封市蟑螂侵害状况调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 唐振强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand and grasp the infestation situation of cockroach in Kaifeng city and provide scientific basis for cockroach. Methods Unified stick-trap was applied in the surveillance. Results Blattella ger-manica was the absolutely dominant species in Kaifeng city, which accounted for 100%. In different places , there was the highest density index at restaurant, the following were hotel and supermarket. Conclusion Blattella germanica is the dominant species. Hotel and supermarket are the focus of the industry where cockroach breeds and does harm. And it is necessary to monitor and control cockroach in these places.%目的 了解和掌握开封市蟑螂侵害状况,为进一步防治蟑螂提供科学依据.方法 粘捕法.结果 开封市区德国小蠊为绝对优势种,占100%.不同场所中餐饮密度指数最高,其次为宾馆和超市.结论 德国小蠊为优势种群,餐饮、宾馆和超市是蟑螂孳生和危害的重点行业,应加强对这些行业单位蟑螂的监测和防治.

  5. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  6. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...

  7. Suburbs and Cities

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Matthew I. Spiegel; Susan M. Wachter

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how closely the fortunes of suburbs are tied to the fortunes of the central city. We use similarities in residential housing price dynamics as a measure of how closely the economies of cities and suburbs are related. We develop housing price indices for most of the zip codes in California, and use these in a clustering procedure to see whether cities and suburbs naturally aggregate together, or whether they move separately. We find that central cities tend to...

  8. Neighbourhood food environment and gestational diabetes in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janevic, Teresa; Borrell, Luisa N; Savitz, David A; Herring, Amy H; Rundle, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    The association between neighbourhood characteristics and gestational diabetes has not been examined previously. We investigated the relationship between the number of healthy food outlets (supermarkets; fruit/vegetable and natural food stores), and unhealthy food outlets (fast food; pizza; bodegas; bakeries; convenience, candy/nut and meat stores) in census tract of residence, and gestational diabetes in New York City. Gestational diabetes, census tract and individual-level covariates were ascertained from linked birth-hospital data for 210 926 singleton births from 2001 to 2002 and linked to commercial data on retail food outlets. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were estimated using a multilevel logistic model. No association between food environment measures and gestational diabetes was found, with aORs ranging from 0.95 to 1.04. However, an increased odds of pre-pregnancy weight >200 lbs for women living in a given neighbourhood with no healthy food outlets [aOR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.07, 1.21] or only one healthy food place [aOR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.04, 1.18] relative to two or more healthy food outlets was found. Due to probable misclassification of neighbourhood food environment and pre-pregnancy obesity results are likely to be biased towards the null. Future research, including validity studies, on the neighbourhood food environment, obesity during pregnancy and gestational diabetes is warranted.

  9. Molecular characterization of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in contaminated chicken meat sold at supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisatit, Chaiyaporn; Tribuddharat, Chanwit; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Dejsirilert, Surang

    2012-01-01

    We assessed contamination by antibiotic-resistant bacteria in chicken meat obtained from supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli was 18.7% (14/75) and 53% (106/200), respectively. Most probable number (MPN) analysis showed that 56.7% of the samples (34/60) were in violation of the limit of allowable coliform bacteria in chicken meat, for which the maximum is 46,000 MPN/g. Multidrug-resistant phenotypes of both S. enterica and E. coli were found. The presence of class 1 integrons was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot-blot hybridization. PCR showed that class 1 integrons were present in 42.9% (6/14) and 37.7% (40/106) of S. enterica and E. coli isolates, respectively. Resistance genes identified in this study were aadA2, aadA4, aadA22, and aadA23 (for aminoglycoside resistance); dfrA5 (for trimethoprim resistance), and lnuF (for lincosamide resistance). Four S. enterica isolates underwent multilocus sequence typing and the results were sequence type (ST) 50, ST 96, ST 1543, and ST 1549, which matched well with strains from many countries and reflected an international spread. Our study revealed that class 1 integrons have spread into community sources and might play an important role in horizontal antibiotic resistance gene transfer.

  10. TWO DETERMINING FACTORS IN INCREASING OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION: A RESEARCH IN SUPERMARKETS OPERATING IN MALATYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman ULUYOL

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the financial criteria such as profitability, growth, sales volume and market share, don’t seem enough in evaluating the financial performance of a business. Because, these criteria are mainly related to the past performance of a business. For an evaluation directed for the future different factors other than the financial ones, which are also effective on financial success must be taken into consideration. The level of customer satisfaction and job satisfaction of the employees, which are effective in the financial performance of a firm in the future, is effective on the financial performance of a firm directly or indirectly in different levels. The aim of this study is testing the relation between “employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction” and to research the effect of both on the financial success of supermarkets, which are mainly service businesses. The research findings show that “the mediating effect of customer satisfaction between employee satisfaction and financial performance is strong”.

  11. Using economic benefits for recycling in a separate collection centre managed as a "reverse supermarket": a sociological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Giovanni; Polito, Anna Rita

    2015-04-01

    Separate collection centres (SCCs), where citizens can deliver recyclable fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW), in an "urban mining" perspective, can be considered a sort of "reverse supermarket", where people can deliver their recyclables in order to either obtain a waste fee reduction or shopping vouchers. The latter is the case of Baronissi, a town of around 17,000 inhabitants in the Province of Salerno, in the Campania region of Italy. The principal aim of the study was to investigate by means of a sociological survey the relationship between citizens and the separate collection program, with particular emphasis on the role played by the SCC. The separate collection system was evaluated either good or very good by 95.8% of the sample, while 99.2% expressed a good or very good evaluation of the quality of the service inside the separate collection centre: SCC users acted as a community as highlighted by the negative response of the Chi-square test for independence. Respecting the environment prevailed over saving time, obtaining eco-points, or saving money as the main reason why people went to the SCC. The majority of the respondents agreed if only putrescibles and residue should be collected directly from their homes, while all the other materials should be collected exclusively at the SCC, allowing to save money for the management of the kerbside collection system with a consequent further waste fee reduction for the residents.

  12. On the Location of a Discrete Supermarket%超市选址问题具体案例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永芳

    2014-01-01

    选址问题作为一个古老的问题,有百年的发展历程。一般将其分为两种基本类型:连续型和离散型。前者也称为平面上的选址问题,其研究方法多属微积分及数学规划方面;后者也称为网络上的选址问题,其研究方法多与组合分析密切相关。本文提出一个生活中的实例--超市网点的布设,通过分析,提出可能的解决方法,获得最优解。%Location problem is an ancient problem with more than one hundred years of development history. This problem can be divided into two basic types:The one is continuous and the other is discrete. The former is also known as the planar location problem.Its research methods include the calculus and mathematical programming aspects;the latter is also known as the network location problem. The research methods are combined analysis.This is a problem in our life--the supermarket location. We can get the optimal solution from a variety of possible solutions.

  13. CO2-refrigeration. Investment in an energy efficient supermarket; CO2-koeling. Investeren in een energiezuinige supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    Modem entrepreneurs invest in an energy-neutral supermarket. By that they are working on corporate social responsibility, sustainability and a green image of their company. The reduction of energy consumption results in an indirect reduction of CO2 emission by electric power stations. That is why more and more transcritical refrigeration plants with the natural refrigerant CO2, with global warming impact of 1, will be applied. The energy investment deduction scheme EIA, executed by NL Agency, stimulates a large number of energy saving measures which result in a financial profit for the investing owner or manager. [Dutch] Moderne ondememers investeren in een energieneutrale supermarkt. Ze zijn immers bezig met maatschappelijk verantwoord ondememen, verduurzaming en een groene uitstraling van hun bedrijf. Het terugdringen van het energiegebruik reduceert de indirecte CO2-uitstoot bij de elektriciteitscentrale aanzienlijk. Daarom worden steeds meer transkritische koel-vriesinstallaties die werken met het natuurlijke koudemiddel CO2, met een GWP-waarde van 1, toegepast. De Energie-investeringsaftrekregeling EIA, uitgevoerd door Agentschap NL, stimuleert een groot aantal energiebesparende maatregelen die ten goede komen aan de eigenaar of beheerder.

  14. Comparing performance within a virtual supermarket of children with traumatic brain injury to typically developing children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Neta; Weiss, Patrice L; Kizony, Rachel; Rand, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usability of a virtual reality environment for pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) by assessing the performance of a simple virtual shopping task and comparing their results to typically developing peers. Twenty children with TBI and 20 typically developing children, matched in age and sex, "shopped" for four items in a virtual supermarket (VMall). A short feedback questionnaire, Borg's scale of perceived exertion, and the Zoo Map subtest from the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome for Children were also administered. All of the children were able to complete a four-item test within the VMall. Overall, good usability was obtained. A significant difference in shopping performance was found between the two groups; the mean shopping time and number of mistakes was higher for the children with TBI. The use of a short shopping test within a functional virtual environment enabled detection of poorer performance of children with TBI that may be due to executive function deficits. Because the task was enjoyable and motivating, the VMall may also be used to enhance participation in instrumental activities of daily living and play for children with TBI. [OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health. 2013;33(4):218-227.].

  15. Examining associations among obesity and per capita farmers' markets, grocery stores/supermarkets, and supercenters in US counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas; Crawford, Thomas; McGuirt, Jared T; Ammerman, Alice S

    2011-04-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is an important component of a healthful diet, yet fruits and vegetables are underconsumed, especially among low-income groups with high prevalence rates of obesity. This study used data from the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service Food Environment Atlas to examine county-level associations among obesity prevalence and per capita farmers' markets, grocery stores/supermarkets, and supercenters, adjusted for natural amenities, percent black, percent Hispanic, median age, and median household income, stratified by county metropolitan status. In models that included all three of the food venues, supercenters and grocery stores per capita were inversely associated with obesity in the combined (metro and nonmetro) and metro counties. Farmers' markets were not significant in the model for combined (metro and nonmetro) or for metro counties alone, but were significantly inversely related to obesity rates in the model for nonmetro counties. In this ecologic study, density of food venues was inversely associated with county-level obesity prevalence. Thus, future research should examine similar associations at the individual-level.

  16. On the efficiency of transportation systems in large cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L. da F.; Travençolo, B. A. N.; Viana, M. P.; Strano, E.

    2010-07-01

    We report an analysis of the accessibility between different locations in big cities, which is illustrated with respect to London and Paris. The effects of the respective underground systems in facilitating more uniform access to diverse places are also quantified and investigated. It is shown that London and Paris have markedly different patterns of accessibility, as a consequence of the number of bridges and large parks of London, and that in both cases the respective underground systems imply in general, thought in distinct manners, an increase of accessibility.

  17. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  18. Future of Transport?- Future of Cities!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bertolini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The future of transport, whatever it will be, cannot be consideredseparately from that of cities. But what, where and whenis the city today? The ability to provide opportunities for humaninteraction is the essential reason for cities to exist. In thepre-industrial past this required high-density, compact urbanforms. Modem transport and communication techniques havehowever increasingly offered human beings ways of interactingat a distance. Physical proximity is no longer needed by manytypes of urban activities. As a result, cities have decentralised,as industry first, then residences and services have fled the diseconomiesof high-density agglomerations. For the future,some even predict the advent of an entirely diffuse, 'virtual' city.Actual evidence is at best mixed. Next to ongoing decentralisation,there are also signals that point in the opposite direction,as there are activities that show a tendency to physicallyconcentrate, underscoring a persistent need for physical humaninteraction. These activities include business and financial services,the emerging sectors of culture, entertainment and themedia, but also certain types of residences and of production.As a result, rather than decentralisation or concentration, contemporarycities show a complex combination of decentralisationand concentration.How will these contrasting movements shape the cities ofthe future? Are telecommunication technologies going to radicallyalter current trends? Or will the quest for sustainability dothis? And what will the role of transp01tation- as cause and effect-be? The diffuse urban-regional accessibility warranted bythe car and the inter-metropolitan connections provided by theaeroplane have been essential conditions for the urbanisationpatterns of the recent past. But will the car and the aeroplanealso be the transportation means of the cities of the future?

  19. Hemodialysis access procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007641.htm Hemodialysis access procedures To use the sharing features on ... An access is needed for you to get hemodialysis. The access is where you receive hemodialysis . Using ...

  20. CHONGQING, the Hot City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chongqing is a well-known city with a history of more than 3,000 years. It is a famous historical and cultural city in China. Chongqing is the birthplace of the Bayu Culture. At present, Chongqing is a municipality directly under the Central Government with the largest area, the most administrative districts and the largest population.

  1. City Improves State Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EnjoyceZhu

    2003-01-01

    As China's new leadership drafts measures to help ailing Stateowned enterprises(SOEs),Changchun,a strategic city in the Rust Belt,is reaping benefits unseen in more than a decade of SOE reform.Home to a large number of SOEs,Changchun has had its share of bureaucracy and stagnation.The city initiated a program called,“Saving SOEs

  2. City profile: Paramaribo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrest, H.J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Paramaribo, the largest and only significant urban area in Suriname, is a typical primate city. The majority of the countries’ population resides here and the majority of political, social and economic functions is clustered in the urban zone. In the course of the 20th century, the city changed dram

  3. Responsive City Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper presents and discusses perspectives extracted from two interviews conducted during the experiments Urban Responsive Lighting. The two experts embody two different fields related to city lighting: architecture & public lighting industry. The representatives were invited to the test...... on applied technologies and responsive light design in the contemporary cities....

  4. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It thus...

  5. Reflective cool cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidegger, V.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Our globe is heating, and cities are heating up much more. At the same time, cities are growing and green spaces are substituted by buildings and streets. These man-made surfaces are dark and tend to heat up

  6. Deer City Legend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUHUANZHI; LILIKUN

    2003-01-01

    MORE and more commodities,such as clothes,shoes,millinery,lighters and shavers,now bear the “Made in Wenzhou”mark.It woule appear that Wenzhou grooms the whole nation.Lucheng(deer city)District in central Wenzhou is the nucleus of the city's thriving light industry sector.

  7. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets Arkitekt...

  8. Cities as Organisms: Allometric Scaling of Urban Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Samaniego

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a statistical approach to determine the features of urban road networks affecting accessibility. Our approach is inspired by metabolic scaling theory (MST in biology (West et al. 1997.We study the structure of road networks across 425 cities of different sizes in the USA. We show decentralization as an important difference between urban road networks and biological vascular networks. Per capita road capacity is independent of the spatial extent of cities. Driving distances do depend on the size of the city, although not as much as is predicted by a completely centralized model. This intermediate pattern between centralized and decentralized extremes may reflect a mixture of different travel behaviors.The approach presented here offers a novel macroscopic perspective on the differences between small and large cities and on how the road infrastructure and traffic might change as cities grow.

  9. The Flickering Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  10. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  11. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    There are over 20 cities world-wide with a population of over 10 million people. We have entered ‘The Millennium of the City’. The growth of urban populations has been accompanied by profound changes of the cities’ economic and social profile and of the cities themselves. The world economy...... is increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing...... on experience. We will argue for a human turn in the research on liveabil- ity and urbanisation, and debates the concept of liveability. We will take Copenhagen as our main case and compare with other cities from around the world....

  12. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...... premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles are more likely to move from rural areas to cities while married couples are more likely to make...... the reverse movement. A second prediction of the model is that attractive singles benefit most from a dense market (i.e. from being choosy). Those predictions are tested with a unique Danish dataset....

  13. Universities Scale Like Cities

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the gross university income in terms of total number of citations over size in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its ...

  14. Governing the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Strategy frames the contemporary epistemological space of urbanism: major cities across the globe such as New York, London and Sydney invest time, energy and resources to craft urban strategies. Extensive empirical research projects have proposed a shift towards a strategic framework to manage...... cities. This theoretical curiosity is reflected in the rising interest in urban strategy from practice. For instance, the World Bank regularly organizes an Urban Strategy Speaker Series, while the powerful network CEOs for Cities lobbies for a strategic approach to urban development. Critical scholars...... such as Zukin diagnose not a shift in but a shift to strategic thinking in the contemporary city. This article poses the question: what makes strategy such an attractive ‘thought style’ in relation to imagining and managing cities? How can we understand the practice of urban strategy? And what are its intended...

  15. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  16. Accessibility mapping in cultural public buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Gomes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study analyzed issues regarding accessibility in cultural facilities and aimed to analyze accessibility in the municipal cultural institutions and two districts of São Paulo state. Method: All cultural buildings were visited and, using a checklist based on the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (NBR 9050, 2004, the public spaces were classed as adequate or inadequate with respect to their accessibility to people with a visual and physical disability. The data collected was subjected to descriptive analysis by scoring the most common accessibility resources, their adequacy as well as the resources not installed. Results: The results show that all the external and internal areas of the analyzed buildings need for adaptations, installations or the building of equipment that allows the physically or visually disabled to interact with the environment in the chosen cultural spaces. The work showed that the best evaluated item were the ramps and the worst was the tactile map, absent in all buildings. Conclusion: The data show the “state of the art” in the chosen city and discussed the difficulties in the implementation of Brazilian Association of Technical standards, both in construction and in the adaptations, pointing new accessibility concerns on the studied cities.

  17. Cities, Towns and Villages, City Limits of City of Dubuque, IA, Published in 2007, City of Dubuque.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as 'City Limits of City of...

  18. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  19. Designing, developing, and facilitating smart cities urban design to IoT solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Tragos, Elias; Pöhls, Henrich; Kapovits, Adam; Bassi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses how smart cities strive to deploy and interconnect infrastructures and services to guarantee that authorities and citizens have access to reliable and global customized services. The book addresses the wide range of topics present in the design, development and running of smart cities, ranging from big data management, Internet of Things, and sustainable urban planning. The authors cover - from concept to practice – both the technical aspects of smart cities enabled primarily by the Internet of Things and the socio-economic motivations and impacts of smart city development. The reader will find smart city deployment motivations, technological enablers and solutions, as well as state of the art cases of smart city implementations and services. · Provides a single compendium of the technological, political, and social aspects of smart cities; · Discusses how the successful deployment of smart Cities requires a unified infrastructure to support the diverse set of applications that can be ...

  20. JISC Open Access Briefing Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, Alma

    2005-01-01

    What Open Access is. What Open Access is not. How is Open Access provided? Open Access archives or repositories. Open Access journals. Why should authors provide Open Access to their work? Further information and resources