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  1. Sustainability in South Asian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City brings about the most complex interplay of social, cultural, and political dimensions of space. It will have to accommodate around one billion humans only in South Asia by the year 2030. Therefore it needs to be prepared to absorb huge increases in urban population and resulting pressure on basic infrastructure and livelihood opportunities. In order to secure a better future and to improve the quality of life of all the citizens, city needs to be reinvented, by incorporating creativity and innovation with the approaches, we use in its planning. Here we present an overview of the progress, challenges and some key interventions to reinvent the city in South Asian region as well as in the developing world, with the examples of the most populous countries in the region: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Planning transforms geometric space in city into lived space. City planning in South Asia is as old as the human settlement itself, but the current situation is well below the level to be admired. Most of the city plans have been faulty with poor economic base and implementability, and fostered unintended city within the city, whose growth rate shadows the growth rate of the city itself. City in the developing world desperately needs to follow a sustainable development pattern which satisfies the requirement for equity; meets basic human needs; allows social and ethnic self-determination; promotes environmental awareness, integrity and inter-linkages between various living beings across time and space. It requires a combination of strategic policy making, supported by a system that combines personal opinion with scientific knowledge. It needs to reset the basis for the articulation of the initiatives of all relevant stakeholders to seek synergies for its development.

  2. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  3. Event tourism in south west Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism events in South West Serbia are numerous and diverse regarding their origin, structure, genesis and other characteristics. This paper examines basic determinants of tourism events in South West Serbia, which is in compliance with the tendencies that tourism events should be qualitatively transformed and made highly adaptable and competitive as a part of tourism industry. The events in South West Serbia contribute to the creation of versatile tourist attractions and provide tourists with the opportunity to become more familiar with local community. It is often the case that an event, primarily designed for local population, eventually becomes very attractive for tourists.

  4. Hangzhou:EAST CITY,WEST LAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ View over West Lake,Hangzhou is in Zhejiang Province,eastern coast area of China.It is one of the most important tourism cities here,famous for its natural beauty and historical and cultural heritages,and the political,economic and cultural center of Zhejiang province as well.

  5. Sustainability in South Asian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is one of most densely populated region in the world. Currently, 28.33% of the South Asian population lives in urban areas, with an annual growth rate of 2.92%. Shifting of jobs from agriculture to industry and the concentration of economic opportunities in urban areas are causing tremendous increase in urbanisation in the region, which is seriously affecting the environment, and poses strong challenges to governments in terms of the infrastructure and services. In this article, we will give an overview of urbanisation problems in South Asia. We will also suggest some key interventions for sustainable development in the region. Urbanisation problems in South Asia are manifested in the form of lopsided urbanisation and faulty urban planning with poor economic base. Urban poverty has been increasing in the region, resulting in the growth of a massive number of slums. As a manifestation of social injustice and the social divide, slums exclude the poor from accessing the basic amenities. South Asia has the highest regional urbanisation of poverty at any given overall urbanisation. Concerted government efforts with long-term commitment at the highest political levels are required to reduce urban poverty and deprivation. The way cities are growing in the region is not at all sustainable, with a clear imbalance between economic, environmental, socio-political and technological aspects. Sustainable communities can be established by focusing on social and human development programmes to develop intangible assets in the community such as inclusion, tolerance, public participation, and democratic governance, which do not depreciate through use but rather become more valuable the more they are used. Place matters in different ways, which have yet to be fully appreciated and incorporated into how planners teach place. But it needs to directly adopt the Bottom-up Approach to provide solutions for the problems going on in the cities of the region

  6. Impressions from South-West Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Hardouin, J.

    1987-01-01

    Certain features of the prevailing agricultural and livestock management practices in four districts of the South-West Uganda are briefly described. This area is characterized by rather high elevation, good rainfall, fertile soil and hills with steep slopes and mountains in some parts. In three ofthe four districts land is becoming scarce though agricultural production is high but traditional. Cash and food crop production are prevalent ; the staple food being plantain banana and milk product...

  7. Micro-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopic studies of ceramic shards excavated from ancient Stratonikeia city at Eskihisar village in West-South Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahçeli, Semiha; Güleç, Gamze; Erdoğan, Hasan; Söğüt, Bilal

    2016-02-01

    In this study, micro-Raman and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) were used to characterize the mineralogical structures of pigments of four ceramic fragments in which one of them belongs to Hellenistic period (1st - IVth century BC) and other three ceramic shards belong to Early Rome (IVth century BC- 1st century AD) excavated from Stratonikeia ancient city. In the results of investigations on these four ceramic fragments, the various phases were identified: quartz, kaolinite, albit (or Na-feldspar), calcite, anastase, hematite and magnetite. Furthermore, the obtained findings indicate that firing temperature is about 800-850 °C for all the shards.

  8. Sustainability in South Asian city

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Akhmat; Muhammad Mahroof Khan; Mumtaz Ali

    2011-01-01

    South Asia is one of most densely populated region in the world. Currently, 28.33% of the South Asian population lives in urban areas, with an annual growth rate of 2.92%. Shifting of jobs from agriculture to industry and the concentration of economic opportunities in urban areas are causing tremendous increase in urbanisation in the region, which is seriously affecting the environment, and poses strong challenges to governments in terms of the infrastructure and services. In this article, we...

  9. South African Cities: A Social Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, John

    1986-01-01

    Traces the history of the development of cities in South Africa, paying special attention to the development of urban social controls. Three eras are identified: (1) mercantilism, (2) imperialism, and (3) apartheid. Concludes that enormous human costs are entailed by these attempts at social engineering. (JDH)

  10. Impressions from South-West Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardouin, J.

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain features of the prevailing agricultural and livestock management practices in four districts of the South-West Uganda are briefly described. This area is characterized by rather high elevation, good rainfall, fertile soil and hills with steep slopes and mountains in some parts. In three ofthe four districts land is becoming scarce though agricultural production is high but traditional. Cash and food crop production are prevalent ; the staple food being plantain banana and milk production is noticeable. The economy shows evident difficulties mainly due to the so called mismanaged Amin's regime and the ensuing Liberation War. Comments are made on the Queen Elisabeth National Park and some prices are given.

  11. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Sin [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L{sup -1}) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L{sup -1} were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration ({approx}1400 ng L{sup -1}) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: > Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. > Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. > Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  12. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (-1) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L-1 were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration (∼1400 ng L-1) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: → Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. → Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. → Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  13. Descriptions of five new species of Haplostylus (Mysidaceae crustacea) from South West Australia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panampunnayil, S.U.

    (Bacescu and Udrescu, 1982), H. robusta from South West Australia (Panampunnayii, 1989), from Broken Bay, New South Wales (Dakin and Colefax, 1940) and from Bass strait (Fenton, 1990), H. uderescu from Central Eastern Australia (Greenwood et al., 1991), H...

  14. Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyukarev, E A; Pologova, N N; Golovatskaya, E A; Dyukarev, A G, E-mail: egor@imces.ru [Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Akademicheskii Prospekt 10/3 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km{sup 2}, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

  15. Nuclear axis. Secret collaboration between West Germany and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today there is virtually no doubt that the white racist minority government in Pretoria has-or shortly will have-its finger on the nuclear button, introducing a new and extremely volatile element into African politics and threatening the peace of the whole world. This book is the sinister story of how they are getting the bomb and who has helped them. Relying on hitherto top-secret government documents, informants, and the public record, Zdenek Cervenka of the Scandinavian Institute of Africa Affairs, and Barbara Rogers, formerly of the British Foreign Office and a consultant to the United Nations and the Congressional Subcommittee on Southern Africa, have pieced together the story of the clandestine collaboration between West Germany, and South Africa to develop operational nuclear weapons. The authors trace Germany's rise as a military nuclear power (only thirty years after unconditional surrender); the growth of its atomic cooperation with South Africa; the transfer of secret technological data; the way in which other countries-including the United States, Britain, France, Israel-have been involved. The authors show that the Germans, pledged never to develop nuclear weapons, have become a major nuclear power, and, together with the South African military-industrial complex, now have the power to alter the course of modern history in Europe, Africa, and the rest of the world. The authors conclude with a discussion of how the international system of nuclear safeguards failed and how the Western allies acquiesced in that failure

  16. Nuclear axis. Secret collaboration between West Germany and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervenka, Z.; Rogers, B.

    1978-01-01

    Today there is virtually no doubt that the white racist minority government in Pretoria has-or shortly will have-its finger on the nuclear button, introducing a new and extremely volatile element into African politics and threatening the peace of the whole world. This book is the sinister story of how they are getting the bomb and who has helped them. Relying on hitherto top-secret government documents, informants, and the public record, Zdenek Cervenka of the Scandinavian Institute of Africa Affairs, and Barbara Rogers, formerly of the British Foreign Office and a consultant to the United Nations and the Congressional Subcommittee on Southern Africa, have pieced together the story of the clandestine collaboration between West Germany, and South Africa to develop operational nuclear weapons. The authors trace Germany's rise as a military nuclear power (only thirty years after unconditional surrender); the growth of its atomic cooperation with South Africa; the transfer of secret technological data; the way in which other countries-including the United States, Britain, France, Israel-have been involved. The authors show that the Germans, pledged never to develop nuclear weapons, have become a major nuclear power, and, together with the South African military-industrial complex, now have the power to alter the course of modern history in Europe, Africa, and the rest of the world. The authors conclude with a discussion of how the international system of nuclear safeguards failed and how the Western allies acquiesced in that failure.

  17. Nutrient flows in urban and peri-urban agroecosystems in three West African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulkadir, A.

    2012-01-01

    Key words: Sustainability, CATPCA, two-step cluster analysis, farm types, nutrient balances, West Africa, gross margin, NUTMON/MONQI. Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) is defined as the cultivation of crops and keeping livestock within and around cities. In addition to providing the cities&rsq

  18. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sin; Turner, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L(-1)) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L(-1) were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration (~1400 ng L(-1)) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. PMID:21925780

  19. Chondrichthyan egg cases from the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabragaña, E; Figueroa, D E; Scenna, L B; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Colonello, J H; Delpiani, G

    2011-11-01

    Egg cases of 21 oviparous chondrichthyan species from the south-west Atlantic Ocean are described and compared. The catshark Schroederichthys bivius has a cigar-shaped egg case with curled tendrils only at the posterior end. Egg cases of the elephant fish Callorhinchus callorynchus are spindle-shaped with anterior and posterior tubular extensions and lateral flanges. The skate Amblyraja doellojuradoi presents medium-sized egg cases (71 mm in length) with a lateral keel extending to the first portion of the horns. The endemic skate species of the genus Atlantoraja have medium to large egg cases (69-104 mm in length) and present relatively large posterior horns. Egg cases of the genus Bathyraja have a medium size, 75-98 mm in length, and are characterized by a very similar morphology, a relatively smooth to rough surface case and posterior horns strongly curved inwards. Egg cases of the genera Dipturus and Zearaja are very large, 115-230 mm in length, and have a well-developed posterior apron. Despite the problematical identification of skates at species level, the egg capsules of the endemic genus Psammobatis are easily diagnosed; the capsules are small (25-53 mm in length), those of Psammobatis rutrum being the smallest known to date in the world. Egg cases of Rioraja agassizi have a medium size, 61-68 mm in length, relatively straight sides, a smooth surface and silky attachment fibres placed in the lateral keel next to each horn. Those of the genus Sympterygia are small to medium sized, 51-86 mm in length, and display the thickest lateral keel and the longest posterior horns among the skates of the world. Egg cases can be a useful tool for identifying species and egg-laying areas; therefore, a provisional key for the south-west Atlantic Ocean chondrichthyan capsules is presented. PMID:22026605

  20. Decay of eddies at the South-West Indian Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Coward

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The South-West Indian Ridge in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean is a region recognised for the creation of particularly intense eddy disturbances in the mean flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Eddies formed at this ridge have been extensively studied over the past decade using hydrographic, satellite, drifter and float data and it is hypothesised that they could provide a vehicle for localised meridional heat and salt exchange. The effectiveness of this process is dependent on the rate of decay of the eddies. However, in order to investigate eddy decay, logistically difficult hydrographic monitoring is required. This study presents the decay of cold eddies at the South-West Indian Ridge, using outputs from a high-resolution ocean model. The model’s representation of the dynamic nature of this region is fully characteristic of observations. On average, 3–4 intense and well-defined cold eddies are generated per year; these eddies have mean longevities of 5.0±2.2 months with average advection speeds of 5±2 km/day. Most simulated eddies reach their peak intensity within 1.5–2.5 months after genesis and have depths of 2000 m – 3000 m. Thereafter they dissipate within approximately 3 months. The decay of eddies is generally characterised by a decrease in their sea surface height signature, a weakening in their rotation rates and a modification in their temperature–salinity characteristics. Subantarctic top predators are suspected to forage preferentially along the edges of eddies. The process of eddy dissipation may thus influence their feeding behaviour.

  1. West Syndrome in South Iran: Electro-Clinical Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI Akabar ASADI-POOYA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Asadi-Pooya AA, Sharifzade M. West Syndrome in South Iran: Electro-Clinical Manifestations. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer; 7(3: 40-44.ObjectiveWe aimed to determine the clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG characteristics of the patients with West syndrome (WS in south Iran.Materials & MethodsIn this retrospective study, all patients with a clinical diagnosis of WS were recruited in the outpatient epilepsy clinic at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences between September 2008 and May 2012. Age, gender, age at seizure onset, seizure type(s, epilepsy risk factors, EEG and imaging studies of all patients were registered routinely.ResultsDuring the study period, 2500 patients with epilepsy were registered at our epilepsy clinic. Thirty-two patients (1.3% were diagnosed to have WS. Age of onset (mean ± standard deviation was 4.99 ± 3.06 months. Sixteen patients were male and 16 were female. Nine (28.1% were reported to have two or more seizure types and 23 (71.8% had one seizure type (epileptic spasms. At referral, no developmental delay was detected in two patients and in the rest, a mild to severe delay was noted.Electroencephalography showed typical hypsarrhythmia in 59.4% of our patients and modified hypsarrhythmia or atypical presentations were seen in 40.6%. Two patients had pyridoxine (B6-dependent seizures, confirmed by oral B6 trial.ConclusionVariants of the classical triad of WS including other seizure types, atypical EEG findings, and normal psychomotor function at the beginning could be observed in some patients. Rarely, treatable genetic disorders (e.g., pyridoxine-dependent seizures should be considered in those in whom no other diagnosis is evident. References1. Blume WT, Lüders HO, Mizrahi E, Tassinari C, van Emde Boas W, Engel J Jr. Glossary of descriptive terminology for ictal semiology: report of the ILAE task force on classification and terminology. Epilepsia. 2001 Sep;42(9:1212-8.2. Carmant L

  2. South American mega cities: Knowledge gaps and collaboration opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, L.

    2012-04-01

    Urbanization and population concentration are outstanding phenomena in South America. About 83% of the 530 million South Americans live already in large coastal or near coastal cities (> 750 k inhabitants), many of which are heavily polluted. Curbing measures have been implemented on a relatively fast pace taking advantage of lessons learned elsewhere. However, as environmental objectives become more ambitious, considering for instance chronic health effects, impacts on ecosystems and agriculture, addressing secondary particles and climatic impacts, the need for cost-effective measures requires of more reliable and locally representative data. Such data include: emission fluxes (both natural and anthropogenic) and emission scenarios; characterization of vertical mixing; speciation and distribution of pollutants and precursors. In this presentation, we review the current situation in terms of atmospheric modeling, emission modeling, measuring and observations in a number of South American cities. Also, we describe low-cost actions oriented towards improving our understanding of: 1) vertical mixing by means of a modeling inter comparison exercise using data already collected in Santiago de Chile; 2) aerosol composition and speciation of volatile organic compounds by means of a coordinated sampling of filters and canisters at various locations highlighting the diversity of our cities. These actions were collectively convened by ca. 50 leading scientists and local policy makers during an international symposium held in Santiago in January 2012 (http://ossaf.cmm.uchile.cl/). This activity marked the closure of a five year project sponsored by the Inter American Institute on Global Change Research that tackled South American Emissions Megacities and Climate (SAEMC, CRN 2017). It was also a regional activity promoted and sponsored by the international Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (iCACGP), and by the World Meteorological Organization, Global

  3. Amino acid geochronology of raised beaches in south west Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, D. Q.; Sykes, G. A.; Reeves (nee Henry), Alayne; Miller, G. H.; Andrews, J. T.; Brew, J. S.; Hare, P. E.

    Based on (1) the epimerization of L:isoleucine to D:alloisoleucine ( {D}/{L} ratios) in Patella vulgata, Littorina littorea, L. littoralis, L. saxatilis, Littorina species and Nucella lapillus from raised beaches in south west Britain, (2) statistical analysis of the {D}/{L} ratios, and (3) lithostratigraphic and geomorphic evaluation, three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are proposed. The {D}/{L} ratios for all the species measured are converted to a Patella vulgata standard. The three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are: (1) The Minchin Hole ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.175 ± 0.014, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. (2) A provisionally defined, but as yet, unamed ( {D}/{L}) Stage, because of the current unavailability of a suitable stratotype, with {D}/{L} ratios of 0.135 ± 0.014 (3) The Pennard ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.105 ± 0.016, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. Two geochronological models of the three high sea-level events representing the {D}/{L} Stages are constrained by uranium-series age determinations on stalagmite interbedded with marine beds in Minchin Hole and Bacon Hole Caves, Gower, Wales. A potential 'fixed point' in model evaluation is an age determination which is equivalent to Oxygen Isotope Sub-stage 5e (122 ka). The two models are:

  4. Artificial radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out to determine the impact of Sellafield discharges on the levels of radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland. The likely areas of tidal inundations along the Nith, Urr, Dee, Fleet and Cree (including nearby Bladnoch) rivers were assessed using maps and aerials photographs. These were then visited and gamma radiation measurements taken at regular intervals to enable the external dose from anthropogenic nuclides to be estimated. A further survey followed where soil cores were taken from the areas on each river where the external dose appeared highest and analysed for a range of artificial radionuclides. The levels of 137Cs, 134Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am found, although small, were clearly in excess of the background from other sources. A habit survey was carried out to provide site specific information of tide washed pasture usage, which, with the spatial radionuclide data was used to estimate doses to appropriate critical groups. The maximum annual dose calculated to arise was 60 μSv which is less than 6% of the ICRP principal dose limit of 1 mSv. (author)

  5. Nutrient environment of red tide- infested waters off south-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Shaiju, P.; Laluraj, C.M.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; George, R.; Nair, K.K.C.; Sahayak, S.; Prabhakaran, M.P.

    /Accepted: 28 August 2007 /Published online: 19 September 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract The bloom-infested waters along the south- west coast of India were assessed to bring about...

  6. Investigation of depleted uranium contamination in south west of Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of DU emanation for the first time contaminated certain areas in the south west region of Iraq after the second Gulf war (1991). These contaminated areas were discovered in 1994. Radioactive contamination was detected using the nuclear enterprise PCM5/1 in soil samples collected from two regions near by grazing lands. This study was done for assessment of DU contaminated soil in the regions under study. Materials and Methods: Portable detector was used for radiation measurement of the contaminated area. Samples from each region were selected and taken to Baghdad kept in plastic bags for gamma ray spectroscopy measurement. Gamma-ray spectroscopy system consists of high purity germanium detector surrounded by appropriate shield. The measurement of detector efficiency using (GDR) computer programs, supplied by Canberra Company was used to analyze gamma-ray spectrum. The activity of 234Th, 235U, 238Pa and other natural isotopes were measured. Results: The measurement by gamma x-ray spectrometry system showed that six samples were heavily contaminated with DU, because the presence of 243Pa and 235U peak and the percentage ratio between 235U/238U were less than 0.005, when both international mathematical methods, namely IAEA and Kosovo, were used. Because of existence of radiation equilibrium between 234Th and 234Pa, the measurements should be accurate Conclusion : The result showed that six of the samples were heavily contaminated with DU and there is a good agreement between the two methods. Because of the accuracy and ease of the Kosovo method, it is recommended for future investigations

  7. 76 FR 67533 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cities of South Lake Tahoe, CA and Stateline, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cities of South Lake Tahoe, CA and... behind (south of) Heavenly Village Center (Raley's Shopping Center) and then along a new...

  8. The German Contribution to the Military History of South Africa and South-West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Botha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of South Africa is the spiritual. Cullural, econolll;c and military extension of the Occident on the Southern extremity of Africa.Situated where it is it does not only form an invaluable link between the East and the West, but at the same time it is one of the most important approaches to the Southern part of the African continent. The foundation of the white society at the Cape was laid by representatives from various Western European nations. In the course of time each one of them contributed towards the development of a young, vigorous nation in this vast land under the Southern Cross - a nation which since its birth, has always recognised the guidance of the Almighty God.

  9. A contribution to the knowledge of non-marine Mollusca of South West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1970-01-01

    The moment to collate scattered notes on South West African non-marine molluscs arrived last year when Mr. B. H. Lamoral of the Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg (South Africa), entrusted the present author with the study of material obtained during a Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.

  10. Anemia em gestantes de municípios das regiões Sul e Centro-Oeste do Brasil Anemia en mujeres enbarazadas de ciudades de regiones Sur y Centro-Oeste de Brasil Anemia in pregnant women from two cities in the South and Mid-West Regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fujimori

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar a distribuição da anemia em gestantes da rede básica de saúde de dois municípios, na região Sul e Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Estudo transversal retrospectivo e descritivo desenvolvido a partir de dados de prontuários de 954 e 781 gestantes em Cuiabá-MT e Maringá-PR, respectivamente. Coletaram-se dados de caracterização sociodemográfica, de pré-natal e indicadores sociais. Foram consideradas anêmicas, as mulheres com hemoglobina inferior a 11g/dL. A desigualdade social existente entre os municípios foi evidente. Gestantes atendidas em Cuiabá-MT apresentavam características sociodemográficas significativamente mais precárias. A prevalência de anemia era significativamente maior e valores médios de hemoglobina menores em Cuiabá-MT, independentemente da idade gestacional. Encontrou-se associação dos níveis de hemoglobina com a idade, situação conjugal, número de gestações anteriores, estado nutricional e trimestre gestacional. As diferenças regionais na ocorrência da anemia gestacional são socialmente determinadas, o que deve ser considerado nas propostas de intervenção em saúde coletiva.Se analizó la distribución de anemia en mujeres embarazadas asistidas en servicios básicos de salud de dos ciudades de las regiones Sur y Centro-Oeste de Brasil. Estudio transversal retrospectivo y descriptivo. Se usó datos de registros médicos de 954 y 781 embarazadas de Cuiabá-MT y Maringá-PR, respectivamente. Se recopilaron datos sobre características sociodemográficas, atención prenatal e indicadores sociales. Hemoglobina-HbWe aimed to analyze anemia distribution in pregnant women who were attending health services in two cities in the South and Mid-West Regions in Brazil. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study developed from 954 and 781 medical records data in Cuiabá-MT and Maringá-PR. We collected data of social and demographic features as well as pre-natal care. Women who presented

  11. Shifting corporate geographies in global cities of the South: Mexico City and Johannesburg as case studie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parnreiter, Christof

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global city research links the expansion of advanced producer services in major cities to the internationalisation of real estate markets as well as to the spread of (mainly high-rise office complexes. This research, however, has based its findings mainly on cases of the Global North. This paper examines, based on Grant and Nijman’s (2002 suggestion that the “internal spatial organisation of gateway cities in the less-developed world” reflects “the city’s role in the global political economy”, which patterns occur in two metropoles of the Global South. In addition to this, the analysis focuses especially on the driving forces behind the changes in corporate geographies. The analysis is placed in Mexico City and Johannesburg and based on real estate market data (offices as well as background documents on urban development. The outcome shows that in these cities, local transformation processes of the real estate market and office space location are indeed considerably shaped by global market dynamics. However, the findings also indicate that there is no clear scale dependence of the territorial form. In order to comprehensively understand the changes in the corporate geographies therefore, it is necessary to direct more attention to local and national dynamics. The restructuring of the built environment in both cities can only be grasped fully by considering the particular role of local and national governments. This additional entry point to an understanding of shifting corporate geographies helps to put recent dynamics of global capitalism and politics of urban neoliberalism in perspective.

  12. CITIES COMPETITION, PLACE MARKETING AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH EUROPE: THE BARCELONA CASE AS FDI DESTINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Metaxas, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the article is to focus on the especially interesting area of South Europe and to present and points out the strategic development process, in one of the most representative examples of its successful implementation, which is the city of Barcelona. Barcelona, which in the last 20 years, managed to increase its competitiveness becoming one of the most attractive investment destinations on international level. The city?s economic dynamism, its strategic position in the South of Europ...

  13. Nutrient flows in urban and peri-urban agroecosystems in three West African cities

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkadir, A.

    2012-01-01

    Key words: Sustainability, CATPCA, two-step cluster analysis, farm types, nutrient balances, West Africa, gross margin, NUTMON/MONQI. Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) is defined as the cultivation of crops and keeping livestock within and around cities. In addition to providing the cities’ demand of fresh vegetables, crops and livestock products, it plays an important role in the livelihoods of the urban farmers. With the rapid urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa, UPA provides food...

  14. South West Aluminum: Next year The Capacity of Auto-use Aluminum Sheet will Reach 5000 Tonnes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Following supplying supporting aluminum products for"Shenzhou"spacecraft,"Long March"rocket,Boeing and Airbus,South West Aluminum again tapped new economic growth points,i.e.automobile-use aluminum products.According to what the reporter has learned from South West Aluminum Group recently,this group has finished early stage

  15. The Classroom Environment: A Major Motivating Factor towards High Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in South West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akomolafe, Comfort O.; Adesua, Veronica O.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of the classroom environment as a motivating factor in enhancing the academic performance of secondary school students in South West Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey type. The population of this study comprises all students of senior secondary schools in South West Nigeria which consist of Lagos, Ogun,…

  16. LABOUR MARKET IN DEVELOPMENT REGION SOUTH WEST OLTENIA – REALITIES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabontu Cecilia Irina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the years the South West Oltenia Region have developed important activities in different areas. The most important activities are related to agriculture and natural potential and deposits, the South West Oltenia being one of the most important energy providers in the country. In this area that we brought into talk we find all sectors of the national economy. Agriculture is considered to be an important branch with a significant share in regional GDP with industry (food, non-ferrous metallurgy aluminum, chemical, electrical, machinery, light industry but we must also talk about the tertiary sector gets consistent in the economy of the region as well as nationally. We have proposed in this paper to provide an overview of the labor market in the Development South-West Oltenia Region,integrating it into national labor market realities. We will follow this to see if the labor market in the South-West Oltenia Region, reflect, generally, national trends. To analyze what we are proposed we used the latest official labor market statistics but to have a clearer picture on this field we used data provided by the National Commission of Forecasting, indicating the source.

  17. Alien Planorbid (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata) from South West Africa erroneously recorded as Biomphalaria Pfeifferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1974-01-01

    In 1970 I published a record of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848) (fam. Planorbidae) for South West Africa: "Sandamap Farm, Spitzkoppe" (Van Bruggen, 1970: 45, figs. 1-13). Dr. D. S. Brown of the Medical Research Council (London) kindly drew my attention to the fact that jud

  18. Job Satisfaction and Gender Factor of Administrative Staff in South West Nigeria Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorunsola, E. O.

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the level of job satisfaction of male and female administrative staff in South West Nigeria Universities. The research design used was a descriptive survey type. The population consisted of all the senior administrative staff in the universities, out of which a sample of 400 respondents made up of 100 respondents from each…

  19. Characteristics of Zircon in Placer Deposits along the West Coast of South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philander, C.; Rozendaal, A.; de Meijer, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Mining along the west coast of South Africa is dominated by the exploitation of onshore and offshore diamond deposits. The relatively recent discovery of vast resources of heavy minerals in the area has resulted in the establishment of a major related industry. Today, Namakwa Sands is a 10-million-t

  20. The Endowed Schools Act, 1869 -- A Middle-Class Conspiracy? The South-West Lancashire Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, F. G.

    1974-01-01

    The exclusion of poor scholars from the grammar schools of South-West Lancashire resulted from the economic and social conditions of mid-nineteenth century England rather than to the passage of the Endowed Schools Act in 1869. (Author/WM)

  1. The punctuation in the evolution of orbitoides in the campanian of South-West France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drooger, C.W.; Klerk, J.C. de

    1985-01-01

    For the Orbitoides assemblages analyzed from a number of closely sampled sections of Campanian calcarenites in south-west France there is a sudden change in the means of several parameters of the internal embryonicnepionic stage. The direction of the change is in accordance with the nepionic acceler

  2. City ground: constructed totality:Artistic and architectural preoccupations with asphalt in the US west coast 1952-1972

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Through close study of selected artistic and architectural preoccupations with city ground, and the asphalt ground of the modern US west coast city in the mid-twentieth century in particular, this paper explores the geographical idea of the city as a totality of construction, and how this has influenced and intersected subsequent architectural practices of study, research and design practice. The photographic content of key constructed works from 1952 until 1972: a short film by Charles and R...

  3. Economic specialisation and diversity in South African cities / by Martin Luus

    OpenAIRE

    Luus, Martin

    2005-01-01

    According to Naudé and Krugell (2003a) South Africa's cities are too small, dispersed, and over concentrated. In South Africa, households in the country's urban areas have average incomes almost thrice as high as the households in rural areas. More than 70% of South Africa's GDP is produced in only 19 urban areas (Naudé and Krugell 2003b). In Naudé and Krugell (2003a) it is stated that the rank-size rule shows that South Africa's urban agglomerations are too small and the citie...

  4. Study of ecological situation for the West Kazakhstan south districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the results of comprehensive research for ecological status of Karabota, Kaztal, Dzhangaly, Dzhanibek and Akzhaik districts of the West Kazakhstan districts adjoining to 'Kapustin Yar' and Azgir' test sites are presented. In the indicated districts the following examinations were conducted: analysis of soils samples; bottom sediments, flora and fauna samples for determination of radionuclide and heavy metals content in its; determination of absorption dose with population by the EPR dosimetry method by human teeth enamel; study of α-radiation accumulation in a diverse trees' annual rings

  5. The Suppression of Internal Unrest in South West Africa (Namibia 1921–1933

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    Andries M. Fokkens

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1915, the Union of South Africa was requested to administrate South West Africa (SWA (today Namibia on behalf of the British Crown and approved the South West Africa Mandate.  The policies of the Union strongly influenced the administration of SWA, and the administration met with indigenous opposition discontent with the maltreatment.  An attitude of master and servant was prevalent in the mandated territory and the maltreatment of the indigenous people in the mandated territory, racial prejudice, double standards in executing branding laws, enforced indentured labour, dog and hut tax were some of the grievances that the Bondelswarts, the Rehoboth Basters and the Ukuambi had against the SWA Administration.  The Administration perceived these actions as internal unrest and subdued it using police and military resources. Suppressing unrest through force was part of the military policing tradition prevalent in Southern Africa and abroad during the colonial era.  The tactical deployment of ground forces in conjunction with aircraft was an innovation that transformed future operations in SWA between the suppression of the Bondelswarts and the actions against Chief Ipumbu. This article discusses the utilisation of the Union Defence Force (UDF and South West Africa Forces against indigenous people of South West Africa between the two world wars focusing on three incidents over the period 1922 to 1932.  Tactical deployments of ground forces and the application of air power in support of ground forces to suppress internal unrest are explained and discussed.  These discussions provide the military historian with salient facts on physical conditions encountered, the tactics employed and the role of a new weapon system, aircraft, yet to be fully understood in its role as a force multiplier.

  6. Heavy metal pollution in the Guadiamar river and the Guadalquivir estuary (South West Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Francisco, (S.I.) (1724-1799); Soldevilla, Marina; Cordón, Rosario; Arambarri, Pablo

    1987-01-01

    The Guadalquivir river is the most important course of water of South West Spain. Its tributary, the Guadiamar river, joins the Guadalquivir near its mouth at C~diz Gulf in the Spanish South Atlantic coast, just after skirting the marshy part of the Do~ana National Park. The upper Guadiamar river receives through its tributary the Agrio river the drainage water from an opencast-worked polymetallic sulphide deposit and the effluents from a plant for the treatment and concentration of mineral. ...

  7. ANALYSIS OF AGROTOURISTIC INFRASTRUCTURE – CASE OF SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manea DRĂGHICI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For Romania, the country that has rich and diverse natural and human resources, tourism is one of the priority sectors. This paper proposes to analyze Romania's tourism infrastructure at the end of 2011, Romania's tourism structures was represented by 8438 units. By region, South East concentrates the largest number of pensions, and the opposite being the Bucharest-Ilfov where pensions segment is in an early stage, in position 7 topping the South West region with 547 accommodation units representing only 6.5% of the national total, with a total of 286 hostels tourists of which only seven agro touristic pensions.

  8. STRATEGIC MODEL TO ATTENUATE THE RURAL INEQUALITIES IN THE SOUTHWEST REGION

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    EMILIA UNGUREANU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the achievement of the work „Strategic Model to Attenuate the Rural Inequalities in the SouthWest Region” we took into consideration the performance of two types of objectives: main and specific ones. Within the general objectives we considered: developing theoretical approach to combat the rural inequalities; strategic plans addressed to combat the rural inequalities and identifying the socio-economic strategic measures dedicated to the promotion of necessary measures in order to combat the social inequalities. And regarding the specific objectives was to establish the SWOT analysis and the elaboration of strategic plans in local profile, based on clusters. The rural space analysis in the South-West region was made at the level of local administrative units, the lowest local level from which is collected and then published statistical information. Using of this local level is a prerequisite for obtaining positive results with a high fidelity degree.

  9. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - A VIABLE INSTRUMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY IN SOUTH WEST OLTENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA OANA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the need for the tourism sector to adopt a policy of social responsibility for building sustainable development, necessary for the socio-economic recovery of Romania. The study includes a sample of 68 hotels in the five counties of South West Oltenia Region. Data for the research was collected by accessing the official websites for each hotel in order to analyze the degree of implementation of social responsibility on the basis of ten variables, required to achieve a sustainable tourism. The findings reveal a lack of transparency and involvement in social responsibility of the hotel industry in South West Oltenia. Research has shown that accomodation and tourism sector in the region analyzed is far from reaching the international standards, so the adoption of recommendations on best practices would be an important step forward for enhancing sustainable tourism in Romania.

  10. Characterization of some clay deposits in South West Nigeria

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    Fatai Olufemi ARAMIDE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Clay minerals are the most important industrial minerals whose application is dependent on its structure and chemical composition. Mineralogical, chemical compositions, phase constitutions, and microstructural morphology of certain clay minerals from three different deposits in south western Nigeria were investigated using state-of-the-art equipment. These were done with the intention of determining the appropriate application for the clay minerals. It was observed that the major phases in the clay samples from the three different deposits are kaolinite, microcline, muscovite/illite, plagioclase/albite and quartz. These phases were observed in varied percentages. It was concluded that sample A (Ifon clay which contains very low kaolinite (5.63%; could not use for making high temperature caliber refractories. But due to its high content of feldspar, it could be processed for the production of feldspar for glass and iron making industries. Sample B is considered to be appropriate for the production the refractory composite due to its most appropriate content of both kaolinite (23.74% kaolinite and feldspars (26.12% microcline and 11.28% plagioclase/albite which is necessary for producing mullite fibers in ceramic matrix at a temperature of around 1400oC. Sample C (Iseyin clay, which contains very low feldspars (3.00% microcline and 3.08% plagioclase/albite and high content of kaolinite was considered suitable for further processing for making high temperature caliber refractories.

  11. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers from South-West Algeria: An ethnobotanical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarba, Bachir

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: This study aimed to document and analyzes the local knowledge of medicinal plants’ use by traditional healers in South-west Algeria. Methods: The ethnobotanical survey was conducted in two Saharian regions of South-west of Algeria: Adrar and Bechar. In total, 22 local traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire and open questions. Use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), and informant consensus factor (FIC) were used to analyze the obtained data. Results: Our results showed that 83 medicinal plants species belonging to 38 families are used by traditional healers from South-west of Algeria to treat several ailments. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, and Fabaceae were the most dominant families with 13, 8, 6, and 4 species, respectively. Leaves were the plant parts mostly used (36%), followed by seeds (18%), aerial parts (17%) and roots (12%). Furthermore, a decoction was the major mode of preparation (49%), and oral administration was the most preferred (80%). Thymus vulgaris L. (UV = 1.045), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (UV = 0.863), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (UV=0.590), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (UV = 0.545), and Ruta chalepensis L. (UV = 0.5) were the most frequently species used by local healers. A great informant consensus has been demonstrated for kidney (0.727), cancer (0.687), digestive (0.603), and respiratory diseases. Conclusion: This study revealed rich ethnomedicinal knowledge in South-west Algeria. The reported species with high UV, FL, and FIC could be of great interest for further pharmacological studies. PMID:27757260

  12. Identification of Novel Cetacean Poxviruses in Cetaceans Stranded in South West England

    OpenAIRE

    James Barnett; Akbar Dastjerdi; Nick Davison; Rob Deaville; David Everest; Julie Peake; Christopher Finnegan; Paul Jepson; Falko Steinbach

    2015-01-01

    Poxvirus infections in marine mammals have been mainly reported through their clinical lesions and electron microscopy (EM). Poxvirus particles in association with such lesions have been demonstrated by EM and were previously classified as two new viruses, cetacean poxvirus 1 (CePV-1) and cetacean poxvirus 2 (CePV-2). In this study, epidermal pox lesions in cetaceans stranded in South West England (Cornwall) between 2008 and 2012 were investigated by electron microscopy and molecular analysis...

  13. Compaction, evolution of rock properties and AVO modeling. Tornerose Prospect, South West Barents Sea.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The Barents Sea is an active area for frontier petroleum exploration .This study focuses on an area across the Tornerose prospect in the Hammerfest Basin, South West of the Barents Sea. Cenozoic exhumation of the entire region resulted in dramatic changes in rock properties and eventual petroleum systems therein. Analysis of this sedimentary basin as a normally subsiding basin would yield misleading results. The focus of this thesis comprise of two phases which are compaction analysis and evo...

  14. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - A VIABLE INSTRUMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY IN SOUTH WEST OLTENIA

    OpenAIRE

    POPA OANA

    2012-01-01

    The paper emphasizes the need for the tourism sector to adopt a policy of social responsibility for building sustainable development, necessary for the socio-economic recovery of Romania. The study includes a sample of 68 hotels in the five counties of South West Oltenia Region. Data for the research was collected by accessing the official websites for each hotel in order to analyze the degree of implementation of social responsibility on the basis of ten variables, required to achieve a sust...

  15. Entomological indices of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato at a rural community in south-west Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    M.A.E. Noutcha; C.I. Anumdu

    2009-01-01

    Background & objectives: Investigations were conducted to obtain key entomological indices of Anopheles gambiae s.l. at Igbo-Ora, a rural community in south-west Nigeria. Methods: Mosquitoes were caught daily for a week from rooms where tenants had slept the previous night in each of the four months June, July (2001), and August, September (2002). Anopheles gambiae s.l. sibling species were PCR-identified, the blood meal origin was determined by direct ELISA, and the circumsporozoite antigen ...

  16. Recent crustal deformation in west-central South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Matthew Earl

    I use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) to create maps of crustal deformation along the coast and within the volcanic arc of central South America. I image deformation associated with six subduction zone earthquakes, four volcanic centers, at least one shallow crustal earthquake, and several salt flats. In addition, I constrain the magnitude and location of post-seismic deformation from the aforementioned subduction zone earthquakes. I combine InSAR observations with data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) and teleseismic data to explore each source of deformation. I use the observations to constrain earthquake and volcanic processes of this subduction zone, including the plumbing system of the volcanoes and the decadal along strike variations in the subduction zone earthquake cycle. I created interferograms of over 900 volcanoes in the central Andes spanning 1992--2002, and found four areas of deformation. I constrained the temporal variability of the deformation, the depth of the sources of deformation assuming a variety of source geometries and crustal structures, and the possible cause of the deformation. I do not observe deformation associated with eruptions at several volcanoes, and I discuss the possible explanations for this lack of deformation. In addition, I constrain the amount of co-seismic and post-seismic slip on the subduction zone fault interface from the following earthquakes: 1995 Mw 8.1 Antofagasta, Chile; 1996 Mw 7.7 Nazca, Peru; 1998 Mw 7.1 Antofagasta, Chile; and 2001 Mw 8.4 Arequipa, Peru. In northern Chile, I compare the location and magnitude of co-seismic slip from 5 Mw > 7 earthquakes during the past 15 years with the post-seismic slip distribution. There is little post-seismic slip from the 1995 and 1996 earthquakes relative to the 2001 event and other recent subduction zone earthquakes.

  17. Toxocara Spp. Eggs in Public Parks of Urmia City, West Azer¬baijan Province Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Charesaz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The visceral larva migrans (VLM is a syndrome observed in human infection with helminth larval eggs such as the Toxocara spp. that usually infects dogs and cats. Among the risk factors involved in the occurrence of VLM, partic­ularly importance of these animal populations, an investigation was carried out for the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks in the city of Urmia, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran."nMethods: Samples were collected from total 26 existing public parks in Urmia from December 2003 to March 2004. Soil samples were collected from 3-4 distinct sites in the same area. The floating material was analyzed under the light micro­scope."nResults: Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 8 samples of total 102 taken samples from 26 public parks showed a contami­nation rate of 7.8%. The number of observed Toxacara eggs in each microscopic field was varied from 1-8."nConclusion: Low rate of contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in Urmia parks might be due to lower dog population and cultural differences of present study in this city in comparison of other cities of the world.

  18. Exploring child prostitution in a major city in the West African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounmenou, Charles

    2016-09-01

    The study explored the characteristics of child prostitution in a major city in the West African region. A convenience sample of children in prostitution, specifically girls below age 18 (n=243), were recruited on 83 prostitution sites identified in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. A survey instrument, consisting of 71 closed-ended question items, was used to explore various variables including profile of children in prostitution, factors of vulnerability to prostitution; prostitution practices, compensations and related issues in child prostitution. The findings show that most children in prostitution in the city were from Burkina Faso (63%) and Nigeria (30%), two countries that do not share borders. Most native respondents practiced prostitution for survival and to support their families. In contrast, all the respondents from Nigeria practiced prostitution as victims of international sex trafficking. An important finding was that 77% of the children in prostitution surveyed were educated. Among the respondents, there were similarities in the major life events that contributed to their situation of prostitution. These life events include early separation with parents, sexual abuse, foster care, and forced marriage. Implications for policy, practice and research are discussed. PMID:27490517

  19. Exploring child prostitution in a major city in the West African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounmenou, Charles

    2016-09-01

    The study explored the characteristics of child prostitution in a major city in the West African region. A convenience sample of children in prostitution, specifically girls below age 18 (n=243), were recruited on 83 prostitution sites identified in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. A survey instrument, consisting of 71 closed-ended question items, was used to explore various variables including profile of children in prostitution, factors of vulnerability to prostitution; prostitution practices, compensations and related issues in child prostitution. The findings show that most children in prostitution in the city were from Burkina Faso (63%) and Nigeria (30%), two countries that do not share borders. Most native respondents practiced prostitution for survival and to support their families. In contrast, all the respondents from Nigeria practiced prostitution as victims of international sex trafficking. An important finding was that 77% of the children in prostitution surveyed were educated. Among the respondents, there were similarities in the major life events that contributed to their situation of prostitution. These life events include early separation with parents, sexual abuse, foster care, and forced marriage. Implications for policy, practice and research are discussed.

  20. An 854-Year Tree-Ring Chronology of Scots Pine for South-West Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helama Samuli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A near-millennial tree-ring chronology (AD 1147-2000 is presented for south-west Finland and analyzed using dendroclimatic methods. This is a composite chronology comprising samples both from standing pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L. and subfossil trunks as recovered from the lake sediments, with a total sample size of 189 tree-ring sample series. The series were dendrochronologically cross-dated to exact calendar years to portray variability in tree-ring widths on inter-annual and longer scales. Al though the studied chronology correlates statistically significantly with other long tree-ring width chronologies from Finland over their common period (AD 1520-1993, the south-west chronology did not exhibit similarly strong mid-summer temperature or spring/early-summer precipitation signals in comparison to published chronologies. On the other hand, the south-west chronology showed highest correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation indices in winter/spring months, this association following a dendroclimatic feature common to pine chronologies over the region and adjacent areas. Paleoclimatic comparison showed that tree-rings had varied similarly to central European spring temperatures. It is postulated that the collected and dated tree-ring material could be studied for wood surface reflectance (blue channel light intensity and stable isotopes, which both have recently shown to correlate notably well with summer temperatures.

  1. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dawes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south west Western Australia, provides approximately 60% of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15%. There is expected to be a continuing reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia.

    Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A Vertical Flux Manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland, soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth. These recharge estimates were accumulated on a daily basis for both observed and projected climate scenarios and used in a MODFLOW simulation with monthly stress periods.

    In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In the Dandaragan Plateau to the north-east of Perth there has been groundwater level rise since the 1970s associated with land clearing, and with rainfall projected to reduce the least in this area the groundwater levels are estimated to continue to rise. Along the coastal zone north of Perth there is an interaction between projected rainfall decline and legislated removal to pine forests. This

  2. Epidemiological Study of Ascariasis in Hamadan City , West of Iran, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fallah

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common intestinal parasite in the world. Various studies has indicated the high prevalence of this parasite in Iran, specially in the west parts of Iran. The epidemiological study of intestinal parasitic infection is prerequisite for planning of control programs. The Hamadan province is one of the most tourist attraction regions of Iran and providing a safe environment for travelers is the main aim of regional authorities. A mass chemotherapy for Ascariasis performed in rural areas of Hamadan province for a five years period but, no any intervention was done for control of this parasite in the Hamadan city. Therefore, an epidemiological study of Ascariasis in this town was necessary. A cross sectional study carried out by cluster random sampling in Hamadan and 580 stool specimens collected from different parts of city. The stools were examined by formalin ether concentration technique for ova and parasites and intensity of infection was determined by quantitative modified Stoll method. Mean infection rate of Ascariasis was 19.5%. The Farhangian suburb (northern part had higher infection rate than other parts(28.5% and central parts of city showed lower infection rate(12.7%. The highest infection rate were found in the 31-40 years age group (33.8% and in the females(23.9%.In view of intensity, 59.3% of infections were moderate and 48.3% had low intensity. No any high intensity were found. Mean egg per gram(epg were 7129 and 48.7% of eggs were infertile. This study indicated that , prevalence of Ascaris in Hamadan city is considerable at present and a suitable intervention, like health education and selective chemotherapy is necessary to decrease the infection.

  3. THE BACKGROUND RADIATION AND EXPOSURE LEVELS AT VARIOUS SOUTH AFRICAN WEST COAST MILITARY UNITS

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    Jacques Bezuidenhout

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The West Coast of South Africa between St Helena Bay to the north and Langebaan Lagoon to the south is characterised by numerous granite protrusions. These outcrops are elements of the underlying Cape Granite Suite, which forms the bedrock of a large part of the Western Cape. Granite contains high levels of natural radionuclides, which results in high levels of natural background radiation in the surrounding area. The impacts of these high levels of radiation exposure on military personal are of concern. There are four military units located in this part of the West Coast, namely SAS Saldanha, 4 Special Forces Regiment, Langebaan Road Air Force Base and the Military Academy. Different sites in and around these military units were selected and soil samples were taken. Laboratory gamma ray measurements were done to determine the levels of natural radioactive nuclides in the soil samples. The radioactive nuclide concentrations were interpolated and then mapped with the help of geographic information systems (also known as geospatial information systems or GIS software. An evaluation of the annual dose rate of military personnel at the units on the West Coast was made and found to range between 0,017 mSv/y and 0,163 mSv/y. These values were mapped and compared to the average global annual dose rate of 0,070 mSv/y. This article reports on an investigation of these results and the overall exposure levels of personnel from the various military units on the West Coast of South Africa.

  4. Threat of land subsidence in and around Kolkata City and East Kolkata Wetlands, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sahu; P K Sikdar

    2011-06-01

    This paper attempts to estimate the possible rate of land subsidence of Kolkata City including Salt Lake City and the adjoining East Kolkata Wetlands located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal basin. Demand of groundwater for drinking, agricultural and industrial purposes has increased due to rapid urbanization. The subsurface geology consists of Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of clay, silty clay and sand of various grades. Groundwater occurs mostly under confined condition except in those places where the top aquitard has been obliterated due to the scouring action of past channels. Currently, the piezometric head shows a falling trend and it may be accelerated due to further over-withdrawal of groundwater resulting in land subsidence. The estimated mean land subsidence rate is 13.53 mm/year and for 1 m drop in the piezometric head, the mean subsidence is 3.28 cm. The surface expression of the estimated land subsidence is however, cryptic because of a time lag between the settlement of the thick low-permeable aquitard at the top and its surface expression. Therefore, groundwater of the cities and wetland areas should be developed cautiously based on the groundwater potential to minimize the threat of land subsidence.

  5. Time distribution of heavy rainfall events in south west of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassabi, Zahra; kamali, G. Ali; Meshkatee, Amir-Hussain; Hajam, Sohrab; Javaheri, Nasrolah

    2016-07-01

    Accurate knowledge of rainfall time distribution is a fundamental issue in many Meteorological-Hydrological studies such as using the information of the surface runoff in the design of the hydraulic structures, flood control and risk management, and river engineering studies. Since the main largest dams of Iran are in the south-west of the country (i.e. South Zagros), this research investigates the temporal rainfall distribution based on an analytical numerical method to increase the accuracy of hydrological studies in Iran. The United States Soil Conservation Service (SCS) estimated the temporal rainfall distribution in various forms. Hydrology studies usually utilize the same distribution functions in other areas of the world including Iran due to the lack of sufficient observation data. However, we first used Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to achieve the simulated rainfall results of the selected storms on south west of Iran in this research. Then, a three-parametric Logistic function was fitted to the rainfall data in order to compute the temporal rainfall distribution. The domain of the WRF model is 30.5N-34N and 47.5E-52.5E with a resolution of 0.08 degree in latitude and longitude. We selected 35 heavy storms based on the observed rainfall data set to simulate with the WRF Model. Storm events were scrutinized independently from each other and the best analytical three-parametric logistic function was fitted for each grid point. The results show that the value of the coefficient a of the logistic function, which indicates rainfall intensity, varies from the minimum of 0.14 to the maximum of 0.7. Furthermore, the values of the coefficient B of the logistic function, which indicates rain delay of grid points from start time of rainfall, vary from 1.6 in south-west and east to more than 8 in north and central parts of the studied area. In addition, values of rainfall intensities are lower in south west of IRAN than those of observed or proposed by the

  6. FIELD TRIALS OF A SLOW-RELEASE COPPER MOLLUSCICIDE IN KHUZESTAN, SOUTH-WEST OF IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    J. Massoud; Mansoorian, A.

    1986-01-01

    In the field trials of slow-release nollusicide, copper content McCkechnie Chemical Inc. 30 cuso4 5H2o or 7.5 cupellet/sinking material 7 days release life were tested against the common aquatic snails bulinus truncatus, Physa acuta and Lymnaea gedrosiana in stagnant water bodies in Khuzestan province, south-west of Iran. Snail densities before treatment and 7 days after mollucicide application were determined by 10 deep nets per man. The results of the present trials as shown on tables 1, 2,...

  7. ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON THE LABOR MARKET IN THE REGION SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buşan Gabriela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The international financial crisis has inevitably felt in the the Romanian economy influences transmitted through the various paths. The connection with the international economic flows has generated negative implications both in the economy and in various regions, as evidenced by analysis of key indicators: labor resources, civil active population, the activity rate of unemployment labor resources, etc.. The impact of economic crisis on the labor market in Romania has resulted in the job losses or temporary unemployment as a result technical or permanently, the termination of the contract of employment. The research aims to identify the adverse effects in the labor market at the level of the South West Oltenia.

  8. Challenges faced by grandparents caring for AIDS orphans in Koster, North West Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Phetlhu, Deliwe; Watson, Mada

    2014-01-01

    Caring for orphans who have lost their parents due to AIDS, and some of whom are infected, is an enormous challenge. This immense responsibility often resides with the grandparents, who are in most cases sickly and not financially capable to undertake the task. The objectives of this study were to explore and describe challenges faced by such grandparents and their needs while caring for AIDS orphans in Koster, North West province, South Africa. Maslow’s theory of human needs was used as a th...

  9. Multi-Perspective Integration of ICT’s into Island Schools in South-West Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Tongkaw, Aumnat

    2011-01-01

    AbstractThe major part of the island school groups in South-West Thailand is comprised of remote areas, which are under development and lack facilities and basic needs. Most people on the islands are poor Thai gypsies living in temporary shelters or small boats. They have distinctively different origins, cultures and languages. Developing the infrastructures in this area is a low priority on the government’s list. Only a marginal percentage of the budget is being spent in the development of g...

  10. APTI of Some Selected Plants in Shivamogga City, South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    M.P. Adamsab; Hina Kousar; D.S. Shwetha; M.H. Sirajuddin; Ravichandran, M.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organism or damage the environment. The study examined air pollution indices (APTI) of fourteen plant species around Shivamogga city of Karnataka State India . Four physiological and biochemical parameters, leaf relative water content (RWC) , ascorbic acid (AA), total leaf chlorophyll (TCH), and leaf extract PH were used t...

  11. Ideal Images of Educational Leadership in Mexico City and South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Charles L.; Boone, Mike; Alvarez, Isaias; Topete, Carlos; Iturbe, Elizabeth; Base, Melinda; Fillion, Sharon; Galloway, Holly; Korth, Lisa Elena; Munoz, Linda

    2006-01-01

    This study used a qualitative approach to analyze ideal images of educational leadership among administrators in Mexico City and South Texas. Looking at educational leadership from a cross-cultural perspective revealed issues that are hidden when working in just one culture. Though both groups indicated that participation, clear communication,…

  12. Divided societies and ethno-regional antagonisms: “A study of the social interaction between Anglophone North Westerners and South Westerners resident in Buea, South West Cameroon”.

    OpenAIRE

    Arrey, William Hermann

    2006-01-01

    This thesis comes at a time when there is much talk on democratic deficit and questions concerning whether and how cultural groups should be recognized in politics in ethnically divided societies. The study therefore uses the Anglophone Cameroon North West/South West ethno-regional divide as an entry point to contribute to this issue of global concern. By employing a variety of research techniques and using ethnic and psycho-social conflict theories as tools of analysis, the study arrives at ...

  13. Contribution of the east-west thermal heating contrast to the South Asian Monsoon and consequences for its variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucharski, Fred; Barimalala, Rondrotiana; Yoo, Jin Ho [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Earth System Physics Section, Trieste (Italy); Bracco, Annalisa [EAS, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The focus of this paper is to assess the relative role of the north-south and east-west contrasts in atmospheric heating for the maintenance of the South Asian summer monsoon climatology. The juxtaposition of the Eurasian land mass and the Indian Ocean is responsible for the north-south contrast, while the greater diabatic heating above the western Pacific compared to the one over the African and the tropical South Atlantic Ocean region introduces the east-west gradient. With a series of idealized atmospheric general circulation model experiments, it is found that both contrasts contribute to the maintenance of the South Asian monsoon climatology, but their impact varies at regional scales. The surface atmospheric cyclone and precipitation over northern India are mainly due to the north-south contrast. On the other hand, when the Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures are close to their climatological mean values, the low-level cyclone and consequent rainfall activity in the Bay of Bengal and southern India result from the east-west gradient. The physical mechanism relays on the southern part of the upper-level South Asian monsoon high being forced by the east-west diabatic heating contrast via Sverdrup balance. The east-west heating difference controls also the strength of the Tropical Easterly Jet. Finally, the contribution of the El Nino Southern Oscillation to the interannual variability of the Indian monsoon is interpreted as the result of a longitudinal shift of one of the centers of diabatic heating contributing to the east-west contrast. (orig.)

  14. Patient-orientated longitudinal study of multiple sclerosis in south west England (The South West Impact of Multiple Sclerosis Project, SWIMS 1: protocol and baseline characteristics of cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Dave E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for greater understanding of the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS from the perspective of individuals with the condition. The South West Impact of MS Project (SWIMS has been designed to improve understanding of disease impact using a patient-centred approach. The purpose is to (1 develop improved measurement instruments for clinical trials, (2 evaluate longitudinal performance of a variety of patient-reported outcome measures, (3 develop prognostic predictors for use in individualising drug treatment for patients, particularly early on in the disease course. Methods This is a patient-centred, prospective, longitudinal study of multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS in south west England. The study area comprises two counties with a population of approximately 1.7 million and an estimated 1,800 cases of MS. Self-completion questionnaires are administered to participants every six months (for people with MS or 12 months (CIS. Here we present descriptive statistics of the baseline data provided by 967 participants with MS. Results Seventy-five percent of those approached consented to participate. The male:female ratio was 1.00:3.01 (n = 967. Average (standard deviation age at time of entry to SWIMS was 51.6 (11.5 years (n = 961 and median (interquartile range time since first symptom was 13.3 (6.8 to 24.5 years (n = 934. Fatigue was the most commonly reported symptom, with 80% of participants experiencing fatigue at baseline. Although medication use for symptom control was common, there was little evidence of effectiveness, particularly for fatigue. Nineteen percent of participants were unable to classify their subtype of MS. When patient-reported subtype was compared to neurologist assessment for a sample of participants (n = 396, agreement in disease sub-type was achieved in 63% of cases. There were 836 relapses, reported by 931 participants, in the twelve months prior to baseline. Twenty

  15. Drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mengistu Kebede, Dereje Kebebe Borga, Eshetu Mulisa Bobasa Department of Pharmacy, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Sustaining the availability and rational use of safe and effective drugs is a major problem in developing countries. Irrational drug use affects quality of health care more than accessibility of drugs. Objective: To assess drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone from January 21–28, 2012 by using structured questionnaires. Results: Of 50 prescribers and 30 dispensers, 58% and 83.3% were males, respectively. The result showed that majority of prescribers agreed on availability of essential drugs (72% and had access to up-to-date drug information (76%. However, 43.3% of dispensers didn't get access to up-to-date drug information. 86% and 88% of prescribers note cost of drugs and stick to standard treatment guidelines of Ethiopia during prescription, respectively. All drug dispensers check the name of the drug (100%, age of the patient (90%, the dosage form of drug (96.7%, the route of administration (90%, the duration of therapy (86.7%, and frequency of administration (86.7% for prescription papers. Conclusion: In general, drug utilization at the study sites was found to be good, although there are major deviations from the concept of rational drug use. Keywords: drug utilizations, rational drug use, health facilities

  16. HUMAN RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PAWN IN SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, Marin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a strategy by which people seek ways to economic development, benefiting also from the local environment or to benefit quality of life. Aim of this paper is to highlight that each county has different sustainable development opportunities, according to demographic and economic potential. These opportunities exist for each urban area in part due to each Region.Starting from the idea accepted worldwide through sustainable development that seeks interaction and compatibility of four systems: human (social economic, environmental (for environmental or ecological and technology, we considered an analysis of human resources in the South-West Oltenia Region. Rresearch methods used consist of systemic analysis, comparative and comprehensive approach to the topic investigated, depending on the target. This research is based on different databases, and uses various methods in an attempt to provide an explanation of the issues that are, theoretically speaking, persuasive. Research results are to highlight the employment rate in the South region West Oltenia, the programs used by authorities to reduce unemployment and to identify any tracks to revive the labor market in this region.

  17. LABOUR MARKET INSERTION OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA DEVELOPMENT REGION

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    MARIANA BĂLAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For young people, the transition from education to employment is an important process. This process can varysignificantly among different countries and national systems depending on the duration and nature of the transition, thelevel and persistence of youth unemployment, on the types of jobs and contracts obtained by young people.Young people’s decision to either enter the labor market and become economically active or to further theireducation depends on many factors including: their motivation to continue studying, the financial means at their disposal,cultural motivation, the general socio-economic context and labor market situation.In Romania, in the last decade, employment rate for young people decreased; in 2011 it reached 23.8% (4.9percentage points less than in 2000, and 1 percentage point lower compared to 2008 . Analysis of youth employment ratesby region shows significant regional discrepancies. The economic downturn has resulted in a more pronounced reductionin the employment rate of young women compared to same age men.This paper presents a brief characterization of the labor market in South-West Oltenia Region compared to thelabor market in other Romanian regions. Key indicators of youth labor market in South-West Oltenia Region andemployment rates, unemployment rates by residence and sex disparities are also analyzed.

  18. Analysis of Restrictive Environments in the South-West Oltenia Development Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Matei Cocheci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Restrictive environments can be defined as an area within a territorial system where development is constrained either by natural factors or anthropogenic factors. This paper aims to identify restrictive environments through multi-criteria analysis of Romania’s South West Oltenia development region, known for its issues regarding open-pit mining, desertification or flood risk. In order to achieve this, I proposed a typology of restrictive environments, based on an extensive literature review of natural and anthropogenic factors that can limit development. For each of the ten environmental restrictiveness types identified, several criteria were proposed, which were then weighted as a result of a questionnaire addressed to experts in the field of territorial planning. Based on the questionnaire results, an index of environmental restrictiveness is computed at LAU 2 level for the entire South-West Oltenia development region. The territorialized index highlights the environmental restrictiveness of areas susceptible to flood risk (e.g. along the Jiu valley, but also the problems faced by mining areas (Motru-Rovinari or isolated mountain areas. The computed index represents a first step towards the definition of potential inter-communal cooperation structures, that could become the object of territorial planning instruments aimed at mitigating restrictive environments.

  19. Water Qualitative Parameters of Fluviatile Limans Located in the South - West of Dobrogea (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ROMANESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The fluviatile limans in the south-west of Dobrogea are the most characteristic forms of this type, with an exclusive development on the territory of Romania. In time, they were interpreted as fluvio-maritime limans or even as fluvio-lacustrine limans. As a result of the fact that they are situated close to the Danube, bordering one of the driest regions of Romania, they have had diverse usage since ancient times. Because the fluviatile limans in Dobrogea are mostly used in pisciculture, the water qualitative parameters have to be monitored permanently. They also have a role in attenuating floods, acting as a tampon against flash floods. Consequently, they have a special local importance even today, feeding as much of the population as possible (directly or indirectly. From a geomorphological point of view the fluviatile limans in Dobogea were formed as a result of the withdrawal of the Romanian (Levantine. The decrease in depth may cause the flood waves to pass over the dams. In this case, the periodical drainage of lake cuvettes is required. The physical parameters of water (depth, transparency and temperature as well as the chemical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates and the Ca/Mg ratio have been analyzed. From an ecological viewpoint, the fluviatile limans in the south-west of Dobrogea are suitable for fish breeding and for developing an adequate lacustrine life.

  20. Supply Chain of Organic Salak Pondoh (Salacca zalacca var.pondoh in Pagar Alam City- South Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herfiani Rizkia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a continued research of sertification of Salak var. Pondoh in Pagar Alam. This aim of this study is to get informations about characteristic and condition of organik Salak var. pondoh supply chain in Pagar Alam City, South Sumatera. In year 2012, the Sertification organic agencies (LSO of West Sumatera have delivered organic sertification to about 5 ha land area of Salak var pondoh of Dempo’s farmer group. Since that time, the production of an organic Salak pondoh in Pagar Alam city increased every year, from 1.27ton per year in 2011 become 1.42 ton per year in 2013 for every 0.25 Ha of  land area. The price of organic salak var. Pondoh Pagar Alam ranged from IDR 5000 until IDR 12000 at level of farmer and from 10000 until IDR 15000 in level of consumers. The actor in Supply chain of organic Salak var.pondoh in Pagar Alam, covering : farmer,  group of farmer, distributor, and or outlet (a place of bussiness for retailing salak, and retailer/domestic consumers. The activities along the supply chain of Salak var. Pondoh in Pagar Alam covering : harvesting, collecting and shelters of harvest, cleaning, sortation, grading and distribution.

  1. Tropospheric ozone production related to West African city emissions during the 2006 wet season AMMA campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ancellet

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available During the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA airborne measurements of ozone, CO and nitrogen oxides by the French and German falcon aircraft took place near three cities in West Africa (Cotonou, Niamey and Ouagadougou. Significant ozone production (O3 increase of 40–50 ppbv took place during two specific events: one near Cotonou on the coast of the Guinea Gulf, and the other near Niamey in the Sahel region. In both cases a high level of NOx (>3 ppbv is related to the ozone production. The ozone production is mainly driven by the Lagos-Cotonou anthropogenic emissions in Cotonou. In Niamey the combined effect of advection of VOC emissions from the forest and stagnation over the city area and the poorly vegetated soils recently wetted by convected systems is needed to achieve a similar level of ozone precursors. In Ouagadougou no ozone plume is found because of the absence of a pause in the convective activity and of the larger vegetated area around the city which prevented ozone plume formation during the wet season.

    To discuss the ozone increase near Cotonou two different approaches have been implemented: a FLEXPART simulation to quantify the probability of transport from the SH compared to air mass stagnation over the emission area and a simulation of the BOLAM mesoscale model with two different tracers for the anthropogenic emission (RETRO inventory for 2000 and the biomass burning. The BOLAM model shows a good agreement with the meteorological observations of the aircraft and allows to identify the key influence of the anthropogenic emissions in the first 3 km while the biomass burning plume remains above this altitude.

    The day to day variability of the ozone and CO in Niamey and Ouagadougou is discussed using FLEXPART simulations of the air mass stagnation in the 12° N–14° N latitude band and northward advection of air masses from the vegetated areas influenced by the biogenic

  2. Present and Historical Climate Variability and its Ecological Impact on Vegetation in South West England

    Science.gov (United States)

    (Sasha) Kosanic, Aleksandra; Harrison, Stephan; Anderson, Karen; Turkington, Thea

    2014-05-01

    West Cornwall is the most south westerly part of the United Kingdom with a strong maritime climate. This study analyses the earliest archived instrumental meteorological records collected in West Cornwall (SW England). Records were obtained from the Met Office archive (Camborne 1957-2010; Culdrose 1985-2011), Trengwainton Garden (1940-2010), and from the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, data for Falmouth (1880-1952) and Helston (1843-1888). Homogeneity tests were used (Levene and Brown-Forsythe tests) to exclude any trends not related to climate variability. The data exhibit trends in annual mean and maximum temperatures over the timescales analysed, and show a general temperature increase in the 20th and 21st century. Annual and seasonal temperature changes are found to vary locally with strongly positive trends in autumn, spring and summer seasons. Trends in precipitation are positive only for the 19th century and only for one station. Correlation with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index shows negative results for precipitation data. However correlation with the NAO index is positive with temperature, especially in the winter season. Return period analysis showed a decrease in intensity and frequency of extreme precipitation events in the post-1975 period (Camborne and Trengwainton Garden stations). Climate change in the 20th century, and future continued warming is likely to have major implications on biodiversity in this region. The second part of this research analyses changes in the geographical distribution of plant species over West Cornwall using herbarium and current vegetation records. Also we examine whether Ellenberg values could be used as an environmental change indicator. This research will clearly contribute to a better identification of the climate change impact in West Cornwall, but will also benefit policy developing strategies to identify areas at risk of climate impacts at the regional and local scale.

  3. The heritage of the people : cultural mapping of an art community on Braga Street, Bandung city, West Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiani, Vitra

    2015-01-01

    Braga Street is a culturally significant place in Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. Dubbed the ‘Parijs van Java’, Braga Street enjoyed a reputation for exclusivity, luxury, and prestige in the 1920’s. Traders such as Fuchs en Rens Dutch transportation suppliers including the Mercedes brand of cars, packed the shop fronts of Braga Street, attracting a vibrant streetscape unparalleled in all of Indie (i.e. Indonesia). Dominated by the art deco style architecture prevalent around the 1920s...

  4. Bufotenine - A Hallucinogen in Ancient Snuff Powders of South America and a Drug of Abuse on the Streets of New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamakura, R P

    1994-06-01

    Bufotenine, an isomer of psilocin, is a controlled Schedule I hallucinogenic substance under the New York state and Federal laws. Bufotenine was identified in 42 case samples received at the New York City Police Laboratory since May 1992. The samples were hard, resinous, dark reddish-brown material, sold on the streets as "hashish". A few other cases were also seized in Orlando and Tampa, FL. Natural sources of bufotenine are: (a) plant material, mostly seeds of the genus Anadenanthera (formerly Piptadenia); (b) plant organs of other genera; (c) toads (Bufo marinus, B. vulgaris, B. viridian, and B. avarice); and (d) mushrooms (Amanita amp, A. Citrina, A. Porphyria, and A. tomentella). The genus Anadenanthera is native to South America and West Indies. Historically, material made from seeds of genus Anadenanthera was, and in isolated areas is still, used by the native Indians of South America and West Indies. Native Indians make intoxicating snuffs from the seeds of Anadenanthera. Recently, bufotenine was identified in 1,200-year-old archaeological samples of an Anadenanthera material found in an excavated tomb in Northern Chile. Historical and published literature on the pharmacology, toxicology, and biological effects of bufotenine and bufotenine-containing material are reviewed. The case material was probably derived from the seeds of genus Andenanthera. There were no prior reported cases of this material being used outside the native Indian areas of South America and West Indies. Indications are that in New York City this material is smoked in combination with marijuana. Bufotenine in case material can be identified by color test, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Though the mass spectra of bufotenine and psilocin (parent compounds and mono-acetyl and di-acetyl derivatives) are very similar, their GC retention times are different. Case samples also gave multiple GC peaks, probably due to the added ingredients during the

  5. Patients’ Knowledge about Causes and Solutions of Infertility in South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olukunmi ‘Lanre OLAITAN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility inability to conceive after exposure to continuous unprotected sex for twelve months, is a major cause of marriage conflict in south west Nigeria. Knowledge of causes and solutions to infertility among selected patients were assessed in 18 hospital/fertility centre across the 6 states in south west geo-political zone of Nigeria. Aims and objectives: To assess the knowledge of patients about causes and solutions to infertility in south west Nigeria. Methods/study Design: A survey of a consecutive sample of 390 cases of infertility were carried out in 18 hospital/fertility centers with a total of 65 cases of infertility evaluated in each of the 6 States centers between 2009 – 2012. Chi-square statistics was employed to test the hypotheses formulated at α=0.05 level of significance. Results/Findings: The knowledge of causes and solutions to infertility in the patients were established in all the States; (Lagos, Ogun, Oyo, Osun, Ondo and Ekiti. The commonest causes of infertility among these patients were, RTIs, damaged fallopian tubes, anovulation, poor semen analysis, distorted uterus. Low libido, previous use of IUCDs and uterine fibroids representing 81%, 70%, 68.7%, 65.9%, 65.9%, 65.7%, 65.3% and 62% respectively. The least common causes were taking of psychoactive drugs and working in hot condition/wearing of tight underclothing which was seen in 33.7% and 38.5% of the patients respectively. The patients also have knowledge about solutions of infertility in this order, that ART, regular sexual intercourse, taking hormonal drugs, antibiotics of choice, multivitamins and surgical removal of fibroids as follows; 72.3%, 69.2% 69%, 66.9%, 65.4% and 64.6% respectively. However, the least common solutions according to the patients are seen thus; engaging in varieties of sexual styles/positions, adoption of a child, corrective tubal surgery and wearing of loose/free underclothing representing 25.1%, 33.6%, 33.8% and 35

  6. 33 CFR 334.670 - Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing practice range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.670 Gulf of Mexico south and west...

  7. The Impact of Physical Facilities on Students' Level of Motivation and Academic Performance in Senior Secondary Schools in South West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akomolafe, Comfort Olufunke; Adesua, Veronica Olubunmi

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the relevance of physical facilities in enhancing the level of motivation and the academic performance of senior secondary school students in South West Nigeria. The study adopted ex-post facto design. The population consists of all senior secondary students in South West Nigeria. The sample for the study include one thousand…

  8. APTI of Some Selected Plants in Shivamogga City, South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Adamsab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organism or damage the environment. The study examined air pollution indices (APTI of fourteen plant species around Shivamogga city of Karnataka State India . Four physiological and biochemical parameters, leaf relative water content (RWC , ascorbic acid (AA, total leaf chlorophyll (TCH, and leaf extract PH were used to compute the APTI values. The result showed that combining variety of these parameters gave more reliable result than those of individual parameter. The order of tolerance is as follows: Azadirachta indica, (37.74, Mangifera indica (28.4, Eucalyptus mysoresins (27.93, Carica papaya (24.62, Ricinus communis (22.46, Polvalthia longifolia (20.76, Calotropis gigantean (19.84, Nerium indicum (18.49, Psidium guajava (17.51, Parthenium hysterophorus (14.91, Bougainvillea glabra (13.35, Muntingia calabura (11.68, Terminalia cattapa (10.71 and Tamarindus indica (9.12.

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF EVOLUTION OF TOURIST ARRIVALS IN SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA DURING THE LAST DECADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN ZAHARIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the decades that have passed since the overthrow of the communist regimes in Eastern European countries, tourism has been influenced by a number of factors that have affected different regions and counties of Romania. Opening the borders has led both to an increase in departures of Romanian citizens to other countries and increasing flow of foreign tourists arriving in Romania. The same time, economic restructuring and increasing unemployment, in some periods and regions has resulted in significant fluctuations in household income with direct impact on Romanian and foreign tourist flows especially on the business tourism. South-West Oltenia region has not been spared from such events, their implications on tourism industry, in some counties, being particularly strong. Even if periods of decline were followed by increases in tourist arrivals in this region the intensity of these flows is still below the level in the early years of the 9th decade of the millennium XX.

  10. An LCA of WA's south west interconnected electricity grid year ending 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron Cottrell; Jason Nunn; Louis Wibberley

    2006-03-15

    The LCA has been carried out to quantify the environmental impacts of power generation, transmission and distribution in Western Australia. This report is part of a series of life cycle analysis (LCA) studies of the Australian State electricity grids which are being undertaken to provide benchmarks for future studies. The present study covers only the South West Interconnected System (SWIS), which accounts for approximately 55% of the total power generated in Western Australia, the remainder being generated by captive power plants. The study aims to provide a more detailed study than in previous reports, which tend to focus only on greenhouse gas emissions, and includes several other key performance indicators - resource energy and fresh water consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, NOx, SOx, particulates and solid waste emissions. Also included is the range of substances reported for the SWIS from the National Pollutant Inventory (NPI) database.

  11. Marriage, intimacy and risk of HIV infection in south west Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agol, Dorice; Bukenya, Dominic; Seeley, Janet; Kabunga, Elazabeth; Katahoire, Anne

    2014-12-01

    Long-term, monogamous, relationships are often portrayed as protective in HIV prevention campaigns. Focusing on marriage in a community in south west Uganda, we examine why and how people enter long term relationships, what their expectations are and what factors sustain those relationships. Qualitative data were collected using in-depth interviews with 50 men and women randomly selected from a General Population Cohort. The results showed that managing expectations to sustain marriage is challenging; however the socio-economic and cultural benefits of marriage: having children, property acquisition as well as securing societal status tend to overshadow the costs associated with risks from infidelity such as sexually transmitted infections (including HIV). Recognising the compromises that couples may make to sustain their marriage is an important step towards acknowledging that 'being faithful' may be about staying together and showing commitment, not sexual exclusivity.

  12. Oral and dental health status of elderly in south and west Jakarta, Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janti Sudiono

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To know elderly oral and dental health status. Methods: The population (n = 202) was elderly from Government Health Center in South and West Jakarta. Oral and dental health examina-tion based on oral hygiene index simplified (OHI-S), decay, missing, filling teeth (DMFT) index, the pres-ence of periodontal and oral mucous lesions, mastication function that was considered by anamnesis, mobility and number lost of maxillary teeth, and occlusion contact. Results: Most respondents had caries lesions (84%), denture prosthesis needs (97%), periodontal lesions (79%), mastication dysfunction (51%), sublingual varicosities (52%), and a small number of oral mucous denture related lesions. Conclusion: Man-y cases needed promotion, curative, and rehabilitative treatments; therefore it was suggested to encourage oral and dental health care education as a part of general health care promotion to increase the quality of elderly health care service with the considerations of social and economy aspects.

  13. Performance and productivity changes in microfinance banks in South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa A. Olasupo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian Microfinance sub-sector is yet to attain the desired level of global best practice. This paper thus investigated the performance and productivity changes of MFBs in South-West Nigeria, from 2006 to 2010, having had the Microfinance Policy launched in 200. From the use of relevant accounting ratios, the study revealed that only 16% of the sampled MFBs met the recommended maximum PAR value of 5% in 200. It was also revealed that 31% of the sampled MFBs reported a debt/equity ratio above the recommended value of 2 in 2006, while 32% had gearing of over 2 in 2010. The Malmquist productivity index revealed that the MFBs experienced fluctuating performances in their productivity changes, with pure technical efficiency improvements in 2007 and 2009. Overall, the performance and productivity changes experienced by the MFBs depicted a sub-sector with huge potentials and hence require nurturing to achieve its goals.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors associated with drug resistant TB in South West, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olusoji Daniel; Eltayeb Osman

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with drug resistant tuberculosis(TB) in South West Nigeria.Methods: A retrospective study conducted among pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients from Oyo and Osun States in South West Nigeria who had their culture and drug susceptibility test performed at the institute of tropical medicine Antwerp, Belgium between2007 and2009. Data on the patient’s characteristics were retrieved from the TB treatment card. Univariate analysis was performed to assess the risk factors for drug resistant tuberculosis. The Level of significance was atP<0.05.Results:Among the88 patients who had drug-susceptibility test result, there were50 males and38 females. Of the88patients,55 (62.5%) had strains resistant to at least one or more anti-drugs. The proportion ofTBcases with resistance to a single drug was12.7%. The multi-drug resistantTB (MDR-TB) rate was76.4%. The only significant factor for the development of drug resistance andMDR was the history of previous anti TB treatment (P<0.01). Other factors such as age[OR 0.86 (0.35-2.13);P=0.72] and gender[OR 1.24 (0.49-3.14);P=0.62] were not significantly associated with drug resistanceTB.Conclusions: The study highlighted a high prevalence ofMDR-TBamong the study population. History of previous TB treatment was associated withMDR-TB. There is an urgent need to conduct a nationalTB drug resistance survey to determine the actual burden and risk factors associated with drug resistance TB in the country.

  15. Pathology of fatal lineage 1 and 2 West Nile virus infections in horses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June H. Williams

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, West Nile virus (WNV has been reported in South African horses, causing severe neurological signs. All cases were of lineage 2, except for one case that clustered with lineage 1 viruses. In the present study, gross and microscopic lesions of six South African lineage 2-infected horses and the one lineage 1 case are described. Diagnoses were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of central nervous system (CNS tissue and one by RT-PCR of a brain virus isolate. The CNS of all cases was negative by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry (IHC for African horse sickness (AHS, equine encephalosis virus, equine herpes viruses 1 and 4, other zoonotic flaviviruses, alphaviruses, and shunivirus, and either by immunofluorescence or IHC for rabies. Gross visceral lesions were nonspecific but often mimicked those of AHS. The CNS histopathology of WNV lineage 2 cases resembled the nonsuppurative polioencephalomyelitis reported in the Northern Hemisphere lineage 1 and recent Hungarian lineage 2 cases. Occasional meningitis, focal spinal ventral horn poliomalacia, dorsal and lateral horn poliomyelitis, leucomyelitis, asymmetrical ventral motor spinal neuritis and frequent olfactory region involvement were also seen. Lineage 2 cases displayed marked variations in CNS lesion severity, type and distribution, and suggested various viral entry routes into the CNS, based on findings in experimental mice and hamsters. Lineage 1 lesions were comparable to the milder lineage 2 cases. West Nile virus IHC on CNS sections with marked lesions from all cases elicited only two antigen-positive cells in the olfactory cortex of one case. The presence in the CNS of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophage-monocytes was confirmed by cluster of differentiation (CD 3, CD20, multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1 and macrophage (MAC 387 IHC.

  16. Malignancy in scleroderma patients from south west England: a population-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siau, Keith

    2010-01-08

    The pathophysiological relationship between scleroderma and malignancy remains poorly understood. Although some previous studies have demonstrated an increased malignancy risk in patients with scleroderma, others have been inconclusive. We aimed to determine if patients with scleroderma had an increased risk of malignancy compared to an age- and sex-matched local South West England population, and if there were any important differences between scleroderma patients with and without malignancy. Methods of this study are as follows. Notes were obtained on all local scleroderma patients (n = 68) locally, and those diagnosed with malignancy verified by contacting each patient\\'s general practitioner. Expected malignancy figures were obtained from age- and sex-stratified regional prevalence data provided by the South West Cancer Intelligence Service registry. Among the patients, 22.1% with scleroderma were identified with concurrent malignancy. Affected sites were of the breast (n = 5), haematological system (n = 5), skin (n = 4), and unknown primary (n = 1). Overall, malignancy risk was found to be increased in scleroderma (RR = 3.15, 95% CI 1.77-5.20, p = 0.01). In particular, this risk was the highest for haematological malignancies (RR = 18.5, 95% CI 6-43, p = 0.03), especially for non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma (RR = 25.8, 95% CI 5-75, p = 0.10). The majority of patients (86.7%) developed malignancy after the onset of scleroderma (mean = 6.9 years). Age of >70 and patients with limited scleroderma were significant risk factors for a patient with scleroderma to have a concurrent malignancy; however, no increased risk was found in patients with any particular pattern of organ involvement, cytotoxic usage or serology. To conclude, in this small patient cohort, we have found that scleroderma is associated with an increased risk of malignancy. This risk is statistically significant in patients with limited scleroderma. Patients who are elderly and those with limited disease

  17. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Household Waste Segregation in Kuching South City, Sarawak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tunmise A. Otitoju; Lau Seng

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is faced with daunting challenges relating to household waste segregation. Due to an increase in population, economic growth, enforcement, infrastructure, public attitude, awareness and participation among others, source segregation is considered a crucial issue in Malaysia, particularly in urban settings. This paper presents the key findings of the quantitative (questionnaire) survey administered among 235 households in Kuching South City and qualitative (interview) survey with the ...

  18. The relationship between risk perceptions and responses in disaster-prone cities of the Global South

    OpenAIRE

    Sou, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    This research takes a social constructivist approach to investigate the relationship between people’s perceptions of disaster risk and their responses in disaster-prone cities of the Global South. This is important because the effects of risk perceptions on the ways that people respond to disaster risk remains unclear and has been labelled ‘weak’ within the disaster studies literature. Furthermore, this lack of clarity has contributed to the marginalisation of people at risk from contributing...

  19. Flood Insurance Study, City of South Salt Lake, Utah, Salt Lake County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1994-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of South Salt Lake, Salt Lake County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood...

  20. Exploration of drought evolution using numerical simulations over the Xijiang (West River) basin in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jun; Chen, Ji; Sun, Liqun

    2015-07-01

    The knowledge of drought evolution characteristics may aid the decision making process in mitigating drought impacts. This study uses a macro-scale hydrological model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, to simulate terrestrial hydrological processes over the Xijiang (West River) basin in South China. Three drought indices, namely standardized precipitation index (SPI), standardized runoff index (SRI), and soil moisture anomaly index (SMAI), are employed to examine the spatio-temporal and evolution features of drought events. SPI, SRI and SMAI represent meteorological drought, hydrological drought and agricultural drought, respectively. The results reveal that the drought severity depicted by SPI and SRI is similar with increasing timescales; SRI is close to that of SPI in the wet season for the Liu River basin as the high-frequency precipitation is conserved more by runoff; the time lags appear between SPI and SRI due to the delay response of runoff to precipitation variability for the You River basin. The case study in 2010 spring drought further shows that the spatio-temporal evolutions are modulated by the basin-scale topography. There is more consistency between meteorological and hydrological droughts for the fan-like basin with a converged river network. For the west area of the Xijiang basin with the high elevation, the hydrological drought severity is less than meteorological drought during the developing stage. The recovery of hydrological and agricultural droughts is slower than that of meteorological drought for basins with a longer mainstream.

  1. Spatial variability in phytoplankton community structure along the eastern Arabian Sea during the onset of south-west monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ahmed, A.; Kurian, S.; Gauns, M.; ChndrasekharaRao, A.V.; Mulla, A.; Naik, B.; Naik, H.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    version: Cont. Shelf Res., vol.119; 2016; 30-39 Spatial variability in phytoplankton community structure along the eastern Arabian Sea during the onset of south-west monsoon Ayaz Ahmed, Siby Kurian, Mangesh Gauns*, Chndrasekhararao A.V, Amara Mulla...

  2. The Use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in Decision Making in the South-West Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, I. A.; Omirin, Fadekemi F.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in decision-making on long-term planning, short-term planning and budgeting in the South-West Nigerian Universities. The study used the descriptive research design of the survey type. Data were collected from a sample of 600 subjects consisting of 400 academic staff holding…

  3. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Household Waste Segregation in Kuching South City, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunmise A. Otitoju

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is faced with daunting challenges relating to household waste segregation. Due to an increase in population, economic growth, enforcement, infrastructure, public attitude, awareness and participation among others, source segregation is considered a crucial issue in Malaysia, particularly in urban settings. This paper presents the key findings of the quantitative (questionnaire survey administered among 235 households in Kuching South City and qualitative (interview survey with the Natural Resource & Environmental Board (NREB and Kuching South City Council. This survey attempts to identify the limiting and motivating factors on the part of households to waste segregation. The result shows that age, sex, race and education is insignificant towards waste segregation. The result also shows a significant difference between waste segregators and non-waste separators on their level of perception towards implementation of laws for source segregation. Result also shows that the ease of access to facilities and the methods of collection are the major limiting factors preventing households from waste segregation in Kuching South City.

  4. Asian dust effect on cause-specific mortality in five cities across South Korea and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Bae, Sanghyuk; Honda, Yasushi; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    Desert dust is considered to be potentially toxic and its toxicity may change during long-range transportation. In Asian countries, the health effects of desert dust in different locations are not well understood. We therefore evaluated the city-combined and city-specific effects of Asian dust events on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in five populous cities in South Korea (Seoul) and Japan (Nagasaki, Matsue, Osaka and Tokyo). We obtained daily mean concentrations of Asian dust using light detection and ranging (lidar) between 2005 and 2011. We then evaluated city-specific and pooled associations of Asian dust with daily mortality for elderly residents (≥65 years old) using time-series analyses. Each 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of same-day (lag 0) or previous-day (lag 1) Asian dust was significantly associated with an elevated pooled risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk (RR): 1.003 [95% CI: 1.001-1.005] at lag 0 and 1.001 [95% CI: 1.000-1.003] at lag 1) and cerebrovascular disease (RR: 1.006 [95% CI: 1.000-1.011] at lag 1). This association was especially apparent in Seoul and western Japan (Nagasaki and Matsue). Conversely, no significant associations were observed in Tokyo, which is situated further from the origin of Asian dust and experiences low mean concentrations of Asian dust. Adverse health effects on all-cause and cerebrovascular disease mortality were observed in South Korea and Japan. However, the effects of Asian dust differed across the cities and adverse effects were more apparent in cities closer to Asian dust sources.

  5. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The pollution by atmospheric aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is still presenting issues that require deeper studies. Because of geographical factors, most of the MAMC features, on average, very similar characteristics. These include height above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, resulting in very uniform pollution levels in most of the traditionally studied sites. A site with different characteristics with respect to them, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was selected for the present work. It is located to the West of the MAMC at 2,760 m above sea level (a.s.l.), in contrast to other sites (2,240 m a.s.I); sub-humid area with lush vegetation, influenced by the forest of the 'Desierto de los Leones' National Park. Here, the wind for most part of the day is directed towards the center of the MAMC, joining flows that run from North to South. This prevents the site from receiving influence of pollutants generated in the Northern industrial zone, Xalostoc or Naucalpan. Thus, it is expected that this area should present lower concentration of pollutants than the rest of the MAMC. Therefore, the present work is aimed to study the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1st , 2004, to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were then analyzed with PIXE and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLlT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found for the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry, and biomass

  6. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J., E-mail: raul.diaz@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: jose.lopezm@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear Nabor Carrillo, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Miranda, J.; Espinosa, A.A., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx, E-mail: albertoe@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The pollution by atmospheric aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is still presenting issues that require deeper studies. Because of geographical factors, most of the MAMC features, on average, very similar characteristics. These include height above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, resulting in very uniform pollution levels in most of the traditionally studied sites. A site with different characteristics with respect to them, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was selected for the present work. It is located to the West of the MAMC at 2,760 m above sea level (a.s.l.), in contrast to other sites (2,240 m a.s.I); sub-humid area with lush vegetation, influenced by the forest of the 'Desierto de los Leones' National Park. Here, the wind for most part of the day is directed towards the center of the MAMC, joining flows that run from North to South. This prevents the site from receiving influence of pollutants generated in the Northern industrial zone, Xalostoc or Naucalpan. Thus, it is expected that this area should present lower concentration of pollutants than the rest of the MAMC. Therefore, the present work is aimed to study the elemental composition of coarse (PM{sub 10-}2{sub .5}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1{sup st} , 2004, to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were then analyzed with PIXE and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLlT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found for the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil

  7. An Exciting Time for Steel City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Panzhihua, in south Sichuan’s basin, is aptly called West China’s Industrial Pearl, and "treasure bowl." This city is well known as the home of Panzhihua Iron and Steel Group Company and Ertan Hydropower Station. At the beginning of 2004, two major events thrust this city into the limelight.

  8. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Spickett

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.

  9. Dependence between sea surge, river flow and precipitation in south and west Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Svensson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries around Great Britain may be at heightened risk of flooding because of the simultaneous occurrence of extreme sea surge and river flow, both of which may be caused by mid-latitude cyclones. A measure especially suited for extremes was employed to estimate dependence between river flow and sea surge. To assist in the interpretation of why flow-surge dependence occurs in some areas and not in others, the dependence between precipitation and surge and between precipitation and river flow was also studied. Case studies of the meteorological situations leading to high surges and/or river flows were also carried out. The present study concerns catchments draining to the south and west coasts of Great Britain. Statistically significant dependence between river flow and daily maximum sea surge may be found at catchments spread along most of this coastline. However, higher dependence is generally found in catchments in hilly areas with a southerly to westerly aspect. Here, precipitation in south-westerly airflow, which is generally the quadrant of prevailing winds, will be enhanced orographically as the first higher ground is encountered. The sloping catchments may respond quickly to the abundant rainfall and the flow peak may arrive in the estuary on the same day as a large sea surge is produced by the winds and low atmospheric pressure associated with the cyclone. There are three regions where flow-surge dependence is strong: the western part of the English south coast, southern Wales and around the Solway Firth. To reduce the influence of tide-surge interaction on the dependence analysis, the dependence between river flow and daily maximum surge occurring at high tide was estimated. The general pattern of areas with higher dependence is similar to that using the daily maximum surge. The dependence between river flow and daily maximum sea surge is often strongest when surge and flow occur on the same day. The west coast from Wales and

  10. Characteristics of Droughts in South Africa: A Case Study of Free State and North West Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Botai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Free State (FS and North West (NW Provinces are often hard hit by droughts with impacts on water availability, farm production and livestock holdings. The South African government declared the two Provinces drought disaster areas in the 2015/2016 hydrological year. This is a major drawback, since both the Provinces play an important role to South African economy as they are a haven to agricultural production and have major water reservoirs in South Africa. This study was undertaken to investigate the historical evolution of drought within the FS and NW Provinces over the past 30 years. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI calculated based on monthly meteorological data from 14 weather/climate stations within the FS and NW Provinces were used to explore and characterize variation in drought intensity, duration, frequency and severity in FS and NW Provinces during 1985–2015. Results indicate that there exist localized positive and negative trends with spatial dependence across the selected stations. In particular, about 60% of the weather stations exhibiting a decreasing trend are located in FS Province, suggesting that FS has being experiencing increasing drought during the analyzed period compared to NW Province. Results from the analysis of drought evaluation indicators (DEIs calculated from SPEI suggest that drought severity and frequency was more pronounced in FS while the intensity of the drought was more in NW Province during 1985–2015. In addition, based on SPEI calculations, moderate drought occurrences increased during 1985–1994 and 1995–2004 periods and decreased thereafter (2005–2015 in both Provinces. Drought classification based on parameters derived from SPEI produced similar results for mild drought occurrences during the same time scales.

  11. Air Quality Bioindicator Using the Population of Epiphytic Macrolichens in Bogor City, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindita

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies about lichens and pollution in South-East Asia are restricted because the lichens are poorly known. A research project about air quality bioindicator using epiphytic macrolichens in Bogor City was conducted from March 2012 until July 2013. Purposive sampling method was applied in 3 plots: plot 1 was in the centre of Bogor Botanical Garden (BBG that far from busy roads, plot 2 was in a part of BBG adjacent to main and busy roads, and plot 3 was along busy roads and near a factory. In each plot, macrolichens were observed in 8 canary trees using 2 mini quadrats (32 x 20 cm2. The population conditions of epiphytic macrolichens were analyzed and to be used as bioindicator of air quality. Seven genera of macrolichens were found: Coccocarpia, Leptogium, Canoparmelia, Parmotrema, Dirinaria, Physcia, and Pyxine. Plot 1 was having Coccocarpia and Leptogium that were not found in other plots and therefore they can be used as sensitive bioindicators, none of Canoparmelia and Pyxine, a few and infrequent Dirinaria but with larger average coverage (AC = 6.15 cm2, and Physcia was found abundantly (sensitive bioindicator. Conversely, plot 2 and 3 were having none of Coccocarpia and Leptogium, few or many Canoparmelia and Pyxine and therefore appeared to be tolerant, many and frequent Dirinaria but with smaller AC (plot 2 = 2.85 cm2, plot 3 = 1.16 cm2, and few or none of Physcia was found. Being found in all plots, Dirinaria showed a clear pattern of increasing thallus number and decreasing AC from plot 1 to plot 3, so it can be used as tolerant bioindicator. Conversely, Parmotrema had unclear pattern of population condition. Similar researches on different trees are necessary to explore more details regarding epiphytic macrolichens population condition.

  12. Soils and cultural layers of ancient cities in the south of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrovskii, A. L.; Aleksandrovskaya, E. I.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Zamotaev, I. V.; Kurbatova, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    Antique cities in the south of European Russia are characterized by a considerable thickness of their cultural layers (urbosediments) accumulated as construction debris and household wastes. Under the impact of pedogenesis and weathering in dry climate of the steppe zone, these sediments have acquired the features of loesslike low-humus calcareous and alkaline deposits. They are also enriched in many elements (P, Zn, Ca, Cu, Pb, As) related to the diverse anthropogenic activities. The soils developed from such urbosediments can be classified as urbanozems (Urban Technosols), whereas chernozems close to their zonal analogues have developed in the surface layer of sediments covering long-abandoned ancient cities. Similar characteristics have been found for the soils of the medieval and more recent cities in the studied region. Maximum concentrations of the pollutants are locally found in the antique and medieval urbosediments enriched in dyes, handicrafts from nonferrous metals, and other artifacts. Surface soils of ancient cities inherit the properties and composition of the cultural layer. Even in chernozems that developed under steppe vegetation on the surface of the abandoned antique cities of Phanagoria and Tanais for about 1000—1500 years, the concentrations of copper, zinc, and calcium carbonates remain high. Extremely high phosphorus concentrations in these soils should be noted. This is related to the stability of calcium phosphates from animal bones that are abundant in the cultural layer acting as parent material for surface soils.

  13. Endoparasites of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslen Fabricio Pires Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of studying the endoparasite fauna of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, 25 animals that were naturally infected with helminths were evaluated. By means of parasitological necropsies, different endoparasites were found. The subfamily Cyathostominae presented the highest incidence, followed by Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Triodontophorus serratus, Strongyloides westeri, Strongylus edentatus, Habronema muscae, Parascaris equorum, Probstmayria vivipara, Strongylus vulgaris, Gasterophilus nasalis, Anoplocephala magna and Anoplocephala perfoliata. In the present study, if the species Probstmayria vivipara was not considered in the prevalence, the frequency of Cyathostominae was equivalent to 94.85%. The results obtained in this study allowed us to detect and identify different species of helminths in horses, and confirmed the high incidence of nematodes belonging to the subfamily Cyathostominae in the center-west region of Minas Gerais.

  14. Natural radionuclides by gammaspectrometry in region of West-south Serbia, for 1998, 1997 and 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Region of West Serbia, known as Uzicki region, as a agriculture and industry region, with cities: Uzice, Cacak, Kraljevo and Valjevo is important part of Yugoslavia for development. Radioactivity comes mostly from natural radionuclides and partly from long-lived radionuclides from non natural sources as a consequence of Chernobyl accident. Monitoring of environment has proceeded by vertical methodology. We analyzed: aerosol, soil, fallout (wet and dry deposition), rivers, lakes, drinking water, human and animal food. Results from analyze of samples of environment contains very low activity, actually activity of changes of basic signal. Results for 1998, 1997 and 1996 are: 1. Gamma dose was measure in Belgrade with median years values: 0.103 μG/h (1998), 0.077 μG/h (1997) and 0.0722 μG/h (1996). 2. By gammaspectrometry analyze of air of months samples for each year, results shows activity of changes of basic signal. The signals are coming from natural radionuclides. 3. 137Cs, as a long lived radionuclide, with remarkable activity in soil analyzed from Zlatibor and result are :32.3-173 Bq/kg (1998), -Bq/kg (1997) and 33-122.7 Bq/kg (1996). 4. Activity in the rivers for these region not analyzed. 5. Activity of drinking waters, from city network shows low level of activity which comes from 40K, for both places. 6. Activity in human food, measured in yogurt, meats, bread and agricultural products comes from 40K Uzice 32.4-168 Bq/kg (1998), Bq/kg (1997) and 55.2-164 Bq/kg (1996). Activities of 137Cs are 1 Bq/kg. Results of analyze of animal food shows same results. The samples were collected according to methods determined by the Regulations. (author)

  15. Habitat selection of two island-associated dolphin species from the south-west Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condet, Manon; Dulau-Drouot, Violaine

    2016-08-01

    Identifying suitable habitats of protected species is an essential question in ecology and conservation planning. Modelling approaches have been widely used to identify environmental features that contribute to a species' ecological requirements and distribution. On Reunion Island, a fast-growing French territory located in the south-western Indian Ocean, anthropogenic impacts are mainly concentrated along the coast, representing a potential threat for Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins, two resident coastal species. Beside coastal development, commercial and recreational dolphin-watching are growing, particularly along the west coast. To promote effective local management, habitat modelling was applied using presence-only data collected from 2008 to 2012 on the west coast of the island. Ecological Niche Factor Analyses were used to investigate the effect of physiographic variables on the distribution of these two dolphin species and delineate suitable habitats. It was found that the core habitat of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins was mainly restricted by depth and confined to coastal waters ranging from 4.7 to 75.8 m deep. The species preferentially used soft substrates (sand and mud) and tended to be ubiquitous in terms of substrate type/color used. Foraging activities were significantly related to soft substrates. The diurnal core habitat of spinner dolphins was confined to one discrete area, on the flat portion of the insular shelf, between 45.1 m and 70.7 m of depth. Suitable habitat was mainly related to soft and light-colored substrates, with a clear avoidance of dark-colored substrates. The core habitats of both species were very restrained spatially and therefore vulnerable to human activities. The fine scale habitat mapping achieved in this study represents baseline data to conduct ad hoc impact assessment and support conservation actions.

  16. Access to healthcare resources in the cities of west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satar Rezaei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The healthcare sector is one of the most important sectors in the development of each country, and the disparities in the distribution of health resources will reduce the level of development. The aim of this study was to examine the physical accessibility and degree of development in healthcare resources in the cities of five western provinces, including Kermanshah, Kurdistan, Ilam, Lorestan and Hamadan by numerical taxonomy method in 2012. Methods: The study sample of this cross-sectional study included 51 cities of five Western provinces of Iran. The physical accessibility and degree of development of healthcare resources were evaluated by numerical taxonomy technique using 23 indicators of health resources. Data were obtained from the statistical yearbooks of provinces in 2012. The data analysis was done by Excel and Arc GIS software. Results: The cities of Kermanshah and Salas-e-Babajani had the highest (F=0.59 and lowest (F=1.07 degree of development in terms of access to healthcare resources, respectively. Also, 50% of Kermanshah cities, 40% of Kurdistan cities, 37.5% of Ilam cities, 40% of Lorestan cities and about 88.8% of Hamadan cities were found to have good and very good status in access to healthcare services.. Conclusion: This study showed a large gap between the cities of one province and among the western provinces in access to healthcare resources.

  17. Pattern of sudden death at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwusi PO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Akinwumi Oluwole Komolafe,3 Olanrewaju Olayinka Olayemi,2 Adeleye Abiodun Adeomi41Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, 2Department of Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, 3Department of Morbid Anatomy, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching, Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, 4Department of Community Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the etiology and epidemiologic characteristics of sudden death at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, South West Nigeria.Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study of all cases of natural unexpected death, either occurring out of hospital or less than 24 hours after admission to LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, over a nine-year period from January 2003 to December 2011. Data were generated from information in the case notes and autopsy reports for these cases.Results: Sudden death accounted for 29 (4.0% of 718 adult medical deaths and 1.0% of all adult medical admissions. Out-of-hospital deaths occurred in 72.4% of cases. The mean age of the patients was 46.8 ± 11.5 (range 25–74 years. The male to female ratio was 6.25:1. Cardiovascular disease were the most common cause of death (51.7%, followed by respiratory disease (20.7%, pulmonary thromboembolism (10.4%, central nervous system disease (13.8%, gastrointestinal disorders (13.8%, severe chemical/drug poisoning (13.8%, and combined cardiovascular and central nervous system disease (13.8%. Hypertension-related causes were responsible for 14/29 (48.3% of the sudden deaths. Hypertensive heart disease accounted for 86.7% of the cardiovascular deaths, hypertensive heart failure accounted for 73.3%, whilst all heart failure cases accounted for 80.0%. Left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 69.2% of the patients with hypertensive heart disease. Moderate to severe

  18. Distance, rurality and the need for care: access to health services in South West England

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    Martin David

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper explores the geographical accessibility of health services in urban and rural areas of the South West of England, comparing two measures of geographical access and characterising the areas most remote from hospitals. Straight-line distance and drive-time to the nearest general practice (GP and acute hospital (DGH were calculated for postcodes and aggregated to 1991 Census wards. The correlation between the two measures was used to identify wards where straight-line distance was not an accurate predictor of drive-time. Wards over 25 km from a DGH were classified as 'remote', and characterised in terms of rurality, deprivation, age structure and health status of the population. Results The access measures were highly correlated (r2>0.93. The greatest differences were found in coastal and rural wards of the far South West. Median straight-line distance to GPs was 1 km (IQR = 0.6–2 km and to DGHs, 12 km (IQR = 5–19 km. Deprivation and rates of premature limiting long term illness were raised in areas most distant from hospitals, but there was no evidence of higher premature mortality rates. Half of the wards remote from a DGH were not classed as rural by the Office for National Statistics. Almost a quarter of households in the wards furthest from hospitals had no car, and the proportion of households with access to two or more cars fell in the most remote areas. Conclusion Drive-time is a more accurate measure of access for peripheral and rural areas. Geographical access to health services, especially GPs, is good, but remoteness affects both rural and urban areas: studies concentrating purely on rural areas may underestimate geographical barriers to accessing health care. A sizeable minority of households still had no car in 1991, and few had more than one car, particularly in areas very close to and very distant from hospitals. Better measures of geographical access, which integrate public and private transport

  19. Characteristics of wood chip fuel demand and supply in south-west Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Y.; Sato, M.; Ijichi, S. [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima Univ., Kagoshima (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Although fossil fuel has been still important energy source in Japan, business managers who examine to sift energy source from oil to bio-fuels would increase for reducing CO{sub 2} emission and high energy cost. It would be quite reasonable choice for Japanese people to use woody biomass for energy sources but woody biomass fuel market hasn't been expanded. One of the reasons is that the Japanese timber production, processing and distribution sectors haven't considered the wood fuel production as by-product. Therefore, this study investigated a potential wood chip boiler demand in south-west Japan through a questionnaire survey for industrial sectors. Second aim is to explain the importance of management information such as a quantity of chip fuel production or distribution and a moisture content of chips from the example cases of installed chip boiler facilities. Expected facilities that would introduce a chip boiler are a hotel, a large hospital, a liquor factory and an aquaculture pool. There will be an annual wood chip fuel demand of 0.756 million green-ton (6.0 PJ) in Kagoshima Prefecture. Problems in more chip boilers introduction are a stable fuel supply and fuel moisture control in addition to the reduction of an initial and operational running cost.

  20. Terrace Agriculture of the Hani People – Cultural Heritage of the South-West China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kladovshchikova Mariya Evgenyevna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the features of terrace agriculture of Hani and Yi indigenous minorities, living in the Yunnan province in the South-West China, just a step away from the Laos and Vietnam boundaries. The cultural landscape of the Hani rice terraces, included into the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2013 (Cultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces, expresses the conservation of the minorities’ course of life during the last 1 300 years. The geological framework, climate patterns and conform type of vegetation predefine the specific character of natural conditions necessary for terrace agriculture and red rice growth – the most important crop within the region. At that, the landscape picture which fully reflects the season fluctuations of regional subtropical climate, also facilitates to aesthetic and romantic perception forming, symbolizing man-made environment integral and interlaced into natural landscape. The special focus is made on the description of terraced slopes unique morphology and ancient land cultivation technologies for the essential regional culture – red rice. Preservation of centuries-old traditions of efficient agriculture makes it possible to achieve integration of cultural and natural landscapes, that seamlessly comprises the ethnic minorities’ life, as well as to prevent development of erosion and landslide slope processes. The elements of the traditional Hani people way of life, including ritual customs associated with terrace agriculture, are particularly described.

  1. Trichinella britovi in the jackal Canis aureus from south-west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalali, H; Rezaei, S; Pozio, E; Naddaf, S R; Salahi-Moghaddam, A; Kia, E B; Shahbazi, F; Mowlavi, Gh

    2014-12-01

    Trichinellosis is an important helminthic food-borne zoonosis, which is caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Although, Trichinella spp. has been detected frequently in Iranian wildlife, this parasitic infection is not considered a major public health problem. This is largely because Islamic codes forbid consumption of pork meat in this country. However, knowledge about this zoonotic pathogen is important because human trichinellosis has been documented in countries where most of the population is Muslim. The aims of the present work were to investigate whether Trichinella spp. was still circulating in wildlife of the Khuzestan Province (south-west Iran) about 30 years after the first investigation, to identify the aetiological agent at the species level by molecular analyses, and to review the literature on Trichinella spp. in animals of Iran. During the winter 2009-2010, muscle samples from 32 road-killed animals (14 dogs and 18 jackals, Canis aureus) were collected. Muscle samples were digested and Trichinella sp. larvae were isolated from two jackals. The Trichinella sp. larvae have been identified as Trichinella britovi by molecular analyses. These results confirm that T. britovi is the prevalent species circulating in wild animals of Iran. PMID:23656910

  2. Latitudinal and seasonal variability of gravity-wave energy in the South-West Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chane-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical temperature profiles obtained by radiosonde and Raman lidar measurements are used to investigate a climatology of total energy density of gravity waves (GW in the Upper Troposphere (UT and the Lower Stratosphere (LS from 1992 to 2004 above Mahé (4° S, 55° E, Tromelin (15° S, 54° E and La Réunion (21° S, 55° E located in the tropical South-West Indian Ocean. The commonly used spectral index value (p≈5/3 of the intrinsic frequency spectrum is used for calculating estimated total energy density in the UT and LS. Estimated total energy density provides good estimation of total energy density in the LS but underestimates total energy density by one half in the UT above Mahé and Tromelin probably due to the activity of near-inertial frequency waves. Estimated total energy density reveals a strong seasonal variability as a function of latitude and convection as an evident active source of GW activity in the LS in austral summer. Above La Réunion, a semi-annual GW activity is observed in the LS with the signature of the subtropical barrier in the UT. Moreover, radiosondes and Raman lidar provide consistent GW surveys in the UT/LS at heights<23 km above La Réunion.

  3. Land use influences on acidification and recovery of freshwaters in Galloway, south-west Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Helliwell

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The long term response of surface waters to changes in sulphur deposition and afforestation is investigated for three upland river systems in the Galloway region of south-west Scotland. From 1984-1999, these rivers exhibited a statistically significant decline in non-marine sulphate concentrations in response to reduced acid deposition. This reduction in non-marine sulphate was, however, insufficient to induce a pH recovery over the period. A statistically significant increase in river pH was observed between 1956-1970 (0.05 yr-1 when subsidised agricultural lime payments were at a maximum. In 1976, this subsidy ceased and surface waters have progressively acidified. In addition, climatic change is found to influence long-term trends in pH. Mean annual pH was greatest during a dry period between 1969-1973 when total annual discharge was low. Thereafter, pH declined gradually in response to higher rainfall and increased total annual discharge. Overall, surface waters draining the afforested catchments of the Rivers Cree and Bladnoch are more acid than those draining the moorland catchment of the Luce. These results indicate that in afforested catchments, current reductions in sulphur emissions have not led to an observed improvement in the acid status of surface waters. Forestry, therefore, represents a confounding factor with regard to chemical recovery from acidification in this region. Keywords: acidification, afforestation, deposition, rivers, lochs, non-marine sulphate, pH

  4. The characteristics of the chemical flow within the Motru catchment area, southwest Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionuş, Oana

    2011-03-01

    The present paper, with reference to the Motru catchment area, contributes to the hydrochemical studies at an international level and to the completion of the characteristics regarding the chemical flow in Romania. In this regard, it emphasizes once again the dependence between the content of dissolved salts (fixed residue — mg/l) on the one hand and the lithological conditions, human activity, flow and the surface of the catchments on the other hand. The calculation and the analysis of the chemical flow for the Motru catchment area (located in the south-west of Romania) was performed on the basis of two parameters: the average flow of dissolved chemical substances (mg/s) and specific average chemical flow (t/kmp year) recorded at the monitoring stations on the Motru River and its tributaries during the period 2005-2009. The values obtained (for example: 2.63 mg/s and 47.7 t/km2 year, at the Fata Motrului station, on the Motru River, in 2009) confirm the importance of the areal factors of natural background in the analysis of chemical flow as a morpho-dynamic process and implicitly for the chemical quality of surface waters.

  5. Extreme runoff response to short-duration convective rainfall in South-West Germany

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    V. Ruiz-Villanueva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2 June 2008 flood-producing storm on the Starzel river basin in South-West Germany is examined as a prototype for organized convective systems that dominate the upper tail of the precipitation frequency distribution and are likely responsible for the flash flood peaks in this region. The availability of high-resolution rainfall estimates from radar observations and a rain gauge network, together with indirect peak discharge estimates from a detailed post-event survey, provides the opportunity to study the hydrometeorological and hydrological mechanisms associated with this extreme storm and the ensuing flood. Radar-derived rainfall, streamgauge data and indirect estimates of peak discharges are used along with a distributed hydrologic model to reconstruct hydrographs at multiple locations. The influence of storm structure, evolution and motion on the modeled flood hydrograph is examined by using the "spatial moments of catchment rainfall" (Zoccatelli et al., 2011. It is shown that downbasin storm motion had a noticeable impact on flood peak magnitude. Small runoff ratios (less than 20% characterized the runoff response. The flood response can be reasonably well reproduced with the distributed hydrological model, using high resolution rainfall observations and model parameters calibrated at a river section which includes most of the area impacted by the storm.

  6. Epidemiology of elderly patients' burns in the South West of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas, M; Sesay, M; Perro, G; Bourdarias, B; Castede, J C; Sanchez, R

    1998-03-01

    A retrospective study of 716 patients aged 60 years and above (324 men, 392 women) was undertaken in order to determine quality control in burns management in the South West of France. The following epidemiological data was obtained: high hospitalization rate (7 per cent of the general admissions); monthly and seasonal periodicity; predominance of indoor accidents (86 per cent) with domestic accidents being more frequent in women (63 vs. 37 per cent). Outdoor accidents were mainly recreational and were five times more frequent in men than in women. The overall mortality was 39 per cent and was influenced by the burns extent, depth, predisposing factors and early management. More burns occurred in urban areas (53 per cent) but mortality was higher in patients from rural areas (62 vs. 38 per cent). It was observed that delay in management, especially fluid resuscitation of patients from the rural areas, was partly responsible for this outcome. Propositions were made to diffuse more information on the importance of early management of burns in rural areas. PMID:9625238

  7. DYNAMICS OF MAIN INDICATORS FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Claudia Mungiu- Pupăzan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All resources available to a certain point in time (both physical and economic sense and financial sense are highlighted by the nation's wealth, in the very limited sense, is a stock. Given that the stock of physical resources (infrastructure, natural resources, capital invested in enterprises, technical knowledge and training of the population is very difficult to measure, are always references but not a stock at a flow: the flow of goods and services produced in a given year by a country, just what we call gross domestic product GDP (gross domestic product. Economic growth and thus real convergence, both at national and regional level are assessed based on the development processes of gross domestic product.Socio-economic development of South-West Oltenia Region and parts of five counties must take into account national development priorities established by the National Development Plan and the strategic guidelines and EU Integrated Guidelines for Growth and jobs. In an attempt to define the basic problems is very important to take into account and consider the existence of situations of discrimination and promoting equal opportunities for men and women, young and old, the majority and ethnic minorities, while paying attention needs of disabled persons for their economic and social integration.

  8. Vegetation Mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (South-west Iran)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmadreza Mehrabian; Alireza Naqinezhad; Abdolrassoul Salman Mahiny; Hossein Mostafavi; Homan Liaghati; Mohsen Kouchekzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Add regions of the wodd occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions,vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of add regions is necessary and modem vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps.Sixteen map units covering t2 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata,Salicornia europaaa-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced.

  9. High spatiotemporal resolution monitoring of hydrological function across degraded peatlands in the south west UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Josie; Luscombe, David; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Gatis, Naomi; Anderson, Karen; Brazier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The Exmoor/Dartmoor Mires Project is a peatland restoration programme focused on the geoclimatically marginal blanket bogs of South West England. In order to better understand the hydrological functioning of degraded/restored peatlands and support land management decisions across these uplands, this study is providing robust spatially distributed, hydrological monitoring at a high temporal resolution and in near real time. This paper presents the conceptual framework and experimental design for three hydrological monitoring arrays situated in headwater catchments dominated by eroding and drained blanket peatland. Over 250 individual measurements are collected at a high temporal resolution (15 minute time-step) via sensors integrated within a remote telemetry system. These are sent directly to a dedicated server over VHF and GPRS mobile networks. Sensors arrays are distributed at varying spatial scales throughout the studied catchments and record multiple parameters including: water table depth, channel flow, temperature, conductivity and pH measurements. A full suite of meteorological sensors and ten spatially distributed automatic flow based water samplers are also connected to the telemetry system and controlled remotely. This paper will highlight the challenges and solutions to obtaining these data in exceptionally remote and harsh field conditions over long (multi annual) temporal scales.

  10. Identification of Novel Cetacean Poxviruses in Cetaceans Stranded in South West England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Barnett

    Full Text Available Poxvirus infections in marine mammals have been mainly reported through their clinical lesions and electron microscopy (EM. Poxvirus particles in association with such lesions have been demonstrated by EM and were previously classified as two new viruses, cetacean poxvirus 1 (CePV-1 and cetacean poxvirus 2 (CePV-2. In this study, epidermal pox lesions in cetaceans stranded in South West England (Cornwall between 2008 and 2012 were investigated by electron microscopy and molecular analysis. PCR and sequencing of a highly conserved region within the viral DNA polymerase gene ruled out both parapox- and orthopoxviruses. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the PCR product clustered the sequences with those previously described as cetacean poxviruses. However, taking the close genetic distance of this gene fragment across the family of poxviridae into account, it is reasonable to postulate further, novel cetacean poxvirus species. The nucleotide similarity within each cluster (tentative species detected ranged from 98.6% to 100%, whilst the similarity between the clusters was no more than 95%. The detection of several species of poxvirus in different cetacean species confirms the likelihood of a heterogeneous cetacean poxvirus genus, comparable to the heterogeneity observed in other poxvirus genera.

  11. Risk factors for vulva biting in breeding sows in south-west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, S; Nicol, C J; Green, L E

    1998-12-12

    A postal survey was conducted on 410 pig farms in south-west England to investigate the risk factors for vulva biting. The results of the bivariate analyses indicated that group housing, keeping a boar in the same pen and the number of sows per drinker were significantly associated (P biting in service sows. Group housing, group size, keeping a boar in the same pen, straw bedding, electronic sow feeders, feeding once daily, providing water automatically and the number of sows per drinker were significantly associated with vulva biting in dry sows. Vulva biting was also significantly associated with an increased percentage of culled sows and the occurrence of tail biting on the farm. A logistic regression analysis showed that group size and the number of sows per drinker were significant risk factors for vulva biting in service sows, and once a day feeding, group size, the number of sows per drinker and providing water automatically were significant risk factors for dry sows. PMID:9885129

  12. Climate change and N2O emissions from South West England grasslands: A modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, Diego; Cardenas, Laura M.; Wu, Lianhai

    2016-05-01

    Unravelling the impacts of climate change on agriculture becomes increasingly important, as the rates and magnitude of its effects are accelerating. Current estimates of the consequences of climate change on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions remain largely uncertain; there is a need for more consistent and comprehensive assessments of this impact. In this study we explored the implications of two IPCC climate change projections (high and medium emissions scenarios) on N2O emissions from South West England grasslands for the time slices of a baseline, the 2020s, the 2050s and the 2080s, employing a process-based model (SPACSYS). The model was initially calibrated and validated using datasets collected from three grassland sites of the region. Statistical analysis showed that simulated results had no significant total error or bias compared to measured values. We found a consistent increase in N2O emissions of up to 94% under future climate change scenarios compared to those under the baseline, and warming rather than precipitation variability was the overriding factor controlling the N2O rise. Modelling fertilizer forms showed that replacing ammonium-nitrate fertilizers with urea or slurry significantly reduced N2O emissions (c. 30%). Our study highlights the urgent necessity to adopt viable N2O mitigation measures now in order to avoid higher emissions in the future.

  13. FIELD TRIALS OF A SLOW-RELEASE COPPER MOLLUSCICIDE IN KHUZESTAN, SOUTH-WEST OF IRAN

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    J. Massoud

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available In the field trials of slow-release nollusicide, copper content McCkechnie Chemical Inc. 30 cuso4 5H2o or 7.5 cupellet/sinking material 7 days release life were tested against the common aquatic snails bulinus truncatus, Physa acuta and Lymnaea gedrosiana in stagnant water bodies in Khuzestan province, south-west of Iran. Snail densities before treatment and 7 days after mollucicide application were determined by 10 deep nets per man. The results of the present trials as shown on tables 1, 2, 3 and 4 indicate that the effect of different concentration of copper based slow-relased mollnscicide (7.55 cu is different for different species of aquatic snails. The maximum concentration to achieve 100 ppm. Mortality rate was 20 ppm for Lymnaea gedrosiana, 100ppm for physaacuta and over 120ppm for Bulinus truncatus. The high susceptibility of lymnaea snails to the chemical is very promising for the control of livestock trematodes infection in this area.

  14. Squid 'ear bones' (statoliths) from the Jurassic succession of South-west England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Malcolm; Page, Kevin; Price, Gregory; Smart, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Squid 'ear bones' - or statoliths - are a part of the balancing organs of modern and probably most fossil squids. Over the course of the last 10 years fossil statoliths have been discovered in the Jurassic sediments of the Wessex Basin (South-west England). They are probably all related to teuthids, such as Belemnotheutis antiquus Pearce, of Callovian-Oxfordian age. Thus far, we have identified four possible 'species' of statolith that are in the process of being formally described, named and their potential relationships determined. The sediments from which these statoliths have been recorded also contain squid hooklets (onycites), otoliths (fish 'ear bones') and other microfossils (including foraminifera). All are, therefore, of marine origin. In the case of the Christian Malford and Ashton Keynes lagerstätte (of late Callovian age), the statoliths are associated with exceptional, soft-bodied preservation of squid and it may be possible to determine the parent animal of the recorded statoliths. A number of museum collections (Natural History Museum [London], Natural History Museum [Paris], Senckenberg [Frankfurt], Smithsonian Institution [Washington], etc.) are being investigated in order to trace the possible host animals for all of the recorded statoliths. Despite many thousands of samples of Cretaceous sediments being investigated for foraminifera over the past 40+ years, no statoliths have been recorded and none are known from the literature.

  15. Entomological indices of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato at a rural community in south-west Nigeria

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    M.A.E. Noutcha

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Investigations were conducted to obtain key entomological indices of Anopheles gambiae s.l. at Igbo-Ora, a rural community in south-west Nigeria. Methods: Mosquitoes were caught daily for a week from rooms where tenants had slept the previous night in each of the four months June, July (2001, and August, September (2002. Anopheles gambiae s.l. sibling species were PCR-identified, the blood meal origin was determined by direct ELISA, and the circumsporozoite antigen by sandwich ELISA. Mean weekly rates were calculated. Results: The mean human biting rates were 0.90 and 1.6 in 2001 and 2002 respectively. The mean weekly anthropophilic rates for An. gambiae s.l. were 82 and 86% in 2001 and 2002 respectively; they were high in An. gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and non-identified species in the complex. The mean weekly circumsporozoite rates were 6.70% in 2001 and 6.30% in 2002. The mean weekly entomological inoculation rates (EIR were 4.95 and 5.05 in 2001 and 2002 respectively; the seasonal (6-month rates were high: 128.7 in 2001 and 131.3 in 2002, compared to data from other rural communities on the continent. Interpretation & conclusion: The implications of these findings on the role of An. gambiae s.l. in the holoendemicity of malaria at Igbo-Ora are discussed.

  16. Contextual socioeconomic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in rural south-west China: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geater Alan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ≥ 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.

  17. Double-Hurdle Model of Fresh Fish Consumption among Urban Households in South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Akinbode

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on consumption of products with possibility of observing zero-consumption for some consumers have modeled consumption function using the Tobit model, assuming that factors that are responsible for whether to consume a product or not are equally responsible for determining how much to consume. This approach has been severally faulted. This study investigated factors affecting consumption of fresh fish using the single step estimation method of the Tobit model, the independent double-hurdle approach and the dependent double-hurdle model. Data collected from 218 households in Abeokuta, South-west Nigeria were used for the study. Model fitness criteria revealed the superiority of joint estimation (dependent double-hurdle model. The model results revealed that husband’s income, wife’s income, expenditure on beef and dependency ratio significantly affected participation (decision to consume while household size, husband’s education, husband’s income, wife’s income, expenditure on dry fish and dependency ratio significantly affected consumption (how much to consume. It is recommended that public enlightenment should focus on the importance of consuming fresh fish among households and fresh fish sellers should focus on educated and high income households as this segment of the market demand more of the product.

  18. The nature and significance of public exposure to arsenic: a review of its relevance to South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P; Barre, D

    1995-06-01

    In South West England, more than two hundred years of intensive exploitation of metalliferous ore deposits, combined with the natural processes of pedogenesis from mineral-rich parent rocks, has resulted in the creation of a aignificant area of arsenic-contaminated wastes and soils. The scale of arsenic dispersion by natural and anthropogenic processes is such that 722 km(2) of land contains concentrations of arsenic in excess of 110 μg g(-1), more than twice the maximum that might be expected in a normal soil.The general rationale for the clean-up of derelict and contaminated mining sites often includes aesthetic factors and the desirability of preventing the dispersion of contaminants beyond the site boundaries. Only in extreme cases is public health directly invoked as justification for remediation. In South West England, if arsenic constitutes a genuine threat to the public, an increased rate of site remediation would be justified. The primary purpose of this review is to establish whether or not widespread arsenic contamination (principally of soils) has any measurable effects on public health in South West England, and how this might affect current contaminated site remediation policy. The review is based on data from previous research in the region, and other relevant international studies of mining and smelting communities, and other populations exposed to elevated arsenic concentrations. The literature reviewed also includes the determination of the extent and sources of contamination, and pathways between source and man.While the contamination of potable waters in some countries has led to measurable health effects, this scenario has not yet been identified in South West England, and there is little reason to believe that significantly contaminated potable water supplies would escape detection for extended periods of time under the current monitoring regime.In relative terms (based on both globaland local data), one of the most significant links between

  19. Analysis of the Cytisetea scopario-striati scrubs in the south-west-centre of the Iberian Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto-Gomes, Carlos; Cano-Ortiz, Ana; Quinto-Canas, Ricardo; Vila-Viçosa, Carlos; Lombardo, Mª C. Martínez

    2012-01-01

    The statistical and phytosociological study of 255 relevés taken in the south-west of the Iberian Peninsula and made up of our own samples and previous publications reveals how close these relevés, previously ascribed to different syntaxa, really are. Our re-arrangement of the data leads us to propose for the territory the 15 associations already published and three new ones, namely: Genisto floridae-Adenocarpetum argyrophylli ass. nova hoc loco, Cytisetum bourgaei- eriocarpi nova...

  20. Experience of Implementing a Distributed Control System for Thermal and Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at the South-West CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babkin, K. V., E-mail: babkin@uztec.ru; Tsvetkov, M. S.; Kostyuk, R. I.; Chugin, A. V. [SC “South-West CHP” (Russian Federation); Bilenko, V. A.; Molchanov, K. A.; Fedunov, V. V. [JSC “Interautomatika” (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    Results of implementing an SPPA-T3000-based unified distributed control system for thermal and mechanical and electrical equipment at the South-West CHP are discussed. Hardware solutions for integration with local control systems, control of electrical equipment in compliance with the standards IEC 61850, Modbus RTU, and communication between the plant control system and the System Operator of the Unified Power System are described.

  1. Utilisation of traditional and indigenous foods in the North West Province of South Africa / Sarah Tshepho Pona Matenge

    OpenAIRE

    Matenge, Sarah Tshepho Pona

    2011-01-01

    AIM AND OBJECTIVES The main aim of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of promoting the cultivation, utilisation and consumption of indigenous and traditional plant foods (ITPF) among urban and rural communities in the North West Province of South Africa that could possibly lead to increased IK and dietary diversity. The objectives were the following: Assess consumption of TLV in the rural and urban communities. Compare nutritional status of consumers and non-consumers of ...

  2. First Outcome of MDR-TB among Co-Infected HIV/TB Patients from South-West Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Motamedifar, Mohammad; Ebrahim-Saraie, Hadi Sedigh; Abadi, Ali Reza Hassan; Moghadam, Mahboube Nakhzari

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients and the majority of them occur in developing countries. The aims of the present study were to determine the frequency of HIV/TB co-infection and other probable associated factors. Methods This 10 year retrospective study was conducted on 824 HIV patients in the south-west of Iran. HIV infection was diagnosed by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by Western blot. TB...

  3. Attitudes towards Prosthodontic Clinical Decision-Making for Edentulous Patients among South West Deanery Dental Foundation Year One Dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Barber; James Puryer; Sam Leary; Lisa McNally; Dominic O’Sullivan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Dental Foundation year one dentists’ attitudes towards prosthodontic decision making for edentulous patients, and identify whether there are gender differences in these attitudes. All South West Deanery trainees were invited to take part in the study between May and June 2011 and a previously piloted questionnaire was administered to the trainees by their training programme directors. The questionnaire posed questions based upon a clinical scenario of dis...

  4. In-situ Conservation of wild forest coffee-Exploring the potential of participatory forest management in south west Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tolera, Motuma; Lemenih, Mulugeta; O'Hara, Peter; Wood, Adrian P.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the gene pool of Coffea arabica in the forests of South West Ethiopia, where this plant evolved and has its genetic hearth, is a challenge of global importance. Participatory Forest Management (PFM) and Biosphere Reserves (BR) are among the various initiatives being tested to maintain this forest and its biodiversity that includes major stands of wild Arabica coffee. This paper makes a comparative analysis of PFM and BR approaches to conservation as applied in Ethiopia. While BR l...

  5. Raising livestock in resource-poor communities of the North West Province of South Africa - a participatory rural appraisal study

    OpenAIRE

    J.K. Getchell; A.F. Vatta; P.W. Motswatswe; R.C. Krecek; R. Moerane; A. N. Pell; Tucker, T. W.; S. Leshomo

    2002-01-01

    A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives : to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creatio...

  6. Improving SME access to finance in the North-West Province of South Africa / Imraan G.H. Bakhas.

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhas, Imraan Goolam Hoosen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide empirical, qualitative evidence concerning the factors within the supply, demand and institutional support environments that hinder SME access to finance as well as the interventions necessary to improve access to finance for SMEs in the North West Province (NWP) of South Africa. The semi-structured interview technique was used to collect data from a sample of 25 organisations. A response rate of 56% comprising two financial institutions and 12 SME sup...

  7. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cilliers, S.S.; Van Wyk, E; G.J. Bredenkamp

    1999-01-01

    This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN) as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in...

  8. Knowledge, Attitude, and Preventive Practices among Prison Inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulsalam Saliu; Babatunde Akintunde

    2014-01-01

    Prisoners are at special risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of overcrowded prisons, unprotected sex and sexual assault, occurrence of sexual practices that are risky to health, unsafe injecting practices, and inadequate HIV prevention, care, and support services. This study aimed to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS by male inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. A ...

  9. Food demand and nutrition for people living in south-west cyclone SIDR affected regions in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, K M M; Kranz, B.; Bauer, S.

    2012-01-01

    Food consumption, nutrition and demand for farmers’ families were studied in the south-west Sidr affected regions, namely, Patuakhali, Barguna and Jhalakathi in Bangladesh. Based on primary data of 300 households collected with simple random sampling technique from January to June in 2013, the study used LA/AIDS model and descriptive statistics to explain food demand, consumption and nutrition. Farmers consumed less food in terms of per capita calorie and protein intakes. Food cost was 58 per...

  10. Late quaternary evolution of Ashtamudi-Sasthamkotta lake systems of Kerala, south west India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, K. M.; Padmalal, D.; Kumaran, K. P. N.; Sreeja, R.; Limaye, Ruta B.; Srinivas, Reji

    2010-03-01

    Sedimentological and palynological analysis of two borehole samples collected from the confluence of Kallada River with the Ashtamudi lake in the south west coast of India have been addressed while ascertaining the late quaternary evolution. Of the two borehole samples, the one collected from Pangod (9°03'N-76°42'E) reveals a fining upward sequence with medium to coarse sand (3.05 m) at base, organic carbon rich, silt and fine sand dominated sediments (2 m) at the middle and yellowish brown, muddy sediments (3.2 m) at the top. The middle layer embeds a suite of partly carbonized, sub-fossil logs of wet evergreen to semi-evergreen vegetation. The palynoflora of this layer reveals that the depositional site is within the tidal limit and deposition occurred under high precipitation and atmospheric humidity. The similarity in 14C dates of a wood at 5 m bgl (7490 ± 90 yrs BP) and the embedding sediments (7480 ± 80 yrs BP) indicate quick burial of the riparian vegetation. The West Kallada borehole (9°30'N-76°37'E) reveals Middle to Late Holocene sequence of clayey silt (6250 ± 110 yrs BP-3880 ± 80 yrs BP) and sand resting unconformably over greyish white, clayey sand with pebbles and granules derived from laterite provenance. Palynological analysis shows that the Holocene sedimentation took place under marine/nearly marine environment and later changed to brackish water and finally to freshwater environment. Marine transgression ˜6000 yrs BP coupled with heavy rainfall in the hinterlands was responsible for faster sedimentation in the region. The heavy mineral contents, especially opaques, garnet and sillimanite in the sediment samples of the study area as well as the bathymetric configuration of the Ashtamudi, Sasthamkotta and Chelupola lakes reiterate the fact that these lakes have been evolved from an embayment consequent to incomplete/partial silting up during Early to Middle Holocene higher sea levels and also under high rainfall of the Holocene climatic

  11. Risk assessment of drain valve failure in the K-West basin south loadout pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-06-23

    The drain valve located in the bottom of the K-West Basin South Loadout Pit (SLOP) could provide an additional leak path from the K Basins if the drain valve were damaged during construction, installation, or operation of the cask loading system. For the K-West Basin SLOP the immersion pail support structure (IPSS) has already been installed, but the immersion pail has not been installed in the IPSS. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the risk of damaging the drain valve during the remaining installation activities or operation of the cask loading system. Valve damage, as used in this analysis, does not necessarily imply large amounts of the water will be released quickly from the basin, rather valve damage implies that the valve's integrity has been compromised. The analysis process is a risk-based uncertainty analysis where best engineering judgement is used to represent each variable in the analysis. The uncertainty associated with each variable is represented by a probability distribution. The uncertainty is propagated through the analysis by Monte Carlo convolution techniques. The corresponding results are developed as a probability distribution and the risk is expressed in terms of the corresponding complementary cumulative distribution function (''risk curve''). The total risk is the area under the ''risk curve''. The risk of potentially dropping a cask into or on the IPSS and damaging the drain valve is approximately 1 x 10{sup -4} to 2 x 10{sup -5} per year. The risk of objects falling behind the IPSS and damaging the valve is 3 x 10{sup -2} to 6 x 10{sup -3} per year. Both risks are expressed as drain value failure frequencies. The risk of objects falling behind the IPSS and damaging the valve can be significantly reduced by an impact limiter and/or installing a gating or plate over the area bounded by the back of the IPSS and the wall of the SLOP. With either of these actions there is a 90 percent

  12. IDENTITY REPRODUCTION AND IMAGE OF MAHAGOTRA PASEK SANAK SAPTA RSI TOWARD HINDU COMMUNITY IN MATARAM CITY, WEST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Ardhi Wirawan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Identity reproduction and image which actualized by soroh (clan of Pasekorganized in paguyuban (group of Mahagotra Pasek Sanak Sapta Rsi (MPSSRtoward Hindu community in Mataram City, West Nusa Tenggara has closelyrelation with social religious movement which has the effort to restructurepermanent Hindu practices. This movement has the effort to represent theirancestor practice contemporarily in term of social religious space in whichmonolithic one it is accumulated to restructure the priest symbols. Thisphenomenon is indicated by the struggle in appointing pandita mpu as priestsymbol from MPSSR. Bhisama (spiritual message deriving from their ancestorsoroh Pasek is based on operational basis of social religious movement actualizedby MPSSR which is explicitly narrated that the ancestor of soroh Pasek hasprevilese to be religious priests. Bhisama also says that the generation of sorohPasek can unite their family binding in term of indigenous relations. Thisphenomenon implies reunification among soroh Pasek for disposition torestructure permanent sidhikara system since the history of Hindu community inMataram city.This social religious of MPSSR is legitimated through the image for theeffort to establish positive image to be distributed toward Hindu community inMataram city. The image creation is conducted by applying investment strategy ofany capitals such a economy, culture, social and symbolic one in accordance withcapital concept proposed by Pierre Bourdieu to explain power relations. Identityreproduction and image of MPSSR toward Hindu community in Mataram citythough the appointment of pandita mpu and reunification of indigenous basiswhere it is closely related with the struggle in reaching symbolic power in Hindupractices.

  13. The geology and geochemistry of some epigenetic uranium deposits near the Swakop River, South West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study comprises a geological and geochemical investigation of the uranium deposits in the region near the Swakop River which extends from the Langer Heinrich Mountain in the east to the end of the Tumas River in the west. The general geology of the basement rocks in the Langer Heinrich region only is discussed. The general geology of the younger duricrust formations is discussed. Analytical methods were developed for the separation of thorium, protactinium and uranium from geological materials using various chromatographic procedures. Alpha spectrometry, neutron activation analysis and delayed neutron counting were the main techniques used. The occurrence of uranium in the region of study follows a unique geochemical cycle, and the geochemistry at each stage in the cycle was examined. The first stage in the uranium-geochemical cycle was the basement rocks. The second stage in the geochemical cycle of uranium was the subsurface water. The third stage in the geochemical cycle of uranium concerns its occurrence in the duricrust deposits. Isotopic disequilibrium measurements showed that uranium is still migrating, and that the age of the carnotite precipitation is 30 000 years, based on the open-system model of uranium migration. In the final stage of the geochemical cycle, the geochemistry of uranium in seawater and the diatomaceous muds is discussed. A classification system for the uranium deposits near the Swakop River, based on genetic relationships, is proposed and described in terms of the geochemical cycle of uranium, the mode of transport and mode of deposition. The relationships between the duricrust uranium deposits and the other uranium deposits of South Africa are compared

  14. Regional analysis of the mean annual maximum peak flow in South West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas; Cooper, David

    2010-05-01

    The work reported here is a pilot study carried out as part of the EU FP7 project Mirage, and aims to derive flood frequency relationships for temporary rivers in the Mediterranean region. Regional studies of flood characteristics are often limited to national, or even sub-national, regions. Reasons for these spatially limited studies are manifold, but include: lack of international co-operation, difficulties in getting access to hydrometric data from other countries, and inconsistencies in national datasets for deriving catchment characteristics. As part of this study, preliminary regional datasets from south-west Europe of flood statistics and relevant catchment descriptors have been derived. The annual maximum peak flow data have been obtained from the UNESCO/FRIEND project and includes 381 time series of daily river flow from Portugal, Spain and southern France. Note that a majority of these data comes from perennial rivers. The catchment descriptors including catchment area, mean annual rainfall, soil properties and land-use characteristics. These characteristics have been derived from pan-European dataset including the SRTM (90m) dtm, gridded precipitation data from CRU (18km), the JRC soil database (1km) and CORINE land-cover data (250m). The logarithm of the mean annual maximum peak flow (QBAR) has been linked to a subset of log-transformed catchment descriptors using a linear regression-type model, including correlation in both observations and regression model errors. The existence of model error correlation suggests that the data contains more between-catchment variation in QBAR than can be explained by the catchment descriptors alone. Thus, further research is needed to identify additional explanatory variables with the potential to be made available on a pan-European scale.

  15. High maternal mortality in rural south-west Ethiopia: estimate by using the sisterhood method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaya Yaliso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimation of maternal mortality is difficult in developing countries without complete vital registration. The indirect sisterhood method represents an alternative in places where there is high fertility and mortality rates. The objective of the current study was to estimate maternal mortality indices using the sisterhood method in a rural district in south-west Ethiopia. Method We interviewed 8,870 adults, 15–49 years age, in 15 randomly selected rural villages of Bonke in Gamo Gofa. By constructing a retrospective cohort of women of reproductive age, we obtained sister units of risk exposure to maternal mortality, and calculated the lifetime risk of maternal mortality. Based on the total fertility for the rural Ethiopian population, the maternal mortality ratio was approximated. Results We analyzed 8503 of 8870 (96% respondents (5262 [62%] men and 3241 ([38%] women. The 8503 respondents reported 22,473 sisters (average = 2.6 sisters for each respondent who survived to reproductive age. Of the 2552 (11.4% sisters who had died, 819 (32% occurred during pregnancy and childbirth. This provided a lifetime risk of 10.2% from pregnancy and childbirth with a corresponding maternal mortality ratio of 1667 (95% CI: 1564–1769 per 100,000 live births. The time period for this estimate was in 1998. Separate analysis for male and female respondents provided similar estimates. Conclusion The impoverished rural area of Gamo Gofa had very high maternal mortality in 1998. This highlights the need for strengthening emergency obstetric care for the Bonke population and similar rural populations in Ethiopia.

  16. A Survey on Ectoparasite Infestations in Companion Dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Alborzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in referred companion dogs to veterinary hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, from 2009 to 2010.Methods: A total of 126 dogs were sampled for ectoparasites and examined by parasitological methods. The studied animals were grouped based on the age (3 years, sex, breed and regionResults: Thirty six out of 126 referred dogs (28.57% were positive for external ectoparasites. The most common ectoparasites were Heterodoxus spinigera, which were recorded on 11 dogs (8.73%. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Sarcoptes scabiei, Otodectes cynotis, Xenopsylla cheopis, Cetenocephalides canis, Cetenocephalides felis, Hip­pobosca sp. and myiasis (L3 of Lucilia sp. were identified on 9 (7.14%, 7 (5.56%, 6 (4.76%, 3 (2.38%, 3 (2.38%, 2 (1.59%, 2 (1.59% and one (0.79% of the studied dogs respectively. Mixed infestation with two species of ectoparasites was recorded on 8 (6.35%. Prevalence was higher in male dogs (35.82%; 24 out of 67 than females (20.34%; 12 out of 59, age above 3 years (31.81%; 7 out of 22 and in the season of winter (30.95%; 13 out of 42, but the difference was not significant regarding to host gender, age and season (P>0.05.Conclusion: Apparently this is the first study conducted in companion dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran. Our results indicated that lice and ticks were the most common ectoparasites in dogs of this area. The zoonotic nature of some ectoparasites can be regard as a public health alert

  17. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Patience Manzana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1 A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2 An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3 A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  18. Gastrointestinal parasites of birds in zoological gardens in south-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otegbade, A C; Morenikeji, O A

    2014-03-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal parasites are a major health issue in captive birds. However, prevalence data of gastrointestinal parasites of birds in zoological gardens in Nigeria are scarce. This study was carried out to establish the gastrointestinal parasite profile of birds kept in zoological gardens in the University of Ibadan, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Ilorin, University of Lagos and Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, all in south-west Nigeria. A total of 178 fecal samples from 83 birds (14 species in eight orders) were examined using three techniques; Feacal sedimentation using ethyl acetate, McMaster Egg Counting Technique and Petri Dish-Filter Paper Slant culture technique (modified Harada-Mori Technique). A total of 39(21.9%) of the 178 samples were infected. The highest prevalence (100%) of infection was recorded in Unilag zoo and a total of five species of parasites including two protozoans (coccidian and Balantidium spp.); and three nematodes Capillaria spp., Ascaris spp. and Strongyloides spp.) were recorded with Capillaria spp. (14.1%) as the most prevalent gastrointestinal parasite. Mixed infections were found in 18(10.1%) samples. Strongyloides larvae were observed in 6(3.4%) samples. All Anseriformes were infected but the Struthioniformes had the highest infection rate. The geometric mean intensity of eggs ranged from 101.98 ± 10.36 to 63.00 ± 16.67 epg and oocyst counts ranged from 332.47 ± 16.67 to 297.89 ± 20.41 opg. Balantidium cyst count was 324.04 ± 25.00. Count of oocyst of coccidian species was significantly higher in all the zoos. The feacal culture yielded Strongyloides species. Regular deworming and hygienic measures are necessary to prevent gastrointestinal infections in captive birds. So also, improved funding and management are necessary to ensure sustainability of Nigerian zoological gardens. PMID:24862045

  19. Economic Implications of Food Demand in Akoko South West, Ondo State, Nigeria: Aids Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebisi Temitope Edun

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the socio-economic characteristics of food consuming households, estimated the complete demand functions for some selected common food commodities, their prices and expenditure elasticities in Akoko South West (ASW local government in Ondo state, Nigeria. The study examined demand analysis for food in ASW, using primary data with the use of questionnaire on some selected food-consuming households within the study area. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics for estimating demographic variables. The result of the descriptive statistics showed that semolina constituted the largest share of the household total food expenditure, among the low income and rural households but mostly among the married and the medium-size male-headed households who had tertiary-education. The Almost Ideal Demand System results showed that besides being a normal good, price inelastic, and expenditure inelastic, semolina has changed from being a luxury to being a necessity and has become a major food staple in the ASW metropolis. In conclusion, the study discovered that the prices of rice, beans, yam, garri, wheat, yam flour, and semolina were significantly important in the share of household total food budget at constant real income. Finally, the study showed from the result that the importance of semolina in ASW metropolis diet will increase as economic growth continues. This study therefore recommends that effort should be made to boost economic activities of ASW zone. This will increase their income and consequently improve their spending on the nutritious food items. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  20. FORECASTING AND ADAPTATION METHODS FOR HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT USED FOR TOURIST PURPOSE IN CITIES OF SOUTH-EASTERN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Qai Liu

    2008-01-01

    The paper considers methodological statements concerning formation and development of cultural and tourist zones and complexes in the Chinese cities with precious historical and cultural heritage. Characteristic types of historical buildings in the cities of the Tsiansu province which are located in the south-eastern part ofChinaare given in the paper. The paper contains methods for renovation of historical development for tourist purpose and gives proposals pertaining to arrangement of touri...

  1. Quantifying the humanitarian and economic impact of earthquakes on South American capital cities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M. L.; Cabrera, C.; Pomonis, A.; Baca, A.; Brunner, I.; Cheung, G.; Chen, A.; Nagel, B.; Carrasco, S.

    2009-12-01

    By 2000, an estimated 80% of South America’s population lived in urban areas (Veblen et al., The Physical Geography of South America, Oxford University Press, 2007). A significant fraction of those urban dwellers resides in the capital cities which are major economic centers and act as magnets for rural poor and refugees. This population concentration includes many residents living in extreme poverty in substandard and informal housing, often on the margins of these capital cities and sometimes on steep slopes, greatly compounding the vulnerability to natural hazards. We are analyzing the humanitarian and economic risk for six of the seismically most-at-risk South American capitals along the northern and western plate boundaries of South America: Caracas, Venezuela; Bogotá, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador; Lima, Perú; La Paz, Bolivia; and Santiago, Chile. Impacts are provided in the form of expected losses for a specific “likely” scenario earthquake and in a probabilistic format using exceedance probability curves (probability of exceeding a given loss in different return periods). Impacts to be quantified include: total economic losses, potential fatalities, potential serious injuries, and the number of displaced households. Probabilistic seismic hazard was developed in collaboration with numerous South American experts and includes subduction interface, intraslab, background crustal and, where available, active fault sources. A significant challenge for this study is to accurately account for the exposure and vulnerability of populations living in the informal, shanty areas. Combining analysis of aerial imagery and on-the-ground reconnaissance, we define between 20-30 “inventory districts” of relatively uniform construction styles within each capital. Statistical distributions of the different construction types and their characteristics (height, occupancy, year built, average value) are estimated for each district. In addition, working with local graduate

  2. A socio-structural analysis of crime in the city of Tshwane, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Breetzke

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available High and rising levels of crime plague post-apartheid South Africa. A common explanation for these high crime rates relates the country’s unique socio-political past to a system of ineffective social control mechanisms that suggest high levels of social disorganisation within certain communities. Other explanations emphasise the presence of disaffected youths and deprivation, as well as the rapid immigration of people from neighbouring African countries into South Africa. I examined a number of these socio-structural explanations of crime on contact crime rates in the city of Tshwane, South Africa. The findings are largely consistent with the social disorganisation theory, as well as with what has previously been suggested in local literature. In order to supplement these preliminary findings, the effects of the same socio-structural explanations on contact crime rates were determined for predominantly Black, White, and ‘Mixed’ (containing a mix of both Black and White residents suburbs using spatial regression models. Evidence from these analyses suggests that the effects of the various socio-structural explanations do not appear to traverse racial lines. Rather, the findings suggest non-uniformity in terms of the extent to which the various socio-structural factors impact contact crime rates based on race.

  3. Open Spaces and Urban Ecosystem Services. Cooling Effect towards Urban Planning in South American Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Inostroza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Open space (OS is a key element in the provision of ecosystem services (ES in urban environments. Under a land cover-land use perspective, cities are incorporating into the expansion process to different types of surfaces: sealed, paved surfaces and OS. The first corresponds to a land cover change while the second, which includes bare soil, grass, forest or any other type of non-sealed surface, corresponds to a land use change, without physical transformations. As a land use change OS is able to keep fundamental pre-existing ecological properties. However, besides specific ecological characteristics, the overall capacity to provide ES depends also on the size, number and spatial distribution of OSs within the urban fabric. Those aspects which can determine the very ecological performance of urban ecosystem services (UES are not yet included in the current urban planning in Latin America. OS is still understood mainly as green infrastructure and related mostly with aesthetic and cultural benefits. On the contrary, under an ecological point of view, OS is capable to provide fundamental UES, which can be spatially assessed and analyzed. In this paper the provision of cooling services (CS is assessed in 2 South American cities: Lima and Santiago de Chile. The provision of CS is measured by means of a Remote Sensing-GIS-based method. Two aspects of CS are explored: (1 the current amount of existing OS; and (2 the trend of increasing/reducing CS within the urban tissue, in a dynamic assessment of spatial distribution and rates of OS incorporation to the continuous urban tissue. The aim is to analyze the CS generated by OS in those two cities. The analysis discusses the role of OS in the provision of CS, considering the current urban development trends and planning practice in these specific Latin American cities, highlighting the need to keep unsealed surfaces and increase in trees coverage, to retain the CS provision in certain levels.

  4. 78 FR 65356 - Notice of Mailing/Street Address Change for the BLM-Utah West Desert District and Salt Lake Field...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... and Salt Lake Field Offices AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The mailing/street address for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), West Desert District and Salt Lake Field Offices will be changing from 2370 South 2300 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84119-2022, to 2370 South...

  5. The distribution of potential West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae, in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz-Perez Alfonso

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culex spp. mosquitoes are considered to be the most important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV detected in at least 34 species of mosquitoes in the United States. In North America, Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, and Culex tarsalis are all competent vectors of WNV, which is considered to be enzootic in the United States and has also been detected in equines and birds in many states of Mexico and in humans in Nuevo Leon. There is potential for WNV to be introduced into Mexico City by various means including infected mosquitoes on airplanes, migrating birds, ground transportation and infected humans. Little is known of the geographic distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and hybrids in Mexico City. Culex pipiens pipiens preferentially feed on avian hosts; Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus have historically been considered to prefer mammalian hosts; and hybrids of these two species could theoretically serve as bridge vectors to transmit WNV from avian hosts to humans and other mammalian hosts. In order to address the potential of WNV being introduced into Mexico City, we have determined the identity and spatial distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and their hybrids. Results Mosquito larvae collected from 103 sites throughout Mexico City during 2004-2005 were identified as Culex, Culiseta or Ochlerotatus by morphological analysis. Within the genus Culex, specimens were further identified as Culex tarsalis or as belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. Members of the Culex pipiens complex were separated by measuring the ratio of the dorsal and ventral arms (DV/D ratio of the male genitalia and also by using diagnostic primers designed for the Ace.2 gene. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was the most abundant form collected. Conclusions Important WNV vectors species, Cx. p. pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis, are all present in Mexico City. Hybrids of Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p

  6. Simulation of efficiency impact of drainage water reuse: case of small-scale vegetable growers in North West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Haese, D' L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating the effect of drainage water reuse on the technical efficiency of small-scale vegetable growers in South Africa applying a data envelopment analysis (DEA). In the semi-arid North West Province of South Africa water scarcity and the soon to be implemented water charge

  7. Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in three ethnic populations from the South-west Iran: a preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elham DAVOUDI-DEHAGHANI; Ali Mohammad FOROUGHMAND; Babak SAFFARI; Massoud HOUSHMAND; Hamid GALEHDARI; Mehdi SHAFA SHARIAT PANAHI; Majid YAVARIAN; Mohammad Hossein SANATI; Somayeh TORFI

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the genetic structure of human populations in the South-west region of Iran,mitochondrial first hypervariable DNA sequences were obtained from 50 individuals representing three different ethnic groups from Khuzestan Province.Studied groups were Shushtari Persians and Chahar Lang Bakhtiyaries from Indo-Europeanspeaking populations and Bani Torof Arabs from Semitic-speaking linguistic families.Genetic analysis of mtDNA data showed high similarity of Chahar Lang Bakhtiyaries with other Iranian Indo-European-speaking populations while Shushtaries and Bani Torofs had a closer affinity with Semitic-speaking groups rather than to other Iranian populations.The relationship of Chahar Lang Bakhtiyaries and Bani Torof Arabs with their neighbor populations can be explained by linguistic and geographic proximity.Whereas,the greater similarity of Shushtari Persians with West Asian Arabs is probably according to high gene flow between them.This article represents a preliminary study of three major ethnic groups of South-west Iran which investigates the potential genetic substructure of the region.

  8. COMPARISONS OF THE WEST PACIFIC SUBTROPICAL HIGH AND THE SOUTH ASIA HIGH BETWEEN NCEP/NCAR AND ECMWF REANALYSIS DATASETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wen; ZHI Xie-fei

    2008-01-01

    Comparisons of the west Pacific subtropical high with the South Asia High are made using the NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF 500 hPa and 100 hPa monthly boreal geopotential height fields for the period 1961 - 2000. Discrepancies are found for the time prior to 1980. The west Pacific subtropical high in the NCEP/NCAR data is less intense than in ECMWF data before 1980. The range and strength of the west Pacific subtropical high variation described by the NCEP/NCAR data are larger than those depicted by ECMWF data. The same situation appears in the 100-hPa geopotential field. These discoveries suggest that the interdecadal variation of the two systems as shown by the NCEP/NCAR data may not be true. Besides, the South Asia High center in the NCEP/NCAR data is obviously stronger than in the ECMWF data during the periods 1969, 1979 - 1991 and 1992 - 1995. Furthermore, the range is larger from 1992 to 1995.

  9. Reason Behind Non-Exclusive Breasfeeding by Working Women in Mataram City West Nusa Tenggara

    OpenAIRE

    Haryani Haryani

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine why working mothers choose to not exclusively breast feed their infants in Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara. Methods: The study used a qualitative design with a phenomenological approach. Data collection in this study involved focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. In-depth interviews with 9 working women not exclusively breastfeeding. Focus group discussions two comprising of 21 respondents were husbands, in-laws, mother...

  10. The development of the urban system and the hierarchy of cities in newly opened regions: Hokkaido, Japan and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ryoji Teraya

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the pattern and process of distribution of cities in the newly opened regions by tracing the historical changes of the urban system in Hokkaido, Japan and in the Republic of South Africa. The history of colonization is not so long in the newly opened regions. This means that we can study the genesis and development process of cities from the beginning of colonization. These frontier cities often have the gateway func-tion influencing over the wide surrounding region...

  11. Source apportionment of particulate matter in a South Asian Mega City: A case study of Karachi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, imran

    2016-04-01

    Pakistan is facing unabated air pollution as a major issue and its cities are more vulnerable as compared to urban centers in the developed world. During the last few decades, there has been a rapid increase in population, urbanization, industrialization, transportation and other human activities. In year June 2015 heat wave in largest South Asian mega city Karachi more than 1500 people died in one week. Unfortunately no air quality monitoring system is operation in any city of Pakistan. There is a sharp increase in both the variety and quantity of air pollutants and their corresponding sources. In this study contributions of different sources to particulate matter concentration has estimated in urban area of Karachi. Carbonaceous species (elemental carbon, organic carbon, carbonate carbon), soluble ions (Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4--), saccharides (levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan, sucrose, fructose, glucose, arabitol and mannitol) were measured in atmospheric fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles collected under pre-monsoon conditions (March - April 2009) at an urban site in Karachi (Pakistan). Average concentrations of PM2.5 were 75μg/m3 and of PM10 437μg/m3. The large difference between PM10 and PM2.5 originated predominantly from mineral dust. "Calcareous dust" and „siliceous dust" were the overall dominating material in PM, with 46% contribution to PM2.5 and 78% to PM10-2.5. 20 Combustion particles and secondary organics (EC+OM) comprised 23% of PM2.5 and 6% of PM10-2.5. EC, as well as OC ambient levels were higher (59% and 56%) in PM10-2.5 than in 22 PM2.5. Biomass burning contributed about 3% to PM2.5, and had a share of about 13% of "EC+OM" in PM2.5. The impact of bioaerosol (fungal spores) was minor and had a share of 1 and 2% of the OC in the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 size fractions. Of secondary inorganic constituents (NH4)2SO4 contributes 4.4% to PM2.5 and no detectable quantity to PM10-2.5. The sea salt contribution is about 2% both to

  12. A systemic analysis of land markets and land institutions in West African cities : rules and practices - the case of Bamako, Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Durand-Lasserve, Alain; Durand-Lasserve, Maylis; Selod, Harris

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of land market analysis relevant to cities with plural tenure systems as in West Africa. The methodology hinges on a systemic analysis of land delivery channels, which helps to show how land is initially made available for circulation, how tenure can be formalized incrementally, and the different means whereby households can access land. The analysis is appli...

  13. Onshore heavy mineral placers of south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Mislankar, P.G.

    Heavy Mineral Placers from coastal sediments of south Maharashtra [105 km stretch from Vijaydurg (16 degrees 30 minutes N) in the North to Redi (15 degrees 43 minutes N) in the South] are studied to understand their distribution, environment...

  14. The South Central Overland Trail in western Utah, 1850-1900

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following report is a discussion of the South Central Overland Trail, which goes west from Salt Lake City and skirts the worst of the salt desert, stopping at...

  15. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Miranda, J., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico); Espinosa, A.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-01-01

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

  16. [Prevalence and alcohol user profile in adult population in a south Brazilian city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Traebert, Jefferson; Loguercio, Alessandro; Kehrig, Ruth Terezinha

    2010-05-01

    This is an observational cross-sectional survey which included 707 individuals from a south Brazilian city (Joaçaba, in Santa Catarina State) aiming to know the alcohol user prevalence as well as the profile of the user. The results showed that 45.5% (322) of that population consume alcohol on regular basis and had used it at least once in the last month. The regular alcohol consumption occurs predominantly on males (p education (p currency (p <0.001). The regular alcohol consumption was greater on those who classified his health status as regular, good or very good (p <0.006), also this relation happen to those people who haven't been under hospital internment in the last year (p <0.013). The depression levels scored by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) showed low levels to those who regularly consume alcohol (p <0.047). PMID:20464180

  17. Spatial variability of pouring rain in the City of Málaga. (South of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senciales Gonzalez, J. M.; Aguayo Maldonado, P.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Martinez Murillo, J. F.

    2012-04-01

    Several studies demonstrate the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall in the Mediterranean climate (Llasat et al., 2005; Neppel et al., 2007; Rodrigo and Derieg, 2008), as well as episodes of atmospheric dynamics which tend to intervene in such events (Llasat et al., 2005; Martin et al., 2006). Considering that the recurrence of torrential events is usual in the southwest of the Mediterranean Coastal areas and occasionally its difficult to structure, the study of the highest events were restricted to those that exceed 100 mm in 24 hours. The study of these events is very important to analyze the vulnerability of urban areas, taking as an example the case of the city of Malaga (South of Spain) Elías y Ruiz (1979) were calculated for the city of Málaga a maximum value of 220-240 mm for a period of 100 years return; and a maximum of 60 mm/h for 10 years. In the same area, the probability estimates by Senciales (1997) from a single station indicate a recurrence of between 10 and 25 years for such events. But with a wide number of stations a greater cumulative frequency is obtained. The city of Malaga has been divided into various sectors according to their topography, proceeding to multivariate analysis with SPSS-18 of maximum and average values greater than 100 mm. precipitation and linking them with the following independent variables: month of the year of the event, situation in altitude, wind in surface and surface situation. The best results were obtained by dividing the city into four sectors; Valley area, East Coast (steep), foothills (moderately steep) and mountains (steep). The units of the average values by sector with regard to the situation in area (depression, frontal system or occluded frontal system) and height (flow of cold air or cold drop) reached significant values (r2 > 0.5 and even > 0.9) repeated by dividing the city in only three areas, Valley, East Coast and mountains but with minor adjustment in the latter. Torrential events showed no

  18. NEON Collaborative Data Collection Campaign at Pacific South West Site in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Musinsky, J.; Petroy, S. B.; Wasser, L. A.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Schaaf, C.; Strahler, A. H.; Serbin, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale observatory that will collect biological, chemical and geophysical data over the continental United States in order to study biodiversity, landcover change, climate change and invasive species. In June 2013, a large-scale data collection took place over NEON's Pacific South West (PSW) site 17 in CA, USA. Data were collected in the San Joaquin Experimental Range and the Sierra National Forest. NEON's AOP (Airborne Observation Platform) acquired high spatial resolution hyperspectral data (~1m pixels), waveform lidar, discrete lidar, and RGB imagery over all three sites. A field team simultaneously collected atmospheric and vegetation inventory data, including tree locations, height, diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), species, and spectral data. The NEON collect was centered within a collaboration of multiple research entities, including NASA, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), University of Massachusetts (Boston; UMB, and Lowell; UML), Boston University (BU), and the University of Wisconsin, Madison (UWM). NASA's AVIRIS and MASTER sensors were flown over a wider area encompassing the NEON sites, with AVIRIS acquiring hyperspectral data (224 bands) at approximately 30m spatial resolution, and MASTER acquiring multispectral thermal data (50 bands) at approximately 50m spatial resolution. These data will be downscaled to approximate theoretical HyspIRI data (60m spatial resolution) as part of a large collection of preparatory research. Concurrently, a variety of university teams were active in the field: RIT collected ground-based lidar, leaf area index (LAI), herbaceous biomass measurements, wide-angle photographs, and spectral measurements. Data were collected over 20 80x80m sites, centered on existing 20x20m NEON sites. This data set will be used to inform synthetic scene design and to study the impact of sub-pixel structural variation on pixel-level spectral response; The BU, UMB, and UML

  19. Nitrate dual isotopic composition in the northern South China Sea and neighboring West Philippine Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Xu, M.; Wu, Y.; Dai, M.; Kao, S.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrate nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions (δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3) were used to diagnose nitrate dynamics and the origins of water masses in the northern South China Sea (SCS) and West Philippine Sea (WPS) where water exchanges via the Luzon Strait at different depths. In the SCS, 1-3‰ greater upward increase in δ18ONO3 relative to corresponding δ15NNO3 was just observed in the lower euphotic zone (EZ), indicating a rapid internal cycle of nitrate assimilation and remineralization. Much lower nitrate concentration in the EZ of WPS does not allow us to measure its dual isotopes. From 500 m deep to the base of EZ in the WPS, non-proportional decreases in δ15NNO3 (from 6.4‰ to 2.1-2.6‰) and δ18ONO3 (from 3.0‰ to 1.1‰) accompanying with elevated N:P ratio anomalies (N* from -1.2 μM up to 2 μM), suggest the accumulation of atmospheric-derived N (e.g. N2 fixation and/or N deposition). This allochthonous N signal cumulated in the subsurface of WPS may regulate the δ15NNO3 in the SCS subsurface due to seasonal Kuroshio intrusion, which could supply isotopically light nitrate as newly fixed N source to the SCS. The higher (~0.5‰) δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3 values, associated with lower N* were detected in the WPS intermediate water (WPS-IW, σθ = 26.5~27.1 kg m-3) around depth of 600-800 m (especially at a southern site) when compared to those of the conventional water source coming from North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). By combining nitrate concentration, N* and δ15NNO3 as constraints, we propose that an additional southerly source other than NPIW may feed into the WPS-IW. On the other hand, the SCS intermediate water (SCS-IW, ~400-700 m), which supposedly sourced from WPS-IW along similar isopycnal levels, showed ~1‰ lower δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3 values. This reduction in nitrate duel isotopes indicates intense diapycnal mixing primarily due to basin-wide upwelling in the SCS interior. This is the first hand data in the SCS for deep profiles

  20. Ordovician Intrusive-related Gold-Copper Mineralization in West-Central New South Wales, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three major types of Ordovician intrusive-related gold-copper deposits are recognized in central-west New South Wales,, Australia: porphyry, skam and high sulphidation epithermal deposits.These deposits are mainly distributed within two Ordovician volcano-intrusive belts of the Lachlan Fold Be1t: the Orange-Wellington Belt and the Parkes-Narromine Belt. Available isotopic age data suggest that mineralization of the three types of deposits is essentially coeval with the Ordovician intrusive rocks (480-430 Ma). Porphyry gold-copper deposits can be further divided into two groups. The first group is associated with monzoniteshowing shoshonitic features represented by Cadia and Goonumbla. The second group is associated with diorite and dacite, including the Copper Hill and Cargo gold-copper deposits. Gold skarn is associated with Late Ordovician (430-439 Ma) monzonitic intrusive complexes in the Junction Reefs area (Sheahan-Grants, Frenchmans, and Cornishmens), Endeavour 6, 7 and 44, Big and Little Cadia. The epithermal gold deposits with high sulphidation including Gidginbung (Temora) and Peak Hill mainly occur within Ordovician andesite and volcaniclastic rocks, and are associated with advanced argillic alteration. Available isotopic age data indicate that both alteration and mineralization of the porphyry, skam and epithermal gold-copper deposits are broadly coeval with the Late Ordovician hoshonitic mangmatism, which is thought to result from the melting of sub-continental lithosphere caused by Palaeozoic subduction events. The Ordovician intrusive-related gold-copper deposits are restricted to two longitudinal parallel volcano-intrusive belts, rarely extending outside them. Diagonal intra-belt trends of mineralization are common, particularly at the intersections of longitudinal and transverse (oblique) fault/fracture zones basedon the authors'review of available geological data. The locations of these gold-copper deposits are obviously influenced by transverse

  1. The new face of rheumatic heart disease in South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwusi PO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Johnson Olarewaju Peter,2 Adebayo Tolulope Oyedeji,2 Abiona Oluwadamilola Odeyemi21Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, 2Department of Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaPurpose: To determine the current prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD, clinical features, types of valvular lesions, complications and mortality, at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, South West Nigeria.Methods: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of all the cases of RHD seen in the medical outpatient clinics and wards of LAUTECH for 9 years, from January 2003 to December 2011. Statistical analysis of data obtained was done using SPSS 16. Results: The total number of attendees of all the medical outpatient clinics during the 9-year period was 67,378, with a subset of 9423 attending the cardiology clinic. There were 11 cases of RHD, which translates to a prevalence of 0.16/1000 and 1.2/1000 for medical outpatient clinics and the cardiology clinic respectively. The mean age of the patients was 25.64 ± 9.65 years, age range 14–40 years and male to female ratio of 1:1.2. The most common valve affected was mitral (90.9%, followed by the aortic (36.4%, and the tricuspid (18.2%. Mitral and aortic lesions coexisted in 18.2% of the patients, and late presentation was common in all RHD cases. Heart failure was the most common complication (90.9%. Other complications were secondary pulmonary hypertension (36.4%, infective endocarditis (27.3%, atrial fibrillation (27.3%, cardioembolic cerebrovascular disease (18.2%, and atrial flutter (9.1%. Mortality was 9.1%, while only one patient (9.1% had definitive surgery. Financial constraints precluded others from having definitive surgery.Conclusion: The prevalence of RHD has declined considerably as a result of improvements in the primary health care delivery system, with widespread use

  2. The role of soil quality and soil conservation for private gardening in South-West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, Sandra; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In the past centuries, agriculture played a major role in the economy of Germany, and private gardening was common practice. With the shift from agriculture to (service-) industry, less people work in their own garden for subsistence purposes and thus are no longer in direct contact with soil. However, the "Kleingarten"- and "Schrebergarten"-movements still exist in Germany, within which gardeners use soil to provide themselves with fruit and vegetables. The gardeners spend their leisure time cultivating the soil, planting, and harvesting. We ask as to whether these gardeners have a specific relation to soil quality and soil conservation, and what it is they associate with soil. Moreover, how do they use soil? Is soil quality assessed prior to planting? How do private gardeners conserve their soil? Interviewer-administered questionnaires were carried out in the respective gardens. Additionally, management practices were observed, and the fertility of the topsoil was measured. The research area is located in South-West Germany between the Black Forest and the Swabian Jura in a rural district. However, the "Kleingärten" investigated belong to the regional centre there and thus developed in an urban context. The theoretical framework of the SFB 1070 ResourceCultures was used for the study. A small portion of the surveyed private gardeners used simple box kits to analyse soil quality. However, the majority relied on experience and traditional knowledge to determine their management practices. This behaviour complicates the establishment of up-to-date knowledge about sustainable soil use like no-till and raised vegetable beds. Many surveyed persons have an agricultural background inasmuch as their (grand-) parents were farmers or at least owned a garden. Soil conservation practices are common, like the use of green manure to prevent the soil from drying out and supplementing soil with compost. Soil pollution is related to the use of chemical fertilizers which many

  3. Living Circumstances of Suicide Mortality in a South African City: An Ecological Study of Differences across Race Groups and Sexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Stephanie; Laflamme, Lucie

    2005-01-01

    In this study the importance of living area circumstances for suicide mortality was explored. Suicide mortality was assessed across race and sex groups in a South African city and the influence of area-based compositional and sociophysical characteristics on suicide risk was considered. Suicide mortality rates are highest among Whites, in…

  4. Diet composition and quality for Calanus finmarchicus egg production and hatching success off south-west Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Gudfinnsson, H.G.; Gislason, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Egg production and hatching success of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus was measured during spring and summer in the waters south-west of Iceland. Egg-production rates varied greatly, both temporally and spatially, with highest average rates found at a station with low chlorophyll-a concentrations...... (0.4 mg m(-3)). Excluding this high production rate from statistical analysis, the remaining egg-production rates were found to be positively correlated with phytoplankton biomass, as well as with parameters representing healthy phytoplankton condition, food quality and diatom-type fatty acids....... Hatching success of eggs was negatively correlated with some saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids related to phytoplankton senescence....

  5. Dutch Disease in the Post-Soviet Countries of Central and South-West Asia: How Contagious is it?

    OpenAIRE

    Egert, Balazs

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to determine the extent to which the former communist states of Central and South-West Asia are “infected” by the Dutch Disease. We take a detailed look at the functioning of the transmission mechanism of the Dutch Disease, i.e. the chains that run from commodity prices to real output in manufacturing. We complement this with two econometric exercises. First, we estimate nominal and real exchange rate models to see whether commodity prices are correlated with the exchange rat...

  6. Vulnerability of male spider crab Maja brachydactyla (Brachyura: Majidae) to a pot fishery in south-west Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, E; Carroll, J

    2009-01-01

    The Magharees fishery (Brandon and Tralee Bays in south-west Ireland) is 495 sq.km in extent, the majority of this area ≤20 m in depth. Since 1981 it has been occupied by a directed spider crab fishery yielding in some years all of the national catch of Maja brachydactyla. Maximum recorded landings were 336 t in 1999 and effort has numbered up to 10,000 pots annually. Increasing fishing capacity and declining opportunities have accentuated fishing effort on spider crab. This paper describes a...

  7. The prevalence of helminth and arthropod parasites of warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, in South West Africa/Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G; Biggs, H C; Hanssen, T S; Hanssen, R E

    1983-06-01

    A total of 38 warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, shot on a farm in northern South West Africa/Namibia were examined for internal and external parasites at monthly intervals over a period of 13 months. They harboured cestodes, 9 nematode species, 6 ixodid tick species and 1 species each of an argasid tick, a flea, a louse and larvae of a dipteran fly. Clear patterns of seasonal abundance could be determined only for the spirurid stomach worm, Physocephalus sexalatus, and the sucking louse, Haematopinus phachoeri. PMID:6634088

  8. Reason Behind Non-Exclusive Breasfeeding by Working Women in Mataram City West Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryani Haryani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine why working mothers choose to not exclusively breast feed their infants in Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara. Methods: The study used a qualitative design with a phenomenological approach. Data collection in this study involved focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. In-depth interviews with 9 working women not exclusively breastfeeding. Focus group discussions two comprising of 21 respondents were husbands, in-laws, mother’s family, healthcare provider, workplace representatives, religious and community leaders. Result: Study findings indicated that the primary reason for working women to not exclusively breastfeed, because of a lack of individual motivation, pressures of a high workload, lack of permitted time off, lack of infrastructure and concerns about losing employment due to time off. Obstacles included fear of losing employment, maternal physical factors (low/no milk production, psychological factors (stress/anxiety/frustration, lack of facilities and supporting infrastructure. Conclusion: The predominant reasons behind non-exclusive breastfeeding were lack of personal motivation, high workload, lack of permitted time off, lack of supporting infrastructure and fear of losing employment. The external obstacles for providing exclusive breastfeeding were economic factors, the mother’s ability to produce milk, psychological factors, lack of supporting infrastructure. Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, qualitative, West Nusa Tenggara

  9. Surface Soil Carbon Storage in Urban Green Spaces in Three Major South Korean Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kyung Yoon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying and managing carbon (C storage in urban green space (UGS soils is associated with the ecosystem services necessary for human well-being and the national C inventory report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. Here, the soil C stocks at 30-cm depths in different types of UGS’s (roadside, park, school forest, and riverside were studied in three major South Korean cities that have experienced recent, rapid development. The total C of 666 soil samples was analyzed, and these results were combined with the available UGS inventory data. Overall, the mean soil bulk density, C concentration, and C density at 30-cm depths were 1.22 g·cm−3, 7.31 g·C·kg−1, and 2.13 kg·C·m−2, respectively. The UGS soil C stock (Gg·C at 30-cm depths was 105.6 for Seoul, 43.6 for Daegu, and 26.4 for Daejeon. The lower C storage of Korean UGS soils than those of other countries is due to the low soil C concentration and the smaller land area under UGS. Strategic management practices that augment the organic matter supply in soil are expected to enhance C storage in South Korean UGS soils.

  10. 78 FR 6832 - Notice of Mailing Address Change for the Utah State Office, Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Mailing Address Change for the Utah State Office, Salt Lake City, UT... of Land Management (BLM), Utah State Office, in Salt Lake City, Utah, will be changing from P.O. Box 45155-0155 to 440 West 200 South, Suite 500, Salt Lake City, Utah 84101-1345. The proposed date will...

  11. Spatial variability in phytoplankton community structure along the eastern Arabian Sea during the onset of south-west monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayaz; Kurian, Siby; Gauns, Mangesh; Chndrasekhararao, A. V.; Mulla, Amara; Naik, Bhagyashri; Naik, Hema; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2016-05-01

    The Arabian Sea experiences moderate to weak upwelling along the south-west coast of India, which subsequently propagates towards the north. This causes variation in plankton community composition, which is addressed in the present study. Here we report the spatial variations in distribution of phytoplankton groups along the north-south transect in the eastern Arabian Sea based on marker pigments supported with flow-cytometric and microscopic analyses. 15 phytoplankton pigments were identified using High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the chemotaxonomic software (CHEMTAX) analysis associated these to seven major group of phytoplankton. The phytoplankton biomass, chlorophyll a (Chl a) was higher in southern stations with dominance of fucoxanthin whereas, divinyl chlorophyll a (divinyl Chl a), marker pigment of Prochlorococcus was present only in the northern region. Microscopic observation revealed the dominance of larger forms; diatoms (Chaetoceros coarctatum and Nitzschia sp.) and dinoflagellates (Scrippsiella sp., Oxytoxum nanum and Oxytoxum sp.) in the southern region. Furthermore, a study of plankton size distribution showed dominance of picoplankton (fpico) followed by nanoplankton (fnano) along the northern stations with comparatively higher microplankton (fmicro) in the south. This study clearly showed the influence of different environmental conditions on the phytoplankton community as reflected in dominance of diatoms in the southern (south of 12 °N) and that of picoplankton in the northern (north of 12 °N) region.

  12. CDMA2000 Radio Measurements at 1.9GHz and Comparison of Propagation Models in Three Built-Up Cities of South-South, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabona Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio propagation measurements and prediction, realized by the mobile terminal or the base station, is needed to guarantee quality of service and to supervise the planned coverage area. A wide variety of approaches have been developed over the years to predict signal pathloss using what are known as propagation models. In this paper, we compare the measured pathloss obtained for the urban areas with seven existingpropagation models, that is, SUI, Lee, Hata, ECC and COST-231 W/I and W/B. Firstly, for both areas, the results show that the path loss is not constant at various locations for a constant distance around the respective base station (BS. This shows that the terrains of studied cities are irregular. Secondly, observations show that the W/B gives better agreement for all the studied three cities; hence, it can be used to model signal coverage area of cellular networks in any region of South-South Nigeria

  13. Differences in the Socio-Economic Development of the Rural Space in the South-West Oltenia Development Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANA VÎLCEA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to analyze the socio-economic differences from the rural space of the South-West Oltenia Development Region, and, in the same time, to make a correlation between the level of development and the natural background (the relief where the rural settlements have developed along the history. In the same time, the long-term development potential of the region is analysed, depending on the natural and human resources available and depending on the outputs and inputs that take place between the urban settlements and the rural space from the nearby area. The proximity to the urban influence area can be a major factor with impact on the access of the rural population to certain services, determining a higher level of development. Also, an analysis of the poverty level was made, which characterizes most part of the rural settlements (especially the isolated areas or with aged population, by using statistical data from the National Institute of Statistics and a series of indicators characteristic for the level of development, correlated with the activity profile of the respective settlements. This analysis was performed for a better identification of the problems existent in the rural area of the South-West Oltenia Development Region in order to offer some viable development solutions that are concentrated especially on the natural resources and the local possibilities of the region.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus 'Down Under': contemporary epidemiology of S. aureus in Australia, New Zealand, and the South West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D A; Coombs, G W; Nimmo, G R

    2014-07-01

    The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus disease has changed considerably over the past two decades, particularly with the emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) clones. Indeed, some of the first global descriptions of CA-MRSA were from remote indigenous communities in Western Australia, and from Pacific Peoples in New Zealand. The epidemiology of S. aureus infections in the South West Pacific has several unique features, largely because of the relative geographical isolation and unique indigenous communities residing in this region. In particular, a number of distinct CA-MRSA clones circulate in Australia and New Zealand, such as sequence type (ST) 93 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (Queensland clone) and clonal complex 75 S. aureus (Staphylococcus argenteus) in Australia, and ST30 MRSA (Southwest Pacific clone) in New Zealand. In addition, there is a disproportionate burden of S. aureus disease in indigenous paediatric populations, particularly in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia, and in Pacific Peoples and Maori in New Zealand. In this review, we provide a contemporary overview of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus disease in the South West Pacific region, with a particular focus on features distinct to this region.

  15. Generation of deterministic tsunami hazard maps in the Bay of Cadiz, south-west Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Otero, L.; Olabarrieta, M.; González, M.; Carreño, E.; Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Medina, R.; Lima, V.

    2009-04-01

    The bay of Cádiz is a densely populated and industrialized area, and an important centre of tourism which multiplies its population in the summer months. This bay is situated in the Gulf of Cádiz, the south-west Atlantic margin of the Iberian Peninsula. From a tectonic point of view this area can be defined as a diffuse plate boundary, comprising the eastern edge of the Gloria and Tydeman transforms (where the deformation is mainly concentrated in these shear corridors), the Gorringe Bank, the Horseshoe Abyssal plain, the Portimao and Guadalquivir banks, and the western termination of the arcuated Gibraltar Arc. This deformation zone is the eastern edge of the Azores - Gibraltar seismic zone, being the present day boundary between the Eurasian and African plates. The motion between the plates is mainly convergent in the Gulf of Cádiz, but gradually changes to almost pure transcurrent along the Gloria Fault. The relative motion between the two plates is of the order of 4-5 mm/yr. In order to define the different tsunamigenic zones and to characterize its worst tsunamigenic source we have used seismic, structural and geological data. The numerical model used to simulate the wave propagation and coastal inundation is the C3 (Cantabria, COMCOT and Tsunami-Claw) model. C3 is a hybrid finite difference-finite volume method which balances between efficiency and accuracy. For offshore domain in deep waters the model applies an explicit finite difference scheme (FD), which is computationally fast and accurate in large grids. For near coast domains in coastal areas, it applies a finite volume scheme (VOF). It solves correctly the bore formation and the bore propagation. It is very effective solving the run-up and the run down. A set of five worst case tsunamigenic sources has been used with four different sea levels (minimum tide, most probable low tide, most probable high tide and maximum tide), in order to produce the following thematic maps with the C3 model: maximum

  16. An analysis of knowledge and opinions on xenophobia among North West University students, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa (2008-2010) / Onyebukwa Ogochukwu Laura.

    OpenAIRE

    Laura, Onyebukwa Ogochukwu

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the knowledge and opinions on Xenophobia among Students in North West University, Mafikeng Campus, North-West Province, South Africa. The hypotheses tested by the research were that negative opinions about foreigners lead to inclination to xenophobia; positive opinions about foreigners lead to non-inclination toward xenophobia and that economic and sociological factors influence negative opinions about foreigners. The results of the study ...

  17. Determinants of overweight and obesity in affluent adolescent in Surat city, South Gujarat region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish P Goyal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Obesity is a major global burden. Low levels of physical activity, TV watching, and dietary pattern are modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescent. Objective : The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for overweight and obesity among affluent adolescent, in Surat city in south Gujarat. Design : Cross sectional from July 2009 to April 2010. Setting : Two private schools with tuition fees more than Rs. 2000 per month, were selected randomly using a random table. Participants : The participants were adolescents, 12 to 15 years of age. Data collection : Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the information about dietary history and physical activity. Measurement : Height and weight was measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obesity were assessed by BMI for age. Student who had BMI for age >85 th and 95 th percentile of reference population were classified as obese (IAP Growth Monitoring Guidelines for Children from Birth to 18 Year. Result : The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 6.55% and 13.9% (boys: 6.7% and 15.1%; girls 6.4% and 13.35%. Final model of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that important determinants of overweight and obesity were low levels of physical activity, watching television or playing computer games, and consuming junk foods, snacks and carbonated drinks. Conclusion : The magnitude of obesity and overweight among affluent adolescent of Surat city was found to be 6.55% and 13.9%, respectively. Low level of physical activity, watching TV or playing computer games, and dietary pattern predisposed the adolescent to overweight/obesity.

  18. Seismic delineation of Algal Mound Reservoirs, Humble City South Field, Lea County, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caughey, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Pennsylvanian algal mounds near Lovington, New Mexico, typify the targets remaining for exploration in the Permian basin. The Strawn trend new Lovington comprises numerous small (200-800 ac) reservoirs of clean algal limestone encased in unfossiliferous carbonate mudrocks. Vuggy porosity occurs in algal micrites and sporadically in crinoidal or foraminiferal grainstones associated with the mound. Some of the Lovington area fields encountered downdip water, but difficulty in finding the mound facies remains the principal dry-hole hazard. Vague acoustical boundaries complicate seismic detection of relatively minor (50-150 ft) carbonate buildups at depths of 11,200-11,600 ft. Stratigraphic interpretation of high-resolution seismic data recently led to several new field discoveries and major extensions. Development drilling, however, can be an even greater challenge to reservoir prediction. Humble City South field illustrates the difficulty of developing a stratigraphic oil field in an area of poor seismic definition and sparse well control. A shooting program following the wildcat discovery only heightened confusion about the size and shape of the new reservoir. Two subsequent dry holes missed the mound entirely and provided only negative control. Seismic modeling, careful stratigraphic interpretation, and saturation coverage with a three-dimensional seismic project ultimately defined the existing reservoir and revealed the presence of a separate, nearby pool. Exact reservoir delineation remains difficult, but this program presented the first clear picture of overall mount geometry. The Humble City experience showed that three-dimensional seismic can be an important tool in the critical period following a wildcat discovery.

  19. FORECASTING AND ADAPTATION METHODS FOR HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT USED FOR TOURIST PURPOSE IN CITIES OF SOUTH-EASTERN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qai Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers methodological statements concerning formation and development of cultural and tourist zones and complexes in the Chinese cities with precious historical and cultural heritage. Characteristic types of historical buildings in the cities of the Tsiansu province which are located in the south-eastern part ofChinaare given in the paper. The paper contains methods for renovation of historical development for tourist purpose and gives proposals pertaining to arrangement of tourist service objects there that permit to preserve individual image of historical regions.

  20. November 2007 Multibeam Mapping of South West corner of Pulley Ridge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This disk or set of disks contain high-resolution multibeam and backscatter maps of the south-western corner of the Pulley Ridge Area, near the Tortugas, in the...

  1. An empirical investigation of construction and demolition waste generation rates in Shenzhen city, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction and demolition waste generation rates (C and D WGRs) is an important factor in decision-making and management of material waste in any construction site. The present study investigated WGRs by conducting on-site waste sorting and weighing in four ongoing construction projects in Shenzhen city of South China. The results revealed that WGRs ranged from 3.275 to 8.791 kg/m2 and miscellaneous waste, timber for formwork and falsework, and concrete were the three largest components amongst the generated waste. Based on the WGRs derived from the research, the paper also discussed the main causes of waste in the construction industry and attempted to connect waste generation with specific construction practices. It was recommended that measures mainly including performing waste sorting at source, employing skilful workers, uploading and storing materials properly, promoting waste management capacity, replacing current timber formwork with metal formwork and launching an incentive reward program to encourage waste reduction could be potential solutions to reducing current WGRs in Shenzhen. Although these results were derived from a relatively small sample and so cannot justifiably be generalized, they do however add to the body of knowledge that is currently available for understanding the status of the art of C and D waste management in China.

  2. Acciones bloqueantes alrededor de los setenta grados oeste en el sur de Sudamérica Blocking action arround seventy degrees West in the South of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelia P. Alessandro

    2005-12-01

    esta situación. La presencia de estos sistemas y la falta de viento N o NE inciden en la extremadamente escasa precipitación recibida en el Noreste de la Argentina, en las altas temperaturas en la Patagonia y bajas temperaturas en el NE y centro del país.Blocking situations near 70ºW south of South America are characterised. Cases which initiate to the west and those to the east of the above- mentioned longitude are distinguished. Averaging all cases it is seen that the Atlantic high as well as the Pacific high is displaced to the south for the first and second group respectively. Four different models result from the Principal Component Analysis, three of which representing blocking situations over the south-eastern Pacific Ocean and one of the south-western Atlantic. The trajectory of those highs that commence to the west have a cuasi zonal orientation with a speed of 20 Km/h, meanwhile those that region to the east have a slight component to the north with a speed of 20.5 Km/h. The mean centre of the anticyclones has a geopotential height of 227.7 gpm. The associated temperature anomalies are negative over most of Argentina, excepting the extreme south and the northeast, for both groups. When the blocking high is to the west of 70ºW the anomalies are more negative over Patagonia and more positive over the north-eastern country. Precipitations in Patagonia are superior with blockings beginning to the east of 70ºW with respect to those that first appear to the west, with exception of Ushuaia (54.48ºS, 68.19ºO station and north-eastern Argentina. The situation of February 2004 is described. This month has been selected because has an extreme low zonal circulation index, a high meridional index and a very high blocking index I with respect to southern summer, showing in the study area the presence of several blocking systems to the south of South America. These systems are associated with a lack of N and NE winds giving extremely low precipitations over north

  3. Residents' attitudes to proposed wind farms in the West Coast region of South Africa: A social perspective from the South

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Coast Region (WCR) of the Western Cape Province in South Africa is earmarked for 13 onshore wind farm projects totaling approximately 700 wind turbines. The developed world debate about the social acceptance of wind farm projects has impeded and illuminated a number of these developments. This paper is aimed at understanding people's reaction to proposed wind farm projects in the WCR – a region of a developing country – and to investigate whether the reasoning behind opposition to or acceptance of wind farm projects is similar to the discourse on the topic by scholars in the developed world. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect primary data by semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey. A spatial dimension was added through a map-based approach. Reactions by WCR residents to the wind farm projects were mainly positive, although some opposition was detected. International scholarship holds that place attachment serves as a reason for opposition to wind farm projects. Although most of the WCR residents had strong place attachments to their region, most of the respondents also supported the proposed wind farm projects. - Highlights: • A case study on social acceptance of proposed wind farm projects in South Africa is discussed. • The main focus is on the relation between place attachment and social acceptance or rejection of wind farm projects. • The results of the study correspond to the findings on place attachment and wind farm projects in the developed world

  4. A comparison of Guibourtia copallifera Benn.stands in South West Burkina Faso-community structure and regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Assan Gnoumou; Fidèle Bognounou; Karen Hahn; Adjima Thiombiano

    2012-01-01

    Shifting agriculture,fire,and over exploitation of wood and copal resin are the major causes of Guibourtia copallifera Benn.vulnerability in the south-west of Burkina Faso.Conservation of endangered species requires a thorough understanding of the dynamics of small populations.In the present study,we investigated the diversity and the dynamics of G.copallifera communities in two different types of land use history,a protected area (stated forest of Comoé-Leraba) and an unprotected area (the woodlands of Tourni and Timba).A total of 17 rectangular plots (50 m × 20 m) were sampled in both protected and unprotected areas.All woody species were systematically identified,measured and classified into diameter and height classes.In the two different types of land use,the dynamics of G.copallifera's communities were good,and the diversities were similar and low with high β diversity.

  5. Food habits of fishes on an exposed sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Yukinori; Suda, Yusuke; Sano, Mitsuhiko

    2011-06-01

    To clarify the feeding habits and major food sources of sandy beach fishes, the gut contents of 55 fish species collected on a sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan, were examined. Ontogenetic changes in food preference were recognized in nine species ( Hypoatherina valenciennei, Lateolabrax japonicus, Trachurus japonicus, Sillago japonica, Sphyraena japonica, Paralichthys olivaceus, Heteromycteris japonica, Paraplagusia japonica, and Takifugu niphobles). A cluster analysis based on dietary overlaps showed that the sandy beach fish assemblage comprised six trophic groups (mysid, amphipod, zooplankton, juvenile fish, terrestrial insect, and mollusk feeders). Of these, the first three groups were the most abundantly represented, whereas the last two were represented by only a single species. These results indicated that epibenthic macrofauna, such as mysids and gammaridean amphipods, and zooplankton, were important food resources for the fish assemblage at the study site, but infaunal macrobenthos, such as polychaetes and bivalves, being relatively unimportant.

  6. Ectoparasites of dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Bryson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 344 dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa, was examined for ectoparasites, and all visible arthropods were collected from the left side of each dog. By doubling these numbers it was estimated that the dogs harboured 14 724 ixodid ticks, belonging to 6 species, 1028 fleas, belonging to 2 species, and 26 lice. Haemaphysalis leachi accounted for 420 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus for 14 226 of the ticks. Pure infestations of H. leachi were present on 14 dogs and of R. sanguineus on 172 dogs. Small numbers of Amblyomma hebraeum, R. appendiculatus, R. evertsi evertsi and R. simus were also collected. The predominance of R. sanguineus accounts for the high prevalence of canine ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis within the survey region, compared to canine babesiosis (Babesia canis, which is transmitted by H. leachi, and is a much rarer disease.

  7. The age of the "old red sand" on the coasts of south Fujian and west Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The sedimentary strata and deposition ages of the "old red sand" distributed along the coasts of south Fujian and west Guangdong are determined by lithostratigraphy, magnetic stratigraphy and earth chemistry combined with TL, ESR and 14C-dating techniques. The research shows that the "old red sand" was aeolian sediments deposited from 55 400 to 9 000 aBP, the last glacial period in the middle and later age of Late Pleistocene. Most of them deposited in two periods of 56-42 ka and 30-10 ka. The "old red sand" deposited in the period of 30-10 ka, the later Würm glacier substage (Q33), developed on the largest scale with the widest distribution.

  8. A rural-urban comparison of client-provider interactions in patent medicine shops in South west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajola, Akinwunmi; Asuzu, Michael C; Owoaje, Eme T; Asuzu, Chioma C; Ige, Olusimbo K; Oladunjoye, Olubunmi O; Asinobi, A

    The increasing prominence of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) in healthcare provision makes information about how they operate of interest. This study assessed consumers' behavior and PMVs' performance in the treatment of childhood illnesses in rural and urban communities in South West Nigeria. Non-participatory observations were carried out in 163 licensed patent medicine stores in Oyo State, Nigeria. Many PMV shops (70.6% rural and 61.9% urban; p = 0.141); stocked non proprietary drugs. Clients often requested for drugs by name (75.4% urban versus 62.2% rural; p = 0.002) and PMVs mostly sold drugs as requested without questions (65.3% urban 57.8% rural; p = 0.07). Inappropriate treatment practices and invasive procedures were observed more often in urban PMVs shops (p < 0.001). PMVs functioned mostly as sales persons supplying clients' drug requests. Strategies to improve PMV treatment practices should include caregiver education to be effective. PMID:23353561

  9. Three and half million year vegetation history of South West Africa and its implications for human evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, M. A.; Pancost, R. D.

    2010-12-01

    Ocean Drilling Program Site 1085 provides a continuous marine sediment record off South West Africa for at least the last three and half million years. The n-alkane carbon isotope record from this site records past vegetation and provides an indication of the moisture availability of SW Africa over this time period. We compared the n-alkane carbon isotope record with the soil carbonate carbon isotope records of East Africa to better understand the vegetation dynamics of Africa over the Plio-Pleistocene. In SW Africa very little variation, and no trend, is observed in the n-alkane carbon isotope record over 3 million years, suggesting stable long-term conditions despite large changes in East African tectonics and global climate. Slightly higher n-alkane carbon isotope values occur between 3.5 and 2.7 Ma suggesting slightly drier conditions than today. Between 2.5 and 2.7 Ma there is a shift to more negative n-alkane carbon isotope values suggesting slightly wetter conditions during a ~0.2 Ma episode that coincides with the intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (iNHG). From 2.5 to 0.4 Ma the n-alkane carbon isotope values are very consistent, varying by less than ±0.5 per mil and suggesting little or no long-term change in the moisture availability of South West Africa over the last 2.5 million years. This is in marked contrast to the East African long-term drying trend that was punctuated by periodic extreme wet and dry periods. The comparison of the climate history of these two regions suggests that Southern Africa may have been a safe refuge for hominins and other animals during the last 3.5 Myrs and thus important implications for our understand of early human evolution.

  10. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, E.H.

    1998-02-01

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range.

  11. Optimum NPK management over extended cropping periods in the shifting cultivation system of south-west Cóte d'Ivoire.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuler, van H.; Janssen, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    In the Tai region of south-west Cote d'Ivoire P is the yield-limiting nutrient on (moderately) well drained soils. In order to find the optimum P application rate, a factorial experiment (2N x 4P x 2K) in three replicates was conducted at two sites during six seasons. The factors investigated were N

  12. Seismic stratigraphy and sedimentary architecture of the Chalk Group in south-west Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Connie; Ineson, Jon; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on a study undertaken by the Chalk Group on the western onshore region of the Danish Basin in Eastern Denmark related on the seismic stratigraphy and sedimentary architecture of the region. The study is undertaken through subdividing the northern North German Basin and the south...

  13. Ecological similarities between two Mediterranean wetlands: Sidi Boughaba (North-West Morocco and the Doñana National Park (South-West Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat Elkhiati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the underlying common processes within aquatic systems located in the same geographical region has long been used as a tool for the advancement of limnology. A limnological study of the Merja Sidi Boughaba in 2009 has shown that there are many common features between the physico-chemical and biological conditions of this site and previous data reported from some of the wetlands of the Doñana National Park (South-West Spain. Both are Ramsar sites located on extensive dune systems of the Atlantic coast with a Mediterranean climate. They have a common palaeoenvironmental history that is largely responsible for their similar hydrology and water composition. Oceanic influence has probably produced a slight disproportion of Mg2+ over Ca2+ through airborne sea salt deposition and the surface evaporation of groundwater feeding these wetlands during annual flood and drought cycles. The wide spectrum of environmental conditions encountered in the Doñana wetlands is epitomised by the Merja Sidi Boughaba, where water and sediment gradually change in the same water body from north to south: from humic-coloured waters and a sandy substrate to a calcium-rich substrate with turbid and silted waters which eventually dry out. As a consequence, the community of submersed macrophytes is very rich and dominated by dense charophyte beds. The high primary production coupled with high biodiversity found in the Merja Sidi Boughaba is also shared by the Doñana wetlands. The high conservation status of both sites enables a useful comparison to be made of the water quality of shallow aquatic systems at a regional scale which, contrary to the trophic classifications developed for deep stratified lakes in temperate regions, is not based on regressions between the concentrations of chlorophyll and total phosphorus (Tot-P but on the proportions of dissolved and particulate P pools. In these Mediterranean sites, nutrients are more efficiently recycled through the

  14. Environmental sanitation and health facilities in schools of an urban city of south India

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    Nitin Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Environmental sanitation and health facilities in schools are an important public health issue. Aims : To assess the school environment, sanitation and health related facilities and to compare the availability of these facilities between government, aided and private schools. Materials and Methods : This cross sectional study was done in 30 schools in Mangalore city of south India in February 2010. Results : Out of the 30 schools surveyed, four were government, 12 were aided and 14 were private schools. Overcrowding was seen in one third of schools. The recommended minus desks was lacking in 23(76.7% and chairs with back rest was lacking in 11(36.7% schools. More than a quarter of schools had no drinking water purification facility. Water storage units were not cleaned periodically in 6(20% schools. Quarter of all government schools and half of all aided schools had no dining hall for serving mid-day meals. Toilets were not adequate in 10(33.3% and it was not separated for boys and girls in 8(26.7% schools. Four of the surveyed schools had no medical examination of students and in 13(43.3% schools daily morning inspection by teachers was not done. Hardly few schools had staff trained to deal with medical emergencies and in counselling activities. None of the schools had an immunization register. Although the performance scores between the types of schools did not differ significantly, the combined performance of only private schools were found to be satisfactory. Conclusion : A good number of schools in this urban area were found to be falling short of several essential requirements regarding sanitation and health facilities which needs to be rectified.

  15. Infection control in general practices in Buffalo City and OR Tambo District Municipalities, South Africa

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    Don O'Mahony

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Good infection control practices are effective in reducing rates of infection in health care settings. Studies in primary care in developed countries indicate that many general practitioners (GPs do not comply with optimal infection control practices. There are no published studies from developing countries in Southern Africa.Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe infection control practices in private GP surgeries in the Buffalo City and OR Tambo District Municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.Method: A literature review was conducted to appraise current best practice with respect to Standard Infection Control and Transmission Based Precautions. A questionnaire, inquiring into GPs’ actual practices, was posted to each surgery.Results: The valid response rate was 34% (47/140. Methods used to sterilise instruments in 40 practices were: ultraviolet sterilisation (23, chemical disinfection (14, boiling water (7, and steam autoclave (2. Compounds used for chemical disinfection included organotin quaternary, chlorhexidine and benzyl ammonium chloride with a quaternary complex. Twenty-two (47% used a hand rub. Sixteen (35% GPs stated that they had a policy to promptly triage patients who are coughing, and 23 (50% had a policy for airflow movement in the surgery. All practices appropriately disposed of sharps. Thirty-seven (80% expressed interest in a seminar on infection control.Conclusions: Overall, GPs were aware of infection control precautions. Ultraviolet sterilisers and chlorhexidine are not recommended, however, for sterilisation or high level disinfection of medical instruments, and their use should be discontinued. Hand rubs are underutilised. GPs should implement Transmission Based Precautions to prevent airborne and droplet infections.

  16. Development and Deployment of Fixed Wireless Access in South West Nigeria: Performance and Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Adeniran, Oluwaranti

    2011-01-01

    Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) involves the use of wireless technology to replace copper to connect subscribers to the telephone network. It is a variant of wireless broadband which provides an alternative in the so-called 'last mile' connectivity between the subscriber and the fixed telecommunications network. FWA could either be narrowband or broadband and it is predominantly deployed using the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. In assessing the extent of development and deployment of FWA, the perspective of the operators and users was elicited primarily through the use of questionnaires. Issues like setup cost, tax, Government incentive, availability of infrastructure and manpower applied to the operators while on the users' part factors like quality of service, signal strength as well as call rate were considered. The South western zone of Nigeria is regarded as one of the most urbanized regions in the south of Sahara, this is not out of place considering the fact that Lagos which is the nation...

  17. Gold mineralisation at the southern margin of the Loch Doon granitoid complex, south-west Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Leake, R.C.; Auld, H.A.; Stone, P.; C. E. Johnson

    1981-01-01

    Following the identification of gold in a panned concentrate sample from the diverted headwaters of Glenhead Burn, south-east of Loch Trool in Galloway, Scotland,and the discovery of nativegold with arsenopyrite in a quartz vein upstream of this site, a programme of geochemical exploration of the margin and aureole of the Loch Doon plutonic complex in the drainage basin was initiated. Since rock samples showed a highly significant positive correlation between gold and ...

  18. Mineral exploration in the Lower Palaeozoic rocks of south-west Cumbria. Part 1, regional surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, D G; Cooper, D. C.; E. W. Johnson; Roberts, P D; Cornwell, J.D.; Bland, D.J.; Nancarrow, P.H.A.

    1993-01-01

    The results of geochemical, geological and geophysical surveys over Lower Palaeozoic rocks in the south-western part of Cumbria are given in two reports. This report (Part 1) describes the results of a geochemical drainage survey and an examination of mineralised sites, and relates them to information from new geological mapping and an assessment of regional geophysical data. Part 2 contains details of follow-up surveys in the Black Combe inlier. The geochemical drainage survey...

  19. New West Jinan: Leading the Development of the City%西部新城:引领济南腾飞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖正平

    2012-01-01

    在中国,铁路对一座城市的影响从未像济南这样意义深远。20世纪初.因为胶济铁路的开通,这座具有2600多年建城史的古城向西自开商埠.成为中国内陆大城市吸纳海外文明的典范.开启了济南城市近代化之旅。100年后.京沪高铁穿城而过.再次引领济南二次开埠。依托京沪高铁济南西站.位于济南西部的槐荫区.正借势2013年第十届中国艺术节举办的有利时机,依托数万亩的土地储备.上风上水的自然资源,超前的规划.以建设定位”齐鲁新门户、泉城新商埠、城市新中心.文化新高地”的济南西部新城,灿然崛起。%Jinan, which provides more than 400 square kilometers of land for the 4 million people living there, has its own life style totally preserved through a history of over 2,600 years,attracting visitors with her enchanting scenery of springs and willows, unique features of Shandong cuisine and massive historical and cultural heritage. According to the urban developing strategy of "'East Up, West Down, South Control,North Across.Central Renovation", Jinan walks with firm steps in the enlargement of new urban development space and optimization of industrial structure, keeping pace with the accelerated progress of urbanization. Seizing the present opportunity of enlarged inlluence resulting from the successful hosting of the National Games and the Garden Expo by the city and the active preparation of the lOth China Art Festival in 2013,

  20. Epidemiological studies on Fasciola hepatica in Gafsa oases (South West of Tunisia

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    Hammami H.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological investigations on Fasciola hepatica fasciolasis were carried out from July 2004 to June 2005 in the Gafsa oases (Tunisia after the detection of a human case. Three habitats were studied: one in El Gsar and two in Ain Soltan. The prevalence of human infection was 6.6 %. The presence of the parasite was detected through serology in 14.3 % of cattle, 35 % of sheep and 68.4 % of goats. The plants Apium nodiflorum, Oxalis cernua and Sonchus maritimus were suspected to be at the origin of animal contamination and Apium nodiflorum was incriminated in human infection. The prevalence of the infection of the intermediate host Galba truncatula (G. truncatula was 19.2 % from July 2004 to June 2005. Gafsa oases constitute a new location for the development of fasciolasis in the southern west of Tunisia.

  1. Determination of the water quality index ratings of water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2016-04-01

    This study reports on the water quality index (WQI) of wastewater and drinking water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces of South Africa. The WQI is one of the most effective tools available to water sustainability researchers, because it provides an easily intelligible ranking of water quality on a rating scale from 0 to 100, based on the ascription of different weightings to several different parameters. In this study the WQI index ratings of wastewater and drinking water samples were computed according to the levels of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), E. coli, temperature, turbidity and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphates) found in water samples collected from the two provinces between June and December, 2014. This study isolated three groups of WQ-rated waters, namely: fair (with a WQI range = 32.87-38.54%), medium (with a WQI range = 56.54-69.77%) and good (with a WQI range = 71.69-81.63%). More specifically, 23%, 23% and 54% of the sampled sites registered waters with fair, medium and good WQ ratings respectively. None of the sites sampled during the entire period of the project registered excellent or very good water quality ratings, which would ordinarily indicate that no treatment is required to make it fit for human consumption. Nevertheless, the results obtained by the Eerstehoek and Schoemansville water treatment plants in Mpumalanga and North West provinces, respectively, suggest that substantial improvement in the quality of water samples is possible, since the WQI values for all of the treated samples were higher than those for raw water. Presence of high levels of BOD, low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), E. coli, nitrates and phosphates especially in raw water samples greatly affected their overall WQ ratings. It is recommended that a point-of-use system should be introduced to treat water intended for domestic purposes in the clean-water-deprived areas.

  2. Wetland plant communities in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, North-West, South Africa

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    S. S. Cilliers

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in natural areas in South Africa have been described before, but no literature exists concerning the phyto­sociology of urban wetlands. The objective of this study was to conduct a complete vegetation analysis of the wetlands in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by using Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which a number of unique plant communities are recognised. These urban wetlands are characterised by a high species diversity, which is unusual for wetlands. Reasons for the high species diversity could be the different types of disturbances occurring in this area. Results of this study can be used to construact more sensible management practises for these wetlands.  

  3. Hard ticks (Ixodidae and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in south west of Iran.

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    Narges Sharifinia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are vectors of some important arthropod-borne diseases in both fields of veterinary and medicine, such as Lyme, tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and some types of encephalitis as well as Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF. Iran is known as one of the main foci of CCHF in west of Asia. This study was conducted in DarrehShahr County because of the development of animal husbandry in this area to detect the fauna and viral infection of the hard ticks of livestock. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2011-2012 with random sampling in four villages. A sample of ticks was subjected to RT-PCR method for detection of viral infection. During the study period, 592 Ixodidae ticks were collected and identified as seven species of Hyalomma asiaticum, Hy. marginatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. detritum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rh. sanguineus. More than 20% of these ticks were examined to detect the genome of CCHF virus while 6.6% were positive. All species of Hyalomma were found to be positive. A high rate of livestock was found to be infected with hard ticks, which can act as the vectors of the CCHF disease. Regarding infection of all five Hyalomma species captured in this area, this genus should be considered as the main vector of CCHF. Planning control program can be performed based on the obtained data on seasonal activity of Ixodidae to prevent animal infestation as well as to reduce the risk of CCHF transmission.

  4. Rural-urban differentials of premature mortality burden in south-west China

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    Chongsuvivatwong Virasakdi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yunnan province is located in south western China and is one of the poorest provinces of the country. This study examines the premature mortality burden from common causes of deaths among an urban region, suburban region and rural region of Kunming, the capital of Yunnan. Methods Years of life lost (YLL rate per 1,000 and mortality rate per 100,000 were calculated from medical death certificates in 2003 and broken down by cause of death, age and gender among urban, suburban and rural regions. YLL was calculated without age-weighting and discounting rate. Rates were age-adjusted to the combined population of three regions. However, 3% discounting rate and a standard age-weighting function were included in the sensitivity analysis. Results Non-communicable diseases contributed the most YLL in all three regions. The rural region had about 50% higher premature mortality burden compared to the other two regions. YLL from infectious diseases and perinatal problems was still a major problem in the rural region. Among non-communicable diseases, YLL from stroke was the highest in the urban/suburban regions; COPD followed as the second and was the highest in the rural region. Mortality burden from injuries was however higher in the rural region than the other two regions, especially for men. Self-inflicted injuries were between 2–8 times more serious among women. The use of either mortality rate or YLL gives a similar conclusion regarding the order of priority. Reanalysis with age-weighting and 3% discounting rate gave similar results. Conclusion Urban south western China has already engaged in epidemiological pattern of developed countries. The rural region is additionally burdened by diseases of poverty and injury on top of the non-communicable diseases.

  5. An Exploration of Public Attitudes Toward LGBTI Rights in the Gauteng City-Region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Faraaz; Trangoš, Guy

    2016-10-01

    South Africa's legal framework on the rights of sexual minorities is one of the most progressive in the world. Despite this, discrimination and violence against gay and lesbian people continues to be a challenge. Using large-scale survey data gathered in the Gauteng City-Region, this study examines public attitudes related to homosexuality. Most respondents to the survey felt that sexual minorities should have equal rights. However, a considerable proportion of respondents also held negative views toward gay and lesbian individuals, with close to two fifths of respondents believing that homosexuality is against the values of their community, and over 12% of participants holding the view that it is acceptable to be violent toward gays and lesbians. Further analysis also consists of an examination of responses cross-tabulated with the variables of race, gender, age, and education, revealing that younger, well-educated South Africans tend to be the most tolerant, but also exhibiting large variances in attitudes within groups.

  6. Combinatory Mediterranean-Sudanese systems role in the occurrence of heavy rainfalls (case study: south west of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbary, Mehry

    2015-12-01

    Sudanese systems are low-pressure thermal s ystems which originate from the Red Sea and their low-pressure isoheights are detectable around south of the Red Sea, Sudan and Ethiopia. These systems when combined with Mediterranean troughs in cold seasons, and absorbing more humidity from the Red Sea, reach the south west of Iran and result in heavy rainfalls in western, southwestern and southern parts of Iran. In all these synoptic-dynamic systems, low-pressure isobars or low isoheights are considerable. 11 severe torrents which happened in southwest of Iran (1998-2008) are selected and using Japanese ReAnalysis data (JRA25), anomalies of dynamic and thermodynamic indices 2 days prior to the start of heavy rainfalls and during rainy days have been analyzed. The selected indices in this research are relative vorticity, convergence and divergence, vorticity advection, specific humidity and moisture advection. Pressure levels of 500 and 700 were analyzed to detect the location of troughs, vorticity and vertical wind velocity. Also level of 1000 hPa was investigated to determine the atmospheric convergence in near surface levels. It should be mentioned that to determine the advection of moisture, vertical profile of moisture advection (1000-250 hPa levels) was analyzed. According to the results of this research and analyzing 6-hourly recorded rainfall amounts, it is understood that in the reference events, before the start of the torrent, geopotential height values in the under-studied region decrease and at the time of maximum rainfalls, the geopotential height reaches to its lowest values and by the end of the torrent, the values start increasing; whereas parameters related to convergence and vertical movements, such as relative vorticity, moisture advection, convergence of moisture and specific humidity amounts correspond to the same trend of rainfall from the beginning to the end.

  7. Participatory rural appraisal to investigate constraints in reporting cattle mortalities in the Odi district of North West Province, South Africa

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    C.N. Makgatho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mortalities in cattle can have severe financial implications for small scale and communal farmers in South Africa. They could also be a measurable indicator for surveillance of animal diseases, such as those listed by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE, or diseases included in the regulations of the South African Animal Diseases Act, 1984 (Act 35 of 1984. In order to prevent further mortalities and for accurate surveillance and monitoring of diseases, it is important that farmers participate in the determination of causes of mortality in their cattle. This paper reports on constraints of the reporting diseases to the state veterinary services, the study area being Odi district, in the North West Province. The method that was followed was based on participatory rural appraisal. The selected cattle owners participated in every phase. They were the ones who first spoke to veterinary services about ways to decrease the diseases and mortalities of their cattle. A questionnaire to verify the facts complemented the survey. A total number of 60 farmers were randomly selected from 12 villages. One farmer withdrew, leaving 59 farmers. Most of the farmers in the study were men (n = 55. The area of study was communal and the farming system traditional and extensive. It was suspected that there was a communication problem and this was proven by the results of the research, as 23 farmers were not even aware that mortalities have to be reported by law. The real problem was that causes of death were not being diagnosed because farmers were not aware that a necropsy could give information on the causes of death. Farmers were keen to receive training in elementary necropsy techniques so as to be able to discuss the cause of death of cattle with the state veterinarian.

  8. Study on Rotavirus Infection and Its Genotyping in Children Below 5 Years in South West Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaran, Azarakhsh; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Samarbafzadeh, Alireza; Neisi, Niloofar; Hoseinzadeh, Mohsen; Rasti, Mojtaba; Teymurirad, Majid; Teimoori, Ali; Varnaseri, Mehran; Makvandi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Background Human rotaviruses are the most important agents for severe dehydrating diarrhea in children below 5 years old. Rotaviruses (RV) is a serious public health problem in developing and developed countries. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection and their genotypes in children younger than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods For this study, 200 stool samples from children below 5 years of age with acute diarrhea were collected between October 2011 and March 2012. Initially all stool samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA, and positive samples were confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the VP6 rotavirus gene. Determination of rotavirus genotypes was carried out by performing RT-PCR for G and P types. Altogether, 15 samples were sequenced. Results Out of 200 stool samples, 100 (50%) had rotavirus antigen detected by ELISA and 73 (36.5%) were found positive by RT-PCR. Of the rotavirus strains identified, only 63 (86.3%) were positive for both VP7 and VP4 while 10 (13.7%) strains were found nontypeable. Rotavirus infection accounts for 36.5% of gastroenteritis cases in samples from symptomatic children. The most prevalent rotavirus genotypes were G1P [8] (80%) followed by G2P [4] (20%). Conclusions Our results suggest that group A rotavirus is a major pathogene of acute diarrhea in Ahvaz city. The genotypes circulating are similar with those of other countries. PMID:27307959

  9. Full-Genome Sequence of a Neuroinvasive West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Strain from a Fatal Horse Infection in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentoor, Juliet L D; Lubisi, Alison B; Gerdes, Truuska; Human, Stacey; Williams, June H; Venter, Marietjie

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strain that resulted in fatal neurological disease in a horse in South Africa. Several recent reports exist of neurological disease associated with lineage 2 WNV in humans and horses in South Africa and Europe; however, there are a lack of sequencing data from recent fatal cases in Southern Africa, where these strains likely originate. A better understanding of the genetic composition of highly neuroinvasive lineage 2 strains may facilitate the identification of putative genetic factors associated with increased virulence. PMID:27469963

  10. Full-Genome Sequence of a Neuroinvasive West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Strain from a Fatal Horse Infection in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentoor, Juliet L. D.; Lubisi, Alison B.; Gerdes, Truuska; Human, Stacey; Williams, June H.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strain that resulted in fatal neurological disease in a horse in South Africa. Several recent reports exist of neurological disease associated with lineage 2 WNV in humans and horses in South Africa and Europe; however, there are a lack of sequencing data from recent fatal cases in Southern Africa, where these strains likely originate. A better understanding of the genetic composition of highly neuroinvasive lineage 2 strains may facilitate the identification of putative genetic factors associated with increased virulence. PMID:27469963

  11. An investigation into the awareness and understanding of the ultraviolet index forecasts in the South West of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jenny; Laing-Morton, Tish; Marno, Penny; Curnow, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Despite large sun protection behaviour intervention campaigns there has not been a marked reduction in the incidence of skin cancer. This study explored the awareness and understanding of global solar UV index (UVI) information presented to the public in weather forecasts and whether individuals changed their sun exposure/protection behaviour as a result of receiving such information. A cross-sectional, face-to-face survey was undertaken in Devon and Cornwall in the South West of England between 20 August and 7 September 2008. 466 interviews were completed; 53% at beach locations and 38% in town centres. The specified targets for the interviews were achieved: males (n = 232), females (n = 234); resident (n = 251), tourist (n = 215); aged 16-34 (n = 156), 35-54 (n = 158), and 55 years plus (n = 152). Sixty-seven percent of participants had heard of the UVI (the predominant source being television broadcasts). Only 40% were able to state correctly that a value of 7 would be considered to be 'high'. Sixty percent indicated that knowing the UVI value did not influence their sun protection behaviour. Awareness of UVI in the UK appears to have altered little in the past decade and although some improvements in understanding have been observed, it is concerning that this information is not influencing most individual's sun protection behaviour. PMID:21046048

  12. Parasitic prevalences in fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal

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    Monjit Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of different freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii parasites, found during the period from April to August 2007, was investigated in different freshwater wetlands of north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal state in India. Eleven parasites - Zoothamnium, Epistylis, Gregarina, Amphileptus, Dileptus, Myxobolus, Chilodonella, Balladyna, Gozia, Rhabdochona, Indocucullanus, Procamallanus and Cucullanus - were found after examining 1,000 specimens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii of different-sized groups. The highest prevalence of the parasites was recorded in the size group of 81-85 mm and 136-140 mm. The intensity of ectoparasitic infection was observed to be high with an increase in size. The gills and the surface of the body were mostly infected. Endoparasites were found in the intestinal part, and mostly due to poor raw foods given to the prawns as their diets. The parasites get more shelter and space for them. The highest intensity of those parasites was found in the month of August due to favourable autumnal conditions, with little rain and favourable breeding time of the parasites. Stressed and weak prawns are more vulnerable to infestation under adverse environmental conditions.

  13. HEPATITIS B VIRUS (HBV AND SYPHILIS CO-INFECTIONS AMONG THE PEOPLE OF EKITI, SOUTH-WEST, NIGERIA

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    Akinbolaji Thompson J, Odeyemi Festus A, Adegeye Festus O, Ojo Olalekan I, Akinseye Funmilayo J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to know the prevalence of hepatitis B, syphilis and co-infection of both among the people of Ekiti, South-West, Nigeria. Individuals and patients who visited the Haematology and Blood Transfusion Unit of Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti to screen themselves for HBV and Syphilis infections between January to November, 2014 were recruited for this study having obtained their consent. 4ml of blood sample was collected from each subject into a plain bottle and was allowed to stand for 1hour for clotting and clot retraction to take place. Sera were separated into khan tubes labeled appropriately and were screened for the presence of antibodies to HVB and syphilis using One-Stage Rapid Test Kits (DiaSpot Diagnostics and were later confirmed using enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA (Stat Fax Awareness, England. One Thousand Six Hundred and Thirty-Nine subjects were recruited for this study, out of which Seven Hundred and Seventy-Four were males while Eight Hundred and Sixty-Five were females. 101(6.16% were positive to HBV, 51(0.92% positive to syphilis and 5(0.31% were co-infected with both infections. The results of this study showed higher prevalence of hepatitis B infection than syphilis infection with the highest prevalence found within the age group 31-40 years and 21-30 years indicating that most of the infected people got the infection through sexual intercourse.

  14. An exploration of issues of management and intention to stay: allied health professionals in South West Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnitti, Karen; Schoo, Adrian; Dunbar, James; Reid, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Management of allied health staff and services often has implications for staff stability and retention. A survey of allied health staff in South West Victoria was conducted in 2003 to explore issues relating to recruitment and retention. Findings relating to management and retention of staff in their current job are addressed in this report. A total of 138 staff returned their questionnaires. Results were related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, level of belonging, with professional needs identified as feeling supported, orientation to the position, clear job description, and able to recommend the position to others. Qualitative data showed that recommending the position was associated with job satisfaction, autonomy, flexibility, and variety of work. The immediate management structure was significantly related to retention. Reasons given for intending to leave were related to management categories. These were management structure, lack of career structure, and lack of professional support. Reasons given by respondents for not recommending their current position were as follows: not for long-term career, risk of deskilling if staying too long, and financially unrewarding. These reasons were also related to management. Positive reasons for staying, which were related to management, included flexible work conditions, variety of clinical and management experience, good working environment, good support, and autonomy. Recommendations are given for organizational development and training for managers.

  15. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

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    S.S. Cilliers

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in sub-communities and variants, resulting in 18 vegetation units. Some of these vegetation units are similar to communities described previously in natural areas. The presence of degraded natural communities suggests huge anthropogenic influences in certain areas. An ordination (DECORANA scatter diagram shows the distribution of the plant communities along gradients which could be related to vegetation structure, altitude, soil depth, rockiness of soil surface, wetness or dryness of the habitat and number of introduced species. This study contributes to the compilation of a guideline for a conservation orientated management plan for the area, but also created a wealth of new knowledge of the reaction of indigenous plant species under disturbed conditions.

  16. Stream water chemistry and quality along an upland lowland rural land-use continuum, south west England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, H. P.; Haygarth, P. M.; Neal, C.; Butler, P.; Smith, B.; Naden, P. S.; Joynes, A.; Neal, M.; Wickham, H.; Armstrong, L.; Harman, S.; Palmer-Felgate, E. J.

    2008-02-01

    SummaryThis study examined stream water quality across a range of catchments which are representative of the key environments and land uses of rural south-west England. These catchments included: (a) an acidic upland headwater catchment, rising on the moorlands of Dartmoor, with low-intensity sheep rearing; (b) a headwater catchment rising on the weathered granite lower slopes of Dartmoor, with cattle farming; (c) a lowland headwater clay catchment with sub-surface drainage and high intensity livestock farming, fodder crop cultivation, and hard-standing/slurry storage; and (d) the main River Taw, a lowland river system receiving drainage from a range of tributaries, exemplified by the above catchment types. Variations in water chemistry and quality were observed along an upland-lowland transition, from headwater streams to the main river channel. Within the livestock-dominated headwater streams, total phosphorus (TP) was dominated by particulate phosphorus (PP). These PP concentrations appeared to be mainly linked to two sets of processes: (1) in-stream sediment precipitation with sorption/co-precipitation of phosphate and/or localised in-channel mobilisation of sediment (by cattle or channel-clearing operations) under low flow conditions, and (2) sediment erosion and transportation associated with near-surface runoff during storm events. Under baseflow conditions, in-stream and/or riparian processes played a significant role in controlling general nutrient chemistry, particularly in the headwater streams which were heavily impacted by livestock.

  17. Identifying the component structure of job satisfaction by principal components analysis among extension officers in North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenah Karabo Mabe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The component structure of a 34-item scale measuring different aspects of job satisfaction was investigated among extension officers in North West Province, South Africa. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 40 extension officers from which data were collected. A structured questionnaire consisting of 34 job satisfaction and 10 personal characteristic items was administered to the extension officers. Items on job satisfaction were measured at interval level and analyzedwith Principal ComponentAnalysis. Most of the respondents (82.5% weremales, between 40 to 45 years, 85% were married and 87.5% had a diploma as their educational qualification. Furthermore, 54% of the households size between 4 to 6 persons, whereas 75% were Christians. The majority of the extension officers lived in their job area (82.5, while 80% covered at least 3 communities and 3 farmer groups. In terms of number of farmers covered, only 40% of the extension officers covered more than 500 farmers and 45% travelled more than 40 km to reach their farmers. From the job satisfaction items 9 components were extracted to show areas for job satisfaction among extension officers. These were in-service training, research policies, communicating recommended practices, financial support for self and family, quality of technical help, opportunity to advance education, management and control of operations, rewarding system and sanctions. The results have several implications for motivating extension officers for high job performance especially with large number of clients and small number of extension agents.

  18. An exploration of issues of management and intention to stay: allied health professionals in South West Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnitti, Karen; Schoo, Adrian; Dunbar, James; Reid, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Management of allied health staff and services often has implications for staff stability and retention. A survey of allied health staff in South West Victoria was conducted in 2003 to explore issues relating to recruitment and retention. Findings relating to management and retention of staff in their current job are addressed in this report. A total of 138 staff returned their questionnaires. Results were related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, level of belonging, with professional needs identified as feeling supported, orientation to the position, clear job description, and able to recommend the position to others. Qualitative data showed that recommending the position was associated with job satisfaction, autonomy, flexibility, and variety of work. The immediate management structure was significantly related to retention. Reasons given for intending to leave were related to management categories. These were management structure, lack of career structure, and lack of professional support. Reasons given by respondents for not recommending their current position were as follows: not for long-term career, risk of deskilling if staying too long, and financially unrewarding. These reasons were also related to management. Positive reasons for staying, which were related to management, included flexible work conditions, variety of clinical and management experience, good working environment, good support, and autonomy. Recommendations are given for organizational development and training for managers. PMID:17243438

  19. DROUGHT AND CANICULA IN THE AGRICULTURAL YEAR 2011-2012 IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. MARINICĂ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Drought and Canicula in the Agricultural Year 2011-2012 in the South-West of Romania. The atypical weather during 2011 has also continued in 2012 (Marinică 2006, Bogdan, Marinică 2007, Marinică & all, 2011. Consequently, the winter of 2011, in Oltenia had two distinct parts: a first warmish and droughty part, and a second cold part, marked by drought too. In November, the weather was colder than usual. This was the first excessively droughty autumn of the last 13 autumns in Oltenia. During the winter of 2011-2012, although most of it was warm, there were registered 20 days of excessive frost and abundant snowfalls (25 January 2012-15 February 2012. In April 2012 the drought continued. The excessively warmish weather returned in summer, associated with an intense drought. On the whole the agricultural year 2011-2012 was an excessively droughty year (ED, and the excessive drought was mainly registered in two essential periods: in autumn and during the whole summer, namely in the periods in which there is a maximum need of water. The paper analyses in detail the characteristics of this agricultural year and the consequences on crops.

  20. 西南联大考试述论%On the Examinations in South-west Associated University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱端强

    2014-01-01

    South-west Associated University had scientific and strict examination system which involves the committees,consisting of famous professors,to check the qualification of freshmen and the scores of graduates and managed all the examinations of the universi-ty.The calculating method on Student Score Reporting Table was open and fair.Students had to take the examinations from all the compulsory courses and electives,especially P.E.The various forms and the difficulties of the examinations were decided by the teach-ers.Without make-up examination system,the proportion of drop-out students was relatively high.%西南联大实行科学、严格的考试制度。由著名教授轮流组成“新生资格审查委员会”“毕业生成绩审查委员会”等组织,管控全校考试。成绩计算方法印在《学生成绩报告表》上,公开透明。“应修课”和“选修课”都必须考试,体育课考试尤严。考试由任课教师把握,形式多样,难易不一。没有补考制度,故大一、大二淘汰率较高。

  1. Incentives Packages And Employees’ Attitudes To Work: A Study Of Selected Government Parastatals In Ogun State, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah Olubusayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For any organization to compete favourably in the competitivesociety, employees’ attitudes and commitment towards work goes a long way indetermining the employees’ performance and organization productivity. The main objective of this study is to examine the effect ofincentives packages on employees’ attitudes towards work. A descriptive researchmethod was adopted for this study using one hundred twenty valid questionnaireswhich were completed by members of staff of four (4 selected governmentparastartals in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria using stratified and systematicsampling technique. The data collected were carefully analyzed using percentagesupported by standard deviation to represent the raw data in a meaningfulmanner. The results show that strong relationship exists between incentives packagesand employees’ attitudes towards work and the workers are not satisfied withthe present incentives packages. The summary of the findings indicates thatthere is strong correlation between the tested dependent variable andindependent construct. However, employers of labour and decision makers shouldendeavour to review incentives packages at various levels in order to earnemployees’ commitment and satisfaction.

  2. Incentives Packages and Employees’ Attitudes to Work: A Study Of Selected Government Parastatals In Ogun State, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah Olubusayo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For any organization to compete favourably in the competitive society, employees’ attitudes and commitment towards work goes a long way in determining the employees’ performance and organization productivity. The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of incentives packages on employees’ attitudes towards work. A descriptive research method was adopted for this study using one hundred twenty valid questionnaires which were completed by members of staff of four (4 selected government parastartals in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria using stratified and systematic sampling technique. The data collected were carefully analyzed using percentage supported by standard deviation to represent the raw data in a meaningful manner. The results show that strong relationship exists between incentives packages and employees’ attitudes towards work and the workers are not satisfied with the present incentives packages. The summary of the findings indicates that there is strong correlation between the tested dependent variable and independent construct. However, employers of labour and decision makers should endeavour to review incentives packages at various levels in order to earn employees’ commitment and satisfaction.

  3. Motor neurone disease in Lancashire and South Cumbria in North West England and an 8 year experience with enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Suresh Kumar; Bradley, Belinda Fay; Majeed, Tahir; Lea, Robert William

    2016-02-01

    Motor neurone disease (MND) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown aetiology. Malnutrition is a common occurrence and an independent risk factor for worse prognosis. However, it remains unclear whether provision of enteral nutrition (EN) through a gastrostomy tube offers any survival advantage. Our aim was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of MND in Lancashire and South Cumbria in North West England and the impact of EN on survival in the 8 year period of 2005-2012. Four hundred and seven patients with MND were identified through the Preston MND care and research centre registry giving a crude incidence rate of 3.15/100,000. Three hundred and forty patients with adequate information were included in the final analysis of whom 53.2% were male. The presentation was limb/spinal in 62.1% and bulbar in 37.9% of patients, bulbar onset being more common in elderly females. Mean age of onset was 67.28 years (standard deviation 11.06; range 22.78-93.06). Median survival was 1.98 years (range 1.18-3.05). Ninety-one patients received EN of whom 67% had bulbar onset disease. EN was not associated with a statistically significant survival advantage except for the subgroup who received EN more than 500 days after symptom onset. In conclusion, the early requirement for EN may indicate a prognostically less favourable subgroup.

  4. Knowledge, Attitude, and Preventive Practices among Prison Inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsalam Saliu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prisoners are at special risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV because of overcrowded prisons, unprotected sex and sexual assault, occurrence of sexual practices that are risky to health, unsafe injecting practices, and inadequate HIV prevention, care, and support services. This study aimed to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS by male inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. A simple random sampling method was employed to select 167 male participants and data were collected using pretested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Fifty (29.9% were in the age group 20–24 years with mean age of 30.99±11.41. About half (50.3% had been married before incarceration. Family and friends (30%, health care workers (25%, prison staff (20%, and mass media (25% were the commonest sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV was found to be high (94.6%. About 68.9% believed that people with the disease should be avoided. The knowledge about HIV/AIDS among inmates was high, but misconceptions about HIV/AIDS are still rife among the prisoners and educational programs would be required to correct this.

  5. Knowledge, Attitude, and Preventive Practices among Prison Inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Akintunde, Babatunde

    2014-01-01

    Prisoners are at special risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of overcrowded prisons, unprotected sex and sexual assault, occurrence of sexual practices that are risky to health, unsafe injecting practices, and inadequate HIV prevention, care, and support services. This study aimed to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS by male inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. A simple random sampling method was employed to select 167 male participants and data were collected using pretested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Fifty (29.9%) were in the age group 20-24 years with mean age of 30.99 ± 11.41. About half (50.3%) had been married before incarceration. Family and friends (30%), health care workers (25%), prison staff (20%), and mass media (25%) were the commonest sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV was found to be high (94.6%). About 68.9% believed that people with the disease should be avoided. The knowledge about HIV/AIDS among inmates was high, but misconceptions about HIV/AIDS are still rife among the prisoners and educational programs would be required to correct this. PMID:25763397

  6. Psychological strengths, coping and suicide ideation in the South African Police Services In The North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rothmann

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Relatively high numbers of suicides occur in the South African Police Services. The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between sense of coherence, generalised self-efficacy, locus of control and coping on the one hand and suicide ideation among police personnel on the other hand. The study population (N = 287 consisted of uniformed police personnel in the North West Province. The results showed that sense of coherence and generalised self-efficacy are related to suicide ideation of police members. A discriminant analysis showed that sense of coherence, coping strategies and medical status correctly classified 81,48% of participants who scored high on suicide ideation. Opsomming ‘n Relatiewe hoë getal selfmoorde kom in die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens voor. Die doelstelling van hierdie navorsing was om die verband tussen koherensiesin, algemene selfdoeltreffendheid, lokus van beheer en coping enersyds en selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming van polisiepersoneel andersyds te bepaal. Die studiepopulasie (N = 287 het bestaan uit polisiepersoneel in die Noordwes-Provinsie. Die resultate het aangetoon dat koherensiesin en algemene selfdoeltreffendheid verband hou met selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming by polisieper-soneel. ‘n Diskriminantontleding het aangetoon dat koherensiesin, coping-strategieë en mediese toestand 81,48% van die deelnemers met hoë tellings ten opsigte van selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming korrek geklassifiseer het.

  7. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by ethnic people in West and South district of Tripura, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saikat Sen; Raja Chakraborty; Biplab De; N Devanna

    2011-01-01

    An ethno-medicinal investigation was conducted to highlights the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants being used by the tribe in West and South district of Tripura. This paper provides information about the different uses of plants used in their primary health care system. Tripura is a small north-eastern state of India and also a part of both Himalayan and Indo-Burma biodiversity region. It is a goldmine of me- dicinal plants and use of different plants in tribal traditional heath care systems has long history. Nineteen different tribes in Tripura, depend on natural resources at a great extent. This paper documented 113 medicinal plant species from 56 families along with their botanical name, local name, family name, habit, medicinal parts used, and traditional usage of application. The dominant families are Euphorbiaceae (7 species), Apo- cynaceae (6 species), Fabaceae and Rubiaceae (5 species each), Caes- alpiniaceae, Asteraceae, Liliaceae and Verbenaceae (4 species each), Combretaceae, Labiatae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (3 species each). Tribes of Tripura have rich traditional knowledge on plant based medicine. Different parts of the plants in crude form/plant ex- tracts/decoctions/infusion or pastes are employed in diverse veterinary and human diseases by the tribe's of Tripura in daily life.

  8. Raising livestock in resource-poor communities of the North West Province of South Africa - a participatory rural appraisal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Getchell

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives : to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creation, and health services. Lack of pasture for grazing livestock was also cited as being important. Other most frequently mentioned livestock problems included 'gall sickness' (a vaguely defined condition not necessarily referring to anaplasmosis, parasites (both external and internal, chicken diseases and ingestion of plastic bags discarded in the environment. When livestock owners were questioned during individual interviews, most were able to identify the presence of parasites in either the live or dead animal. However, it seems likely that this is limited to the identification of tapeworms. It was found that most livestock owners use a combination of treatments, ranging from traditional to folklore to commercial. There were some difficulties in using the participatory methods since it was the first time that the facilitators and the communities had been exposed to them. Many communities had difficulty in dealing with the concept of finding solutions within the community, which is such an integral part of participatory methods.

  9. Human Mycobacterium bovis infection in the south-west of Ireland 1983-1992: a comparison with M. tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    Epidemiological and bacteriological aspects of human Mycobacterium bovis disease were investigated in south-west Ireland (counties Cork & Kerry, population 536,000) over the years 1983-92 inclusive and compared to M. tuberculosis. Results showed a small, stable incidence of culture positive M. bovis human disease, mean annual incidence 0.56 per 100,000 population compared to a higher but declining incidence of culture positive M. tuberculosis (15.3 per 100,000 in 1983, 9.0 per 100,000 in 1992). Male patients were the majority, 63.4 per cent of M. bovis; 62.4% of M. tuberculosis (p = 0.03). Fifty three per cent of M. bovis cases (n = 30) were pulmonary, compared to 85% of M. tuberculosis (n = 626; p = 0.0001). M. bovis patients were older (p = 0.02), mean age 58.4 years (SD 18.9) compared to 48.5 (SD 22.2). The mycobacterial smear positive rate was similar in both groups taken as a whole. No rural-urban difference in incidence was found in either disease, suggesting in the case of M. bovis initial infection in childhood via contaminated milk in the pre-pasteurisation era.

  10. EFFECT OF JOB ENRICHMENT ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IN SELECTED PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaji, Nanle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study is an assessment of the effect of job enrichment on non-academic staff motivation in private universities in Nigeria; a survey of selected private universities in South-western Nigeria. The main objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between job enrichment and employees‘ motivation. This study employed a crosssectional survey design. Data was collected from 547 non-academic staff and was analyzed using Descriptive Statistics (mean, standard deviation and Regression Analysis to assess the job enrichment and motivation-rating in line with the objectives of the study. The finding revealed that there is strong positive relationship between job enrichment and employee motivation. Results showed that job enrichment account for employee motivation at 66% relationship and 44% variation at a significance level of 0.05. This shows that non- academic staff in the sampled universities are highly motivated by the practice of job enrichment design. The study recommended that human resources directors of the seven selected private universities surveyed and other organizations alike should take account of individual differences, attributes and people orientation to work. The management should not generalize the motivation strategies, rather individual should be motivated accordingly.

  11. Community Study of maternal mortality in South West Nigeria: how applicable is the sisterhood method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Adetoro A; Campbell, Malcolm; Ogundeji, Martins O; Lawoyin, Taiwo O; Thomson, Ann M

    2013-02-01

    A significant reduction in maternal mortality was witnessed globally in the year 2010, yet, no significant reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Nigeria was recorded. The absence of accurate data on the numbers, causes and local factors influencing adverse maternal outcomes has been identified as a major obstacle hindering appropriate distribution of resources targeted towards improving maternal healthcare. This paper reports the first community based study that measures the incidence of maternal mortality in Ibadan, Nigeria using the indirect sisterhood method and explores the applicability of this method in a community where maternal mortality is not a rare event. A community-based study was conducted in Ibadan using the principles of the sisterhood method developed by Graham et al. for developing countries. Using a multi-stage sampling design with stratification and clustering, 3,028 households were selected. All persons approached agreed to take part in the study (a participation rate of 100%), with 2,877 respondents eligible for analysis. There was a high incidence of maternal mortality in the study setting: 1,324/6,519 (20.3%) sisters of the respondents had died, with 1,139 deaths reportedly related to pregnancy, childbirth or the puerperium. The MMR was 7,778 per 100,000 live births (95% CI 7,326-8,229). Adjusted for a published Total Fertility Rate of 6.0, the MMR was 6,525 per 100,000 live births (95% CI 6,144-6,909). Women in Ibadan were dying more from pregnancy related complications than from other causes. Findings of this study have implications for midwifery education, training and practice and for the first time provide policy makers and planners with information on maternal mortality in the community of Ibadan city and shed light on the causes of maternal mortality in the area.

  12. Internal transport of seeds by migratory waders in the Odiel marshes, south-west Spain: consequences for long-distance dispersal

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Marta I; Green, Andy J.; Castellanos, Eloy M.

    2006-01-01

    Waders (Charadriiformes) undergo particularly long migratory flights, making them ideal vectors for long-distance dispersal. We present a study of dispersal of plant seeds by migratory waders in the Odiel saltworks in south-west Spain. This is the first field study to demonstrate excretion of viable seeds by waders. Viable seeds of Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum (Aizoaceae), Sonchus oleraceus (Asteraceae) and Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Chenopodiaceae) were frequent in pellets and fa...

  13. Pilanesberg National Park, North West Province, South Africa: Uniting economic development with ecological design – A history, 1960s to 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Carruthers

    2011-01-01

    In the late 1970s, a ground-breaking project began in the Pilanesberg district in what is now the North West Province of South Africa to create a wildlife conservation and eco-tourism venture from degraded marginal farmland in an aesthetically attractive extinct volcanic crater. The establishment of this national park was innovative in a number of respects, including a partnership between landscape and ecological designers, local community development and participation, regional tourist ...

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT) ON THE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF AGRO-BASED FOOD INDUSTRIES IN SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Ayinde; Agbonlahor, M.U.; Mafimisebi, Taiwo Ejiola; Adebayo, O. A.

    2004-01-01

    The use of Information Communication technologies (ICTs) as a management tool has gained widespread significance in recent years and the stock of management advantages provided by ICT cuts across disciplines and sectors. Management experts see this globalization of management options as the “super production and marketing input” needed by firms to boost their competitive edge. This paper assesses the adoption and use of ICTs on the economic performance of Agro-industries (ABFIs) in South-West...

  15. The effectiveness of student involvement in decisionmaking and university leadership: A comparative analysis of 12 universities in South-west Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adesoji A. Oni; Jeremiah A. Adetoro

    2015-01-01

    This study examines student involvement in university leadership and decision-makingand its impacts on leadership effectiveness in universities in Nigeria. The study uses adescriptive survey conducted among students and staff in all 12 of the public and privateuniversities in South-West Nigeria.1 The research findings indicate that there is a significantrelationship between student involvement in decision-making and leadership effectiveness.It also reveals that there are significant differenc...

  16. Tourism SMME adoption of Information and Communication Technology in Ngaka Modiri Molema district of the North West province of South Africa / S.H. Phetlhe

    OpenAIRE

    Phetlhe, S H

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of ICT adoption of tourism SMMEs in Ngaka Modiri Molema District of the North West Province in South Africa. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 200 tourism enterprises with the response rate of 68%. The results indicate, that the level of adoption of ICT is highly influenced by the perception of ICT adoption of tourism SMMEs. Most of the tourism SMMEs use ICT for business purpose and factors such as size of enterprise...

  17. Determinants of delay in malaria treatment-seeking behaviour for under-five children in south-west Ethiopia: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Deribew Amare; Deribe Kebede; Getahun Alemayehu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Prompt diagnosis and timely treatment of malaria within 24 hours after onset of first symptoms can reduce illness progression to severe stages and therefore, decrease mortality. The reason why mothers/caretakers delay in malaria diagnosis and treatment for under-five children is not well studied in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess determinants of malaria treatment delay in under-five children in three districts of south-west Ethiopia. Methods A case cont...

  18. The availability of recreation policies and strategies for the provision of recreation service delivery in the North West Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mogajane, V.S.; Meyer, C.; Monyeki, M.A.; Toriola, A. L.; Amusa, L.O.

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of recreation and leisure through coherent strategies and policy development is a significant move towards changing the quality lives of communities. The unavailability of recreation strategies and policies are associated with negative effect on the delivery of recreation services. The purpose of the study was therefore, to determine the availability of recreation strategies and policies in for the provision of recreation service delivery in North-West Province, South Africa. A ...

  19. A new species of Dermoergasilus Ho & Do, 1982 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) from freshwater fishes in the south-west of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Marina; Jones, Brian; Lymbery, Alan J

    2009-10-01

    A new species of Dermoergasilus Ho & Do, 1982 is described from freshwater fish hosts in the south west of Western Australia. D. occidentalis n. sp. differs from previously described species in the genus principally by the armature of the legs. The new species was found on the gills of the freshwater cobbler Tandanus bostocki Whitely and western minnow Galaxias occidentalis Ogilby in two different river systems. PMID:19731098

  20. Technical efficiency of water use and its determinants, study at small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Speelman, S.; Buysse, J; Haese, D', L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the efficiency with which water is used in small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province in South Africa and studies its determinants. In the study area, small-scale irrigation schemes play an important role in rural development, but the increasing pressure on water resources and the approaching introduction of water charges raise the concern for more efficient water use. With the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) techniques used to compute farm-level technical effic...

  1. Technical efficiency of water use and its determinants, study at efficiencies in small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Speelman, Stijn; D'Haese, Marijke F.C.; Buysse, Jeroen; D'Haese, Luc

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the efficiency with which water is used in small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province in South Africa and studies its determinants. In the study area, small-scale irrigation schemes play an important role in rural development, but the increasing pressure on water resources and the approaching introduction of water charges raise the concern for more efficient water use. With the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) techniques used to compute farm-level technical effic...

  2. Epidemiology of Ancylostoma spp. in the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) in the Don˜ ana National Park, south-west Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, J. de; Palomares, Francisco; Ruíz de Ibáñez, R.; Ortíz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The epidemiology of Ancylostoma spp. was studied in the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) in the Don˜ ana National Park, south-west Spain. Faecal samples were collected throughout a complete annual cycle (August 1997 to September 1998). The overall egg prevalence of Ancylostoma spp. was 57.8%. The pattern of abundance of Ancylostoma spp. eggs in faeces was overdispersed. Juvenile lynx demonstrated a statistically higher prevalence and abundance of Ancylostoma spp. than i...

  3. Positioning the city product as an international tourist destination: Evidence from South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Prayag, Girish

    2007-01-01

    Increased competition among international tourism destinations has turned many countries to seek growth from destination branding and positioning strategies. The most popular type of destination of interest for positioning studies has been countries, followed by states and very few studies have focused on city products. This study aims at contributing to city marketing and positioning literature. The objectives of this study are two-fold: firstly to identify whether cognitive images of Cape T...

  4. Clinical audit and peer review scheme for the South West post-new 2006 dental contract: a report on progress so far.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Williams, P

    2009-01-10

    With the introduction of personal dental services (PDS) into the South West the Local Assessment Panel (LAP) devised a new scheme consisting of 'cookbook' audits and piloted the scheme amongst the PDS dentists of South and West Devon, Somerset and Avon in 2005/2006. When the new contracting arrangements came into force, and in the absence of guidance from above, the LAP in consultation with the PCTs decided to consolidate the successful pilot audit scheme for PDS dentists and extend the new scheme to all the participating PCTs and their performers. The current scheme covers Devon, Somerset, Avon and Gloucester PCTs and is administrated by Mrs Jackie Derrick on behalf of Somerset PCT. All the audits showed improvement with the exception of the patient satisfaction survey where the first audit cycle showed an average patient satisfaction rating of 99% which cannot be improved on. We have redesigned this audit to try and make it more challenging and informative. The improvement in clinical record keeping was particularly marked. With the advent of new contractual arrangements in April 2009 it is essential that practitioners are able to demonstrate quality assurance in their practice and we believe that the South West scheme is a dentist friendly scheme, relevant to everyday dental practice. PMID:19132038

  5. The tectonic differences between the east and the west in the deep-water area of the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zhongyu; WAN Zhifeng; WANG Xianqing; SHI Qiuhua; CAI Song; XIA Bin

    2016-01-01

    The deep-water area of the northern South China Sea, which has active and complicated tectonics, is rich in natural gas and gas hydrate. While the tectonic characteristics is different obviously between the east and the west because of the special tectonic position and tectonic evolution process. In terms of submarine geomorphology, the eastern shelf-slope structure in Pearl River Mouth Basin is characterized by having wide sub-basins and narrow intervening highs, whereas the western (Qiongdongnan Basin) structure is characterized by narrow sub-basins and wide uplift. As to the structural features, the deep-water sags in the east are all structurally half-grabens, controlled by a series of south-dipping normal faults. While the west sags are mainly characterised by graben structures with faulting in both the south and north. With regards to the tectonic evolution, the east began neotectonic activity when the post-rifting stage had completed at the end of the Middle Miocene. In the Baiyun Sag, tectonic activity became strong and was characterised by rapid subsidence and obvious faulting. Whereas in the west, neotectonic activity began at the end of the Late Miocene with rapid deposition and weak fault activity.

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE WORKFORCE IN THE SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA REGION IN COMPLEMENTARY ACTIVITIES SUCH AS E-WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Enăchescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available South West region covers an area of 29,212 km2, approximately 12.25% of the country (238391 km ² and includes five counties: Dolj, Olt, Valcea, Mehedinti and Gorj. It is bordered by Bulgaria, Serbia and South Muntenia, Central and West. From the total workforce of 828,900 people, 332,300 people are employed in farming, forestry and fishing (40% and only 4500 in the areas of information and communications, respectively in 6600 other activities. The regional unemployment rate was 7.7% in 2011 compared to 7.6% nationally, 7.1% for women respectively 8.3% for men, a level very close to the national average[5][7]. We presented these statistics to highlight the region's potential in the development of e-work activities that would increase employment levels both in urban population and especially in rural areas, low unemployment and thus the local population migration and support sustainable development of the region. This paper aims to analyze the opportunity to develop complementary activities of e-work employment for the South West region.

  7. Nonindigenous Freshwater and Estuarine Species Introductions and their Potential to Affect Sportfishing in the Lower Stream and Estuarine Regions of the South and West Shores of Oahu, Hawaii: Data from 1998-1999 (NODC Accession 0001116)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surveys of native and non-indigenous species along the south and west shores of Oahu (excluding Pearl Harbor) were funded by a grant from the David and Lucile...

  8. Wind Wave Spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes from 01 March 2001 to 31 March 2001 (NODC Accession 0000437)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were collected...

  9. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 December 2000 to 30 December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000128)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes....

  10. Wind Wave Spectra and other data from buoy casts in the East/West Coast US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 October 2000 to 31 October 2000 (NODC Accession 0000348)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected at fixed platforms in Gulf of Mexico, East/West Coast US, South Pacific Ocean, and Great Lakes from October 1, 2000...

  11. Characterizing ionic species in PM2.5 and PM10 in four Pearl River Delta cities, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected at four major cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China, during winter and summer in 2002. Six water-soluble ions, Na+, NH4+, K+, Cl-, NO3- and SO42- were measured using ion chromatography. On average, ionic species accounted for 53.3% and 40.5% for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively in winter and 39.4% and 35.2%, respectively in summer. Secondary ions such as sulfate, nitrate and ammonium accounted for the major part of the total ionic species. Sulfate was the most abundant specie followed by nitrate. Overall, a regional pollution tendency were shown in this campaign though there were higher concentrations of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium measured in Guangzhou City than those in the other PRD cities. Significant seasonal variations were also observed with higher levels of species in winter and lower in summer. The Asian monsoon system was favorable for removal and diffusion of air pollutants in PRD in summer while highly loading of local industrial emissions tended to deteriorate the air quality as well. NO3-/SO42- ratio indicates that mobile sources have considerably contribution to the urban aerosol but stationary sources should still not be neglected. Besides the primary emissions, complex atmospheric reactions under favorable weather conditions should be paid more attention for formulating control strategies for primary emission in the future in the PRD region.

  12. RAISING AWARENESS ABOUT SOCIAL ECONOMY – INFORMATION CAMPAIGN DEVELOPED IN THE SOUTH-WEST, SOUTH-EAST AND CENTRE REGIONS OF ROMANIA – EXPERIENCES THROUGH THE “SOCIAL ECONOMY – A REAL CHANCE FOR A BETTER LIFE” PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Georgeta Corman

    2014-01-01

    The article continues the description of the implementation of the “Social Economy – a real chance for a better life!” POSDRU project, started in the second volume/ no 1 – February 2012 of the “Social Economy Magazine”, and it offers information about the campaign developed in the South-West, South-East and Centre Region of Romania. The purpose of the campaign was to empower and involve the local communities in the process of social inclusion, to mobilize disadvantaged groups and to encourag...

  13. Level of job satisfaction amongst nurses in the North-West Province, South Africa: Post occupational specific dispensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisinyana H. Khunou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Job satisfaction and burnout have been recurring problems amongst nurses in the Republic of South Africa (RSA. As a result, nurses are still leaving the rural public sector in search of lucrative work at the urban and private sectors and in developed countries. Accordingly, Occupational Specific Dispensation (OSD was introduced as a strategy to ircumvent the problem. However, since the implementation of OSD in 2007, there have been no studies conducted regarding the level of job satisfaction amongst nurses after the implementation of OSD in the North-West Province, especially because each province has its own challenges that are unique to the area.Objectives: The study had two objectives: to describe the level of job satisfaction amongstprofessional and other category nurses (OCNs at a public hospital in the North-West Provinceand describe the perceptions of nurses about OSD and their intention to continue working inthe hospital.Method: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Stratified random sampling was used to select a sample of 92 professional nurses (PNs, 90 enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing assistants (Nursing Act 2005, which made a total of 182 participants. For the purpose of the study, the enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing assistants were referred to as OCNs. Data were collected using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire–short form and OSD statements and analysed with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, version 18.Results: The majority of PNs (79.3%, n = 73 and OCNs (86.7%, n = 77 were dissatisfied with the working conditions and salary: PNs (80.4%, n = 74 and OCNs (87.8%, n = 79. The nurses mostly discredited the current state of the OSD implementation. Majority of the PNs (84%, n = 77 and OCNs (91%, n = 82 disagreed with the statement that ‘level of job satisfaction has improved after the implementation of OSD’.Conclusions: The National Department of Health should consider a

  14. A socio-structural analysis of crime in the city of Tshwane, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory D. Breetzke

    2010-01-01

    High and rising levels of crime plague post-apartheid South Africa. A common explanation for these high crime rates relates the country’s unique socio-political past to a system of ineffective social control mechanisms that suggest high levels of social disorganisation within certain communities. Other explanations emphasise the presence of disaffected youths and deprivation, as well as the rapid immigration of people from neighbouring African countries into South Africa. I examined a number ...

  15. Mobility and participatory planning in bogotá and medellín: relationship with cities in colombia and south america

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-González, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The article approaches the issue of urban mobility in Colombia by means of analyzing different bodies of data such as: population growth in five national cities, Bogota's institutional development over the last twenty years, successful participatory planning in the city of Medellín, effects of economic conurbation in large urban centers, the successful implementation of public transportation systems in comparison with other South American metropolis, Bogota's road and street condition, and th...

  16. Tales from the South (and West) Pacific in the Common Era: A Climate Proxy Perspective (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Partin, J. W.; Maupin, C. R.; Hereid, K. A.; Gorman, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    The southwest Pacific is a major source of tropical climate variability through heat and moisture exchanges associated with the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) and the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). These variations are especially significant at the annual, interannual (El Niño-Southern Oscillation, ENSO), and multi-decadal timescales. Gridded SST data products are available in the pre-satellite era in this region for the past ~130 years, although data density is a significant issue for the older half of these records. Time series of salinity (SSS) and rainfall from this region are exceedingly rare. Thus, climate proxy records must be used to reconstruct SST, SSS, and rainfall variations in the Common Era (CE) in the tropical Pacific. The analytical laboratory for paleoclimate studies at UT has focused its research efforts into producing climate proxy time series from southwest tropical Pacific using modern and fossil corals, and speleothems. Our most recent results are summarized in this presentation, although much of this work is still in progress. Coral climate records have been generated from Sabine Bank, Vanuatu (16°S, 166°E) and Misima Island, Papua New Guinea (10.6°S, 152.8°E). The Vanuatu coral record of monthly resolved Sr/Ca variations extends back to the late 18th century. All strong ENSO warm phase events of the 20th century observed in the instrumental record are also observed in the coral record. We note that several ENSO warm phase events in the 19th century portion of the coral record are comparable in size to that recorded in response to the 1982/1983 and 1997/1998 events. The Misima coral record of monthly resolved δ18O and Sr/Ca variations spans the interval ~1414-1645 CE — the heart of the Little Ice Age. Amplitude modulation of interannual variability is observed in this LIA record, much like what is observed during the relatively quiescent period of 1920-1950 in the 20th century instrumental and proxy records of ENSO. However

  17. Study on Renewal Planning of Declining Historic Quarters:Inspired from the Discussion on Conservation of the Old City in South Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through collecting,reflecting and summarizing various opinions on the conservation of the old city in South Nanjing,this paper examines the problems that the declining historic quarters are facing amid the urban renewal process.Moreover,in combination with the existing planning practices in the old city in South Nanjing,this paper carries out a discussion on the renewal of the declining historic quarters from the perspective of values,exploration and assessment of historic resources,choice of renewal methods,and support of implementation system.

  18. Adherence of doctors to a clinical guideline for hypertension in Bojanala district, North-West Province, South Africa

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    Asafa R. Adedeji

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical guidelines are systematically developed statements that assist practitioners and patients to make healthcare decisions for specific clinical circumstances. Non-adherence of doctors to guidelines is thought to contribute significantly to poor delivery of clinical care, resulting in poor clinical outcomes.Aim: To investigate adherence of doctors in rural district hospitals to clinical guidelines using the South African Hypertension Guideline 2006 as an example.Setting: Four district hospitals in Bojanala district of North-West Province, South Africa.Methods:A cross-sectional study determined adherence practices of doctors from records of patients with established hypertension seen at the four district hospitals.Results: Of the 490 total records documented by 29 doctors, screening for co-morbidity or associated factors was carried out as follows: diabetes mellitus 99.2%, obesity 6.1%, smoking 53.5%, dyslipidaemia 36.9%, abdominal circumference 3.3%; organ damage: eye 0, kidney 82%, heart 43.5%, chronic kidney disease 38.2%, stroke/transient ischaemic attack 15.9%, heart failure 23.5%, advanced retinopathy 0.2%, coronary heart disease 23.7%, peripheral arterial disease 13.9%. Critical tests/measurements were documented in the following proportions: blood pressure 99.8%, weight 85.3%, height 65.7%, body mass index 3.1%, urinalysis 74.5%, lipogram 76.1%, urea/creatinine 80.4%, electrocardiogram 42.9%, blood glucose 100%; risk determination and grading: diagnosis by hypertension severity 19%, low added risk 57.1%, moderate added risk 64.7%, high added risk 89.6%, very high added risk 89.2%. Adherence to therapies was as follows: first-line guideline drugs 69.4%, second line 84.7%, third line 87.8% and fourth-line 89.6%.Conclusion: Overall adherence of doctors to treatment guidelines for hypertension was found to be low (51.9%. Low adherence rates were related to age (older doctors and less clinical experience, and

  19. Are we monitoring the quality of cataract surgery services? A qualitative situation analysis of attitudes and practices in a large city in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwatosin O O Haastrup; John C Buchan; Andy Cassels-Brown; Colin Cook

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the current quality "assurance" and "improvement" mechanisms, the knowledge, attitudes and practices of cataract surgeons in a large South African city. Methodology: A total of 17 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with ophthalmologists in June 2012 at 2 tertiary institutions in the Republic of South Africa. Recruitment of the purposive sample was supplemented by snowball sampling. The study participants were 5 general ophthalmologists and 2 pediatric ...

  20. Microlunatus cavernae sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from Alu ancient cave, Yunnan, South-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Juan; Chen, Wei; Huo-Zhang, Bing; Nimaichand, Salam; Zhou, En-Min; Lu, Xin-Hua; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-07-01

    A Gram-positive, coccoid, non-endospore-forming actinobacterium, designated YIM C01117(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Alu ancient cave, Yunnan province, south-west China. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM C01117(T) was shown to belong to the genus Microlunatus, with highest sequence similarity of 97.4 % to Microlunatus soli DSM 21800(T). The whole genomic DNA relatedness as shown by the DNA-DNA hybridization study between YIM C01117(T) and M. soli DSM 21800(T) had a low value (47 ± 2 %). Strain YIM C01117(T) was determined to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid with Gly, Glu and Ala amino acids (A3γ' type) in the cell wall. Whole-cell hydrolysates were found to contain glucose, galactose, mannose and ribose. The major polar lipids were determined to be phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The predominant menaquinone system present is MK-9(H4), while the major fatty acids were identified to be anteiso-C15:0 (24.1 %), iso-C16:0 (22.3 %) and iso-C15:0 (11.4 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 65.9 mol%. The chemotaxonomic and genotypic data support the affiliation of the strain YIM C01117(T) to the genus Microlunatus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allow strain YIM C01117(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from recognized Microlunatus species. Strain YIM C01117(T) is therefore considered to represent a novel species of the genus Microlunatus, for which the name Microlunatus cavernae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM C01117(T) (= DSM 26248(T) = JCM 18536(T)).

  1. On the Annual Cycle of Central South-West Asia precipitation in GCMs: an Analysis of AMIP Simulation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, K. M.; Taylor, P.; Szeto, K.

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluates simulations of precipitation patterns over the Central South-West Asia region (25-40N and 45-75E) by using results from the Atmospheric Model Inter-comparison Project (AMIP). Annual and monthly spatial precipitation fields produced by a subset of 13 currently available AMIP model experiments are evaluated for the region and compared with GPCC (Global Precipitation Climatology Centre) monthly precipitation data for the period of 1979-2001. GPCC precipitation data are available with 0.5 degree resolution and correlate with observational precipitation data with a correlation factor of 0.953. The models show large variations in their ability to capture the seasonal precipitation, although spatial correlations indicate that some of the models simulate the pattern of GPCC precipitation fields fairly well. Some models cannot capture the convective precipitation in the region that occurs during spring (March-April) and fall (Sept-Oct). Relative to the GPCC data most of the models predicted well in winter whereas some models cannot adequately capture the summer (monsoon) precipitation which enters the domain from east. On the spatial scales of the selected region, there is little consistent evidence that points to any specific feature as an indicator of model performance. None of the obvious candidates such as horizontal resolution, convective closure schemes, or land surface schemes are reliable discriminators of a models ability to simulate precipitation accurately. Horizontal resolution effects are apparent in the inter-mountain region, where high resolution models do better that low resolution models. However, there is not enough evidence to produce reliable simulation on this basis. Correlation coefficients of observed precipitation with model output can be improved by using ensemble averaged precipitation from several models.

  2. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2 genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

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    José Raul Sandoval

    Full Text Available Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2 influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249 (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno, and Ecuador (n = 182 (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados. The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80, Amantani (0.80 and Anapia (0.58 islander communities of the Lake Titicaca, but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest, as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  3. Relationship between organic micropollutants and hydro-sedimentary processes at a karst spring in south-west Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiperski, Ferry; Zirlewagen, Johannes; Hillebrand, Olaf; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott

    2015-11-01

    Karst aquifers are known to be highly vulnerable to contamination due to their particular hydraulic characteristics. A number of parameters (such as turbidity, dissolved organic matter concentration, particle size distribution) have been proposed as proxies that can be used to detect changes in water quality or contamination of karst springs. However, most of these are not very specific concerning the source of any contamination. Organic micropollutants (OMPs) such as artificial sweeteners or herbicides are possible source-specific indicators that can be used in karst catchment areas, but real time monitoring is not as yet possible for these compounds. We have investigated the possibility of combining the source-specific features of OMPs with real-time measurements of electrical conductivity (EC) and turbidity by means of ECturbidity hysteresis plots. These plots allow for identifying different hydro-sedimentary processes. Our investigations were carried out at the Gallusquelle karst spring in south-west Germany, during high flow conditions that occurred in 2013 after heavy precipitation. The herbicide atrazine, which derives from the aquifer matrix, was detectable in the spring water until resuspended particles appeared at the spring. The herbicide metazachlor, which is present in recharge from cropland, was found to be associated with periods of direct transfer of particles originating from the land surface. The artificial sweetener cyclamate was used as a wastewater indicator, but neither hysteresis plots of EC and turbidity nor any other real-time parameters were able to detect the presence of cyclamate following a wastewater spill. Since EC and turbidity are easily measurable parameters, the systematic relationships of ECturbidity hysteresis behavior to OMPs might assist in the sustainable management of raw water within karst catchments. PMID:26081739

  4. Distributions and sea-to-air fluxes of nitrous oxide in the South China Sea and the West Philippines Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsiao-Chun; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Borges, Alberto V.; DelValls, T. Angel; Lai, Chao-Ming; Chen, Ting-Yu

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 600 water samples from the South China Sea (SCS) and 250 water samples from the West Philippines Sea (WPS) were collected during seven cruises from August 2003 to July 2007 to determine nitrous oxide (N2O) distributions between the surface and a maximum depth of 4250 m. In the SCS, the average surface N2O concentration exceeded the atmospheric equilibrium concentration (on average 132±23%); however in the WPS, the surface N2O concentration was lower than the atmospheric equilibrium concentration (on average 90±22%). The N2O concentration reached a maximum (~23 nmol L-1) in the WPS at 800-1000 m, and (~28 nmol L-1) at a shallower depth of around 600-800 m in the SCS, owing to vertical mixing and intensive upwelling in the SCS. In the SCS, the surface N2O concentration was 7.59±1.32 nmol L-1 and the calculated sea-to-air flux was 5.5±3.9 μmol m-2 d-1. The surface N2O concentration in the WPS, 5.19±1.26 nmol L-1, was lower than that in the SCS. The WPS is a sink for N2O and the calculated sea-to-air flux was -1.7±3.9 μmol m-2 d-1. The SCS emitted 19.3×106 mol d-1 N2O to the atmosphere and exported 8.5×106 mol d-1 N2O to the WPS during the wet season.

  5. Attitudes towards Prosthodontic Clinical Decision-Making for Edentulous Patients among South West Deanery Dental Foundation Year One Dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Barber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe Dental Foundation year one dentists’ attitudes towards prosthodontic decision making for edentulous patients, and identify whether there are gender differences in these attitudes. All South West Deanery trainees were invited to take part in the study between May and June 2011 and a previously piloted questionnaire was administered to the trainees by their training programme directors. The questionnaire posed questions based upon a clinical scenario of discussing treatment options with patients. Seventy-two questionnaires were used in the analysis (91% overall response rate. Trainees perceived their own values to be less important than the patient’s values (p < 0.001 in decision making, but similar to the patient’s friend’s/relative’s values (p = 0.1. In addition, the trainees perceived the patient’s values to be less important than their friend’s/relatives (p < 0.001. Sixty-six per cent of trainees acknowledged an influence from their own personal values on their presentation of material to patients who are in the process of choosing among different treatment options, and 87% thought their edentulous patients were satisfied with the decision making process when choosing among different treatment options. Fifty-eight per cent of trainees supported a strategy of negotiation between patients and clinicians (shared decision making. There was no strong evidence to suggest gender had an influence on the attitudes towards decision making. The finding of a consensus towards shared decision making in the attitudes of trainees, and no gender differences is encouraging and is supportive of UK dental schools’ ability to foster ethical and professional values among dentists.

  6. Short-term effects of restoration on the hydrology of shallow blanket peatlands in the South West UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscombe, David; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Anderson, Karen; Gatis, Naomi; Ashe, Josie; Brazier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The Exmoor/Dartmoor Mires Project is a peatland restoration project on the blanket bogs of the south-west UK. The restoration undertaken aims to enhance multiple ecosystem services including; water storage/quality, biodiversity and carbon storage in these degraded/drained and geo-climatically marginal peatlands. A fully spatially distributed hydrological monitoring array has been implemented across three headwater catchments incorporating water table depth, temperature, conductivity and pH measurements. Additional data collected include channel flow, DOC, POC, colour and a full suite of meteorological variables. Over 250 individual measurements are collected at a high temporal resolution (15 minute time step) via sensors integrated within a GPRS/VHF telemetry system, and sent directly to a dedicated server. All three catchments were scheduled for restoration prior to the implementation of hydrological monitoring in 2010/2011, and two of the three catchments monitored have already undergone restoration after ca.3 years of pre-restoration monitoring. This paper presents preliminary results from before and (initially) following restoration of one of the monitored headwater catchments. Data captured during restoration demonstrate an instantaneous increase in water table across catchment scales. However, over longer (monthly) time scales, water table changes indicate a more spatially variable response to restoration interventions designed to initiate rewetting of the peat mass. Interpretation of these data using modelled surface flow pathways derived from high resolution digital elevation models, suggests that changes in the hydrological connectivity of the catchments, following restoration, may be affecting the rewetting potential of some areas of the peat. Whilst no significant restoration effect was observed in terms of DOC concentrations/loads, the significant reductions in storm-flow generated for equivalent rainfall events, post-restoration, result in lower DOC

  7. Incorporating Sentinel-2-like remote sensing products in the hydrometeorological modelling over an agricultural area in south west France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Gascoin, Simon; Etchanchu, Jordi; Coustau, Mathieu; Cros, Jérôme; Tallec, Tiphaine

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 mission will enable to monitor the land cover and the vegetation phenology at high-resolution (HR) every 5 days. However, current Land Surface Models (LSM) typically use land cover and vegetation parameters derived from previous low to mid resolution satellite missions. Here we studied the effect of introducing Sentinel-2-like data in the simulation of the land surface energy and water fluxes in a region dominated by cropland. Simulations were performed with the ISBA-SURFEX LSM, which is used in the operational hydrometeorological chain of Meteo-France for hydrological forecasts and drought monitoring. By default, SURFEX vegetation land surface parameters and temporal evolution are from the ECOCLIMAP II European database mostly derived from MODIS products at 1 km resolution. The model was applied to an experimental area of 30 km by 30 km in south west France. In this area the resolution of ECOCLIMAP is coarser than the typical size of a crop field. This means that several crop types can be mixed in a pixel. In addition ECOCLIMAP provides a climatology of the vegetation phenology and thus does not account for the interannual effects of the climate and land management on the crop growth. In this work, we used a series of 26 Formosat-2 images at 8-m resolution acquired in 2006. From this dataset, we derived a land cover map and a leaf area index map (LAI) at each date, which were substituted to the ECOCLIMAP land cover map and the LAI maps. The model output water and energy fluxes were compared to a standard simulation using ECOCLIMAP only and to in situ measurements of soil moisture, latent and sensible heat fluxes. The results show that the introduction of the HR products improved the timing of the evapotranspiration. The impact was the most visible on the crops having a growing season in summer (maize, sunflower), because the growth period is more sensitive to the climate.

  8. Therapeutic efficacy of Artemether/Lumefantrine (Coartem® against Plasmodium falciparum in Kersa, South West Ethiopia

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    Animut Abebe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemether/Lumefantrine (Coartem® has been used as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection since 2004 in Ethiopia. In the present study the therapeutic efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum infection at Kersa, Jima zone, South-west Ethiopia, has been assessed. Methods A 28 day therapeutic efficacy study was conducted between November 2007 and January 2008, in accordance with the 2003 WHO guidelines. Outcomes were classified as early treatment failure (ETF, late clinical failure (LCF, late parasitological failure (LPF and adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR. Results 90 patients were enrolled and completed the 28 day follow-up period after treatment with artemether/lumefantrine. Cure rate was very high, 96.3%, with 95% CI of 0.897-0.992 (PCR uncorrected. Age-stratified data showed adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR to be 100% for children under 5 and 97.4% and 87.3% for children aged 5-14, and adults, respectively. There was no early treatment failure (ETF in all age groups. Fever was significantly cleared on day 3 (P 0.05. No major side effect was observed in the study except the occurrence of mouth ulcers in 7% of the patients. Conclusions The current study proved the excellent therapeutic efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine in the study area and the value of using it. However, the proper dispensing and absorption of the drug need to be emphasized in order to utilize the drug for a longer period of time. This study recommends further study on the toxicity of the drug with particular emphasis on the development of oral ulcers in children.

  9. Characterisation of Shigella species isolated from river catchments in the North West province of South Africa

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    Constance Wose Kinge

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and distribution of Shigella species in water from the five river catchments in the North West province of South Africa were investigated. Shigella is a Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobic bacillus that causes shigellosis, an important cause of morbidity and mortality in high-risk populations (such as children, the elderly and immuno-compromised individuals that depend on river water. A total of 54 water samples collected in winter (April 2007 to July 2007 and summer (December 2007 to March 2008 were cultured on Salmonella-Shigella agar by the spread-plate method. Suspected Shigella isolates obtained were characterised by primary biochemical (Triple Sugar Iron agar and agglutination and molecular (polymerase chain reactions, PCR tests. Amplification of the invasion plasmid gene (ipaH by PCR was done to confirm the presence of Shigella spp. in water. In total, 214 Shigella boydii, 15 Shigella dysenteriae, 11 Shigella flexneri and 2 Shigella sonnei were confirmed by serotyping in both winter and summer samples. The ipaH gene (606 bp was present in 176 and 49 of the winter and summer isolates, respectively. The presence of Shigella spp. in water was confirmed with over 90% specificity. The need for more effective management of these river catchments and the provision of potable water and sanitation facilities is needed to minimise the occurrence and transmission of water-borne diseases caused by these and other pathogenic bacteria.

  10. Malaria incidence in children in South-West Burkina Faso: comparison of active and passive case detection methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred B Tiono

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and seasonal pattern of malaria in children in South-West Burkina Faso, and to compare, in a randomized trial, characteristics of cases detected by active and passive surveillance. This study also enabled the planning of a malaria vaccine trial. METHODS: Households with young children, located within 5 kilometers of a health facility, were randomized to one of two malaria surveillance methods. In the first group, children were monitored actively. Each child was visited twice weekly; tympanic temperature was measured, and if the child had a fever or history of fever, a malaria rapid diagnostic test was performed and a blood smear collected. In the second group, children were monitored passively. The child's parent or caregiver was asked to bring the child to the nearest clinic if he was unwell. Follow up lasted 13 months from September 2009. RESULTS: Incidence of malaria (Fever with parasitaemia ≥5,000/µL was 1.18 episodes/child/year in the active cohort and 0.89 in the passive cohort (rate ratio 1.32, 95% CI 1.13-1.54. Malaria cases in the passive cohort were more likely to have high grade fever; but parasite densities were similar in the two groups. Incidence was highly seasonal; when a specific case definition was used, about 60% of cases occurred within the 4 months June-September. CONCLUSION: Passive case detection required at least a 30%-40% increase in the sample size for vaccine trials, compared to active detection, to achieve the same power. However we did not find any evidence that parasite densities were higher with passive than with active detection. The incidence of malaria is highly seasonal and meets the WHO criteria for Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC. At least half of the malaria cases in these children could potentially be prevented if SMC was effectively deployed.

  11. The Influence Of Personal Factors On Workers’ Turnover Intention In Work Organizations In South-West Nigeria

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    Elsie Omolara Babajide

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of personal factors on workers’ turnover intention in work organizations in South-West Nigeria. This was for the purpose of ascertaining the relevance of personal variables to turnover intention assessment among industrial workers in Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A total of 725 respondents were selected using stratified sampling technique. A set of self developed structured questionnaire titled Personal Factors and Workers’ Turnover Intention Scale (PFWTIS with reliability co-efficient of 0.84 was used for data collection. Multiple Regression Analysis and t-test statistics were used for data analysis at 0.05 alpha levels. The findings revealed that: Personal factors (work-family life, commitment, job satisfaction and general health significantly influenced workers’ turnover intention F (4, 720 = 0.570; P<0.05. Findings revealed that the order of causation in descending order of magnitude: Job satisfaction (Beta = 0.345, P<.0.05; work-family life (Beta = 0.205; P<0.05, general health (Beta = 0.213; P<0.05 and commitment, (Beta = 0.145; P<0.05. Based on these findings, it was recommended that for retention of workers to be made possible, motivational incentives that could foster workers` job satisfaction and commitment should be provided at equitable measure of reward system to be commensurate with workers` job performance. Also, organizational support system that could promote workers` good health and reduction of occupational hazards should be provided for all levels of workers in order to achieve workers retention.

  12. Reconsideration of strategical background and feasibility of south to west water transfer%再论南水西调的战略背景及可行性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建新; 侯杰; 杨力行

    2011-01-01

    分析了南水西调战略计划搁置15年的原因,认为现如今该战略正面临着一个大的发展机遇.一方面在技术上找到了南水北调西线120亿m3冲沙水的替代方案--利用人工加压液化输沙技术下降黄河悬河,解决了与西线工程用水的矛盾,为南水西调提供水资源条件;另一方面随着国家西部开发战略的深入推进和内地省区对口支援新疆政策的启动,南水西调战略已具备天时、地利、人和的条件.%The paper analysed the reasons that the strategy of south to west water transfer has delayed for 15 years and thought that the strategy is facing a chance of great development nowadays. On the one hand ,we have found the technical replacement scheme for the west line of 12 billions m3 of water to flush the sand by using the technique of artifical pressure to liquefy solum, to solve the contradictory of water using with west line, and provided the condition of water resources for the south to west water transfer. On the other hand,with the promoting west development and the start of the police of support Xinjiang by inland,we have all the adventage conditions.

  13. City of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The city of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, (20.0S, 44.0W) is a relatively new community in southeastern Brazil. It lies about 225 miles north of Rio de Janeiro and occupies an area of rolling and hilly terrain. The economy is based on a mixture of agriculture, cattle grazing, mining and manufacturing.

  14. Measuring the Impacts of the Progress of Cities on Real Estate Values

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    Murat ATİK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investors, companies and people who have savings invest real estate because the expectation of the increasing future value of it. The correctly determination of the real estate value is important. The impact of the development of cities generally is not taken into account to detect the value of real estate. This study aims to determine whether there is a significantly difference in the investment of real estate to the south and west of the cities rather than other parts of that. For this reason, percentage change in real estate value per m2 in the five largest cities of Turkey, is analysed according to geographical location and direction of cities. As a result, the return on real estate investment at the south and west of cities is a significantly difference compared to investment in other parts of those.

  15. Human Linguatulosis Caused by Linguatula serrata in the City of Kerman, South-eastern Iran- Case Report.

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    Rostam Yazdani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human linguatulosis poses an important medical and veterinary concern in endemic countries. Animals, as reservoir host, play a major role in transmission of infestation and epidemiology of the disease. This study reports a case of human linguatulosis caused by Linguatula serrata in the city of Kerman, South-eastern Iran. A woman suffering from upper respiratory symptoms is presented. The patient consumed raw liver of sheep who was admitted to the Afzalipour University Hospital in Kerman for the symptoms of upper respiratory tract. In microscopic examination of the nasopharyngeal discharge, L. serrata was detected. This report has future medical implication in precise diagnosis of L. serrata in patients with complaints of nasopharyngeal symptoms.

  16. Neoliberal Governmentality, Schooling and the City: Conceptual and Empirical Notes on and from the Global South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Fataar, Aslam

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies ideas that emanate from the Global North, concerning neoliberalism and neoliberal governmentality, to the case of marketisation in South Africa. It also attends to the limits of Northern ideas that are both intellectual undertakings and policy manifestations. In the first part of the paper, we identify how rationales for school…

  17. [The impact of ecologic risk factors in mining cities of South Ural].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of common and primary morbidity according the statistic form 12 is presented. The assessment of health risk in major age groups of population in mining cities of Republic of Bashkortostan is provided. The dynamics of morbidity indicators trends to increasing because in all age groups higher levels of morbidity were detected. The analysis of input of environment pollution into morbidity of population of cities of Utchaly and Sybay revealed that a significant role is played by environment factors. So, the existence of specific geochemical territory and anthropogenic pollution of environment with inorganic compounds of highly toxic metals is a most significant risk fasctor impacting population health. This condition urges to develop various preventive measures.

  18. Comparative assessment of geo dynamics processes of oil and gas production areas at the west and east boards of the south-Caspian depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Alpine geosynclinalss belt including fold mountains up Carpathian and Crimea Mountainous to Copetdag and Pamirs divided to two unequal parts by the South-Caspian depression.Ashgabadian depression at the east side and Kyrian depression extends and get deeper at the east direction and transforms to South-Caspian depression. Large in number of oil and gas deposits and fields are situated at the areas of this depressions on the west and east boards of the South Caspian. They have a many common characteristics. They are:1.Anticline highs are form tectonic structure like a line. Lines was branching, anticline highs are shingling.2.Red color reservoir of the depression at the east board and production reservoir at the west board of the depression are the main oil and gas containing reservoirs and are stratigraphic analogy of the middle Pliocene age.3.Both side of the depression are areas of the diapiric folding and mud volcanic activity. 4.The intensive seismic activity.5 Marine gryphons, island and sandbank sometime appear and disappear at the littoral area. 6.The Caspian Sea level has quick changes at the geological history and present time.Thus, it is possible to mark two main factors of activation of the geo dynamic processes. First deformation terrestrial surface, and second -induced seismic activity. Comparing above mentioned data on western and east it is visible to boards of the South-Caspian hollow, that for want of availability of the large number identical tectonic of features there are essential distinctions in a character of induced geo dynamic activity. In the long term, in accordance with me development of oil deposits, it is possible to expect manifestation of both factors of activation of geo dynamic processes on both boards of the South-Caspian hollow

  19. Assessment of Human Exposure to Magnetic Field from Overhead High Voltage Transmission Lines in a City in South Western Nigeria

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    Ponnle Akinlolu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase in electricity consumption, population, and land use has now forced high voltage transmission lines (HVTLs either to pass or be installed around or through urban cities. This increases the level of human exposure to electromagnetic field radiation as this field produced around the HVTLs extends outwards covering some distance. This may cause a number of health hazards. It is even dangerous to a human who touch any metallic object in proximity of the HVTL, as it may have an appreciable voltage induced on it due to inductive, capacitive or resistive interference from the line. This paper evaluates the magnetic field produced at mid-span by a 132kV, and a 330kV, 50Hz adjacent HVTLs with horizontal and vertical configuration in Akure, a city in South Western Nigeria using analytical method from electromagnetic field theory. This is then compared to the recommended standard limit of public exposure to magnetic field. The results of the computation showed that currently, the general public exposure to the magnetic field along the HVTLs is safe. However, right of way (ROW along the power lines is being violated as buildings and work places exist within the ROW.

  20. Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO

  1. Assessing quality of urban underground spaces by coupling 3D geological models: The case study of Foshan city, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weisheng; Yang, Liang; Deng, Dongcheng; Ye, Jing; Clarke, Keith; Yang, Zhijun; Zhuang, Wenming; Liu, Jianxiong; Huang, Jichun

    2016-04-01

    Urban underground spaces (UUS), especially those containing natural resources that have not yet been utilized, have been recognized as important for future sustainable development in large cities. One of the key steps in city planning is to estimate the quality of urban underground space resources, since they are major determinants of suitable land use. Yet geological constraints are rarely taken into consideration in urban planning, nor are the uncertainties in the quality of the available assessments. Based on Fuzzy Set theory and the analytic hierarchy process, a 3D stepwise process for the quality assessment of geotechnical properties of natural resources in UUS is presented. The process includes an index system for construction factors; area partitioning; the extraction of geological attributes; the creation of a relative membership grade matrix; the evaluation of subject and destination layers; and indeterminacy analysis. A 3D geological model of the study area was introduced into the process that extracted geological attributes as constraints. This 3D geological model was coupled with borehole data for Foshan City, Guangdong province, South China, and the indeterminacies caused by the cell size and the geological strata constraints were analyzed. The results of the case study show that (1) a relatively correct result can be obtained if the cell size is near to the average sampling distance of the boreholes; (2) the constraints of the 3D geological model have a major role in establishing the UUS quality level and distribution, especially at the boundaries of the geological bodies; and (3) the assessment result is impacted by an interaction between the cell resolution and the geological model used.

  2. Earthquake scenario in West Bengal with emphasis on seismic hazard microzonation of the city of Kolkata, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, S K; M. D. Adhikari; S. K. Maiti; N. Devaraj; Srivastava, N; Mohapatra, L. D.

    2014-01-01

    Seismic microzonation is a process of estimating site-specific effects due to an earthquake on urban centers for its disaster mitigation and management. The state of West Bengal, located in the western foreland of the Assam–Arakan Orogenic Belt, the Himalayan foothills and Surma Valley, has been struck by several devastating earthquakes in the past, indicating the need for a seismotectonic review of the province, especially in light of probable seismic threat to its capital...

  3. An Exploration of Public Attitudes Toward LGBTI Rights in the Gauteng City-Region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Faraaz; Trangoš, Guy

    2016-10-01

    South Africa's legal framework on the rights of sexual minorities is one of the most progressive in the world. Despite this, discrimination and violence against gay and lesbian people continues to be a challenge. Using large-scale survey data gathered in the Gauteng City-Region, this study examines public attitudes related to homosexuality. Most respondents to the survey felt that sexual minorities should have equal rights. However, a considerable proportion of respondents also held negative views toward gay and lesbian individuals, with close to two fifths of respondents believing that homosexuality is against the values of their community, and over 12% of participants holding the view that it is acceptable to be violent toward gays and lesbians. Further analysis also consists of an examination of responses cross-tabulated with the variables of race, gender, age, and education, revealing that younger, well-educated South Africans tend to be the most tolerant, but also exhibiting large variances in attitudes within groups. PMID:26914610

  4. Oakland, West

    OpenAIRE

    Kwamille, Tasion Shawniece

    2013-01-01

    “Oakland, West” Produced by: Tasion Kwamilele          After World War II, many blacks from the south migrated to Oakland to work in the shipyards; housing discrimination forced blacks to move to West Oakland. But when those jobs died out many Blacks moved from West Oakland and the area became deserted and filled with crime, drugs, violence, and poverty.         The 7.0 Loma Prueta Earthquake, also known as the World Series Quake of 1989, shook the Bay Are...

  5. Cocaine cities: Exploring the relationship between urban processes and the drug trade in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Ignacio A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between the cocaine trade and urban land markets in South America has been overlooked by the mainstream economics and urban studies literature. This paper examines two avenues through which the cocaine trade can have a large impact on urban development in producer countries: (i) through an employment multiplier effect similar to that of other legal exports, and (ii) through money laundering using urban real estate. We test our hypotheses using the Bolivian case and find that ...

  6. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Nurses in Ibadan, South-west Nigeria: a cross-sectional survey

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    Oyeyemi Adewale L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders represent a significant occupational problem among nurses; however, data on musculoskeletal health of nurses in Sub-Sahara Africa are sparse. This study sought to determine the lifetime, 12-months period and point prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs; the associated job risk factors and the coping strategies toward reducing the risk among nurses from selected hospitals in Ibadan, South-west Nigeria Methods A previously validated self administered questionnaire which sought information on demographics, prevalence and pattern of WMSDs, associated job risk factors and coping strategies was employed as the survey instrument. A total of 160 questionnaires were distributed to nurses in the different hospitals but 128 questionnaires were returned yielding an 80% response rate. 10 of the returned questionnaires were excluded because of incomplete data. Results Eighty-four point four percent of the nurses have had WMSDs once or more in their occupational lives. The 12-months period and point prevalence rate of WMSDs at any body region was 78% and 66.1% respectively. WMSDs occurred mostly in low back (44.1%, neck (28.0%, and knees (22.4%. 30.3% treated themselves or had visited other health practitioners for care. Nurses with > 20 years of clinical experience are about 4 times more likely to develop WMSDs (OR 3.81; CI 1.08-13.4 than those with 11-20 years experience. Working in the same positions for long periods (55.1%, lifting or transferring dependent patients (50.8% and treating an excessive number of patients in one day (44.9% were the most perceived job risk factors for WMSDs. Getting help in handling heavy patients (50.4%, modification of nursing procedures in order to avoid re-injury (45.4%, and modifying patient's/nurse position (40.3% were the top three coping strategies. Conclusions A high proportion of Nigerian nurses reported WMSDs at some body site in their occupational

  7. Development, terroir and welfare: a case study of farm-produced foie gras, in south west France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Techoueyres

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Le foie gras et les produits de palmipèdes gavés font partie du patrimoine culinaire et culturel régional de la France et tout particulièrement du Sud Ouest. A ce titre ils sont ce que l’on appelle des produits de terroir. Ce travail, en retraçant le développement récent et l’internationalisation de ces produits avec les problèmes qui les accompagnent, tente de déchiffrer ce que de tels phénomènes signifient pour les producteurs au plan local, dans l’aire délimitée par l’IGP Palmipèdes à Foie Gras du Sud Ouest. A travers l’exemple d’une famille de producteurs à la ferme, on observera concrètement des points d’articulation entre global et local : comment cohabitent développement économique et protection de savoir-faire traditionnels ; comment des producteurs s’approprient de nouvelles technologies pour améliorer la productivité et les conditions de travail ; comment son réactualisés certains aspects traditionnels et ancestraux; et comment se développent de nouvelles sociabilités.Foie gras and fat duck products are part of the French culinary and cultural heritage, particularly of South West France. As such they belong to the produits de terroir category. Starting by tracing the recent developments and globalisation of such products with subsequent challenges, this paper assumes a local perspective, in the geographical area delimited by the PGI Palmipèdes à Foie Gras du Sud Ouest. Through the observation of a family of farmers, meeting points between local and global are analyzed, particularly tensions between economic development and the protection of traditional knowledge but also the way contemporary changes promote new sociabilities.

  8. Identifying the impacts of land use on water and nutrient cycling in the South-West Mau, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Suzanne; Weeser, Björn; Breuer, Lutz; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Rufino, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    The Mau Forest is the largest closed canopy forest system and indigenous montane forest in Kenya, covering approximately 400,000 ha. It is the source of twelve major rivers in the Rift Valley and Western Kenya and one of Kenya's five 'water towers' that provide around 10 million people with fresh water. Significant areas have been affected by deforestation and land use changes in the past decades, resulting in a loss of approx. 25% of the forest area. Recent changes in downstream water supply are discussed to be attributed to land use change, though compelling scientific evidence is still lacking. The study area is located in the South-West Mau as a part of the Sondu River basin that drains into Lake Victoria. This area has suffered a forest loss of 25% through conversion of natural forest to smallholder agriculture and tea/tree plantations. A nested catchment approach has been applied, whereby automatic measurement equipment for monitoring discharge, turbidity, nitrate, total and dissolved organic carbon, electrical conductivity and water temperature at a 10 minute interval has been set up at the outlets of three sub-catchments of 27 - 36 km² and the outlet of the 1023 km² major catchment. The dominant land use in the sub-catchments is either natural forest, tea/tree plantation or smallholder agriculture. The river data is complemented by six precipitation gauging stations and three climate stations, that all measure at the same interval. Installed during October 2014, the systems have collected high resolution data for one and a half year now. The high resolution dataset is being analysed for patterns in stream flow and water quality during dry and wet seasons as well as diurnal cycling of nitrate. The results of the different sub-catchments are compared to identify the role of land use in water and nutrient cycling. First results of the high temporal resolution data already indicate that the different types of land use affect the stream nitrate concentration

  9. Seismic structure of an amagmatic section of the ultra-slow spreading South West Indian Ridge: the 2014 Sismosmooth cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, S. D.; Cannat, M.; Momoh, E. I.; Singh, S. C.; Watremez, L.; Sauter, D.; Autin, J.; Louden, K. E.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Daniel, R.; Jourdain, A.; Huot, G.; Sergent, L.; Wang, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Exhumation of mantle derived rocks at the seafloor is common at slow spreading ridges, and is observed or inferred in the distal parts of many divergent continental margins (Ocean Continent transition-OCT). It is therefore a fundamental plate tectonic process. It involves large normal fault displacements, and has consequences in terms of magmatic and hydrothermal processes, two parameters that (with divergence rates) control the thermal evolution of the plate boundary. Mantle exhumation may also favor specific deep seafloor ecosystems (hydrogen and methane produced during serpentinization may be used as a fuel for microbial activity). Key questions at both slow-spreading ridges and OCTs are: how do exhumation faults work? how deep does serpentinization extend? and what is the proportion between serpentinized mantle and intrusive magmatic rocks within the seismic crust?In order to address these questions, and to characterise the nature of oceanic crust formed in an amagmatic section of an ultra-slow spreading ridge, we acquired 3D seismic reflection and refraction data across the South West Indian Ridge at 64.3°E in October 2014 aboard R/V Marion-Dufresne. The study area is a corridor of nearly amagmatic spreading, where previous sampling indicates that continuous tectonic exhumation of mantle-derived peridotites occurred over the past 8-10myrs (Sauter et al., Nature Geosc. 2013). We used a 4.5 km long streamer and 38 ocean bottom seismometers in 56 deployment. Our cruise was designed to characterize velocity-depth profiles and Vp/Vs ratio in variably serpentinized ultramafic basement, their lateral variability, and the differences between axial and off-axis areas, as well as the seismic reflectivity structure in exhumed ultramafic domains. We also aimed to image the active detachment fault responsible for on-going mantle rocks exhumation at the ridge. In this poster presentation, we provide details on the experimental setting, and an overview of the results of

  10. Tidal Current Energy Resources off the South and West Coasts of Korea: Preliminary Observation-Derived Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Jin Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we estimate the prospective tidal current energy resources off the south and west coasts of Korea and explore the influence of modeling tidal current energies based on 15-day versus month-long data records for regimes with pronounced perigean/apogean influences. The tidal current energy resources off southern and western Korea were calculated using 29-day in situ observation data from 264 stations. The resultant annual energy densities found at each station were categorized into six groups, with a greater percentage of sites falling into the lower-energy groups: 1.1% for >10 MWh·m−2; 2.7% for 5 to 10 MWh·m−2; 6.8% for 3 to 5 MWh·m−2; 9.1% for 2 to 3 MWh·m−2 and 80.3% for <2 MWh·m−2. Analysis shows that the greatest concentration of high annual energy densities occurs in the Jeonnam Province coastal region on the western tip of southwest Korea: 23 MWh·m−2 at Uldolmok, 15 MWh·m−2 at Maenggol Sudo, 9.2 MWh·m−2 at Geocha Sudo and 8.8 MWh·m−2 at Jaingjuk Sudo. The second highest annual energy density concentration, with 16 MWh·m−2, was found in Gyudong Suro, in Gyeonggi Province’s Gyeonggi Bay. We then used data from the 264 stations to examine the effect of perigean and apogean influences on tidal current energy density evaluations. Compared to derivations using month-long records, mean annual energy densities derived using 15-day perigean spring-neap current records alone overestimate the annual mean energy by around 10% whereas those derived using only the apogean records underestimate energy by around 12%. In particular, accuracy of the S2 contribution to the energy density calculations is significantly affected by use of the 15-day data sets, compared to the M2 component, which is relatively consistent. Further, annual energy density estimates derived from 29-day records but excluding the N2 constituent underestimate the potential resource by about 5.4%. Results indicate that one month of data is

  11. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq A Adebayo,1 Michael O Balogun,1 Rufus A Adedoyin,2 Oluwayemisi A Obashoro-John,3 Luqman A Bisiriyu,4 Olugbenga O Abiodun11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, 3Department of Adult Education, University of Lagos, 4Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria.Materials and methods: One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg.Results: Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6% men and 514 women (51.4% participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%. There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity.Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend

  12. Replacing Concrete with Natural and Social Engineering: Learning the Lessons of Stakeholder Engagement from South West Water's Upland Catchment Management Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Grand-Clement, Emile; Brazier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Replacing Concrete with Natural and Social Engineering: Learning the Lessons of Stakeholder Engagement from South West Water's Upland Catchment Management Programme Smith, D., Grand-Clement, E., Anderson, K., Luscombe, D., G, N., Bratis, Brazier, R.E Peatlands in the South West of the British Isles have been extensively drained for agricultural reclamation and peat cutting. The improvement in food production resulting from this management practice has never clearly been observed. Instead, we are now faced with several detrimental consequences on a whole suite of ecosystem services, such as the delivery of water, water quality, biodiversity and carbon storage. Alongside the direct environmental implications, poor water quality is increasing water treatment costs and will drive significant future investment. As a result, water companies now need to find appropriate solutions to varying water levels and decreasing water quality through catchment management. The Mires Project, the catchment management programme used by South West Water (SWW) is working with a wide range of stakeholders to restore the hydrological functioning of peatlands, and the ecosystem services they provide. This programme is driven by overarching legal requirements (i.e. the water framework directive, Natura 2000), future climate change predictions, corporate responsibility and commercial needs. Post-restoration scientific monitoring is at the heart of the project improving of our understanding of the eco-hydrological and chemical process driving changes in management practice. The challenges faced from the involvement of a wide range of stakeholders will be explored, focusing on the benefits from stakeholder involvement in catchment management and hydrological research, but also considering the difficulties to be overcome. SWW is working with private land-owners, government agencies, local and national park Authorities, community and single interest groups and research institutions to achieve its

  13. Tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in humans in the south-west region of Ireland: is there a relationship with infection prevalence in cattle?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in humans to the prevalence of M. bovis infection in cattle in south-west Ireland and discuss possible links between them. SETTING: In the south-west region of Ireland, a mixed urban and rural community (pop. 536,000), there is a residuum of human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the incidence of culture-positive M. bovis disease in humans in south-west Ireland from 1983 to 1994 and of the results of tuberculin testing in cattle from 1978 to 1994 for the same region. RESULTS: One to five cases of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis were recorded per year while the overall prevalence of bovine infection fell gradually during the period of study from 467 tuberculin-positive animals per 100,000 cattle tested in 1983 to 158 per 100,000 in 1994. CONCLUSION: The low incidence plateau of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis together with the decline in prevalence of animal infection in the overall period studied suggest a cut-off in the animal to human chain of infection at two points; the animal source and the ingestion of (now pasteurized) milk. This would suggest that disease in humans is now due to reactivation of previous foci of infection which were acquired when milk pasteurization was not compulsory. Based on this, we would anticipate a further reduction and possible elimination of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis in this region in the next 10-15 years.

  14. The use of antibiotics and disinfectants in the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii farms of north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjit Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii farms and hatcheries of north and south 24 Parganas districts in West Bengal were surveyed for the details of antibiotics and disinfectants used for controlling the prawn diseases and pathogens. During the survey, 4antibiotics and four 4disinfectants were found to be used commonly by the farmers during a 12-month period of study. The chemicals used in the culture systems as antibiotics or disinfectants for the culture water, tanks, other utensils, and others have serious health hazards for both the cultured prawns and human beings. The study also indicates no herbal medicines, and probiotics are being used in prawn farms.

  15. Secondary sexual characteristics of stunted and non-stunted Black South African Boys living in a township in the North West Province

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Herculina Salome; Mamabolo, Ramoteme Lesley; Monyeki, Makama Andries; Pienaar, Anita Elizabeth; Toriola, Abel; Van Ridder, Johannes Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    It is known that sexual maturation is dependent on genetic and environmental factors and socio-economic status. The purpose of this study was to describe secondary sexual characteristics of stunted and non-stunted black South African boys from a low socio-economic status living in a township in the North West Province. A total of 129 boys aged 12 to 16 years participated in the study. Height and weight were measured according to the standard protocol suggested by the International Society of ...

  16. [Changes of agroecosystem service value during urbanization of Guangzhou City, South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yan-Qiong; Li, Yi-Mian; Zhang, Jia-En

    2011-06-01

    Based on the 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008 statistical data of Guangzhou City, and by the methods of marketing valuation, shadow price, afforestation cost, carbon tax, and industrial oxygen-producing, this paper calculated the related service values of various agroecosystems in Guangzhou, and assessed the changes of agroecosystem service value during the rapid urbanization of the City. In 1996-2008, though the service values of farmland, grassland, and water ecosystems had somewhat increase, the overall agroecosystem service value of Guangzhou decreased, mainly due to the more decrease of forest ecosystem service value which occupied more than 90% of the total service value each year. Over the studied period, the proportion of each individual functional service value to the total service value changed little, and the contribution of each individual functional service value was in the order of climate regulation > gases regulation > product service > waste treatment > soil conservation > biodiversity conservation > recreation and culture > water source retention and storage. The sum of climate regulation and gases regulation service values took over 91% of the total agroecosystem service value. There was a significant negative correlation (R = -0.905, P agroecosystem service value, suggesting that the increase of urbanization rate would lead to a decrease of agroecosystem service value. Therefore, it requires an appropriate reservation of various agroecosystems to maintain the regional sustainable development during urbanization.

  17. [Changes of agroecosystem service value during urbanization of Guangzhou City, South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yan-Qiong; Li, Yi-Mian; Zhang, Jia-En

    2011-06-01

    Based on the 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008 statistical data of Guangzhou City, and by the methods of marketing valuation, shadow price, afforestation cost, carbon tax, and industrial oxygen-producing, this paper calculated the related service values of various agroecosystems in Guangzhou, and assessed the changes of agroecosystem service value during the rapid urbanization of the City. In 1996-2008, though the service values of farmland, grassland, and water ecosystems had somewhat increase, the overall agroecosystem service value of Guangzhou decreased, mainly due to the more decrease of forest ecosystem service value which occupied more than 90% of the total service value each year. Over the studied period, the proportion of each individual functional service value to the total service value changed little, and the contribution of each individual functional service value was in the order of climate regulation > gases regulation > product service > waste treatment > soil conservation > biodiversity conservation > recreation and culture > water source retention and storage. The sum of climate regulation and gases regulation service values took over 91% of the total agroecosystem service value. There was a significant negative correlation (R = -0.905, P < 0.01)between urbanization rate and total agroecosystem service value, suggesting that the increase of urbanization rate would lead to a decrease of agroecosystem service value. Therefore, it requires an appropriate reservation of various agroecosystems to maintain the regional sustainable development during urbanization. PMID:21941754

  18. Assessing theEffects of Nitrogen Dioxide in Urban Air on Health of West and Southwest Cities of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zallaghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is a corrosive, strong oxidant and a physiologic stimulant of lower respiratory tract. Every human being inhales an average of 10-m3 air per day; therefore, assessment of the effect of inhaled air on health is a vital issue. The main source NO2 in urban regions is intra-urban public transport system. The annual average of determined air quality for NO2 is 40 μg/m3. Objectives The present study aimed to estimate and compare epidemiologic indices attributed to the pollutant NO2 in the urban air of southwest cities of Iran, namely, Ahvaz, Kermanshah, and Bushehr, in 2011. Materials and Methods In the present study, data relevant to the air-pollutant NO2 in 2011 was obtained from the Iranian Department of Environment and meteorological organizations of the studied cities. Raw data processing by Excel software included instruction set correction of averaging, coding, and filtering. Then the meteorological parameters were converted as input file to the Air Q model. Finally, by using epidemiologic formulas, relative risk (RR and attributed part to NO2 in the three studied cites were estimated. Results The results showed that in summer, winter, and the whole year, Kermanshah and Bushehr had on average the maximum and minimum NO2 concentration, respectively, in 2011. In addition, accumulative number of cases attributed to exposure with NO2 in the studied cities was maximum in Kermanshah (21 cases and minimum in Bushehr (one case. The results revealed that approximately, the maximum number of death cases attributed to NO2 were observed in Kermanshah due to heart problems (1.06%, acute infarction (1.8%, and obstructive pulmonary disease (1.9% with concentration > 20 μg/m3. Conclusions Every 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of the pollutant NO2 in the studied cities led to increase in the RR of myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases, and obstructive pulmonary disease by 0.4%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, in

  19. Climate change adaptation: Uncovering constraints to the use of adaptation strategies among food crop farmers in South-west, Nigeria using principal component analysis (PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradeyo Adebanjo Otitoju

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the constraints to the use of climate variability/change adaptation strategies in South-west Nigeria. Multistage random technique was employed to select the location and the respondents. Descriptive statistics and principal component analysis (PCA were the analytical tools engaged in this study. The constraints to climate variability and change examined before did not use PCA but generalized factor analysis. Hence, there is need to examine these constraints extensively using PCA. Uncovering the constraints to the use of climate variability/change adaptation strategies among crop framers is important to give a realistic direction in the development of farmer-inclusive climate policies in Nigeria. The PCA result showed that the principal constraints that the farmers faced in climate change adaptation were public, institutional and labour constraint; land, neighbourhood norms and religious beliefs constraint; high cost of inputs, technological and information constraint; farm distance, access to climate information, off-farm job and credit constraint; and poor agricultural programmes and service delivery constraint. These findings pointed out the need for both the government and non-government organizations to intensify efforts on institutional, technological and farmers’ friendly land tenure and information systems as effective measures to guide inclusive climate change adaptation policies and development in South-west Nigeria.

  20. Distribution of calcretes and gypcretes in southwestern United States and their uranium favorability, based on a study of deposits in Western Australia and South West Africa (Namibia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcrete, dolocrete, and gypcrete carnotite are abundant in western Australia and Namib Desert, although only a few are of ore grade. The geology of these deposits are described. A genetic classification of calcretes emphasizing uranium favorability was developed, based on the distinction between pedogenic and nonpedogenic processes. Similarities between western Australia and South West Africa give support for the conclusions that lateral transport of U in groundwater is essential to ore deposition and that bedrock barriers or constrictions which narrow the channel of subsurface flow or force the water close to the land surface, greatly favor the formation of uraniferous calcretes. Criteria for uranium favorability deduced from the Australian and South West African studies were applied in a preliminary way to the southern Basin and Range Province of U.S. The procedure is to search for areas in which nonpedogenic calcrete or gypcrete may have developed. A caliche distribution map was compiled from soil survey and field data. Many areas were visited and some of the more interesting are described briefly, including parts of Clark County, Nevada, with occurrences of carnotite in calcrete

  1. Distribution of calcretes and gypcretes in southwestern United States and their uranium favorability, based on a study of deposits in Western Australia and South West Africa (Namibia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, D.; Merifield, P.M.; Orme, A.R.; Kohl, M.S.; Kolker, O.; Lunt, O.R.

    1978-01-06

    Calcrete, dolocrete, and gypcrete carnotite are abundant in western Australia and Namib Desert, although only a few are of ore grade. The geology of these deposits are described. A genetic classification of calcretes emphasizing uranium favorability was developed, based on the distinction between pedogenic and nonpedogenic processes. Similarities between western Australia and South West Africa give support for the conclusions that lateral transport of U in groundwater is essential to ore deposition and that bedrock barriers or constrictions which narrow the channel of subsurface flow or force the water close to the land surface, greatly favor the formation of uraniferous calcretes. Criteria for uranium favorability deduced from the Australian and South West African studies were applied in a preliminary way to the southern Basin and Range Province of U.S. The procedure is to search for areas in which nonpedogenic calcrete or gypcrete may have developed. A caliche distribution map was compiled from soil survey and field data. Many areas were visited and some of the more interesting are described briefly, including parts of Clark County, Nevada, with occurrences of carnotite in calcrete. (DLC)

  2. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  3. Urbanising Africa: the city centre revisited: Experiences with inner-city revitalisation from Johannesburg (South Africa), Mbabane (Swaziland), Lusaka (Zambia), Harare and Bulawayo (Zimbabwe)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Peter; Chirisa, Innocent; Magwaro-Ndiweni, Linda; Michundu, Mazuba; Ndela, William; Nkonge, Mphangela; Sachs, Daniella

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDrawing on practical experiences of almost 15 years working within Gauteng Province and the City of Johannesburg my paper will focus on the location of poor communities within Johannesburg in relation to selected Inner-City areas and public transportation networks. The introduction notes the historical foundations and spatial legacies of the City (for example, the mining industry, pre and post apartheid doctrines and migration patterns). It acknowledges that these foundations, leg...

  4. Preliminary investigation of radon concentration in surface water and drinking water in Shenzhen City, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Wang, Nanping; Li, Shijun

    2015-11-01

    A radon survey in surface water and drinking water was conducted using a portable degassing system associated with an ionisation chamber AlphaGUARD (PQ2000) for understanding levels of dissolved radon ((222)Rn) concentration in different types of water sources and risk assessment of radon in drinking water in Shenzhen City (SC) with a population of 10 628 900 in 2013, Guangdong Province of China. The measurements show that arithmetic means ± standard deviations of radon ((222)Rn) concentration are 52.05 ± 6.64, 0.29 ± 0.26, 0.15 ± 0.23 and 0.37 ± 0.42 kBq m(-3) in spring water, surface water, large and small public water supplies, respectively. Only radon concentrations of two water samples collected in mountainous areas are more than 11.10 kBq m(-3), exceeding the limit of radon concentration in drinking water stipulated by the national standard of China (GB5749-2006). The annual effective doses due to radon in drinking water were also calculated. The investigation suggests that there are no risks caused by radon in the drinking water in SC. PMID:25904699

  5. Preliminary investigation of radon concentration in surface water and drinking water in Shenzhen City, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Wang, Nanping; Li, Shijun

    2015-11-01

    A radon survey in surface water and drinking water was conducted using a portable degassing system associated with an ionisation chamber AlphaGUARD (PQ2000) for understanding levels of dissolved radon ((222)Rn) concentration in different types of water sources and risk assessment of radon in drinking water in Shenzhen City (SC) with a population of 10 628 900 in 2013, Guangdong Province of China. The measurements show that arithmetic means ± standard deviations of radon ((222)Rn) concentration are 52.05 ± 6.64, 0.29 ± 0.26, 0.15 ± 0.23 and 0.37 ± 0.42 kBq m(-3) in spring water, surface water, large and small public water supplies, respectively. Only radon concentrations of two water samples collected in mountainous areas are more than 11.10 kBq m(-3), exceeding the limit of radon concentration in drinking water stipulated by the national standard of China (GB5749-2006). The annual effective doses due to radon in drinking water were also calculated. The investigation suggests that there are no risks caused by radon in the drinking water in SC.

  6. Pediculosis capitis Among Primary School Children and Related Risk Factors in Urmia, the Main City of West Azarbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Hazrati Tappeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediculosis capitis is cosmopolitan health problem. In addition to its physical problems, its psycho­logical effects especially on pupils are more important. This study was conducted to determine the Pediculosis capitis among primary school pupils and also find out the role of probable related risk factors in Urmia city, Iran 2010.Methods: 35 primary schools of Urmia City according to the defined clusters randomly have been selected during 2010. 2040 pupils (866 boys and 1174 girls were included and examined individually and privately by experts. Presence of adult or immature lice or having nits less than 1 cm from the hair basis were defined as positive.Data about demographic features and factors which their effect should be determined were recorded in standard questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS software with proper statistical test.Results: Infestation was determined around 4%. Girls show significantly greater infestation. The availability of suit­able warm water for bathing and hair length (separately in girls and boys are significantly related to infestation load as well as infestation among different age groups.There was no significant relation between parent’s education and job and infestation as well as bathing repetition per week and the kind of energy source which they have. Also there is no significant correlation between educational grades and head lice infestation.Conclusion: The head louse pediculosis is a health problem and remains a health threatening for school chil­dren.Effective risk factors should be determined carefully and regionally. Proper training plays a great role in order to prevent and control the problem

  7. Prevalence of Anemia in Brush Painters of a South Indian City, Mysore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanth Mallikarjuna Majgi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Painters are chronically exposed to lead based paints, which causes anemia by impairing heme biosynthesis and increasing the red cell destruction. The present study was conducted to assess the lead exposure and haematological effects of lead in brush painters as they are chronically exposed to lead based paints. Objective: To estimate prevalence of anemia among brush painters and lead exposure among them. Methodology: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 occupational residential brush painters of Mysore city of India during July 2012 and September 2012. Subjects were interviewed using standardized questionnaire, mainly, for lead toxicity symptoms and personal hygiene. Venous blood samples were drawn and haematological parameters were determined (n=100. The marker of anaemia was haemoglobin concentration. Through Systematic random sampling, 30 samples were selected for blood lead concentration (PbB estimation. Results: The prevalence of anemia among the subjects was 3%. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 15.5±1.4 g/dL and mean blood lead concentration (PbB was 12.9±10.9 µg/dL. There was no significant correlation found between the PbB and haematological parameters. There was a high prevalence of lead toxicity symptoms and the symptoms were more in the less hygienic subjects than the hygienic subjects. Conclusion: The blood lead concentration among painters is less than the threshold (PbB >50 µg/dL for hematological alterations. Hence lead induced anaemia is not a health risk among brush painters. The PbB is also less than the recommended threshold for occupational exposure (30 µg/dL. But the high prevalence of lead toxicity symptoms indicates the long term health effects of lead even at low levels of exposure. Fortunately, being hygienic is an easily achievable goal to decrease the lead exposure among the painters.

  8. Temperature modifies the association between particulate air pollution and mortality: A multi-city study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Satbyul Estella; Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho

    2015-08-15

    Substantial epidemiologic literature has demonstrated the effects of air pollution and temperature on mortality. However, there is inconsistent evidence regarding the temperature modification effect on acute mortality due to air pollution. Herein, we investigated the effects of temperature on the relationship between air pollution and mortality due to non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory death in seven cities in South Korea. We applied stratified time-series models to the data sets in order to examine whether the effects of particulate matter effect of PM10 on daily mortality was first quantified within different ranges of temperatures at each location using a time-series model, and then the estimates were pooled through a random-effects meta-analysis using the maximum likelihood method. From all the data sets, 828,787 non-accidental deaths were registered from 2000-2009. The highest overall risk between PM10 and non-accidental or cardiovascular mortality was observed on extremely hot days (daily mean temperature: >99th percentile) in individuals aged effects from PM10 on non-accidental mortality with the highest temperature range (>99th percentile) in men, with a very high temperature range (95-99th percentile) in women. Our findings showed that temperature can affect the relationship between the PM10 levels and cause-specific mortality. Moreover, the differences were apparent after considering the age and sex groups.

  9. A Feasibility Test on Adopting Electric Vehicles to Serve as Taxis in Daejeon Metropolitan City of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoin Baek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For realizing sustainable development, EV (Electric Vehicle is currently considered as one of the most promising alternative due to its cleanness and inexhaustibility. However, the development and dissemination of EV has stagnated because it faces major constraints such as battery performance and an excessively long charging time. Thus, this study examined the feasibility of using EVs as taxis by analyzing real data from a pilot project in Daejeon, a metropolitan city in South Korea for proposing the effective way to adopt EV. To reflect reality and improve accuracy, we adopted scenarios and assumptions based on in-depth interviews with groups of experts. The resulting initial benefit-to-cost (B/C ratio for EV taxis is approximately 0.4, which is quite low compared to 0.7 for traditional taxis. However, after incorporating some further assumptions into the calculation, the B/C ratio shifts to approximately 0.7, which is more appropriate for EV adoption. For this improvement to be achieved, the dissemination of a charging infrastructure, improvement of the business model and policy support is strongly needed. Limitations to this work and potential areas for future study are also fully discussed.

  10. Changes in transport organisations within Southeast Asian cities: petty producers to statutory corporations

    OpenAIRE

    P J Rimmer

    1986-01-01

    A spate of studies of West European and North American cities have charted and interpreted the remarkable and rapid transformation of public transport since the early 19th century. The question arises as to whether the attempts to superimpose metropolitan culture via public transport structures in African, Asian, and Central and South American cities were as spectacular and speedy. Attention, in tackling this question, focuses upon the transfer of public transport technological-organisational...

  11. Anecdotes of the Forbidden City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUOYUANBO; ZHANGXUEYING

    2005-01-01

    Everyone who passes through Beijing's Forbidden City leaves the grounds with two words on their lips: magnificent and awe-inspiring. The seat of imperial power during the Ming and Qing dynasties (1368 - 1911), some twenty-four emperors ruled the nation from within these walls. Now more commonly known as the Palace Museum, the Forbidden City lies at the center of the Chinese capital. Extending 750 meters from east to west and 960 meters from north to south, the 720,000-square-meter city is the largest palatial complex in the world. Guarding the city is a 52-meter-wide, six-meter-deep moat, and a huge wall, which runs three kilometers around the city and stands 10 meters high. Construction lasted 15 years, involving 100,000 artisans and some one million civilians. If the bricks that make up the Forbidden City could speak, they would have many an interesting story to tell. Here are just a few anecdotes.

  12. Urbanising Africa: the city centre revisited: Experiences with inner-city revitalisation from Johannesburg (South Africa), Mbabane (Swaziland), Lusaka (Zambia), Harare and Bulawayo (Zimbabwe)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Ahmad (Peter); I. Chirisa (Innocent); L. Magwaro-Ndiweni (Linda); M.W. Michundu (Mazuba); W.N. Ndela (William); M. Nkonge (Mphangela); D. Sachs (Daniella)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDrawing on practical experiences of almost 15 years working within Gauteng Province and the City of Johannesburg my paper will focus on the location of poor communities within Johannesburg in relation to selected Inner-City areas and public transportation networks. The introduction notes

  13. An Attempt at Quantifying Factors that Affect Efficiency in the Management of Solid Waste Produced by Commercial Businesses in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Yohannes Worku; Mammo Muchie

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The objective was to investigate factors that affect the efficient management of solid waste produced by commercial businesses operating in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. Data was gathered from 1,034 businesses. Efficiency in solid waste management was assessed by using a structural time-based model designed for evaluating efficiency as a function of the length of time required to manage waste. Data analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency...

  14. An overview of the planktonic foraminiferal fauna in waters off the Kerala Coast, south-west India during summer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.

    that it increases from south to north. Two distinct foraminiferal assemblages have been noted in the fauna: first is the summer tropical one typified by species such as Globigerinella aequilateralis, Globigerinoides conglobatus, G. ruber and G. sacculifer, while...

  15. Application of sensory and microbial analysis to assess quality of fish in Siliguri city of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Prithwiraj; Roy, Rudra Prasad; Barat, S

    2010-09-01

    Sensory and certain microbial analyses were applied to assess the quality of raw fish sold at a market in Siliguri cityof West Bengal, India. In regular surveys undertaken during June to August 2008, a particular fish species was randomly selected, its source was noted and a sensory analysis, the quality index method (QIM) was applied to assess its quality Raw fish samples were also collected and a small quantity (about 1 g) of scales oran upper layer of the skin surface (forscale-less fish samples), gill, liverand a portion of gut with gut-contents were aseptically removed for enumeration of the total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and coliform counts. Oreochromis mossambicus and Tenulosa ilisha recorded significantly higher QIM scores, compared to other species (pspp., Salmonella spp. and total coliforms were recorded from all the studied species while Pseudomonas spp. was isolated from only seven species. Among the tissues examined, the lowest counts of total heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and total coliforms were recorded from the skin in every fish species. Highest counts of pathogenic bacteria (except Pseudomonas spp.) were recorded in Tenulosa ilisha for all the tissues except liver. Since fish are properly cooked in Bengali households, the risk of disease from fish consumption is relatively less. However, some tribes residing in the region are known to consume undercooked fish and proper cooking methods should be followed in view of the present findings to avoid health risks. Besides, utmost care should be taken while handling fish. PMID:21387907

  16. Factors influencing termination of pregnancy among young women in Mafikeng, North West Province, South Africa / Grieta Rita Dakada

    OpenAIRE

    Dakada, Grieta Rita

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore and describe factors influencing termination of pregnancy and describe measures that can be implemented to reduce the high rate of Termination of pregnancy (TOP). A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was followed, in order to explore and describe factors influencing termination of pregnancy in Mafikeng North West Province. Purposive sampling was utilized to identify participants who met inclusion criteria...

  17. The contribution of women entrepreneurs to the economic growth of the North West Province, South Africa / Senye Monica Kedibone

    OpenAIRE

    Senye, Monica Kedibone

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of women entrepreneurs to the economic growth of the North West Province. The aim of the study was to identify the contribution of women entrepreneurs in the economic growth, to determine forces driving women to become entrepreneurs. The study also aimed at examining future challenges for women entrepreneurs as well as strategies to advance women entrepreneurs . The Quantitative research method was chosen for the study and the targeted populat...

  18. An investigation of the feasibility of building a harbor on the West coast of South America using explosive power of nuclear weapons, a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodtner, H. H.

    1971-12-31

    There is an interest in discovering the various peace time uses of nuclear explosives. One of the proposals is the building of harbors. There are several ports along the west coast of South America where lighterage is necessary. This implies a need for expanded harbor facilities. The problem is to find a good location for creating a harbor, and the feasibility of accomplishing this with the use of nuclear force. Feasibility includes blast effects, radiation hazards, the number of weapons needed, and economic considerations. Economic considerations include the cost of treating a harbor of sufficient depth and area, the building of harbor facilities, and the estimated savings and advantages of the new harbor. Several meetings were held with naval personnel of the Military Liaison group at UCRL to discuss the general problems of harbors. Thirty-three different ports were given a preliminary investigation.

  19. Comparison of modelled and measured ozone concentrations and meteorology for a site in south-west Sweden: implications for ozone uptake calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Jenny; Danielsson, Helena; Simpson, David; Pleijel, Håkan

    2008-09-01

    Measurements of ground-level ozone concentrations and meteorology (temperature, vapour pressure deficit (VPD), solar radiation) at the monitoring site Ostad (south-west Sweden) were compared to data from the corresponding grid in the EMEP photo-oxidant model for 1997, 1999 and 2000. The influence of synoptic weather on the agreement between model and measurements was studied. Implications of differences between modelled and observed inputs for ozone flux calculations for wheat and potato were investigated. The EMEP model output of ozone, temperature and VPD correlated well with measurements during daytime. Deviations were larger during the night, especially in calm conditions, attributed to local climatological conditions at the monitoring site deviating from average conditions of the grid. These differences did not lead to significant differences in calculated ozone uptake, which was reproduced remarkably well. The uptake calculations were sensitive to errors in the ozone and temperature input data, especially when including a flux threshold.

  20. Biological activity of the methanol and water extracts of the fruits of anthocyanin-rich plants grown in south-west Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugala, Paulina; Dudra, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokól-Lętowska, Anna; Wojnicz, Dorota; Cisowska, Agnieszka; Walkowski, Stefan; Sroka, Zbigniew; Gabrielska, Janina; Hendrich, Andrzej B

    2015-03-01

    In this study we focused on the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties of methanol and water extracts of fruits of six species grown in south-west Poland: blackberry, blackcurrant, chokeberry, cherry, gooseberry and raspberry. No general correlation could be drawn between extract chemical properties (i.e. antioxidant and free radical scavenging) and observed biological effects. However, blackcurrant and blackberry extracts (both methanol and water) appeared to be good antioxidants and free radical scavengers, as well as effective inhibitors of E. coli adhesion to the uroepithelial cells. On the other hand, the poorest antioxidants and free radical scavengers, cherry and gooseberry extracts, also poorly affected bacterial growth, swimming ability and adhesion to epithelial cells. Surprisingly, gooseberry extracts, which showed generally weak effects, appearedto be the most effective inhibitor of bacterial biofilm formation. Additionally, most of the studied extracts showed reasonably strong anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:25924531

  1. Malaria and under-nutrition: a community based study among under-five children at risk of malaria, south-west Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Deribew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The interaction between malaria and under-nutrition is not well elucidated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of under-nutrition and its correlation with malaria among under-five children in south-west Ethiopia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was undertaken during March-February, 2009 as part of the baseline assessment of a cluster randomized trial around Gilgel Gibe Hydroelectric dam, south-west Ethiopia. A total of 2410 under-five children were included for anthropometric measurement and blood investigation for the diagnosis of malaria and anemia. The nutritional status of children was determined using the International Reference Population defined by the U.S National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS. Blood film was used to identify malaria parasite and haemoglobin concentration was determined by Hemo Cue analyzer (HemoCue Hb 301, Sweden. RESULTS: Significant proportion (40.4% of under-five children were stunted (height-for-age<-2SD. The prevalence of under-weight was 34.2%. One third and one tenth of the children had anemia and malaria parasite respectively. Older children were more likely to have under-nutrition. There was no association between malaria and under-nutrition. Children who had malaria parasite were 1.5 times more likely to become anaemic compare to children who had no malaria parasite, [OR = 1.5, (95% CI: 1.1-2.0]. CONCLUSION: In this study, there is no association between malaria and under-nutrition. Children who have malaria are more likely to be anaemic. Malaria prevention and control program should consider nutrition interventions particularly anemia.

  2. Projecting the Current & Future Impact of Storm Surges on Coastal Flood Extent at Pigeon Point, South-West Tobago, through Hydrodynamic Modelling Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenath, Avidesh; Wilson, Matthew; Miller, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Under climate change, sea levels will continue to rise and the intensity of tropical storms and hurricanes will amplify. Consequently, the incidence rate of high magnitude storm surges may increase which will enhance the probability of coastal flood events in low lying coastal communities. The purpose of this study is to determine the current and potential future areas that may be at risk of flooding from storm surges, of different magnitudes, for the low lying Pigeon Point area of south-west Tobago. The objective of this research is to develop an understanding of the extent of flooding that these events can ensue on low lying coastal areas that are widespread through the Caribbean under current and future sea level conditions. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic flood model was created for Pigeon Point using the model code LISFLOOD-FP by incorporating topographic data of the terrain and sea bed referenced to mean sea level together with tides. This was used to assess the impact of different storm surge levels on the study area. Storm surge scenarios were computed using information acquired from the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale which provides an estimate of storm surge height based on the category of hurricane, existing projections of global sea level rise and recorded values of high tide for Pigeon Point. Results indicate that the quantity of area likely to flood, in each surge scenario, increases significantly under future projected global sea level conditions compared to current conditions. The potential implications of this on the local population, island's economy and beach geomorphology are examined. Results obtained were incorporated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) to produce current and future flood maps indicating potential inundation extent based on storm surge height to guide coastal flood management programmes in south-west Tobago. We conclude that greater focus should be placed on implementing flood mitigation measures to protect our coasts and

  3. The tug-of-war between the West Philippine Sea and South China Sea Tropical Waters and Intermediate Waters in the Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Yeh, Ya-Ting; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Bai, Yan; He, Xianqiang; Huang, Ting-Hsuan

    2016-03-01

    Kuroshio subsurface waters are the major source of nutrients to the East China Sea continental shelf, a major fishing ground. These subsurface waters are heavily affected by the South China Sea (SCS) Tropical and Intermediate Waters which contain more nutrients than the tropical (Smax) and intermediate (Smin) waters from the West Philippine Sea (WPS). A front was found to separate these waters from the SCS and WPS. The reported front in the Okinawa Trough, however, was identified based only on one-time data from a single cross section. Here historical hydrographic data between March 1950 and December 2011 are analyzed. A vertical front tilted toward the west is found in all seasons in all years in the Okinawa Trough. In winter, the presence of the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent. It is the weakest in autumn. As for intermediate waters (Smin), the WPS and SCS Intermediate Waters show much weaker seasonality compared with tropical waters although in summer, the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is slightly larger than during other times.

  4. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  5. Where Do Female Sex Workers Seek HIV and Reproductive Health Care and What Motivates These Choices? A Survey in 4 Cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafort, Yves; Greener, Ross; Roy, Anuradha; Greener, Letitia; Ombidi, Wilkister; Lessitala, Faustino; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Beksinska, Mags; Gichangi, Peter; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Smit, Jenni A.; Chersich, Matthew; Delva, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background A baseline cross-sectional survey among female sex workers (FSWs) was conducted in four cities within the context of an implementation research project aiming to improve FSWs’ access to HIV, and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. The survey measured where FSWs seek HIV/SRH care and what motivates their choice. Methods Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), FWSs were recruited in Durban, South Africa (n = 400), Tete, Mozambique (n = 308), Mombasa, Kenya (n = 400) and Mysore, India (n = 458) and interviewed. RDS-adjusted proportions were estimated by non-parametric bootstrapping, and compared across cities using post-hoc pairwise comparison tests. Results Across cities, FSWs most commonly sought care for the majority of HIV/SRH services at public health facilities, most especially in Durban (ranging from 65% for condoms to 97% for HIV care). Services specifically targeting FSWs only had a high coverage in Mysore for STI care (89%) and HIV testing (79%). Private-for-profit clinics were important providers in Mombasa (ranging from 17% for STI care and HIV testing to 43% for HIV care), but not in the other cities. The most important reason for the choice of care provider in Durban and Mombasa was proximity, in Tete ‘where they always go’, and in Mysore cost of care. Where available, clinics specifically targeting FSWs were more often chosen because of shorter waiting times, perceived higher quality of care, more privacy and friendlier personnel. Conclusion The place where care is sought for HIV/SRH services differs substantially between cities. Targeted services have limited coverage in the African cities compared to Mysore. Convenience appears more important for choosing the place of care than aspects of quality of care. The best model to improve access, linking targeted interventions with general health services, will need to be tailored to the specific context of each city. PMID:27494412

  6. Glacial-interglacial vegetation dynamics in south eastern Africa depend on sea surface temperature variations in the west Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Dupont

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Glacial-interglacial fluctuations in the vegetation of South Africa might elucidate the climate system at the edge of the tropics between Indian and Atlantic Ocean. However, vegetation records covering a full glacial cycle have only been published from the eastern South Atlantic. We present a pollen record of the marine core MD96-2048 retrieved by the Marion Dufresne from the Indian Ocean ~120 km south of the Limpopo River mouth. The sedimentation at the site is slow and continuous. The upper 6 m (down till 342 ka have been analysed for pollen and spores at millennial resolution. The terrestrial pollen assemblages indicate that during interglacials the vegetation of eastern South Africa and southern Mozambique largely consisted of evergreen and deciduous forests. During glacials open mountainous scrubland dominated. Montane forest with Podocarpus extended during humid periods favoured by strong local insolation. Correlation with the sea surface temperature record of the same core indicates that the extension of mountainous scrubland primarily depends on sea surface temperatures of the Agulhas Current. Our record corroborates terrestrial evidence of the extension of open mountainous scrubland (including elements with affinity to the Cape Flora for the last glacial as well as for other glacial periods of the past 300 ka.

  7. Guangxi West River Economic Belt City Groups’Development Strategy in View of Ecological Niche%生态位视角下广西西江经济带城市群发展策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄河东

    2012-01-01

    从城市经济生态位、人口生态位、环境生态位三个方面选择15项指标,运用城市生态位的评估方法就可以确定广西西江经济带城市群的生态位及其特征。据此可知,广西西江经济带城市群发展的政策应按照生态位分离策略、生态位扩充策略、生态位共生策略等方面的要求去制订。%The article chooses 15 indexes from the city economic ecological niche,population ecological niche and environment ecological niche,and uses the city economic niche assessment methods to determine city groups' ecological niche and features in Guangxi West River economic belt.So it is found that the development policy of the city groups in Guangxi West River economic belt should be made based on the coexisting ecological niche separation strategies,ecological niche expansion strategy and ecological niche symbiosis strategy.

  8. Are international differences in breast cancer survival between Australia and the UK present amongst both screen-detected women and non-screen-detected women? survival estimates for women diagnosed in West Midlands and New South Wales 1997-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Laura M; Rachet, Bernard; O'Connell, Dianne L; Lawrence, Gill; Coleman, Michel P

    2016-05-15

    We examined survival in screened-detected and non-screen-detected women diagnosed in the West Midlands (UK) and New South Wales (Australia) in order to evaluate whether international differences in survival are related to early diagnosis, or to other factors relating to the healthcare women receive. Data for women aged 50 - 65 years who had been eligible for screening from 50 years were examined. Data for 5,628 women in West Midlands and 6,396 women in New South Wales were linked to screening service records (mean age at diagnosis 53.7 years). We estimated net survival and modelled the excess hazard ratio of breast cancer death by screening status. Survival was lower for women in the West Midlands than in New South Wales (5-year net survival 90.9% [95% CI 89.9%-91.7%] compared with 93.4% [95% CI 92.6%-94.1%], respectively). The difference was greater between the two populations of non-screen-detected women (4.9%) compared to between screen-detected women, (1.8% after adjustment for lead-time and over-diagnosis). The adjusted excess hazard ratio of breast cancer death for West Midlands compared with New South Wales was greater in the non-screen-detected group (EHR 2.00, 95% CI 1.70 - 2.31) but not significantly different to that for women whose cancer had been screen-detected (EHR 1.72, 95% CI 0.87 - 2.56). In this study more than one in three breast cancer deaths in the West Midlands would have been avoided if survival had been the same as in New South Wales. The possibility that women in the UK receive poorer treatment is an important potential explanation which should be examined with care.

  9. Introduction to the project VAHINE: VAriability of vertical and tropHIc transfer of diazotroph derived N in the south wEst Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Sophie; Moutin, Thierry; Rodier, Martine; Grisoni, Jean-Michel; Louis, Francis; Folcher, Eric; Bourgeois, Bertrand; Boré, Jean-Michel; Renaud, Armelle

    2016-05-01

    On the global scale, N2 fixation provides the major external source of reactive nitrogen to the surface ocean, surpassing atmospheric and riverine inputs, and sustains ˜ 50 % of new primary production in oligotrophic environments. The main goal of the VAriability of vertical and tropHIc transfer of diazotroph derived N in the south wEst Pacific (VAHINE) project was to study the fate of nitrogen newly fixed by diazotrophs (or diazotroph-derived nitrogen) in oceanic food webs, and how it impacts heterotrophic bacteria, phytoplankton and zooplankton dynamics, stocks and fluxes of biogenic elements and particle export. Three large-volume ( ˜ 50 m3) mesocosms were deployed in a tropical oligotrophic ecosystem (the New Caledonia lagoon, south-eastern Pacific) and intentionally fertilized with ˜ 0.8 µM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) to stimulate diazotrophy and follow subsequent ecosystem changes. VAHINE was a multidisciplinary project involving close collaborations between biogeochemists, molecular ecologist, chemists, marine opticians and modellers. This introductory paper describes in detail the scientific objectives of the project as well as the implementation plan: the mesocosm description and deployment, the selection of the study site (New Caledonian lagoon), and the logistical and sampling strategy. The main hydrological and biogeochemical conditions of the study site before the mesocosm deployment and during the experiment itself are described, and a general overview of the papers published in this special issue is presented.

  10. Diversity and seasonal occurrence of Eimeria species in a mixed flock of communally reared sheep and goats in Mafikeng in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. Bakunzi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and seasonal occurrence of coccidia in a communally reared mixed flock of sheep and goats at Mafikeng, North West Province, South Africa, was determined between March 2008 and February 2009. Faecal specimens were collected directly from the rectum of the animals and the number of oocysts per gram of faeces (opg determined. The mean monthly opg for goats was significantly higher than that for sheep. Higher oocyst counts were observed during the hot, rainy season than during the cold, dry season. The highest mean values for both the sheep (862.5 opg and goats (1200 opg were recorded during March. Six species (Eimeria crandallis, E. bakuensis, E. weybridgensis, E. ahsata, E. intricata, and E. ovinoidalis were recovered from sheep, with E. crandallis and E. bakuensis occurring most frequently. The last 2 species, together with E. ahsata, are considered among the most pathogenic species in sheep. In goats, 7 species (E. arloingi, E. jolchijevi, E. caprina, E. alijevi, E. caprovina, E. christenseni and E. hirci were recovered, with E. arloingi and E. jolchijevi occurring most frequently. Up to 5 Eimeria species were recovered from individual specimens in goats while up to 4 were recovered in sheep. No cross-infections between goats and sheep were recorded and no clinical coccidiosis was noted during the study. It is increasingly becoming evident that the pathogenic E. arloingi is one of the most commonly occurring Eimeria species in goats in South Africa.

  11. The psychosocial challenges of people living with HIV/AIDS in North-West Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Oladipo, Samuel E.; Amoateng, Acheampong Yaw; Kalule-Sabiti, Ishmael

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated psychological and social challenges facing PLWHA in Northwest Province of South Africa. 728 participants were sampled for the study; there were 319 (43.8%) female and 409 (56.2%) male, with ages ranging between 19 – 75 years. Data was collected using existing validated scales, with hypotheses tested with Pearson moment correlation and t-test for independent samples, using version 21 of the SPS...

  12. New Tooth Enamel Isotopic Data from the West Coast of South Africa and a Comparison of Terrestrial and Marine Records of Plio-Pleistocene Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, S. B.; Levin, N. E.; Stynder, D. D.; Bishop, L. C.; Forrest, F.; Braun, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    taxonomic group. However, δ18O values of the EFT teeth are more than 2‰ higher than δ18O values of LBW teeth for each herbivore family that was sampled. Enamel δ13C values from LBW and EFT indicate herbivore diets that were dominated by C3 vegetation during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Mesowear studies of teeth suggest that the West Coast of South Africa was a forested environment with seasonal grasses during the Pliocene but that it supported trees, fynbos and grasses in the mid-Pleistocene. The isotopic indications of C3 diets among grazers from both sites suggest that a WRZ must have existed across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. The positive shift in δ18O values of fossil tooth enamel between the early Pliocene and the mid-Pleistocene on the West Coast of South Africa might suggest a change in the oxygen isotopic composition of rainfall and a decrease in the amount of rainfall across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Excluding diagenesis, these conclusions are consistent with marine records. This study indicates the potential for using the stable isotope records from fossil teeth from the West Coast of South Africa to evaluate how the intensification of the Benguela Upwelling System, which is well documented in the marine records, affected terrestrial ecosystems across the Plio-Pleistocene transition.

  13. The Prevalence of Anxiety and its related Factors among School-age Children in South West of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinab Banaeipour; Shahnaz Rostami; Kourosh Zarea; Bahman Cheraghian

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety is one of the most common childhood disorders, so it is necessary to explore extend and its related factors in the students. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of anxiety and the related factors of anxiety among the children aged 9-12 years. Materials and Methods At a descriptive-analytic study 623 children aged 9-12 year- old who were studying in the fourth to sixth grade of elementary school in Dezful city, were selected through multistage random samplin...

  14. Supply of veterinary medicinal products to an emerging farming community in the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gehring

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the Madikwe District of the North West Province to investigate the supply of veterinary medicinal products to small-scale, subsistence and emerging farmers. A combination of individual interviews, focus groups and direct observation was used to collect data. Stock remedies were made available to farmers within the district at Field Service Units that were managed by administrative staff of the Directorate of Field Services. The state veterinarian and animal health technicians were not directly involved with the sale of products. Most farmers still travelled to farmers' cooperatives in the larger centres outside the district to purchase the veterinary medicinal products they needed. Factors such as the quality of service provided, affordability and availability of required products as well as inaccessibility of outlets to all farmers contributed to the poor support of these outlets by the farmers of the district.

  15. Distribution and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in marine organisms in east and west Guangdong coastal regions, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Shi, Zhen; Jiang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jingping; Wang, Fei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2015-12-30

    Heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As) concentrations, distribution and bioaccumulation were studied in marine organisms in Guangdong coastal regions. Heavy metal concentrations and distribution in organisms showed characteristics according to areas and species. Heavy metal concentrations in most organisms were higher in west than in east, tightly related to the local industry structure and the disequilibrium of metal discharge. Generally, high heavy metal concentrations were detected in molluscs and low concentrations were detected in fish. Bioaccumulation factor was used to assess the accumulation level of marine organisms to heavy metals, of which Cd, Cu and As were the most accumulated elements. Accumulation abilities to heavy metals varied among organism species, such as Distorsio reticulate accumulating Cu, Zn, Cd, As, Loligo beka Sasaki accumulating Pb, Cu, Cr, and Turritella bacillum Kiener accumulating Zn, Cd, As. By comparison, Johnius belengeri, Argyrosomus argentatus, Cynoglossus sinicus Wu had relatively low accumulation abilities.

  16. Three-dimensional architecture and development of Danianbryozoan mounds at Limhamn, south-west Sweden, usingground-penetrating radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Schack von Brockdorff, A.; Bjerager, Morten Gustav Erik;

    2009-01-01

    showing migration directions towards the south. These differences in mound geometry may be the result of differences in the current systems and water depths that existed during formation of the early and middle Danian mounds, respectively. The mounds at Limhamn were located closer to the basin margin...... in shallower water than those at Stevns Klint and Karlby Klint. In addition, the difference in mound architecture may be due to the occurrence of non-layered, irregular coral mounds intercalated with the bryozoan mounds at Limhamn....

  17. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Elops machnata (Forskal Populations in South East and West Coasts of India Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellaichamy RAMANADEVI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique was used to study the genetic diversity of four Elops machnata populations in South India. Elops machnata is considered as a least concern species (LC, categorized by the International Union for Conservation and Nature (IUCN. The population trends are currently stable in Indian Ocean, Eastern Africa, but are unknown throughout the rest of its expansive range, especially in Indian estuaries. Among the ten RAPD primers tested, eight primers got amplified and gave scorable bands. In total, 119 scorable bands were observed in all populations. The overall observed and effective number of alleles was found to be 2.000 ± 0.000 and 1.5307 ± 0.2503 respectively for the entire population. The overall polymorphic loci were 61.00% and the overall gene flow among the four populations was predicted to 0.1032. The genetic distance and geographic distance between the four populations showed a positive correlation. The highest genetic similarity (0.6824 was found between Parangipettai and Muthupettai population, which reflected the geographical relationship between them. Tow main clusters were obtained based on UPGMA dendrogram. This study proves that RAPD analysis has the ability to discriminate E. machnata populations in South Indian coastal waters.

  18. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF INDOOR FEATURES OF TEMRERATURE AND HUMIDITY FOR ROOMS FACING NORTH—SOUTH IN WINTER IN A LOW—LTITUDE PLATEAU CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一平; 李佑荣; 等

    2002-01-01

    Analyzing observations of wintertime air temperature in both indoor and outdoor surroundings in Kunming,a city lying in low latitudes,characteristics of temperature and humidity have been studied for the interior of rooms facing north-south under differnet weather conditions ,Signicant warming effect has been identified in terms of lowest and daily-mean indoor temperature in the area of Kumming.The heating amplitude ranges from 7.7℃ to 10.0℃ and from 4.6℃ to 5.8℃ for the interior part of rooms facing the south and from 4.6℃to 7.0℃and from 1.3℃ to 4.4℃ for the interior part of rooms facing the north,respectively for the two elements,The highest air temperature is higher indoor than outdoor for rooms facing the south,but otherwise is usually true for rooms facing the north,Additional findings point out that buildings not only help maintain relatively warm indoor temperature but delay its variation.The diurnal cycle of temperature indoor is smaller and ranges by 40%-48% for south-facing rooms,and by 20%-30% for north-facing rooms,than outdoor,and the highest temperature is about 2 hours hate inside the room than outside.It shows how inertly indoor temperature varies.The work also finds that relative humidity is less indoor in southward rooms than in northward ones and difference is the largest on fine days but the smallest when it is overcast.For the diurnal variation,the indoor relative humidity is large at nighttime with small amplitude but small during daytime with large amplitude.The above-presented results can be served as scientific foundation for more research no climate in low-latitude cities and rational design of urban architectures.

  19. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF INDOOR FEATURES OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY FOR ROOMS FACING NORTH-SOUTH IN WINTER IN A LOW-LATITUDE PLATEAU CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一平; 李佑荣; 王进欣; 刘玉洪; 马友鑫

    2002-01-01

    Analyzing observations of wintertime air temperature in both indoor and outdoor surroundings in Kunming,a city lying in low latitudes,characteristics of temperature and humidity have been studied for the interior of rooms facing north-south under different weather conditions.Significant warming effect has been identified in terms of lowest and daily-mean indoor temperature in the area of Kunming.The heating amplitude ranges from 7.7(C to 10.0(C and from 4.6(C to 5.8(C for the interior part of rooms facing the south and from 4.6(C to 7.0(C and from 1.3(C to 4.4(C for the interior part of rooms facing the north,respectively for the two elements.The highest air temperature is higher indoor than outdoor for rooms facing the south,but otherwise is usually true for rooms facing the north.Additional findings point out that buildings not only help maintain relatively warm indoor temperature but delay its variation.The diurnal cycle of temperature indoor is smaller and ranges by 40% ~48% for south-facing rooms,and by 20%~30% for north-facing rooms,than outdoor,and the highest temperature is about 2 hours late inside the room than outside.It shows how inertly indoor temperature varies.The work also finds that relative humidity is less indoor in southward rooms than in northward ones and difference is the largest on fine days but the smallest when it is overcast.For the diurnal variation,the indoor relative humidity is large at nighttime with small amplitude but small during daytime with large amplitude.The above-presented results can be served as scientific foundation for more research on climate in low-latitude cities and rational design of urban architectures.

  20. Evolution of dissolved and particulate chromophoric materials during the VAHINE mesocosm experiment in the New Caledonian coral lagoon (South West Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tedetti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the VAHINE project, we investigated the spectral characteristics and the variability of dissolved and particulate chromophoric materials throughout a 23 day mesocosm experiment conducted in the South West Pacific at the exit of the New Caledonian coral lagoon (22°29.073 S–166°26.905 E from 13 January to 4 February 2013. Samples were collected in a mesocosm fertilized with phosphorus at 1, 6 and 12 m depth and in the surrounding waters. Light absorption coefficients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM (ag(λ, particulate matter (ap(λ and CDOM + particulate matter (ag+p(λ were measured using a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter (PSICAM, while fluorescent DOM (FDOM components were determined from excitation-emission matrices (EEMs combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC. The evolutions of ag(λ, ap(λ and ag+p(λ in the mesocosm were similar to those of total chlorophyll a concentration, Synechococcus spp. and picoeukaryote abundances, bacterial production, particulate organic nitrogen and total organic carbon concentrations, with roughly a decrease from the beginning of the experiment to days 9–10, and an increase from days 9–10 to the end of the experiment. In the surrounding waters, the same trend was observed but the increase was much less pronounced, emphasizing the effect of the phosphorus fertilization on the mesocosm's plankton community. Correlations suggested that both Synechococcus cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria were strongly involved in the production of CDOM and absorption of particulate matter. The increase in phytoplankton activities during the second part of the experiment led to a higher contribution of particulate material in the absorption budget at 442 nm. The three FDOM components identified (tryptophan-, tyrosine- and UVC humic-like fluorophores did not follow the evolution of CDOM and particulate matter, proving that these were driven by different

  1. Authigenic minerals related to carbon and sulfur biogeochemical cycling from deep-sea active methane seeps offshore South-West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, C.; Blanc-Valleron, M.; Demange, J.; Boudouma, O.; Pape, T.; Himmler, T.; Fekete, N.; Spiess, V.

    2011-12-01

    The South-West African continental margin is well known for occurrences of active methane-rich fluid seeps that are associated with seafloor pockmarks in a broad range of water depths, from the shelf to the deep basins. High gas flares in the water column, luxurious oases of benthic fauna, gas hydrate accumulations and diagenetic carbonate crusts have been observed at these seeps. During the M76/3a expedition of R/V METEOR (summer 2008) gravity cores recovered abundant authigenic carbonate concretions from five pockmarks of the South-West African margin including previously studied sites (Hydrate Hole, Worm Hole, Regab Pockmark) and two sites (Deep Hole, Baboon Cluster) newly discovered during the cruise. Carbonate concretions were mostly associated to sediments settled by seep-associated benthic macrofauna and bearing shallow gas hydrates. We present new results of the comprehensive analysis of the mineralogy and isotope geochemistry of the diagenetic carbonates sampled in the five pockmarks. The mineralogy of authigenic carbonates is dominated by magnesian calcite and aragonite, associated occasionally with dolomite. The oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of authigenic carbonates (+2.4 < δ18O % V-PDB < +6.2 ; -61.0 < δ13C % V-PDB < -40.1) indicate that microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) was the main process controling carbonate precipitation within sub-seafloor sediments deposited from the glacial-time up to the present. The frequent occurrence of diagenetic gypsum crystals within the sediments demonstrates that bio-irrigation with oxygenated bottom water by the burrowing activity of benthic fauna caused the secondary oxidation of reduced sulfur (hydrogen sulfide and pyrite) that was produced by sulfate reducting bacteria as a by-product of AOM; during the sulfide oxidation process, the released acidity induced the partial dissolution of carbonates. Our results demonstrate also the strong link that existed between the carbon and sulfur cycles

  2. A Study on the Future Sustainability of Sejong, South Korea's Multifunctional Administrative City, Focusing on Implementation of Transit Oriented Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jeongmuk

    2012-01-01

    Since the appearance of steam engines in the late 18th century, cities have been growing with the development of transportation and the consequent increase of its urban population and economic activities. Presently, cities accommodate more than half of the world population and are expected to be responsible for 73% of the world’s energy use in 2030. Cities come to the fore as a problem, being also the roots of solution for current environment and energy-related problems. The Transit-Oriented ...

  3. A new temperate deepwater skate of the genus Bathyraja (Rajoidei: Arhynchobatidae) from the South-West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Peter R; Stewart, Andrew L; Séret, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    A single specimen of a new Bathyraja skate was collected by the authors in 2003 during a survey of the deepwater biota of the northern Tasman Sea by the New Zealand FRV Tangaroa. This skate, labelled the 'blonde skate' by voyage participants, is uniformly white on all surfaces of the body and the skin is partly translucent. It belongs to a subgroup of Bathyraja with a large, almost smooth, quadrangular disc and well-developed and equally spaced median tail thorns. Other similar and probably closely related Bathyraja specimens have been caught in seas to the south of New Zealand since the discovery of this species, but their identity is yet to be confirmed.

  4. Active tectonics west of New Zealand's Alpine Fault: South Westland Fault Zone activity shows Australian Plate instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Gregory P.; Chandler-Yates, Nicholas; Dela Pena, Federico; Wilson, Pam; May, Elijah; Twiss, Amber; Cheng, Che

    2016-04-01

    The 300 km long South Westland Fault Zone (SWFZ) is within the footwall of the Central Alpine Fault (Plate is shown with cumulative dip-slip displacements up to 5.9 m (with 3 m throw) on Pleistocene and Holocene sediments and gentle hanging wall anticlinal folding. Cone penetration test (CPT) stratigraphy shows repeated sequences within the fault scarp (consistent with thrusting). Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating constrains the most recent rupture post-12.1 ± 1.7 ka with evidence for three to four events during earthquakes of at least Mw 6.8. This study shows significant deformation is accommodated on poorly characterized Australian Plate structures northwest of the Alpine Fault and demonstrates that major active and seismogenic structures remain uncharacterized in densely forested regions on Earth.

  5. Air-sea fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory on the south-west coast of the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Kitidis, Vassilis; Cazenave, Pierre W.; Nightingale, Philip D.; Yelland, Margaret J.; Pascal, Robin W.; Prytherch, John; Brooks, Ian M.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-05-01

    We present air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), momentum, and sensible heat measured by the eddy covariance method from the recently established Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) on the south-west coast of the United Kingdom. Measurements from the south-westerly direction (open water sector) were made at three different sampling heights (approximately 15, 18, and 27 m above mean sea level, a.m.s.l.), each from a different period during 2014-2015. At sampling heights ≥ 18 m a.m.s.l., measured fluxes of momentum and sensible heat demonstrate reasonable ( ≤ ±20 % in the mean) agreement with transfer rates over the open ocean. This confirms the suitability of PPAO for air-sea exchange measurements in shelf regions. Covariance air-sea CO2 fluxes demonstrate high temporal variability. Air-to-sea transport of CO2 declined from spring to summer in both years, coinciding with the breakdown of the spring phytoplankton bloom. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first successful eddy covariance measurements of CH4 emissions from a marine environment. Higher sea-to-air CH4 fluxes were observed during rising tides (20 ± 3; 38 ± 3; 29 ± 6 µmole m-2 d-1 at 15, 18, 27 m a.m.s.l.) than during falling tides (14 ± 2; 22 ± 2; 21 ± 5 µmole m-2 d-1), consistent with an elevated CH4 source from an estuarine outflow driven by local tidal circulation. These fluxes are a few times higher than the predicted CH4 emissions over the open ocean and are significantly lower than estimates from other aquatic CH4 hotspots (e.g. polar regions, freshwater). Finally, we found the detection limit of the air-sea CH4 flux by eddy covariance to be 20 µmole m-2 d-1 over hourly timescales (4 µmole m-2 d-1 over 24 h).

  6. Results of a paleomagnetic survey undertaken in the Damara mobile belt, South West Africa, with special reference to the magnetisation of the uraniferous pegmatitic granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project study, undertaken by the Geology Division of the AEB, on the correlation between airborne magnetic and radiometric data covering a portion of the Damara Mobile Belt in South West Africa, has revealed that all the known occurrences of uranium in late- to post-tectonic leucogranite (alaskite) of the Damara orogeny are associated with negative geomagnetic anomalies. Although the uranium occurrences themselves do not display marked geomagnetic anomalies, their immediate geological environment is characterised by the negative anomalies, which are semi-regional in extent. To investigate the origin of these anomalies, the Atomic Energy Board and the Geological Survey of South Africa undertook a palaeomagnetic study of the area. Oriented cores were taken from 31 sites in the mobile belt, 18 of which were selected within the negative magnetic zones, mostly in close association with known uraniferous alaskitic granites. Palaeomagnetic evidence suggests that the negative geomagnetic anomalies are associated with a remanent magnetisation, resulting from the Damara orogenic event, whose direction is removed from the earth's present field and which has affected rocks of the Nosib Group. Absence of this stable remanent direction in rocks stratigraphically overlying the Nosib Group accounts for the distinctive geomagnetic signature, in the form of negative anomalies, of the Nosib Group. It is this signature which can be used in airborne surveys to identify rocks of the Nosib Group outcropping, or of shallow suboutcrop, in anticlinal or dome-like structures. Since the uraniferous alaskites are mostly confined stratigraphically to the Nosib Group, the negative geomagnetic anomalies form an important prospecting criterion as they may be used to delineate target areas for further exploration in areas covered by sand, scree and duricrust deposits

  7. Classification and description of the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the proposed Highveld National Park, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlomola E. Daemane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the proposed Highveld National Park (HNP is to conserve a considerable area of the poorly conserved Rocky Highveld Grassland and Dry Sandy Highveld Grassveld of the western Grassland Biome in South Africa. The park has not yet been proclaimed, but is currently under the management of the North West Parks and Tourism Board. The main aim of this study was to classify and describe the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the HNP. The areas affected by soil degradation were on the midslopes, footslopes, valley bottomland and the floodplains around the Spitskop hill. The concentrated grazing around the Spitskop area was also influenced by the existing dam in the floodplains. Floristic and soil degradation data were collected and used to classify and describe the plant communities of the Spitskop area. Vegetation sampling was performed by means of the Braun-Blanquet method and a total of twenty plots were sampled. A numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN was applied to the floristic data to derive a first approximation of the main plant communities. Further refinement was achieved by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The final results of the classification procedure were presented in the form of a phytosociological table, with three major communities and three subcommunities being described. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine the direct correlation between plant communities and soil degradation types. Soil compaction and sheet erosion were found to be the most significant variables determining plant community composition. Rill and gully erosion were shown to be of lesser significance in explaining the variation in plant communities. Conservation implications: Grasslands are amongst the most threatened biomes in South Africa, yet less than 1.3% are currently being conserved. The HNP has significant value for biodiversity conservation and the protection of this area will contribute to the preservation of the highly

  8. Hydrological risks in anthropized watersheds: modeling of hazard, vulnerability and impacts on population from south-west of Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamy Rakotoarisoa, Mahefa; Fleurant, Cyril; Taibi, Nuscia; Razakamanana, Théodore

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological risks, especially for floods, are recurrent on the Fiherenana watershed - southwest of Madagascar. The city of Toliara, which is located at the outlet of the river basin, is subjected each year to hurricane hazards and floods. The stakes are of major importance in this part of the island. This study begins with the analysis of hazard by collecting all existing hydro-climatic data on the catchment. It then seeks to determine trends, despite the significant lack of data, using simple statistical models (decomposition of time series). Then, two approaches are conducted to assess the vulnerability of the city of Toliara and the surrounding villages. First, a static approach, from surveys of land and the use of GIS are used. Then, the second method is the use of a multi-agent-based simulation model. The first step is the mapping of a vulnerability index which is the arrangement of several static criteria. This is a microscale indicator (the scale used is the housing). For each House, there are several criteria of vulnerability, which are the potential water depth, the flow rate, or the architectural typology of the buildings. For the second part, simulations involving scenes of agents are used in order to evaluate the degree of vulnerability of homes from flooding. Agents are individual entities to which we can assign behaviours on purpose to simulate a given phenomenon. The aim is not to give a criterion to the house as physical building, such as its architectural typology or its strength. The model wants to know the chances of the occupants of the house to escape from a catastrophic flood. For this purpose, we compare various settings and scenarios. Some scenarios are conducted to take into account the effect of certain decision made by the responsible entities (Information and awareness of the villagers for example). The simulation consists of two essential parts taking place simultaneously in time: simulation of the rise of water and the flow using

  9. The Prevalence of Anxiety and its related Factors among School-age Children in South West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Banaeipour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Anxiety is one of the most common childhood disorders, so it is necessary to explore extend and its related factors in the students. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of anxiety and the related factors of anxiety among the children aged 9-12 years. Materials and Methods At a descriptive-analytic study 623 children aged 9-12 year- old who were studying in the fourth to sixth grade of elementary school in Dezful city, were selected through multistage random sampling.  The data were collected using demographic profile questionnaire and School Anxiety Scale (SAS using SPSS-16. Results Of total 623 students, 36.3% were girls. 232 (37.2% students had mild anxiety, 304 students (48.8% had moderate anxiety and 87 students (14% had severe anxiety. There was a significant relationship between the mean score of children anxiety and the number of children in family (P0.0.5. Conclusion This study showed that the prevalence of anxiety was higher in boyes, children who were single children, children who had a family history of hereditary disease, and children who experienced corporal punishment at home. It is recommended arranging programs including training, counseling, and psychotherapy ones for these children and their families.

  10. Exogenous glycine and serine promote growth and antifungal activity of Penicillium citrinum W1 from the south-west Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-wen; Zhao, Xian-liang; Wu, Xiao-jun; Wen, Chao; Li, Hui; Chen, Xin-hua; Peng, Xuan-xian

    2015-04-01

    PcPAF is a novel antifungal protein identified by our recent study, which is produced by a fungal strain Penicillium citrinum W1 isolated from a south-west Indian Ocean sediment sample. The present study identified glycine as a potential metabolite which increased the fungal growth and promoted antifungal activity. Then, GC/MS based metabolomics was used to disclose the metabolic mechanism manipulated by glycine. With the aid of unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis and supervised orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis, the intracellular metabolite profiles were distinguished among two glycine-treated groups and control. 43 and 47 significantly varied metabolites were detected in 2.5 mM or 5 mM glycine-treated groups and involved in seven and eight pathways, respectively. Furthermore, exogenous serine, which is converted from glycine, showed the same potential as glycine did. Our findings not only identify glycine and serine as nutrients which promoted P. citrinum W1 growth and increased antifungal activity, but also highlight the way to utilize metabolomics for an understanding of metabolic mechanism manipulated by an exogenous compound.

  11. Assessing Factors Controlling the Hydrochemistry and Suitability for Irrigation Purposes of Aquifer AQ-2 in Pointe-Noire, South-West Congo-Brazzaville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tathy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater of AQ-2 in Pointe-Noire (south-west town of Congo-Brazzaville was assessed for factors controlling the hydrochemistry and its irrigation suitability. Thirty three groundwater samples collected from 11 piezometers were analyzed for physical parameters such as: pH, temperature (T, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS; major cations: Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and anions Cl- , SO42- , HCO3-. Factor analysis revealed four factors associated with the mineralization, alkalinity, temperature and pH of the groundwater. Some indexes which can influence the groundwater quality for irrigation were determined: Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR, percent of sodium (%Na, Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC, Permeability Index (PI and Potential Salinity (PS. These indexes for water irrigation were compared with standard limits. They have been found within the safe limit suitable for irrigation. The total dissolved solids in the groundwater were lower than 1500 mg/L, this denotes that irrigation using groundwater of aquifer AQ-2 in Pointe-Noire would not cause salinity hazards.

  12. Bacterial community composition of an urban river in the North West Province, South Africa, in relation to physico-chemical water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, K; Bezuidenhout, C C

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances on bacterial community composition in an urban river (Mooi River). Physico-chemical analysis, bacterial enumeration and 454-pyrosequencing were conducted on the Mooi River system upstream and downstream of an urban settlement in the North West Province, South Africa. Pyrosequencing and multivariate analysis showed that nutrient inputs and faecal pollution strongly impacted the physico-chemical and microbiological quality at the downstream sites. Also, bacterial communities showed higher richness and evenness at the downstream sites. Multivariate analysis suggested that the abundances of Betaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia are related to temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), sulphate and chlorophyll-a levels. These results suggest that urbanisation caused the overall water quality of this river to deteriorate, which in turn affected the bacterial community composition. In addition, our work identified potential indicator groups that may be used to track faecal and organic pollution in freshwater systems. PMID:26593724

  13. The Sports Culture Research of National South-West Associated University%西南联大体育文化探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周山彦; 王萍; 赵永斌

    2011-01-01

    国立西南联合大学是抗战时期在昆明成立的国内一流大学,大师云集,人才辈出。在联大推行的通才教育理念里,体育是重要内容。试从文化三层论对西南联大的体育文化的思想观念层,管理制度层,和物质层进行研究,旨在彰显联大体育之精神,为西南联大进行裨益研究。%The National South-West Associated University(NSAU) was a special university which was established in China during the war of anti-Japanese,it has many knowledgeable professors and talented students.Physical education played an important role in liberal education which the NSAU hold on.Throng the sports idea,manage and practice level to researching the PE culture of the NSAU,one purpose is showing the sports spirit of the NSAU,and the other is helping research the NSAU.

  14. Clinical profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Faifa-Gizan, South west province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (A study of 140 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Raghu

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to know the age, sex distribution and clinical pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in a remote hilly area, Faifa, Gizan situated in the South West region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. C L accounted for nearly 5% of the new outpatient attendance in the study period (1988-90 of 20 months. Out of the 140 new patients who formed the study group, 82 were males (58.57% and 58 females (41.43% in the age range of 9 months to 60 years. Ninety two patients were children (65.71% below 15 years. including 58 boys and 34 girls and CL is a major public health problem in children of this area. The fact that out of 140 affected individuals, 134 were local Saudis and 6 non-Saudis reveals the autochthonous nature of the disease in this region. The clinical spectrum included dry crusted ulcers, erythematous indurated plaques, nodules, papules, and oozing shallow ulcers. The lesions were distributed mostly on face and extremities. Response to pentostam (Sodium stibogluconate was highly satisfactory.

  15. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of secondary school learners in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa

    2016-12-01

    Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8-10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based. PMID:27315574

  16. Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in south-west Germany, 2004 to 2015: increasing minimal inhibitory concentrations of tetracycline but no resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnath, Thomas; Mertes, Thomas; Ignatius, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, particularly to third-generation cephalosporins, has been reported in many countries. We examined the susceptibility (determined by Etest and evaluated using the breakpoints of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) of 434 N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from 107 female and 327 male patients in Stuttgart, south-west Germany, between 2004 and 2015. During the study period, high proportions of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (70.3%), tetracycline (48.4%; increasing from 27.5% in 2004/2005 to 57.7% in 2014/2015; p = 0.0002) and penicillin (25.6%). The proportion of isolates resistant to azithromycin was low (5.5%) but tended to increase (p = 0.08). No resistance and stable minimum inhibitory concentrations were found for cefixime, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin. High-level resistance was found for ciprofloxacin (39.6%) and tetracycline (20.0%) but not for azithromycin; 16.3% of the isolates produced betalactamase. Thus, cephalosporins can still be used for the treatment of gonorrhoea in the study area. To avoid further increasing resistance to azithromycin, its usage should be limited to patients allergic to cephalosporins, or (in combination with cephalosporins) to patients for whom no susceptibility testing could be performed or those co-infected with chlamydiae. PMID:27632642

  17. Impact of Forest Cover and Aridity on the Interplay between Effective Rooting Depth and Annual Runoff in South-West Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Smettem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Variants of the Budkyo hydrological model describe the effects of land use change on annual water yield. A recent modification using a simple process-based ecohydrological model provides insight into the partitioning of rainfall between runoff and evapotranspiration. In particular, the ‘effective vegetation rooting depth’ becomes the single free parameter in the model and can be related to land use and climate. We applied this approach to investigate the relations between mean annual runoff from 2000 to 2011, catchment average effective rooting depth and the proportion of forest cover across eleven catchments in South-west Western Australia. The proportion of forested and cleared land was partitioned using MODIS minimum annual average LAI values from 1 km2 pixels over 2000–2011, with forest clearing ranging from 1% to 98% across the 11 catchments. Estimated mean annual runoff using catchment averaged effective rooting depths for forest and cleared (grassland land obtained using an independent physiologically-based model gave better estimates than a widely used ‘default’ Budkyo-based model. If effective rooting depth declines with aridity, as described by the model then runoff decline may be considerably less (about 50% than predicted if the effective root depth remains unchanged (70%–92% decline. This highlights the importance of understanding ecohydrological feedbacks between vegetation and climate in projecting scenarios of water yield response to climate change.

  18. Mid-level synoptic analysis of flood-generating systems in South-west of Iran (case study: Dalaki watershed river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sabziparvar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood is known as one of the most distractive natural disaster worldwide. Therefore, its prediction is of great importance from the socio-economical point of view. Despite the great improvement in computational techniques and numerical weather prediction approaches, so far, in Iran, an acceptable flood prediction method has not yet been introduced. The main aim of this study is to recognize and classify the patterns of synoptic systems leading to torrential rainfalls in a watershed basin located in south-west of Iran. In this research, 20 major floods characterized by high rainfall intensities and severe damage were selected. The pattern, extension, and the direction of movement of the selected synoptic maps from surface to 500 hPa pressure levels were identified. Furthermore, the position of cyclones, anti-cyclones and mid-level trough lines were carefully tracked and classified into different groups. The results show that the major severe floods occurring in Dalaki watershed river basin are mainly influenced by strengthening of the center of Sudan heat low (SHL and the coincidence moisture feeding by the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. It was found that simultaneous merging of the SHL system and Mediterranean frontal system would intensify the flood intensities over the basin. The mean positions of high pressures, low pressures, the Red Sea trough lines and 1015 hPa isobars of the major floods are also discussed.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in south-west Germany, 2004 to 2015: increasing minimal inhibitory concentrations of tetracycline but no resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnath, Thomas; Mertes, Thomas; Ignatius, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, particularly to third-generation cephalosporins, has been reported in many countries. We examined the susceptibility (determined by Etest and evaluated using the breakpoints of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) of 434 N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from 107 female and 327 male patients in Stuttgart, south-west Germany, between 2004 and 2015. During the study period, high proportions of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (70.3%), tetracycline (48.4%; increasing from 27.5% in 2004/2005 to 57.7% in 2014/2015; p = 0.0002) and penicillin (25.6%). The proportion of isolates resistant to azithromycin was low (5.5%) but tended to increase (p = 0.08). No resistance and stable minimum inhibitory concentrations were found for cefixime, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin. High-level resistance was found for ciprofloxacin (39.6%) and tetracycline (20.0%) but not for azithromycin; 16.3% of the isolates produced betalactamase. Thus, cephalosporins can still be used for the treatment of gonorrhoea in the study area. To avoid further increasing resistance to azithromycin, its usage should be limited to patients allergic to cephalosporins, or (in combination with cephalosporins) to patients for whom no susceptibility testing could be performed or those co-infected with chlamydiae.

  20. Spatio-temporal distribution of Cœlaenomenodera minuta Uhmann (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, a serious insect pest of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in the south-west region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondjeli Constantin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The leaflet miner Cœlaenomenodera minuta is the main pest of oil palm in the south-west region of Cameroon. A 12 months study of spatio-temporal distribution was carried out on young and mature industrial plantations of 40 ha each at Tiko Benoe palm estate in the south-west region of Cameroon. The pest infestation (larvae and adult distribution revealed the endemic existence of C. minuta in the mature oil palm plantation. Relative null pest infestations were recorded from the young plantation. Three infestation peaks were observed. Monthly significant difference of C. minuta infestation was also recorded. The highest number of insects captured (117.3 per tree was in December. In addition, negative and relatively significant correlation was observed between monthly cumulative rainfall days and captured C. minuta individuals. These results can help to improve the conception and the implementation of an efficient control strategy against the pest.

  1. Transfer factor of the radionuclides in food crops from high-background radiation area of south west India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, G; Thanka Kumaran, J Thampi; Gnana Raj, G Allen; Maniyan, C G

    2012-04-01

    It is necessary to obtain the transfer factor (TF) of long-lived radionuclides because soil type and vegetation can affect TF. We studied the food crops commonly consumed by the general public of Kanyakumari district of south India. The main focus was on rice, fruits, vegetables and tapioca because the consumption of these is high. The soil to rice TF for the radionuclides, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (238)U and (40) K are 8.8×10(-2), 14.2×10(-2), 5.8×10(-2) and 6.3×10(-2), respectively. The TF of tapioca for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (238)U and (40) K are 6.2×10(-2) , 11×10(-2), 1.9×10(-2) and 8.9×10(-2), respectively. For fruits and vegetables, the TFs are low. In the majority of the crops the non-edible parts accumulate more radionuclides than the edible parts. PMID:21680604

  2. Active tectonics west of New Zealand's Alpine Fault: South Westland Fault Zone activity shows Australian Plate instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Gregory P.; Chandler-Yates, Nicholas; Dela Pena, Federico; Wilson, Pam; May, Elijah; Twiss, Amber; Cheng, Che

    2016-04-01

    The 300 km long South Westland Fault Zone (SWFZ) is within the footwall of the Central Alpine Fault (<20 km away) and has 3500 m of dip-slip displacement, but it has been unknown if the fault is active. Here the first evidence for SWFZ thrust faulting in the "stable" Australian Plate is shown with cumulative dip-slip displacements up to 5.9 m (with 3 m throw) on Pleistocene and Holocene sediments and gentle hanging wall anticlinal folding. Cone penetration test (CPT) stratigraphy shows repeated sequences within the fault scarp (consistent with thrusting). Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating constrains the most recent rupture post-12.1 ± 1.7 ka with evidence for three to four events during earthquakes of at least Mw 6.8. This study shows significant deformation is accommodated on poorly characterized Australian Plate structures northwest of the Alpine Fault and demonstrates that major active and seismogenic structures remain uncharacterized in densely forested regions on Earth.

  3. CITY | NATURE BORDER ON TEST - [URBANISM STUDIO 2015}

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for city-nature border conditions on Amager, Copenhagen. From November 2014 to February 2015, 33 students from eight countries with an equal number of foreign and Danish students explored possible solutions for new city-nature border conditions of Amager and Nature Park Amager seeking to unfold the future......What if a plant and hydrological test center becomes a dynamic transition zone between Nature Park Amager and the city, testing the reaction of plants to shifting water levels as well as being a public and social reclamation learning center? How can military traces be the foundation for new site......- specific larger urban notes of city and park? And what if the shopping centre Fields is being opened up, and a new public main square across the highway becomes the new centre of Ørestad interlinking Amager north to south, east to west? This catalogue presents strategic development and design proposals...

  4. Theory of Reasoned Action and Its Integration with Economic Modelling in Linking Farmers' Attitudes and Adoption Behavior - An Illustration from the Analysis of the Uptake of Livestock Technologies in the South West of England

    OpenAIRE

    Rehman, Tahir; McKemey, K.; Garforth, Chris; Huggins, R; Yates, C.M.; Cook, R.J.; Tranter, Richard B.; PARK Julian R; Dorward, Peter T.

    2003-01-01

    The behavioural intentions of a sample of livestock farmers in the south-west of England towards new technologies were analysed within a Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA) framework, in order to explore reasons for the apparently low rate at which research-based knowledge is being transferred to the livestock industry. Correlations between components of attitudes (outcome beliefs and evaluations), subjective norms (normative beliefs and motivation to comply) and behavioural intentions were inte...

  5. Performance management systems implementation in South African municipalities :|bthe case of Matlosana City Council / by Morero Ignatius Kgechane.

    OpenAIRE

    Kgechane, Morero Ignatius

    2013-01-01

    Local government in South Africa has undergone significant transformation since 2000. There is a growing need to modernise this sphere of government, and part of this transformation process in South Africa has been to ensure that municipalities deliver according to their mandate in terms of services and become more responsive to communities’ needs. The role of municipalities, as local sphere of government, is to ensure that all citizens have access to at least a minimum level of services....

  6. Rhodolith beds are major CaCO3 bio-factories in the tropical South West Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Moura, Rodrigo L; Bastos, Alex C; Salgado, Leonardo T; Sumida, Paulo Y; Guth, Arthur Z; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme H; Abrantes, Douglas P; Brasileiro, Poliana S; Bahia, Ricardo G; Leal, Rachel N; Kaufman, Les; Kleypas, Joanie A; Farina, Marcos; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2012-01-01

    Rhodoliths are nodules of non-geniculate coralline algae that occur in shallow waters (Rhodolith beds stand with kelp beds, seagrass meadows, and coralline algal reefs as one of the world's four largest macrophyte-dominated benthic communities. Geographic distribution of rhodolith beds is discontinuous, with large concentrations off Japan, Australia and the Gulf of California, as well as in the Mediterranean, North Atlantic, eastern Caribbean and Brazil. Although there are major gaps in terms of seabed habitat mapping, the largest rhodolith beds are purported to occur off Brazil, where these communities are recorded across a wide latitudinal range (2°N-27°S). To quantify their extent, we carried out an inter-reefal seabed habitat survey on the Abrolhos Shelf (16°50'-19°45'S) off eastern Brazil, and confirmed the most expansive and contiguous rhodolith bed in the world, covering about 20,900 km(2). Distribution, extent, composition and structure of this bed were assessed with side scan sonar, remotely operated vehicles, and SCUBA. The mean rate of CaCO(3) production was estimated from in situ growth assays at 1.07 kg m(-2) yr(-1), with a total production rate of 0.025 Gt yr(-1), comparable to those of the world's largest biogenic CaCO(3) deposits. These gigantic rhodolith beds, of areal extent equivalent to the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, are a critical, yet poorly understood component of the tropical South Atlantic Ocean. Based on the relatively high vulnerability of coralline algae to ocean acidification, these beds are likely to experience a profound restructuring in the coming decades.

  7. Rhodolith beds are major CaCO3 bio-factories in the tropical South West Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto M Amado-Filho

    Full Text Available Rhodoliths are nodules of non-geniculate coralline algae that occur in shallow waters (<150 m depth subjected to episodic disturbance. Rhodolith beds stand with kelp beds, seagrass meadows, and coralline algal reefs as one of the world's four largest macrophyte-dominated benthic communities. Geographic distribution of rhodolith beds is discontinuous, with large concentrations off Japan, Australia and the Gulf of California, as well as in the Mediterranean, North Atlantic, eastern Caribbean and Brazil. Although there are major gaps in terms of seabed habitat mapping, the largest rhodolith beds are purported to occur off Brazil, where these communities are recorded across a wide latitudinal range (2°N-27°S. To quantify their extent, we carried out an inter-reefal seabed habitat survey on the Abrolhos Shelf (16°50'-19°45'S off eastern Brazil, and confirmed the most expansive and contiguous rhodolith bed in the world, covering about 20,900 km(2. Distribution, extent, composition and structure of this bed were assessed with side scan sonar, remotely operated vehicles, and SCUBA. The mean rate of CaCO(3 production was estimated from in situ growth assays at 1.07 kg m(-2 yr(-1, with a total production rate of 0.025 Gt yr(-1, comparable to those of the world's largest biogenic CaCO(3 deposits. These gigantic rhodolith beds, of areal extent equivalent to the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, are a critical, yet poorly understood component of the tropical South Atlantic Ocean. Based on the relatively high vulnerability of coralline algae to ocean acidification, these beds are likely to experience a profound restructuring in the coming decades.

  8. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Drinking Purposes Using GIS Modelling (case Study: City of Tabriz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeihouni, M.; Toomanian, A.; Shahabi, M.; Alavipanah, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    Tabriz is the largest industrial city in North West of Iran and it is developing rapidly. A large proportion of water requirements for this city are supplied from dams. In this research, groundwater quality assessed through sampling 70 wells in Tabriz and its rural areas. The purposes of this study are: (1) specifying spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as Chloride, Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH, hardness and sulphate (2) mapping groundwater quality for drinking purpose by employing Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method in the study area using GIS and Geosatistics. We utilized an interpolation technique of ordinary kriging for generating thematic map of each parameter. The final map indicates that the groundwater quality esaeicni from North to South and from West to East of the study area. The areas located in Center, South and South West of the study area have the optimum quality for drinking purposes which are the best locations to drill wells for supplying water demands of Tabriz city. In critical conditions, the groundwater quality map as a result of this research can be taken into account by East Azerbaijan Regional Water Company as decision support system to drill new wells or selecting existing wells to supply drinking water to Tabriz city.

  9. Resource management and operations in southwest South Dakota: Climate change scenario planning workshop summary January 20-21, 2016, Rapid City, SD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Schuurman, Gregor W; Symstad, Amy; Ray, Andrea; Miller, Brian; Cross, Molly; Rowland, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The Scaling Climate Change Adaptation in the Northern Great Plains through Regional Climate Summaries and Local Qualitative-Quantitative Scenario Planning Workshops project synthesizes climate data into 3-5 distinct but plausible climate summaries for the northern Great Plains region; crafts quantitative summaries of these climate futures for two focal areas; and applies these local summaries by developing climate-resource-management scenarios through participatory workshops and, where possible, simulation models. The two focal areas are central North Dakota and southwest South Dakota (Figure 1). The primary objective of this project is to help resource managers and scientists in a focal area use scenario planning to make management and planning decisions based on assessments of critical future uncertainties.This report summarizes project work for public and tribal lands in the southwest South Dakota grasslands focal area, with an emphasis on Badlands National Park and Buffalo Gap National Grassland. The report explains scenario planning as an adaptation tool in general, then describes how it was applied to the focal area in three phases. Priority resource management and climate uncertainties were identified in the orientation phase. Local climate summaries for relevant, divergent, and challenging climate scenarios were developed in the second phase. In the final phase, a two-day scenario planning workshop held January 20-21, 2016 in Rapid City, South Dakota, featured scenario development and implications, testing management decisions, and methods for operationalizing scenario planning outcomes.

  10. [Simulation of urban ecological security pattern based on cellular automata: a case of Dongguan City, Guangdong Province of South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Sheng; Qiao, Ji-Gang; Ai, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Taking the Dongguan City with rapid urbanization as a case, and selecting landscape ecological security level as evaluation criterion, the urbanization cellular number of 1 km x 1 km ecological security cells was obtained, and imbedded into the transition rules of cellular automata (CA) as the restraint term to control urban development, establish ecological security urban CA, and simulate ecological security urban development pattern. The results showed the integrated landscape ecological security index of the City decreased from 0.497 in 1998 to 0.395 in 2005, indicating that the ecological security at landscape scale was decreased. The CA-simulated integrated ecological security index of the City in 2005 was increased from the measured 0.395 to 0.479, showing that the simulated urban landscape ecological pressure from human became lesser, ecological security became better, and integrated landscape ecological security became higher. CA could be used as an effective tool in researching urban ecological security.

  11. Geothermal reservoir properties of the Rotliegend (Permocarboniferous) sediments in the Saar Nahe Basin (South-West Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, A.; Bär, K.; Sass, I.

    2012-04-01

    The geothermal potential of the Rotliegend (Permocarboniferous) in the Northern Upper Rhine Graben and the Saar-Nahe-Basin (Germany) has been shown in large scale regional studies. To further assess the geothermal potential of the different lithostratigraphical units and facies types within this Variscan intramontane basin, knowledge of their thermophysical and hydraulic properties is indispensable. Where the Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous molasse basin, the top of the up to two kilometers thick Permocarboniferous deposits is located at a depth of one to three kilometers and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. Therefore, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150°C, making it suitable for geothermal power production. Lithologically the Permocarboniferous deposits consist of different formations and facies types including fine, middle and coarse grained sandstones, arcosic sandstones, siltstones, volcanics and carbonates. Within the framework of the study presented here, outcrop analogue studies west of the Graben in the Saar-Nahe-Basin, and east of the Graben in the Wetterau and the Wetterau-Fulda-Basin are conducted. Each lithostratigraphic formation and lithofacies type is sampled in various outcrops to generate a statistically sufficient amount of samples of the different sedimentary rocks in order to determine their petrophysical, sedimentological and geochemical characteristics. The petrophysical parameters measured include the porosity, permeability, density, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and uniaxial compressive strength. So far, the petrophysical properties of samples of more than 70 locations have been measured in our lab facilities, showing a clear correlation with the facies type. Excluding the coarse grained sandstones of the Donnersberg formation at the beginning of the Nahe-subgroup of the Upper Rotliegend, the geothermal reservoir properties are more suitable in the Glan-subgroup of the Lower

  12. Paleoclimate Records from New Zealand Maar Lakes, Insights into ENSO Teleconnections and Climatic Events in the South (West) Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulmeister, J.; Nobes, D. C.; Striewski, B.

    2008-05-01

    The maar craters of the New Zealand Auckland Volcanic Field (36.5°S, 174.5°E) contain some of the highest resolution late-Quaternary paleoclimate records in the Southern Hemisphere. Here we integrate laminae count results from recent drilling in the Hopua Crater with existing records from the nearby Onepoto Crater (Pepper et al., 2004). In total these records cover many thousands of years between the onset of the last glaciation maximum and the early mid-Holocene. The cores are strongly laminated. Individual laminae in both craters are very fine (sub-mm to mm scale) and form couplets which comprise a darker mineralogenic rich layer and a lighter diatomaceous layer. In places these couplets are annual, and may reflect seasonal algal blooms, but in other sections of the record, notably through the late-Glacial and Holocene, the couplets are deposited at inter-annual time scales. Spectral analyses of couplet thickness counts using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) with 64 to 256-year running windows, and a 50 per cent overlap indicate strong spectral power during the LGM and markedly weaker power during both the deglaciation and early Holocene. In fact there is no spectral strength for most of these periods. Three brief (centennial duration) events punctuate this extended period of low spectral power. These occur at c. 16 ka, c. 14.8 ka and during the early Holocene. They display spectral power in the 5-7yr ENSO window and also at longer time intervals that may be consistent with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We infer the local switching on (or up) of ENSO and PDO teleconnections and suspect these are embedded in circum-polar circulation changes. In addition to these spectral power episodes, there is a general increase in the number of couplet cycles per century between the deglaciation and the early mid-Holocene. This matches observations from Equador and Peru and suggests that trans-Pacific ENSO responses are in phase between western tropical South America and New

  13. Continuation, south of Oaxaca City (southern Mexico) of the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary and of the Oaxaca Fault. Based in MT, gravity and magnetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Corbo, F.; Arzate-Flores, J.; Belmonte-Jimenez, S.; Arango-Galván, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Oaxaca Fault represents Tertiary extensional reactivation of the Juarez shear zone constituting the boundary-suture between the Oaxaca and Juarez terranes (southern Mexico). South of Oaxaca City, the fault trace disappears and there are not clear evidences for its southward continuation at depth. The crust in southern México has been studied through seismic refraction, and seismological and magnetotelluric (MT) studies. The refraction studies did not image the Oaxaca Fault. However, previous regional MT studies suggest that the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary lies to the east of the Zaachila and Mitla sub-basins, which implies sinistral displacement along the Donaji Fault. Campos-Enriquez et al. (2009) established the shallow structure of the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary based in detailed gravity and magnetic studies. This study enabled: 1) to establish the shallow structure of the composite depression comprising three N-S sub-basins: the northern Etla and southern Zaachila sub-basins separated by the Atzompa sub-basin. According to the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary is displaced sinistrally ca. 20 km along the E-W Donají Fault, which defines the northern boundary of the Zaachila sub-basin. At the same time,, the Oaxaca Fault may either continue unbroken southwards along the western margin of a horst in the Zaachila sub-basin or be offset along with the terrane boundary. This model implies that originally the suture was continuous south of the Donaji Fault. A constraint for the accreation of the Oaxaca and Juarez terranes. Thirty MT soundings were done in the area of the Central Valleys, Oaxaca City (southern Mexico). In particular we wanted to image the possible southward continuation of the Oaxaca Fault. 22 Mt sounding are located along two NE-SW profiles to the northern and to the south of the City of Oaxaca. To the north of Oaxaca City, the electrical resistivity distribution obtained show a clear discontinuity across the superficial trace of the Oaxaca

  14. Research on flux of dry atmospheric falling dust and its characterization in a subtropical city, Guangzhou, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinping; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Ma, Shexia; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-09-01

    Guangzhou is the central city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China, and is one of the most polluted cities in the world. To characterize the ambient falling dust pollution, two typical sampling sites: urban (Wushan) and suburban (University Town) areas in Guangzhou city were chosen for falling dust collection over 1 year at time intervals of 1 or 2 months. The flux of dry deposition was calculated. In addition, mineral composition and morphology of atmospheric falling dust were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and microscopic observation. The results revealed that the dust flux in Guangzhou city was 3.34-3.78 g/(m(2) month) during the study period. The main minerals in the dust were quartz, illite, calcite, kaolinite, gypsum, plagioclase, dolomite, and amorphous matter. The morphological types included grained and flaky individual minerals, chain-like aggregates, spherical flying beads, and irregular aggregates, with the chain-like and spherical aggregates indicators of industrial ash. The major dusts were derived from industrial and construction activities. The gypsum present in the dust collected in winter season was not only derived from cement dust but may also have originated from the reaction of calcic material with sulfuric acids resulting from photooxidation of SO(x) and NO(x), which confirmed serious air pollution due to SO(x) and NO(x) in Guangzhou. The abatement of fossil fuel combustion emissions and construction dust will have a significant beneficial effect on dust reduction.

  15. Pilanesberg National Park, North West Province, South Africa: Uniting economic development with ecological design – A history, 1960s to 1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Carruthers

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1970s, a ground-breaking project began in the Pilanesberg district in what is now the North West Province of South Africa to create a wildlife conservation and eco-tourism venture from degraded marginal farmland in an aesthetically attractive extinct volcanic crater. The establishment of this national park was innovative in a number of respects, including a partnership between landscape and ecological designers, local community development and participation, regional tourist satisfaction, trophy hunting, environmental education, ecological restoration, and wildlife conservation and management. This paper briefly explored the park’s early history, explaining its landscape, its early peopling and historical land use. The narrative then concentrated on the first five years of the park’s existence, from its inception in 1977, under the aegis of Agricor, Bophuthatswana’s rural development agency, to 1984, when responsibility for the park was given over to Bophuthatswana National Parks, a parastatal agency, and a new era began. The article contended that 1984 is an appropriate date on which to conclude the early history of the Pilanesberg National Park (PNP because it was then that the experimental phase of the park ended: its infrastructure was sufficiently developed to offer a satisfactory visitor experience, the management plan was revised, its bureaucratic structures were consolidated and an attitude survey amongst the local community was undertaken. Embedding the originating period of the PNP in its historical, political and socio-economic context, the paper foregrounded those elements in the park’s beginnings that were new in the southern African protected area arena. Thus, elements that relate to socio-politics, landscape and ecological design and restoration, and early relations with neighbouring communities were emphasised. This paper has been written by an historian and is therefore conceptual and historical, conforming

  16. Screening of long-term complications and glycaemic control of patients with diabetes attending Rustenburg Provincial Hospital in North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Tumbo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM is increasing worldwide, with more than 90% being type 2. In South Africa, DM is common amongst all racial groups with the highest prevalence amongst the Indian population (15.8%, followed by the White (3.5% and Black (4.8% populations. Long-term cardiovascular, renal, neurovascular and retinal complications of type 2 DM are majorcauses of disability and mortality - hence the need for screening.Objective: To describe the screening practices of long-term complications amongst patients withtype 2 diabetes attending Rustenburg Provincial Hospital in North West Province (South Africa.Method: A cross-sectional quantitative study using patients’ clinical records was performed. A randomsample of 92 out of 1340 patients with type 2 diabetes attending the hospital in 2007 was selected. Demographic information on age, gender, body mass index, residence, level of education, durationof treatment and type of treatment was obtained. The recorded glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c,lipids and blood pressure levels were extracted, as well as the results of the dilated eye exam, footexamination, urine test for microalbumin, blood urea and creatinine. The data was analysed usingthe EPI Info version 6.05 software package.Results: The screening tests that were carried out consistently included: glycosylated haemoglobin (95.7%, blood pressure (100%, serum glucose (100%, serum cholesterol (79.3% and serum creatinine (93.5%. Aspects poorly screened for were: dilated eye examination (19.5%, foot examination (20.6%, urine test for micro-albumin (1.1%, as well as HDL and LDL cholesterol (17.4%. Abnormal resultswere mainly detected in: HbA1c (69.3%, serum creatinine (30.2%, dilated eye examination (38.9% and foot examination (52.6%. The HbA1c of 9.1% is far above the target of 6% and this predisposespatients to long-term complications.Conclusion: The screening of long-term complications of type 2 DM was poor in most

  17. Leadership, job satisfaction and intention to leave among registered nurses in the North West and Free State provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremia S. Sojane

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nurse leadership of a hospital is identified as the single most important aspect of the practice environment that impacts nurse outcomes. When nurses are satisfied with their jobs, they tend to remain with their employers and become more productive in their workplaces.Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between leadership, job satisfaction and intentions to leave among registered nurses (RNs working in hospitals in the North West and Free State provinces of South Africa.Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. The population (N = 680 with the sample (n = 204 included RNs in medical–surgical units in both private and public hospitals in the two provinces. Data were collected using the RN4CAST questionnaire.Results: RNs were satisfied with the items pertaining to leadership except for praise and recognition (55.7%. They also indicated high levels of overall job satisfaction (70.5% but were dissatisfied with wages (50%, study leave (40.9% and opportunities for advancement (40.1%. Furthermore, 46.1% of the RNs intended to leave their current hospitals. The results indicated a relationship between leadership and job satisfaction (r = 0.47; p = 0.00 and between intention to leave and job satisfaction (d = 0.50.Conclusion: The nurse managers played a significant role influencing RN’s level of job satisfaction, while job satisfaction was highly correlated with intention to leave. The nurse leadership can improve job satisfaction by giving praise and recognition to the RNs for jobs well done, and RNs should be afforded the opportunity to advance their careers through further studies.Keywords: Leadership,  job satisfaction, intention to leave, Nurse

  18. Seasonal and diurnal pattern of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from the reed area of a fen in South-West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Merit; Lamers, Marc; Streck, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    About 45 million tons of CO2 equivalents are emitted yearly from peat soils in Germany, making it the second largest source of greenhouse gases after the energy sector. A large part of the emission consists of CH4. Nevertheless, carbon budgets of peatlands are not well represented in the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Germany, required by the Kyoto Protocol. To fill this gap, we measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes in the reed area of the minerotrophic peatland 'Federseemoor' (3500 ha) in South-West Germany, by means of the Eddy Covariance method. It is expected that this reed area will release high emissions of CH4, due to the anoxic conditions in general and the capacity of reed vegetation to transport gas actively between soil and atmosphere in particular. The results of 2013 show that both CO2 and CH4 fluxes exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern. A clear diurnal pattern is visible for both CO2 and CH4 fluxes during the vegetation period. Overall, this fen system appears to be a sink for carbon dioxide (-4.7 tCO2 ha-1 yr-1), and a source for CH4 (0.3 tCH4 ha-1 yr-1). Although the site is a carbon sink, the GWP100 is slightly positive (1.9 tCO2eq ha-1 yr-1), considering CH4 as a 25 times stronger greenhouse gas than CO2. In our presentation, we will (i) introduce the experimental set up, (ii) summarize the key measurement results from 2013 and (iii) evaluate the main environmental variables affecting the temporal pattern of CH4 and CO2 fluxes.

  19. Comments on: Association Study between Coronary Artery Disease and rs1333049 and rs10757274 Polymorphisms at 9p21 Locus in South-West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Preuß

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Foroughmand et al. (1 have recently reported association between coronary artery disease (CAD and two well-known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on chromosome 9p21.3 in subjects from South-West Iran. We doubt the validity of their findings. Genotyping was done using ARMS-PCR for rs1333049 and rs10757274 in their study. When we first looked at the genotype frequencies, we observed a substantial excess of heterozygote subjects for both SNPs. Specifically, the relative excess of heterozygosity (REH (2, a measure for the strength of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE, was approximately 137% for rs1333049 in controls (REH=2.3688, Table 1. In contrast, we did not observe any deviation from HWE in our own studies (3, 4. We additionally conducted a short literature search to identify other studies from Asia, which reported genotype frequencies in controls for rs1333049. These studies are summarized in table 1. None of these studies shows a deviation from HWE in their control groups (all P>0.05. In summary, only the recent study by Foroughmand and colleagues (1 shows a marked deviation from HWE in controls with this deviation observed for both reported SNPs. Possible reasons for deviations from HWE have been summarized, e.g., in Ziegler et al. (2. The most likely cause for such a strong deviation from HWE is genotyping errors, especially because genotyping by ARMS-PCR plus gel electrophoresis is prone to such errors. However, REH could also be caused by population specifics, which has been discussed by Namipashaki et al. (5. In any case, we (2 and others (5 recommend the investigation of HWE in population-based genetic association studies to improve quality and reliability of the research results.

  20. Mapping Land Surface Temperature and Land Cover to Detect Urban Heat Island Effect: A Case Study of Tarkwa, South West Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Soakodan Aduah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban Heat Island (UHI effect controls internal climates of buildings and affects energy use and comfort of urban dwellers. The objective of this study was to detect UHI from Land Surface Temperature (LST and to investigate whether land cover has any influence on UHI in Tarkwa, South West Ghana using satellite remote sensing techniques. A Landsat 7 ETM+ image, DEM and meteorological data were used to generate a land cover map with the maximum likelihood classification algorithm whiles LST was modeled with the Landsat Plank’s curve. Validation of the LST map was achieved by comparing it with air temperature measured at the UMaT meteorological station. The mean modeled LST of 298.60 Kelvin compared well with the mean observed air temperature of 298.30 Kelvin. Furthermore, LST ranged between 289 and 305 Kelvin while urban areas and bare soils had higher LSTs than vegetated areas implying that higher NDVI areas are associated with lower temperatures. Hence, LST maps produced indicated the existence of UHI effect in the Tarkwa area. From the study it is evident that impervious and non-evaporative surfaces have high LSTs due to absence of vegetation. Therefore, uncontrolled land cover changes may intensify the UHI effect. The study has proven that remote sensing can be used in operational mapping of LST for climate studies, vegetation monitoring and detecting UHIs in the humid regions of Ghana. This confirms the important role Earth observation and geoinformation technology can play in environmental monitoring and management as global climate and land cover changes.

  1. One-year delayed effect of fog on malaria transmission: a time-series analysis in the rain forest area of Mengla County, south-west China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goggins William B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major public health burden in the tropics with the potential to significantly increase in response to climate change. Analyses of data from the recent past can elucidate how short-term variations in weather factors affect malaria transmission. This study explored the impact of climate variability on the transmission of malaria in the tropical rain forest area of Mengla County, south-west China. Methods Ecological time-series analysis was performed on data collected between 1971 and 1999. Auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models were used to evaluate the relationship between weather factors and malaria incidence. Results At the time scale of months, the predictors for malaria incidence included: minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and fog day frequency. The effect of minimum temperature on malaria incidence was greater in the cool months than in the hot months. The fog day frequency in October had a positive effect on malaria incidence in May of the following year. At the time scale of years, the annual fog day frequency was the only weather predictor of the annual incidence of malaria. Conclusion Fog day frequency was for the first time found to be a predictor of malaria incidence in a rain forest area. The one-year delayed effect of fog on malaria transmission may involve providing water input and maintaining aquatic breeding sites for mosquitoes in vulnerable times when there is little rainfall in the 6-month dry seasons. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of malaria for similar tropical rain forest areas worldwide.

  2. Male circumcision, alcohol use and unprotected sex among patrons of bars and taverns in rural areas of North-West province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, Sebenzile; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Morojele, Neo K

    2015-01-01

    Strong research evidence has shown that medical male circumcision significantly reduces heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. However, its effectiveness is enhanced by behavioural factors such as condom use. Currently, little is known of unprotected sex associated with male circumcision (MC) among alcohol-drinking tavern-going men, or whether engagement in unprotected sex may differ between men who have been traditionally circumcised and those who have been medically circumcised. The study sought to determine the relative importance of alcohol consumption and MC as correlates of unprotected sex and to compare the risk of engaging in unprotected sex between traditionally circumcised and medically circumcised tavern-going men from two rural villages in North-West province, South Africa. Data from 314 adult men (≥18 years) were analysed. The men were recruited from four bars/taverns using systematic sampling. They responded to questions regarding their demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, circumcision status and method (where applicable), and engagement in unprotected sex. Descriptive analyses and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Age, education, relationship status, alcohol consumption and traditional male circumcision (TMC) were independently and significantly associated with unprotected sex. Specifically, probable alcohol dependence and traditional circumcision were independent risk factors for engaging in unprotected sex among tavern-going men. Traditionally circumcised men had a higher risk of engaging in unprotected sex than medically circumcised men. Interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption, encouraging protective behaviour among men who have undergone TMC, and increasing condom use are needed in bar/tavern settings. HIV prevention education must be urgently incorporated into TMC programmes.

  3. Mapping bare soil in South West Wales, UK, using high resolution colour infra-red aerial photography for water quality and flood risk management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Helena; Neale, Simon; Coe, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Natural Resources Wales is a UK government body responsible for environmental regulation, among other areas. River walks in Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority catchments in South West Wales, UK, identified soil entering water courses due to poaching and bank erosion, leading to deterioration in the water quality and jeopardising the water quality meeting legal minimum standards. Bare soil has also been shown to cause quicker and higher hydrograph peaks in rural catchments than if those areas were vegetated, which can lead to flooding of domestic properties during peak storm flows. The aim was to target farm visits by operational staff to advise on practices likely to improve water quality and to identify areas where soft engineering solutions such as revegetation could alleviate flood risk in rural areas. High resolution colour-infrared aerial photography, 25cm in the three colour bands and 50cm in the near infrared band, was used to map bare soil in seven catchments using supervised classification of a five band stack including the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Mapping was combined with agricultural land use and field boundary data to filter out arable fields, which are supposed to bare soil for part of their cycle, and was very successful when compared to ground truthing, with the exception of silage fields which contained sparse, no or unproductive vegetation at the time the imagery was acquired leading to spectral similarity to bare soil. A raindrop trace model was used to show the path sediment from bare soil areas would take when moving through the catchment to a watercourse, with hedgerows inserted as barriers following our observations from ground truthing. The findings have been used to help farmers gain funding for improvements such as fencing to keep animals away from vulnerable river banks. These efficient and automated methods can be rolled out to more catchments in Wales and updated using aerial imagery acquired more recently to

  4. Water use productivity and food security among smallholder homestead food gardening and irrigation crop farmers in North West province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Tshwene

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study analysed water use productivity among smallholder homestead food gardening and irrigation crop farmers in the North West province, South Africa. Home gardening and irrigation constitute the most important rural development investment strategies that can have direct impact on poverty and food security. Using a large sample size technique of n>30, 160 gardeners were selected for the study. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and subjected to analysis using SPSS. Frequency counts and percentages were used to describe demographics. Multiple regressions were also used to identify determinants. The independent variables were significantly related with an F value of 3.074, P < .05. Also, an R value of 0.506 showed that there is a strong correlation between socio-economic characteristics and water use productivity. The results further predicted R Square 26% of the variation in water use productivity. Five out of sixteen were significant, with three variables being significant at 5% (type of crop, social participation and market outlet while two variables were significant at 10% (home food security and attitude. Significant determinants of water use productivity were type of cropping (t =-2.443, P =.016, social participation (t =2.599, P = .010, marketing outlets (t = 2.810, P = .006, home food security (t=-1.777, P = .078 and attitude (t = -1.727, P = .086. The results imply that the higher attitude, marketing, home food security, social participation and type of crop, the higher the use of water productivity among farmers. However, insignificant determinants of water use productivity were farming experience (t = 0.571, p=0.569, education (t = -1.048, p = 0.296, land ownership (t = -1.416, p = 0.159 and age (t = -0.782, p = 0.436. The results imply that the lower the farming experience, education skill, land ownership and age, the lower the water productivity use among farmers.

  5. Prevalence, risk factors of human papillomavirus infection and papanicolaou smear pattern among women attending a tertiary health facility in south-west Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji Mathew Kolawole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cervical cancer amongst Nigerian women has been on the increase in the past decade, and is regarded as the second highest cause of cancer deaths among Nigerian women. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors of HPV infection, and Papanicolaou smear pattern amongst a cohort of women attending the Gynaecology clinic of a tertiary health facility in Ido-Ekiti, South west Nigeria. Method: This was a cross-sectional study involving the screening of women between the ages of 15-64 years for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using Papanicolaou smear staining technique and serological diagnosis using IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Respondents were selected through convenience sampling of subjects, while interviewer- administered questionnaire and clinical report form were also used to collect data, and data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Of the 200 blood samples examined for Human papillomavirus infection, 135 (67.5% were sero-positive while 65 (32.5% were sero-negative. For cervical cytology using Papanicolaou smear, 14 (7% were positive (had presence of cervical abnormality while 186 (93% were negative (had no cervical abnormality. Result showed a direct relationship between seropositivity, development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and Human papillomavirus infection. The risk factors for the development of HPV infection included age, type of marriage, parity, history of genital infection and tobacco usage. Non circumcision of male partner was also found to be a risk factor. Conclusion: The presence of abnormal cervical cytology and high level of serological positivity clearly showed why there is need for a holistic approach to the screening, vaccination methodologies and early detection of HPV infection in the country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 453-459

  6. Speleology and magnetobiostratigraphic chronology of the GD 2 locality of the Gondolin hominin-bearing paleocave deposits, North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herries, Andy I R; Adams, Justin W; Kuykendall, Kevin L; Shaw, John

    2006-12-01

    Speleological, paleomagnetic, mineral magnetic, and biochronological analyses have been undertaken at the Gondolin hominin-bearing paleocave, North West Province, South Africa. Two fossiliferous but stratigraphically separate sequences, GD2 and GD1/3, which were once part of a large cavern system, have been identified. Although some comparative paleomagnetic samples were taken from the GD 1, 3, and 4 localities that are currently under investigation, the research presented here focuses on the fossil-rich, in situ deposits at locality GD 2, excavated by E.S. Vrba in 1979. The GD 2 deposits are dominated by normal-polarity calcified clastic deposits that are sandwiched between clastic-free flowstone speleothems. The lower flowstone has a sharp contact with the red siltstone deposits and is of reversed polarity. The capping flowstone shows a change from normal to reversed polarity, thereby preserving a polarity reversal. While the paleomagnetic work indicates that the GD 2 fossil material was deposited during a normal-polarity period, the shortness of the sequence made matching of the magnetostratigraphy to the geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) impossible without the aid of biochronology. While lacking multiple time-sensitive taxa, the recovery of specimens attributable to Stage III Metridiochoerus andrewsi is consistent with a deposition date between 1.9 and 1.5 Ma. A comparison of the magnetostratigraphy with the GPTS therefore suggests that the fauna-bearing siltstone of GD 2 date to the Olduvai normal-polarity event, which occurred between 1.95 and 1.78 Ma, and that the reversal from normal to reversed polarity identified in the capping flowstone dates to 1.78 Ma. The main faunal layers therefore date to slightly older than 1.78 Ma. Deposits from the GD 1 locality are dominated by reversed directions of magnetization, which show that this deposit is not of the same age as the faunal layers from the GD 2 locality. PMID:16949648

  7. Body fat levels in children in younger school age from rural areas living in Copper Mining Region in south-west Poland

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    Paweł Posłuszny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity as a civilization disease has been called the "epidemic" in the late twentieth century. It is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, which is the last time a major cause of death. In Europe and the United States, the number of overweight people exceeds now 50% of the population. The incidence of overweight and obesity continue to rise and this phenomenon is also observed in our country even in case of an early childhood. In Poland, percentage of very young school children (boys and girls who are overweight or obese amounts to about 15%. Obesity is particularly common among children from industrial environments living in highly developed countries. The aim of his study was to assess the level of fat in boys and girls from rural areas aged 7 to 10 from industrial environment. Material and methods. The study was carried out at six rural schools located in the copper mining region in south-west Poland in 2001. For the needs of the study use was made of existing results covering altogether 488 children of early school age – 261 girls and 227 boys. Measurements were taken of height, body mass, waist and hip circumferences. Body fat, body water and lean body mass were measured with Futrex. Respectively the BMI and WHR were calculated from measurements taken earlier. Results and conclusions. The BMI level is within the values of acceptable standard in majority of children. The percentage of children above the standard fluctuates within the limits of typical peers from other regions of the country and is about 15%. In boys obesity increases with age, in girls the values increase also, but they are of lower importance. Most of the examined children present an average level of total body fatness. A very small percentage of them exceeds the level considered as obese.

  8. Genetic Studies of Vibrio cholerae in South West Cameroon—A Phylogenetic Analysis of Isolates from the 2010-2011 Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Moise C.; Masalla, Thomas; Esemu, Seraphine; Fumoloh, Foche Francis; Kracalik, Ian; Cella, Eleonora; Alam, Meer Taifur; Akoachere, Jane-Francis; Liang, Song; Salemi, Marco; Morris, J. Glenn; Ali, Afsar; Ndip, Lucy M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: During the cholera outbreak from 2010 to 2011 in Cameroon, 33,192 cases with 1,440 deaths (case fatality ratio 4.34%) were reported to the World Health Organization. Of these, the South West Region reported 3,120 clinical cases. This region is in the Equatorial Monsoon climatic subzone of Cameroon, close to the coast, raising questions as to whether cases were linked with development of environmental reservoirs. Methods: In an investigation conducted by the Laboratory for Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Buea, toxigenic V. cholerae O1 were isolated from diarrheal stool samples from 18 patients, with ages ranging from <3 to 70 years. Coordinates for clinical centers at which cases were identified were obtained using a handheld GPS, and were mapped using ArcGIS. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby ‘Bauer agar disc diffusion method. The full genomes of these strains were sequenced with the Illumina MiSeq platform. De novo assembly of cholera genomes and multiple sequence alignment were carried out using the bioinformatics pipeline developed in the Emerging Pathogens Institute laboratory at the University of Florida. Results/Discussion: Genetic comparisons showed that isolates were closely related, with pairwise p-distances ranging from 2.25 to 14.52 10-5 nt substitutions per site, and no statistically significant correlation between the pairwise genetic distances and the geographic distances among sampling locations. Indeed, the phylogeny of the Cameroonian strains displays the typical star-like topology and intermixing of strains from different locations that are characteristic of an exponential outbreak localized around a relatively restricted area with occasional spillover to other parts of the country, likely mediated by direct human contact and human movement. Findings highlight the utility of whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis in understanding transmission patterns at the local level. PMID

  9. Determinants of delay in malaria treatment-seeking behaviour for under-five children in south-west Ethiopia: a case control study

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    Deribew Amare

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt diagnosis and timely treatment of malaria within 24 hours after onset of first symptoms can reduce illness progression to severe stages and therefore, decrease mortality. The reason why mothers/caretakers delay in malaria diagnosis and treatment for under-five children is not well studied in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess determinants of malaria treatment delay in under-five children in three districts of south-west Ethiopia. Methods A case control study was conducted from March 15 to April 20, 2010. Cases were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment after 24 hours of developing sign and symptom, and controls were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment within 24 hours of developing sign and symptom of malaria. Data were collected by trained enumerators using structured questionnaire. Data were entered in to Epi Info version 6.04 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. To identify determinants, multiple logistic regression was done. Results A total of 155 mothers of cases and 155 mothers of controls were interviewed. Mothers of children who were in a monogamous marriage (OR = 3.41, 95% CI: 1.39, 8.34, who complained about the side effects of anti-malarial drugs (OR = 4.96, 95% CI: 1.21, 20.36, who had no history of child death (OR = 3.50, 95% CI: 1.82, 6.42 and who complained about the higher cost of transportation to reach the health institutions (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.45 were more likely to be late for the treatment of malaria in under-five children. Conclusion Effective malaria control programmes should address reducing delayed presentation of children for treatment. Efforts to reduce delay should address transport cost, decentralization of services and increasing awareness of the community on early diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Genotypic Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolates from Different Sources in the North-West Province, South Africa, Using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR Analysis

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    Collins Njie Ateba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, proper hygiene is not strictly implemented when animals are slaughtered and meat products become contaminated. Contaminated meat may contain Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 that could cause diseases in humans if these food products are consumed undercooked. In the present study, a total of 94 confirmed E. coli O157:H7 isolates were subjected to the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC polymerase chain reaction (PCR typing to generate genetic fingerprints. The ERIC fragments were resolved by electrophoresis on 2% (w/v agarose gels. The presence, absence and intensity of band data were obtained, exported to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Office 2003 and used to generate a data matrix. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA and complete linkage algorithms were used to analyze the percentage of similarity and matrix data. Relationships between the various profiles and/or lanes were expressed as dendrograms. Data from groups of related lanes were compiled and reported on cluster tables. ERIC fragments ranged from one to 15 per isolate, and their sizes varied from 0.25 to 0.771 kb. A large proportion of the isolates produced an ERIC banding pattern with three duplets ranging in sizes from 0.408 to 0.628 kb. Eight major clusters (I–VIII were identified. Overall, the remarkable similarities (72% to 91% between the ERIC profiles for the isolate from animal species and their corresponding food products indicated some form of contamination, which may not exclude those at the level of the abattoirs. These results reveal that ERIC PCR analysis can be reliable in comparing the genetic profiles of E. coli O157:H7 from different sources in the North-West Province of South Africa.

  11. QTL for yield and associated traits in the Seri/Babax population grown across several environments in Mexico, in the West Asia, North Africa, and South Asia regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marta S; Reynolds, Matthew P; McIntyre, C Lynne; Mathews, Ky L; Jalal Kamali, M R; Mossad, Moussa; Feltaous, Yousef; Tahir, Izzat S A; Chatrath, Ravish; Ogbonnaya, Francis; Baum, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Heat and drought adaptive quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a spring bread wheat population resulting from the Seri/Babax cross designed to minimize confounding agronomic traits have been identified previously in trials conducted in Mexico. The same population was grown across a wide range of environments where heat and drought stress are naturally experienced including environments in Mexico, West Asia, North Africa (WANA), and South Asia regions. A molecular genetic linkage map including 475 marker loci associated to 29 linkage groups was used for QTL analysis of yield, days to heading (DH) and to maturity (DM), grain number (GM2), thousand kernel weight (TKW), plant height (PH), canopy temperature at the vegetative and grain filling stages (CTvg and CTgf), and early ground cover. A QTL for yield on chromosome 4A was confirmed across several environments, in subsets of lines with uniform allelic expression of a major phenology QTL, but not independently from PH. With terminal stress, TKW QTL was linked or pleiotropic to DH and DM. The link between phenology and TKW suggested that early maturity would favor the post-anthesis grain growth periods resulting in increased grain size and yields under terminal stress. GM2 and TKW were partially associated with markers at different positions suggesting different genetic regulation and room for improvement of both traits. Prediction accuracy of yield was improved by 5 % when using marker scores of component traits (GM2 and DH) together with yield in multiple regression. This procedure may provide accumulation of more favorable alleles during selection. PMID:23269228

  12. City of One Thousand Temples

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Emma Natalya

    2015-01-01

    A Network of Hearsay in South India Although the South Indian city of Kanchipuram is popularly known as the City of One Thousand Temples, there is no existing prescribed circuit, and no comprehensive temple listing or map to guide visitors.* Rather, the thousands of pilgrims who flood the city daily usually only know about the five most famous temples. Scattered street signs throughout the busy city point the way to these sprawling monuments, which are always crowded and especially ...

  13. Assessment of Human Exposure to Magnetic Field from Overhead High Voltage Transmission Lines in a City in South Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnle Akinlolu; Adedeji Kazeem

    2015-01-01

    The increase in electricity consumption, population, and land use has now forced high voltage transmission lines (HVTLs) either to pass or be installed around or through urban cities. This increases the level of human exposure to electromagnetic field radiation as this field produced around the HVTLs extends outwards covering some distance. This may cause a number of health hazards. It is even dangerous to a human who touch any metallic object in proximity of the HVTL, as it may have an appre...

  14. Sports Competition Performance and the Development of Cities in the South of Shaanxi Province%陕南体育竞赛表演与城市经营发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕仙利

    2011-01-01

    Through literature data method ,this paper gives out an analysis on the issue of sports competition performance and the development of cities in the south of Shaanxi province briefly from the following three aspects that sports competition performance may affect a city: economy > image and culture, aimed at discussing the effect sports competition performance may have on the future development of cities in the south of Shaanxi province.%文章采用文献资料研究方法,主要从体育竞赛表演对举办城市的经济、城市形象和城市文化三个方面来分析体育竞赛表演与陕南城市经营发展的问题,探讨体育竞赛表演与陕南城市的未来发展.

  15. Are We Monitoring the Quality of Cataract Surgery Services? A Qualitative Situation Analysis of Attitudes and Practices in a Large City in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haastrup, Oluwatosin O. O.; Buchan, John C.; Cassels-Brown, Andy; Cook, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the current quality “assurance” and “improvement” mechanisms, the knowledge, attitudes and practices of cataract surgeons in a large South African city. Methodology: A total of 17 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with ophthalmologists in June 2012 at 2 tertiary institutions in the Republic of South Africa. Recruitment of the purposive sample was supplemented by snowball sampling. The study participants were 5 general ophthalmologists and 2 pediatric ophthalmologists; 4 senior and 4 junior registrars and a medical officer. Participants were interviewed by a trained qualitative interviewer. The interview lasted between 20 and 60 min. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed for thematic content. Results: Mechanisms for quality assurance were trainee logbooks and subjective senior staff observation. Clinicians were encouraged, but not obliged to self-audit. Quality improvement is incentivized by personal integrity and ambition. Poorly performing departments are inconspicuous, especially nationally, and ophthalmologists rely on the impression to gauge the quality of service provided by colleagues. Currently, word of mouth is the method for determining the better cataract surgical centers. Conclusion: The quality assurance mechanisms were dependent on insight and integrity of the individual surgeons. No structures were described that would ensure the detection of surgeons with higher than expected complication rates. Currently, audits are not enforced, and surgical outcomes are not well monitored due to concerns that this may lead to lack of openness among ophthalmologists. PMID:25949081

  16. South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  17. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  18. Overview of West Nile Virus Transmission and Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupin, Andrea; Colpitts, Tonya M

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that can cause mild-to-severe disease in humans and horses. WNV was first documented in Uganda in 1937 and passed through the majority of Africa, West Asia, and Europe before arriving in the USA (with infections in New York City in 1999). After the spread of the virus on the US east coast, it traveled westward, northward, and southward through the USA and into Central and South America. WNV can cause fever, rashes, nausea, vomiting, and potentially neuroinvasive disease or death. The virus is sustained through a mosquito-bird-mosquito cycle and there are many species that are competent vectors. Unfortunately, there are no vaccines and the only treatment is supportive care. This chapter highlights the epidemiology and transmission of WNV and provides insight into some of the challenges of controlling WNV disease.

  19. Evolution of dissolved and particulate chromophoric materials during the VAHINE mesocosm experiment in the New Caledonian coral lagoon (south-west Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedetti, Marc; Marie, Lauriane; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Rodier, Martine; Van Wambeke, France; Helias, Sandra; Caffin, Mathieu; Cornet-Barthaux, Véronique; Dupouy, Cécile

    2016-06-01

    In the framework of the VAHINE project, we investigated the spectral characteristics and the variability of dissolved and particulate chromophoric materials throughout a 23-day mesocosm experiment conducted in the south-west Pacific at the mouth of the New Caledonian coral lagoon (22°29.073 S-166°26.905 E) from 13 January to 4 February 2013. Samples were collected in a mesocosm fertilized with phosphate at depths of 1, 6 and 12 m and in the surrounding waters. Light absorption coefficients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) [ag(λ)] and particulate matter [ap(λ)] were determined using a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter (PSICAM), while fluorescent DOM (FDOM) components were determined from excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The evolutions of ag(λ) and ap(λ) in the mesocosm were similar to those of total chlorophyll a concentration, Synechococcus spp. and picoeukaryote abundances, bacterial production, particulate organic nitrogen and total organic carbon concentrations, with roughly a decrease from the beginning of the experiment to days 9-10, and an increase from days 9-10 to the end of the experiment. In the surrounding waters, the same trend was observed but the increase was much less pronounced, emphasizing the effect of the phosphate fertilization on the mesocosm's plankton community. Correlations suggested that both Synechococcus cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria were strongly involved in the production of CDOM and absorption of particulate matter. The increase in phytoplankton biomass during the second part of the experiment led to a higher contribution of particulate material in the absorption budget at 442 nm. The three FDOM components identified (tryptophan-, tyrosine- and ultraviolet C (UVC) humic-like fluorophores) did not follow the evolution of CDOM and particulate matter, suggesting they were driven by different production/degradation processes. Finally, the

  20. a Baseline Study of Physico-Chemical Parameters and Trace Metals in Waters of Manakudy, South-West Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, M.; Muthumanikkam, J.

    2013-05-01

    The transport of trace metals from the land to ocean has a number of different routes and efficiencies. The sources of toxic elements into the rivers to be debouched into the sea through estuaries are either weathered naturally from the soils and rocks or introduced anthropogenically from point or non-point sources, in labile form or in particulate form. However, recent studies indicate that the transport of trace elements to the aquatic environment is much more complex than what has been thought. The chemistry and ecology of an estuarine system are entirely different from the fluvial as well as the marine system. Estuarine environment is characterized by a constantly changing mixture of salt and freshwater. In the present study area Manakudy estuary is situated about 8 kilometres north west of Kanyakumari (Latitude N 08 05 21.8 and Longitude E 077 29 03.7). To gain a better understanding of the geochemical behavior of physico-chemical parameters and trace elements in the estuary and to examine variations in associated chemical changes, 20 water samples were collected throughout the Manakudy estuary, a minor river in south-western India. These samples, collected in typical dry season during 2012, were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters, dissolved major and trace elements. Our results show that dissolved Na, Mg, Ca and Cl behave conservatively along the salinity gradient. The concentration of nutrients is normal and they are due to the higher organic activity in soils as well as faster rates of chemical weathering reaction in the source region. The concentration of major ions is due to tidal influence and it increases with salinity and the nutrients do behave non-conservatively due to biogenic removal. The conservative behaviour of the trace metals with salinity has been strongly affected by the introduction of these metals by external sources. Even though the trace metals in the contaminated water have been removed and incorporated in sediments due to

  1. Fate of cadmium at the soil-solution interface: a thermodynamic study as influenced by varying pH at South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Das, Sampa; Das, Dilip K; Dutta, Amrit Kumar; Boruah, Romesh K

    2015-11-01

    A study on the sorption kinetics of Cd from soil solution to soils was conducted to assess the persistence of Cd in soil solution as it is related to the leaching, bioavailability, and potential toxicity of Cd. The kinetics of Cd sorption on two non-contaminated alkaline soils from Canning (22° 18' 48.02″ N and 88° 39' 29.0″ E) and Lakshmikantapur (22° 06' 16.61″ N and 88° 19' 08.66″ E) of South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India, were studied using conventional batch experiment. The variable soil suspension parameters were pH (4.00, 6.00, 8.18, and 9.00), temperatures (308, 318, and 328 K) and Cd concentrations (5-100 mg L(-1)). The average rate coefficient (kavg) and half-life (t1/2) values indicate that the persistence of Cd in soil solution is influenced by both temperature and soil suspension pH. The concentration of Cd in soil solution decreases with increase of temperature; therefore, Cd sorption on the soil-solution interface is an endothermic one. Higher pH decreases the t 1/2 of Cd in soil solution, indicating that higher pH (alkaline) is not a serious concern in Cd toxicity than lower pH (acidic). Based on the energy of activation (Ea) values, Cd sorption in acidic pH (14.76±0.29 to 64.45±4.50 kJ mol(-1)) is a surface control phenomenon and in alkaline pH (9.33±0.09 to 44.60±2.01 kJ mol(-1)) is a diffusion control phenomenon The enthalpy of activation (ΔH∓) values were found to be between 7.28 and 61.73 kJ mol(-1). Additionally, higher positive energy of activation (ΔG∓) values (46.82±2.01 to 94.47±2.36 kJ mol(-1)) suggested that there is an energy barrier for product formation.

  2. Illness meanings and experiences for pre-ulcer and ulcer conditions of Buruli ulcer in the Ga-West and Ga-South Municipalities of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackumey Mercy M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana is a Buruli ulcer (BU endemic country yet there is paucity of socio-cultural research on BU. Examining distinctive experiences and meanings for pre-ulcers and ulcers of BU may clarify the disease burden, illness experience and local perceptions of causes and spread, and environmental features of BU, which are useful to guide public health programmes and future research. This study aimed to explain local meanings and experiences of BU for persons with pre-ulcers and ulcers in the Ga-West and Ga-South municipalities in Accra. Methods Semi-structured interviews based on the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue framework were administered to 181 respondents comprising 15 respondents with pre-ulcers and 166 respondents with ulcers. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare categories of illness experiences (PD and perceived causes (PC among respondents with pre-ulcer and ulcer conditions. The Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the most troubling PD and the most important PC variables. Qualitative phenomenological analysis of respondents’ narratives clarified illness experiences and meanings with reference to PC and PD variables. Results Families of respondents with pre-ulcers and the respondents themselves were often anxious about disease progression, while families of respondents with ulcers, who had to give care, worried about income loss and disruption of school attendance. Respondents with pre-ulcers frequently reported swimming in ponds and rivers as a perceived cause and considered it as the most important PC (53.3%. Respondents with ulcers frequently attributed their BU illness to witchcraft (64.5% and respondents who claimed they had no water contact, questioned the credibility of health messages Conclusions Affected persons with pre-ulcers are likely to delay treatment because of social and financial constraints and the absence of pain. Scepticism on the role of water in disease contagion and

  3. Increasing nutrient use efficiency through improved feeding and manure manegement in urban and peri-urban livestock units of a West African city: A scenario analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diogo, V.; Schlecht, E.; Buerkert, A.; Rufino, M.C.; Wijk, van M.T.

    2013-01-01

    In many African cities urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) plays a major role in creating jobs and contributing to food security. However, many small-scale UPA systems are characterised by excessive nutrient inputs to the livestock unit and poor handling of manure. To assess the impact of improve

  4. Distribution of radon activity in the atmosphere above Wzgórza Niemczansko-Strzelinskie (South-WestPoland) and its dependence on uranium and thorium content in the underlying rock and indirect ground basement

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Ochmann

    2005-01-01

    Radon activity in the atmosphere and its behavior in the environment have been investigated using LR-115 nuclear track detector. The complex geological structure of Wzgórza Niemczansko-Strzelinskie (south-west Poland) enabled this problem to be studied in various geological conditions. The eU and eTh content in rocks and soil was measured by gamma-spectrometer GR-320. Uranium content of bedrock reached its maximum value of 15 ppm in the case of quartz-graphite schist. Thor...

  5. Participation in everyday activities and quality of life in pre-teenage children living with cerebral palsy in South West Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Manus, Vicki

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of physical disability in children but its impact on quality of life is not well understood. This study examined participation in everyday activities among children without CP and children with mild, moderate and severe impairment due to CP. We then examined ten domains of quality of life in children with CP and investigated whether participation in everyday activities was associated with improved quality of life independent of gender, age and level of impairment. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of children aged 8-12 years based on two questionnaires, frequency of participation (FPQ) and KIDSCREEN, completed by parents of 98 children on the South of Ireland Cerebral Palsy Register (response rate = 82%) and parents of 448 children attending two Cork city schools (response rate = 69%) who completed one questionnaire (FPQ). Multiple linear regression was used: firstly to estimate the effect of severity of CP on participation in everyday activities independent of age and gender and secondly we estimated the effect of participation on quality of life independent of age gender and level of impairment. RESULTS: Participation in 11 of the 14 everyday activities examined varied across the children without CP and the children with varying severity of CP. In general, increased impairment decreased participation. Independent of age and gender, there was a highly significant decrease in overall participation with a fall of -6.0 (95% CI = -6.9 to -5.2) with each increasing level of impairment. The children with CP generally had high quality of life. Increased impairment was associated with diminished quality of life in just two domains - Physical well-being and Social support and peers. Overall participation in everyday activities was significantly associated with quality of life in 3 of the 10 domains (Physical well-being, Social support and peers & Moods and emotions) in analysis adjusted for gender age and

  6. Trends and sources vs air mass origins in a major city in South-western Europe: Implications for air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Camacho, R; de la Rosa, J D; Sánchez de la Campa, A M

    2016-05-15

    This study presents a 17-years air quality database comprised of different parameters corresponding to the largest city in the south of Spain (Seville) where atmospheric pollution is frequently attributed to traffic emissions and is directly affected by Saharan dust outbreaks. We identify the PM10 contributions from both natural and anthropogenic sources in this area associated to different air mass origins. Hourly, daily and seasonal variation of PM10 and gaseous pollutant concentrations (CO, NO2 and SO2), all of them showing negative trends during the study period, point to the traffic as one of the main sources of air pollution in Seville. Mineral dust, secondary inorganic compounds (SIC) and trace elements showed higher concentrations under North African (NAF) air mass origins than under Atlantic. We observe a decreasing trend in all chemical components of PM10 under both types of air masses, NAF and Atlantic. Principal component analysis using more frequent air masses in the area allows the identification of five PM10 sources: crustal, regional, marine, traffic and industrial. Natural sources play a more relevant role during NAF events (20.6 μg · m(-3)) than in Atlantic episodes (13.8 μg · m(-3)). The contribution of the anthropogenic sources under NAF doubles the one under Atlantic conditions (33.6 μg · m(-3) and 15.8 μg · m(-3), respectively). During Saharan dust outbreaks the frequent accumulation of local anthropogenic pollutants in the lower atmosphere results in poor air quality and an increased risk of mortality. The results are relevant when analysing the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the exposed population in large cities. The increase in potentially toxic elements during Saharan dust outbreaks should also be taken into account when discounting the number of exceedances attributable to non-anthropogenic or natural origins.

  7. Trends and sources vs air mass origins in a major city in South-western Europe: Implications for air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Camacho, R; de la Rosa, J D; Sánchez de la Campa, A M

    2016-05-15

    This study presents a 17-years air quality database comprised of different parameters corresponding to the largest city in the south of Spain (Seville) where atmospheric pollution is frequently attributed to traffic emissions and is directly affected by Saharan dust outbreaks. We identify the PM10 contributions from both natural and anthropogenic sources in this area associated to different air mass origins. Hourly, daily and seasonal variation of PM10 and gaseous pollutant concentrations (CO, NO2 and SO2), all of them showing negative trends during the study period, point to the traffic as one of the main sources of air pollution in Seville. Mineral dust, secondary inorganic compounds (SIC) and trace elements showed higher concentrations under North African (NAF) air mass origins than under Atlantic. We observe a decreasing trend in all chemical components of PM10 under both types of air masses, NAF and Atlantic. Principal component analysis using more frequent air masses in the area allows the identification of five PM10 sources: crustal, regional, marine, traffic and industrial. Natural sources play a more relevant role during NAF events (20.6 μg · m(-3)) than in Atlantic episodes (13.8 μg · m(-3)). The contribution of the anthropogenic sources under NAF doubles the one under Atlantic conditions (33.6 μg · m(-3) and 15.8 μg · m(-3), respectively). During Saharan dust outbreaks the frequent accumulation of local anthropogenic pollutants in the lower atmosphere results in poor air quality and an increased risk of mortality. The results are relevant when analysing the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the exposed population in large cities. The increase in potentially toxic elements during Saharan dust outbreaks should also be taken into account when discounting the number of exceedances attributable to non-anthropogenic or natural origins. PMID:26930305

  8. Waste assimilative capacity of coastal waters along Mumbai mega city, west coast of India using MIKE-21 and WASP simulation models.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Renjith, V.; Vethamony, P.; Zainudin, Z.; VinodKumar, K.

    locations, they are inadequate to handle the present situation. According to a World Bank report, 5 about 75% of the sewage in this region is untreated and discharged to local rivers and coastal waterways, causing extensive environmental hazards [48... and discussion The Mumbai city and suburb are one of the most heavily populated coastal regions on earth. The total population according to the latest national census in Mumbai region is around 13 million. The number of Megacities in the world increased from 3...

  9. Dynamics of Antenatal Care and Birth Delivery Preferences in Puskesmas Kassi-Kassi, Makassar City, South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Nuraini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Riskesdas 2010 illustrates that birth deliveries by health workers in low-income community reached 69.3%; while deliveries were conducted health workers at health facilities only reached 55.4%. This illustrates that the health facility or program that has given local or central government has not run optimally. Methods:This study aims to determine antenatal care and birth delivery preferences in the community and what factors underlie the preference. The location of research is precisely in the area of Puskesmas Kassi-kassi, Makassar City. Results showed that the mother already has the knowledge, attitudes and behavior quite well in maintaining health. Society does not always take advantage of government facilities. Antinatal care is mostly done in the doctor or midwife in private practice for reasons of convenience and prestige; while health centers for labor is still the main choice for the cheapest. Conclusion: Urban community in Kassi Health Center area have many option other than health center the quality only type of services is factor related to costumer choice because they are able to finance the cost. Recommendation: Government need to involve the private sector and do not ignore the social economic and culture condition for the successful of program.

  10. Association of HLA-DRB1 Alleles with Ulcerative Colitis in the City of Kerman, South Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Mohammadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The association of HLA class II genes with ulcerative colitis (UC as an autoimmune disease has been investigated for several years. However, factors responsible for genetic predisposition of this disease have so far not been clearly understood. In this study, for the first time, we aimed to investigate the association between HLA-DRB1 types and UC in the population of Kerman, a city southeast Iran.HLA typing was performed among 85 UC patients and 95 healthy controls using PCRamplification, employing sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP. The DRB1 frequencies were determined in the patients and controls.HLA-DRB1*04 was negatively associated with UC. Furthermore, HLA-DRB1*13 was significantly associated with severity of the disease (p=0.01 among UC patients.This is the novel result that describes an association of HLA-DRB1*13 with UC and also shows the protective role of HLA-DRB1*04 against the disease in people of Kerman.

  11. Study of particulate matters pollution related with meteorological factors for a city from South-Central of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela MITRAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the effects of climate change and air pollution is at present a global priority. Development and implementation of effective policies in order to achieve these  reductions is a challenge that requires a good understanding of the underlying phenomena  of climate change and air pollution. This paper aims to highlight the seasonal variation of PM10 concentration in Pitesti city depending on major meteorological factors (temperature, intensity of solar radiation, and relative humidity. The applied methodology consists in statistical processing, using specialized software, of a database containing historical records of concentration values of this pollutant and of meteorological parameters recorded concurrently. The results of processing a series of approximately 30000 values recorded from 2008 to 2011 indicate the fact that in every season (winter,spring, summer, and autumn the concentration of PM10 varies according to a sixth degree polynomial function, whose variable is one of the considered meteorological factors. The mathematical relationship that best approximates the variation of average PM10 concentration in relation with the three meteorological factors is by the form of a multiple linear regression equation.Keywords: air pollution and human health, particulate matters related with meteorological factors, statistical analysis

  12. Effect of Air Pollutants on Rain Water Characteristics in Hammam Al-Aleel District/ Al-Erej Village South of Mosul City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad F. Qasim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on Hammam Al-Aleel district/ Al-Erej village which is located south of Mosul city. This area has been suffering from spreading the air-pollutants resulted from the chimneys of Hammam Al-Aleel cement factories. Different areas were chosen for collecting samples of the rain water from December 2008 to March 2009. The study showed that rain-water is generally basic. The tests show an increase in ( EC, Mg+2, Ca+2, Cl-1, SO4-2 and NO-1,  due to the air pollutants emitted from local industries. The concentration of heavy elements represented by  Pb and Cd were high and this increase is due to the source of these elements from burning of the crude oil which is used in running the rotating kiln to produce the clinker in cement factory, In addition to the fuel used for  running vehicle and the friction between tires and  road.

  13. An Attempt at Quantifying Factors that Affect Efficiency in the Management of Solid Waste Produced by Commercial Businesses in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Worku

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective was to investigate factors that affect the efficient management of solid waste produced by commercial businesses operating in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. Data was gathered from 1,034 businesses. Efficiency in solid waste management was assessed by using a structural time-based model designed for evaluating efficiency as a function of the length of time required to manage waste. Data analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency tables, Pearson’s chi-square tests of association, and binary logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios estimated from logistic regression analysis were used for identifying key factors that affect efficiency in the proper disposal of waste. Results. The study showed that 857 of the 1,034 businesses selected for the study (83% were found to be efficient enough with regards to the proper collection and disposal of solid waste. Based on odds ratios estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, efficiency in the proper management of solid waste was significantly influenced by 4 predictor variables. These 4 influential predictor variables are lack of adherence to waste management regulations, wrong perception, failure to provide customers with enough trash cans, and operation of businesses by employed managers, in a decreasing order of importance.

  14. Health risk analysis of a Mexico South-west oil installation; Analisis de riesgo a la salud de una instalacion petrolera del Suroeste de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbide-Arguelles, R; Flores-Serrano, R. Ma; Torres-Bustillos, L.G [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: ria@pumas.iingen.unam.mx

    2006-01-15

    During an Environmental audit. In an oil storage and distribution station (TAD) located al South-west Mexico, hydrocarbon contamination was detected. Because of it, a complete study of the site's contamination was required. From this work's results, it can be stated that TAD subsoil is contaminated by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), in concentrations from ND to 59,000 mg/kg. Neither benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene or xylenes (BTEX), nor methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), nor methyl tert-amyl ether (MTE) were detected. From the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) analyzed, only naphthalene was found in one sample point at a concentration below 1 mg/kg. The presence of Fe, Pb, and Zn was identified in the subsoil, but the calculated geo-accumulations and not a contamination's product. TPH were found in groundwater, but only in one of the six sampled wells over the recommended level of 10 mg/l. It was also found that Fe concentrations exceed the suggested value of 0.3 mg/l in five of the six sampled wells. It was determined that groundwater's pH value is not linked to the metal concentration level, but with the TPH concentration. Health risk assessment indicated that naphthalene, and zinc concentrations, present in water and subsoil, do not represent a health risk neither for the neighborhood inhabitants, not for the TAD workers. Nevertheless, given the high TPH concentrations in the TAD's north side, the remediation of 8,000 m{sup 3} of subsoil by means of a biopiles system was recommended. [Spanish] En la Terminal de Almacenamiento y Distribucion de combustibles, (TAD), tales como el diesel y la gasolina, localizada al Suroeste de Mexico, se detecto contaminacion por hidrocarburos a raiz de una auditoria ambiental, por lo que se solicito un estudio completo de la contaminacion en la TAD. A partir de los resultados de este trabajo, se puede decir que el suelo de la TAD se encuentra contaminado por hidrocarburos totales de petroleo (HTP

  15. Equilibrium Line Altitude Fluctuation on the South West Slope of Nevado Coropuna Since The Last Glacial Maximum (Cordillera Ampato, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos, Néstor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to reconstruct the LLGM (local last glacial maximum, 1955 and 2007 glacial phases on the South West slope of Nevado Coropuna to obtain valuable information on the changes that have occurred and analyze the glacier evolution. For this purpose the ELA (Equilibrium Line Altitude indicator has been used as a reference, with the AABR (Area x Altitude Balance Ratio method, based on the principle of weighting the mass balance according to the distance above or below the ELA of that area. An ELA of 4762 m was obtained for the LLGM, 5779 m for 1955 and 5850 m for 2007, implying a vertical shift of 1088 m from the LLGM to 2007 and of 71 m from 1955 to 2007. The total glaciated surface was reduced by 21.5% between 1955 and 2007 and the temperature shift from LLGM to 2007 was 9.13 ºC (0.0091ºC/m. The ice of glaciers makes them valuable for climate research, this method offers quantitative information and the analysis of this data may contribute to research into climate change and climatic trends for future predictions.El principal objetivo de esta investigación es reconstruir las fases glaciares del Último Máximo Glaciar Local (LLGM, 1955 y 2007 en la vertiente Suroeste del Nevado Coropuna para obtener información sobre los cambios ocurridos y analizar la evolución glaciar. Para este propósito el indicador de la altitud de la línea de equilibrio glaciar (ELA ha sido utilizado como referencia, calculado con el método AABR (Area x Altitude Balance Ratio, basado en el principio de ponderación del balance de masa en función de la distancia por encima o debajo de la ELA de esa área. Se obtuvo una ELA de 4762 m para el LLGM, 5779 m para 1955 y 5850 m para 2007, lo que implica una variación de 1088 m desde el LLGM hasta el 2007 y 71 m desde 1955 hasta 2007. La superficie total glaciada se redujo un 21,5% entre 1955 y 2007 y la variación de temperatura desde el LLGM hasta 2007 fue de 9,13 ºC (0,0091ºC/m. El hielo

  16. Evaluation of LiDAR-acquired bathymetric and topographic data accuracy in various hydrogeomorphic settings in the Deadwood and South Fork Boise Rivers, West-Central Idaho, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    High-quality elevation data in riverine environments are important for fisheries management applications and the accuracy of such data needs to be determined for its proper application. The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-or EAARL-system was used to obtain topographic and bathymetric data along the Deadwood and South Fork Boise Rivers in west-central Idaho. The EAARL data were post-processed into bare earth and bathymetric raster and point datasets. Concurrently with the EAARL surveys, real-time kinematic global positioning system surveys were made in three areas along each of the rivers to assess the accuracy of the EAARL elevation data in different hydrogeomorphic settings. The accuracies of the EAARL-derived raster elevation values, determined in open, flat terrain, to provide an optimal vertical comparison surface, had root mean square errors ranging from 0.134 to 0.347 m. Accuracies in the elevation values for the stream hydrogeomorphic settings had root mean square errors ranging from 0.251 to 0.782 m. The greater root mean square errors for the latter data are the result of complex hydrogeomorphic environments within the streams, such as submerged aquatic macrophytes and air bubble entrainment; and those along the banks, such as boulders, woody debris, and steep slopes. These complex environments reduce the accuracy of EAARL bathymetric and topographic measurements. Steep banks emphasize the horizontal location discrepancies between the EAARL and ground-survey data and may not be good representations of vertical accuracy. The EAARL point to ground-survey comparisons produced results with slightly higher but similar root mean square errors than those for the EAARL raster to ground-survey comparisons, emphasizing the minimized horizontal offset by using interpolated values from the raster dataset at the exact location of the ground-survey point as opposed to an actual EAARL point within a 1-meter distance. The

  17. Characteristics of waves off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; AshokKumar, K.; Anand, N.M.

    Directional wave measurements were carried out using Datawell directional waverider buoy off Goa along west coast of India during the south west monsoon period in 1996 and the results are presented. Theoretical joint distribution of wave height...

  18. Algal and Water-Quality Data for Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Putnam, Larry D.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of algae and water-quality sampling on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007. The overall purpose of the study was to determine the algal community composition of Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake in relation to organisms that are known producers of unwanted tastes and odors in drinking-water supplies. Algal assemblage structure (phytoplankton and periphyton) was examined at 16 sites on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007, and actinomycetes bacteria were sampled at the Rapid City water treatment plant intake in May 2007, to determine if taste-and-odor producing organisms were present. During the May 2007 sampling, 3 Rapid Creek sites and 4 Canyon Lake sites were quantitatively sampled for phytoplankton in the water column, 7 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 4 lake and retention pond sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Five Rapid Creek sites were sampled for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, two common taste-and-odor causing compounds known to affect water supplies. During the September 2007 sampling, 4 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 3 Canyon Lake sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were measured during each sampling event. Methods of collection and sample analysis are presented for the various types of biological and chemical constituent samples. Diatoms comprised 91-100 percent of the total algal biovolume in periphyton samples collected during May and September. Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) were detected in 7 of the 11 quantitative periphyton samples and ranged from 0.01 to 2.0 percent of the total biovolume. Cyanobacteria were present in 3 of the 7 phytoplankton samples collected in May, but the relative biovolumes were small (0.01-0.2 percent). Six of seven qualitative samples collected from Canyon Lake

  19. Effects of ozone on crops in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although ozone is well-documented to reduce crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects in other parts of south Asia. We surveyed crops close to the city of Peshawar, in north-west Pakistan, for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found on potato, onion and cotton when mean monthly ozone concentrations exceeded 45 ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60 ppb significantly reduce the growth of a major Pakistani onion variety. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations measured in April–May in Peshawar, and used in the fumigation experiment, are comparable to those that have been modelled to occur over many parts of south Asia, where ozone may be a significant threat to sensitive crops. -- Highlights: ► Visible ozone injury to onion, cotton and potato was identified in north-west Pakistan. ► The symptoms on onion were reproduced by exposure to elevated ozone. ► Elevated ozone levels also significantly reduced onion growth. ► Levels of aphid infestation on spinach were lower under elevated ozone. ► These effects were observed at ozone levels that have been modelled to occur widely across south Asia. -- Ozone concentrations in NW Pakistan have adverse effects on sensitive crop species

  20. Arsenic burden from cooked rice in the populations of arsenic affected and nonaffected areas and Kolkata City in West-Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Nayak, Bishwajit; Ghosh, Arijit; Maity, Sumana; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2009-05-01

    Arsenic contamination of rice irrigated with contaminated groundwater contributes to the additional arsenic burden of the population where rice is the staple food. In an arsenic contaminated area, an experimental field-based study done on nine fields elucidated significant positive correlation between arsenic in irrigation water and soil, irrigation water and rice, and also soil and rice both for Boro (groundwater) and Aman (rainwater) rice. Speciation studies showed that for both Boro (cooked) and Aman (raw) rice from contaminated area, 90% of total recovered arsenic was inorganic. In arsenic contaminated, uncontaminated villages, and Kolkata city, daily quantities of arsenic ingested by adult population from cooked rice diet are equivalent to 6.5, 1.8, and 2.3 L respectively, of drinking water containing WHO guideline value. In contaminated area, daily intake only from cooked Boro rice for 34.6% of the samples exceeded the WHO recommended MTDI value (2 microg In-As day(-1) kg(-1) body wt), whereas daily intake from Aman rice was below MTDI value as was rice from uncontaminated areas and Kolkata city. Our study indicated that employing traditional rice cooking method as followed in Bengal delta and using water having arsenic arsenic from rice would be much less. PMID:19534157

  1. A key to the Soricidae, Macroscelididae, Gliridae and Muridae of Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christia H. Newbery

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A practical key to the shrews, elephant-shrews, dormice, rats and mice based on external field characteristics is presented. Size, tail features and lengths, dorsal and ventral body colour, etc. are the important characteristics, while habitat and distribution are also incorporated. The small mammals included in the key are from Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province.

  2. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis and related risk factors among humans referred to main laboratories of Urmia city, North West of Iran, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaghian, Mohammad; Amani, Sasan; Jafari, Rasool

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is mostly asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent individuals while it can cause a severe infection in human fetus during pregnancy and immunocompromised patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG seropositivity and potential risk factors of the infection in humans referred to Urmia City main diagnostic laboratories, Urmia, Iran. Totally 195 blood samples were collected from the individuals referred to main diagnostic laboratories of Urmia City, 2013. Serum concentration of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM were determined using ELISA method. Demographic variables of the participants were collected by interviewing, which are including sex, age, occupation, educational and residential status, eating undercooked meat, consumption of raw vegetable and the method of washing raw vegetables. None of all 200 serum sample were anti-Toxoplasma IgM positive, but different concentrations of anti-Toxoplasma IgG were observed in 88 (45.12 %) of samples. The significant higher rate of anti-Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity were observed in people with soil related jobs (P = 0.005, OR = 2.266; 95 % CI 1.260, 4.078) and history of eating raw vegetables at restaurant (P = 0.036, OR = 1.985; 95 % CI 0.991, 3.978). Also anti-Toxoplasma IgG concentration mean was significantly higher in people who were commonly eaten raw vegetable at restaurants (P toxoplasmosis is considerably high while the acute infection is very low in the studied area. Having soil related jobs and eating raw vegetables at restaurants increases the risk of acquiring the infection. PMID:27413331

  3. Research objectives to support the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration initiative-Water Conservation Areas, Lake Okeechobee, and the East/West waterways

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchens, Wiley M.

    1994-01-01

    The South Florida Ecosystem encompasses an area of approximately 28,000 km2 comprising at least 11 major physiographic provinces, including the Kissimmee River Valley, Lake Okeechobee, the Immokalee Rise, the Big Cypress, the Everglades, Florida Bay, the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, Biscayne Bay, the Florida Keys, the Florida Reef Tract, and nearshore coastal waters. South Florida is a heterogeneous system of wetlands, uplands, coastal areas, and marine areas, dominated by the watershe...

  4. Seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in the water resources of Granada city metropolitan areas (South of Spain): Pollution of raw drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Navas, Natalia; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Cantarero-Malagón, Samuel; Chica-Rivas, Lucía

    2015-12-01

    This piece of research deals with the monitoring of a group of emerging contaminants (ECs) in the metropolitan area of Granada, a city representative of the South of Spain, in order to evaluate the environmental management of the wastewater system. With that aim, the spatial and seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in groundwater, surface and irrigation water resources from the aquifer "Vega de Granada" (VG) have been investigated for the first time. A set of the most prescribed drugs in Spain (ibuprofen, loratadine, pantoprazole and paracetamol), a pesticide widely used in agriculture (atrazine) and a typical anthropogenic contaminant (caffeine) were included in the study. Water samples were taken from the metropolitan area of the city of Granada inside of the zone of the aquifer, from the downstream of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and from the two main irrigation channels where surface and wastewater are mixed before distribution for irrigation purposes in the crops of the study area. A total of 153 water samples were analyzed through liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) throughout the study that took place over a period of two years, from July 2011 to July 2013. Results demonstrated the occurrence of four of the six target pollutants. Ibuprofen was detected several times, always in both channels with concentration ranges from 5.3 to 20.8 μg/L. The occurrence of paracetamol was detected in rivers and channels up to 34.3 μg/L. Caffeine was detected in all the water resources up to 39.3 μg/L. Pantoprazole was detected twice in the surface water source near to a WWPT ranging from 0.02 to 0.05 μg/L. The pesticide atrazine and the drug loratadine were not detected in any of the water samples analyzed. These results show evidence of poor environmental management of the wastewater concerning the water quality of the aquifer studied. The groundwater sources seem to receive a very continuous input of wastewater

  5. Proportion of depression and its determinants among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in various tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore city of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is found to be common among patients with diabetes and it is associated with poor outcomes in disease control. This study was carried out to find out the proportion and determinants associated with depression among patients with established type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in various tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore city of south India. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in one government and three private tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore in December 2010. All consenting patients with confirmed diagnosis of T2DM were interviewed and screened for depression by administering the 9-item PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Results: Of the 230 T2DM patients, 119 (51.7% were males. The mean age of all participants was 53.61 ± 10.7 years. The median duration of T2DM was found to be 12.1 ± 7.35 years. Among the participants, 71 (30.9% met the criteria for moderate depression, 33 (14.3% for severe depression, and the remaining 126 (54.8% had no clinically significant depression. Only 26 (11.3% patients were already aware that they were depressed, of whom just 3 had taken medical consultation. Among the risk factors, depression was found to be significantly associated with older age, female gender, low socioeconomic status, unskilled and retired employment status, having complications due to T2DM or comorbidities like hypertension and coronary artery disease, being overweight and being on insulin syringe injections. Conclusion: This study found a high proportion of depression among patients with T2DM. Therefore the care of individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM should include the screening and possible treatment of depression in order to achieve and sustain treatment goals.

  6. Fossil-bearing deposits from the Bukpyeong Formation (Miocene) in the Bukpyeong Basin at Donghae city, Gangwon-do, South Korea: occurrences, taphonomy and paleoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik; Paik, In Sung

    2016-04-01

    Abundant and diverse plant fossils such as land plants and subaqueous plants, freshwater mollusc fossils and invertebrate trace fossils are found in the Miocene Bukpyeong Formation at Donghae city, Gangwon-do, South Korea. Occurrences and taphofacies of the fossil-bearing deposits from the Bukpyeong Formation are described and their taphonomy and paleoenvironmental implications are interpreted. Based on fossil occurrences, lithofacies and sedimentary features of the fossil-bearing deposits, eight taphofacies are classified as the following: (1) Taphofacies 1: Gastropod fossils in massive silty mudstone; (2) Taphofacies 2: Bivalve fossils in massive silty mudstone; (3) Taphofacies 3: Plant fossils (leaf fossils) in massive silty mudstone; (4) Taphofacies 4: Gastropod and plant fossils in massive silty mudstone; (5) Taphofacies 5: Plant fossils in weakly fissile silty mudstone; (6) Taphofacies 6: Plant fossils (leaf fossils) in thin-bedded and graded silty mudstone to mudstone (claystone); (7) Taphofacies 7: Plant fragment fossils in thin-bedded and graded silty mudstone to mudstone (claystone); (8) Taphofacies 8: Plant debris in planar- to cross-laminated fine-grained sandstone. Taphonomy of taphofacies 1, 2, and 4 including freshwater mollusc fossils is interpreted to have been reworked or transported by turbidity currents after death and deposited in shallow lake to open lake. Taphonomy of taphofacies 3, 5, 6, and 7 including plant fossils is interpreted to have been transported by input of episodic flooding in the land and deposited by settling down in open lake. Taphofacies 8 including plant debris has been deposited in shallow lake by input of intensive episodic flooding from the land. The occurrences and taphofacies of the fossil-bearing deposits indicate that most of the fossils were transported by turbidity current induced by input of episodic flooding in the land and deposited in shallow lake to open lake. Moreover, plant fossils from the Bukpyeong

  7. C4 plant isotopic composition (delta13C) evidence for urban CO2 pollution in the city of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kèlomé, Nelly C; Lévêque, Jean; Andreux, Francis; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Oyédé, Lucien-Marc

    2006-08-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (delta13C) of plants can reveal the isotopic carbon content of the atmosphere in which they develop. The delta13C values of air and plants depend on the amount of atmospheric fossil fuel CO2, which is chiefly emitted in urban areas. A new indicator of CO2 pollution is tested using the delta13C variation in a C4 grass: Eleusine indica. A range of about 4 per thousand delta units was observed at different sites in Cotonou, the largest city in the Republic of Benin. The highest delta13C values, from -12 per thousand to -14 per thousand, were found in low traffic zones; low delta13C values, from -14 per thousand to -16 per thousand, were found in high traffic zones. The amount of fossil fuel carbon assimilated by plants represented about 20% of the total plant carbon content. An overall decrease in plant delta13C values was observed over a four-year monitoring period. This decrease was correlated with increasing vehicle traffic. The delta13C dataset and the corresponding geographical database were used to map and define zones of high and low 13C-depleted CO2 emissions in urban and sub-urban areas. The spatial distribution follows dominant wind directions, with the lowest emission zones found in the southwest of Cotonou. High CO2 emissions occurred in the north, the east and the center, providing evidence of intense anthropogenic activity related to industry and transportation.

  8. Phylogentic Relationship among Limnonectes (Ranidae: Amphibia found in West Sumatra with Other Species from South East Asia based on the based on the 16S rRNA Gen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko T. Iskandar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research to study the phylogenetic relationship among Limnonectes species found in West Sumatra and with other species from South East Asia based on the partial DNA sequences16S rRNA sequences. DNA sequences were aligned using ClustalX version 1.64b, and the phylogenetic relationship within samples were analyzed using PHYLIP version 3.5c program. The alignment showed that, from 805 sites, there are 250 parsimony informative polymorphism sites. The phylogenetic tree showed that all of the Limnonectes spesies were divided in two clusters, the L. blythii complex and L. kuhlii complex. L. kuhlii and L. sp1 clustered into L. kuhlii complex and L. shomponerum and L. macrodon were clustered to L. blythii complex.. This result showed that L. kuhlii and L. blythii are species complexes that are actually constituted of several species.

  9. Sentinel site-enhanced near-real time surveillance documenting West Nile virus circulation in two Culex mosquito species indicating different transmission characteristics, Djibouti City, Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Spiesberger, Michael; Abbas, Babiker

    2012-08-01

    The Horn of Africa represents a region formerly known to be highly susceptible to mosquito-borne infectious diseases. In order to investigate whether autochthonous WNV transmission occurs in the Djibouti City area, in how far, and which of, the endemic Culex mosquito species are involved in WNV circulation activity,and whether sentinel site-enhanced near-real time surveillance (SSE-NRTS) may increase WNV detection sensitivity, mosquito vector monitoring was conducted from January 2010 to June 2012. Six monitoring locations, including two identified sentinel sites, considered most probable for potential anthroponotic and zoonotic virus circulation activity, have been continuously employed. Among the 20431 mosquitoes collected, 19069 (93.4%) were Cx. quinquefasciatus, and 1345 (6.6%) Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus. WNV lineage 2 circulation activity was detected between December 20th, 2010 and January 7th, 2011. Overall, 19 WNV RNA-positive mosquito pools were detected. Generally, urban environment-specific WNV-RNA circulation took place in Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus, whereas periurban and rural area-linked circulation was detected only in Cx. quinquefasciatus. Serological investigation data from 10 volunteers employed at the dislocated zoonotic WNV transmission sentinel site suggest that six persons (60%) had an acute, or recent, WNV infection. Results show that WNV should be considered endemic for Djibouti and sentinel site-enhanced near-real time surveillance is an elegant and highly effective epidemiological tool. In Djibouti, the endemicity level, public health impact and transmission modes of vector-borne diseases in concordance with locally optimized monitoring and control regimen deserve further investigation. PMID:23214223

  10. 75 FR 73983 - Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B... Terminal, 397 North 2370 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116. (3) The meeting on Thursday, February 3, 2011... Lake City TRACON, Salt Lake City ATCT/TRACON, 1201 North 4000 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116. (801)...

  11. Pollution characteristics and potential health risk of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in soil/sediment from Baiyin City, North West, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xibang; Xu, Zhencheng; Peng, Xiaochun; Ren, Mingzhong; Zhang, Sukun; Liu, Xiaoping; Wang, Junneng

    2013-10-01

    In order to better understand the environmental behaviors of persistent organic pollutants, the characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were investigated in twenty-three soil/sediment samples from Baiying City, Northwest China, in 2008. The possible sources and potential health risk of PCDD/Fs were also discussed. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in nineteen soil samples varied between 20.13 and 496.26 pg/g dry weight (dw.), with an average value of 125.59 pg/g dw. The highest International Toxic Equivalent (I-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs (8.34 pg/g dw.) in soil was found at sample S1 collected from proximity to a copper metallurgy plant. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in four sediment samples ranged from 37.69 to 491.49 pg/g dw., with an average value of 169.95 pg/g dw. The highest I-TEQ of PCDD/Fs (8.56 pg/g dw.) in sediment was found at sample S12 collected from the East big ditch with waste water discharged into the Yellow River. The results indicated that PCDD/Fs contamination of soil/sediment is originated from three sources: chlorine-containing chemicals, non-ferrous metal industrial PCDD/Fs emission and coal burning. The health risk exposure to PCDD/Fs through soil, dust ingestion and dermal absorption ranged from 0.0006 to 0.0134 pg/kg/day Word Health Organization's toxic equivalent in 1998 (WHO1998-TEQ) with mean values 0.0032 pg WHO1998-TEQ for adults and varied between 0.0012 and 0.0256 pg/kg/day WHO1998-TEQ with mean values 0.006 pg/kg/day WHO1998-TEQ for children, respectively. These results indicated that health risk of PCDD/Fs for children should be paid more attention.

  12. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation

  13. Utilization of airborne gamma ray spectrometric data for geological mapping, radioactive mineral exploration and environmental monitoring of southeastern Aswan city, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed A. S.; Elkhodary, Shadia T.

    2013-12-01

    The present work utilizes airborne gamma ray spectrometric data in a trial to refine surface geology of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, detect any radioactive mineralization and monitor environment at southeastern Aswan city, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. This area is mainly covered with igneous rocks (younger granites, older granites, metasediments, metavolcanics, metagabbro, Tertiary basalt and ring complex), metamorphic rocks as well as sedimentary rocks (Um Barmil Formation, Timsah Formation, Abu Aggag Formation and wadi sediments). Airborne gamma ray spectrometry can be very helpful in mapping surface geology. This provides estimates of the apparent surface concentrations of the most common naturally occurring radioactive elements, such as potassium (K), equivalent uranium (eU) and equivalent thorium (eTh). This is based on the assumption that, the absolute and relative concentrations of these radioelements vary measurably and significantly with lithology. The composite image technique is used to display simultaneously three parameters of the three radioelement concentrations and their three binary ratios on one image. The technique offers much in terms of lithological discrimination, based on colour differences and showed efficiency in defining areas, where different lithofacies occur within areas mapped as one continuous lithology. The integration between surface geological information and geophysical data led to detailing the surface geology and the contacts between different rock units. Significant locations or favourable areas for uranium exploration are defined, where the measurements exceed (X + 2S), taking X as the arithmetic mean of eU, eU/eTh and eU/K measurements and S as the standard deviation corresponding to each variables. The study area shows the presence of four relatively high uraniferous zones. These zones cannot be ignored and need further ground follow-up. In addition, the trend analysis based on the three radioelement maps and

  14. 南京市老城南地块社会阶层分化下的居住空间分异现象%Urban Residential Differentiation in the South Part of Old Nanjing City under Social Class Stratification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘含; 罗谦; 王魏巍

    2011-01-01

    Through the analysis on the urban residential differentiation in the south part of old Nanjing City, the features of the differentiation was interpreted, the interaction between social stratification and space differentiation was discussed, and at last some reasonable suggestions were proposed to develop the urban space during the reconstruction of the old city and the urban renewal.%通过对南京市老城南地块居住空间分异现象的分析,解读该地块居住空间分异的特征,探求阶层分化和居住空间分异的相互影响,并为旧城改造、城镇更新运动中城市空间的发展提出合理的建议.

  15. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico--waterflood performance analysis for the South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, Ector County, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    A reservoir engineering study was conducted of waterflood performance in the South Cowden field, an Upper Permian Grayburg reservoir on the Central Basin Platform in West Texas. The study was undertaken to understand the historically poor waterflood performance, evaluate three techniques for incorporating petrophysical measurements and geological interpretation into heterogeneous reservoir models, and identify issues in heterogeneity modeling and fluid-flow scaleup that require further research. The approach included analysis of relative permeability data, analysis of injection and production data, heterogeneity modeling, and waterflood simulation. The poor South Cowden waterflood recovery is due, in part, to completion of wells in only the top half of the formation. Recompletion of wells through the entire formation is estimated to improve recovery in ten years by 6 percent of the original oil in place in some areas of the field. A direct three-dimensional stochastic approach to heterogeneity modeling produced the best fit to waterflood performance and injectivity, but a more conventional model based on smooth mapping of layer-averaged properties was almost as good. The results reaffirm the importance of large-scale heterogeneities in waterflood modeling but demonstrate only a slight advantage for stochastic modeling at this scale. All the flow simulations required a reduction to the measured whole-core k{sub v}/k{sub h} to explain waterflood behavior, suggesting the presence of barriers to vertical flow not explicitly accounted for in any of the heterogeneity models. They also required modifications to the measured steady-state relative permeabilities, suggesting the importance of small-scale heterogeneities and scaleup. Vertical flow barriers, small-scale heterogeneity modeling, and relative permeability scaleup require additional research for waterflood performance prediction in reservoirs like South Cowden.

  16. The Future of Open Spaces on the Upper West Side

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Bosselmann; Kevin Gilson; Todd Bressi; Norman Davis; Carol Isen; Richard Sinkhoff; Matt Taecker; Greg Levesque; Rajeev Bhatia; Fred Bauman; Edward Arens; David Ernest; Gail McEachern; The Parks Council

    1990-01-01

    Parks and open spaces on Manhattan's Upper West Side are an important resource for people from all parts of New York City. Central Park and Riverside Park -- which are neighborhood amenities for Upper West Siders -- are two of the city's greatest treasures. These parks, both designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, provide a natural setting against the backdrop of the city; they are places where people can take refuge from high-density living conditions to relax or play. More and more peop...

  17. 秦皇岛西浴场浒苔暴发区浮游植物群落结构特征%Investigation on Phytoplankton Biocoenosis in Enteromorpha Prolifera Area of the West Bathing Beach of Qinhuangdao City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹佳君; 朱凌宇; 刘明华

    2016-01-01

    2015年8月12日至28日于秦皇岛西浴场浒苔暴发区共鉴定浮游植物3门20属26种,主要由硅藻和甲藻组成,优势种为尖刺拟菱形藻、中肋骨条藻、旋链角毛藻和浮动弯角藻,与历史资料相比,浮游植物种类没有发生明显变化,调查海域浮游植物平均细胞丰度为40.38×104 cells/L,多样性指数为1.78,均匀度指数为0.38。浒苔等大型藻类对单细胞浮游植物的化感作用导致浮游植物群落多样性与稳定性都出现了显著下降。%A total of 26 taxa which belong to 20 genera of 3 phyla were identified in the west bathing beach of Qinhuangdao city from August 12th to 28th in 2015. The phytoplankton Biocoeno-sis was mainly composed of Bacillariophyta and Dinophyta. The preponderant species were Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros curvisetus and Eucompia zoodiacus. No significant change was found in the phytoplankton species compared with the history data. The average cell abundance was 40.38×104 cells/L, and Shannon-wiener diversity index and Pielou's evenness index were 1.78 and 0.38 respectively. Due to the allelopathic effect of E. prolifera, the diversity and stability of phytoplankton Biocoenosis trend to decline.

  18. 78 FR 52231 - 2013 Temporary Closure of I-395 Just South of Conway Street in the City of Baltimore to Vehicular...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ..., will remain open during the time period of the event. There are five additional I-95 interchanges, just... the city that could be affected by the event. These efforts include the formation of Task Forces...

  19. Socio-economic opportunities of the biobased economy in the south-west of the Netherlands. Estimated employment impact in 2020; Sociaaleconomische kansen van de biobased economy in Zuidwest-Nederland. Inschatting werkgelegenheidseffecten in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lieshout, M.; Warringa, G.; Bergsma, G.; Croezen, H.

    2013-06-15

    This study, commissioned by the Socio-Economic Councils (SER) of the Dutch provinces of Zeeland and Brabant, was carried out in collaboration with a supervisory committee comprising numerous stakeholders in the biobased economy in the south-west of the Netherlands. The motto was 'agro meets chemistry'. Given that it was clear from the outset that the volume of locally available biomass is insufficient for large-scale power generation without inducing serious competition with food production, it was opted to restrict the scope of the 'biobased economy' to production of biobased chemicals and innovative materials. Because of the study's limited scope and duration, gross employment effects were also calculated for Zeeland and West Brabant only. To this end, three factors critical for the growth of the biobased economy and thus for potential employment effects were analysed: the price of fossil feedstocks, the availability of biomass for chemical industry applications, and the availability of capital for investing in innovative biobased processes. To cover the full range of possible developments in the biobased economy, two scenarios were developed: high and low, with in each case employment effects being estimated on the basis of a biomass flow analysis and employment indices [Dutch] Deze studie is uitgevoerd in opdracht van de SER Zeeland en de SER Brabant, in samenwerking met een begeleidingscommissie met brede vertegenwoordiging van stakeholders van de biobased economy in Zuidwest Nederland. De insteek was 'agro meets chemistry'. Aangezien bij aanvang vast stond dat de lokaal beschikbare biomassa onvoldoende is voor grootschalige energieopwekking, zonder ernstige concurrentie met voedselproductie te veroorzaken, is er voor gekozen om de biobased economy te beperken tot de productie van biobased chemie en innovatieve materialen. Verder is gezien de beperkte omvang en doorlooptijd van de studie besloten om

  20. 甘肃省河西五市重大动物疫病免疫效果评价与分析%Evaluation of Vaccination Effect for Major Animal Epidemic Diseases in the West Five Cities of Gansu Province in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明

    2015-01-01

    为评估甘肃省河西五市2015年春季重大动物疫病集中免疫效果,在河西五市共采集强制免疫畜禽血清640份,对家禽和家畜血清分别采用微量红细胞凝集抑制试验(HI)和酶联免疫吸附试(ELISA)验进行抗体检测,结果表明河西五市重大动物疫病免疫效果总体较好.%In order to evaluate the vaccination effect for major animal epidemic diseases in the west five cities of Gansu province in 2015,a total of 640 serum specimens were collected from the livestock and poultry under compulsory vaccination in the five cities in spring of 2015,for antibody detection using micro-hemagglutination inhibition test(HI) and enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay(ELISA). The results showed that the vaccination effect for major animal epidemic diseases in the west five cities of Gansu province in 2015 was quite good on the whole.

  1. Epidemics of the central nervous system infections caused by West Nile virus in the territory of the South Bačka District, Vojvodina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sević Siniša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. West Nile virus (WNV is a neurotropic RNA virus particle which belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. It is sustained in arthropods within the transmission cycle between the mosquitoes and birds. Most commonly (80% of cases WNV infections are asymptomatic among people. Less than 1% of patients develop neuroinvasive forms of the disease - meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis. The aim of the research is to determine most common clinical and laboratory manifestations, to emphazise the presence of comorbidities and outcomes of treatment among patients with WNV infection. Methods. This retrospective study, which was conducted in the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013, evaluated 32 patients who were diagnosed with WNV infection based on clinical findings, laboratory, and serological tests. To assess statistical significance we used χ2, and t-test. Results. The study involved 22 (69% males and 10 (31% females aged from 31 to 65 years. On admission, there were 16 (50% febrile individuals, 27 (84.4% with positive meningeal signs, 17 (53.2% with pathological neurological signs, and 10 (31.3% with consciousness disorders. WNV infection was confirmed by the method enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA in all the patients, while Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR test was positive in 3 (30% of the tested patients. Cardiovascular comorbidities dominated in 7 (21.9% of the cases. Full recovery was accomplished in 87.5 % of the cases. Conclusion. The results of our study show that the absence of meningeal signs and fever on the day 7 of hospital treatment are indicators of good course and prognosis of neuroinvasive forms of WNV infection. Comorbidities do not increase the risk of disease. ELISA test is a sovereign diagnostic method. In most cases, after the administered symptomatic therapy, the complete recovery of patients was achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  2. Field Study of all GSM and WiFi Networks in Amman City from Geospatial Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawarey, Mosab; Alibrahim, Mustafa; Jetto, Hamza; Salah Mahmoud, Firas

    2016-04-01

    A thorough field study over multiple months has been conducted in the streets of Amman, the capital city of Jordan, in order to collect massive amounts of GSM and WiFi data and analyze them from geospatial perspective. Some interesting realities have been detected; e.g. the North and West of Amman are much better served by GSM operators than the East, South, and Center. Also, the security measures taken to protect WiFi networks in the North and West are much better than those in the East, South, and Center. This has led to the recognition of an interesting pattern that groups the North and West together, while the East, South, and Center constitute another group. Extremely interesting finding was found; the GSM signals are so strong at certain locations that they constitute direct lethal threat to human health; it is scientifically documented that such strengths would lead to certain human cell mutations and cancer. The exact locations and contributors of such hazards will be disclosed in this paper for the first time. Many tabular and graphical presentations of the data will be presented.

  3. Parents Support Implementation of HIV Testing and Counseling at School: Cross-Sectional Study with Parents of Adolescent Attending High School in Gauteng and North West Provinces, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgatle, Mathildah

    2016-01-01

    Background. A formative assessment of the implementation of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) at school showed high acceptability and willingness to test among learners. However, the success of the proposed HTC depends on the support and acceptability of key stakeholders, including the parents. The aim of the study was to assess the opinions and acceptability of the implementation of HTC at school among parents of adolescents in high school. Methods. This was a cross-sectional household survey conducted with parents of adolescents attending high schools in educational districts in North West and Gauteng provinces, South Africa. Results. A total of 804 parents participated, and 548 (68.3%) were biological mothers, 85 (10.6%) were fathers, and the remaining were other relatives including grandmothers. Almost all (n = 742, 92.9%) parents were in support of implementation and provision of HTC at school, 701 (87.7%) would allow their children to be tested at school, 365 (46%) felt that parental consent was not needed to test at school, and 39.4% preferred to receive the HIV test results with their children. Conclusion. Parents accept the roll-out of an HTC program at school and have a role to play in supporting children who test positive for HIV.

  4. 南水北调西线一期工程中的长深引水隧洞%LONG AND DEEP DIVERSION TUNNELS OF 1ST STAGE PROJECT IN WEST ROUTE OF SOUTH-NORTH WATER TRANSFER PROJECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈凤生; 刘新

    2003-01-01

    West Route of South-North Water Transfer Project,situated in southeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,is a giant project,which will deliver 17 billion m3 of water from the main stream and tributaries upstream of the Yangtze River to the upper reaches of the Yellow River. It is to be constructed in 3 stages, of which the 1st stage project includes delivering 4 billion m3 of water by gravity from two tributaries of Yalong River and three tributaries of Dadu River. The project consists of 5 dams,7 tunnels and a channel in series,with the dam height of 63~123 m and water transfer length of 260.3 km,of which the tunnels measure 244.1 km. The special climatic,environmental and geologic conditions make the project much more complicated in construction,especially 3 tunnels with the length longer than 50 km each create challenges to the technical requirements of engineering survey,design and construction.

  5. Distribution of radon activity in the atmosphere above Wzgórza Niemczansko-Strzelinskie (South-WestPoland and its dependence on uranium and thorium content in the underlying rock and indirect ground basement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ochmann

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Radon activity in the atmosphere and its behavior in the environment have been investigated using LR-115 nuclear track detector. The complex geological structure of Wzgórza Niemczansko-Strzelinskie (south-west Poland enabled this problem to be studied in various geological conditions. The eU and eTh content in rocks and soil was measured by gamma-spectrometer GR-320. Uranium content of bedrock reached its maximum value of 15 ppm in the case of quartz-graphite schist. Thorium reached its maximum value of 35 ppm in the case of granodiorite. Radon activity was measured by means of long-term exposure of LR-115. The mean value of atmospheric radon activity was 21 Bqm-3 in the air 2 m above the ground surface. The highest radon activities were measured in the area of granite and quartz-graphite schist outcrops and in the area of mylonitic rocks of the Niemcza Zone. Radon activity in close to ground cup detectors varies from 25 to 300 Bqm-3, these values depend on uranium and thorium content in indirect ground basement (soil and weathered rocks. Not only uranium and thorium content but also rock disintegration due to tectonic events (shear zones influenced atmospheric radon activity. Seasonal variation is not strong, although higher values were measured in the autumn- winter period.

  6. Integrating Apparent Conductance in Resistivity Sounding to Constrain 2D Gravity Modeling for Subsurface Structure Associated with Uranium Mineralization across South Purulia Shear Zone, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkoprovo Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available South Purulia Shear Zone (SPSZ is an important area for the prospect of uranium mineralization and no detailed geophysical investigations have been carried out in this region. To delineate the subsurface structure in the present area, vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger array and gravity survey were carried out along a profile perpendicular to the SPSZ. Apparent conductance in the subsurface revealed a possible connection from SPSZ to Raghunathpur. The gravity model reveals the presence of a northerly dipping low density zone (most likely the shear zone extending up to Raghunathpur under a thin cover of granitic schist of Chotanagpur Granite Gneissic Complex (CGGC. The gravity model also depicts the depth of the zone of density low within this shear zone at ~400 m near Raghunathpur village and this zone truncates with a steep slope. Integration of resistivity and gravity study revealed two possible contact zones within this low density zone in the subsurface at depth of 40 m and 200 m. Our study reveals a good correlation with previous studies in Raghunathpur area characterized by medium to high hydro-uranium anomaly. Thus the conducting zone coinciding with the low gravity anomaly is inferred to be a possible uranium mineralized zone.

  7. Demographic Characteristics and Patterns of Medication in Atrial Fibrillation Patients in South West Ontario: Insights from a Large Primary Care Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Petrella, MD, PhD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Information about current practice in primary care-based management of atrial fibrillation (AF can help to improve care quality. Purpose To assess the epidemiology of AF and current patterns of treatment in order to identify therapeutic trends and aspects of current practice that may allow for care-gap identification. Methods We scrutinized the anonymized records of the South Western Ontario database (SWO collected between July 2002 and October 2008 for information about the characteristics and management of AF patients. Results From a population of ~168,000 patients we identified 4922 patients with a diagnosis of AF (2.9%. The recorded prevalence of AF increased with age, from 25% vs. ~10%. Overall prescription rates for other concomitant medications were >50% for ACE inhibitors/ARBs, 30–35% for statins and beta-blockers, and 27–29% for diuretics, digoxin and CCBs. Conclusions These Canadian patients with AF were relatively elderly and had multiple concomitant cardiovascular conditions and medications.

  8. Wind Energy Study and Energy Cost of Wind Electricity Generation in Nigeria: Past and Recent Results and a Case Study for South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluseyi O. Ajayi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the wind energy potential of ten selected sites in the south western region of Nigeria and carried out a cost benefit analysis of wind power generation at those sites. Twenty four years’ (1987 to 2010 wind speed data at 10 m height obtained from the Nigerian meteorological agency were employed to classify the sites wind profiles for electricity generation. The energy cost analysis of generating wind electricity from the sites was also carried out. The outcome showed that sites in Lagos and Oyo States were adequately suited for large scale generation with average wind speeds ranged between 2.9 and 5.8 m/s. Those from other sites may be suitable for small scale generation or as wind farms, with several small turbines connected together, to generate large enough wind power. The turbine matching results shows that turbines cut-in and rated wind speeds of between 2.0 and 3.0 m/s, and between 10 and 12.0 m/s respectively will be very suited to all the sites, particularly those in locations outside Lagos and Oyo States. The energy cost analysis shows that generation cost can be as low as 0.02 €/kWh and as high as 5.03/kWh, depending on the turbine model employed.

  9. Excavation of Tang and Song Building-foundations North of Zhongzhou Road in Luoyang City,Henan%河南洛阳市中州路北唐宋建筑基址发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国社会科学院考古研究所洛阳唐城队

    2005-01-01

    In December 1997 to May 1998, excavation revealed Tang and Song Building foundations superimposed upon each other in the primary school north of Zhongzhou Road within Luoyang City, i.e. a little to the west of the middle of the palace-city within Sui and Tang Luoyang. The unearthed objects include porcelain articles, copper coins and an amount of building material. Among the discovered building ruins are remains of a north-to-south corridor, including its foundations and pavements, stone column-bases and -pits, and tile-shard path on the western side. The discovered pavilion of the late Northern Song is rather large in size; its vestiges consist of the remaining main hall, auxiliary houses, five courtyards and three corridors. This is the ruined palace largest in scale and clearest in form so far recorded in the palace-city of West Capital of Luoyang that belongs to the Five Dynasties and Northern Song period.

  10. Vertical distribution of trace gas species in the troposphere over the south of West Siberia: comparison of airborne in situ measurements and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belan, Boris D.; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belov, Vladimir V.; Gridnev, Yurii V.; Davydov, Denis K.; Machida, Toshinobu; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Nédélec, Philippe; Fofonov, Alexander V.

    2014-05-01

    A comparison of the vertical distributions of O3, CO, CO2 and CH4 derived from the airborne in situ measurements and satellite observations over the southern part of West Siberia is presented. In this study we used data of monthly research flights of 'Optik' TU-134 aircraft laboratory carried out from 2012 to 2013 and data retrieved from measurements of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument on-board the MetOp satellite. It was found that differences in ozone mixing ratios between the airborne and satellite data can vary from +3 to +18 ppb at 0.5 km AGL and form -8 to -37 ppb at 7 km AGL, and relative ones ranged from +8 to +30 % and from -12 to -88 %, respectively. Differences in CO concentrations varied from +32 to +103 ppb at 0.5 km height and from -18 to +23 ppb at 3 km. Relative differences were in the range from -4 to +48 % at 0.5 km and from -8 to +20 % at 7 km. The maximal difference in all CH4 profiles reached 150 ppb in the atmospheric boundary layer, and the minimal one was -10 ppb. The average relative difference varied between +2.8 and -0.5 %. The average difference in CO2 concentration lies within ±1.5 ppm, while individual profiles are incommensurable. Maximal and minimal differences during the all flights were observed in the atmospheric boundary layer (+10 and -12 ppm or +2.3 and -3.3%, respectively). In the free troposphere, relative difference decreased down to ±1.0%. This work was funded by Research funds for Global Environmental Monitoring in NIES (Japan), CNRS (France), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CEA (France), Presidium of RAS (Program No. 4), Brunch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5), Interdisciplinary integration projects of Siberian Branch of RAS (No. 35, No. 70, No. 131), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No 14-05-00526, 14-05-00590).

  11. The Exploration Analysis of Low-carbon Ecological City Path in South Bridge New City%南桥新城低碳生态城市之路的探索分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2014-01-01

    Prosperity and sustainable development ecological city has become a global trend, which is also a direction of Chinese future urban development. But in recent years, in the process of urban development, city is facing many problems, which have brought new challenges to the urban ecological planning, such as energy, pol ution, and urban heat island ef-fect and so on.%繁荣与可持续发展生态城市已成为全球发展趋势,也是我国未来城市发展的方向。但是近年来,在城市发展过程中,城市面临着诸多问题,如城市能源、污染、城市热岛效应等,都给城市生态规划带来了新的挑战。

  12. Activity ratios of natural radionuclides as markers of changes in the policy of NORM wastes released by industries located in the south-west of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Huelva estuary (south-western Spain) is formed by the confluence of the Odiel and Tinto river mouths in the Atlantic Ocean, where a large industrial chemical complex was built in the sixties, which comprised of two rock phosphate processing plants to produce phosphate fertilisers. From the beginning of 1960's to 1997, these plants have released large amounts of wastes and by-products, mainly phosphogypsum (about 2.5 millions tons per year). About 20% of this amount was directly released into the estuary waters, while the remaining 80% have been stored in large piles located in their surroundings. These gypsum stacks cover now an area of about 1200 Ha. In 1997, the waste management policy changed. A new water recycling system was introduced in order to minimize the environmental impact of this activity on the estuary. Nowadays, the water follows a closed circuit thereby avoiding the transfer of radionuclides into the environment. The radioactive impact of these NORM industries has been recorded in the sediments of the area. The study of both the 226Ra/228Ra and 230Th/232Th activity ratios, in sediment profiles has been used to delimitate the influence of the wastes from the rock phosphate processing plants in the Huelva estuary. The chronology obtained based on 137Cs profile reflects the historical impact of these NORM industries in sediments of the area. The change of the waste policy has been also reflected by variations in the values of these isotopic ratios. From the information provided by these activity ratios it is possible to conclude how good the policy waste changes are. (author)

  13. Uses and commercialization of Borassus akeassii Bayton, Ouédraogo, Guinko non-wood timber products in South-Western Burkina Faso, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertin Ouédraogo M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Borassus akeassii called" rônier " in French marks the South-Western landscape of Burkina Faso and plays an important role in local people livelihood. The present article is about this species uses and its socio-economic roles. Investigations have been made in three villages and in Banfora markets. The interviewed people were the villagers, extractors and retailers of sap, the outfitters and retailers of handicraft products. Some quantifications of sap and handicraft objects produced and sold have been conducted with the actors of the sector. Financial fallout has been also studied taking into account the high and low production periods. The results revealed that five parts of the tree were used as food, six as medicine and three in handicraft. Product prices varied with the period of production, the category of the seller and the object dimension. In dry cold period, from November to February, sap trading yielded net incomes of 277347 ± 94 653 FCFA for the extractors whereas the incomes amounted to 319 368 ± 163 969 FCFA from March to October. A craftsman could get a net income of 277 933 ± 2 787 FCFA during the high production period and 110 383 ± 25 371 FCFA during the low production period. Due to such an importance, there is a need for research program on the resource base, the improvement and management of the species. A better organization of the actors of the sector will improve their access to market information, to know the requirements of the market and to be aware of the impacts of product quality on the profit of the actors of the sector.

  14. Association Study between Coronary Artery Disease and rs1333049 and rs10757274 Polymorphisms at 9p21 Locus in South-West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Foroughmand

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Coronary artery disease (CAD is a multi-factorial and heterogenic disease with atherosclerosis plaques formation in internal wall of coronary artery. Plaque formation results to limitation of the blood reaching to myocardium leading to appearance of some problems, such as ischemia, sudden thrombosis veins and myocardial infarction (MI. Several environmental and genetic factors are involved in prevalence and incident of CAD as follows: hypertension, high low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, age, diabetes mellitus, family history of early-onset heart disease and smoking. According to genome wide association studies (GWAS, five polymorphisms in the 9p21 locus seem to be associated with the CAD. We aimed to evaluate the remarkable association of two polymorphisms at 9p21 locus, rs1333049 and rs10757274, with CAD. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted in Golestan, Aria Hospitals and Genetics Lab of Shahid Chamran University in the city of Ahvaz, Iran, in 2010- 2011. The collected blood samples belonging to 170 CAD patients (case group and 100 healthy individuals (control group were analyzed by tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS-polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. The results were analyzed using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS; SPSS Inc., USA version 16. A value of p<0.05 and an odd ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were considered significant. Results: The frequencies of CC, CG and GG genotypes for rs1333049 polymorphism in patients were 18.2, 65.3 and 16.5%, while in controls, the related values were 25, 67 and 8%, respectively. GG genotypes of rs1333049 polymorphism in CAD patients were more than control cases (OR: 0.354, 95%CI: 0.138-0.912, p=0.032. The frequencies of AA, AG and GG genotypes for rs10757274 in CAD patients were 8.2, 58.3 and 33.5%, while in controls, the related values were 35, 63 and 2%, respectively. GG Genotype in rs10757274

  15. Molecular evolutionary analysis of pH1N1 2009 influenza virus in Reunion Island, South West Indian Ocean region: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Pascalis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Molecular epidemiology is a powerful tool to decipher the dynamics of viral transmission, quasispecies temporal evolution and origins. Little is known about the pH1N1 molecular dynamics in general population. A prospective study (CoPanFlu-RUN was carried out in Reunion Island to characterize pH1N1 genetic variability and molecular evolution occurring in population during the pH1N1 Influenza pandemic in 2009. METHODOLOGY: We directly amplified pH1N1 genomes from 28 different nasal swabs (26 individuals from 21 households. Fifteen strains were fully sequenced and 13 partially. This includes pairs of sequences from different members of 5 separate households; and two pairs from individuals, collected at different times. We assessed the molecular evolution of pH1N1 by genetic variability and phylogenetic analyses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that i Reunion pH1N1 sequences stemmed from global "clade 7" but shaped two phylogenetic sub-clades; ii D239E mutation was identified in the hemagglutinin protein of all Reunion sequences, a mutation which has been associated elsewhere with mild-, upper-respiratory tract pH1N1 infecting strains; iii Date estimates from molecular phylogenies predicted clade emergence some time before the first detection of pH1N1 by the epidemiological surveillance system; iv Phylogenetic relatedness was observed between Reunion pH1N1 viruses and those from other countries in South-western Indian Ocean area; v Quasispecies populations were observed within households and individuals of the cohort-study. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance and/or prevention systems presently based on Influenza virus sequence variation should take into account that the majority of studies of pH1N1 Influenza generate genetic data for the HA/NA viral segments obtained from hospitalized-patients, which is potentially non-representative of the overall viral diversity within whole populations. Our observations highlight the importance of

  16. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  17. 张家口市清水河工业南桥荷载试验分析%Load Test Analysis of Industrial South Bridge over Qingshui River in Zhangjiakou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑

    2014-01-01

    张家口市清水河工业南桥属于钢结构下承式系杆拱桥。采用Madis Civil有限元软件对该桥的承载能力进行了分析计算,介绍了该种结构桥梁的静载、动载情况及施工方案,为相关桥梁荷载试验分析积累经验。%Industrial South Bridge over Qingshui River in Zhangjiakou City is a typical steel-structure through tied-arch bridge.This paper analyzes and calculates the bearing capacity of the bridge using Mad-is Civil finite element software. Moreover, the paper introduces the static load, dynamic load and related construction scheme of this bridge. It hopes to accumulate experience for relevant bridge load test analy-sis.

  18. The city of the merchant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    2003-01-01

    The City of the Merchant deals with cities, towns and villages in the European medieval period - i.e. in post-antique and pre-industrial Europe. In actual fact, the book mainly deals with Denmark and Northern Italy (the City States), with digressions to other "feudal" localities in France on Sici......, in the middle East, the Crusades, in Germany (the Hansatic League) and, finally, as far a field as the Danish West Indies. The book is part of a larger project that comprises other historical environments....

  19. Not all memories are the same: Situational context influences spatial recall within one's city of residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilinger, Tobias; Frankenstein, Julia; Simon, Nadine; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Reference frames in spatial memory encoding have been examined intensively in recent years. However, their importance for recall has received considerably less attention. In the present study, passersby used tags to arrange a configuration map of prominent city center landmarks. It has been shown that such configurational knowledge is memorized within a north-up reference frame. However, participants adjusted their maps according to their body orientations. For example, when participants faced south, the maps were likely to face south-up. Participants also constructed maps along their location perspective-that is, the self-target direction. If, for instance, they were east of the represented area, their maps were oriented west-up. If the location perspective and body orientation were in opposite directions (i.e., if participants faced away from the city center), participants relied on location perspective. The results indicate that reference frames in spatial recall depend on the current situation rather than on the organization in long-term memory. These results cannot be explained by activation spread within a view graph, which had been used to explain similar results in the recall of city plazas. However, the results are consistent with forming and transforming a spatial image of nonvisible city locations from the current location. Furthermore, prior research has almost exclusively focused on body- and environment-based reference frames. The strong influence of location perspective in an everyday navigational context indicates that such a reference frame should be considered more often when examining human spatial cognition.

  20. Construction of West-East Pipeline's Gansu Segment Kicked Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Commencement of full construction of the segment of the West-East gas transmission pipeline in Gansu Province was announced at an inception ceremony held in Jiayuguan City,Gansu Province on 28 March 2003.

  1. Customer Satisfaction in Online Banking : A Comparative Study of Local and Foreign Commercial Banks in the South of Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh City

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Le Ngoc Diep

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to construct a conceptual model with related instruments that affect customer satisfaction in using online banking in Ho Chi Minh City and Southern Vietnam. An important task of this work is the comparison of customer satisfaction in using online banking between customers of Vietnamese local banks and customers of foreign banks. Further discussions of the relationship among online service quality, perceived value, e-trust, relationship quality, customer satisfa...

  2. Microscopic isolation and characterization of free living amoebae (FLA from surface water sources.in Birjand, the capital city of the South Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodreza Behravan

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: The results indicated that a significant percentage of surface water sources in Birjand city was contaminated with Acanthamoeba spp. It is necessary for physicians, therefore, to take into account the diseases caused by these infectious agents. Besides, local regional health professionals should take into consideration the potential role of surface stagnant water sources in transferring these infectious agents. Placing warning signs in areas contaminated with these infectious agents seems a useful measure.

  3. Using conjoint analysis to measure the acceptability of rectal microbicides among men who have sex with men in four South American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsler, Janni J; Cunningham, William E; Nureña, César R; Nadjat-Haiem, Carsten; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Casapia, Martin; Montoya-Herrera, Orlando; Sánchez, Jorge; Galea, Jerome T

    2012-08-01

    Conjoint Analysis (CJA), a statistical market-based technique that assesses the value consumers place on product characteristics, may be used to predict acceptability of hypothetical products. Rectal Microbicides (RM)-substances that would prevent HIV infection during receptive anal intercourse-will require acceptability data from potential users in multiple settings to inform the development process by providing valuable information on desirable product characteristics and issues surrounding potential barriers to product use. This study applied CJA to explore the acceptability of eight different hypothetical RM among 128 MSM in Lima and Iquitos, Peru; Guayaquil, Ecuador; and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Overall RM acceptability was highest in Guayaquil and lowest in Rio. Product effectiveness had the greatest impact on acceptability in all four cities, but the impact of other product characteristics varied by city. This study demonstrates that MSM from the same region but from different cities place different values on RM characteristics that could impact uptake of an actual RM. Understanding specific consumer preferences is crucial during RM product development, clinical trials and eventual product dissemination.

  4. A Research of Construction Mechanism of Vassal State's City Group during Spring and Autumn Period Based on the Analyzation of Geographic Image - Take south region of Shandong as example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Li, B.; Zhou, X.

    2015-08-01

    Spring and Autumn period, the vassal states began to carry out country defense construction actively, brought changes to building the ideological. At that time, the south region of Shandong, as an independent unit of geography, seldom affected by external factors, and had striking cultural characteristics. Vassal states there constructed their capital mainly to defense the neighboring countries and cope with small scale mergers war, not involving the nationwide military deployment. Therefore, the region reflect the construction thought changes during the Spring and Autumn Period, and consistent with the research purpose. Based on this judgment, the author analyzed each capital's location and terrain feature by topographic map. In brief, the Spring and Autumn Period, feudal states acted of one's own free will, the relationship between cities contained the one within and between vassal states. Within vassal state relationships included economic support, entrenching each other and protecting the country together. Meanwhile, strategic defensing, scrambling for resources and geographical location comprised of the competition between vassal states. In the agrarian age, the political centers and agricultural areas were interdependent, giving priority to the development of political cities. Transformation of capitals' space layout was actually the process of carving up farming plains, the powerful states occupy favorable geographical position, and the small countries would be encroached and annexed gradually.

  5. Street Vending in African Cities: A Synthesis of Empirical Finding From Kenya, Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Uganda and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mitullah, Winnie V.

    2003-01-01

    Case studies on street vending in six African countries (Kenya, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Cote d'Ivoire and South Africa) assess the business/environment constraints for street vendors. Those working in the informal economy work in unregulated and unprotected environments that are not conducive to business growth. Street vending is primarily viewed as an economic activity for those with a low level of education and employs many women, for whom it is considered an extension of their reproductiv...

  6. Observational and modeling study of dry deposition on surrogate surfaces in a South China city: implication of removal of atmospheric crustal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Ka-Ming; Leung, Ka-Yee; Tanner, Peter A

    2010-05-01

    Dry deposition samples collected during 1999-2001 at a South China site using surrogate surfaces were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Collector surface properties played important roles to the dry deposition. The deposition velocities for various species ranged from 0.02 to 1.69 cm s(-1), in general agreement with literature values. More than 90% of Ca(2+) was deposited by sedimentation and its comparable values of dry or wet removal residence times imply that dry deposition is an important atmospheric removal process for the ubiquitous crustal species in South China, compared with precipitation scavenging. Relatively good agreement was found when the species deposition velocities were modeled based on up-to-date knowledge of particle dry deposition. The total depositions for anthropogenic and crustal species in northern China are likely to be much higher than those in the south, including our site where the fluxes of the acidic species SO(4)(2-) and NO(3)(-) were 4.4 and 2.2 g m(-2) year(-1), respectively. The sum of dry deposition for cations Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) contributes 44% of the total flux, which is equivalent to the value estimated in Europe. PMID:19357979

  7. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever......, any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...

  8. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  9. Ideal Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Meitner, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Erika Meitner discusses her new book: Ideal Cities. This collection of autobiographical narrative and lyric poems explores the relationship between body and place—specifically the pleasures and dangers of women’s corporeal experiences. Ideal Cities is guided by an epigraph from Song of Songs, and the metaphorical idea of bodies as cities, and cities as bodies. How do women’s bodies become sites of inscription via sex, childbirth, and other highly physical acts? These poems also investigate ur...

  10. Effect of source and sex on blood protein fractions of West African Dwarf Goats (WADG)

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Okonkwo,; I. S. Omeje; I.F. Okonkwo

    2011-01-01

    Source and sex effects on the total blood protein and its various fractions were studied using juvenile West African Dwarf goats derived from Southern Nigeria. The goats were sourced from three distinct towns in the humid tropics namely, South-East (Umuahia), South-South (Ugheli) and South-West (Akure) at the rate of 6 males and 18 females per location. The mean values of the total blood plasma protein and its fractions obtained for the WADGs from different z...

  11. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    , the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing...

  12. Analysis on the characteristics of macrobenthis community in the North-west Daya Bay Of South China Bay in spring%大亚湾西北部春季大型底栖动物群落特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜飞雁; 林钦; 贾晓平; 杨圣云; 马胜伟; 陈海刚; 李纯厚

    2011-01-01

    利用2008年春季在大亚湾西北部海域开展的12个测站的大型底栖动物调查资料,对该海域大型底栖动物的群落特征进行分析.结果表明该海域内大型底栖动物优势种由粗帝汶蛤(Timoclea scabra)、波纹巴非蛤(Paphia undulata)、上野蜾嬴蜚(Corophium uenoi)、方背鳞虫(Lepidonotus squamatus)、刀明樱蛤(Moerella culter)和角海蛹(Ophelia acuminata)等6种组成;可划分为4个群落,群落Ⅱ和群落Ⅰ为主体群落,群落Ⅲ和群落Ⅳ分布区较小,群落间差异较大.大型底栖动物数量上以个体较大的软体动物占优,但群落的组成则以多毛类和甲壳类为主,其组成情况基本上反映了群落的特征.群落Ⅰ以多毛类-甲壳类为表征,群落Ⅱ则以甲壳类-多毛类-软体动物为表征.栖息环境的差异,是造成群落间差异的主要原因;群落多样性水平呈群落Ⅲ>群落Ⅱ>群落Ⅰ>群落Ⅳ,沉积环境的污染状况和人为扰动是影响多样性水平的主要因素;群落整体的稳定性较好,未受到明显的扰动,但分布于航道区域和渔业生产作业区的群落Ⅳ和群落Ⅲ,在航道建设、疏浚和渔业生产的影响下,群落受到一定程度的扰动,稳定性较弱.%Based on the data collected from 12 research stations in the North-west Daya Bay, South China Sea in spring 2008, the characteristics of macrobenthis community were examined. The results showed that the dominant macrobenthic species were Timoclea scabra, Paphia undulate, Corophium uenoi, Lepidonotus squamatus, Moerella culler and Ophelia acuminate. The macrobenthos community could be divided into four groups with notable differences. Group I and Ⅱ were the dominant groups, while the distribution areas of Groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ were relatively small. Overall, molluscs was dominant in quantity in the macrobenthos community but the community was mainly composed of Annelida and Arthropoda, reflecting the characteristics of the

  13. Tracing the sources of pollution of wells and Karst springs supplying water to the City of Ragusa, South-Eastern Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Ruggieri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the pollution occurs in two important karst springs, supplying the aqueduct to the city Ragusa, started since September2010 and is still continuing. Both springs show higher values of ammonia and the presence of salmonella, elements ascribable to wastewater of animal origin. This investigations identified a number of farms present within the springs protected areas which likely to have caused the pollution. These were imposed by ordinances to build adequate storage tanks for the animal waste water. Paradoxically, the construction of these tanks led to a further worsening of the state of pollution, as the latter from episodic, linked to rainfall, became continuous due to the overflowing of wastewater from the tanks never emptied, as it was ascertained. A geological and geochemical study, preparatory to the execution of tracer tests, conducted by the Water Dept. of Genio Civile of Ragusa and ARPA (Regional Agency for the Environmental Protection, allowed a hydrogeological characterization of the recharge area and the definition of the hydrologic regime of the springs, that in this case, resulted as interconnected. Follow-up tests with fluorescent tracers, carried out on a few farms, were then interrupted because of the opposition of one of the owners. From that moment on, everything stops as for the research of the origin of the pollutant, while at the same time the situation gets worse, both in terms of environment, for the devastating effect on the ecosystem of the Ciaramite stream due to the spill in the riverbed of the polluted water springs, and for the resulting pollution of two municipal drinking water wells placed at the confluence of the Ciaramite stream with the Irminio river. The lack of further drinkable water determined the starting of the crisis of the city water distribution system having to turn to a supply of chance with tank trucks and shifts that created situations of considerable discomfort to major part

  14. South-West Iowa Groundwater Vulnerability Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions on this map represent areas with similar hydro- geologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  15. Isotopic evidence for dead fish maintenance of Florida red tides, with implications for coastal fisheries over both source regions of the West Florida shelf and within downstream waters of the South Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. J.; Weisberg, R. H.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Dieterle, D. A.; Zheng, L.; Carder, K. L.; Vargo, G. A.; Havens, J. A.; Peebles, E.; Hollander, D. J.; He, R.; Heil, C. A.; Mahmoudi, B.; Landsberg, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Toxic Florida red tides of the dinoflagellate Kareniabrevis have downstream consequences of 500-1000 km spatial extent. Fish stocks, shellfish beds, and harmful algal blooms of similar species occupy the same continental shelf waters of the southeastern United States, amounting to economic losses of more than 25 million dollars in some years. Under the aegis of the Center for Prediction of Red tides, we are now developing coupled biophysical models of the conditions that lead to red tides and impacted coastal fisheries, from the Florida Panhandle to Cape Hatteras. Here, a nitrogen isotope budget of the coastal food web of the West Florida shelf (WFS) and the downstream South Atlantic Bight (SAB) reaffirms that diazotrophs are the initial nutrient source for onset of red tides and now identifies clupeid fish as the major recycled nutrient source for their maintenance. The recent isotope budget of WFS and SAB coastal waters during 1998-2001 indicates that since prehistoric times of Timacua Indian settlements along the Georgia coast during 1075, ∼50% of the nutrients required for large red tides of >1 μg chl l -1 of K.brevis have been derived from nitrogen-fixers, with the other half from decomposing dead sardines and herrings. During 2001, >90% of the harvest of WFS clupeids was by large ichthyotoxic red tides of >10 μg chl l -1 of K.brevis, rather than by fishermen. After onset of the usual red tides in summer of 2006 and 2007, the simulated subsequent fall exports of Florida red tides in September 2007 to North Carolina shelf waters replicate observations of just ∼1 μg chl l -1 on the WFS that year. In contrast, the earlier red tides of >10 μg chl l -1 left behind off West Florida during 2006, with less physical export, are instead 10-fold larger than those of 2007. Earlier, 55 fish kills were associated with these coastal red tides during September 2006, between Tampa and Naples. Yet, only six fish kills were reported there in September 2007. With little

  16. City under the Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    military conflicts are taking place. Studying the wealth of public representations of Camp Century, established 1959-60 by the US Army 128 miles east of the Thule Air Base and often referred to as the “City under the Ice”, we find a sharp contrast between the domesticated interior and the superpower...... conflict that gave impetus to the camp’s construction. Presented to the public as a scientific station and a technologically-advanced, under-ice extension of the American way of life, while situated in the titanic struggle between West and East, Camp Century took on a number of closed-world meanings....... However, the military logic of Camp Century was self-referential and closed in the sense that the very idea of constructing the city under ice emerged from Cold War strategy. The closed world of Camp Century established a temporary boundary between, on the one hand, the comfortable space controlled by US...

  17. Effect of training on the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets on the burden of malaria among vulnerable groups, south-west Ethiopia: baseline results of a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejene Tariku

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, the utilization of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLITN is hampered by behavioural factors such as low awareness and negative attitude of the community. The aim of this study was to present the design and baseline results of a cluster randomized trial on the effect of training of household heads on the use of LLITN. Methods This baseline survey was undertaken from February to March, 2009 as part of a randomized cluster trial. A total of 11 intervention and 11 control Gots (villages were included in the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Centre, south-west Ethiopia. House to house visit was done in 4135 households to collect information about the use of LLITN and socio-demographic variables. For the diagnosis of malaria and anaemia, blood samples were collected from 2410 under-five children and 242 pregnant women. Results One fourth of the households in the intervention and control Gots had functional LLITN. Only 30% of the observed LLITN in the intervention and 28% in the control Gots were hanged properly. Adults were more likely to utilize LLITN than under-five children in the control and intervention Gots. The prevalence of malaria in under-five children in the intervention and control Gots was 10.5% and 8.3% respectively. The intervention and control Gots had no significant difference concerning the prevalence of malaria in under-five children, [OR = 1.28, (95%CI: 0.97, 1.69]. Eight (6.1% pregnant women in the intervention and eight (7.2% in the control Gots were positive for malaria (P = 0.9. Children in the intervention Gots were less likely to have anaemia than children in the control Gots, [OR = 0.75, (95%CI: 0.62, 0.85]. Conclusion The availability and utilization of LLITN was low in the study area. The prevalence of malaria and anaemia was high. Intervention strategies of malaria should focus on high risk population and vulnerable groups.

  18. Community Based Screening, Brief-Intervention and Referral for Treatment (SBIRT for unhealthy tobacco use: single arm study experience and Implementation Success in rural and semi-rural settings, South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Olufolahan Lasebikan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT can reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in rural and semi-rural settings. Method: Design and participants: A non-randomized clinical trial with assessments at baseline and post-intervention assessments at 3 and 6 months was conducted in a rural and semi-rural district in South-West of Nigeria. A representative sample of 1203 persons consented to the study and had ASSIST administered to them by trained community healthcare extension workers between October, 2010 and April, 2011. Follow-up participation was more than 99% at all points. Intervention: Participants received a single ASSIST linked brief intervention (BI and referral for treatment (RT at entry, and a booster ASSIST BI and RT at 3 months.Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome was self-reported scores on ASSIST. Results: At baseline, out of 1203 respondents, lifetime prevalence and current prevalence of any tobacco products was 405 (33.7% and 248 (20.6% respectively. Of the current users, on the ASSIST, 79 (31.9% scored 0-3 (low health risk, 130 (52.4% scored 4-26 (moderate risk, 39 (15.7% scored 27+ (high risk. At 3 months, out of 1199 respondents, prevalence of current users was 199 (16.5% and out of 1195 respondents, was 169 (14.1% at 6 months. Prevalence of tobacco use reduced significantly at 3 months Z = -3.1, p = 0.01 and at 6 months when compared with baseline Z = 4.2, p = 0.001, but not at 6 months compared with at 3 months, Z = 2.1, p = 0.09. Multivariate analysis revealed that age at initiation of tobacco use, gender, marital status, setting of dwelling and socioeconomic status were the only variables that were associated with current tobacco use at baseline, 3 months and 6 months.Conclusion: A one-time BI with a booster at 3 months had a significant effect on tobacco use in persons living in community settings. This finding suggests a need for promoting the adoption of

  19. Sex in the city: privacy-making practices, spatialized intimacies and the environmental risks of men-who-have-sex-with-men in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorway, Robert; Hwang, Sandra D H; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Pasha, Akram; Rahman, Syed Hafeez Ur; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James

    2011-09-01

    Employing community-based approaches, the spatialization of sexual risk among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) at local cruising spots was explored in South India. To move beyond individualistic and structural deterministic understandings of sexual risk the study examined how erotic associations and networks formed and dissolved as social actors connect to each other through their material world (which includes other bodies). Crowding was important for safely establishing intimacy in public but also created contexts of discrimination and violence, particularly for feminine-acting males. Risk itineraries drawn by MSM anticipated fluctuating levels of risk, enabling them to avoid dangerous situations. Although sexual typologies connected gender nonconforming males to HIV prevention networks, they reinforce the exclusion of men who did not identify with sexual minority identities. Future work must therefore address the HIV prevention needs of men whose identities cannot be readily separated from "the general population". PMID:21703909

  20. A cross-sectional study examining Campylobacter and other zoonotic enteric pathogens in dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario and risk factors for shedding of Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-05-01

    An estimated 6 million pet dogs live in Canadian households with the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans. Dogs have been identified as carriers of Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter upsaliensis, but little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for these pathogens in pet dogs that visit dog parks. This study examined the prevalence of these organisms in the faeces of dogs visiting dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, as well as risk factors for shedding Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including age, diet and activities in which the dog participates. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 questionnaires were completed. Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp. were present in 1.2%, 6.4% and 43.0% of faecal samples, respectively. Of the Campylobacter spp. detected, 86.1% were C. upsaliensis, 13% were C. jejuni and 0.9% were C. coli. Statistically significant sparing factors associated with the shedding of Campylobacter spp. included the feeding of a commercial dry diet and the dog's exposure to compost. Age of dog had a quadratic effect, with young dogs and senior dogs having an increased probability of shedding Campylobacter spp. compared with adult dogs. The only statistically significant risk factor for shedding C. upsaliensis was outdoor water access including lakes and ditches, while dogs >1 year old were at a lower risk than young dogs. Understanding the pet-related risk factors for Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis shedding in dogs may help in the development of awareness and management strategies to potentially reduce the risk of transmitting this pathogen from dogs to humans.