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Sample records for city primary grades

  1. Testing the Efficacy of INSIGHTS on Student Disruptive Behavior, Classroom Management, and Student Competence in Inner City Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClowry, Sandra Graham; Snow, David L; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Rodriguez, Eileen T

    2010-03-01

    A prevention trial tested the efficacy of INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament as compared to a Read Aloud attention control condition in reducing student disruptive behavior and enhancing student competence and teacher classroom management. Participants included 116 first and second grade students, their parents, and their 42 teachers in six inner city schools. Teachers completed the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory (SESBI) and the Teacher's Rating Scale of Child's Actual Competence and Social Acceptance (TRS) at baseline and again upon completion of the intervention. Boys participating in INSIGHTS, compared with those in the Read Aloud program, showed a significant decline in attentional difficulties and overt aggression toward others. Teachers in INSIGHTS, compared to those in the attention control condition, reported significantly fewer problems managing the emotional-oppositional behavior, attentional difficulties, and covert disruptive behavior of their male students. They also perceived the boys as significantly more cognitively and physically competent.

  2. Testing the Efficacy of "INSIGHTS" on Student Disruptive Behavior, Classroom Management, and Student Competence in Inner City Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClowry, Sandra Graham; Snow, David L.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Rodriguez, Eileen T.

    2010-01-01

    A prevention trial tested the efficacy of "INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament" as compared to a Read Aloud attention control condition in reducing student disruptive behavior and enhancing student competence and teacher classroom management. Participants included 116 first and second grade students, their parents, and their 42 teachers…

  3. 重庆市小学五年级学生膳食营养状况调查%Investigation on diet and nutritional status of the grade 5 primary school students in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成菊; 陈燕; 万婧; 冉莉; 张乾勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diet and nutritional status of the grade 5 primary school 11 years old students in Chongqing City. Methods According to the differences in the levels of economic development, Chongqing mainly di-vided into main city, Southeast and Northeast areas. Altogether 2014 students were randomly selected from the three areas of Chongqing City by stratified cluster random sampling survey. Their height, weight, upper arm circumference and skin-fold thickness were examined. Their food consumption and intake of nutrients were investigated by 24 hours recall method. Results The height of the same sex students and the weight of boys in main city area of Chongqing were significantly higher than that in Southeast and Northeast of Chongqing (P0.05). The intake of vitamin A, calcium and zinc was not enough. Conclusion The growth and development of the grade 5 primary school students in main city of Chongqing is best than that in the Southeast area and Northeast area of Chongqing. The food consumption patterns are unbalance. The intake of some nutrients is inadequate. The growth and nutritional status of the grade 5 pri-mary school students in Chongqing are essential to be improved.%目的:分析重庆市小学五年级11岁学生生长发育与膳食营养摄入情况。方法根据经济发展水平的差异将重庆市划分为主城区、东北翼和东南翼三个片区,用整群分层随机抽样方法,选取2014名小学五年级11岁学生,测量身高、体重、上臂围和皮褶厚度,24 h回顾法进行膳食调查。结果主城区11岁男女学生身高均显著高于东北翼和东南翼地区(P0.05),维生素A、钙和锌摄入严重不足。结论主城区男女学生生长发育水平高于两翼地区,重庆市经济欠发达地区小学五年级学生膳食营养状况不理想,应采取有效措施积极改善学生膳食营养摄入。

  4. Learning with Text in the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Andrea M.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a rationale for learning-with-text experiences for primary-grade children; lists 10 general approaches to foster primary-grade content area reading; and offers a sample lesson incorporating these approaches that promotes comprehension of text and content matter. Suggests that trade books, textbooks, realistic fiction, and other print…

  5. Research on Spelling in Primary Grades (ERIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenbaugh, Roger

    1993-01-01

    Presents annotations of nine conference papers and practica in the ERIC database that deal with spelling research in the primary grades. Notes that the entries in the annotated bibliography were published between 1990 and 1992. (RS)

  6. Grade repetition in primary school from teachers’ perspective

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    Malinić Dušica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available School underachievement is exhibited gradually, in different forms, while grade repetition figures as one of the most prominent forms of underachievement. In order to observe this phenomenon from different perspectives, we conducted a research aimed at identifying teacher attitudes towards grade repetition and grade repeaters in primary school, based on their perceptions of: (a the cause of grade repetition; (b the responsibility for grade repetition and (c grade repetition as an educational measure. The administered questionnaire was constructed for the purposes of the research, descriptive statistics was used, and data were obtained on the sample of 136 teachers from 31 primary schools from the territory of the City of Belgrade. The results point out to the conclusion that teachers perceive grade repetition as, first and foremost, the consequence of students’ lack of interest in school and learning and undisciplined behavior in class. By treating student underachievement mainly as a consequence of laziness, lack of motivation and insufficient effort, teachers transfer responsibility to others, assessing that the personal degree of responsibility for the underachievement of their students is very low. The responsibility for underachievement is perceived more as a problem of the student, his/her family, peer group, than as the problem of teachers themselves. The concluding part points out to certain teaching procedures and methods that have proved to be useful in the prevention of student underachievement.

  7. Primary-Grade Teacher Candidates' Views on Museum Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Ayse Mentis

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the primary-grade teacher candidates' views on museum education. The research is a descriptive research that used survey model. The study group is made up of 209 primary-grade teacher candidates who were seniors in the Primary-Grade Teaching Program. They were all attending Konya University's Faculty of Education. A survey…

  8. Improving reading in the primary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Nell K; Block, Meghan K

    2012-01-01

    Almost fifteen years have passed since the publication of the National Research Council's seminal report Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, which provided research-based recommendations on what could be done to better position students in prekindergarten through third grade for success in grade four and above. This article by Nell Duke and Meghan Block first examines whether specific key recommendations from the report have been implemented in U.S. classrooms. They find that recommendations regarding increased access to kindergarten and greater attention to and improvement of students' word-reading skills have been widely adopted. Others have not. Vocabulary and comprehension, long neglected in the primary grades, still appear to be neglected. Contrary to the report's recommendations, attention to building conceptual and content knowledge in science and social studies has actually decreased in the past fifteen years. In other words, the easier-to-master skills are being attended to, but the broader domains of accomplishment that constitute preparation for comprehension and learning in the later grades--vocabulary knowledge, comprehension strategy use, and conceptual and content knowledge--are being neglected. Near stagnation in fourth-grade students' comprehension achievement is thus unsurprising. The authors then turn to research and reviews of research on improving primary-grade reading published since 1998, when Preventing Reading Difficulties was issued. They discuss several instructional approaches identified as effective in improving word-reading skill, vocabulary and conceptual knowledge, comprehension strategies, and reading outside of school; they discuss advances in interventions for struggling readers, and in whole-school literacy reform. Duke and Block then identify three key obstacles that have prevented widespread adoption of these best practices in teaching reading. The first obstacle is a short-term orientation toward instruction and

  9. Closely Reading Informational Texts in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    In this article we discuss the differences between close reading in the primary grades and upper elementary grades. We focus on text selection, initial reading. repeated reading, annotation, text-based discussions, and responding to texts.

  10. Poetry Proves to Be Positive in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Terrence V.; Wyant, Susan L.

    2008-01-01

    Learning to read and write and achieve good conduct are crucial in the primary grades. One teacher from a state in the Midwest implemented poetry with her second grade students to guide classroom conduct and improve literacy. This article discusses poetry as a literature genre, the benefits of poetry, and poetry curriculum where children read and…

  11. Primary cilia and graded Sonic Hedgehog signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Noriaki; Briscoe, James

    2012-01-01

    Cilia are evolutionary-conserved microtubule-containing organelles protruding from the surface of cells. They are classified into two types--primary and motile cilia. Primary cilia are nearly ubiquitous, at least in vertebrate cells, and it has become apparent that they play an essential role in the intracellular transduction of a range of stimuli. Most notable among these is Sonic Hedgehog. In this article we briefly summarize the structure and biogenesis of primary cilia. We discuss the evidence implicating cilia in the transduction of extrinsic signals. We focus on the involvement and molecular mechanism of cilia in signaling by Sonic Hedgehog in embryonic tissues, specifically the neural tube, and we discuss how cilia play an active role in the interpretation of gradients of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling.

  12. Improving 4th Grade Primary School Students' Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Aydin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out action research to investigate reading comprehension skills when using the SQ3R reading comprehension strategy. To that end, this strategy was used for improving the reading comprehension skills of 7 primary school 4th grade students who had problems with these skills. An action plan was prepared for 3hours a…

  13. More than Numbers: Teaching ELLs Mathematical Language in Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistla, Michelle; Feng, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Teaching English Language Learners (ELL) academics while they are acquiring English language skills is a challenge for teachers. This action research examines the use of Response To Intervention (RTI) in teaching ELLs mathematical language and its effect on students' math achievement in primary grades. It shows that when mathematical language…

  14. The dynamics of giftedness in the upper primary grades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.C.G.

    2016-01-01

    Titel: The dynamics of giftedness in the upper primary grades Auteur: Joyce C.G. Gubbels Engelse samenvatting: Giftedness is often defined as an IQ-score of 130 or higher, that indicates strong analytical abilities. The research by Joyce Gubbels shows that in addition to analytically gifted childr

  15. Description of Primary Education 1st Grade Students' Forms of Holding a Pencil as well as Their Grip and Compression Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temur, Turan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine how first grade students in primary education held and gripped a pencil and their compressive strength using a descriptive research method. The participants of the research comprises first grade students attending a private school in the city center of Ankara (n=79). All of the four different sections in this private…

  16. Using Logistic Regression to Model New York City Restaurant Grades Over a Two-Year Period

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    David Nadler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A knowledge gap exists in the role of restaurant type on the prediction of attaining the highest grade possible from the local health inspection agency. This study identified disparities using logistic regression between the issuance of a Grade A and restaurant type and location. This study tested the eight most inspected types of restaurants within the City of New York and calculated the odds ratios of their receiving the highest inspection grade by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. A fitted equation has been proposed for the prediction of receiving the highest inspection grade based upon the citywide results of these eight restaurant types from calendar years 2011 and 2012. The results suggest that certain styles of restaurants have lower odds of receiving the highest grade in comparison to American-style restaurants.

  17. Oral hygiene in primary schoolchildren in Benin City, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Alakija, W

    1981-01-01

    Oral hygiene was assessed in children from two primary schools in Benin City, Nigeria. Good oral hygiene was not related to the socioeconomic class of the children but to the method of cleaning the teeth. Girls had better oral hygiene than boys. It is suggested that the local method of using chewing sticks should be encouraged, and emphasis placed on frequency and thoroughness of use.

  18. Reducing Test Anxiety among 12th Grade Students: Iraqi Kurdistan Region/Soran City as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faqe, Chiayee Khorshid; Moheddin, Kurdistan Rafiq; Kakamad, Karwan Kakabra

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at reducing test anxiety among twelfth grade students at Soran city high schools. Throughout the study both quantitative and qualitative methods used to collect data. The participants were 450 twelfth grade students in five schools at Soran City-Kurdistan region of Iraq. Non-random purposive sampling because the students needed…

  19. The Effect of Educational Modules Strategy on the Direct and Postponed Study's Achievement of Seventh Primary Grade Students in Science, in Comparison with the Conventional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alelaimat, Abeer Rashed; Ghoneem, Khowla Abd Al Raheem

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at revealing the effect of educational modules strategy on the direct and postponed study's achievement of seventh primary grade students in science, in comparison with the conventional approach. The sample of the study consists of (174) male and female students randomly chosen from schools in the city of Mafraq, students are…

  20. Prevalence of deciduous dental caries and the risk factors in first grade primary school students in Chancheng District of Foshan City%佛山市禅城区一年级小学生乳牙龋病流行状况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄诺蓓; 陈志斌; 王新; 周子亮; 翟炜东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of deciduous dental caries and the risk factors in first grade primary school students in Chancheng District of Foshan City, thus to provide scientific bases for prevention and treatment on caries. Methods A sample of 291 first grade primary school students was selected using random cluster sampling method. The caries of deciduous teeth were examined and the questionnaires were sent to their parents. The data were analyzed with SPSS 13.0 software package. Results The caries prevalence rate of deciduous teeth was 33.7% ,with mean dmft 0. 97. There was no significant difference of prevalence rate between two genders (P > 0. 05). Logistic regression analysis showed that number of child in the family, the main beverages everyday , and the frequency of intake of sweet food, were risk factors of deciduous dental caries. Conclusion It was important to strengthen the education of the oral hygiene knowledge, to change dietetic habits, and to introduce good oral hygiene habits.%目的 调查佛山市禅城区一年级小学生乳牙龋病状况及其相关影响因素,为龋病防治工作提供参考.方法 采用随机整群抽样法,抽取291名一年级小学生进行乳牙龋病检查,同时向其家长派发口腔健康调查问卷.对数据进行统计分析.结果 佛山市禅城区一年级小学生乳牙患龋率为33.7%,龋均为0.97±1.79,统计分析显示男女间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).进行影响龋病的单因素分析,发现是否独生子女、母亲的学历、日常的主要饮料、进食甜食的频率和进食后漱口的频率对小学生乳牙患龋率有影响.多因素Logistic回归分析表明是否独生子女、日常主要饮料和进食甜食的频率是儿童乳牙患龋的危险因素.结论 加强口腔卫生知识宣教,改善小学生的饮食习惯,养成良好的口腔卫生习惯,是预防乳牙龋病发生的有效措施.

  1. Teaching Fables in the Junior Grades of Primary School

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    Ester Vidović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the ways in which fables can help pupils in the junior grades of primary school develop their oral and written skills. It is written from a cognitive perspective within literary studies, focusing on a study of animal characters and morals in fables and researching the cognitive operations that result in hybrid animal characters. It also focuses on the universal character of morals, which can be viewed as an outcome of the process of conceptual integration. Addressing the universal nature of the main characters appearing in fables, as well as the universal issues expressed in their morals, the article looks at several possibilities for follow-up classroom activities. By devising extra activities aimed at developing their pupils‘ language skills, teachers of Croatian and English can motivate pupils to apply the topics in fables to everyday situations, thus encouraging them to develop their language skills as well as their capacity for judgement, character identification and value formation.

  2. A rabbit model of graded primary mechanical injury to brainstem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong-min; WANG Xiao-wei; XUE Hai-bin; XIA Peng; LI Hong-wei; DAI Guo-xin; JI Xiao-yuan; ZHAO Hui; YIN Zhi-yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To introduce a new animal model of graded mechanical primary brainstem injury (BSI).Methods:Altogether 45 rabbits were subjected to BSI by type Ⅱ biological impact machine designed by the Third Military Medical University.The animals were divided into 4 experimental groups (n=10) and 1 control group (n=5) according to different magnitudes of impact pressure imposed on the occipital nodule:Group 1,500-520 kPa; Group 2,520-540 kPa; Group 3,540-560 kPa; Group 4,560-580 kPa and Group 5,0 kPa with 20 kPa increase in each grade.The impact depth was a constant 0.5 cm.After injury,the clinical symptoms and signs as well as pathological changes were observed.Results:Rabbits in Group 1 revealed mild physiological reaction of BSI.They had localized cerebral contusion with punctate hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was limited to the peripheral tissues at the impact area.In Group 2,obvious physiological reaction was observed.Local pathological lesions reached the superficial layer ofbrainstem tissues; focal hemorrhage and girdleshaped SAH in basilar pon were observed under microscope.In Group 3,BSI was more severe with a long respiratory depression.Pathological lesions reached the inner portion of brainstem with massive hemorrhage and the whole brainstem was wrapped by subarachnoid hematoma.In Group 4,most rabbits died due to severe BSI.Pathological lesions deepened to the central brainstem with wide pathological change,rapture of the medulla oblongata central canal.Group 5 was the control group,with normal brainstem structure and no lesion observed.Conclusion:This model successfully simulates different levels ofbrainstem mechanical injury and clearly shows the subsequent pathological changes following injury.It takes two external parameters (impact pressure and depth) and has a similar injury mechanism to clinical accelerating BSI.Moreover it is reproducible and stable,thus being beneficial for exploring pathophysiological mechanism,diagnosis and

  3. Mitigating the Effects of Negative Stereotyping of Aging and the Elderly in Primary Grade Reading Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutknecht, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Discusses depictions of aging and the elderly in primary grade reading instructional materials. Investigates the attitudes of primary grade students toward aging and the elderly. Suggests instructional approaches and materials that can mitigate the effects of negative stereotyping of aging and the elderly. (RS)

  4. The developmental pattern of reading-related cognitive abilities among lower grade students in primary school in Wuhan City, Hubei Province%湖北省武汉市某小学低年级儿童阅读相关认知能力发展趋势研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫胜男; 王波; 张慧; 孙昭; 邵珊珊; 宋然然

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨湖北省武汉市小学低年级儿童阅读相关认知能力的动态变化趋势,揭示儿童汉语阅读能力发展的时间特征和认知特点.方法 采用队列研究设计整群抽取武汉市某小学一二年级全体学生389人,进行阅读相关6项认知能力和1项智力测试.1年后再次测试,比较1年前后各项认知能力的发展情况.结果 一年级儿童通过一年的发展,语音意识[1年前(15.12±5.90)分,1年后(20.39 ±5.19)分]、语素意识[1年前(11.95 ±2.69)分,1年后(13.42 ±2.18)分]、正字法意识[1年前(44.48 ±7.30)分,1年后(50.58 ±5.95)分]、快速命名[1年前(1.83±0.47)分,1年后(2.28 ±0.44)分]和语音短时记忆广度[1年前(5.90±1.05)分,1年后(6.28±1.06)分]均较一年级时有显著提高(P<0.01);二年级儿童的快速命名[1年前(2.38±0.53)分,1年后(2.53±0.47)分]和语音短时记忆广度[1年前(5.99±1.12)分,1年后(6.58±1.24)分]也比1年前有所发展,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 小学低年级儿童的语音意识、语素意识和快速命名能力发展较早,且随着年级的增长逐渐提高,其他相关能力发展稍缓.%Objective To investigate the developmental pattern of reading-related cognitive abilities, time and cognitive characters among students in Grade 1 and 2 in Wuhan City, Huvei Province. Methods Cohort study design, cluster random sampling was used for this prospective study to select 389 students in Grade 1 and 2 from a primary school in Wuhan. These students were required to finish the 6 tests related to reading abilities and 1 intelligent test. The same children were followed to conduct the same tests one year later. Results Compared scores of students in Grade 1, significant differences were found in phonological awareness between first year and second year (15. 12 ± 5. 90 vs 20. 39 ± 5. 19 ) , morphological awareness (11. 95 ± 2. 69 vs 13. 42 ± 2: 18) , orthographic awareness test (44.48 ± 7. 30 vs 50

  5. Epidemiology of Head Lice Infestation in Primary SchoolPupils, in Khajeh City, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

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    M Shayeghi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae or head louse is an obligate ectoparasite transmitted mainly through physical contact. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of head lice infestation rate and some risk factors in Primary School pupils, in Khajeh City East Azerbaijan Province, IranMethods: We selected 20 primary schools of Khajeh City during 2008 and 2009. Totally 500 pupils including 200 boys and 300 girls from all grade 1-5 were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling in rural areas of Khajeh City and were examined for lice. In addition, a standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each pupil. Results were analyzed by SPSS software.Results: The total prevalence of head lice infestation in this study was 4.8%. and the prevalence rate was significantly higher in girls (6.66% than in boys (2%. Epidemiological factors such as: sex, school grade, family size, parent's education, type of house, hair washing (per week, number of using comb per day, were evaluated and results showed significant difference in head lice infestation and sex, school grade ,family size ,father education ,and type of house (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world, and due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in crowded families, family by lower levels of father's education and socioeconomic status in our study and rural area, it is necessary to give health education for families to prevent of pediculosis in this area.

  6. Development of Dental Health Knowledge Tests for the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Susan P.

    1981-01-01

    A project was designed to provide evaluation materials for dental health education programs at the primary level. Reliable test instruments that assessed cognitive understanding of dental concepts by primary age children were designed. (JN)

  7. A Study of Transformational Geometry Instruction in the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Harold J.

    Assessed was the performance of subjects who had been exposed to transformational geometry treatment. The performance test consisted of geometry achievement and spacial ability measures. Second and third grade subjects were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimentals received a twelve lesson treatment and the controls a…

  8. Teaching the Writing Process in Primary Grades: One Teacher's Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Linda E.; Thacker, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how one such teacher, Shirley Thacker, developed and implemented a successful writing program in her first grade classroom, which is known as Thackerville. Shirley describes how she motivated a classroom of first-graders to use the writing process in a workshop format and how this approach affected the children's perceptions…

  9. Teaching Primary Grade Students Perfectionism through Cartoons Compared to Bibliotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zousel, Miranda L.; Rule, Audrey C.; Logan, Stephanie R.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study compared concept acquisition and enjoyment of learning about perfectionism under two conditions: bibliotherapy (control) and analysis and construction of cartoons (experimental) in first, second and third grade students (N = 46). Posttest results showed students learned significantly more content in the experimental…

  10. "Three-Grade Criteria" of Radical Resection for Primary Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengchen Ma; Jia Fan; Zhenggang Ren; Jinglin Xia; Liwen Huang; Zhaoyou Tang; Xinda Zhou; Zhiying Lin; Lunxiu Qin; Qinghai Ye; Huichuan Sun; Zhiquan Wu

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study was designed to develop the "ThreeGrade Criteria" for radical resection of primary liver cancer (PLC) and to evaluate its clinical significance.METHODS Criteria for radical resection of PLC were summed up to 3 grades based on criterion development. Grade I: complete removal of all gross tumors with no residual tumor at the excision margin. Grade Ⅱ: on or the primary branches of the portal vein, the common hepatic duct or its dition to the above criteria, negative postoperative follow-up result including AFP dropping to a normal level (with positive AFP before surgery)within 2 months after operation, and no residual tumor upon diagnostic imaging.The clinical data from 354 patients with PLC who underwent hepatectomy were reviewed retrospectively. Based on the "Three-Grade Criteria" these patients were divided into 6 groups: Grade Ⅰ radical group,Grade Ⅰ palliative group, Grade Ⅱ radical group, Grade Ⅱ palliative group,Grade Ⅲ radical group, Grade Ⅲ palliative group. The survival rate of each group was calculated by the life-table method and the rates compared among the groups.RESULTS The survival rate of patients receiving radical treatment was better than those receiving palliative treatment (P<0.01). Survival improved as more criteria were applied. The 5-year survival rate of the patients in Grade Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ who underwent radical resection was 43.2%,51.2% and 64.4%, respectively (P<0.01).CONCLUSION The "Three-Grade Criteria" may be applied for judging the curability of resection therapy for PLC. The stricter the criterion used,the better the survival would be. Adopting high-grade criteria to select cases and guide operations and strengthening postoperative follow-up would improve the results of hepatectomy for PLC.

  11. Teaching Primary Grade Students Perfectionism through Cartoons Compared to Bibliotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda L. ZOUSEL; Audrey C. RULE; Stephanie R. LOGAN

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study compared concept acquisition and enjoyment of learning about perfectionism under two conditions: bibliotherapy (control) and analysis and construction of cartoons (experimental) in first, second and third grade students (N=46). Posttest results showed students learned significantly more content in the experimental condition with a medium effect size. Students were more engaged in the cartoon condition, appreciating the humor and opportunity to be creative. Most student...

  12. Teaching Primary Grade Students Perfectionism through Cartoons Compared to Bibliotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda L. ZOUSEL

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study compared concept acquisition and enjoyment of learning about perfectionism under two conditions: bibliotherapy (control and analysis and construction of cartoons (experimental in first, second and third grade students (N=46. Posttest results showed students learned significantly more content in the experimental condition with a medium effect size. Students were more engaged in the cartoon condition, appreciating the humor and opportunity to be creative. Most students reported liking the bibliotherapy but some complained of boredom. The authors recommend that both bibliotherapy and cartoon analysis be used in lessons about perfectionism to maintain student interest and comprehension of concepts.

  13. 10 Strategies to Improve Writing Instruction in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Rush, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    Explaining the importance of a good foundation in writing to educators would be a case of preaching to the choir. The same can be said about identifying the connection between reading and writing. Writing can occur in the primary classroom in three ways. Demonstration writing happens when the teacher composes and writes in front of the class,…

  14. Primary and secondary organic carbon downwind of Mexico City

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    X.-Y. Yu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study particulate matter transport and transformation in the Megacity environment, fine particulate carbons were measured simultaneously at two supersites, suburban T1 and rural T2, downwind of Mexico City during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006. Organic carbon (OC, element carbon (EC, and total carbon (TC=OC+EC were determined in near real-time using a Sunset semi-continuous OC/EC field analyzer. The semi-empirical EC tracer method was used to derive primary organic carbon (POC and secondary organic carbon (SOC. Diurnal variations of primary and secondary carbons were observed at T1 and T2, which resulted from boundary layer inversion and impacted by local traffic patterns. The majority of organic carbon particles at T1 and T2 were secondary. The SOC% (SOC%=SOC/TC×100% at T1 ranged from 1.2–100% with an average of 80.7±14.4%. The SOC% at T2 ranged from 12.8–100% with an average of 80.1±14.0%. The average EC to PM2.5 percentage (ECPM%=EC/PM2.5×100% and OCPM% were 6.0% and 20.0% over the whole sampling time at T1. The POC to PM percentage (POCPM% and SOCPM% were 3.7% and 16.3%, respectively at the same site. The maximum ECPM% was 21.2%, and the maximum OCPM% was 57.2% at T1. The maximum POCPM% was 12.9%, and the maximum SOCPM% was 49.7% at the suburban site. Comparison of SOC and POC at T1 and T2 showed similar characteristics under favorable meteorological conditions, which indicated that transport between the two supersites took place. Strong correlations between EC and carbon monoxide (CO and odd nitrogen species (NO and NOx were observed at T1. This indicated that EC had nearby sources, such as local traffic emissions. The EC/CO ratio derived by linear regression analysis, when parameters in μg C/m3 and μg/m3, respectively, was 0.0045 at T1. Correlations were also seen

  15. Primary and secondary organic carbon downwind of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-Y. Yu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study particulate matter transport and transformation in the Megacity environment, fine particulate carbon was measured simultaneously at two supersites, suburban T1 and rural T2, downwind of Mexico City during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006. Organic carbon (OC, element carbon (EC, and total carbon (TC=OC+EC were determined in near real-time using a Sunset semi-continuous OCEC field analyzer. The semi-empirical EC tracer method was used to derive primary organic carbon (POC and secondary organic carbon (SOC. Diurnal variations of primary and secondary carbon were observed at T1 and T2, which resulted from boundary layer inversion and impacted by local traffic patterns. The majority of organic carbon particles at T1 and T2 were secondary. The SOCTC% (SOC%=SOC/TC×100% at T1 ranged from 0.5–93.8% with an average of 63.5±17.2%. The SOCTC% at T2 ranged from 9.3–98.1% with an average of 67.4±12.4%. The average EC to PM2.5 percentage (ECPM%=EC/PM2.5×100% and OCPM% were 6.0% and 20.0% over the whole sampling time at T1. The POC to PM percentage (POCPM% and SOCPM% were 3.7% and 16.3%, respectively at the same site. The maximum ECPM% was 21.2%, and the maximum OCPM% was 57.2% at T1. The maximum POCPM% was 12.9%, and the maximum SOCPM% was 49.7% at T1. Comparison of SOC and POC at T1 and T2 showed similar characteristics under favorable meteorological conditions, which indicated that transport from T1 towards T2 took place. Strong correlations between EC and carbon monoxide (CO and odd nitrogen species (NO and NOx were observed at T1. This indicated that EC had nearby sources, such as local traffic emissions. The EC/CO ratio derived by linear regression analysis, with units of μg C/m3 and μg/m3, respectively, was 0.004 at T1. Correlations were also seen between

  16. Sino-Japanese Friendship-City Primary School Pupils Table Tennis Tournament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>To celebrate the 35th anniversary of the normalization of diplomatic relations between China and Japan,the Sino-Japanese friendship-city primary school pupils table tennis tournament,one of the important activities of 2007,

  17. Diagnosis of type of Bullying in eight grade students from Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minerva Ramírez Almaraz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to investigate the type of bullying among Mexican adolescents. 480 students (average 13.72 years with a standard deviation of .60 attended eight grade in 12 public schools in Mexico City responded an adaptation of the questionnaire of the Ombudsman of Spain (2007. Data from the survey indicated that in all participating schools exist the different types of abuse explored by the instrument, including those that occur through the use of ICT. The percentage of spectators (students who had observed abuse was higher compared to those who said they had received and performed some of the types of investigated school bullying. As for the differences between gender, women expressed more frequently perform indirect abuse, whereas males reported conduct most often both direct and indirect harassment.

  18. Primary undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma in the perihepatic space: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Beom; Kim, Song Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is a pleomorphic soft tissue sarcoma derived from histiocytes capable of fibroblastic transformation. UPS affects soft tissues of the body, especially the extremities and retroperitoneum, and primary UPS in the perihepatic space is extremely rare. We report a case of primary perihepatic UPS in a 44-year-old male, who presented with fever and right upper abdominal discomfort.

  19. Learning Strategies Which 4th. Grade Primary School Students Using In Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram TAY

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to find out the learning strategies of 4th grade primary school students in social sciences studies. The data of the research collected by “learning strategies public survey” which was developed by the researcher and it was implied in face to face way. While analyzing the data in this research, Mean and Standard Deviation were used. The findings of the research could be summarized as follows: 4th grade primary school students, in social sciences studies, have always used strategies of mental rehearsal, close and open rehearsal, elaboration, retrieval and motivation. Meanwhile, those students have rarely used attention strategies, chunking strategies and organizing strategies. On the other hand, 4th grade students have never used mnemonic strategies and meta-cognitive strategies.

  20. Utilizing Nonfiction Texts to Enhance Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary in Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Karen E.; Rausch, Casey M.; McCarty, Tiffany G.; Montgomery, Sarah E.; Rule, Audrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Many primary grade students are not afforded nonfiction-rich opportunities, with fiction comprising the majority of books read aloud in classrooms. With the Common Core Standards recommending that half of the texts made available to students be nonfiction, educators are increasing their use of informational text. The present study explored the…

  1. Home and school predictors of reading achievement in linguistically diverse learners in the intermediate primary grades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Elsäcker, W. van

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to explain the variation in reading comprehension and reading vocabulary of native and non-native speakers of Dutch in grade 3 of primary schools in the Netherlands from home and school predictors. Results indicate that, for reading comprehension, in the Dutch grou

  2. Spelling Instruction in the Primary Grades: Teachers' Beliefs, Practices, and Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Antoinette; Zhang, Jing; Mattatall, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examined Canadian teachers' beliefs, practices and concerns about spelling instruction in the primary grades. Data from surveys (n = 56) indicated that most teachers believe that spelling is important and plan for spelling instruction. For most teachers, the spelling words and activities used, and the instructional resources they chose,…

  3. Get Them Talking! Using Student-Led Book Talks in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Alida K.

    2016-01-01

    This teaching tip details one teacher's implementation of student-led book talks in her primary-grade classroom. The author describes a simple gradual-release method that she has successfully used with her students in order to get them talking about the books that they are reading independently. She found that when used in the readers' workshop…

  4. Class Sizes for Kindergarten and Primary Grades: A Review of the Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Edith; Wasem, Leighton

    Most teachers and the public believe that children in kindergarten and the primary grades benefit from small classes because of children's need for individualized instruction and teacher attention. This report, part of a comprehensive policy study of early childhood education, presents a review of the research on the effect of class size on…

  5. Use of Primary Sources in the Sixth Grade Social Studies Course Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ali

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine the level of use of primary sources in the 6th Grade Social Studies Course Books. The "document analysis" method from among the qualitative research methods was used in the study. The study was conducted on 4 books from among the Social Studies course books published by total of 6 Publishing…

  6. Our Environment. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume I. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on the environment that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  7. People Around Us. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume V. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on "people around us" that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  8. Intriguing Animals. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume IV. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on intriguing animals that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  9. Semantic Categorization and Reading Skill across Dutch Primary Grades: Development Yes, Relationship No

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Ormel, Ellen A.; Hermans, Daan; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, Anna M. T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the development of semantic categorization and its relationship with reading was investigated across Dutch primary grade students. Three Exemplar-level tasks (Experiment 1) and two Superordinate-level tasks (Experiment 2) with different types of distracters (phonological, semantic and perceptual) were administered to assess…

  10. Children's Perceptions of Parental Attitude Affecting Breakfast Skipping in Primary Sixth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tereza Sy; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Griffiths, Sian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Breakfast skipping is an international public health concern. This study investigated the prevalence of breakfast skipping among primary sixth-grade students in Hong Kong and the impact of students' perceptions of parental attitudes on breakfast skipping. Methods: A total of 426 students aged 10-14 years in 4 local schools participated…

  11. Semantic categorization and reading skill across Dutch primary grades: Development yes, relationship no

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsel, M.A.R.; Ormel, E.A.; Hermans, D.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the development of semantic categorization and its relationship with reading was investigated across Dutch primary grade students. Three Exemplar-level tasks (Experiment 1) and two Superordinate-level tasks (Experiment 2) with different types of distracters (phonological, seman

  12. Catalytic effect of activated carbon on bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The catalytic effect of activated carbon on the bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores using mixture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was investigated. The results show that the addition of activated carbon can greatly accelerate the rate and efficiency of copper dissolution from low-grade primary copper sulfide ores. The solution with the concentration of 3.0 g/L activated carbon is most beneficial to the dissolution of copper. The resting time of the mixture of activated carbon and ores has an impact on the bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores. The 2 d resting time is most favorable to the dissolution of copper. The enhanced dissolution rate and efficiency of copper can be attributed to the galvanic interaction between activated carbon and chalcopyrite. The addition of activated carbon obviously depresses the dissolution of iron and the bacterial oxidation of ferrous ions in solution. The lower redox potentials are more favorable to the copper dissolution than the higher potentials for low-grade primary copper sulfide ores in the presence of activated carbon.

  13. Grade Retention in Primary Education Is Associated with Quarter of Birth and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Grade retention is still common practice in some countries though longstanding experience tells us that it is a highly criticised practice for its unclear benefits, its important costs for the educational systems and its relation with school dropout. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to analyse which variables increase the probability of being retained in primary education differentiating between being retained in second or in fourth grade, and paying special attention to the role of the socioeconomic status of the families. By knowing which analysed variables are related to grade retention, and how, we may offer some suggestions to reduce it. We use a national dataset with more observations for Spain than any other international ones, called ‘Evaluación General de Diagnóstico’, conducted in Spain in 2009 with the participation of 28708 students of fourth grade of primary education from 874 schools, considered to be representative for every Spanish autonomous region. This assessment focused on four competences and includes information about the learning context collected through questionnaires for students, families, school management and teachers. Estimating different multilevel random-intercept logistic regressions we obtain the following three main findings: 1) the existence of a ‘quarter of birth’ effect, that nearly doubles the probability of grade retention in second grade of primary –compared to the probability of grade retention in fourth grade–, for the youngest students of their same age cohort (OR = 1.93 vs. OR = 1.53, both p0.05)–. PMID:27851779

  14. Facilitating EFL Students with Learning Difficulties in Grade C of the Greek State Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina Kotsi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on supporting 3rd grade pupils with Learning Difficulties in the Greek State Primary School and proposes an intervention plan for the EFL class. This intervention is considered to be not only beneficial but also effective since the teaching of English as a foreign language starts in the 3rd grade. A case study has been organized for this purpose focusing on four 3rd grade learners facing Learning Difficulties. The specific intervention plan is presented and evaluated according to the data collected during the implementation in the class. The findings of a survey, in the form of a questionnaire, conducted among teachers of English reveal that teachers of English lack the necessary theoretical background as well as the strategies to cope with the pupils with LD in the classroom situation. The appropriate training of teachers is therefore considered an imperative.

  15. Teacher Opinions About Evaluation of 6th Grade English Lesson Curriculum in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım ARI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the difficulties during the application of English lesson curriculum at 6th grades of primary schools. Being a qualitative research, this research was designed with single-case type of the case study. The study group consisted of 13 teachers working at 11 primary schools in Eskisehir centrum. Criterion sampling technique, one of the purposive sampling techniques, was used. The data was obtained by interview technique. Descriptive Analysis was used in analyzing the data. Data obtained by interview forms were coded, and particularly analyzed. Some important findings of the study are as follows: 6th grades syllabus’ level is found to be above the level of the students; subjects of the syllabus are intensive, difficult and too much; there are some subjects not being associated with each other. Besides, the time is too limited to cover the subjects.

  16. How to develope literacy in the first grade of primary school?

    OpenAIRE

    Čufer, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Reading has an important role in the process of schooling and well-developed reading ability is one of the key factors of the pupil’s learning efficiency. The first triad of primary school is based on the intensive development of reading ability. The goal of reading lessons is to develop an automated reading technique alongside with appropriate reading comprehension. Initial teaching literacy includes the entire first educational period. Pupils in the first and second grade systematically ass...

  17. Investigation and Analysis on Psychological Health Situation for Middle and Primary School Students in Xianning City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yanping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is used to know about the psychological health situation for middle and primary school students in Xianning City and provide a certain empirical basis for meaningful development of psychological health education and psychological assistance. This paper uses the MHT scale prepared by Bucheng Zhou professor et al. to conduct a test for 1000 students in 7 middle and primary schools in Xianning City. The detection rate of psychological health problem accounts for 1.6% where the positive detection rate of study anxiety ranks first (43.2%. The psychological health situations have much difference in sex (t = -4. 624, P<0. 001, and it’s lower in male students than female ones. There is a significant difference between the psychological health situation for only and non-only children (t = -2. 519, P<0. 01.There is a significant difference on the psychological health situation for primary school, middle school and high school students (F = 11. 3, P<0. 001, and the psychological health situation of primary school students is better than that for middle school students. It can be concluded that the psychological health situation of middle and primary school students in Xianning City is fairly good, and the psychological health situation for male student, only children and primary school student is also fairly good.

  18. Influence of handwriting skills during spelling in primary and lower secondary grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontart, Virginie; Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Lambert, Eric; Morisset, Pauline; Flouret, Lisa; Alamargot, Denis

    2013-01-01

    We sought to identify, the impact of handwriting skills on the efficiency and temporal course of word spelling across Grades 2–9. Eighty-four students, drawn from primary and lower secondary schools, were asked to perform a dictation task to assess their word spelling. They also had to write out the letters of the alphabet, as well as their firstnames and surnames, from memory to assess their handwriting skills. Handwriting kinematics were recorded using a digitizing tablet and a computer running Eye and Pen software. Results revealed that graphomotor skills (as assessed by the name writing task) influenced the success and temporal course of spelling, but only in primary grades, whereas the influence of orthographic knowledge (as assessed by the alphabet task) could still be observed in the lower secondary grades, even if it ceased to influence the temporal course and only affected errors. We discuss what these findings tell us about changes in transcription processes over the course of child development. PMID:24204357

  19. A primary care-based health needs assessment in inner city Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Kelly, C M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2001, a primary care-based health needs assessment (HNA) in South Inner City of Dublin identified high levels of morbidity and widespread and frequent use of primary care and specialist hospital services as particular concerns. AIMS: This study aims to determine the primary care health needs of a local community, from the perspective of service users and service providers. METHODS: A similar methodology to our 2001 HNA was adopted, involving semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of patients attending two general practices and key informants regarding local health issues and health service utilisation. RESULTS: High levels of morbidity and chronic illness were found. A correlation between the local environment and ill-health was identified, as well as high utilisation of primary care services in the area. CONCLUSION: The establishment of a Primary Care Team would begin to address the health needs of the community.

  20. The Morphology of the Primary Dental Arch of Chinese Children in Shijiazhuang-City Part-I: Research concerning the size of the primary tooth crown, primary dental arch and the condition of primary occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    岩崎, 浩; 林, 于昉; 宮沢, 裕夫; 宮崎, 顕道; 須澤, 弥生子; 張, 暁燕; 李, 憲起; 徐, 兵; 海, 懐麗; 張, 英懐; 廉, 雲敏; 牛, 夢勇; 王, 躍進; 蘇, 強; 小林, 茂夫

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the size of the primary tooth crowns, primary dental arches, standard values and frequency distribution of primary occlusion in Chinese children. With the cooperation of a kindergarten in Shijiazhuang-city, China, the dental plasters from 55 children (36 boys and 19 girls, age range from 3-6 years old) with normal primary occlusion were collected. Because of different growth rates of the children, these children were divided into two groups, one co...

  1. Comparative genomic and proteomic analysis of high grade glioma primary cultures and matched tumor in situ.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Howley, R

    2012-10-15

    Developing targeted therapies for high grade gliomas (HGG), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, relies largely on glioma cultures. However, it is unclear if HGG tumorigenic signaling pathways are retained under in-vitro conditions. Using array comparative genomic hybridization and immunohistochemical profiling, we contrasted the epidermal and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (EGFR\\/PDGFR) in-vitro pathway status of twenty-six primary HGG cultures with the pathway status of their original HGG biopsies. Genomic gains or amplifications were lost during culturing while genomic losses were more likely to be retained. Loss of EGFR amplification was further verified immunohistochemically when EGFR over expression was decreased in the majority of cultures. Conversely, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ were more abundantly expressed in primary cultures than in the original tumor (p<0.05). Despite these genomic and proteomic differences, primary HGG cultures retained key aspects of dysregulated tumorigenic signaling. Both in-vivo and in-vitro the presence of EGFR resulted in downstream activation of P70s6K while reduced downstream activation was associated with the presence of PDGFR and the tumor suppressor, PTEN. The preserved pathway dysregulation make this glioma model suitable for further studies of glioma tumorigenesis, however individual culture related differences must be taken into consideration when testing responsiveness to chemotherapeutic agents.

  2. Using Primary Language Support via Computer to Improve Reading Comprehension Skills of First-Grade English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Cathi Draper; Filler, John; Higgins, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Through this exploratory study the authors investigated the effects of primary language support delivered via computer on the English reading comprehension skills of English language learners. Participants were 28 First-grade students identified as Limited English Proficient. The primary language of all participants was Spanish. Students were…

  3. Content Area Literacy in the Primary Grades: Teachers' Sense of Efficacy in Teaching Narrative and Informational Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Christine Cherry

    2011-01-01

    Research has documented the scarcity of informational text and the overabundance of narrative text in the primary grades (Duke, 2000; Yopp & Yopp, 2006). The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine primary teachers' beliefs, or efficacy, in teaching narrative and informational text as well as assess their use of both text types in…

  4. Impact of Instructional Resources on Mathematics Performance of Learners with Dyscalculia in Integrated Primary Schools, Arusha City, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusta, Nyudule; Karugu, Geoffrey; Muthee, Jessica; Tekle, Tesfu

    2016-01-01

    Learners with dyscalculia in the integrated primary schools in Arusha have been performing poorly in the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE). Thus, the journal sought to investigate the impact of instructional resources on mathematics performance of learners with dyscalculia in integrated primary schools found in Arusha city, Tanzania. The…

  5. Evaluation of several FDG PET parameters for prediction of soft tissue tumour grade at primary diagnosis and recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendler, Wolfgang P. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Chalkidis, Rebecca P.; Ilhan, Harun [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Knoesel, Thomas [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Institute of Pathology, Munich (Germany); Herrmann, Ken [Julius-Maximilians-University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Issels, Rolf D.; Lindner, Lars H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Internal Medicine III, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Cyran, Clemens C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Hacker, Marcus [Vienna General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of SUV-based parameters derived from [{sup 18} F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in order to optimize non-invasive prediction of soft tissue tumour (STT) grade. One hundred and twenty-nine lesions from 123 patients who underwent FDG-PET for primary staging (n = 79) or assessment of recurrence (n = 44) of STT were analyzed retrospectively. Histopathology was the reference standard for tumour grading. Absolute values and tumour-to-liver ratios of several standardized uptake value (SUV) parameters were correlated with tumour grading. At primary diagnosis SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub liver} and SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} showed good correlation with tumour grade. SUV{sub peak} (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic, AUC-ROC: 0.82) and SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} (AUC-ROC: 0.82) separated best between low grade (WHO intermediate, grade 1 sarcoma, and low risk gastrointestinal stromal tumours, GISTs) and high grade (grade 2/3 sarcoma and intermediate/high risk GISTs) lesions: optimal threshold for SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} was 2.4, which resulted in a sensitivity of 79 % and a specificity of 81 %. At disease recurrence, the AUC-ROC was <0.75 for each parameter. A tumour SUV{sub peak} of at least 2.4 fold mean liver uptake predicts high grade histopathology with good diagnostic accuracy at primary staging. At disease recurrence, FDG-PET does not reliably separate high and low grade lesions. (orig.)

  6. Corroborating the Land Use Change as Primary Determinant of Air Quality Degradation in a Concentric City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariva Sugandi Permana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bandung City is characterized by concentric land use pattern as found in many naturally grown cities. It radiates from mixed commercial areas in the center to low density residential areas in the periphery. This pattern generates significant traffic volume towards city center. The gener-ated traffic releases emissions and degrades urban air quality since fossil fuel is predominantly used by vehicles in Bandung. In the absence of air polluting industries as well as construction and demolition activities, traffic load generated by land use changes is the only major contribu-tor to air quality degradation in the city. The land use change can therefore be seen as primary determinant of air pollution in Bandung. This study analyses land use changes and its impacts on traffic pattern and air quality. Multivariate correlation between traffic load and land use changes is employed as tool to substantiate the proposition. Relationships between the degree of chang-es in land use, as reflected in traffic loads, and the quantity of two principal air pollutants, namely SO2 and HC are also established to validate the argument. The result of analysis sub-stantiates the correlation between land use changes and air quality degradation.

  7. Synchronous Low-grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm and Primary Peritoneal Low-grade Serous Carcinoma: A First Description of These 2 Neoplasms Presenting Together as Suspected Peritoneal Carcinomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Miroslav; Pichler Sekulic, Simona; Movahedi-Lankarani, Saeid

    2016-09-28

    Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm is a neoplasm typically of appendiceal origin, which is characterized by diffuse peritoneal involvement by pools of mucin with mucinous epithelium lacking high-grade cytologic atypia, and clinically presents as suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis. A similar clinical presentation can sometimes be seen with disseminated low-grade serous carcinomas of the peritoneum, fallopian tubes, or ovaries; however, this neoplasm is histologically characterized by tubal-type epithelium and invasive or confluent growth. In this case report, we describe a patient presenting with a clinical examination and radiologic features suggestive of peritoneal carcinomatosis and a prominent pelvic mass; however, after pathologic review, the patient was proven to have peritoneal involvement by both low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm of appendiceal origin and a low-grade peritoneal primary serous carcinoma. In short, we present the first description of low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm and serous carcinoma of the peritoneum presenting synchronously, providing morphologic characterization and immunohistochemical studies supporting the diagnosis, and illustrating a rare instance in which 2 neoplastic processes are underlying clinically suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis.

  8. Surveillance and analysis on teaching environmet hygiene among 2009-2010 grade of primary and secondary School in Changping district, Beijing city%北京昌平区2009-2010学年中小学教学环境卫生学监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张崛; 郭红侠; 崔永强; 黄艳丽; 刘玉红; 刘晓培; 王金飞; 滕淑凤

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the environmental health status of Primary and Secondary Schools' teaching environment in Changping district. Methods From Nov. 2009 to Jan. 2010, 71 primary and secondary schools' teaching environment were investigated. Results The coincidence rate of desk-chair setting was 3B. 37%. primary schools were higher than secondary schools (P<0. 05), in urban areas were higher than those in rural areas (P<0. 05) ;Glass and the ground of the ratio is 30. 28%, in rural areas were higher than those in urban areas (P<0. 05);Daylighting coefficient and rear wall reflection coefficient qualified rate were 54.93% and 35.21% respectively, Light table spacing was 35.92%. primary schools were higher than secondary schools < P<0.05), in urban areas were higher than those in rural ateas (P<0.05); The standard reaching rate of desk top illumination was 46. 49%; The standard reaching rate of black board reflection coefficient was 80. 28%; The classroom room temperature, indoor noise, CO2 content and relative humidity qualified rate were 71. 83% , 87.32% , 67. 16% and 46. 3% s 16. 67% of urban secondary school CunWei ladies room insufficient; 20. 5% rural school male urinal per capita length is insufficient, 9, 09% of the rural school toilets tor pit toilet or with toileu without washing facilities or inadequate hand-washing facilities. Conclu-slons There are many environmental quality problems in primary and secondary schools of Changping district. should cause the attention of the relevant departments.%目的 了解昌平区中小学教学环境卫生学现状.方法 2009年11月至2010年1月,对辖区71所中小学校教学环境严格按照学校卫生标准的要求进行了监测,监测项目计算合格率并进行中小学校之间,城乡学校之间的比较.结果 课桌椅分配符合率38.73%,小学高于中学(x2=5.278,P<0.05),城镇高于乡村(x2 =6.157,P<0.05);玻地比合格率30.28%,乡村高于城镇(x2=7.629,P<0.05);采光系

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of Pediculus (humanus) capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae), in primary schools in Sanandaj City, Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, A; Shemshad, K; Sayyadi, M; Biglarian, A; Vahabi, B; Sayyad, S; Shemshad, M; Rafinejad, J

    2012-06-01

    Human head lice, Pediculus (humanus) capitis, infest people worldwide and are most prevalent in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of head lice, in relation to socioeconomic status of the family and hygienic practices in the home. The prevalence rate was determined in 27 primary schools that had 810 students in Sanandaj city who were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling. A total of 38 students from all grades were infested with different rates of infestations. In addition, standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each student were fulfilled. Children aged 10-11 years were the most frequently affected, there was a significant relationship between head louse infestation, family income and parents education level (α=5%). Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world. Pediculosis was found to be more prevalent among children of fathers with lower level of education and socioeconomic status, it is necessary to give health education to families in order to prevent pediculosis in this area.

  10. Study of Application for Excursion Observation Method in Primary School 2nd Grade Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali GAZEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how field trips are conducted at 2nd grade of primary schools as a part of social studies course. Data for this research is compiled from 143 permanent Social Studies teachers working throughout 2011–2012 Education Year in the primary schools of central Kütahya and its districts. Data is compiled by using descriptive search model. In the research, after taking expert opinions, a measuring tool developed by the researcher is used. Data obtained from the research were transferred to computer, and analyses were made. In the analysis of the data, frequency and percentage values have been used to determine the distribution. Also a single factor variance analysis and t-test for independent samples have been used to determine the significance of difference between the variables. As a result of the research, it has been realized that insufficient importance is given to field trip method in Social Studies lessons. Most of the teachers using this method apply it in spring months. Teachers usually make use of field trips independent from unit/topic to increase the students’ motivation, and they generally use verbal expression in the class after tours. The biggest difficulty teachers encounter while using tour-observation method is the students’ undisciplined behavior.

  11. The English Education in Primary Schools in Minor Ethnic Areas in Western China--Taking Leshan City as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    As we all know, China is a country with many ethnic minorities mainly living in the northeastern and southwestern China. The English education in the primary schools in these areas is an important issue. The article analyzes the status quo of English education in primary schools in minor ethnic areas, taking the Leshan city, a western one as an…

  12. Influence of Motor Program on Correct Posture and Muscular Imbalance Correction in Pupils of Primary Schools (1-4 Grades)

    OpenAIRE

    Pavol Bartík

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the research, focused on evaluation and development of correct posture and muscular imbalance correction in pupils of primary schools. The research involved 58 pupils of the fourth grade of primary school. The main method was educational experiment and tests for the evaluation of muscular imbalance and posture. We used the motor program, involving yoga exercises and fitball exercises in the experimental group. After the educational experiment, the posture and...

  13. Bidirectional Relations between Text Reading Prosody and Reading Comprehension in the Upper Primary School Grades: A Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and from reading comprehension to text reading prosody…

  14. Body Parts, the Water Cycle, Plants, and Dolphins: Adventures in Primary-Grade Whole-Class Composing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the author's personal experiences leading primary grades in whole-class composing. Together they created songs inspired by topics the students were exploring in their homeroom classes. The author systematically describes the songwriting process they employed, identifying specific challenges encountered along the way. The…

  15. Bidirectional relations between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper primary school grades: A longitudinal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and f

  16. Primary School English Teachers' Perceptions of the English Language Curriculum of 6th, 7th and 8th Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersen Yanik, Asli

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how the teachers who have different background characteristics perceive the goals and content of the English language curriculum implemented at the 6th, 7th and 8th grades of public primary schools. The study was conducted during the 2004-2005 school year with 368 English teachers selected from the seven regions of…

  17. Concurrent Validity of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities with Native American Primary-Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Investigated concurrent validity of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) with Native American primary-grade children. Significantly low General Cognitive Index indicates that the MSCA with Native American children is not recommended for psychodiagnostic purposes. However, perceptual-performance and motor scales may provide useful…

  18. Analogies in physics textbooks for the final grade of primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introductory part of the paper discusses some of the issues related to use of analogies in education and provides an overview of the basic foundations of the Structure- mapping theory - the theory that describes the way the analogies function. The second part of the paper presents the results of the analysis of the use of analogies in eighth-grade physics textbooks that are used in primary schools in Serbia. The results have shown that the frequency of using analogies is in the range usual for the textbooks of this type. Verbal analogies are dominant compared to the image and verbal and image analogies. Analogies are, proportionally, used most for the most abstract contents and the contents that are farthest from everyday students’ experience. When it comes to complexity, enriched analogies prevail, while the number of simple and extended analogies is significantly smaller. Textbook authors are sensitive towards the demand that the field which is the basis of analogy has to be well-known to students. In almost half of analogies the source domain was taken from everyday life experience of students.

  19. AB TEMPORAL TRIP GENERATION MODELLING FOR PRIMARY ACTIVITIES: A CASE STUDY OF FAST GROWING METROPOLITAN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhimaji K. Katti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transportation planning for any city evolves on the basis of complex interplay between urban activity, transport and land use system to result in varied travel patterns. Travel pattern can be defined at micro level to include individual journey departure and arrival time, journey duration and distances to make way for temporal trip generation and distribution from specific area. Trip generation is the first step of four stages of travel forecasting analysis mostly followed all over the world. Traditionally, it is focused on the prediction of aggregate trip generation by a household rather than the choice of individual activity participation. However, spatial and temporal activity domains are equally important in forecasting process and strategic urban transportation planning. The present paper attempts to develop Activity Based (AB Temporal Trip Generation Models (ABTGM for primary activities to cover work and educational trips considering fast growing Surat city of Gujarat, India as study area. Home interview surveys are carried to provide household and socioeconomic characteristics and the activity travel diary information to focus on the activity based tours rather the trips.

  20. View of parents on the teamwork between the pre-school teacher and primary-school teacher in the first grade of primary school.

    OpenAIRE

    Jakša, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    For this diploma thesis, I have researched teamwork in education and its psychological and other dimensions. The style of teaching in the first grade of primary school was substantially changed with the introduction of the nine-year programme and the inclusion of childcare workers in the teaching process. Teamwork became the statutory approach. Individual teaching was replaced with work in tandem, which includes team planning, team teaching and team evaluation. In my research, I was intereste...

  1. Varied manifestations of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous with graded somatic mosaic deletion of a single gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary-Sinclair, Michelle N.; Wang, XiaoFei; Swanson, Douglas J.; Sung, Caroline Y.; Mendonca, Eneida A.; Wroblewski, Kristen; Baumer, Shannon H.; Goldowitz, Dan; Jablonski, Monica M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) represents a developmental eye disease known to have diverse manifestations ranging from a trivial remnant of hyaloid vessels to a dense fibrovascular mass causing lens opacity and retinal detachment. PHPV can be modeled in mice lacking individual genes, but certain features of such models differ from the clinical realm. For example, mice lacking the Arf gene have uniformly severe disease with consistent autosomal recessive disease penetrance. We tested whether the graded somatic loss of Arf in a subset of cells in chimeric mice mimics the range of disease in a non-heritable manner. Methods Wild type ↔ Arf −/− mouse chimeras were generated by morulae fusion, and when the mice were 10 weeks old, fundoscopic, slit-lamp, and histological evaluations were performed. The relative fraction of cells of the Arf −/− lineage was assessed with visual, molecular genetic, and histological analysis. Objective quantification of various aspects of the phenotype was correlated with the genotype. Results Sixteen chimeras were generated and shown to have low, medium, and high contributions of Arf −/− cells to tail DNA, the cornea, and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), with excellent correlation between chimerism in the tail DNA and the RPE. Phenotypic differences (coat color and severity of eye disease) were evident, objectively quantified, and found to correlate with the contribution of Arf −/− cells to the RPE and tail-derived DNA, but not the cornea. Conclusions Generating animals composed of different numbers of Arf −/− cells mimicked the range of disease severity observed in patients with PHPV. This establishes the potential for full manifestations of PHPV to be caused by somatic mutations of a single gene during development. PMID:24623965

  2. Are Attitudes toward Writing and Reading Separable Constructs? A Study with Primary Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steve; Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether attitude toward writing is a unique and separable construct from attitude toward reading for young beginning writers. Participants were 128 first-grade children (70 girls and 58 boys) and 113 third-grade students (57 girls and 56 boys). We individually administered to each child a 24-item attitude measure that contained…

  3. Influence of Motor Program on Correct Posture and Muscular Imbalance Correction in Pupils of Primary Schools (1-4 Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Bartík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research, focused on evaluation and development of correct posture and muscular imbalance correction in pupils of primary schools. The research involved 58 pupils of the fourth grade of primary school. The main method was educational experiment and tests for the evaluation of muscular imbalance and posture. We used the motor program, involving yoga exercises and fitball exercises in the experimental group. After the educational experiment, the posture and muscular imbalance in the experimental group improved if compared to the initial measurements. The research showed the positive effect of motor program on the posture and muscular imbalance.

  4. The Relationship between Happiness, Subjective Well-Being, Creativity and Job Performance of Primary School Teachers in Ramhormoz City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Zohreh; Heidari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the relationship between happiness, subjective well-being, creativity and job performance of primary school teachers in Ramhormoz City. Hence, a sample of 330 individuals was selected through random stratified sampling. The research tools included Oxford Happiness Inventory, Subjective Well-being Scale by Keyes…

  5. Toxoplasma gondii infection: seroprevalence and associated risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Lagos City, Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Pam Gyang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasma gondii infection has been described as the most widespread zoonotic infection of humans and other animals. Information concerning T. gondii infection among schoolchildren is unavailable in Lagos City, Nigeria. METHODS: This cross-sectional study investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection among primary schoolchildren (PSC from a community located in the center of Lagos, southern Nigeria, from November 2013 to March 2014. A total of 382 PSC were screened for the presence of sera anti-T. gondii antibodies using a latex agglutination test (TOXO Test-MT, Tokyo, Japan. A cutoff titer of ≥ 1:32 was considered positive, while titers ≥ 1:1,024 indicated high responders. Questionnaires were also used to obtain data on possible risk factors from parents/guardians. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence was 24% (91/382, and 83.5% (76/91 of seropositive PSC were classified as high responders. Among the risk factors tested, including contact with cats and soil, consumption of raw meat and vegetables, and drinking unboiled water, none showed statistical significance after multivariate adjustment. No associations were observed among age, gender, body mass index (BMI, and parents' occupation/educational level. CONCLUSIONS: The findings in this study show evidence of active infection, and hence, there is need for urgent preventive measures in this city. Further investigation is required to clarify the transmission routes. Policy makers also need to initiate prevention and control programs to protect pregnant women and immunocompromised patients in particular because they are more severely affected by T. gondii infection.

  6. Collaborative Action Research: Teaching of Multiplication and Division in the Second Grade of Primary School

    OpenAIRE

    Lirika Berdynaj; Eda Vula

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of action research methodology used in the teaching and learning process and professional teacher development. In this study are including 58 students of three second grade classes, 3 teachers of those classes and a university professor. Aiming at using a different approach in their teaching of multiplication and division in the second grade, all three teachers agreed to cooperate and jointly plan the learning activities, to observe systematically their student...

  7. The Construction of a Muscular Strength Test Battery for Girls in the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNucci, James M.; Pelton, Elois B.

    This study was designed to construct a gross muscular strength test battery for girls 6-9 years of age in grades 1-3. The subjects for this investigation were a random sample of 183 girls in grades 1-3 of the public schools of Natchitoches, Louisiana. The variables selected were 22 cable tension strength tests developed by Clarke and associates.…

  8. 常熟市小学中高年级儿童孤独感研究%A Research on Loneliness about the Middle and High Grade Children in Changshu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞志芳; 韩云

    2012-01-01

      孤独感是一种消极的、弥漫性的心理状态,儿童长期处于此状态会导致适应不良。研究整群选取小学3-6年级儿童作为研究对象,采用儿童孤独感量表进行问卷调查,研究结果表明:小学中高年级儿童孤独感水平普遍较高,儿童孤独感在城乡及性别上不存在差异,但在年级上存在显著差异,尤以四年级儿童孤独感体验最为强烈。%  Loneliness is a negative and diffuse psychological state. If children stay in this state, for a long time, they will have maladjustment. This research selected the middle and high grades children in two schools of Changshu city as the study object,and used children’s loneliness scale to conduct a questionnaire survey. The re⁃sults show that the middle and high grade children’s loneliness level is quite high in primary schools in Changshu city,and that there are no significant differences in the urban and rural areas or in gender, while there are signifi⁃cant grade differences,especially in the fourth grade,most children of which experience a strong sense of loneliness.

  9. A comparative study of nutritional status between government and private primary school children of Mysore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N C Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: School health has been acknowledged as important since the beginning of 20 th century. Nutritional status is a major component of school health services. This study was undertaken to assess the nutritional status of government and private primary school children of Mysore city. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study design was adopted. One private and one government school were selected using multistage stratified random sampling method. A total of 1566 school children aged 6-12 years were measured for height and weight. Data on demographic details, dietary habits, and physical activity of child and education status, occupation, monthly income of their parents were collected. Results: Of 1566 children, 385 (24.5% were underweight, 132 (8.4% were overweight, and 65 (4.1% were obese. Majority of underweight children 226 (32.5% were found in government school. Except for two overweight children in government school, all overweight and obese children were found in private schools. Socioeconomic status, dietary habits, and physical activity of the child were found to be the determinants of their nutritional status. Conclusion: This study attempt to highlight the dual nutritional problem, under-nutrition among the lower socioeconomic class on one hand and growing epidemic of obesity among the affluent on the other.

  10. Burnout in a sample of primary school teachers in the city of Copiapó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jorquera Gutiérrez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation sought to establish a relationship between burnout and a number of demographic and organizational variables. The sample consisted of 191 primary school teachers of municipal, subsidized and private educational institutions of Copiapó. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and the Cuestionario de Evaluación del Sindrome de Quemarse en el Trabajo (CESQT were used as tools to gather information from burnout levels presented by teachers. Two of them demonstrated an adequate reliability and concurrent validity. The results show a statistically significant relationship between absenteeism variable and all dimensions of burnout as measured by both instruments. No statistically significant differences between variables MBI and CESQT compared by sex, type of contract and income level were observed. When comparing the different dimensions of burnout by type of holder, statistically significant differences were detected in all of them. The results favor the private schools, showing the worst results in municipal schools. Alongside this, a negative correlation between levels of emotional exhaustion and psychological wear developed by teams of teachers and the results of the tests SIMCE [Sistema de Medición de la Calidad de la Educación] for second and fourth grade is observed.

  11. Application of a new histological staging and grading system for primary biliary cirrhosis to liver biopsy specimens: Interobserver agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanuma, Yasuni; Zen, Yoh; Harada, Kenichi; Sasaki, Motoko; Nonomura, Akitaka; Uehara, Takeshi; Sano, Kenji; Kondo, Fukuo; Fukusato, Toshio; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Ito, Masahiro; Wakasa, Kenichi; Nomoto, Minoru; Minato, Hiroshi; Haga, Hironori; Kage, Masayoshi; Yano, Hirohisa; Haratake, Joji; Aishima, Shinichi; Masuda, Tomoyuki; Aoyama, Hajime; Miyakawa-Hayashino, Aya; Matsumoto, Toshiharu; Sanefuji, Hayato; Ojima, Hidenori; Chen, Tse-Ching; Yu, Eunsil; Kim, Ji-Hun; Park, Young Nyun; Tsui, Wilson

    2010-03-01

    Recently the authors proposed a new staging and grading system for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) that takes into account necroinflammatory activity and histological heterogeneity. Herein is proposed a convenient version of this system. Scores for fibrosis, bile duct loss, and chronic cholestasis were combined for staging: stage 1, total score of 0; stage 2, score 1-3; stage 3, score 4-6; and stage 4, score 7-9. Cholangitis activity (CA) and hepatitis activity (HA) were graded as CA0-3, and HA0-3, respectively. Analysis of interobserver agreement was then conducted. Digital images of 62 needle liver biopsy specimens of PBC were recorded as virtual slides on DVDs that were sent to 28 pathologists, including five located overseas. All participants were able to apply this version in all 62 cases. For staging, kappa was 0.385 (fair agreement) and the concordance rate was 63.9%. For necroinflammatory activity, the kappa and concordance rate were 0.110 (slight agreement) and 36.9% for CA, and 0.197 (slight agreement) and 47% for HA, respectively. In conclusion, this new staging and grading system for PBC seems to be more convenient and practical than those used at present, but more instruction and guidance are recommended for the grading of necroinflammatory activity in practice.

  12. Underachievement in Primary Grade Students: A Review of Kindergarten Enrollment and DIBELS Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Shawnik Marie

    2013-01-01

    Student underachievement in kindergarten through Grade 3 continues to be a challenge in the Philadelphia School District. The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlation study was to examine, using record archives from one Philadelphia school, whether there is a relationship between (a) reading achievement scores for the Dynamic…

  13. The Dynamics of Narrative Writing in Primary Grade Children: Writing Process Factors Predict Story Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Koss Torkildsen, Janne; Morken, Frøydis; Helland, Wenche A.; Helland, Turid

    2016-01-01

    In this study of third grade school children, we investigated the association between writing process measures recorded with key stroke logging and the final written product. Moreover, we examined the cognitive predictors of writing process and product measures. Analyses of key strokes showed that while most children spontaneously made local…

  14. Increasing Engagement and Oral Language Skills of ELLs through the Arts in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Liane; Childress-Evans, Karen; Hinga, Briana; Farkas, George

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we look at the impact of an arts integration program offered at five large urban elementary schools on the daily attendance and oral language skills of children in kindergarten through second grade. Many of the children attending these schools spoke a language other than English at home. Teaching artists visited each class weekly…

  15. The Effects of a Classroom Management Teacher Training Primary Prevention Program on Fifth-Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Joel M.; And Others

    Effective Classroom Management II-Elementary (ECM), an in-service teacher training course, was evaluated. Grade 5 teachers were taught techniques in communication, classroom management, and self-esteem enhancement. The goals were to make classroom environments more responsive to students' affective and cognitive needs, thereby fostering positive…

  16. The Effect of the Van Hiele Model Based Instruction on the Creative Thinking Levels of 6th Grade Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Tolga; Akkaya, Recai; Celebi Akkaya, Sibel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the Van Hiele model based instruction process on the creative thinking levels of 6th grade primary school students. Pre test-post test matching control group quasi-experimental design was used in the study. Fifty five students enrolled in sixth grades during the 2005-2006 educational year formed…

  17. Pancreatic Metastasis of High-Grade Papillary Serous Ovarian Carcinoma Mimicking Primary Pancreas Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Gunay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reports of epithelial ovarian carcinomas metastatic to the pancreas are very rare. We herein present a metastasis of high grade papillary serous ovarian cancer to mid portion of pancreas. Case. A 42-year-old patient was admitted with a non-specified malignant cystic lesion in midportion of pancreas. She had a history of surgical treatment for papillary serous ovarian adenocarcinoma. A cystic lesion was revealed by an abdominal computerized tomography (CT performed in her follow up . It was considered as primary mid portion of pancreatic cancer and a distal pancreatectomy was performed. The final pathology showed high-grade papillary serous adenocarcinoma morphologically similar to the previously diagnosed ovarian cancer. Discussion. Metastatic pancreatic cancers should be considered in patients who present with a solitary pancreatic mass and had a previous non-pancreatic malignancy. Differential diagnosis of primary pancreatic neoplasm from metastatic malignancy may be very difficult. A biopsy for tissue confirmation is required to differentiate primary and secondary pancreatic tumors. Although, the value of surgical resection is poorly documented, resection may be considered in selected patients. Conclusion. Pancreatic metastasis of ovarian papillary serous adenocarcinoma has to be kept in mind when a patient with pancreatic mass has a history of ovarian malignancy.

  18. Collaborative Action Research: Teaching of Multiplication and Division in the Second Grade of Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirika Berdynaj

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the impact of action research methodology used in the teaching and learning process and professional teacher development. In this study are including 58 students of three second grade classes, 3 teachers of those classes and a university professor. Aiming at using a different approach in their teaching of multiplication and division in the second grade, all three teachers agreed to cooperate and jointly plan the learning activities, to observe systematically their students and to reflect on the outcomes. This way of research doing in their classes enabled them to ‘act’ effectively in designing an action plan appropriate to students’ achievement level. This research was carried out in the period of February 18 to May 31 incorporating several different methods, such as classroom observation, interviewing and worksheets.

  19. The dynamics of narrative writing in primary grade children: Writing process factors predict story quality

    OpenAIRE

    Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Morken, Frøydis; Helland, Wenche A; Helland, Turid

    2015-01-01

    In this study of third grade school children, we investigated the association between writing process measures recorded with key stroke logging and the final written product. Moreover, we examined the cognitive predictors of writing process and product measures. Analyses of key strokes showed that while most children spontaneously made local online revisions while writing, few revised previously written text. Children with good reading and spelling abilities made more online revisions than th...

  20. Validation and reliability of the German version of the Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire in primary care back pain patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Bernhard W.; Hallner, Dirk; Schaub, Claudia; Willburger, Roland; Hasenbring, Monika

    2004-01-01

    In 1992 Von Korff and his co-workers developed a simple, brief questionnaire to assess the severity of chronic pain problems, the Chronic Pain Grade (CPG). The present study was conducted to analyse the psychometric properties of the translated German version of the CPG within a population of primary care back pain patients (n=130). Factor analysis yielded two factors which accounted for 72% of the variance of the questionnaire. The first factor 'Disability Score' (53.56% of the variance) revealed a good internal consistency (alpha=.88), the internal consistency of the second factor 'Characteristic Pain Intensity' was moderate (alpha=.68). The reliability of the whole instrument was good (alpha=.82). The CPG and its subscales show moderate to high relations with other instruments assessing the patient's disability (FFbH-R, Pain Disability Index PDI). Additionally weak to moderate but significant correlations were found between the CPG and other measures of grading and staging chronic pain (MPSS, RGS). Further, positive correlations between the CPG and both, the frequency of doctor visits and the frequent use of pain medication have been seen. The reported findings suggest, that the German version of the CPG is a reliable, valid and useful instrument if a brief, simple method of grading the severity of chronic pain is needed. The German version leads to a better comparability between German and English language studies and facilitates an international collaboration in this field of research. PMID:19742049

  1. Primary non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma of the salivary gland: A spectrum of lymphoepithelial sialadenitis, low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue with transformation to high-grade lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agale Shubhangi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoid infiltrates of the salivary gland can be either reactive or neoplastic. The reactive lesion, lymphoepithelial sialadenitis (LESA may be associated with Sjogren′s syndrome (SS or may occur as an isolated salivary gland enlargement. Patients with LESA/SS have a particularly high risk of subsequently developing lymphoma, which is a low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT type lymphoma of the salivary gland. We document a rare case of primary non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma of the parotid gland arising in the background of LESA and with a rare example of transformation from low grade to high-grade B cell lymphoma of MALT type.

  2. Fear Appeals in the Primary Classroom: Effects on Test Anxiety and Test Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David William; Best, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether fear appeals used prior to a test increased self-reported test anxiety and had a detrimental effect on test scores. Forty primary school pupils were instructed for one week under a low threat condition under which no fear appeals were made and another week under a high threat condition in which fear appeals…

  3. Evaluation of sixth grade primary schoolchildren's knowledge about avulsion and dental reimplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Lithiene Ribeiro; Sundefeld, Maria Lucia Marçal Mazza; de Andrade, Dalton Francisco; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2009-08-01

    Dental trauma, particularly tooth avulsion, is a frequent cause of tooth loss in children, adolescents, and young adults. The avulsed tooth should be immediately reimplanted in its alveolus. This procedure can be performed by anyone at the accident site and not only by dental surgeons. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge of sixth graders of the city of Araçatuba, SP, about dental avulsion and tooth reimplantation through a structured and standardized survey. Our sample consisted of 778 students. The data collected was processed using the program EPIINFO 2000. Most students were around 12 years of age and 94.5% related to practice some kind of sports. Results demonstrated that the possibility of tooth reimplantation after dental avulsion is not acknowledged among these students and dental traumatism was associated to caries, toothache, and use of orthodontic appliances. Only 18.9% of the students associated dental traumatism to an impact trauma; 3.6% would store the tooth in milk, and 3.1% believed the tooth could be reimplanted by anyone present at the accident site. In summary, the results show an overall the lack of knowledge about dental traumatism and highlight the need of special programs designed to educate school-aged students about emergency procedures to handle cases of dental traumatisms.

  4. Learning to write in science in the primary grades: A contextual study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Sheryl L.

    This study described the way three children appropriated scientific discourse in their writing (and drawing) during second and third grades. Their scientific writing was situated within an "integrated" curriculum in which science instruction included hands-on activities as well as literacy events such as the reading of informational books and the writing of various scientific texts. The study included long-term participant observation of the children during their science lessons. Interviews of the teachers and children were also conducted. The findings indicate that, in this community, the process of learning how to express new scientific ideas in word and images is a complex one, in which children must simultaneously take up distinct theoretical ideas, scientific vocabulary, generic text structure, generic linguistic skills, methods of illustration to express empirical and theoretical ideas, and audience awareness. Writing in this science classroom was highly scaffolded by classroom discussion, teacher read-alouds, hands-on activities, and teacher modeling, as well as by the kinds of writing tasks (or genre set) that were made available to children. Three children, Hannah, Jason, and Rose, took up various aspects of this scaffolding in unique ways, producing unique forms of scientific writing and drawing as they constructed meanings in science. The study provides insights into the relationship between contextual influences and young children's appropriation of scientific discourse. The study has implications for elementary school science instruction, at a time when "scientific literacy" is highly contested.

  5. Constructing Geometric Properties of Rectangle, Square, and Triangle in the Third Grade of Indonesian Primary Schools

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    Ilham Rizkianto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided that when learning shapes for the first time, young children tend to use the prototype as the reference point for comparisons, but often fail when doing so since they do not yet think about the defining attributes or the geometric properties of the shapes. Most of the time, elementary students learn geometric properties of shapes only as empty verbal statements to be memorized, without any chance to experience the contepts meaningfully. In the light of it, a sequence of instructional activities along with computer manipulative was designed to support Indonesian third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle. The aim of the present study is to develop a loval instructional theory to support third graders in constructing geometric properties of rectangle, square, and triangle. Thirty seven students of one third grade classes in SD Pupuk Sriwijaya Palembang, along with their class teacher, were involved in the study. Our findings suggest that the combination of computer and non-computer activities suppots third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle in that it provides opportunities to the students to experience and to develop the concepts meaningfully while using their real experiences as the bases to attain a higher geometric thinking level.Key concepts: Geometric properties, rectangle, square, triangle, design research, realistic mathematics education DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.2.414.160-171

  6. Opinions of primary school sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students about subjects of science-technology-society-environment

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    Mustafa Doğru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, opinions of primary school students about science-technology-society-environment and relation of these opinions in terms of many variables are analysed. In this research, it was used of individual survey model from the general survey model. Total 408 students, as 228 of them are girls and 180 of them are boys attending to two state one private school during the first term of school year of 2010-2011 in Antalya constitute the study group of research. Student questionnaire about the subjects of STSE developed by the researchers as data collection tool was applied to sixth, seventh and eighth grade students in the research. In this study, students of second grade tend to choose agree and totally agree regarding to the questionnaire items of STSE subjects. Moreover, it is found out that there is determined significant relationship between some items and sex variable when Cramer V coefficient values are analyzed to determine the relation between opinions about STSE and sex variable. It is seen that girls participated in STSE subjects more than boys considering these items in general. In this study, there is determined significant relationship between some items and school type of students considering Cramer V coefficient values to determine the relation between opinions of participants about STSE and variable of school type. Students of private school tend to choose agree and totally agree regarding to the questionnaire items of STSE subjects more than state schools’ students.

  7. The importance and values of curriculum’s content of the Albanian language for the fifth grade (primary school

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    Zeki Morina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The region of Gjakova has an early tradition in the field of education and culture. In other words, it has powerful intellectual capabilities. Main aim of this paper is to elaborate the beginning of the teaching of Albanian for the fifth grade of the primary school. Its mission is also to enrich pupils’ experiences and interests on learning Albanian language and literature. This subject develops fundamental abilities of pupils and opens the paths of their knowledge in order to be successful in all fields of the curriculum. As a result of this, learning Albanian language urges pupils to respect human heritage, while through language, are established and transmitted core messages and notions to understand themselves and social world. It has also a strong influence in the wide individual’s development regarding emotional, intellectual, physical and social aspects.

  8. Assessing capacity and disease burden in a virtual network of New York City primary care providers following Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebek, Kimberly; Jacobson, Laura; Wang, Jason; Newton-Dame, Remle; Singer, Jesse

    2014-08-01

    Urban contexts introduce unique challenges that must be addressed to ensure that areas of high population density can function when disasters occur. The ability to generate useful data to guide decision-making is critical in this context. Widespread adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems in recent years has created electronic data sources and networks that may play an important role in public health surveillance efforts, including in post-disaster situations. The Primary Care Information Project (PCIP) at the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has partnered with local clinicians to establish an electronic data system, and this network provides infrastructure to support primary care surveillance activities in New York City. After Hurricane Sandy, PCIP generated several sets of data to contribute to the city's efforts to assess the impact of the storm, including daily connectivity data to establish practice operations, data to examine patterns of primary care utilization in severely affected and less affected areas, and data on the frequency of respiratory infection diagnosis in the primary care setting. Daily patient visit data from three heavily affected neighborhoods showed the health department where primary care capacity was most affected in the weeks following Sandy. Overall transmission data showed that practices in less affected areas were quicker to return to normal reporting patterns, while those in more affected areas did not resume normal data transmissions for a few months. Rates of bronchitis increased after Sandy compared to the two prior years; while this was most likely attributable to a more severe flu season, it demonstrates the capacity of primary care networks to pick up on these types of post-emergency trends. Hurricane Sandy was the first disaster situation where PCIP was asked to assess public health impact, generating information that could contribute to aid and recovery efforts. This experience allowed us to

  9. Comparison of measurements of peroxyacyl nitrates and primary carbonaceous aerosol concentrations in Mexico City determined in 1997 and 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, N. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Ramos-Villegas, R.; Cárdenas González, B.

    2007-05-01

    The concentrations of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in ambient air can be a good indicator of air quality and the effectiveness of control strategies for reducing ozone levels in urban areas. As PAN is formed by the oxidation of reactive hydrocarbons in the presence of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), it is a direct measure of the peroxyacyl radical levels produced from reactive organic emissions in the urban air shed. Carbon soot, known as black carbon (BC) or elemental carbon (EC), is a primary atmospheric aerosol species and is a good indicator of the levels of combustion emissions, particularly from diesel engines, in major cities. Mexico City is the second largest megacity in the world and has long suffered from poor air quality. Reported here are atmospheric measurements of PAN and BC obtained in Mexico City during the Mexico Megacity 2003 field study. These results are compared with measurements obtained earlier during the Investigación sobre Materia Particulada y Deterioro Atmosférico - Aerosol and Visibility Research (IMADA-AVER) campaign in 1997 to obtain an estimate of the changes in emissions in Mexico City and the effectiveness of control strategies adopted during that time. Concentrations of PAN in 1997 reached a maximum of 34 ppb with an average daily maximum of 15 ppb. The PAN levels recorded in 2003 were quite different, with an average daily maximum of 3 ppb. This dramatic reduction in PAN levels observed in 2003 indicate that reactive hydrocarbon emissions have been reduced in the city due to controls on olefins in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and also due to the significant number of newer vehicles with catalytic converters that have replaced older higher emission vehicles. In contrast, black/elemental carbon levels were similar in 1997 and 2003 indicating little improvement likely due to the lack of controls on diesel vehicles in the city. Thus, while air quality and ozone production have improved, Mexico City and other megacities continue to be a major

  10. Comparison of measurements of peroxyacyl nitrates and primary carbonaceous aerosol concentrations in Mexico City determined in 1997 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Marley

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN concentrations in ambient air can be a good indicator of air quality and the effectiveness of control strategies for reducing ozone levels in urban areas. As PAN is formed by the oxidation of reactive hydrocarbons in the presence of nitrogen dioxide (NO2, it is a direct measure of the peroxyacyl radical levels produced from reactive organic emissions in the urban air shed. Carbon soot, known as black carbon or elemental carbon, is a primary atmospheric aerosol species and is a good indicator of the levels of combustion emissions, particularly from diesel engines, in major cities. Mexico City is the second largest megacity in the world and has long suffered from poor air quality. Reported here are atmospheric measurements of PAN and black carbon obtained in Mexico City during the Mexico Megacity 2003 field study. These results are compared with measurements obtained earlier during the Investigación sobre Materia Particulada y Deterioro Atmosférico – Aerosol and Visibility Research (IMADA-AVER campaign in 1997 to obtain an estimate of the changes in emissions in Mexico City and the effectiveness of control strategies adopted during that time. Concentrations of PAN in 1997 reached a maximum of 34 ppb with an average daily maximum of 15 ppb. The PAN levels recorded in 2003 were quite different, with an average daily maximum of 3 ppb. This dramatic reduction in PAN levels observed in 2003 indicate that reactive hydrocarbon emissions have been reduced in the city due to controls on olefins in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG and also due to the significant number of newer vehicles with catalytic converters that have replaced older higher emission vehicles. In contrast, black/elemental carbon levels were similar in 1997 and 2003 indicating little improvement likely due to the lack of controls on diesel vehicles in the city. Thus, while air quality and ozone production has improved, Mexico City and other

  11. Prognostic impact of ReTURB in high grade T1 primary bladder cancer

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    Roberto Sanseverino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate whether pathological outcomes of ReTURB have a prognostic impact on recurrence and progression of primitive T1HG bladder cancer. Material and methods: Patients affected by primitive T1HG TCC of bladder underwent restaging TURB (ReTURB. Patients with muscle invasive disease at ReTURB underwent radical cystectomy; those with non-muscle invasive residual (NMI-RT and those with no residual tumour (NRT received an intravesical BCG therapy. We compared recurrence and progression in NMIRT patients and NRT patients at restaging TURB. Patients were followed every 3-6 months with cystoscopy and urine cytology. Results: 212 patients were enrolled in the study. At ReTURB, residual cancer was detected in 92 of 196 (46.9% valuable patients: 14.3% of these were upstaged to T2. At follow up of 26.3 ± 22.8 months, there were differences in recurrence and progression rates between NRT and NMIRT patients: 26.9% and 45.3% (p < 0.001, 10.6% and 23.4% (p 0.03, respectively. Recurrence-free and progression-free survivals were significantly higher in NRT compared to NMIRT patients: 73.1% and 54.7% (p < 0.001, 89.4% and 76.6 (p 0.03, respectively. Conclusions: ReTURB allows to identify a considerable number of residual and understaged cancer. Patients with NMIRT on ReTURB have worse prognosis than those with NRT in terms of recurrence and progression free survival. These outcomes seem to suggest a prognostic impact of findings on ReTURB that could be a valid tool in management of high grade T1 TCC.

  12. First-grade retention in the Flemish educational context: Effects on children's academic growth, psychosocial growth, and school career throughout primary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goos, Mieke; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick; Petry, Katja; de Bilde, Jerissa

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the effects of first-grade retention on children's academic growth, psychosocial growth, and future school career by following a cohort of first graders until the start of secondary school. The study took place in the Flemish educational context where primary school students are taught in uniform curricular year groups; the same curricular goals are set for all students, irrespective of ability; and grade retention is used as the main way to cater for students not reaching these goals. Propensity score stratification was used to deal with selection bias. Three-level curvilinear growth curve models, encompassing both grade and age comparisons, were used to model children's growth in math skills, reading fluency skills, and psychosocial skills. Two-level logistic regression models were used to model children's likelihood of repeating any grade between Grades 2 and 6, transitioning to a special education primary school, moving to another primary school, and transitioning to the A (versus B) track in secondary education. Overall, results showed that first-grade retention was less helpful for struggling students than generally thought by parents and educators. Limitations of the study and further research suggestions are provided, and practical implications are discussed.

  13. Knowledge attitudes and practices of grade three primary schoolchildren in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis and malaria in Zimbabwe

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    Brouwer Kimberly C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helminth infection rates in grade three children are used as proxy indicators of community infection status and to guide treatment strategies in endemic areas. However knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of this target age group (8-10 years in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis (STHs and malaria is not known at a time when integrated plasmodium - helminth control strategies are being advocated. This study sought to assess KAP of grade 3 children in relation to schistosomiasis, STHs and malaria in order to establish an effective school based health education for disease transmission control. Methods Grade 3 children (n = 172 attending four randomly selected primary schools (one in rural and 3 in the commercial farming areas in Zimbabwe were interviewed using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. The urine filtration technique was used to determine S. haematobium infection status. Infection with S. mansoni and STHs was determined using a combination of results from the Kato Katz and formol ether concentration techniques. P. falciparum was diagnosed by examination of Giemsa stained thick blood smears. Results It was observed that 32.0%, 19.2% and 4.1% of the respondents had correct knowledge about the causes of schistosomiasis, malaria and STHs, respectively, whilst 22.1%, 19.2% and 5.8% knew correct measures to control schistosomiasis, malaria and STHs. Sixty-two percent and 44.8% did not use soap to wash hands after toilet and before eating food respectively, whilst 33.1% never wore shoes. There were no functional water points and soap for hand washing after toilet at all schools. There was a high prevalence distribution of all parasites investigated in this study at Msapa primary school - S. haematobium (77.8%, S. mansoni (33.3% hookworms (29.6% and P. falciparum (48.1%. Reports that participant had suffered from schistosomiasis and malaria before were significant predictors of

  14. Investigating Portfolio Assessment with Learners of the 3rd Grade in a Greek State Primary School

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    Sophia Kouzouli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Assessment is a field increasingly explored in relation to the parameters it involves. The special characteristics of the learners and the interactive relationship between instruction and assessment lead to the use not only of traditional assessment techniques but also of alternative methods such as the portfolio. This study intends to investigate the implementation of a process portfolio in a Greek state primary school with a class of third graders aged between 8-9, concentrating on integration of skills. The findings show that this technique is appropriate for young learners and that it meets specific pedagogical and assessment criteria. It also exerts positive impact on metacognitive awareness, learner autonomy and positive attitude towards learning. Finally, the findings give insight to emerging problems and issues requiring further research.

  15. Determination of Quality and Quantity for Primary Schoolyards in Artvin City Center By Using Geographical Information System

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    Emine Arslan Muhacir

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid increase in concretion rate and a related decrease in the amount of public-green areas per capita have become an important issue for people living in cities. Children that are stuck in between tall buildings and have longing for play are the most affected ones from this issue. Adequateness of schoolyards both in quality and quantity is very important for physical and mental development of children especially for those attending primary schools and spending the most of their time in schoolyards. This importance has revealed not only the issue of increasing the quality of school buildings but also the necessity of better outdoor spaces for schools in order to have more successful education period. Moreover, some criterions such as distance, density and population should be taken into account when determining education areas in local zoning legislation. Even though it is assumed that every city has optimal social, topographical and other similar features for application of planning principles, these are not applicable for many cities such as Artvin due to its rugged land formation and irregular urbanization. The main objective of this study was to evaluate schoolyards in Artvin by stating their current status in Artvin both in quality and quantity aspects, since both have important effects on child’s physical and mental development.

  16. Primary pulmonary low-grade angiosarcoma characterized by mismatch between {sup 18}F-FDG FET and dynamic contrast-enhanced CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Eun Young; Lee, Ho Yun; Han, Joung Ho; Choi, Joon Young [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We report a rare case of primary pulmonary low-grade angiosarcoma on dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. A 38-year-old, asymptomatic woman was hospitalized because of an abnormality on chest radiography. A dynamic contrast-enhanced chest CT showed a 1.2 cm-sized irregular-margined nodule with strong and persistent enhancement in the right lower lobe. The lesion had low metabolic activity on an {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan. The patient underwent a wedge resection for the lesion, and pathology revealed a primary pulmonary low-grade angiosarcoma.

  17. PRIMARY SCHOOL FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS IN MATH ARE DONE TO COMPREHEND TOPICS TEACHING SMART BOARD APPLICATIONS FOR STUDENT FEEDBACK

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    Fatma Nur KIRALI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study in teaching primary fifth grade students in math are done to comprehend topics is to their views about the smart boards applications.Research Working Group has established, in the education year 2012-2013,on 111 students in an primary school studying in Istanbul,Fatih. The scanning model was used in the research. In this application, aritmatik mean and standard deviation values were used in the distribution of the students view. In the students views about Smart Board Practices in math lesson,’ttest’ was used to determine if there is a meaningful difference in gender thinking. According to the research findings, through the use of the smart board in the course of mathematics, students told that they had better understood the phrase the lesson,had been getting the increase in their interest and wasn’t bored in the lesson. Another result obtained in research, students opinions has not been significantly different according to gender

  18. Pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city, India – A Cross Sectional Study

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    Prashant Savadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The consumption of tobacco related products by the school teachers is a bad habit because it sends a wrong signal to young minds of students. It is injurious to health and is a waste of money and also is a wrong role model for the students.Objectives To find out the prevalence of pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city and to determine the factors influencing the use of tobacco among primary school teachers.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using random sampling technique among 400 teachers aged 21 to 60 years from 78 primary schools in Belgaum city during March to December 2009.Results Overall, prevalence of any form of tobacco use among primary school teachers was 14.50%. Only male teachers 46.03% used tobacco. 37.93% were using smoking type of tobacco, 46.56% used smokeless & 15.51%were using both types of tobacco products. Most of the users initiated tobacco use by 16 to 20 years of age. A substantial number of teachers initiated tobacco use for fun, imitation and peer pressure. 58.33% of the teachers were using tobacco due to un-satisfaction from profession, 37.50% due to family problems.Conclusion High proportion of male teachers used tobacco than female teachers, because of social norm. Almost all the teachers consciously avoided tobacco use in school premises. Students will be encouraged to start using tobacco, if they observe use of tobacco products by teachers who are the role models for students. It was concluded that it would be beneficial to conduct educational programs and seminars encouraging tobacco cessation to this professional group, along with school children.

  19. Students’ Strategies of Measuring Time Using Traditional Gasing Game in Third Grade of Primary School

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    Anton Jaelani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of measuring time has difficulty for children because itis intangible. Standard units often use directly by teacher for learning time measurement. Many researches involved game in designinglearning material to facilitate fun and meaningful learning for children. For this reason, learning of time measurement that connect with children’s daily experience was designed. The context of this research was traditional gasing game. The study is situated in implementation of Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education, labeled as PMRI. This research aimed acquire learning trajectory of time measurement using traditional gasing game for the third grader of primary school by describing students’ progress in learning. Design research methodology comprising preparing for the experiment, teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis was used. The research was conducted in SD (Sekolah Dasar Pusri (Pupuk SriwijayaPalembang as one of PMRI (Pendidikan Matematika RealistikIndonesia school. The result of the teaching experiment showed thatlearning design could foster students to experience reinvention of time measurement historically. It stimulated students to emerge their sense of time, measure time using non standar unit, understand the concept of standard unit, and measure time using standar unit. Students’ strategies that were emerged showed students’progress through situation and problems that were provided by traditional gasing game.

  20. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2011 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Baltimore City Public Schools. Grade 4, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-page report presents overall results, achievement level percentages and average score results, scores at selected percentiles, average scores for district and large cities, results for student groups (school race, gender, and eligibility for National School Lunch Program) in 2011, and score gaps for student groups. In 2011, the average…

  1. The Nation's Report Card Mathematics 2011 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Baltimore City Public Schools. Grade 4, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-page report presents overall results, achievement level percentages and average score results, scores at selected percentiles, average scores for district and large cities, results for student groups (school race, gender, and eligibility for National School Lunch Program) in 2011, and score gaps for student groups. In 2011, the average…

  2. Screening for amblyopia among grade-1 students in primary school with uncorrected vision and stereopsis test in central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing; LI Shi-ming; LI Jin-ling; LI Si-yuan; LIU Luo-ru; WANG Yang; LI He

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening for amblyopia at earliest is important for early treatment and better prognosis.This study aimed to evaluate the validity of uncorrected distant and near visual acuity (VA) and stereoacuity for screening amblyopia in grade-1 students in primary school in central China.Methods By stratified cluster sampling,3112 grade-1 students from 11 Anyang primary schools were selected for the study.All the participants underwent uncorrected distant and near VA,stereopsis test,cycloplegic refraction,best corrected VA (BCVA),cover test,and ocular movement examination.VA was measured with a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (IogMAR) chart.Stereoacuity was measured with the Lang Ⅱ stereo card and TNO test.Amblyopia was defined as the BCVA less than or equal to 0.1 IogMAR units of any eye in the absence of significant pathological abnormalities.The sensitivity,specificity,and positive and negative predictive value of uncorrected VA and stereoacuity for amblyopia were analyzed.Results Out of the 3112 eligible students,2893 (92.96%) completed the examinations.The average age of the students was (7.10±0.41) years.Screened by distant VA with low cutoff (IogMAR 0.1),high cutoff (IogMAR 0.0),and near VA (IogMAR 0.0),31.64%,73.18%,and 50.23% students were abnormal,respectively.Screened by stereopsis test,only 4.69% students were abnormal.Diagnosed by a senior pediatric ophthalmologist,61 students had amblyopia.The sensitivities of distant VA with low/high cutoff and near VA were 92.31%,100%,and 80.77%,respectively,whereas that of stereoacuity by TNO test was 15.38%.Simultaneous testing of either two of the three tests improved the sensitivity.Conclusions Distant VA test of high cutoff alone displays a high sensitivity but a low specificity.Simultaneous testing of distant VA of low cutoff and stereoacuity is a better choice to balance between sensitivity and specificity.

  3. The Evaluation of Texts In “National Culture” Theme That Placed in Secondary Part of Primary School 7th Grade Turkish Textbooks

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    Dilek CERAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The text that place in Turkish lesson books have an important place for teaching Turkish. The aim of study is evaluate the texts of “National Culture” subject in 7th grade Turkish textbooks, which are belonging to different publishers. For this purpose, by beginning from the features that are supposed to be in reading and listening texts of Turkish lesson books, which are in 2006 Primary Turkish Lesson Teaching Program, the texts of 7th grade Turkish textbooks of four different publishers, have been analyzed. The study is descriptive document analyze has been done in evaluating and studying of the texts that are in National Culture theme of Primary School 7th grade Turkish Textbooks. The texts have been evaluated under four main titles; quantity, the harmony of sub-themes with main themes. But free reading texts were not assessed.

  4. Does Clinical Staging and Histological Grading Show Parallelism In Oral Submucous Fibrosis? A Retrospective Study from an Indian City

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    Manish Narayan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: There was no correlation between clinical staging and histopathological grading of oral submucous fibrosis. The test results were statistically not significant. (p=0.635 This may be due to difference in severity and extent of fibrosis in different parts of the oral mucosa. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(3.000: 145-149

  5. The Informational Text Structure Survey (ITS[superscript 2]): An Exploration of Primary Grade Teachers' Sensitivity to Text Structure in Young Children's Informational Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Kumar, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    There has been no research reported about if or how well primary grade teachers can identify information text structures in children's authentic informational texts. The ability to do so accurately and reliably is a prerequisite for teachers to be able to teach students how to recognize and use text structures to assist them in comprehending…

  6. 城市广场色彩规划初探%A Primary Study on City Square Color Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建滨; 王旭

    2012-01-01

    From defining the concept of city square color and analyzing its features, we put forward three principles of square color planning which is based on the premise that we advocate respecting people's psychological perception. Furthermore, under the guide of color psychology, we try to make a primary study on the methods and applications in city square color and lighting color planning from the macroscopic angle of functional properties and the microcosmic angle of the elements.%该文从界定城市广场色彩的概念和分析其特点入手,在提倡尊重使用人群心理感知的前提下提出了广场色彩规划的三原则,并在色彩心理学的指导下,从功能性质的宏观角度和构成元素的微观角度初步探究城市广场色彩及照明色彩规划的方法及其应用.

  7. Evaluation of Combination of Natural and Artificial Lighting Condition in Primary Schools (Case Study: Baneh City of Kurdistan Province, Iran

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    Seyyed alireza Mousavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Promoting the health and safety is an important part of the fundamental mission of schools and one factor in designing and operating schools that always has been important is lighting. As students spend considerable hours in the classroom and school, lighting should be designed appropriately and in accordance with the standards, to protect them from injuries. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the combination of natural and artificial lighting condition in primary schools of Baneh city, Kurdistan, Iran. Materials & Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It's population consisted of primary schools in the city of Baneh and 12 schools were randomly selected as samples. Measurement has been done, using observation method in those schools by completing the assessment form. Then collected data were analyzed by SPSS 19, using descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis Test. Results: Results showed that the windows to the floor area in the most of schools classes were in standard range and just in 7 classes, the windows to the floor area ratio were less than standard. ANOVA showed the mean of luminance in those schools in p≤0.05 was significant and most of classes were in range of standard luminance. Comparison of luminance in schools corridors with standard showed that corridors luminance of 3schools were less than standard range. Conclusions: The amount of luminance in all schools was not appropriate especially in old schools. Therefore, to reduce the effect of inappropriate lightning on health in some classes, it is necessary to redesign the system. Furthermore, for parsimony, the lightning system modification is required to achieve standard luminance which is important.

  8. Inner City Community Oriented Primary Care to Improve Medical Student Skills and Combat Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, José E.; Fornari, Alice B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Efforts to increase medical student knowledge regarding obesity are needed in medi­cal school curriculum. This article examines a third year medical student intervention utilizing obesity group visits. Description: In our third-year family medicine clerkship, we implemented the Health not Cosmet­ics pilot intervention as part of a Community Oriented Primary Care experience. The intervention consisted of weekly group visits run by third and fourth year medical students to teach lif...

  9. Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R.

    2011-10-01

    Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0±14.2 Bq/m3, 83.4±6.0 Bq/m3, 61.6±6.4 Bq/m3, 63.7±5.4 Bq/m3 and 87.5±6.Bq/m3 and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m3, 5.5 Bq/m3, 1.1 Bq/m3, 1.0 Bq/m3 and 24 Bq/m3 respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm-3 set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The "within regions" (different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region "1" (p = 0.783) and versus region "5" (P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region "3" ( P = 0.0160) and also versus region "4" (p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq mountains whereas other

  10. [Overweight, obesity and associated factors in first grade schoolchildren in a city of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondini, Lenise; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Saldiva, Silvia Regina Dias Médici; Venâncio, Sonia Isoyama; de Azevedo Aguiar, Jeanice; Stefanini, Maria Lúcia Rosa

    2007-08-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of overweight in public school first graders and the association between overweight and socio-environmental factors in a city in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil. Children enrolling in public school first grade in Cajamar in 2005 were assessed. Overweight was defined according to body mass index, by gender and age. Socio-environmental information was obtained using a questionnaire applied to 58.6% of the children's mothers. Poisson regression models were used to evaluate associations between overweight in schoolchildren and socio-environmental variables. Seventeen percent of the children were overweight. Factors associated with overweight were: mother's obesity (PR = 3.54; CI: 2.16-5.80), high consumption of junk food (PR = 2.12; CI: 1.30-3.45), more than 4 hours a day watching TV (PR = 2.08; CI: 1.03-4.20), and daily household per capita availability of vegetal oil (around 3 tablespoons) (PR = 1.52; CI: 1.01-2.31). The family environment has a strong influence on overweight in children entering first grade in public schools. Prevention of childhood overweight should preferably target the parents and other caregivers.

  11. Primary high grade sarcoma of the specialised prostatic stroma: a case report with clinico-pathological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraggetta, F; Pepe, P; Giunta, M L; Aragona, F

    2008-12-01

    Malignant tumours of the prostate other than carcinomas are rare. One such malignant tumours arising from the specialised stromal tissue of the prostate is stromal prostatic sarcoma (namely low-grade and high-grade). Herein, we report the clinico-pathological features of a high grade stromal sarcoma of the prostate occurring in a 65-year-old man who presented for urinary obstructive symptoms. The clinical picture suggested a benign prostatic hyperplasia, and surgery consisting in a transcapsular adenomectomy was performed. Following a pathological diagnosis of high grade prostatic stromal sarcoma, a radical cystoprostatectomy and bilateral pelvic node dissection was performed showing residual high grade stromal sarcoma of the prostate and incidental in situ urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. No further medical treatments were planned. One year after surgery the patient is well with no evidence of local disease or distant metastases.

  12. Evaluation of Primary Immunization Coverage in an Industrial City of Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaturvedi R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is gradual albeit a slow progress in the performance of routine immunization in India over last few years. Six states with high population contribute to 80% of 8.1 million unimmunized children in the country out of which 52% of the total unimmunized reside in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar alone. Objectives :1. To study the primary immunization coverage of children aged 12-23 months in the slums of Kanpur Nagar 2.To calculate drop out rate for various vaccines. Methodology: 30 cluster sampling technique. Results: 52.38% study subjects were fully immunized, 29.52% were partially immunized and 18.10% were not immunized at all. Coverage was highest for BCG vaccine (81.90% and lowest for Hepatitis B3(41.90%. Drop out rate for DPT / OPV (I-III, DPTI – Measles and BCG – Measles was 25.88%, 34.70% and 35.46% respectively. Conclusion: Sustained efforts are required to achieve the target of universal coverage of immunization in children.

  13. Primary Gleason Grade 4 Impact on Biochemical Recurrence After Permanent Interstitial Brachytherapy in Japanese Patients With Low- or Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesugi, Tatsuya [Department of Urology, Okayama University, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Saika, Takashi, E-mail: saika@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Urology, Okayama University, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Edamura, Kohei; Nose, Hiroyuki; Kobuke, Makoto; Ebara, Shin; Abarzua, Fernand [Department of Urology, Okayama University, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Katayama, Norihisa [Department of Radiology, Okayama University, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Yanai, Hiroyuki [Department of Pathology, Okayama University, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi [Department of Urology, Okayama University, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To reveal a predictive factor for biochemical recurrence (BCR) after permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) using iodine-125 seed implantation in patients with localized prostate cancer classified as low or intermediate risk based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. Methods and Materials: From January 2004 to December 2009, 414 consecutive Japanese patients with clinically localized prostate cancer classified as low or intermediate risk based on the NCCN guidelines were treated with PPB. The clinical factors including pathological data reviewed by a central pathologist and follow-up data were prospectively collected. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the factors associated with BCR. Results: Median follow-up was 36.5 months. The 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year BCR-free rates using the Phoenix definition were 98.3%, 96.0%, 91.6%, and 87.0%, respectively. On univariate analysis, the Gleason score, especially primary Gleason grade 4 in biopsy specimens, was a strong predicting factor (p < 0.0001), while age, initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, T stage, and minimal dose delivered to 90% of the prostate volume (D90) were insignificant. Multivariate analysis indicated that a primary Gleason grade 4 was the most powerful prognostic factor associated with BCR (hazard ratio = 6.576, 95% confidence interval, 2.597-16.468, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: A primary Gleason grade 4 carried a worse BCR prognosis than the primary grade 3 in patients treated with PPB. Therefore, the indication for PPB in patients with a Gleason sum of 4 + 3 deserves careful and thoughtful consideration.

  14. Private ownership of primary care providers associated with patient perceived quality of care: A comparative cross-sectional survey in three big Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaolin; Yin, Jia; Wong, Samuel Y S; Griffiths, Sian M; Zou, Guanyang; Shi, Leiyu

    2017-01-01

    Ownership of primary care providers varies in different cities in China. Shanghai represented the full public ownership model of primary providers; Shenzhen had public-owned but private-operated providers; and Hong Kong represented the full private ownership. The study aims to assess the association of primary care ownership and patient perceived quality of care in 3 Chinese megacities.We conducted multistage stratified random surveys in 2013 in the 3 cities. Quality scores of primary care were measured using the validated primary care assessment tools. Multivariate linear regression models were used to compare quality scores after controlling potential confounders of patient demographic, socioeconomic, and healthcare utilization factors.Overall, 797 primary care users in Shanghai, 802 in Shenzhen, and 1325 in Hong Kong participated in the study. The mean total quality scores were reported the highest in Shanghai (28.39), followed by Shenzhen (25.82) and then Hong Kong (25.21) (P quality and less equitable care distribution. In China, it suggests that it may be beneficial to promote public-owned and nonprofit providers. Promoting privatization in primary care may be at the cost of quality and equity of primary care.

  15. 关于小学低年级识字教学的几点思考%Some Points on Literacy Teaching in Primary Grades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任艳红

    2016-01-01

    Chinese course standards indicate that literacy teaching is the basis of Chinese teaching in primary grades. During the Chinese teaching in primary grades, only students enhance their literacy ability constantly can they do better reading and writing. Thus it is very important to make students interested in Chinese characters learning. The paper explores the literacy teaching in primary grades and proposes some specific measures for reference.%语文课程标准指出,识字教学是小学低年级语文教学的基础。在小学低年级语文教学中,学生只有不断提升识字能力,才能更好地进行阅读和写作,因此让学生对汉字学习产生兴趣至关重要。文章对小学低年级识字教学展开探究,提出了几点具体措施,以供借鉴。

  16. Grading of Parameters for Urban Tree Inventories by City Officials, Arborists, and Academics Using the Delphi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östberg, Johan; Delshammar, Tim; Wiström, Björn; Nielsen, Anders Busse

    2013-03-01

    Tree inventories are expensive to conduct and update, so every inventory carried out must be maximized. However, increasing the number of constituent parameters increases the cost of performing and updating the inventory, illustrating the need for careful parameter selection. This article reports the results of a systematic expert rating of tree inventories aiming to quantify the relative importance of each parameter. Using the Delphi method, panels comprising city officials, arborists, and academics rated a total of 148 parameters. The total mean score, the top ranking parameters, which can serve as a guide for decision-making at practical level and for standardization of tree inventories, were: Scientific name of the tree species and genera, Vitality, Coordinates, Hazard class, and Identification number. The study also examined whether the different responsibilities and usage of urban tree databases among organizations and people engaged in urban tree inventories affected their prioritization. The results revealed noticeable dissimilarities in the ranking of parameters between the panels, underlining the need for collaboration between the research community and those commissioning, administrating, and conducting inventories. Only by applying such a transdisciplinary approach to parameter selection can urban tree inventories be strengthened and made more relevant.

  17. The Place and Importance of Values Education in 4.th and 5th. Grade Primary School Social Studies Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Yiğit

    2013-11-01

    varied beginning from 1970s. Superka and his colleagues (1976 argue that there are five basic approaches to values education: inculcation, moral development, analysis, values clarification and action learning. On the other hand, Sunal and Haas (2002 identified three approaches to values education: values clarification, value analysis and character education. While discussing the basic processes and principles of values education, we claim that values education should not be given only as theoretical knowledge. If the students are not supported with real-life examples and experiences, theoretical information will result in reducing the interest in values education. It is also stated that using concrete terms, instead of abstract ones, will help primary school children to get the idea more effectively. We also mention the limitation of rewarding a student for his/her good manners and actions. At this point, we analyzed several studies conducted in this area and found that rewarding a student too much will result in undermining the sense of helpfulness (Batson, et al., 1978 and hindering intrinsic motivation (Kohn, 1993; Deci&Ryan, 1985. Other basic processes and principles of values education discussed in this study are; the role of teachers in values education, group study for effective values education, promoting reasoning and logic while developing empathy, the role of self-esteem, and developing the sense of ‘us’ instead of ‘me’. Content analysis was conducted to collect data from the 2004 Social Studies program published by Ministry of Education and the 4th and 5th grade Social Studies textbooks. The researchers identified the frequencies of words and references regarding values and then categorized them to provide a meaningful content. After creating the coding frames, collected data was gathered under the relevant codes. Five main characteristic features of values are defined in the 2004 Social Studies 4th and 5th grade program. Those are: 1- Values are

  18. High-grade acute organ toxicity as positive prognostic factor in primary radio(chemo)therapy for locally advanced, inoperable head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Hendrik Andreas; Bosch, Jan; Hennies, Steffen; Hess, Clemens F.; Christiansen, Hans [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. Medicine Goettingen (Germany); Jung, Klaus [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Univ. Medicine Goettingen (Germany); Overbeck, Tobias [Dept. of Haematology and Oncology, Univ. Medicine Goettingen (Germany); Matthias, Christoph; Roedel, Ralph M. [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Univ. Medicine Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: to test for a possible correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity during primary radio(chemo)therapy and treatment outcome in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Patients and methods: from 05/1994 to 01/2009, 216 HNSCC patients were treated with radio(chemo)therapy in primary approach. They received normofractionated (2 Gy/fraction) irradiation including associated nodal drainage sites to a cumulative dose of 70 Gy. 151 patients received additional concomitant chemotherapy (111 patients 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin C, 40 patients cisplatin-based). Toxicity during treatment was monitored weekly according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC), and any toxicity grade CTC {>=} 3 of mucositis, dysphagia or skin reaction was assessed as high-grade acute organ toxicity for later analysis. Results: a statistically significant coherency between high-grade acute organ toxicity and overall survival as well as locoregional control was found: patients with CTC {>=} 3 acute organ toxicity had a 5-year overall survival rate of 4% compared to 8% in patients without (p < 0.01). Thereby, multivariate analyses revealed that the correlation was independent of other possible prognostic factors or factors that may influence treatment toxicity, especially concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy technique or treatment-planning procedure. Conclusion: these data indicate that normal tissue and tumor tissue may behave similarly with respect to treatment response, as high-grade acute organ toxicity during radio(chemo)therapy showed to be an independent prognostic marker in the own patient population. However, the authors are aware of the fact that a multivariate analysis in a retrospective study generally has statistical limitations. Therefore, their hypothesis should be further analyzed on biomolecular and clinical levels and other tumor entities in prospective trials. (orig.)

  19. Effect of crew resource management on diabetes care and patient outcomes in an inner‐city primary care clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cathy R; Hepworth, Joseph T; Buerhaus, Peter I; Dittus, Robert; Speroff, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Background Diabetes care in our inner‐city primary care clinic was suboptimal, despite provider education and performance feedback targeting improved adherence to evidence‐based clinical guidelines. A crew resource management (CRM) intervention (communication and teamwork, process and workflow organisation, and standardised information debriefings) was implemented to improve diabetes care and patient outcomes. Objective To assess the effect of the CRM intervention on adherence to evidence‐based diabetes care standards, work processes, standardised clinical communication and patient outcomes. Methods Time‐series analysis was used to assess the effect on the delivery of standard diabetes services and patient outcomes among medically indigent adults (n = 619). Results The CRM principles were translated into useful process redesign and standardised care approaches. Significant improvements in microalbumin testing and associated patient outcome measures were attributed to the intervention. Conclusions The CRM approach provided tools for management that, in the short term, enabled reorganisation and prevention of service omissions and, in the long term, can produce change in the organisational culture for continuous improvement. PMID:17693668

  20. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE ATTITUDE MOTIVES FORMATION TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN OF THE NORTHERN CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Zhanna Ildarovna Busheva

    2015-01-01

    Current issue under the study of problems of positive motivation formation for education of active attitude to physical culture and sports among primary school age children living in the northern city,is the study of students engaged and not engaged in physical culture and sports and main reasons research for passive attitude to the activity. In Surgut, KhMARYugra, 350 pupils were involved in theresearch of the age 710 years from the gymnasium named after Salmanov F.K. Following the procedure...

  1. Semi-Quantitative Calculations of Primary Tumor Metabolic Activity Using F-18 FDG PET/CT as a Predictor of Survival in 92 Patients With High-Grade Bone or Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Francis; Fuglo, Hanna Maria; Rasmussen, Sine Hvid;

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prognostic value of primary tumor metabolic activity in patients with high-grade bone sarcomas (BS) or soft tissue sarcomas (STS) using F-18 FDG PET/CT. A single-site, retrospective study including 92 patients with high-grade BS or STS. Pretreatment F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was performed...... metabolic activity with pretherapeutic SUVmax using F-18 FDG PET/CT demonstrates independent properties beyond histologic grading for prediction of survival in patients with high-grade STS, but not with high-grade BS....

  2. A Brief Discussion on Chinese Literacy Teaching for Lower Grades of Primary School%浅谈小学低年级语文识字教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐嘉笛

    2014-01-01

    It is clearly defined in"Chinese Curriculum Standard"that the quantity of literacy for students at their primary school stage is 3000 and they are required to be able to write 2500 characters. Students of lower grades are required to recognize 1600~1800 characters and be able to write 800~1000 characters. The new "Chinese Curriculum Standard" emphasizes on more recognition and less writing of characters, mainly focusing on the teaching of lower grades. It is thus clear that literacy teaching is the key but difficult point in the Chinese teaching for lower grades of primary school. Therefore, how to efficiently implement Chinese literacy teaching for lower grades in diverse ways and make students recognize characters independently and happily is a long-term task for primary school Chinese teachers.%《语文课程标准》明确规定院小学阶段学生的识字量为3000字,其中要会写2500个汉字。而低年级要求学生认识1600~1800个汉字,其中会写800~1000个汉字。新的《语文课程标准》强调多识字、少写字,而且把识字集中在低年级教学。可见识字教学是小学低年级语文教学中的重点,同时也是小学低年级语文教学的难点。因此,如何高效、多样化地开展低年级语文识字教学,让学生自主快乐识字是小学语文教师需要长期探索的任务。

  3. A Phase I Study of the Combination of Sorafenib With Temozolomide and Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Primary and Recurrent High-Grade Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den, Robert B., E-mail: robert.den@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kamrava, Mitchell [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Sheng, Zhi [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Programs in Gene Function and Expression and Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria; Dougherty, Erin; Marinucchi, Michelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lawrence, Yaacov R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Center for Translational Research in Radiation Oncology, Sheba Medical Center (Israel); Hegarty, Sarah; Hyslop, Terry [Department of Biostatistics, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Andrews, David W.; Glass, Jon [Department of Neurosurgery, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Friedman, David P. [Department of Radiology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Green, Michael R. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Programs in Gene Function and Expression and Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Camphausen, Kevin [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Despite recent advances in the management of high-grade and recurrent gliomas, survival remains poor. Antiangiogenic therapy has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of high-grade gliomas both in preclinical models and in clinical trials. We sought to determine the safety and maximum tolerated dose of sorafenib when combined with both radiation and temozolomide in the primary setting or radiation alone in the recurrent setting. Methods and Materials: This was a preclinical study and an open-label phase I dose escalation trial. Multiple glioma cell lines were analyzed for viability after treatment with radiation, temozolomide, or sorafenib or combinations of them. For patients with primary disease, sorafenib was given concurrently with temozolomide (75 mg/m{sup 2}) and 60 Gy radiation, for 30 days after completion of radiation. For patients with recurrent disease, sorafenib was combined with a hypofractionated course of radiation (35 Gy in 10 fractions). Results: Cell viability was significantly reduced with the combination of radiation, temozolomide, and sorafenib or radiation and sorafenib. Eighteen patients (11 in the primary cohort, 7 in the recurrent cohort) were enrolled onto this trial approved by the institutional review board. All patients completed the planned course of radiation therapy. The most common toxicities were hematologic, fatigue, and rash. There were 18 grade 3 or higher toxicities. The median overall survival was 18 months for the entire population. Conclusions: Sorafenib can be safely combined with radiation and temozolomide in patients with high-grade glioma and with radiation alone in patients with recurrent glioma. The recommended phase II dose of sorafenib is 200 mg twice daily when combined with temozolomide and radiation and 400 mg with radiation alone. To our knowledge, this is the first publication of concurrent sorafenib with radiation monotherapy or combined with radiation and temozolomide.

  4. FAR FROM THE CITY LIGHTS: ENGLISH READING PERFORMANCE OF ESL LEARNERS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF RURAL PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintswalo Manyike

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the findings of a research study, in which the English reading performances of Grade 7 English Second Language (ESL learners in four different types of rural primary school which use English as the language of learning and teaching (LoLT were observed, are examined and how poor scores can be partly explained by the social context of learners and schools is explored. Although the Language in Education Policy in South Africa seeks to distribute and maintain the linguistic capital of the official languages through its support of multilingualism, the predominant preference for English as the LoLT in schooling disadvantages most ESL learners and perpetuates inequality in learner outcomes. This situation is exacerbated in certain school contexts such as those in rural settings. Bourdieu’s theory of linguistic capital and Coleman’s distinction between school social capital and home social capital are used as theoretical frameworks to the empirical inquiry undertaken in this study. The findings indicate a difference in the grammar and comprehension scores of learners in the respective participating schools as well as a sharp difference in the performance of learners in the different types of school involved. This suggests the current use of English as the LoLT does not mean that linguistic capital is equally distributed throughout schools. School type can thus act as an agent of cultural reproduction which influences learner outcomes.

  5. Understanding the Concept of Information Literacy Students--For Example, the City Library "Don Mihovil Pavlinovic" Imotski

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the understanding of the term information literacy of primary and secondary school students, from the fifth grade of elementary school to the fourth year of high school at the local level, and who are members of the City Library in Imotski. The study examined 98 members of the City Library, through a…

  6. Is there a role for hyberbaric oxygen as primary treatment for grade IV radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis? a prospective pilot-feasibility study and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Dellis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To examine the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen as the primary treatment for Grade IV radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and Methods Hyperbaric oxygen was prospectively applied as a primary treatment option in 11 patients with Grade IV radiation cystitis. Primary endpoint was the incidence of complete and partial response to treatment. Secondary endpoints included the duration of response, the correlation of treatment success-rate to the interval between the onset of haematuria and initiation of therapy, blood transfusion need and total radiation dose, the number of sessions to success, the avoidance of surgery and the overall survival. Results All patients completed therapy without complications for a mean follow-up of 17.82 months (range 3 to 34. Mean number of sessions needed was 32.8 (range 27 to 44. Complete and partial response rate was 81.8% and 18.2%, respectively. However, in three patients the first treatment session was not either sufficient or durable giving a 72.7% rate of durable effect. Interestingly, all 9 patients with complete response received therapy within 6 months of the haematuria onset compared to the two patients with partial response who received therapy at 8 and 10 months from the haematuria onset, respectively (p = 0.018. The need for blood transfusion (p = 0.491 and the total radiation dose (p = 0.259 were not correlated to success-rate. One patient needed cystectomy, while all patients were alive at the end of follow-up. Conclusions Early primary use of hyperbaric oxygen to treat radiation-induced grade IV cystitis is an effective and safe treatment option.

  7. Is there a role for hyperbaric oxygen as primary treatment for grade IV radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis? a prospective pilot-feasibility study and review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellis, Athanasios [Surgical Department, University of Athens, Aretaieion Hospital (Greece); Deliveliotis, Charalambos [Urologic Department, University of Athens, Sismanoglio General Hospital (Greece); Kalentzos, Vasileios; Vavasis, Pavlos; Skolarikos, Andreas [Diving and Hyperbaric Oxygen Department, Naval and Veterans Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To examine the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen as the primary treatment for Grade IV radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and Methods: Hyperbaric oxygen was prospectively applied as a primary treatment option in 11 patients with Grade IV radiation cystitis. Primary endpoint was the incidence of complete and partial response to treatment. Secondary endpoints included the duration of response, the correlation of treatment success-rate to the interval between the onset of haematuria and initiation of therapy, blood transfusion need and total radiation dose, the number of sessions to success, the avoidance of surgery and the overall survival. Results: All patients completed therapy without complications for a mean follow-up of 17.82 months (range 3 to 34). Mean number of sessions needed was 32.8 (range 27 to 44). Complete and partial response rate was 81.8% and 18.2%, respectively. However, in three patients the first treatment session was not either sufficient or durable giving a 72.7% rate of durable effect. Interestingly, all 9 patients with complete response received therapy within 6 months of the haematuria onset compared to the two patients with partial response who received therapy at 8 and 10 months from the haematuria onset, respectively (p = 0.018). The need for blood transfusion (p = 0.491) and the total radiation dose (p = 0.259) were not correlated to success-rate. One patient needed cystectomy, while all patients were alive at the end of follow-up. Conclusions: Early primary use of hyperbaric oxygen to treat radiation-induced grade IV cystitis is an effective and safe treatment option. (author)

  8. Dynamic CT perfusion imaging of intra-axial brain tumours: differentiation of high-grade gliomas from primary CNS lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, Peter; Xyda, Argyro; Knauth, Michael [University of Goettingen, Medical Center, Department of Neuroradiology, Goettingen (Germany); Klotz, Ernst [Computed Tomography, SIEMENS Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany); Tronnier, Volker [University Schleswig-Holstein, Department of Neurosurgery, Luebeck (Germany); Hartmann, Marius [University of Heidelberg, Medical Center, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Neurology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) allows to quantitatively assess haemodynamic characteristics of brain tissue. We investigated if different brain tumor types can be distinguished from each other using Patlak analysis of PCT data. PCT data from 43 patients with brain tumours were analysed with a commercial implementation of the Patlak method. Four patients had low-grade glioma (WHO II), 31 patients had glioblastoma (WHO IV) and eight patients had intracerebral lymphoma. Tumour regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn in a morphological image and automatically transferred to maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and permeability (K {sup Trans}). Mean values were calculated, group differences were tested using Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney U-tests. In comparison with normal parenchyma, low-grade gliomas showed no significant difference of perfusion parameters (p > 0.05), whereas high-grade gliomas demonstrated significantly higher values (p < 0.0001 for K {sup Trans}, p < 0.0001 for CBV and p = 0.0002 for CBF). Lymphomas displayed significantly increased mean K{sup Trans} values compared with unaffected cerebral parenchyma (p = 0.0078) but no elevation of CBV. High-grade gliomas show significant higher CBV values than lymphomas (p = 0.0078). PCT allows to reliably classify gliomas and lymphomas based on quantitative measurements of CBV and K {sup Trans}. (orig.)

  9. Do Reading Practices Make a Difference? Evidence from PIRLS Data for Hong Kong and Taiwan Primary School Grade 4 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Shek-Kam; Xiao, Xiao-Yun; Ko, Hwa-Wei; Lam, Joseph Wai-Ip; Hui, Sau-Yan; Ng, Hung-Wai

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of classroom pedagogic reading practices and out-of-school practices in explaining why the reading attainment of Hong Kong Grade 4 students was superior to that of their counterparts in Taiwan in the 2006 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study. Analyses of scores from 9,301 students (4,712 from Hong Kong…

  10. Assessment of primary school students’ level of understanding the concepts of 2nd grade life sciences course based on different variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altıntaş Gülşen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The course of Life Sciences is one of the pivot courses taught in the first three years of primary school. Ensuring children get to know their environment and gain correct information related to their problems by making them investigate their natural and socio-cultural environment as well as providing them with necessary information, skills and behaviors for environmental adaptation are among the main purposes of Life Sciences course. The concepts to be instilled in students in line with these purposes are important. Since concepts are mostly intellectual and non-physical, they can only exist tangibly through examples. This study aims to assess Primary School Students’ Level of Understanding the Concepts of 2nd Grade Life Sciences Course Based on Different Variables. 17 concepts included in the 2nd Grade Life Sciences course within the subject of School Excitement were addressed within the study, and students were requested to define and exemplify these concepts. A total of 102 students from five different primary schools of upper-middle and lower socioeconomic classes located in Manisa and Istanbul were included in the study in line with the intentional maximum diversity sample selection. The answers given by students for each concept were categorized and analyzed in terms of liking or disliking home, school, technology and the course of Life Sciences.

  11. Examination of the primary first grade students‘ self -perceptionİlköğretim birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin benlik algısı düzeyinin incelenmesi

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    Yasin Özkara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it is aimed to decide self-perception levels of 1st grade primary school students, who start a different environment like primary school for the first time after a secure environment like family. 66-76 month-old students, who continue 1st grade in a primary school and who have not had any preschool education in the city center of Antalya, constitute the universe of the research. 85 children, who are chosen by random sample method from the 1st grades of government schools in Antalya’s one of the central counties, Kepez, and their mothers (n=85 and teachers (n=10, constitute the sample of the research. Data of research is collected with Demoulin’s Self-Perception Scale for Children (6-year-old, which is translated into Turkish and tested for validity and reliability by Kuru-Turaşlı (2006. It is decided that perceptions of mother, teacher and student groups’ about primary school 1st grade students’ levels of self-respect, self-efficacy and self-perception show parallelism. Özetİlköğretim birini sınıf öğrencilerinin benlik algısı düzeyini belirlemek amacıyla yapılan bu çalışmanın evrenini, Antalya İl merkezinde okul öncesi eğitimi almamış İlköğretim birinci sınıfa devam eden 66-76 aylar arasındaki öğrencileri oluşturmaktadır. Örneklemini ise, 2012-2013 eğitim öğretim yılında Antalya merkez ilçelerinden Kepez ilçesine bağlı devlet okullarının birinci sınıfına yeni başlayan çocuklar evreninden tesadüfî örneklem yöntemi ile seçilen 85 çocuk, anneleri ve öğretmenleri (n=10 oluşturmuştur. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak, Demoulin Çocuklar için Benlik Algısı Ölçeği (6 yaş kullanılmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen sonuçlara göre birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin öz saygı, öz yeterlilik ve benlik algısı düzeylerine ilişkin anne, öğretmen ve öğrenci gruplarının algılarının paralellik gösterdiği görülmüştür. Örnekleme al

  12. Use of the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) score in patients with brain metastases from primary tumours not represented in the diagnosis-specific GPA studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, C. [Nordland Hospital, Bodoe (Norway). Dept. of Oncology and Palliative Medicine; Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Andratschke, N.H. [University Hospital Rostock (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Geinitz, H. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Grosu, A.L. [University Hospital Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-08-15

    Background and purpose: Assessment of prognostic factors might influence treatment decisions in patients with brain metastases. Based on large studies, the diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (GPA) score is a useful tool. However, patients with unknown or rare primary tumours are not represented in this model. A pragmatic approach might be use of the first GPA version which is not limited to specific primary tumours. Patients and methods: This retrospective analysis examines for the first time whether the GPA is a valid score in patients not eligible for the diagnosis-specific GPA. It includes 71 patients with unknown primary tumour, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer, thyroid cancer or other uncommon primaries. Survival was evaluated in uni- and multivariate tests. Results: The GPA significantly predicted survival. Moreover, improved survival was seen in patients treated with surgical resection or radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. The older recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) score was significant in univariate analysis. However, the multivariate model with RPA, GPA and surgery or SRS versus none showed that only GPA and type of treatment were independent predictors of survival. Conclusion: Ideally, cooperative research efforts would lead to development of diagnosis-specific scores also for patients with rare or unknown primary tumours. In the meantime, a pragmatic approach of using the general GPA score appears reasonable. (orig.)

  13. THE EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES IN THE PRIMARY EDUCATION 5TH GRADE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM IN TERMS OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE THEORY

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    Oğuz GÜRBÜZTÜRK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to know the teachers’ opinions in terms of multiple intelligence theory about the objectives and activities in the units of “Earth, Sun and Moon” and the “Electricity in Our Life” in the primary education 5th grade science and technology curriculum. The survey model was used in this study. The population of this study consists of 262 5th grade teachers working in the center of Malatya. The sample consists of 190 5th grade teachers who were selected randomly. Questionnaire was used to collect data that are consisted of 70 items. Teachers are asked to select one dominant intelligence type for 65 objectives and activities. To analyze the data, the background information of teachers like seniority, graduated faculty, whether or not they had in-service education were compared to teachers opinions about which intelligence area is suitable with these objectives and activities and these comparison information was given and commented with frequencies, percentages and cross tabs. Given the results of this study, about evaluating the objectives and activities in these units, taking all activities in the teaching-learning process into consideration, it is discovered that, teachers generally focus on visual, spatial, logical and mathematical intelligence areas and they think in the same way regardless of their seniority, graduated faculty, and whether or not they had in-service education about teaching-learning theories and models. Some advices are given based on the results of this study.

  14. An Analysis of Writing Teaching in Low Grade of Primary School%试析进行小学低年级写话教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明凤

    2014-01-01

    A part of writing is to practice writing, is the basis of the composition. Low grade primary school writing teaching should be based on the students’ interest in learning, adhere to a gradual, from easy to difficult principle, constantly encouraging students, carry out reasonable, standard, scientific, standardized writing teaching, then lay a foundation for future writing. Therefore, this paper discusses the low grade primary school writing teaching strategies.%写话属于练习作文的一个组成部分,是作文的基础。小学低年级的写话教学需要立足于学生的学习兴趣,坚持循序渐进、从易到难的原则,不断地激励学生,实施合理、标准、科学、规范的写话教学,进而奠定将来写作文的基础。为此,论述了进行小学低年级写话教学的策略。

  15. The Utilization of Gleason Grade as the Primary Criterion for Ordering Nuclear Bone Scan in Newly Diagnosed Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad W. M. Ritenour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of nuclear bone scans for staging newly diagnosed prostate cancer has decreased dramatically due to PSA-driven stage migration. The current criteria for performing bone scans are based on limited historical data. This study evaluates serum PSA and Gleason grade in predicting positive scans in a contemporary large series of newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. Eight hundred consecutive cases of newly diagnosed prostate cancer over a 64-month period underwent a staging nuclear scan. All subjects had histologically confirmed cancer. The relationship between PSA, Gleason grade, and bone scan was examined by calculating series of crude, stratified, and adjusted odds ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Four percent (32/800 of all bone scans were positive. This proportion was significantly lower in patients with Gleason score ≤7 (1.9% vs. Gleason score ≥8 (18.8%, p 30 ng/ml compared to ≤30 ng/ml (p 10 ng/ml compared to ≤10 ng/ml (p = 0.002. The combination of Gleason score and PSA enhances predictability of bone scans in newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. The PSA threshold for ordering bone scans should be adjusted according to Gleason score. For patients with Gleason scores ≤7, we recommend a bone scan if the PSA is >30 ng/ml. However, for patients with a high Gleason score (8–10, we recommend a bone scan if the PSA is >10 ng/ml.

  16. High-grade primary myxoid lung sarcoma presenting as recurrent hemorrhagic pleural effusions in a young woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Hassan; Coleman, Cinthia; Sagi, Jahnavi; Wani, Adil; Daruwalla, Vistasp

    2015-01-01

    Primary lung sarcomas are rare but aggressive tumors accounting for less than 0.5% of all lung tumors. The diagnosis of primary lung sarcoma should only be considered after exclusion of other sites. A 32-year-old female presented with recurrent hemorrhagic pleural effusions, shortness of breath and persistent cough. Pleural effusion was drained twice, and each time its analysis was normal. Patient developed atelectasis of left lung with hemothorax for which she underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. A large mass was found compressing the entire lower lobe of left lung with extension into mediastinum, the biopsy of which showed myxoid sarcoma. The tumor was inoperable and options of chemotherapy or radiotherapy were discussed with the patient. Primary lung sarcoma can rarely present with recurrent hemorrhagic pleural effusion. A high degree of suspicion is required for early diagnosis as large hemothorax on computed tomography or chest X-ray may obscure lung mass and make its diagnosis difficult.

  17. ADHD Medication and Social Self-Understanding: Social Practice Research with a First Grade in a Danish Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Karen-Lis; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the contradictions, dilemmas, and struggles in a Danish primary school practice involved in medicating children diagnosed with ADHD. It draws on a social practice research study of a 7-year-old boy diagnosed with ADHD, who was medicated against his will. It focuses on his struggles when being medicated, and…

  18. The Effects of an Individualised ICT-Based Music Education Programme on Primary School Students' Musical Competence and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bravo, Juan R.; Cardona-Moltó, M. Cristina; Hernández-Bravo, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an information and communications technology (ICT)-based individualised music education programme on primary students' musical competence. A 2 × 3 aptitude treatment interaction factorial design was used to assess the impact of the programme as a function of students' musical aptitude (MA)…

  19. Sex, Grade-Level and Stream Differences in Learning Environment and Attitudes to Science in Singapore Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Jarina; Fraser, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Learning environment research provides a well-established approach for describing and understanding what goes on in classrooms and has attracted considerable interest in Singapore. This article reports the first study of science classroom environments in Singapore primary schools. Ten scales from the What Is Happening In this Class?,…

  20. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  1. Craniospinal irradiation with concurrent temozolomide for primary metastatic pediatric high-grade or diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. A first report from the GPOH-HIT-HGG Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K.; Schlamann, A.; Pietschmann, S.; Kortmann, R.D. [University Medical Center Leipzig, Department of Radiation Oncology, Leipzig (Germany); Guckenberger, M. [University Medical Center Wuerzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Warmuth-Metz, M. [University Medical Center Wuerzburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Glueck, A. [Clinic for Radiation Oncology Schwabing, Muenchen (Germany); Wawer, A. [University Medical Center Muenchen Schwabing, Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Muenchen (Germany); Kramm, C.; Bueren, A.O. von [University Medical Center Goettingen, Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Goettingen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    High-grade (HGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) with primary metastatic spread are extremely rare and have a dismal prognosis. Analogous to simultaneous radiochemotherapy in non-metastatic HGG and DIPG, concurrent craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and metronomic temozolomide (metroTMZ) may represent a reasonable therapeutic approach. However, the antitumor efficacy and toxicity of this treatment still have to be investigated. Between March 2007 and December 2012, six children with primary metastatic HGG (n=4) or DIPG (n=2) received CSI and concurrent metroTMZ based on individual treatment recommendations and, in some cases, within the HIT-HGG 2007 multicenter trial. Outcome and treatment-related toxicities were evaluated. All patients received irradiation to the entire craniospinal axis (35.2 Gy, n=5; 36 Gy, n=1:) and 5 received a local boost to macroscopic tumor deposits. Simultaneously, metroTMZ (75 mg/m{sup 2}/day, n=5; 60 mg/m{sup 2}/day, n=1) was administered. Additionally, 1 patient received nimotuzumab once per week. Within a median follow-up of 10.0 months (range 6.5-18.7 months), all patients experienced disease progression and 5 patients died. Median progression-free survival was 4.0±0.8 months (range 2.4-10.7 months) and median overall survival was 7.6±3.5 months (range 4.0-17.6 months). Acute myelosuppression most severely limited application of this aggressive treatment strategy. Severe hematotoxicities (= grade 3) occurred in all patients and metroTMZ had to be interrupted or discontinued in 4 out of 6 cases. Concurrent CSI and metroTMZ might represent a feasible treatment approach for primary metastatic HGG and DIPG. On the basis of our experience, severe but manageable acute hematotoxicity has to be expected. An international effort is warranted to reassess the efficacy and toxicity of this approach within a prospective study. (orig.)

  2. The investigation of the reading attitudes of second grade students

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    Kamil İşeri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the reading attitudes of 6th, 7th and 8th level primary school students in respect to several variables using the “Reading Attitude Scale towards Primary School Second Grade Students” which is developed by Özbay and Uyar (2009. Study group consists of 508 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th levels of state primary schools in Niğde city centre. Thus, the reading attitudes of 6th, 7th and 8th level students in accordance with gender and school variables are intended to be defined. At the end of the study, the reading attitude levels of the second grade students are seen positive. It is concluded that the reading attitude score averages of second grade students show a significant difference with regard to genders, schools and classes at which they study.

  3. Primary School Lower Grade Writing Start Exploration%小学低年级写话起步探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘淑琴

    2014-01-01

    Chinese teaching of low grades is the starting stage of language accumulation,is the foundation of reading and writing. Using text materials in this fertile soil,combined with the characteristics of the text in some sentence paragraph,adroitly write words,reduce the difficulty of writing words,stimulate students’ interest in writing. As long as the teacher write words training consciousness,let the teaching really service for writing words,according to the characteristics of the text,making familiar text become spring head for children to write words,believe that low grade writing this piece of garden will be grass green.%低段的语文教学,是语言积累的起始阶段,是阅读与写作的基础。用好文本教材这块肥沃的土壤,结合文本中一些句段的特点,巧练写话,降低写话难度,激发学生的写话兴趣。只要老师有写话训练的意识,让教学真正为写话保驾护航,根据文本特点,让熟悉的文本成为孩子写话的源头活水,相信低年级写话这片园地里一定会芳草青青。

  4. Selected Personal Factors as Determinants of Final Grades in Technical Drawing 2

    OpenAIRE

    Jake M. Laguador

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the interest of First Year Engineering students towards engineering program at Lyceum of the Philippines University (LPU) in Batangas City during SY 2011-2012 as the primary data in predicting the final grades of engineering students in Technical Drawing (TD) 2 together with the gender, type of high school attended and high school Grade-Point Average (GPA) as secondary data. Descriptive method of research was utilized in the study. Students with high category of GPA duri...

  5. Long-term results of graded pneumatic dilatation under endoscopic guidance in patients with primary esophageal achalasia

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrucali, Ahmet; Erzin, Yusuf; Tuncer, Murat; Dirican, Ahmet

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Achalasia is the best known primary motor disorder of the esophagus in which the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) has abnormally high resting pressure and incomplete relaxation with swallowing. Pneumatic dilatation remains the first choice of treatment. The aims of this study were to determine the long term clinical outcome of treating achalasia initially with pneumatic dilatation and usefulness of pneumatic dilatation technique under endoscopic observation without fluoroscopy.

  6. High-grade primary myxoid lung sarcoma presenting as recurrent hemorrhagic pleural effusions in a young woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Tahir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary lung sarcomas are rare but aggressive tumors accounting for less than 0.5% of all lung tumors. The diagnosis of primary lung sarcoma should only be considered after exclusion of other sites. A 32-year-old female presented with recurrent hemorrhagic pleural effusions, shortness of breath and persistent cough. Pleural effusion was drained twice, and each time its analysis was normal. Patient developed atelectasis of left lung with hemothorax for which she underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. A large mass was found compressing the entire lower lobe of left lung with extension into mediastinum, the biopsy of which showed myxoid sarcoma. The tumor was inoperable and options of chemotherapy or radiotherapy were discussed with the patient. Primary lung sarcoma can rarely present with recurrent hemorrhagic pleural effusion. A high degree of suspicion is required for early diagnosis as large hemothorax on computed tomography or chest X-ray may obscure lung mass and make its diagnosis difficult.

  7. Biomedical-grade, high mannuronic acid content (BioMVM) alginate enhances the proteoglycan production of primary human meniscal fibrochondrocytes in a 3-D microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Rico, Ana; Klich, Angelique; Cucchiarini, Magali; Madry, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Alginates are important hydrogels for meniscus tissue engineering as they support the meniscal fibrochondrocyte phenotype and proteoglycan production, the extracellular matrix (ECM) component chiefly responsible for its viscoelastic properties. Here, we systematically evaluated four biomedical- and two nonbiomedical-grade alginates for their capacity to provide the best three-dimensional (3-D) microenvironment and to support proteoglycan synthesis of encapsulated human meniscal fibrochondrocytes in vitro. Biomedical-grade, high mannuronic acid alginate spheres (BioLVM, BioMVM) were the most uniform in size, indicating an effect of the purity of alginate on the shape of the spheres. Interestingly, the purity of alginates did not affect cell viability. Of note, only fibrochondrocytes encapsulated in BioMVM alginate produced and retained significant amounts of proteoglycans. Following transplantation in an explant culture model, the alginate spheres containing fibrochondrocytes remained in close proximity with the meniscal tissue adjacent to the defect. The results reveal a promising role of BioMVM alginate to enhance the proteoglycan production of primary human meniscal fibrochondrocytes in a 3-D hydrogel microenvironment. These findings have significant implications for cell-based translational studies aiming at restoring lost meniscal tissue in regions containing high amounts of proteoglycans. PMID:27302206

  8. 小学低年级写话教学的四要素%On the Four Elements in Writing Teaching for Lower Grades of Primary Schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏

    2015-01-01

    写话练习是小学低年级语文教学中必不可少的环节,新课标低年级写话的建议是使学生对写话有兴趣,写自己想说的话,写想象中的事物,写出自己对周围的认识和感想。孩子的童年是五颜六色的,诗意的色彩也是不容忽略的。因此,低年级写话需要兴趣、真实、想象和诗意四要素的结合。%Writing practice is a necessary part in lower-grade Chinese teaching of primary schools. The new curriculum stan-dard suggests that students should be interested in writing, write what they want to say and what they image, as well as their their understanding and feelings of their surroundings. Childhood is colorful, so the colors of poetic conception should not be ignored. Therefore, writing teaching for lower grades needs the integration of interest, reality, imagination and poetic conception.

  9. 小学低年级识字教学浅探%Literacy Teaching in the Lower Grades of Primary School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管小明

    2012-01-01

    识字教学是低年级语文教学的重点和难点。在整个识字教学中,要重视教给学生识字方法。笔者结合多年小学语文教学经验,总结出演示动作法、直观印象法、故事导入法、析字构成法、猜谜法、迁移法几种简便可行的识字教学法,仅供大家参考。%Literacy teaching is an important and difficult point in Chinese teaching of the lower grades.In the teaching of literacy,it is necessary to attach great importance to teaching students methods of literacy.Combining with the experience of longterm primary school lower grade language teaching,the writer sums up some simple and feasible teaching methods:demonstrating action teaching method,visual impression method,story introduction method,character-analysis method,guessing words method and reflection method.

  10. Opinions of primary school sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students about subjects of science-technology-society-environment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğru, Mustafa; ŞEKER, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    In this study, opinions of primary school students about science-technology-society-environment and relation of these opinions in terms of many variables are analysed. For this purpose, screening type of commonly used descriptive researches in education field was used in the study. Total 408 students, as 228 of them are girls and 180 of them are boys attending to two state one private school during the first term of school year of 2010-2011 in Antalya constitute the study group of research.  ...

  11. A Comparative Study of Diadochokinesis and the Rate of Reading and Talking in Second Grade Primary Students of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hourieh Ahadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Children with speech and language disorders can have reduced diadochokinesis (DDK rates. Although a relationship has been proposed between DDK and the rate of speech, there is no consensus among the experts and its credibility remains questioned. The purpose of this study was to compare oral DKK with the rate of speech and reading in normal students.Methods: One hundred second grade female students participated in this descriptive-comparative study. The subjects were asked to read a text of their book, tell a story, and perform some oral DDK tasks. The elapsed time was measured by Cool Edit software. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the data. Data analysis was performed using Student t-test.Results: Time history durations of DDK tasks /tâ/, /pâ/ and /kâ/ were 4.10, 4.15 and 4.74 ms, respectively. The rate of reading was 3.1 syllables per second and rate of talking was 2.8 syllables per second. No relationship between the rate of speech and DDK was found, still, we found a significant association between the reading rate and DDK in /kâ/ (p=0.03 and /pâtâkâ/ (P<0.01.Conclusion: Relevant DDK tasks can be utilized in order to improve the reading rate. Reading rate was higher than speech rate and the rate of bilabial diadochokinesis in mono syllables is the highest rate that may be expected during the treatments.

  12. Knowledge level of primary care physicians who works in Denizli city center and interns in Pamukkale University medical faculty about alzheimer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ergin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Many communities in the world are rapidly ageing, with aging dementia seen in the elderly, incidence and prevalence of Alzheimer and #8217;s disease which is the most common cause of dementia is also increasing. Therefore, primary care physicians will need to play a more significant role on the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer diseases in near future. The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness on Alzheimers disease among primary care physicians who works in Denizli city center and interns in the Medical Faculty in Pamukkale University. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on primary care physicians who works in Denizli city center and interns in the Medical Faculty in Pamukkale University. 93 (60.4% family physicians and 65 (89.0% interns, a total of 158 (69.6% people participated in the study. The University of Alabama Alzheimers Disease Knowledge Test which consists of 12 questions was used to determine Alzheimers disease knowledge score. Data are evaluated by descriptive statistics, and either Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the statistical differences between numeric variables. RESULTS: The mean of Alzheimers disease knowledge score of family physicians and interns were 5.16+/-1.83 and 7.34+/-1.85, respectively (p <0.001. Interns who previously took any course on Alzheimers disease had a higher average score of 8.41+/-1.67 than that of those who did not take any course 5.07+/-1.95, (p=0.04. Previous course among family physicians did not make any difference (p=0.568. CONCLUSION: Alzheimers disease knowledge among primary care physicians and interns is insufficient. Authorities should take the necessary actions to improve this situatio [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 131-136

  13. How to Cultivate Students’Writing Imagination Ability in the Middle Grade of Primary School%如何培养小学中年级学生的写作想象力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆

    2014-01-01

    Imagination plays a role which can not be ignored in Chinese writing in the middle grade of primary school , Teachers should let imagination become an important means to cultivate students' writing ability according to the personality and learning characteristics of students in primary school middle grade.%想象力在小学中年级的语文写作中起着不可忽视的作用。教师要根据小学中年级学生的个性与学习特点,让想象力成为培养学生写作能力的重要手段。

  14. Cardiac troponin testing in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and systemic sclerosis-spectrum disorders: biomarkers to distinguish between primary cardiac involvement and low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael; Lilleker, James B; Herrick, Ariane L; Chinoy, Hector

    2015-05-01

    Primary cardiac involvement, an under-recognised manifestation of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and systemic sclerosis (SSc)-spectrum disorders, is associated with significant mortality. Within these two conditions, traditional skeletal muscle enzyme testing may not effectively distinguish between skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement, especially in patients with subclinical cardiac disease. Accurate biomarkers are thus required to screen for cardiac disease, to better inform both therapeutic decision-making and treatment response. The widespread uptake of cardiac troponin testing has revolutionised the management of acute coronary syndromes. While cardiac troponin I (cTnI) appears specific to the myocardium, cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is also expressed by skeletal muscle, including regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There is increasing interest about the role of cardiac troponins as a putative biomarker of primary cardiac involvement in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders. Herewith we discuss subclinical cardiac disease in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders, the respective roles of cTnI and cTnT testing, and the re-expression of cTnT within regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There remains wide variation in access to cardiac troponin testing nationally and internationally. We propose two pragmatic clinical pathways using cardiac troponins, preferably measuring concomitant cTnT followed by confirmatory (cardiac) cTnI to screen patients for subclinical cardiac disease and/or low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity, and also an agenda for future research.

  15. Expression of MAGE-A3/6 in primary breast cancer is associated with hormone receptor negative status, high histologic grade, and poor survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyoub, Maha; Scarlata, Clara-Maria; Hamaï, Ahmed; Pignon, Pascale; Valmori, Danila

    2014-01-01

    The cancer testis antigen (CTA), melanoma-associated antigen A3/6 (MAGE-A3/6), is expressed in human cancers of different histologic types, to variable extents, and is an important target for immunotherapy. In this study, to address the potential of MAGE-A3/6 as an immunotherapeutic target in breast cancer (BC), we assessed MAGE-A3/6 expression by PCR in a cohort of 362 primary BC tumors and analyzed the correlation between MAGE-A3/6 expression, tumors hormone receptor (HR) status, and other clinicopathologic features. We found expression of MAGE-A3/6 in 10% of primary BC tumors. MAGE-A3/6 expression was significantly correlated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) negative status and was frequent in ER (29%) and in PR (24%) tumors. MAGE-A3/6 expression was also significantly associated with high histologic grade but not with patients age, tumor size, tumor type, lymph-node invasion, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression. Consistent with the associated poor clinicopathologic features, patients with MAGE-A3/6-expressing tumors had a worse disease-specific survival as compared with patients with MAGE-A3/6 tumors. The frequent expression of MAGE-A3/6 in tumors of patients with primary HR BC, who have, for a large part, limited therapeutic options, encourages the selection of BC patients bearing MAGE-A3/6-expressing tumors for targeted immunotherapy.

  16. Long-term results of graded pneumatic dilatation under endoscopic guidance in patients with primary esophageal achalasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet Dobrucali; Yusuf Erzin; Murat Tuncer; Ahmet Dirican

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Achalasia is the best known primary motor disorder of the esophagus in which the lower esophageal sphincter(LES) has abnormally high resting pressure and incomplete relaxation with swallowing. Pneumatic dilatation remains the first choice of treatment. The aims of this study were to determine the long term clinical outcome of treating achalasia initially with pneumatic dilatation and usefulness of pneumatic dilatation technique under endoscopic observation without fluoroscopy.METHODS: A total of 65 dilatations were performed in 43patients with achalasia [23 males and 20 females, the mean age was 43 years (range, 19-73)]. All patients underwent an initial dilatation by inflating a 30 mm balloon to 15 psi under endoscopic control. The need for subsequent dilatation was based on symptom assessment. A 3.5 cm balloon was used for repeat procedures.RESULTS: The 30 mm balloon achieved a satisfactory result in 24 patients (54%) and the 35 mm ballon in 78% of the remainder (14/18). Esophageal perforation as a short-term complication was observed in one patient (2.3%). The only late complication encountered was gastroesophageal reflux in 2 (4%) patients with a good response to dilatation. The mean follow-up period was 2.4 years (6 mo - 5 years). Of the patients studied, 38 (88%) were relieved of their symptoms after only one or two sessions. Five patients were referred for surgery(one for esophageal perforation and four for persistent or recurrent symptoms). Among the patients whose follow up information was available, the percentage of patients in remission was 79% (19/24) at 1 year and54% (7/13) at 5 years.CONCLUSION: Performing balloon dilatation under endoscopic observation as an outpatient procedure is simple, safe and efficacious for treating patients with achalasia and referral of surgical myotomy should be considered for patients who do not respond to medical therapy or individuals that do not desire pneumatic dilatations.

  17. Impact of the ABCDE triage in primary care emergency department on the number of patient visits to different parts of the health care system in Espoo City

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    Kantonen Jarmo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Finnish emergency departments (ED serve both primary and secondary health care patients and are therefore referred to as combined emergency departments. Primary care doctors are responsible for the initial assessment and treatment. They, thereby, also regulate referral and access to secondary care. Primary health care EDs are easy for the public to access, leading to non-acute patient visits to the emergency department. This has caused increased queues and unnecessary difficulties in providing immediate treatment for urgent patients. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether the flow of patients was changed by implementing the ABCDE-triage system in the EDs of Espoo City, Finland. Methods The numbers of monthly visits to doctors were recorded before and after intervention in Espoo primary care EDs. To study if the implementation of the triage system redirects patients to other health services, the numbers of monthly visits to doctors were also scored in the private health care, the public sector health services of Espoo primary care during office hours and local secondary health care ED (Jorvi hospital. A face-to-face triage system was applied in the primary care EDs as an attempt to provide immediate treatment for the most acute patients. It is based on the letters A (patient sent directly to secondary care, B (to be examined within 10 min, C (to be examined within 1 h, D (to be examined within 2 h and E (no need for immediate treatment for assessing the urgency of patients' treatment needs. The first step was an initial patient assessment by a health care professional (triage nurse. The introduction of this triage system was combined with information to the public on the "correct" use of emergency services. Results After implementation of the ABCDE-triage system the number of patient visits to a primary care doctor decreased by up to 24% (962 visits/month as compared to the three previous years in the EDs

  18. A TEXTLINGUISTIC APPROACH TO THE ACTIVITIES EXISTED IN THE THEME OF ‘EMOTIONS’ IN THE TURKISH TEXTBOOK OF THE EIGTH GRADE OF PRIMARY EDUCATION

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    İlker AYDIN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this study, the activities prepared for the parsing of the short stories titled “Nerede İnsan Varsa Orada Umut Vardır, Kedi Ağaca Çıktı and Hazır Olun Fırtına Geliyor” reviewed within the context of emotions, in the Turkish textbooks of the eighth grade of primary education, were studied within the framework of the standards of the textlinguistics. The activities of the title of ‘The Understanding and Analysis of the Text’ were parsed and commented by the method of descriptive analysis but it was observed that the activities in question remained at the level of microstructure. The activities called as the word exercises are evaluated as the activities in which the functions and the contextual meanings of the words, in the fiction of the story, are not examined and which are not incompatible with the coherence and cohesion of the text and which aim only to teach the lexical meaning of the words. In the analyzed texts, it was not paid attention to the reiterations and proforms which knit the story as a whole and lead to the semantic macrostructure. In the Turkish teaching program (6-8th grades, the acquisitions of the title of ‘The Understanding and Analysis of the Text Read’ have generally a textlinguistic feature however the activities prepared to reach these acquisitions are inadequate to gain the students the competence of communication requiring the internalizing of the notion ‘text’, understanding and producing of the text by the students. In this respect, it is recommended to re-prepare the activities in the student workbooks to reveal the macrostructure of the text.

  19. Potential prescription patterns and errors in elderly adult patients attending public primary health care centers in Mexico City

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    José Antonio Corona-Rojo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available José Antonio Corona-Rojo1, Marina Altagracia-Martínez1, Jaime Kravzov-Jinich1, Laura Vázquez-Cervantes1, Edilberto Pérez-Montoya2, Consuelo Rubio-Poo31Division of Biological Sciences and Health, Metropolitan Autonomous University, Campus Xochimilco (UAM-X, Xochimilco, México; 2National Polytechnical Institute (IPN, México DF; 3Faculty of Higher Studies – Zaragoza (FES-Zaragoza, National Autonomous University of México (UNAM, México City, MéxicoIntroduction: Six out of every 10 elderly persons live in developing countries.Objective: To analyze and assess the drug prescription patterns and errors in elderly outpatients attending public health care centers in Mexico City, Mexico.Materials and methods: A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in 2007. Fourteen hundred prescriptions were analyzed. Prescriptions of ambulatory adults aged >70 years who were residents of Mexico City for at least two years were included. Prescription errors were divided into two groups: (1 administrative and legal, and (2 pharmacotherapeutic. In group 2, we analyzed drug dose strength, administration route, frequency of drug administration, treatment length, potential drug–drug interactions, and contraindications. Variables were classified as correct or incorrect based on clinical literature. Variables for each drug were dichotomized as correct (0 or incorrect (1. A Prescription Index (PI was calculated by considering each drug on the prescription. SPSS statistical software was used to process the collected data (95% confidence interval; p < 0.05.Results: The drug prescription pattern in elderly outpatients shows that 12 drugs account for 70.72% (2880 of prescribed drugs. The most prescribed drugs presented potential pharmacotherapeutic errors (as defined in the present study. Acetylsalicylic acid–captopril was the most common potential interaction (not clinically assessed. Potential prescription error was high (53% of total prescriptions. Most

  20. Social Studies: Cities in Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Brenda F.

    This elective quinmester program for grades 10 through 12 focuses upon the study of urban problems. Students analyze city problems taking into consideration ecology, city planning, model cities, and other factors in an attempt to provide creative solutions. The course is arranged into seven sections. Student activities are to: 1) discuss the…

  1. 焦作市中小学教师职业紧张状况及其影响因素%Occupational stress and its influencing factors among teachers in primary and secondary schools of Jiaozu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽敏; 张洁; 李云霞; 安伟锋; 李蓬

    2012-01-01

    group scored higher in professional tasks and coping resources. The graduating class teachers had more occupational stress tasks, stronger stress response and less coping resources. The personal stress reaction and operational stress response from strong to weak were village level, township level, district level and city level. Municipal school teachers' coping resource got the highest score. The personal stress reaction was mainly affected by grade, school level, occupational tasks overload, task boundaries, sense of responsibility, work environment and rational way. [ Conclusion] Stress problem of different degrees exist in primary and secondary school teachers in Jiaozuo City. It is necessary to reduce the teacher occupational tasks, improve working conditions and enhance the personal coping resources for prevention and control.

  2. Technology transfer from havana hospitals to primary care: yamila de armas, MD. Deputy director, provincial health department, havana city province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Dr Yamila de Armas has occupied an array of posts since finishing her residency in family medicine in her home province of Cienfuegos in 1992. She has served as a family doctor; polyclinic, municipal and provincial health director; medical school dean; and twice vice minister of public health. But few would doubt her toughest job is the one she has now: deputy director of the Havana City Provincial Health Department, in charge of medical services for the 2.2 million people living in Cuba's complex, sprawling capital. It was here in 2002-2003 that the program was launched to repair, refurbish and expand the country's nearly 500 community polyclinics. Key to the effort was equipping these facilities with a broader range of new and upgraded medical technology. Dr de Armas offers MEDICC Review her reflections on the results five years later.

  3. Primary and secondary contributions to aerosol light scattering and absorption in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Jimenez, J. L.; Aiken, A. C.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2009-06-01

    A photoacoustic spectrometer, a nephelometer, an aethalometer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to measure at ground level real-time aerosol light absorption, scattering, and chemistry at an urban site located in North East Mexico City (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexican Petroleum Institute, denoted by IMP), as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environments field experiment, MILAGRO, in March 2006. Photoacoustic and reciprocal nephelometer measurements at 532 nm accomplished with a single instrument compare favorably with conventional measurements made with an aethalometer and a TSI nephelometer. The diurnally averaged single scattering albedo at 532 nm was found to vary from 0.60 to 0.85 with the peak value at midday and the minimum value at 07:00 a.m. local time, indicating that the Mexico City plume is likely to have a net warming effect on local climate. The peak value is associated with strong photochemical generation of secondary aerosol. It is estimated that the photochemical production of secondary aerosol (inorganic and organic) is approximately 75% of the aerosol mass concentration and light scattering in association with the peak single scattering albedo. A strong correlation of aerosol scattering at 532 nm and total aerosol mass concentration was found, and an average mass scattering efficiency factor of 3.8 m2/g was determined. Comparisons of photoacoustic and aethalometer light absorption with oxygenated organic aerosol concentration (OOA) indicate a very small systematic bias of the filter based measurement associated with OOA and the peak aerosol single scattering albedo.

  4. Potential prescription patterns and errors in elderly adult patients attending public primary health care centers in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Rojo, José Antonio; Altagracia-Martínez, Marina; Kravzov-Jinich, Jaime; Vázquez-Cervantes, Laura; Pérez-Montoya, Edilberto; Rubio-Poo, Consuelo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Six out of every 10 elderly persons live in developing countries. Objective To analyze and assess the drug prescription patterns and errors in elderly outpatients attending public health care centers in Mexico City, Mexico. Materials and methods A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in 2007. Fourteen hundred prescriptions were analyzed. Prescriptions of ambulatory adults aged >70 years who were residents of Mexico City for at least two years were included. Prescription errors were divided into two groups: (1) administrative and legal, and (2) pharmacotherapeutic. In group 2, we analyzed drug dose strength, administration route, frequency of drug administration, treatment length, potential drug–drug interactions, and contraindications. Variables were classified as correct or incorrect based on clinical literature. Variables for each drug were dichotomized as correct (0) or incorrect (1). A Prescription Index (PI) was calculated by considering each drug on the prescription. SPSS statistical software was used to process the collected data (95% confidence interval; p <0.05). Results The drug prescription pattern in elderly outpatients shows that 12 drugs account for 70.72% (2880) of prescribed drugs. The most prescribed drugs presented potential pharmacotherapeutic errors (as defined in the present study). Acetylsalicylic acid–captopril was the most common potential interaction (not clinically assessed). Potential prescription error was high (53% of total prescriptions). Most of the prescription errors were due to omissions of dosage, administration route, and length of treatment and may potentially cause harm to the elderly outpatients. Conclusions A high number of potential prescription errors were found, mainly due to omissions. The drug prescription pattern of the study population is mainly constituted by 12 drugs. The results indicate that prescription quality depends on the number of prescribed drugs per prescription (p < 0

  5. Primary and secondary contributions to aerosol light scattering and absorption in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paredes-Miranda

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A photoacoustic spectrometer, a nephelometer, an aetholemeter, and an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to measure at ground level real-time aerosol light absorption, scattering, and chemistry at an urban site located in north east Mexico City (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexican Petroleum Institute, denoted by IMP, as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environments field experiment, MILAGRO, in March 2006. Photoacoustic and reciprocal nephelometer measurements at 532 nm accomplished with a single instrument compare favorably with conventional measurements made with an aethelometer and a TSI nephelometer. The diurnally averaged single scattering albedo at 532 nm was found to vary from 0.60 to 0.85 with the peak value at midday and the minimum value at 7 a.m. local time, indicating that the Mexico City plume is likely to have a net warming effect on local climate. The peak value is associated with strong photochemical generation of secondary aerosol. It is estimated that the same-day photochemical production of secondary aerosol (inorganic and organic is approximately 40 percent of the aerosol mass concentration and light scattering in association with the peak single scattering albedo. A strong correlation of aerosol scattering at 532 nm and total aerosol mass concentration was found, and an average mass scattering efficiency factor of 3.8 m2/g was determined. Comparisons of photoacoustic and aethalometer light absorption with oxygenated organic aerosol concentration (OOA indicate a very small systematic bias of the filter based measurement associated with OOA and the peak aerosol single scattering albedo.

  6. Primary and secondary contributions to aerosol light scattering and absorption in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paredes-Miranda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A photoacoustic spectrometer, a nephelometer, an aethalometer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to measure at ground level real-time aerosol light absorption, scattering, and chemistry at an urban site located in North East Mexico City (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexican Petroleum Institute, denoted by IMP, as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environments field experiment, MILAGRO, in March 2006. Photoacoustic and reciprocal nephelometer measurements at 532 nm accomplished with a single instrument compare favorably with conventional measurements made with an aethalometer and a TSI nephelometer. The diurnally averaged single scattering albedo at 532 nm was found to vary from 0.60 to 0.85 with the peak value at midday and the minimum value at 07:00 a.m. local time, indicating that the Mexico City plume is likely to have a net warming effect on local climate. The peak value is associated with strong photochemical generation of secondary aerosol. It is estimated that the photochemical production of secondary aerosol (inorganic and organic is approximately 75% of the aerosol mass concentration and light scattering in association with the peak single scattering albedo. A strong correlation of aerosol scattering at 532 nm and total aerosol mass concentration was found, and an average mass scattering efficiency factor of 3.8 m2/g was determined. Comparisons of photoacoustic and aethalometer light absorption with oxygenated organic aerosol concentration (OOA indicate a very small systematic bias of the filter based measurement associated with OOA and the peak aerosol single scattering albedo.

  7. Serum levels of GFAP and EGFR in primary and recurrent high-grade gliomas: correlation to tumor volume, molecular markers, and progression-free survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Aida; Gardberg, Maria; Frantzén, Janek; Parkkola, Riitta; Vuorinen, Ville; Pesola, Marko; Minn, Heikki

    2015-09-01

    Our aim was to study the association of two potential serum biomarkers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with prognostic markers such as IDH1 mutation, tumor burden, and survival in patients with high-grade gliomas (HGG). Additionally, our objective was to evaluate the potential of serum EGFR as a surrogate marker for EGFR status in the tumor. Pre-operative serum samples were prospectively collected from patients with primary (n = 17) or recurrent (n = 10) HGG. Serum GFAP and EGFR levels were determined by ELISA and studied for correlation with molecular markers including EGFR amplification, tumor volume in contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI, and progression-free survival (PFS). Pre-operative serum GFAP level of ≥0.014 ng/ml was 86 % sensitive and 85 % specific for the diagnosis of glioblastoma. High GFAP was related to the lack of IDH1 mutation (P = 0.016), high Ki67 proliferation index (P < 0.001), and poor PFS (HR 5.9, CI 1.2-29.9, P = 0.032). Serum GFAP correlated with enhancing tumor volume in primary (r = 0.64 P = 0.005), but also in recurrent HGGs (r = 0.76 P = 0.011). In contrast, serum EGFR levels did not differ between HGG patients and 13 healthy controls, and were not related to EGFR status in the tumor. We conclude that high serum GFAP associates with IDH1 mutation-negative HGG, and poor PFS. Correlation with tumor burden in recurrent HGG implicates the potential of serum GFAP for detection of tumor recurrence. Our results suggest that circulating EGFR is not derived from glioma cells and cannot be used as a marker for EGFR status in the tumor.

  8. Nebraska Vocational Agribusiness Curriculum for City Schools. Career Opportunities in Agribusiness. Basic Skill in Agribusiness. A Curriculum Guide. 10th Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Designed for use with high school sophomores, this agribusiness curriculum for city schools contains thirty-one units of instruction in the areas of career opportunities in agribusiness and vocational agribusiness skills. Among the units included are (1) Career Selection, (2) Parliamentary Procedure and Public Speaking, (3) Career Opportunities in…

  9. Molecular MRI differentiation between primary central nervous system lymphomas and high-grade gliomas using endogenous protein-based amide proton transfer MR imaging at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shanshan [Southern Medical University, Department of Radiology, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yu, Hao; Wang, Xianlong; Lu, Shilong; Feng, Lyujin; Wen, Zhibo [Southern Medical University, Department of Radiology, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Li, Yufa [Southern Medical University, Department of Pathology, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Yi; Heo, Hye-Young; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Zhou, Jinyuan [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To show the ability of using the amide proton transfer-weighted (APTW) MRI signals as imaging biomarkers to differentiate primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) from high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Eleven patients with lymphomas and 21 patients with HGGs were examined. Magnetization-transfer (MT) spectra over an offset range of ±6 ppm and the conventional MT ratio (MTR) at 15.6 ppm were acquired. The APTW signals, total chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer signal (integral between 0 and 5 ppm, CEST{sub total}), and MTR signal were obtained and compared between PCNSLs and HGGs. The diagnostic performance was assessed with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The PCNSLs usually showed more homogeneous APTW hyperintensity (spatially compared to normal brain tissue) than the HGGs. The APTW{sub max}, APTW{sub max-min} and CEST{sub total} signal intensities were significantly lower (P < 0.05, 0.001 and 0.05, respectively), while the APTW{sub min} and MTR were significantly higher (both P < 0.01) in PCNSL lesions than in HGG lesions. The APTW values in peritumoral oedema were significantly lower for PCNSLs than for HGGs (P < 0.01). APTW{sub max-min} had the highest area under the ROC curve (0.963) and accuracy (94.1 %) in differentiating PCNSLs from HGGs. The protein-based APTW signal would be a valuable MRI biomarker by which to identify PCNSLs and HGGs presurgically. (orig.)

  10. Sleep quality and its influencing factors among primary students in Chongqing city%重庆市主城区小学生睡眠状况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雍那; 王慧; 胡华; 蒙华庆; 陈品红; 杜莲; 屈远; 邹志礼

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the sleep quality and its influencing factors among the primary students of grade 4-6 were in Chongqing city and to provide evidence for the prevention and intervention of sleep problems in the students. Methods Totally 1 523 primary students of grade 4-6 selected with stratified randomly sampling from 9 primary schools of three Chongqing municipal urban districts and investigated using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQ1) and a self-designed questionnaire. Results The prevalence rate of sleep problems in the students was 26.2%. The overall sleep quality, sleep efficiency, sleep time, and sleep latency of the students from different schools showed significant differences (P<0.05 for all). The students averagely had 9. 32 ±0.81 hours of sleep for one night. The first three sleep disturbances were night waking or morning wake-up problems (8. 1% ), sleep-onset delays (5. 3% ) ,and hot feeling 5. 1%. There were 4. 7% of the students reporting drowsiness at least three times per week and 2. 2% reporting without energy during daytime. Logistic regression analyses revealed that grade,time of watching TV on normal school day,the number of bad hobby of the father,and bad health status of the children could influence sleep quality among the students. Conclusion The detection rate of sleep problems is high among the primary students of grade 4 - 6 in urban area of Chongqing city and the average total sleep time is shorter than the normal demand,and the situation should be concerned about.%目的 探讨重庆市主城区4-6年级小学生睡眠质量状况及影响因素,为预防和干预提供科学依据.方法 分层抽取重庆市主城3个区9所小学(重点、普通及农民工小学各3所)的1 523名4~6年级在校小学生为研究对象,采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)问卷及自设一般情况问卷进行调查.结果 小学生睡眠问题检出率为26.2%,不同层次学校小学生睡眠质量总体情况、睡眠效率、睡眠

  11. Grade 12 Standardized Departmental Tests: A Comparison of Norms of Students in the City of Toronto Secondary Schools and Ontario Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario). Research Dept.

    A battery of objective examinations administered to Grade 12 students in Toronto and Ontario consisted of tests designated as Scholastic Aptitude Test (Verbal and Mathematics Sections), World History, Economics, Algebra, and Latin. Norms were prepared on the tests for each of three groups of students: General, Technical, and Commercial. The tests…

  12. Sport injury among primary and middle school students in Shenzhen city;a retrospective study%深圳市中小学生运动伤害现况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌清琼; 王峰娟; 周丽; 吴小敏; 陈青山

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of sports injuries among primary and middle school students and to provide related preventive measures. Methods A retrospective survey on injuries during previous one year was conducted among 3 600 primary and middle school students selected by means of stratified cluster sampling in Shenzhen city. Results The incidence of sports injuries was 21.61%. The injury incidence of third grade students(9. 62% ) was lower than that of other grades. The boys had a higher injury incidence than girls (23. 93 % vs 18.40% ), the only-child higher than the non-only-child( 26. 43% vs 18. 24% ), and the children from temporary household higher than the permanent residential children (24. 07% vs 18. 53% ). Running,playing basketball and soccer,and skating/skateboard were the main sports causing injuries. The students reported 1 536 absenses of class, 4 994 days of activity limitation, and 66 460 RMB yuan of medical expenses due to the injuries. Classification tree analysis showed that playing was the most important risk factor and the boys who liked playing and imitation or mischief were at a higher risk of injury. Conclusion The rate of sport injuries among school children in Shenzhen city is high. Safe management and education should be strengthened in order to prevent injuries among the school children.%目的 了解广东省深圳市中小学生运动伤害现况及影响因素,以减少运动伤害的发生.方法 分层整群抽取3 540名深圳市中小学生,回顾性调查1年间运动伤害情况.结果 中小学运动伤害发生率为21.61%,3年级(9.62%)低于其他年级,男生(23.93%)高于女生(18.40%),独生子女(26.43%)高于非独生子女(18.24%),暂住户籍(24.07%)高于本地户籍(18.53%);导致伤害的运动主要是跑步(31.76%)和篮球(26.93%);不同运动导致伤害的部位和伤害后果不同,伤害后累计缺课1 536节,活动受限4 994.5 d,医疗费用66 460元;分类树分析显示,打

  13. 西安市城区六年级超重肥胖学生BMI及其影响因素分析%The BMI of the sixth grade students with overweight and obesity in Xi'an city and their related influencing fac-tors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 张月芳; 杨丽芳; 俱西驰; 张欢; 郭萌

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解西安城区六年级超重肥胖学生饮食、运动状况,为制定儿童超重肥胖的预防措施提供科学依据。方法回顾性分析西安城区295名六年级超重肥胖小学生2009-2012年体重指数(BM I)变化情况;问卷调查其饮食习惯及运动状况。结果2009-2012年超重肥胖学生BM I值呈逐年上升趋势( P<0.001)。超重肥胖儿童食欲好、进食速度快、每天坚持吃早餐人数少、喜吃甜食、有睡前加餐及喝奶习惯。超重肥胖学生看电视打游戏的时间长,而户外运动时间短。结论不良的饮食习惯及静态活动多而户外活动少等是小学高年级学生发展为超重肥胖儿童的影响因素。%Objective To invesgate diet habits and movement conditions for the sixth grade students with overweight and obesity in Xi'an City ,and provide scientific preventive measures about overweight and obesity .Methods 295 sixth grade students with overweight and obesity from Xi'an City were studied about body mass index (BMI) changes in 2009-2012 years ;known their diet habits and movement type through questionnaires .Results Their BMI value increased year by year (P<0 . 001) .The students had some bad habits ,including overeating ,eating fast and eating breakfast fewer .They liked eating sweets and snacks ,drinking milk before sleep .They spended much more time on watching TV and playing games .Their outdoor sports time was shorter .Conclusion The influencing factors about overweight and obese of high grade students in primary school are various ,mainly including bad diet habits and more static activities and less outdoor activities .

  14. Correlation of expression pattern of aquaporin-1 in primary central nervous system tumors with tumor type, grade, proliferation, microvessel density, contrast-enhancement and perilesional edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabal Deb

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: AQP1-immunoexpression had a good correlation with high-grade tumors. AQP-upregulation in perilesional areas of high-grade tumors suggests its role in vasogenic edema. Further studies involving other AQP molecules, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α should be undertaken to evaluate its possible role as a potential surrogate marker of high-grade tumors heralding poor outcome, inhibition of which may serve as the basis for future targeted therapy.

  15. Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Sudanese Primary School Pupils in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayri, Hiba O; Muneer, Siddig E; Ahmed, Saifeldeen B; Osman, Magdi A; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted in Saudi Arabia to assess the nutritional status of primary school Sudanese pupils and explore its' correlates. Anthropometric measurements of 400 (200 males and 200 females) students of age 6-12 were taken. Their daily food intake was assessed using food frequency and 24 h recall method. Data about the socio-economic characteristics of the students' families was collected through personal interview using a questionnaire. The study revealed that 31 and 8.75 % of the respondents suffer from underweight and overweight, respectively. The respondents' average daily intake of calories and fiber was significantly lower than that of the DRI, while their intake of protein, carbohydrates, unsaturated fat, some vitamins and iron was significantly higher than that of the DRI (unbalanced meals). Apart from the family monthly income none of the hypothesized predictors of the respondents' nutritional status were found to be significantly correlated with the students' nutritional status indicators.

  16. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  17. Human Resources and Vaccine Management at Provincial Health Office, District/City Health Office and Primary Health Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Leny Susyanty

    2015-03-01

    (GAIN UCI 2010–2014 stated that the general problems of decline in immunization coverage and quality of service were caused by several things, one of which is the lack of quantity, quality and distribution of human resources. Methods: A cross-sectional mix-method study to investigate human resources in vaccine management had been conducted in two provinces in 2012. Primary data were collected by interviewing stakeholders thoroughly, secondary data collection and observation were also carried out. Analysis was done by scoring for data concerning education, length of employment, training experience and knowledge. Result:The number of Vaccine management officers are still lacking. While the immunization guidelines required minimal two officers for each health centers. Officers’ knowledge in primary health centers is still inadequate, especially in terms of the vaccine and Coldchain (Ice Lined Refrigerators. Officers at Provincial Health Office had been trained in vaccine management, but not all officers at District Health Office and Primary Health Centers had received training yet. Suggestion: This study suggests the addition of the quantity and quality of human resources in vaccine management, because the officers can affect the quality of the vaccines, because vaccines need a special handling to maintain the quality to provide immunity and prevent the occurrence of diseases that can be prevented by immunization (PD3I.Key words: vaccine, human resources, training, knowledge

  18. 2009-2011年无锡市南长区中小学生视力情况%Vision status of primary and middle school students in Nanchang district of Wuxi City from 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲晓芸; 邱娴颖

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解2009-2011年无锡市南长区中小学生视力不良情况,为进一步开展青少年视力防治提供依据,寻找影响因素,制定预防策略.方法 对南长区15所小学、4所中学在校学生进行现场视力检测.采用标准对数视力灯箱逐个检查受试者左、右眼裸眼视力.结果 2009-2011年南长区中小学生50 054人,视力不良率为38.47%,3年视力不良率分别为39.07%,38.26%和38.08%,学生视力不良率随学习阶段升高而递增,不同学习阶段的视力不良率差异有统计学意义.结论 南长区中小学生视力情况不容乐观,应针对中小学生的视力问题,有关部门要根据实际情况改善校舍硬件条件和学习环境,同时对于预防近视进行大力宣教,提供安全有效的预防、矫治措施,有效控制近视的发生和发展.%[ Objective ] To understand the status of poor eyesight among primary and middle school students in Nanchang District of Wuxi City from 2009-2011, provide a basis for further implementation of vision prevention in adolescents, find out the influencing factors, and develop the preventive strategies. [ Methods] The field visual inspection was conducted in students from 15 primary schools and 4 secondary schools in Nanchang District. The visual acuity of left and right eye of students was respectively detected by standardized logarithmic visual light box. [Results] A total of 50 054 students were investigated during 2009-2011, the incidence rate of poor eyesight was 38. 47% , and the annual incidence rate was 39. 07% ,38. 26% and 38. 08% , respectively. The incidence rate of poor eyesight increased with increasing grade, and there was significant difference in the incidence of poor eyesight among different grades. [ Conclusion] The vision status of primary and middle school students Nanchang District is not optimistic. The related departments should improve the schoolhouse hardware and learning environment, strengthen the

  19. PSYCHOTROPIC MEDICINE PRESCRIPTIONS IN A PRIMARY CARE UNIT IN A BIG CITY OF SÃO PAULO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Oliveira da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming toknowthe consumptionprofileof psychotropic drugs inpopulation ofperipheral region of abig cityof São Paulo State, 800 prescriptionsfromaPrimary CareUnitareassessedaccordingto344/98-SVS/MS.In that timethecontrolof these drugs were mademanually.The results showed1371 drugsdispensedandamong those1134were psychotropic.Thetotal was64,513pillunits, an average of 107 units with 1.7 drugs per prescription, while82.1% came from public services. The total number of drugs prescribed per prescription had themajority (60.0% onedrug, 20.3%, two drugs, three drugs 11.6%, 6.6% four or moremedications, including those not controlled (14% . Twenty drugswerenot on the standard list.Of controlled, 78.4% belonged to theclassC1 and21.6% toB1.There is a large consumption ofpsychotropic medications for thispoorpopulation, with a prevalence of antidepressants. Thesubsequent implementation of the computerized system significantly reduced the units dispensed,indicating that forms of management are factors to be considered in the rational use of drugs,such as the use of technologies and also the wide range of approaches to health education, such astraining of health professionals, including prescribers

  20. Anemia status of primary and middle school students in Pingdu city%平度市中小学生贫血状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋转; 李芹; 臧金林

    2015-01-01

    目的::分析平度市中小学生贫血患病状况,为制定更有针对性的贫血防治措施提供依据.方法:利用2010年平度市学生体质与健康调研所获得的贫血患病数据进行统计学分析.结果:2010年平度市共调查中小学生997人,贫血检出率为3.71%,随着年龄的增加,学生贫血检出率逐渐增高(χ2=15.53,P =0.0037),各年龄组性别比较,14岁组和17岁组男女比较有统计学意义(P <0.001),女生贫血率明显高于男生.结论:平度市中小学生贫血检出率较低,但应注意17岁年龄组学生的贫血情况,尤其是女生,加强健康干预,防治缺铁性贫血,提高儿童身体健康和智力发育水平.%Objective:To know the anemia status of primary and middle school students in Pingdu city and provide the basis for mak-ing more effective preventive therapy strategies.Methods:The surveillance data of anemia of school students in Pingdu city during 2010 were statistically analyzed.Results:A total of 997 students were surveyed in 2010 ,the incidence of anemia was 3.71 %.The rate of inci-dence of anemia was higher with the students,age increased and there was significant difference(χ2 =1 5.53,P =0.0037).The incidence of anemia in girls was significantly higher than that in boys of 14、1 7 ages(P <0.001)Conclusion:The rate of incidence of anemia of students was lower in Pingdu city,while it is necessary to pay attention to the anemia of 1 7-age group especially girl students.Improve the imple-mentation of health education in schools and enhance the self health care consciousness in students to maintain the low incidence of anemia.

  1. 浅析绵阳生态城市建设%Primary Analysis for the Establishment of Ecological City of Mianyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新合

    2005-01-01

    This paper probes into the establishment of ecological city of Mianyang and directive thoughts, measures,and countermoves are put forward based on analyzing the current situation about ecological environment of Mianyang City.

  2. 如何实施小学高年级语文阅读教学%How to Implement the Teaching of Chinese Reading in Senior Grade of Primary School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡黎红

    2014-01-01

    In the process of primary school Chinese teaching of senior grade,reading teaching is an important part of the grade five or six years of primary school Chinese teaching to cultivate the focus should be on the students’ reading ability and writing ability. Therefore,the article the author’s own teaching practice and experience, analyzes how to improve the Chinese teaching of the elementary school higher grades, promoting elementary student’s reading ability, improve efficiency of primary school Chinese teaching.%在小学语文高年级教学的过程中,阅读教学是其重要组成部分,五六年级的小学语文教学培养重点应该是学生的阅读能力与写作能力。因此,结合教学实践以及经验,对如何提高小学高年级的语文教学进行分析,旨在提升小学生的阅读能力,提升小学语文教学的效率。

  3. Attribution of primary formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide at Texas City during SHARP/formaldehyde and olefins from large industrial releases (FLAIR) using an adjoint chemistry transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, Eduardo P.; Herndon, Scott C.; Buzcu-Guven, Birnur; Kolb, Charles E.; Brown, Michael J.; Cuclis, Alex E.

    2013-10-01

    adjoint version of the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) neighborhood air quality model with 200 m horizontal resolution, coupled offline to the Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC-URB) fast response urban wind model, was used to perform 4-D variational (4Dvar) inverse modeling of an industrial release of formaldehyde (HCHO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Texas City, Texas during the 2009 Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP). The source attribution was based on real-time observations by the Aerodyne mobile laboratory and a high resolution 3-D digital model of the emitting petrochemical complex and surrounding urban canopy. The inverse model estimate of total primary HCHO emitted during the incident agrees very closely with independent remote sensing estimates based on both Imaging and Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Whereas a previous analysis of Imaging DOAS data attributed the HCHO release to a Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU), the HARC model attributed most of the HCHO event emissions to both the FCCU and desulfurization processes. Fugitives contributed significantly to primary HCHO, as did combustion processes, whereas the latter accounted for most SO2 event emissions. The inferred HCHO-to-SO2 molar emission ratio was similar to that computed directly from ambient air measurements during the release. The model-estimated HCHO-to-CO molar emission ratio for combustion units with significant inferred emissions ranged from 2% to somewhat less than 7%, consistent with other observationally-based estimates obtained during SHARP. A model sensitivity study demonstrated that the inclusion of urban morphology has a significant, but not critical, impact on the source attribution.

  4. Potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol in the Mexico City region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors, at least using current mechanisms and parameterizations. In this study, the 3-D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to quantify the contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic vapors (S/IVOC in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to include explicitly the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA, their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007 ("ROB" and Grieshop et al. (2009 ("GRI" are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. The 3-D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS data, and for the first time also with oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements.

    The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (3–6 times with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009, both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. The predicted anthropogenic POA levels are found to agree within 20% with the observed HOA concentrations for both the ROB and GRI simulations, consistent with the interpretation of the emissions inventory by previous studies. The impact of biomass burning POA within the city is underestimated in comparison to the AMS BBOA, presumably due to insufficient nighttime smoldering emissions. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal

  5. Microorganisms and viruses causing diarrhea in infants and primary school children and their relation with age and sex in Zakho city, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijdan M.S. Mero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diarrheal diseases in children are a major public health concern in developing countries. Diarrheal infection spreads through contaminated food or drinking-water, or from person-to-person as a result of poor hygiene. This study was conducted to investigate the incidence of different microorganisms associated with diarrhea in infants and primary school children and their relation to sex and age in Zakho city, Kurdistan region, Iraq. Methods: During the period from September 2013 to May 2014, 600 diarrheic samples were collected from both sexes and different ages (4-8 years (65.38 and 64.07%, while parasites were among >6-10 years (64.67 and 60.11%. High viral prevalence were recorded among ages <2 to 6 years with the peak among <2 years (40.54%. Conclusions: From this study we conclude that about 57% of diarrheal cases were associated with bacteria, parasites, and viruses with E. coli, E. histolytica, G. lamblia and rotavirus as leading microorganisms. The mixed prevalence with two or more microorganisms was documented in 179 (37.36% out of 479 positive samples and the rate of microbial prevalence was found to be gender and age dependent. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3266-3273

  6. 柳州市2004与2007年中小学生视力不良状况比较%Analysis on the poor eyesight situation of primary and middle school students in Liuzhou City in 2004 and 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严志玲; 王萍; 韦琳; 杨兵华

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解和掌握柳州市中小学生视力不良状况,为中小学生近视防治工作提供科学依据.方法 对柳州市2004年与2007年中小学生体质健康监测资料中的视力监测结果进行统计分析.结果 2004年检测中小学生77291名,视力不良检出率为38.04%;2007年检测学生65363名,视力不良检出率为50.00%,2007年学生视力不良检出率较2004年明显上升(JP<0.01).随着年级的增高,学生视力不良检出率明显上升,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).女生视力不良检出率高于男生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).从视力不良程度构成看,随着学段的升高,中、重度所占比例逐渐增加.结论 应采取综合性的预防干预措施,有效控制和降低青少年视力不良的发生和发展.%Objective To know and master the poor eyesight situation of primary and middle school students in Liuzhou city so as to provide scientific basis for the prevention and treatment. Methods The vision data of Liuzhou city' s primary and middle school students' health monitoring in 2004, and 2007 were statistically analyzed. Results Among the 77 291 students who were tested in 2004, the rate was 38.04%, and among the 65 363 students who were tested, the rate was 50%, obviously higher than that in 2004 ( P < 0.01 ). The rate of the students' poor eyesight was obviously increasing with grade, with the difference being statistically significant ( P < 0.01 ) and the girl students' was higher than boys' . The difference was also statistically significant( P <0.01 ). In the composition of the rate of poor eyesight, the constituent ratio from slight to medium and serious increased gradually with age. Conclusion It is necessary to take comprehensive preventive intervention measures to fundamentally and effectively control and decrease the occurrence and development of teenagers' poor eyesight.

  7. On the Current Situation and Countermeasures of Prima-ry School Writing Grading%小学作文评改现状及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉

    2015-01-01

    Students' interest in writing determines the effective-ness of writing teaching, while the traditional refined model of writing grading wastes a lot of time and energy, and even becomes the top factor reducing students' interest in writing, and leading to a vicious circle of writing teaching in which teachers are disgust-ed with writing grading and students are disgusted with writing. Therefore, we should break the traditional model of writing grad-ing, clarify the grading standards, implement grade evaluation, encourage students' self-grading and carry out online grading, in order to improve the efficiency of writing grading and stimulate students' interest in writing.%学生作文兴趣的高低决定着作文教学的成败,然而传统的教师精批细改的作文评改模式,耗时费力,收效甚微,甚至成为扼杀学生作文兴趣的罪魁祸首,使作文教学陷入了教师厌改、学生厌写的恶性循环。打破传统作文评改模式,明确评改标准,实行等级评价,鼓励学生自改和实行网络评改可以提高作文评改效率,激发学生作文兴趣。

  8. Cost-effectiveness study of oral hypoglycemic agents in the treatment of outpatients with type 2 diabetes attending a public primary care clinic in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León-Castañeda, Christian Díaz; Altagracia-Martínez, Marina; Kravzov-Jinich, Jaime; Cárdenas-Elizalde, Ma del Rosario; Moreno-Bonett, Consuelo; Martínez-Núñez, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, diabetes mellitus presents a high burden for individuals and society. In Latin America, many people with diabetes have limited access to health care, which means that indirect costs may exceed direct health care cost. Diabetes is Mexico’s leading cause of death. Purpose To evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratios of the most used oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) in the treatment of outpatients with type 2 diabetes attending a public primary care clinic in Mexico City. Design A cross-sectional and analytic study was conducted in Mexico City. Methodology Twenty-seven adult outpatients with type 2 diabetes who were treated either with metformin or glibenclamide were included. Acarbose was used as an alternative strategy. The study was carried out from the perspective of Mexican society. Direct medical and nonmedical costs as well as indirect costs were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Efficacies of all drug treatments were evaluated retrospectively. A systematic search was conducted to select published randomized clinical trials based on predetermined inclusion criteria, and treatment success was defined as glycosylated hemoglobin factor ≤ 7%. Efficacy data of each drug and/or combination were analyzed using meta-analysis. The Monte Carlo Markov model was used. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) were used as the unit of effectiveness; incremental and sensitive analyses were performed and a 5% discount rate was calculated. A hypothetical cohort of 10,000 patients was modeled. Results The odds ratios of the success of each drug treatment were obtained from the meta-analyses, and were the following: 5.82 (glibenclamide), 3.86 (metformin), 3.5 (acarbose), and 6.76 (metformin–glibenclamide). The cost-effectiveness ratios found were US$272.63/QALY (glibenclamide), US$296.48/QALY (metformin), and US$409.86/QALY (acarbose). Sensitivity analysis did not show changes for the most cost-effective therapy when the effectiveness probabilities or

  9. Cost-effectiveness study of oral hypoglycemic agents in the treatment of outpatients with type 2 diabetes attending a public primary care clinic in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas-Elizalde MR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Christian Díaz de León-Castañeda, Marina Altagracia-Martínez, Jaime Kravzov-Jinich, Ma del Rosario Cárdenas-Elizalde, Consuelo Moreno-Bonett, Juan Manuel Martínez-NúñezDepartment of Biological Systems and Health Care, Biological and Health Sciences Division, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Mexico DF, MexicoIntroduction: Worldwide, diabetes mellitus presents a high burden for individuals and society. In Latin America, many people with diabetes have limited access to health care, which means that indirect costs may exceed direct health care cost. Diabetes is Mexico's leading cause of death.Purpose: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratios of the most used oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA in the treatment of outpatients with type 2 diabetes attending a public primary care clinic in Mexico City.Design: A cross-sectional and analytic study was conducted in Mexico City.Methodology: Twenty-seven adult outpatients with type 2 diabetes who were treated either with metformin or glibenclamide were included. Acarbose was used as an alternative strategy. The study was carried out from the perspective of Mexican society. Direct medical and nonmedical costs as well as indirect costs were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Efficacies of all drug treatments were evaluated retrospectively. A systematic search was conducted to select published randomized clinical trials based on predetermined inclusion criteria, and treatment success was defined as glycosylated hemoglobin factor ≤ 7%. Efficacy data of each drug and/or combination were analyzed using meta-analysis. The Monte Carlo Markov model was used. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY were used as the unit of effectiveness; incremental and sensitive analyses were performed and a 5% discount rate was calculated. A hypothetical cohort of 10,000 patients was modeled.Results: The odds ratios of the success of each drug treatment were obtained from the meta-analyses, and were the

  10. Obese Chinese Primary-School Students and Low Self-Esteem: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Xue-Yan; Li Dong-Mei; Xu Dan-Dan; Zhou Le-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine several factors related to low self-esteem among obese Chinese primary-school students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2009 and June 2010. A total of 1,410 primary-school students (China grades 4 - 6) in Changsha city were divided into normal weight (n = 1,084), overweight (n = 211), and obese groups (n = 115) according to world health organization (WHO) g...

  11. DENGUE VECTOR CONTROL BEHAVIOR IN PRIMARY SCHOOL COMMUNITY IN TEMBALANG DISTRICT, SEMARANG CITY=PENGENDALIAN VEKTOR DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE PADA KOMUNITAS SEKOLAH DASAR DI KECAMATAN TEMBALANG, KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryani Pujiyanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISHAbstractTembalang district was a Dengue endemic area in Semarang City that had a highest incidence rate of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF in 2010. Aedes vector control behavior was still low. School community’s vector control behavior played a role in dengue prevention programs in schools. The purpose of the study was to identify knowledge, attitude and behavior of dengue vector control in primary school community. This study used across sectional design. Samples were 107 primary school teachers and janitors in Tembalang District, Semarang City in 2011. Sampel was choosed with proportional random sampling method. Data were collected through interviews using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed descriptively (univariat analysis. Results showed that school community awareness in dengue transmission was low because respondents did not know about secondary infection of DHF and the existence of Aedes mosquito that perceived unserious in community. Respondents did not feel as risk population because dengue was understood as a disease that attacked school children rather than adults. The effectiveness of mosquito nest eradication (PSN for vector control activity in Tembalang District did not have positive response from school community. Vector control and biting prevention in school environment were need improvement. This study recommended health promotion to DHF infection, mosquito nest eradication activities, and DHF vector behavior for teacher and janitorsINDONESIANAbstrakKecamatan Tembalang merupakan wilayah endemis DBD dengan angka kesakitan DBD tertinggi di Kota Semarang pada Tahun 2010.Perilaku pengendalian jentik nyamuk Aedes di lingkungan sekolah di Kecamatan Tembalang masih rendah. Pemahaman komunitas sekolah terhadap upaya pengendalian vektor ikut berperan dalam program pencegahan DBD di sekolah.Tujuan penelitian adalah mengidentifikasi pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku pengendalian vektor DBD pada komunitas sekolah dasar

  12. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers: a comparative study of two cities in Saudi Arabia and Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M. Abou Shady

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and molecular data on community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(CA-MRSA are still scarce in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There is almost no data regarding methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA prevalence in both countries. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureusand MRSA nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers in two big cities in both countries. A total of 206 nasal swabs were obtained, 103 swabs from each country. S. aureusisolates were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, presence of mecAand PVL genes, SCCmec-typing and spa typing, the corresponding Multi locus sequence typing clonal complex was assigned for each spa type based on Ridom StaphType database. MRSA was detected in 32% of the Egyptian outpatients while it was found in 25% of the Saudi Arabian outpatients. All MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec type V and IVa, where some isolates in Saudi Arabia remained nontypeable. Surprisingly PVL+ isolates were low in frequency: 15% of MRSA Egyptian isolates and 12% of MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. Two novel spa types were detected t11839 in Egypt, and t11841 in Saudi Arabia. We found 8 spa types among 20 isolates from Egypt, and 12 spa types out of 15 isolates from Saudi Arabia. Only two spa types t008 and t223 coexisted in both countries. Four clonal complexes (CC5, CC8, CC22, and CC80 were identified in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. However, the data collected lacked a representation of isolates from different parts of each country as only one health center from each country was included, it still partially illustrates the CA-MRSA situation in both countries. In conclusion a set of control measures is required to prevent further increase in MRSA prevalence.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers: a comparative study of two cities in Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Shady, Hala M; Bakr, Alaa Eldin A; Hashad, Mahmoud E; Alzohairy, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and molecular data on community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are still scarce in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There is almost no data regarding methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence in both countries. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers in two big cities in both countries. A total of 206 nasal swabs were obtained, 103 swabs from each country. S. aureus isolates were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, presence of mecA and PVL genes, SCCmec-typing and spa typing, the corresponding Multi locus sequence typing clonal complex was assigned for each spa type based on Ridom StaphType database. MRSA was detected in 32% of the Egyptian outpatients while it was found in 25% of the Saudi Arabian outpatients. All MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec type V and IVa, where some isolates in Saudi Arabia remained nontypeable. Surprisingly PVL(+) isolates were low in frequency: 15% of MRSA Egyptian isolates and 12% of MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. Two novel spa types were detected t11839 in Egypt, and t11841 in Saudi Arabia. We found 8 spa types among 20 isolates from Egypt, and 12 spa types out of 15 isolates from Saudi Arabia. Only two spa types t008 and t223 coexisted in both countries. Four clonal complexes (CC5, CC8, CC22, and CC80) were identified in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. However, the data collected lacked a representation of isolates from different parts of each country as only one health center from each country was included, it still partially illustrates the CA-MRSA situation in both countries. In conclusion a set of control measures is required to prevent further increase in MRSA prevalence.

  14. Evaluation of the Volatility Basis-Set Approach for Modeling Primary and Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Pandis, S. N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    Anthropogenic air pollution is an increasingly serious problem for public health, agriculture, and global climate. Organic material (OM) contributes ~ 20-50% to the total fine aerosol mass at continental mid-latitudes. Although OM accounts for a large fraction of PM2.5 concentration worldwide, the contributions of primary and secondary organic aerosol have been difficult to quantify. In this study, new primary and secondary organic aerosol modules were added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (Gaydos et al., 2007), for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism (Carter, 2000; ENVIRON, 2006) based on recent smog chamber studies (Robinson et al., 2007). The new modeling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach (Lane et al., 2007): both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. The emission inventory, which uses as starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory (CAM, 2006), is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments (Robinson et al., 2007). Sensitivity tests where POA is considered as nonvolatile and POA and SOA as chemically reactive are also described. In all cases PMCAMx is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during March 2006. The modeling domain covers a 180x180x6 km region in the MCMA with 3x3 km grid resolution. The model predictions are compared with Aerodyne's Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) observations from the MILAGRO Campaign. References Robinson, A. L.; Donahue, N. M.; Shrivastava, M. K.; Weitkamp, E. A.; Sage, A. M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Lane, T. E.; Pandis, S. N.; Pierce, J. R., 2007. Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging. Science 315, 1259-1262. Gaydos, T. M.; Pinder, R. W.; Koo, B.; Fahey, K. M.; Pandis, S. N., 2007. Development and application of a three- dimensional aerosol

  15. Endometrium is not the primary site of origin of pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Welmoed; Mourits, Marian J. E.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Hollema, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma has been proposed to be a potential precursor lesion of pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma. If true, an increased incidence of uterine papillary serous carcinomas would be expected in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, who are at high-risk of developing p

  16. Technical Adequacy of the easyCBM Primary-Level Mathematics Measures (Grades K-2), 2009-2010 Version. Technical Report #1006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Saez, Leilani; Jamgochian, Elisa; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    In the following technical report, we present evidence of the technical adequacy of the easyCBM[R] math measures in grades K-2. In addition to reliability information, we present criterion-related validity evidence, both concurrent and predictive, and construct validity evidence. The results represent data gathered throughout the 2009/2010 school…

  17. Profiles of Child Developmental Dimensions in Kindergarten and the Prediction of Achievement in the First and Second Grades of Primary School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mascareño, Mayra; Doolaard, Simone; Bosker, Roel J.

    2014-01-01

    A successful transition from kindergarten to 1st grade requires a positive combination of multiple dimensions of child competence. Using latent class analysis, we simultaneously examined the academic skills, work attitude, and social/behavioral competence of a large sample of Dutch kindergarten chil

  18. 河南省中小城市小学英语语音教学的现状及反思%Reflection and current situation of English pronunciation teaching in Henan small and medium-sized city primary school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海燕

    2013-01-01

    Under the second level of phonetic learning objectives set by the new curriculum standards, based on Xuchang City, Xinxiang City, Zhumadian City in Henan province, the primary school English teaching fieldwork, reflects the present situation of primary school phonetic teaching, elaborates the importance of the phonetic learning and learning strategy in primary school English teaching, and proposes the cultivation of students’ phonological awareness in English teaching, and then puts forward the specific teaching strategies of how to form the effective phonetic teaching.%  根据新课程标准所设置的二级语音学习的目标,基于对河南省许昌市、新乡市、驻马店市的小学英语教学的实地考察,反思了目前小学语音教学的现状,强调了小学英语教学过程中语音学习和学习策略的重要性,提出了要在小学英语教学中培养英语语音意识,并就如何进行有效的语音教学提出了具体的教学策略。

  19. 基于遥感分析的城市土地定级技术研究——以武汉市为例%RESEARCHES ON URBAN LAND GRADING TECHNIQUES BASED ON REMOTE SENSING ANALYSIS: A CASE STUDY OF WUHAN CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉梅

    2009-01-01

    Urban land grading is very important in land management and pricing and is also time-consuming and expensive. In this paper, remote sensing observations were employed in the land grading system for updating land grading results timely and accurately. MODIS NDVI and LST images of Wuhan City were used as surface grading factors and applied to a quantitative evaluation of the living environment of Wuhan. Compared with traditional methods, the remote sensing analysis has the merit that the land grading results of Wuhan City can be conveniently updated with a shorter time, higher efficiency and more accurate results.%在城镇土地定级方法中引入遥感数据分析,提出了应用遥感数据量化定级因子,实现土地定级快速更新的可行方案.以武汉市为例,利用MODIS植被指数和陆表温度产品,准确量化环境因子对定级单元的作用,快速更新武汉市土地定级成果,缩短了更新时间,提高了工作效率,优化了更新成果.

  20. Aprendizagem de conceitos geométricos pelo futuro professor das séries iniciais do Ensino Fundamental e as novas tecnologias Geometric concepts learning by the future primary grades teacher in primary education and new technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raquel Miotto Morelatti

    2006-12-01

    , the student who learned through this curriculum did not learn enough about Geometry and is not able to realize the relationship about this content and the reality. On the other hand, the teacher who does not know Geometry is not able to notice the beauty and the importance of this subject to the individual development. Geometry instigates the child to observe and notice similarities, differences; as well as to identify irregularities. The aim of this paper is to identify the knowledge level of the students from Specific Center of Teachers' Formation and Improvement (CEFAM, who are future primary grades teachers of São Paulo State, about the concepts of point, straight line, plain, angles, polygons and circumferences; and to verify the contributions of computer for building these geometric concepts. Thus, we have leaded a research with 30 students of CEFAM from Presidente Prudente-SP. Based on the identification of learning difficulties we organized and developed the intervention - formation schema, using the computer as a learning instrument and work projects that were supported by the Constructionist approach. The future teacher who does not understand Geometry will not be able to contribute for the development of the geometric notion of a child. This notion is the one that able the child to observe, understand, describe and represent, in organized way, the world where we live.

  1. 小学低年级数学教学中如何培养学生的自主学习能力%How to Cultivate Students’Autonomous Learning Ability of Lower Grade of Primary School Mathematics Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李占魁

    2014-01-01

    Students is the main body of Learning,teaching can only is more smooth when the students have a good self-learning ability, the learning efficiency can be improved. In view of this,the low grade of primary school mathematics teaching how to cultivate students’ autonomous learning ability is discussed.%学习的主体是学生,只有当学生具备良好的自主学习能力时教学才能进行的更加顺利,其自身的学习效率也才能真正得到提升。

  2. THE EFFECT OF A FIGURE WHERE SYMMETRY USED IN TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS IS APPLIED ON WRITING SKILLS OF TURKISH LANGUAGE AND PRIMARY MATHEMATICS TEACHING 1ST GRADE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mine AKTAŞ; Özlem BAYRAK CÖMERT

    2011-01-01

    With this study, it is aimed to afford an artistic development for science of mathematics with using literary language and learn with associating visual themes and imaginariness in essays. In the study, different written expression works, which are composed about same symmetric figure, of first grade preservice teachers of Turkish Language and Mathematics Teaching are compared.This study will put forth the grasp of communication skill of preservice students who are implementers of new program...

  3. 重庆市主城区小学高年级学生行为问题调查%An Epidemiology Study on Child Behavior Problems among High-Grade Primary School Students in Chongqing Urban Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱田; 杜莲; 胡华; 蒙华庆; 傅一笑; 罗庆华; 邱海棠

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and related factors of behavior problems among the high-grade primary school students (in Grade 4 to Grade 6) in Chongqing urban area. Methods By means of cross-sectional survey, a total of 3 137 high-grade primary school students in Chongqing urban area were investigated with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, version for parents) and self-designed basic information questionnaire. Results The relevance ratio of behavior problems was 27.26%. The univariate analysis revealed that type of school, grade, residential and family environment, and parental attitude toward children had effects on children's behavior problems with significance difference (P<0.05). The stepwise regression revealed that grade, educational level of father, healthy conditions of parents, family structure, academic performance and parental attitude toward children were the independent and main influencing factors (P<0.05). Conclusion The relevance ratio of behavior problems among high-grade primary school students in Chongqing urban area is much higher, which is related to the following factors: family situation, parental attitude toward children, social and school environment. It indicates that the status of children's mental heath is not optimistic in Chongqing urban area. Comprehensive measures combining family, school with psychologist should be taken to reduce the prevalence of behavioral problems.%目的 了解重庆市主城区小学高年级(4~6年级)学生行为问题发生率和特点,并探究其相关影响因素.方法 采用横断面调查的方法,应用儿童行为量表(CBCL)(家长版)和自制的一般情况调查问卷,对重庆市主城区3137名小学高年级学生进行调查与分析.结果 本次调查的3137名小学生中行为问题检出率为27.26%.单因素分析结果显示,小学生行为问题发生在学校类型、所在年级、学生家庭情况、父母管教态度及居住环境等因素水平上

  4. Recalled Test Anxiety in Relation to Achievement, in the Context of General Academic Self-Concept, Study Habits, Parental Involvement and Socio-Economic Status among Grade 6 Ethiopian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. Mohan; Asfaw, Abebech

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive nature of test anxiety on achievement in the presence of perceived general academic self-concept, study habits, parental involvement in children's learning and socio-economic status. From a population of 2482 Grade 6 students from seven government primary schools of a sub-city in Addis Ababa, 497 participants…

  5. 小学低年级识字回生现象及解决路径%Phenomenon and solution ways of the literacy retrogradation phenomenon of lower grade of primary school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爽; 王安全

    2013-01-01

    The new curriculum reform, primary school lower grade literacy amount increases in literacy, pressure, low grade primary school students have read retrogradation phenomenon.This comprehensive literacy retrogradation phenomenon is analyzed, that the reason mainly has:literacy retrogradation of teachers' literacy, light to read and write, literacy teaching mode, lack of innovation, the students review not properly consolidate method. According to the author read retrogradation phenomenon of read-write combination, diversified literacy method, optimization of review and consolidate the lower literacy retrogradation rate.%  新课程改革后,小学低年级识字量增大,在识字压力增大的情况下,小学低年级学生出现了识字回生现象。本文针对识字回生现象进行了综合分析,认为出现识字回生的原因主要有:教师重识字,轻读写、识字教学模式化,缺乏创新性、学生复习巩固方法不得当。针对识字回生现象笔者提出了通过读写结合、多元化的识字方法、优化复习巩固降低识字回生率。

  6. 小学低年级亲子阅读的问题分析与指导策略%The Problem Analysis and Guidance Strategies of Parent - Child Reading in the Primary Grades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玲

    2014-01-01

    Parent-child reading is an important way to cultivate children’s independent reading ability.But the research focuses on parent-child reading in the primary grades is not paid so much attention.After analyzing the current situation of parent-child reading in the primary grades,the author points out the problems and put forward with guidance strategies.%亲子阅读是培养儿童基本阅读能力、引导他们迈向自主阅读的重要方式。目前,专门针对小学低年级段亲子阅读活动开展研究的比较少。在深入调查小学低年级亲子阅读现状的基础上,文章梳理与剖析了当前亲子阅读存在的一些问题,并提出了相应的解决策略。

  7. THE EFFECT OF A FIGURE WHERE SYMMETRY USED IN TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS IS APPLIED ON WRITING SKILLS OF TURKISH LANGUAGE AND PRIMARY MATHEMATICS TEACHING 1ST GRADE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine AKTAŞ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available With this study, it is aimed to afford an artistic development for science of mathematics with using literary language and learn with associating visual themes and imaginariness in essays. In the study, different written expression works, which are composed about same symmetric figure, of first grade preservice teachers of Turkish Language and Mathematics Teaching are compared.This study will put forth the grasp of communication skill of preservice students who are implementers of new program of Turkish and Mathematics lesson used from 2005 and in which the importance of this skill is emphasized. Also this study will contribute education of preservice students henceforwards.

  8. 广州市某三甲医院护理人员同理心调查%Investigation of the empathy status of nurses in grade 3 and first-class hospitals of Guangzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王幼芳; 王芳; 李海燕

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解三甲医院护理人员同理心水平及其影响因素.方法 2012年4月采取随机方便抽样方法对广州市某三级甲等医院的180名护士,采用同理心量表进行问卷调查,了解其同理心情况.结果 共发放问卷180份,回收177份,其中回收有效问卷151份,有效回收率为85.3%.151名护理人员的同理心得分为(62.42 ±4.93)分.不同文化程度、婚姻状况、工作时间、职称、同理心相关课程学习情况、聘用类型的护理人员的同理心得分不同,差异有统计学意义(F值分别为27.433,37.170,73.201,58.164,27.707,48.741;P <0.01),其中文化程度、婚姻状况、工作时间、职称、同理心相关课程学习情况对护理人员的同理心水平有影响(t值分别为6.302,2.617,3.397,2.486,3.158;P<0.05).结论 护理人员应重视自身文化水平的提高和同理心相关课程的学习,为患者提供更人性化的优质护理服务,对减少护患纠纷、构建和谐的护患关系具有积极的意义.%Objective To investigate the status and influencing factors of empathy of nurses in grade 3 and first-class hospitals of Guangzhou city.Methods Convenient sampling method was used and a total of 151 nurses of grade 3 and first-class hospitals in Guangzhou city had been interviewed with the empathy scale.Results Of the 180 distributed questionnaires,totally 172 questionnaires were retrieved,the effective response rate was 85.3%.The empathy score of nurses were (62.42 ± 4.93).The significant score difference was found in nurses with different education level,marital status,working hours,professional title,learning of related empathy courses and employ type (F =27.433,37.170,73.201,58.164,27.707,48.741 ; P < 0.01).The influencing factors of empathy were education level,marital status,working hours,professional tide and learning of related empathy courses (t =6.302,2.617,3.397,2.486,3.158,respectively; P < 0.05).Conclusions Nurses should pay attention

  9. The Flickering Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  10. AN EVALUATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS AND TEACHERS’ OPINIONS ABOUT IN EDUCATIONAL UNIONS TO ACCORDING VARIOUS VARIABLES: CASE OF MALATYA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tezcan YASAN

    2012-03-01

    design was used. After the related literature was examined, the theoretical framework was constructed and the questionnaire was drafted. The instrument used for data collection in this study was originally developed by the researcher. Before this draft was administered, the opinions of specialists, administrators and teachers were taken about the content and the language of this questionnaire and the necessary improvements were made. According to the results, Cronbach Alpha Coefficient was 0,8564 for the overall questionnaire. This study was carried out in Malatya city centre (total 3508 administrators and teachers who work at 163 primary schools in 2007-2008 academic year. Using stratified sampling method, 43 administrators and 323 teachers working at 24 schools were selected randomly. A total of 366 questionnaires were validated and evaluated. The questionnaire that has 24 items was administered to these administrators and teachers. Data were analyzed by SPSS program. In comparisons, T-test and Mann-Whitney U test (for the variables of gender, branch, type of task and being a member of the union, One Way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests (for seniority and education level were utilized to analyze the data. The results of this study showed that there were meaningful differences between the views of the trade union members and the ones that have no membership. While there were meaningful differences between the views of participants according to the variables of gender, branch, seniority and education level, there were not meaningful differences between the views of participants only according to the variable of type of task. According to the T-Test results (which has been made between males: N=238 and females: N=128, there were meaningful differences between the views of the men and women trade union members at the first item. At the first item, the ideas of women were more negative than the ideas of men. According to the T-Test results (which has been made between class

  11. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  12. Calculation and Word Problem-Solving Skills in Primary Grades--Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Longitudinal Interrelations with Task-persistent Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Kikas, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary school math skills form a basis for academic success down the road. Different math skills have different antecedents and there is a reason to believe that more complex math tasks require better self-regulation. Aims: The study aimed to investigate longitudinal interrelations of calculation and problem-solving skills, and…

  13. Curriculum Guide for Spanish Language Arts, Primary Level C = Guia para la ensenanza de las artes del lenguaje espanol, primaria, nivel C. (Grade 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking primary students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study skills, literature appreciation, and writing skills. Sections…

  14. Luoyang Dual Spatial Criterion Ecological City Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fazeng; Wang Shengnan

    2007-01-01

    The construction of an ecological city has two foundational platforms:the small platform,namely urban district or simply called as"city ecosystem";and the big platform,namely around city district in certain region scope or also referred to as"city-region ecosystem".The construction of an ecological city must be launched in the dual spatial criteria:in city(urban district)criterion-optimizing the city ecosystem;in city-region(city territory)criterion-optimizing the city-region ecosystem.Luoyang has the bright characteristic and the typical image within cities of China,and even in the world.The construction of anecological city in dual spatial criteria-the city and the city-region-has the vital significance to urbanization advancement and sustainable development in Luoyang.In city-region criterion,the primary mission of Luoyang's ecological city construction is to create a fine ecological environment platform in its city territory.In city criterion,the basic duty of Luoyang's ecologic city construction is to enhance the ecological capacity and benefit of the central city.

  15. AN EVALUATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS AND TEACHERS’ OPINIONS ABOUT IN EDUCATIONAL UNIONS TO ACCORDING VARIOUS VARIABLES: CASE OF MALATYA CITY

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this study, which is in a descriptive research design, it is aimed to determine the perceptions of teachers and administrators working at primary schools about the educational unions according to various variables. The population of this study consists of primary school teachers and administrators working at Malatya downtown at 2007-2008 academic years. The sample of this study consists of 323 teachers and 43 administrators working at 24 primary schools that were selected randomly from the...

  16. Exploration of Rural Primary School Low-grade Chinese Literacy Teaching under the New Situation%新背景下农村小学低年级语文识字教学探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳红

    2014-01-01

    As a basic subject of Chinese instrumental,literacy teaching is the most important part,directly related to the cultivation of students’ future ability of reading and writing .In view of the rural primary school language literacy amount is large,the environment and economic conditions,the teacher attempts to innovation to the transformation of Chinese low grade primary school literacy teaching,in order to promote the rural primary school Chinese teaching with a new background of development,strengthening the students’ literacy.%语文作为工具性、基础性学科,识字教学是其重要组成部分,直接关系着学生未来的阅读、写作等能力的培养。鉴于农村小学语文识字量大、环境以及经济条件的限制,尝试以创新的方式来转化小学低年级语文识字教学,借以推动农村小学语文教学与新背景发展相吻合,强化学生的识字能力。

  17. Tumor Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... much of the tumor tissue has normal breast (milk) duct structures Nuclear grade : an evaluation of the ...

  18. Aspectos epidemiológicos do uso de drogas entre estudantes do ensino médio no município de Palhoça 2003 Epidemiologic aspects of drug use among 5th grade to 12th grade students in the city of Palhoça 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Sanceverino

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a prevalência do uso de drogas entre estudantes do ensino médio em um município do Sul do Brasil, em 2003, além de averiguar se houve utilização de algum serviço de saúde. Foi realizado em nove - entre dez - escolas de ensino médio da rede pública e particular. A amostra foi de 889 (18, 1% em um universo de 4.909 estudantes - 4.139 (84,3% da rede pública e 770 (15,7% da rede particular. Os participantes responderam a questionário que seguiu o modelo utilizado por Galduróz, Noto e Carlini no IV Levantamento sobre o Uso de Drogas entre Estudantes de 1º e 2º graus em Dez Capitais Brasileiras. Os dados foram inseridos no Programa Epi Info 6.04d e observou-se que as drogas de maior prevalência foram o álcool, o tabaco, os inalantes, a maconha e as anfetaminas. Excetuando-se o álcool e o tabaco, as drogas mais consumidas entre as mulheres foram os inalantes, a maconha, os tranqüilizantes, as anfetaminas e os sedativos; e entre os homens, os inalantes, a maconha, as anfetaminas, os tranqüilizantes e a cocaína. O consumo de drogas também é maior entre estudantes de maior faixa etária e os que freqüentam as aulas no período noturno. Não se verificaram diferenças significativas entre os níveis socioeconômicos. Foram feitas comparações com outras pesquisas.The main objectives of this work were to investigate the prevalence of drug use among 5th grade to 12th grade students in a small city in the south of Brazil and to verify if they use any kind of health service. The study was carried out in nine out of a total of ten public and private schools. The sample consisted of 889 (18,10% students out of a total of 4,909 students, 4,139 (84,31% in public schools and 770 (15,69% in private ones. The participants answered a questionnaire that followed a model used by Galduróz, Noto and Carlini (1997 in the 4th Study of Drug Use Among Elementary and High School Students in Ten Brazilian Capital

  19. 合肥市中小学手球运动开展现状调查与分析%Investigation and Analysis on the Present Situation of Handball Sports in Primary and Secondary Schools of ;Hefei City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芹

    2015-01-01

    本文采用文献资料法、问卷调查法和专家访谈法对合肥市中、小学手球运动开展情况进行了调查。调查发现,近几年手球运动在合肥市开展较好,但还存在着许多亟待解决的问题,找出原因,提出对策。为合肥市手球运动的发展提供参考。%In this paper, the methods of literature, questionnaire and expert interview were used to investigate the present situation of handball sports in primary and secondary schools of Hefei City. It is found in the investigation that the development of handball sports in recent years in Hefei City is favorable, but there are still many problems to be solved. Therefore, the causes of the prob-lems were found and countermeasures were put forward, aiming to provide a reference for the development of handball sports in Hefei City.

  20. 培养小学高年级学生作文修改能力的尝试%Attempts of Cultivating Primary School Higher -Graded Pupils' Ability of Composition Revising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In today's quality education, the cultivation of students' independent learning ability is particularly important. Primary school higher-graded pupils have already possessed the ability of composition revising. To teach them the methods of composition revising and cultivate their corresponding ability can make their writing strive for further improvement.%  在实施素质教育的今天,培养学生的自学能力非常重要。小学高年级的学生,已经具备修改作文的能力,教会学生修改作文的方法,培养学生修改作文的能力,会使学生的写作更上一层楼。

  1. Simultaneous Low- and High-Grade Primary Leiomyosarcomas in Two Separate Organs in a Thirty-Year Survivor of Hereditary Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Katherine; Tawfik, Ossama; Hays, Allyson; Opole, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Patients with hereditary retinoblastoma have a heightened risk of developing subsequent bone and soft tissue sarcomas, exacerbated by radiation and alkylating chemotherapy. Secondary leiomyosarcomas are rare. A 29-year-old patient with bilateral retinoblastoma history presented with concurrent, independent malignancies found to be Rb-suppressed uterine and Rb-positive bladder leiomyosarcomas. She had undergone both ifosfamide chemotherapy and radiation therapy but demonstrated rare simultaneous primary leiomyosarcomas not previously described in association with ifosfamide. This rare case underlines the protean genetic predisposition to malignancy in this patient population, heightening awareness of lifelong malignancy potential, and the necessity for continuous periodic screening. PMID:26843997

  2. Status quo of training demands of nursing staff in three grade class A general hospitals in Shenzhen city%深圳市三级甲等综合医院护理人员培训需求现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小梅; 丁小容; 李敏红; 曾杏珍; 余颖娟; 梁桂玲

    2014-01-01

    [目的]了解护理人员对院内培训的培训内容、培训方式、培训时间的需求现状,为制订针对性的培训提供依据。[方法]采用整群抽样的方法对深圳市3家三级甲等综合医院654名护理人员采用自行设计的问卷进行调查,并进行统计学分析。[结果]护理人员最希望培训的内容为专科知识,而不同的群体之间培训内容需求又存在一定的差异;对不同的培训内容希望有不同的培训特点并采取不同的培训方式;80.6%护理人员希望培训时间能够具有一定的灵活性和自主选择性。[结论]培训内容应因人而异,不同的培训内容应采取不同的培训方式,同时培训本身能有一定的灵活性以增强培训效果。%Obj ective:To know about the status quo of training demands of nursing staff for training content,training methods and training time,so as to provide the basis for formulating targeted training.Methods:A total of 654 nurses were surveyed by adopt cluster sampling method and self de-signed questionnaire in three grade class A general hospital in Shenzhen city.Related data were statistical analysed.Results:The most training con-tent nursing staff hope was specialized knowledge.And training content re-quirements existed certain differences between different groups.Nursing staff hope different characteristics for different training contents,and adopt different ways of training.80.6% of nursing staff hoped that the training time have a certain flexibility and independent selectivity.Conclusion:The training content should be different from person to person.Different ways of training should be adopted for different training contents.At the same time,training itself can have a certain flexibility in order to improve train-ing effect.

  3. 乳山市农村小学生心理健康状况调查%Study on psychological health state of rural primary school students in Rushan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂宏; 王丹; 丛晓娜; 段建国; 郑旗

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To understand the current situation of psychological health among rural primary school students in Rushan city, and provide a theoretical basis for solving psychological health problems of the pupils effectively. Methods: Three thousand students were selected from 10 schools by multistage cluster sampling method in rural areas of Rushan city. Results: The mean scores of behavioral problems, learning disabilities, emotional disturbance, character flaws were 4. 38, 3. 37, 3. 25 , and 3. 23, respectively; the detection rates of deviation from high to low were conduct disorder (16. 1% ) , learning disabilities (14. 8% ) , mood disorders ( 15. 7% ) , personality defects (13. 2% ) , and so on. The influencing factors of psychological health of the primary school students in rural area of Rushan city were sex, age, class, maternal occupation, and family monthly income, and so on. Conclusion: There are different psychological problems a-mong the primary school students in rural area of Rushan city, effective measures should be taken to improve their psychological health.%目的:了解乳山市农村小学生的心理健康状况,为有效解决小学生的心理健康问题提供理论依据.方法:采用随机整群抽样法随机抽取乳山市10所小学共3 000名.结果:行为障碍、学习障碍、情绪障碍、性格缺陷得分均值分别为4.38、3.37、3.25和3.23;从偏离检出率分析得偏离检出率较高的依次为行为障碍(16.1%)、学习障碍(14.8%)、性格缺陷(15.7%)、社会适应障碍(13.2%)等.小学生心理健康的影响因素包括性别、年龄、班级、母亲职业、家庭月收入等.结论:乳山市农村小学生均存在不同的心理健康问题,应采取有效措施改善其心理健康状况.

  4. Family influencing factors of behavior problems among primary school students in Mudanjiang city%牡丹江市小学生行为问题及家庭影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙加司; 蔡景钰; 王烈

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解黑龙江省牡丹江市小学生行为问题发生情况及特点,探讨家庭因素对小学生行为问题的影响,为其预防和干预措施的制定提供依据.方法 采用随机抽样方法,应用家长用儿童行为量表(CBCL)及父母养育方式评价量表(EMBU)对牡丹江市4所小学4~6年级1 350名在校学生进行问卷调查.结果 牡丹江市小学生行为问题检出率为19.3%,男生为20.3%,女生为18.6%;躯体主诉、焦虑抑郁、社交问]题、攻击性行为、思维问题、内向性问题和行为总分分别为(2.50 ±2.89)、(3.73±3.96)、(2.54±2.81)、(4.31±4.73)、(2.17±3.00)、(8.34±8.15)和(22.03±20.07)分,与国内人群评价结果比较得分较高;相关分析结果表明,父、母温暖与小学生行为问题的发生呈负相关关系(P<0.01),而父亲惩罚、干涉、偏爱、拒绝、过保护和母亲过保护、拒绝、惩罚、偏爱与小学生行为问题的发生呈正相关关系(P<0.01);多元线性回归分析结果表明,小学生行为问题发生的主要影响因素为:母亲拒绝(β=0.206)、生活事件数(β=0.195)、与父母关系(β=0.133)、父亲过保护(β=0.124)、独生子女(β=0.083)与小学生行为问题关系密切,能影响小学生行为问题发生.结论 家庭环境因素对小学生儿童行为问题的发生具有重要影响,改善家庭环境对降低小学生行为问题发生率具有重要作用.%Objective To explore family influencing factors of the behavior problems among primary school students. Methods Questionaire research was conducted with Acbenbach' s Child Behavior Check List(CBCL) and Egma Minnen av Bardndosnauppforstran(EMBU) among 1 350 students at 4-6 grade in primary schools in Mudanjiang city. Results The prevalence of behavior problems in the students was 19.3% ( 20.3% in boys, 18. 6% in girls). The scores of somato-complaints. anxiety-depression, social intercourse problems, aggressive behavior, thinking problems

  5. Cost-effectiveness of counselling, graded-exercise and usual care for chronic fatigue: evidence from a randomised trial in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabes-Figuera Ramon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is common and has been shown to result in high economic costs to society. The aim of this study is to compare the cost-effectiveness of two active therapies, graded-exercise (GET and counselling (COUN with usual care plus a self-help booklet (BUC for people presenting with chronic fatigue. Methods A randomised controlled trial was conducted with participants consulting for fatigue of over three months’ duration recruited from 31 general practices in South East England and allocated to one of three arms. Outcomes and use of services were assessed at 6-month follow-up. The main outcome measure used in the economic evaluation was clinically significant improvements in fatigue, measured using the Chalder fatigue scale. Cost-effectiveness was assessed using the net-benefit approach and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Results Full economic and outcome data at six months were available for 163 participants; GET = 51, COUN = 58 and BUC = 54. Those receiving the active therapies (GET and COUN had more contacts with care professionals and therefore higher costs, these differences being statistically significant. COUN was more expensive and less effective than the other two therapies. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of GET compared to BUC was equal to £987 per unit of clinically significant improvement. However, there was much uncertainty around this result. Conclusion This study does not provide a clear recommendation about which therapeutic option to adopt, based on efficiency, for patients with chronic fatigue. It suggests that COUN is not cost-effective, but it is unclear whether GET represents value for money compared to BUC. Clinical Trial Registration number at ISRCTN register: 72136156

  6. 让诗意与理性和谐共舞--也谈低年级科普童话的教学%Let the Poetic Dance with Rational and Harmonious---also Talk about the Teaching of Primary School Lower Grades Science Fairy Tale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐武军

    2014-01-01

    Primary school lower grades science teaching of fairy tale, should be based on the scientific nature of the fairy tale, the teaching value and lower grade reading teaching objectives, consider the psychological and cognitive characteristic of lower grade students to determine the specific teaching strategies.%低年级科普童话的教学,应基于科学童话的性质、教学价值和低年级阅读教学的目标,考虑低年级学生的心理及认知特点来确定具体的教学策略。

  7. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  8. The training strategy of low-grade students in primary school to writing hobby%如何培养小学低年级学生写话的兴趣

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲玲

    2016-01-01

    《小学语文课程标准》在第二部分指出一二年级的写话目标是:"对写话有兴趣,写自己想说的话,写想象中的事物,写出对周围事物的认识和感想;在写话中乐于运用阅读和生活中学到的词语;根据表达需要,学习使用逗号、句号、问号、感叹号."看图写话是低年级学生进行写话训练的重要途径,这种训练对于降低起步作文的难度,引导学生放胆表达,培养学生的写作兴趣具有极为重要的意义.本文在对小学二年级写话能力现状调查的基础上,从教师和学生两方面分析写话中存在问题的原因,提出激发兴趣,观察有序,加强阅读,启发想象,评价激励的策略,从而培养低年级小学生的写话能力.%《Primary School Language Curriculum Standards》in the second part pointed of one or two grade writing goal is:"Enable the interest in writing, help them write about their own mind, help them write imaginary things, help them write their own understanding of things and feelings around;Enable them to be willing to use the words they have learned or something about their life;According to the need of expression, learning to use a comma, full stop, question mark, exclamation mark. "Look the pictures and write words are important ways to lower grade students for writing training, such training to reduce the initial composition of difficulty, guide students to boldly express, raise students writing interest has ex?tremely important meaning. Based on the second grade primary school writing ability present situation investigation, the problem in writing from the aspect of teacher and student, put forward to stimulate interest, observe the order, strengthen reading, inspire imagination, strategy evaluation and incentive, so as to cultivate writing ability of lower grade pupils."

  9. Exploration of Junior-Grade Chinese Homework in Primary School%小学低年级语文作业探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡萍

    2015-01-01

    The primary school Chinese homework should be started from teacher’s careful design. Teachers should enhance curriculum consciousness,exquisitely design homework of high value,improve the effectiveness of assignment,and attach importance to evaluation and correction of homework,so as to make students fall in love with homework.%小学语文作业应该从教师的用心设计开始,增强课程意识,精心设计具有较高训练价值的作业,提高作业布置的有效性,在评价与批改上下功夫,从而让学生爱上作业。

  10. Application of Health Information System for Primary Hospitals in Jinzhou City%基层医疗卫生信息系统在锦州市的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪宁

    2013-01-01

    The informatization in primary health care system is experiencing a rapid development. Focusing on the health information system in primary hospitals in Jinzhou City, this article elucidates the construction, implementation, and management of informatization projects in primary hospitals in terms of background, functions, and technical properties. The expansion of informationization projects in counties, towns, and villages will facilitate the longitudinal interconnection of the public health functions among primary health care providers.%基层医疗卫生信息化正在经历着一个快速建设发展的历程。本文以锦州市基层医疗卫生信息系统为研究对象,从项目背景、功能实现、技术特性等方面对基层卫生信息化项目的建设、实施、管理进行了探索和分析,旨在将基层医疗信息化应用覆盖范围扩大到县、镇、村,从而实现公共卫生服务职能在全市基层医疗机构的纵向联通。

  11. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  12. Using the Orff Music Teaching in Primary School Grade Five or Six%奥尔夫音乐教学法在小学五、六年级的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范钰

    2014-01-01

    音乐是小学教学的重要组成部分,在音乐教学中,采用奥尔夫音乐教学法,其是奥尔夫和著名舞蹈家军特创设的动作、舞蹈、语言作为音乐集合体的教学形式,具有综合性、即兴性和实践性的特点,针对奥尔夫音乐教学法在小学五、六年级的运用进行了探讨。%Music is an important part of primary school teaching,in music teaching,the Orff music teaching method,which is Orff and the famous dancer Dororee Gunthen creating movement,dance,music language as collective teaching form,it is comprehensive,improvisation and practical features,this article is for the use in the primary school is grade five or six the Orff music teaching method discussion.

  13. Strategy on Combination with Reading and Writing of Poetry in Primary School High Grade%小学高年级诗歌读写结合策略简谈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宝江

    2014-01-01

    随着新课程改革的发展,有更多的学者关注到了儿童文学与小学语文的密切联系,并且在《义务教育语文课程标准》中对小学生学习诗歌的数量还提出了新要求。在对教学理论和诗歌理论等的研读基础上,对小学高年级诗歌读写结合策略做了简单的总结,同时也对儿童诗歌教学的特点和任务进行了归纳。%With the development of new curriculum reform, more attention to a close contact with children literature and primary school Chinese, and“Compulsory Education Chinese Curriculum Standards” also puts forward new requirements for the number of pupils’ poetry learning. From the study of teaching theory and poetry theory, simple summary is made on the strategy on combination with reading and writing of poetry in primary school high grade, and also features and tasks of pupils’ poetry teaching are summarized.

  14. 关于小学高年级语文读写教学方式的探析%Analysis on the High Grade of Primary School Chinese Reading and Writing Teaching Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊熠

    2014-01-01

    The current Chinese teaching in the primary school higer grades,the students’ ability of reading and writing is difficult to grasp the part of the teachers in the teaching,the teaching is more thorny problem. The teacher combines with years of teaching experience,in view of the Chinese teaching in reading and writes teaching are briefly analyzed,and puts forward several schemes to promote the development of primary school Chinese reading and writing teaching part.%当前小学高年级语文教学中,学生的阅读和写作能力是教师在教学中比较难把握的部分,这方面的教学是比较棘手的问题。结合多年的教学经验,针对语文教学中读写教学进行了简要分析,并提出了几个方案以促进小学语文读写教学部分的发展。

  15. Some Views on Effective English Reading of Higher Grades in Primary Schools%小学高年级英语有效阅读之我见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽岩

    2015-01-01

    It is self-evident that reading is an important part of language learning. Language learning mainly reflects in listening, speaking, reading and writing, while reading training not only comprehensively covers the four aspects of training, but also fully cultivates and improves students' participation and operation. Therefore, properly handling reading and making it a magic weapon to establish efficient English classroom teaching is un-doubtedly an important topic for primary English teachers.%阅读是语言学习的重要板块,其重要性不言而喻。语言学习主要体现在听说读写四个方面,而阅读训练中不但全面涵盖了这四个方面的训练活动,同时还能让学生在参与和操作的过程中得到更加充分的培养和提高。所以,善待阅读板块,让其成为打造高效英语课堂教学的法宝,这无疑是小学英语教师所要面向的重点课题。

  16. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever,...... and urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  17. An evaluation on the relationship between the learning fields “musical perception and acquainting” and “musical creativity” based on teaching program of 2006 primary education music classes of sixth grade level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökalp Parasız

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was intended to focus on the success levels of “B. Musical Perception and Acquainting” learning field and of “C. Musical Creativity” learning field based on the teaching program of 2006 primary education music classes of sixth grade level and relationship between these two learning fields was evaluated. In this study the basic stages, the vision, the basic approach, and the structure of the teaching program of 2006 primary education music classes and the general aims, basic skills and valuation, teaching methods and techniques and learning-teaching period were examined. Source scanning related to these subjects was done. Outcomes and activities related to “B. Müziksel Algı ve Bilgilenme” and “C. Müziksel Yaratıcılık” learning fields in this study were analyzed by using observation method. Sample group of this study consisted of 6-A, 6-C, 6-E, 6-G classes in IMKB İnönü Primary School in Erzurum depended on Ministry of National Education. To analyze all data based on observation, frequency (f percent (% analysis method was used. Findings and comments part of the study included data that was acquired as a result of outcomes of two basic learning fields and in this part data were interpreted according to the findings. After collecting all data and evaluating the relationship between “B. Musical Perception and Acquainting” learning field and “C. Musical Creativity” learning field, to the results, it was acquired that these two learning fields had supportive and complementary to each other. According to the results of the study, when music class practices are structured considering the relationship between two basic learning fields, learning becomes easier and more comprehensible and by this way, learning continuity will be provided.

  18. Prevalence of prematurely lost primary teeth in 5–10-year-old children in Thamar city, Yemen: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Sakhr A.; Al-Labani, Mohammed A.; Aldhorae, Khalid A.; Rodis, Omar M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The premature loss of primary teeth is a potential risk factor for poor arch length development. Adequate arch length is important to the progression of the permanent teeth. Poor arch length can lead to crowding, ectopic eruption, or impaction of these teeth. This study is designed to assess the prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth in the 5-10-year-old age group. Materials and Methods: The study group included 185 children, that is, 91 boys and 94 girls. The dental examination was conducted by an experienced examiner under sufficient artificial light. Data including patient age and missing teeth were collected. Descriptive statistics were applied for data analysis, and from the results, Chi-square tests were used at a level of significance of 5% (P space problems associated with the early loss of primary teeth would help in reducing malocclusion problems. PMID:27652244

  19. Prevalence of prematurely lost primary teeth in 5–10-year-old children in Thamar city, Yemen: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Murshid, Sakhr A.; Al-Labani, Mohammed A.; Aldhorae, Khalid A.; Rodis, Omar M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The premature loss of primary teeth is a potential risk factor for poor arch length development. Adequate arch length is important to the progression of the permanent teeth. Poor arch length can lead to crowding, ectopic eruption, or impaction of these teeth. This study is designed to assess the prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth in the 5-10-year-old age group. Materials and Methods: The study group included 185 children, that is, 91 boys and 94 girls. The dental examin...

  20. 保定市山区县中小学学生健康状况调查%Investigation on health condition of primary and middle school students in mountain area counties of Baoding City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊爱; 赵宝军

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the health condition of primary and middle school students in mountain area counties of Baoding City,provide scientific basis for making health education materials.[Methods] Two counties were selected from 8 mountain area counties of Baoding City by stratified sampling,and all primary and middle school students in both two counties received the health examination according to unified standard.The data were analyzed,and results between two counties were compared.[Results]The top five influencing factor for health condition of primary and middle school students was poor eyesight,dental caries,antiadoncus,obesity and eye diseases.The detection rate of poor eyesight in middle school students of Yixian County was significantly higher than that of Shunping County (P < 0.05),and there was no significant difference in other results between two counties (P > 0.05).The detection rate of poor eyesight was the highest,and the detection rate in primary schools and middle schools of Shunping County was 33.70% and 56.13% respectively,while that in primary schools and middle schools of Yixian County was 58.31% and 65% respectively.The dental caries presented the second highest detection rate,the detection rate in primary schools of Shunping County was 26.08%,while that in junior middle school and senior middle school was 15.72% and 13.84% respectively.[Conclusion] The health conditions of primary and middle school students in mountain area counties of Baoding City are similar.%目的 全面了解和掌握保定市山区县中小学学生健康状况,为有针对性地制定健康教育教材的科学依据.方法 对保定市辖区内的8个山区县按照分层随抽样方法进行抽样,选择2个县对县城内的所有中小学学生按照统一检查标准进行健康检查,2县检查结果进行对比分析,数据进行统计处理.结果 视力不良、龋齿、扁桃体肿大、肥胖、眼疾是排在前5位的影响中小学

  1. Bug City: Flies & Mosquitoes [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  2. Bug City: Ladybugs & Fireflies [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  3. Does Grading Affect Educational Attainment? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Alli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how grading in primary school affected students' achievement measured by grades in 7th, 8th and 9th Grade and educational attainment in upper secondary school (12th Grade), and how the effect varied as a function of students' cognitive ability, gender and socio-economic status. The data derived from the…

  4. Distribution and primary source analysis of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances with different chain lengths in surface and groundwater in two cities, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yiming; Zhu, Hongkai; Li, Bing; Hu, Hongwei; Zhang, Tao; Yamazaki, Eriko; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Sun, Hongwen

    2014-10-01

    Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been widely detected in the hydrosphere. The knowledge on the distribution and composition patterns of PFAS analogues with different chain length significantly contribute to their source analysis. In the present study, a regional scale investigation of PFASs in surface river waters and adjacent ground waters was carried out in two cities of China with potential contamination, Tianjin and Weifang. A total of 31 water samples were collected, and 20 PFASs therein were measured by a high-performance liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS). The possible sources of PFASs in the aquatic environment were assessed primarily by concentration patterns as well as hierarchical cluster analysis. In all 4 rivers investigated in the two cities, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant compounds contributing over 70% of the PFASs detected. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant PFCA with a concentration range of 8.58-20.3ng/L in Tianjin and 6.37-25.9ng/L in Weifang, respectively. On the average, the highest concentration was observed in samples from Dagu Drainage Canal (Dagu) in Tianjin and those short-chain PFASs (C4-C6) was detected with a comparable level of the longer-chain PFASs (>C6). Specifically, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was dominant in the short-chain analogues. This indicates that a remarkably increasing input of short-chain PFASs might be related to wastewater treatment plant effluent or industrial discharges, which could be possibly due to the switch of manufacturing to short-chain products. In Weifang, precipitation and subsequent surface runoff as non-point sources could be significant inputs of PFASs into surface water while groundwater was possibly subjected to severe point sources with ∑PFASs concentration up to ~100ng/L. The inconsistent distribution patterns in groundwater suggest complicated pathways of contamination.

  5. Reflections on the Current Situation of Gymnastics Course in Primary Schools of Guangzhou City%广州市小学体操课开展现状反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李顺文; 吴美华

    2013-01-01

      随着新课标的实施,体操项目在体育课中的开展也越来越少,体操项目的价值是不可置疑的,本文通过分析其中原因,为广州市小学体育课中顺利进行体操教学,提供一些参考建议。%With the implementation of new curriculum, gymnas-tics event is less and less in physical education, but the value of gymnastics event is not to be questioned. Through analyzing the causes, this paper provides some reference and suggestions for the smooth implementation of gymnastics teaching in primary school physical education in Guangzhou City.

  6. Attending School and Learning or Repeating and Leaving. A Study about the Determinants of Grade Repetition and Dropout in Primary School in Honduras. Synthesis of the Study = Asistir y Aprender o Repetir y Desertar. Un Estudio sobre los Factores que Contribuyen a la Repitencia en la Escuela Primaria en Honduras. Sintesis del Informe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Noel F.; And Others

    This paper synthesizes a study designed to identify the factors that contribute to primary school repetition and dropout in Honduras. Data were collected by record reviews; teacher, student, and parent interviews; and a test of Spanish. The sample included 1,253 students in grades 1 and 3 in 40 schools in rural Honduras. The main findings of the…

  7. Tabla de Especificaciones e Instructivo sobre Elaboracion de Pruebas Objetivas en la Ensenanza Primaria, para las asignaturas de Estudios Sociales, Idioma Espanol, Matematicas y Ciencias Naturales (Specification Tables and Instructions for the Construction of Objective Tests in the Primary Grades in Social Studies, Spanish, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Educacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Direccion de Bienestar Estudiantil y Educacion Especial.

    This booklet presents specification tables illustrating the relative importance given to topics on tests within a particular subject area. The general subject areas are social studies, Spanish, mathematics, and natural sciences. Tables are provided for final exams in each of these areas for several primary grades, illustrating the importance of…

  8. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    s moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city......, the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing...

  9. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated by the st......This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  10. 谈农村小学高年级英语口语表达能力培养%Take about Rural Primary School High Grade English of Oral Expresson Ablities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金萍

    2014-01-01

    新颁布的英语课程标准对小学英语教学有了明显的提高,现代外语教育注重语言学习的过程,强调语言学习的实践性,主张学生在语境中接触、体验和理解这是语言,并在此基础上学习和运用语言。然而,在农村英语学习现状并不乐观,从口语教学的意义、现状、措施几个方面探讨农村小学高年级口语表达能力的培养。%English is the most widely in the world today use the international language,the use of his value is higher and higher.Train the ability of oral English must grab since childhood.The new English curriculum standard for primary school English teaching has obvious increase, modern foreign language education focus on the process of language learning,emphasizes the practicality of learning a foreign language,and claims that students in the context of the contact,experience and understand the language,and on the basis of the study and use the language.In rural English learning situation is not optimistic,however,I will from the significance of oral English teaching,the present situation,the measures from several aspects to discuss the rural primary school high grade oral English ability.

  11. Professores discriminados: um estudo sobre os docentes do sexo masculino nas séries do ensino fundamental Discriminated teachers: a study of male teachers in the early grades of primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Oliveira Rabelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar algumas representações de gênero que envolvem a docência nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental no Rio de Janeiro (Brasil e em Aveiro (Portugal, especialmente as representações geradoras de discriminações que afetam os homens atuantes na profissão. Socialmente definida como feminina, tal profissão carrega representações que podem diferenciar as práticas e as escolhas, sendo que muitas delas associam o magistério ao feminino e alegam que os professores homens estariam fora de lugar. A partir da análise qualitativa e quantitativa de questionários e entrevistas com professores desse segmento, examinamos, então, quais são as representações de gênero que circulam em relação à docência nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental, se existe discriminação em relação a eles, bem como se os homens que entram na profissão são desprovidos de preconceitos e ajudariam a diminuir as discriminações de gênero. Concluímos que o simples fato de existir um professor do sexo masculino nas salas de aula pode provocar várias representações de gênero; nesse sentido, os professores podem ou não tentar quebrar tais representações, o que aconteceu com alguns dos participantes desta investigação. Mesmo sofrendo preconceitos, porém, muitos se aproveitam das vantagens da masculinidade na sociedade. Apesar disso, demarcamos que a presença de professores do sexo masculino nas séries iniciais é uma forma de inserir as questões de gênero na educação, demonstrar às crianças na escola que o homem também pode escolher essa atividade com sucesso e evidenciar que a aptidão para o magistério não depende do sexo.This article aims to analyze some gender representations of teachers of the early grades of primary education in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil and Aveiro (Portugal, especially the representations that generate discrimination affecting male teachers. Socially defined as female, such

  12. 浅谈小学低年级音乐欣赏教学的情感体验%A Brief Discussion on the Emotional Experience of Music Appreciation Teaching for Lower Grades in Primary ;Schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怡; 赵誉千

    2015-01-01

    音乐是听觉的艺术,同时它又是情感的艺术。音乐教学活动在不脱离音乐听觉实践的基础上,不能忽视抓住学生音乐审美过程中最活跃的心理因素———情感因素。笔者从小学低年级音乐欣赏教学过程中的点滴体会谈起,阐述了如何通过形式多样的教学方法,丰富学生情感体验,以感受美、表现美、创造美为核心,不时点燃学生的情感火花。%Music is an audio art, as well as an emotional art. Based on music audio practice, the most active psychological factor, emotional factor, should be grasped in students' music aesthetics. Starting from the writer's experience in music appre-ciation teaching for lower grades in primary schools, this paper e-laborates how to use diversified teaching methods to enrich stu-dents' emotional experience with experiencing, expressing and creating beauty as the core, thus igniting the spark of students' e-motions.

  13. Atypical Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  14. UFP and BC at a mid-sized city in Po valley, Italy: Size-resolved partitioning between primary and newly formed particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Cernuschi, S.; Ozgen, S.; Ripamonti, G.; Vecchi, R.; Valli, G.; Lonati, G.

    2016-10-01

    In Po valley (Northern Italy) concentrations of particulate matter (PM) often exceed air quality standards, and road traffic is reported as one of the main sources of pollution. This study investigates the size resolved particle number concentration and size distribution at one rural station, one urban station and one traffic station. The measured size-resolved particle number concentration has been reduced by means of cluster analysis to four particle size fractions (cluster 1: 7-29 nm, cluster 2: 29-95 nm, cluster 3: 95-264 nm, and cluster 4: 264-10,000 nm) based on their behavior in atmosphere according to common time patterns. The primary emissions from traffic are evaluated based on black carbon (BC) and size-resolved particle number concentration data, considering separately single size intervals and providing cluster-resolved information on primary and newly formed particle concentration. Particles directly emitted by vehicle exhaust exhibit similar numbers for the clusters 1 to 3 while newly formed particles mainly occurs in cluster 1. Furthermore, diurnal variation of directly emitted particles is found to closely follow the BC levels, while the trend of newly formed particles varies according to air temperature, solar radiation and particle pollution levels. The results release that in Po valley the variations of particle number levels do not always reflect the variation of road traffic emissions in urban areas as the large availability of anthropogenic precursors can favor summertime nucleation events with region-wide extension.

  15. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography.......This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...

  16. 重庆市城市中小学生忽视状况及其影响因素分析%Analysis of neglect condition and its influencing factors in primary and middle school students of Chongqing city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游欢; 钟朝晖; 张眉; 杨彬; 刁俊

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解重庆市城市中小学生忽视现状,分析中小学生忽视的主要影响因素,为制订干预措施提供科学依据.方法 采用随机抽样方法,从重庆市主城区随机抽取部分学生作为调查对象.应用我国中小学生忽视评价量表进行问卷调查.描述不同年龄、性别、忽视层面的忽视率与忽视度,并对影响因素进行分析.结果 各个年龄组不同性别平均忽视度分别为45.38、47.18、50.42和52.56,平均忽视率分别为34.32%、33.33%、36.90%、33.80%.各个年龄组男生忽视率均高于女生.在忽视层面上,15~17岁组的学生在教育、医疗、身体、情感层面受到的忽视程度高于其他年龄组,而6~8岁组学生在各个忽视层面受到的忽视均相对较低.结论 重庆市中小学生受忽视的程度和密度较大,平均忽视率和忽视度均高于全国调查水平,各个层面忽视的发生率也较高,应结合中小学生忽视现状及影响因素积极预防学生忽视的发生.%Objective To understand the neglect status of primary school students in Chongqing city and to analyze the main influencing factors of neglect to provide a scientific basis for the development of interventions. Methods Using the random sampling method, the partial students from the urban areas of Chongqing city were randomly selected for the survey subjects. The primary and middle school students neglect assessment scale was used for questionnaire survey. The rate and degree of neglect in different ages, genders and neglected layers were described and the influencing factors were analyzed. Results The average neglect degrees in different genders of all age groups were 45. 38, 47. 18, 50. 42 and 52. 56, respectively, and the average neglect rates were 34. 32% ,33. 33% , 36. 90% and 33. 80% respectively. The neglect rate in boys of all age groups was higher than that in girls. The neglect degrees in the aspects of education,health care,body,emotion for the

  17. China: A Teaching Unit for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Janet; And Others

    Understanding the culture of other nations contributes to the development of responsible citizens in a democratic society. A classroom teaching team proved these activities to be successful. Five initial lessons introduce students to the study of China by teaching Chinese geography. To enhance cultural understanding, 10 additional lessons focus on…

  18. An Investigation of Primary School Students' Perceptions of Violence Revealed Through Their Drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Saban

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, primary school students' perceptions of violence were investigated by means of pictures drawn by them. The participants included 80 students between the ages of 9 and 11 who attended three primary schools (3rd, 4th, and 5th grades in the city of Konya during the 2011-2012 academic year. According to the findings of the study, the students mostly drew pictures of general violence which occurred in a family environment in the form of physical violence. In addition, students drew “father” as a figure practicing violence most, and “male child” and “mother” as figures exposed to violence most.

  19. Cytological grading of breast carcinoma on fine needle aspirates and its relation with histological grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Phukan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grading of breast carcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is beneficial for selecting patients for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Aims: To grade the breast carcinoma on FNAC using Robinson grading system and to assess the concordance of cytological grading (CG with histological grading (HG using Elston-Ellis modification of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grading system. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for 1-year, comprising of 50 female patients attending outpatient departments (OPD as well as admitted in various surgical wards of a teaching hospital, diagnosed as breast carcinoma. FNAC smears were stained with May-Grunwald-Giemsa and Papanicolaou (Pap stains and CG was done using Robinson system on Pap stained smears. The results were compared with HG system after resection of tumors. Results: Of 50 cases, 14 (28% cases were graded as grade I, 24 (48% grade II, and 12 (24% grade III by CG, whereas 9 (18%, 28 (56% and 13 (26% cases were graded as grade I, II and III by HG. The result showed overall 72% concordance of CG with HG, with grade II and grade III showing highest degree of concordance (83.33%, which is comparable to previous studies. Kappa measurement showed a higher degree of agreement in high-grade tumors compared with low-grade tumors (0.73 in grade III, 0.53 in grade II and 0.39 in grade I. Conclusion: Cytological grading is comparable to HG in majority of cases. Because neoadjuvant chemotherapy is becoming increasingly popular as primary treatment modality of breast cancer, CG could be a useful parameter in selecting the mode of therapy and predicting tumor behavior.

  20. 大连市2011年基层预防接种人员现状分析%Analysis primary prevention of vaccinators of the status in Dalian City in 2011, Dalian City in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林茜; 贾秀岩; 肖丹

    2013-01-01

    目的了解我市基层预防接种人员基本情况,为建设一支高素质、适应预防接种服务现状的免疫接种队伍提供参考依据。方法对全市范围内预防接种人员按照设计好的调查表进行调查。结果调查预防接种人员2869人,以女性为主(1191人),占66.61%,平均年龄43岁,文化程度以高中及中专学历为主(1803人),占62.84%,职称以初级为主(1785人),占62.22%。不同地区预防接种人员综合素质存在不同程度的差异。结论应及时调整预防接种人员结构,严格准入制度,强化业务培训和指导,形成激励机制,建立起一支高素质的、可持续发展的预防接种队伍。%Objective] To understand the status of the staff engaged in preventive vaccination,provide scientific basis for the establishment of the team with high quality.[Methods] Investigate citywide vaccination staff according to the design of the questionnaire.[Results]The average age of the 2869 people surveyed is 43-year-old.66.61%(1191) of the staff were female.62.84%(1803) of the staff were at the education level of the secondary and high school education.62.22%(1785) of the staff have the primary titles.The overall quality of the vaccinators is different in different regions.[Conclusion] We should pay attention to the adjustments of vaccination staff,set up the mechanism for staff of entering and incentive,strengthen vocational training and guidance.Establish a high quality and sustainable development of the vaccination team.

  1. Grading Policy and Student Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Ralph R.; Sawyer, Chris R.; King, Paul E.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on poor grades, one of the primary reasons students drop out of school. Recommends that borderline students be earmarked for special treatment rather than be held to rigorous academic standards or passed when they are actually failing. Suggests that operational procedures for the implementation of special treatment be pedagogically…

  2. Discussion on Non-Medical Bottleneck Factors Affecting City Grade Hospital to Carry Out Peritoneal Dialysis%市级医院开展腹膜透析的“非医疗瓶颈因素”探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万启军; 何永成; 许慧丽; 董旭; 宋海英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the non-medical bottleneck factors that affect the city grade hospitals to carry out the peritoneal dialysis(PD). Methods Retrospective analyze the clinical data of 160 cases of end-stage renal disease(ESRD) patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(CAPD) treatment from July, 1996 to December,2011 in our hospital,explore the influence of peritoneal dialysis center' s scale size,cost of dialysate,understanding of medical personnel and ESRD patients about peritoneal dialysis on the peritoneal dialysis in our hospital. Compare the difference of the main complications of CAPD between cumulative numbers of patients less than and more than 50; drop-out rate, time on treatment (TOT) ,1 year catheter intact rate and so on. Results The peritoneal dialysis was suggested only by 45. 6% of medical personnel in terms of cost-effect ratio,and by 51. 8% in terms of quality of life. Before the dialysate is charged as a drug,66. 8% of renal physicians suggested patients to choose hemodialysis,but it changed to 43.3% after dialysate is charged as a supply,there is a significant difference(P <0.05). When the cumulative numbers of patients was less than 50, the rates of drop-out rate,death rate, vessel drifting rate, rate of dialysate leaks,tunnel infection rate and PD associated peritonitis were all higher,but the TOT,1 year survival rate and 1 year vessel intact rate were lower,as compare with those when the cumulative numbers of patients was more than 50,and the difference was significance(P <0.05). Conclusion The misunderstanding of renal medicals and the ESRD patients, the way of medical payment and the size of the PD center together limited the speed of the development of PD center.%目的 探讨在市级医院开展腹透的“非医疗瓶颈因素”.方法 分析1996年7月-2011年12月间肾内科160例持续非卧床腹膜透析(CAPD)患者的临床资料,探讨腹透中心规模、腹透液计费方式、医患对腹透的认识等因

  3. Examining First Grade Teachers' Handwriting Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Derya

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the first grade teachers' practices of handwriting instructions in terms of teaching, evaluation and handwriting difficulties. From qualitative research patterns, phenomenology was used. The study was applied to the 54 First grade teachers who work at central Burdur and Burdur county centre primary education…

  4. On modern primary school design with Heima (Dark Horse)Art Bilingual Primary School of Linfen City%结合临汾市黑马艺术双语小学谈现代小学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴仁卓

    2015-01-01

    Based on design theory and design process in Heima( Dark horse)Art Bilingual Primary School in Linfen practical proiect,this paper systematically expounds the creation intention in distribution,function,modeling,indoor design and scenery design. We can provide an interest-ing environment to children by architectural symbol and technique.%基于设计理论,结合临汾市黑马艺术双语小学实际项目设计过程,对现代小学建筑的布局、功能、造型、室内、景观的创作意图进行了系统阐述,通过建筑的符号和手法,为孩子们创造了趣味空间。

  5. 湖南省怀化市中小学生近视现况调查及影响因素分析%Prevalence and associated factors of myopia in primary and secondary school students in Huaihua City, Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 李定梅; 于兰; 吴文洁; 谌绍林; 税永刚; 李妮; 段宣初

    2016-01-01

    目的 调查湖南省怀化市中小学生近视患病现状并分析其相关因素.设计横断面研究.研究对象湖南省怀化市鹤城区3~12年级学生2103名.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,2014年9~12月对怀化市鹤城区6所学校中小学生进行视力检查非睫状肌麻痹下自动验光和问卷调查.近视定义为等效球镜度(SE)≤-0.50 D.应用非条件Logistic回归模型对可能与近视发生相关的33项因素进行多因素分析.主要指标近视患病率.结果 在入选的2103名学生中,2064名(98.1%)(平均年龄12.5±2.8岁,范围7~18岁)参与了调查.近视患病率为46.3% (95%CI:44.1%~48.5%),小学生为22.1% (95%CI:19.3%~24.9%),初中生为53.8%(95%CI:50.0%~57.6%),高中生为74.4% (95%CI:70.8%~78.1%).近视患病率随着年级增高呈增长趋势(x2=425.626.P--0.000).女生近视患病率50.4%(95%可信区间:47.2%~53.6%)高于男生42.8%(95%可信区间:39.9%~45.7%)(x2=12.043,P=0.001).乡村小学和城区小学的近视患病率无显著性差异(x2=0.140,P=0.708).近视学生中69.2%(660/954)配戴眼镜.Logistic回归分析显示,近视的危险因素为父母近视、更长的近距离用眼时间、更短的近距离用眼距离、更少的睡眠时间、照明过暗.课桌高度合适、户外活动、几乎不看电视或玩电脑、无不良用眼行为和习惯是近视的保护因素.结论 怀化市中小学生近视患病率较高,乡村学校的近视防治工作亦刻不容缓,视力保护的关键年龄在9岁以前.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of myopia and to analyze associated factors in primary and secondary school students in Huaihua City,Hunan Province.Design Cross-sectional survey.Participants 2103 students from Grade 3 to 12 in Hecheng district of Huaihua City.Methods Stratified cluster random sampling approach was conducted to selected 2103 students from September to December in 2014.The students

  6. 温州市小学生超重肥胖现状及其影响因素分析%Prevalence of overweight and obesity in primary school students from Wenzhou city and the analyses of the risk factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾俐挺; 王黎荔; 山若青; 林莺

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in primary school students from Wenzhou City in Zhejiang Province, and to explore their relative risk factors. Methods Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 9035 children from the primary schools in Wenzhou City for the anthropometric measurements. 369 obesity cases and their paired controls of 389 children were chosen based on the large sample investigation. Diet and lifestyle factors were investigated in the nested case-control study for following logistic regression analyses. Results The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 11.2% and 6.4% , respectively. Male group had higher prevalence than female (P < 0. 05 ) . High frequency of vegetable intake, milk and dairy products intake, more physical activity were the benefit factors for preventing obesity (multi-variable logistic regression analysis, OR =0.770, 0.821, 0.697 and 0. 567 , P = 0. 033 , 0. 037 , 0. 017 and 0. 008 , respectively) , whereas longer sedentary behavior was the risk factor of obesity (OR = 1. 583 , P = 0. 003 ) . Conclusions The prevalence of both overweight and obesity in students from the primary schools were high in Wenzhou city, and were highly related to the diet habit and physical activity.%目的 了解浙江省温州市小学生超重肥胖的流行现状,探讨肥胖的危险因素.方法 采用多阶段分层整群抽样的方法抽取9035例温州市小学生进行体格检查,选取其中369例肥胖儿童作为病例组,并配以同班级同性别的正常体重学生389例作为对照组,开展病例-对照研究,进行膳食、身体活动方式等相关因素的Logistic 回归分析.结果 温州市小学生总体超重率和肥胖率分别为11.2%和6.4%,男性高于女性(P<0.05).蔬菜摄入频率高、奶类及其制品摄入频率高、每日运动时间长和每日睡眠时间充足分别为肥胖的保护性因素(多因素Logistic回归分析,OR值分别为0

  7. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  8. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  9. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, M.

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  10. Design of the Urban Land Grading Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the urban land grading system based on the selfdeveloped GIS software.The system establishes the system template,the relevant data structure and the empirical formulas of the affecting factor and economic data of land use.Besides,the system can calculate the service radius,sum and land grade automatically.Furthermore,it can do statistics and query on various land information and show the result of land grading with spatial and attribute data.This paper illustrates the result by giving an example of the commercial land grading of the urban area of Wuhan City by the urban land grading system.

  11. 消费时代背景下的中国城市分级研究--基于11个中小城市的实证分析%Study of China’s Urban Grade in the Era of Consumption--Based on the 11 Medium and Small-Sized Cities of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄王丽; 李帅

    2015-01-01

    China’s urban development has entered a“new era of Consumer Economy”. Traditional researches have focused on the consumption of the first and second-tier cities when the third, fourth and fifth-tier cities are often neglected. Based on the domestic and international theory of consumption and reference research of urban grade, by applying the method of factor analysis and multiple regressions, this article conducts an empirical research on actual consuming power of the 11 medium and small-sized cities of China’s eastern, central and western cities. Results show that there exits a gap among consuming power of the third, fourth and fifth-tier cities in China’s Eastern, Central and Western regions, and it indicates a trend of further expansion. While Guilin, Handan, Jilin, being the representative of the most promising medium and small-sized cities in the era of consumption, the western cities such as Urumqi and Karamay appear the declining trend. The consumption power of cities in China is influenced by a lot of factors The opening degree, ecological environment and the consumption of medical treatment, culture and education, play a critical role. And medium and small-sized cities can achieve consumption rising by consumption upgrading in four aspects, namely population, industry, policy and infrastructure.%中国城市发展已经进入“消费经济发展新时代”。传统的城市消费研究往往聚焦一、二线城市,而忽略了三线到五线城市的研究。在参考国内外消费理论和城市分级方法有关研究成果的基础上,利用因子分析法和多元回归方法,对我国东中西部11个中小城市按照实际消费能力进行实证研究。结果表明:东中西部三大经济区域三线到五线城市消费能力存在着差异,并呈现增长趋势;以桂林、邯郸、吉林等为代表的中小城市最有希望在消费时代崛起,而以乌鲁木齐、克拉玛依等西部城市消费能力出现下

  12. Taiwanese First-Grade Teachers' Perceptions of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wu-Ying; Hsieh, Chang-Ming; Ostrosky, Michaelene; McCollum, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of three types of variables (teachers' backgrounds, the current teaching situation and characteristics of students with disabilities) on Taiwanese first-grade teachers' perceptions of inclusive education. A mail survey was conducted with all first-grade teachers in a metropolitan city in central Taiwan. After…

  13. INVESTIGATION OF PRIMARY FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS’KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION LEVEL OF NASREDDIN HODJA AND KELOĞLAN İLKÖĞRETİM BEŞİNCİ SINIF ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN NASREDDİN HOCA VE KELOĞLAN’A İLİŞKİN BİLGİ VE ALGI DÜZEYLERİNİN İNCELENMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol DURAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how primary fifth grade students'levels of knowledge and perception about Nasreddin Hodja and Keloğlan. This study were tried to find answer of these question: “Which is the level of students' knowledge about Nasreddin Hodja and Keloğlan?”, “Which sources students learned Keloğlan tales?”, “Can Students detect correctly perceive the message to be given in jokes or tales”. In this study, the descriptive model; content and descriptive analysis technique was used. The study group is 172 primary fifth grade students chosen at random in Uşak city center. In this study, a data collection tool, Investigation of Primary Fifth Grade Students’ Knowledge and Perception Related toNasreddin Hodja and Keloğlan, developed by the researcher, was used. According to the survey, students define Nasreddin Hodja as “funny, reverse, donkey riding, witty and knowledgeable”. But some students define Nasreddin Hodja as "a liar and deceitful. This rate for the number of students cannot be underestimated. Students define Keloğlan as “bald, cartoon character and intelligent”. In addition, in the students responses, Keloğlan "lazy and disobedient" features stand out. More than half of the students have been failed or very failed to percept the message to be given in Nasreddin Hodja jokes. However, more than half of the students have been success or very success to percept the message to be given in Keloğlan tales. İlköğretim beşinci sınıf öğrencilerinin Nasreddin Hoca ve Keloğlan ile ilgili bilgi ve algı düzeylerini belirlemeyi amaçlayan bu araştırmada, “Öğrencilerin Nasreddin Hoca ve Keloğlan ile ilgili bilgi masallarını hangi kaynaklardan öğrendikleri” ve “Fıkralarda veya masallarda verilmek istenen mesajı doğru algılayıp algılayamadıkları” araştırılmaya çalışılmıştır. Araştırmada, betimsel tarama modeli; içerik ve betimsel analiz tekniği kullanılmıştır. Ara

  14. 近10年榆林市植被净初级生产力时空分异特征%Temporal and Spatial Change Feature of Net Primary Productivity in Yulin City from 2000 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周淑琴; 李娜; 荆耀栋; 张青峰; 田晓红

    2015-01-01

    The ecological environment is fragile in Yulin city.The distribution and change of the net primary productivity of vegetation has great influence on it.We analyzed spatial and temporal variation characteristics of NPP in Yulin city by markov transfer matrix and spatial overlay analysis based on the 2000,2005 and 2010 NPP data.The results show that:(1 )The distribution of NPP in Yulin city gradually increases from the northwest to the southeast.(2 )The annual NPP shows a significant upward trend from 2000 to 2010 in Yulin city.The NPP increased area is about 95%,which was 300gC/(m2 ·a) larger and accounting for 47.22%,mainly distributed in the north and south area from 2000 to 2005.Meanwhile,the NPP increased area is about 94%,which was 300gC/(m2 ·a)larger and accounting for 54.10%,mainly distributed in the southeast from 2005 to 2010.(3 )The main factors of Yulin NPP increase is the ecological immigration and vegetation restoration measures taken since 1999.%针对榆林市生态环境脆弱,植被净初级生产力分布及变化对其影响较大的问题,利用2000年、2005年和2010年的 NPP 数据,采用马尔科夫转移矩阵及 GIS 空间分析功能,揭示榆林市 NPP 的时空变化特征。结果表明:(1)榆林市 NPP 空间分布由西北向东南逐渐递增。(2)2000年~2010年 NPP 呈显著上升趋势:2000年~2005年 NPP 升高区域95.03%,增幅大于300gC/(m2·a)的占47.22%,主要分布在榆林市最北端和南部地区;2005年~2010年 NPP 升高区域面积93.96%,增幅大于300gC/(m2·a)的占54.10%,集中在东南大部分地区。(3)榆林市 NPP 增加的主要因素是1999年以来该区采取的多项植被恢复与重建工程等措施,植被覆盖度增加。

  15. Tinea capitis among children at one suburban primary school in the City of Maputo, Mozambique Tinea capitis entre as crianças de uma escola primária suburbana na Cidade Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin M. Sidat

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence of Tinea capitis among schoolchildren at one primary school and also identified the causative agents. Scalp flakes were collected from children presenting clinical signs suggestive of Tinea capitis. Dermatophytes were identified by following standard mycological procedures. This study found a clinical prevalence of Tinea capitis of 9.6% (110/1149. The dermatophytes isolated were Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton violaceum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The most prevalent causative agent in this study was Microsporum audouinii, thus confirming the findings from previous cross-sectional studies carried out in the city of Maputo.O estudo avaliou a prevalência da Tinea capitis na população estudantil duma Escola Primária e também identificou os agentes causais responsáveis. Escamas do couro cabeludo foram recolhidas das crianças apresentando sinais clínicos sugestivos de Tinea capitis. Dermatófitos foram identificados seguindo procedimentos micológicos padronizados. Este estudo encontrou uma prevalência clínica de Tinea capitis de 9,6% (110/1149. Os dermatófitos isolados foram Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton violaceum e Trichophyton mentagrophytes. O agente causal mais prevalente neste estudo foi Microsporum audouinii confirmando os achados dos estudos transversais anteriores levados a cabo na Cidade de Maputo.

  16. A Profile of Journal Writing in First-Grade Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sharon R.; Benson, Susan N. Kushner

    2000-01-01

    Considers how journal writing is used in primary grades to support the emergent literacy skills of young children. Reviews the literature on journal writing. Compares first grade teachers' instructional practices and perceived benefits or disadvantages of journal writing. Provides evidence that first grade teachers in the school district are using…

  17. 4~6年级农村留守儿童心理健康状况及其影响因素研究%Mental Health Status of Left-behind Children at 4-6 Grades of Primary Schools in Rural Area and Its Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高修银; 赵华硕; 金英良; 严文君; 周萍; 王丽红; 戴洁; 陆召军

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨徐州市农村留守儿童的心理健康状况及其影响因素,为家庭、学校和社会对留守儿童的教育提供参考依据.方法 采用分层与整群相结合的随机抽样方法,对江苏省徐州市农村地区6所小学的1 115名留守儿童进行问卷调查.结果 不同性别的留守儿童在学习焦虑、对人焦虑、自责倾向、恐怖倾向和总焦虑倾向得分间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);父母是否在本地打工的留守儿童在对人焦虑和冲动倾向得分间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);与父母见面时间长短不同的留守儿童在自责倾向和身体症状得分间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).父亲的文化程度与学习焦虑、对人焦虑、孤独倾向、过敏倾向、身体症状、恐怖倾向和总焦虑倾向得分之间呈负相关;母亲的文化程度与身体症状、恐怖倾向和总焦虑倾向得分间呈负相关;照顾人的文化程度与身体症状、恐怖倾向、总焦虑倾向得分间呈负相关.结论 女性、父母和照顾人文化程度偏低及与父母见面时间间隔长的农村留守儿童心理健康状况偏差.%Objective To explore the mental health status of left - behind children who were at 4 ~ 6 grades of primary schools in rural areas of Xuzhou city and the influencing factors, in order to provide reference evidence for education of left - behind children. Methods The cluster stratified sampling was taken to choose 1 115 pupils, left - behind children, at 4 to 6 grades of 6 primary schools in rural areas of Xuzhou city, Jiangsu province. Questionnaire survey was conducted among the subjects. Results There were significant differences in scores of study anxiety, interpersonal anxiety, self - blame tendency, phobic symptom and total anxiety tendency between male and female left - behind children ( P < 0. 05 ). There were significant differences in scores of interpersonal anxiety and impulsion tendency between children whose parents

  18. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project exploring sustainable ways of urban living. The project renders a scenario comprised of an array of simple conversions of existing urban spaces and buildings, in the attempt to tie strategies ranging from urban planning to interior design into a coherent vision...... of a sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  19. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin...... down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning"....

  20. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services......, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of - or willingness...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  1. 北京市东城区中小学教室卫生学现状分析%Analysis of the classroom health's status for primary and secondary schools in Dongcheng District of Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉蓉; 黄剑辉; 秦媛

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解北京市东城区中小学校教学环境卫生现状,为不断改善学生学习、生活环境提供参考依据.方法 选取北京市东城区70所中小学校的210间教室,进行教室人均面积、课桌椅、采光、照明、微小气候及黑板等方面的卫生学检测,并对检测数据进行统计学分析.结果 中小学校教室人均面积、课桌面照度、课桌及课椅分配符合达标率分别为97.14%、91.43%、76.19%和87.62%;黑板照明、窗地比、采光系数、后墙反射系数、教室CO2浓度及教室温度达标率分别为20.00%、41.43%、16.67%、51.90%、42.86%和35.71%.结论 北京市东城区各中小学校教学环境现状以黑板照明低和教室采光不足为突出问题.%OBJECTIVE To study the teaching environment's health status of on primary and secondary schools in Dongcheng District of Beijing City so as to provide reference evidence for improving the studying and living environment of the students.METHODS The schools health were measured in 210 classrooms of 70 primary and secondary schools in the entire district and the classroom space per capita,desk and chair,classroom lighting and illumination,microclimate,and blackboard were collected and analyzed statistically by SPSS 11.5.RESULTS The qualified rates of classroom space per capita,table and chair illumination,desk allocation,and chair allocation were 97.14%,91.43%,76.19% and 87.62% respectively.The qualified rates of blackboard illumination,window land ratio,illumination coefficient,reflection coefficient of backboard,CO2 density and temperature in the classrooms were 20.00%,41.43%,16.67%,51.90%,42.86% and 35.71% respectively.CONCLUSION It is the biggest problem that the blackboard illumination and the classroom lighting of the teaching environment is not sufficient of primary and secondary schools in Dongcheng District of Beijing City.

  2. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  3. 强骨灵胶囊治疗原发性骨质疏松症病情分级疗效观察%Grading clinical efficacy observation of Strong Bone capsule in treating primary osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程伟; 周文泉

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy of the Strong Bone capsule on treatment of primary osteoporosis (OP). Methods: 120 OP patients were divided into Chinese medicine group and control group, Chinese medicine group was treated with Strong Bone capsule,control group was treated with Caltrate with Vitamin D 600 tablets, all for 3 months. According to disease grade,we observed the efficacy and symptoms of TCM in 2 group after treatment. Results: 2 groups of mild OP patients with clinical symptoms of TCM were statistically significant (P<0.05), but the severe OP patients in 2 groups had no significant difference. Conclusion: The clinical efficacy of Strong Bone capsule for mild OP patients is better than the control group, Strong Bone capsule has better treatment trend, while for the moderate or severe OP patients in two groups,there was no significant difference in clinical efficacy.%目的:观察强骨灵胶囊治疗原发性骨质疏松症(OP)的临床疗效.方法:将120例OP患者随机分为中药组和对照组,治疗组予强骨灵胶囊,对照组服钙尔奇D片,均治疗3个月.按病情分级观察治疗后两组的临床疗效和中医证候疗效.结果:轻度OP患者两组临床疗效和中医证候疗效比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),中重度OP患者两组的临床疗效和中医证候疗效无统计学意义.结论:对轻度OP患者强骨灵胶囊在临床疗效方面优于对照组,有较好的治疗趋势,而对中重度OP患者两组的临床疗效无统计学差异.

  4. 中山市小学碘缺乏病防治知识和碘盐使用现状调查%Investigation on Knowledge of Iodine Deficiency Disease and Consumption of Iodized Salt in Primary School of Zhongshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伦发; 郭艳; 许冰璇

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the status of knowledge of iodine deficiency disease and consumption of iodized salt among primary school of Zhongshan City, and provide scientific evidence for carrying out education of iodine deficiency disease prevention and interventions of iodized salt consumption.[Methods]By random sampling, 1382 students from 3 to 5 grades and 150 teachers were selected to conduct questionnaire survey in 8 primary schools of 4 districts of Zhongshan City , and 530 samples of iodized salt were tested on the scene.[Results]The average score of education of iodine deficiency disease prevention among students and teachers was 78.6±22.1 and 92.7±9.5 respectively, the qualified rates were 76.9% and 100%, and the full mark rates were 29.9% and 55.3%. The qualified rate and full mark rate of urban students were significantly higher than that of rural students(P<0.01). The full mark rate of urban teachers was significantly higher than that of rural teathers (P<0.01). The total score, qualified rate and full mark rate of the Grade 4 were significantly higher than those of other 2 grades. The correct answer rate of teachers was significantly higher than that of students (P<0.05). The knowledge source of iodine deficiency disease for the students was mainly from school(75.3%), and that for teacher was mainly from the newspaper(74.7%) .The consumption rate of iodized salt was 85% in students and teachers' families.[Conclusion]Taking effective measures to strengthen health eduction of iodine deficiency disease among students and teachers can provide reliable protection for consolidating the achivements of iodine deficiency disease control.%目的 了解中山市小学碘缺乏病防治知识和家庭碘盐使用现状,为开展碘缺乏病防治教育和碘盐使用干预措施提供科学依据.方法 采用随机抽样方法,对中山市4个镇区的8所小学和城区的2所小学3~5年级1382名学生和150名老师进行问卷调查,并对530份

  5. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    /assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  6. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  7. Vacant city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzot, N.

    2013-01-01

    Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if not recognized by any in

  8. Sin City?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, Pieter A.; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city

  9. Engineering graded tissue interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer E; Burns, Kellie L; Le Doux, Joseph M; Guldberg, Robert E; García, Andrés J

    2008-08-26

    Interfacial zones between tissues provide specialized, transitional junctions central to normal tissue function. Regenerative medicine strategies focused on multiple cell types and/or bi/tri-layered scaffolds do not provide continuously graded interfaces, severely limiting the integration and biological performance of engineered tissue substitutes. Inspired by the bone-soft tissue interface, we describe a biomaterial-mediated gene transfer strategy for spatially regulated genetic modification and differentiation of primary dermal fibroblasts within tissue-engineered constructs. We demonstrate that zonal organization of osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular phenotypes can be engineered by a simple, one-step seeding of fibroblasts onto scaffolds containing a spatial distribution of retrovirus encoding the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1. Gradients of immobilized retrovirus, achieved via deposition of controlled poly(L-lysine) densities, resulted in spatial patterns of transcription factor expression, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralized matrix deposition. Notably, this graded distribution of mineral deposition and mechanical properties was maintained when implanted in vivo in an ectopic site. Development of this facile and robust strategy is significant toward the regeneration of continuous interfacial zones that mimic the cellular and microstructural characteristics of native tissue.

  10. Sleeping condition and correlated factors among students at primary school in Lanzhou City%兰州市小学生睡眠状况调查及相关因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶新华; 陈虹; 原新慧; 席莉华; 张晓宇; 张艳; 陈彩霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the sleeping condition of children and correlated factors among students at primary school in Lanzhou City. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among the parents of 3 283 students at primary school, stratified random sampling selected in four urban districts of Lanzhou. Results The sleeping time was getting shorter and shorter with the growth of students in primary school (f=25.32, P <0.01). The total sleeping time among students at primary school was less than 10 h a day in Lanzhou. The influence factors of children's total sleeping time were children's age, weight, gender, the time of homework, sleeping with their parent, amateur study, family accident, the education background and occupation of parents', and the time of going to bed of fosterer, etc. The prevalence of sleeping disorders was 16.24% in the students of primary school in Lanzhou with 18.22% in boys and 14.07% in girls (P <0.05). The main risk factors that affected the sleeping conditions were weight, irregular sleep, not enough sleeping time, adenoids, watching nervous TV and acute exercise before 30 min to sleep, the bedroom with TV, sleeping with their parent, anxiety of the father, the parents' bad marriage, etc. Conclusion The total sleeping time of the students from primary school in Lanzhou is below the standard requirements. There is a lower prevalence of sleeping disorders than that in developed city. The main influence factors of the sleeping were the family and social environment, schoolwork burden, habits of children and their parents' high education and anxiety.%目的 了解兰州市小学生睡眠状况及影响因素.方法 采用分层整群随机抽样的方法在兰州市4个区选取3 283名小学生,在严格质量控制下进行睡眠问卷调查.结果 兰州市小学生全天总睡眠时间小于10 h,随年龄增长而减少,各组间均数呈线形趋势,以10岁为界,有显著性差异(f=25.32,P<0.01);睡眠时间的影响因素有年龄

  11. Investigation and analysis on the production cost of primary agricultural products in Guigang City%贵港市大宗农产品生产成本调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈升民; 陈莉; 张敏; 朱丹青

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate agricultural production cost and farmers' income in Guigang City in order to provide references for policy making and to increase fanners' income. [Method]The kilometer network monitoring technology method and random sampling method were used to investigate the production status, external costs, and cost composition of plant farming and poultry breeding industries of 235 peasant households, ranging from 112 villages to 60 towns in Guiping County, Pingnan County, Gangbei District, Gangnan District, and Qintang District in Guigang City from 2008-2009. [Result]Primary agricultural products in Guigang were rice, sugar cane, corn, peanut, vegetable, sericulture, pig, poultry, and aquatic products. The expenses of fertilizers, seeds and seedlings, and pesticide accounted for 40- 60%, 5-30%, and 7-20% of the total expenditure cost respectively; the feeding cost accounted for more than 76% in the total industry cost. The average opportunity cost was 5,346 Yuan. [Suggestion]It was suggested that, in order to improve the efficiency of agricultural production and increase farmers' income in Guigang City, the rational arrangement of farming production depended on gaining resource advantage, supporting the community of poultry and livestock, strengthening government' s" support for agricultural production, decreasing agricultural production cost, reinforcing agricultural science and technology support, improving agricultural service system and land transfer mechanism, conducting large-scale operation, etc.%[目的]了解贵港市农户的农业生产成本及收益情况,为促进农民增收及政府决策提供参考.[方法]于2008~2009年通过农业资源公里网点监测体系,采用随机抽样方法调查贵港市辖的桂平市、平南县、港北区、港南区和覃塘区的60个乡(镇)112个行政村235户农户生产情况、种养业生产成本和构成现状.[结果]农业大宗农产品为水稻、甘蔗、

  12. Survey of ADHD among primary and middle school students in urban area of Guiyang city%贵阳城区中小学生注意缺陷多动障碍调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张碧昌; 朱焱; 邓冰; 文秋生; 孙袁; 王秀荣

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨贵阳市城区儿童注意缺陷多动障碍的患病情况及影响因素,为防治该病提供依据.方法:采用整群随机抽样抽取贵阳城区中小学生3 016名为调查对象,用Conners量表(家长问卷)对儿童进行初筛,然后对可疑患儿及家长进行病史访谈、智力测试并按DSM -Ⅳ诊断标准进行诊断.结果:ADHD的患病率为0.73%,其中注意缺陷型占77.3%,多动-冲动型占9.1%,注意缺陷伴多动冲动型占13.6%.男孩的患病率为1.3%,女孩患病率为0.3%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).影响儿童ADHD的因素为:性别、母亲孕期情绪低落、父母婚姻关系、父母是否理解孩子的想法、孩子有困难是否愿意告诉父母、孩子性格及学习成绩、好朋友的多少、与同学的关系.结论:儿童ADHD的患病率处于较低水平,影响儿童ADHD的因素是多方面的,干预儿童ADHD应该关注儿童家庭养育环境和在学校的学习生活情况.%Objective: To explore the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the effect factors among the children in urban area of Guiyang city, provide a basis for prevention and treatment of the disease. Methods: A cluster random sampling method was used to choose 3 016 primary and middle school students from urban area of Guiyang city as investigation objects, Conners scale was used for primary screening, then the suspected children and their parents were interviewed, intelligence test was conducted, and all the children were diagnosed according to DSM - IV diagnostic criterion. Results: The prevalence of ADHD was 0. 73% , the proportions of inattentive type, hyperactive/impulsive type, inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive type were 77. 3% , 9. 1% and 13. 6% , respectively. The incidences of ADHD in boys and girls were 1. 3% and 0. 3% , respectively, there was significant difference (P <0. 05) . The effect factors of ADHD in children included gender, maternal depression during

  13. Asterisk Grade Study Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorsky, Eileen A.

    A study was conducted at Passaic County Community College (PCCC) to investigate the operation of a grading system which utilized an asterisk (*) grade to indicate progress in a course until a letter grade was assigned. The study sought to determine the persistence of students receiving the "*" grade, the incidence of cases of students receiving…

  14. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt;

    2000-01-01

    was moderately reproduced (kappa = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all...... patients (P analysis showed that vascular grading contributed with independent prognostic value in all patients (P

  15. 唐山市农村小学生肠道致病原感染情况调查%Investigation of the rate of intestinal pathogen infection in primary school students in rural areas of the City of Tangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绍伟; 孟梦; 赵赛; 张冰; 熊瑞媛; 刘春燕; 任波; 何泽亮; 张娜; 王桂菊; 胡雪; 蒋开玲; 田喜凤; 张淑杰; 霍晓清; 李冀; 向鸿鹄; 杨秋菊; 王姗姗; 黎宗云; 蒋招娣; 刘永昌; 白文娟

    2011-01-01

    采用随机方法:确定唐山市农村小学生肠道致病原感染调查的调查学校和调查对象,采集粪样.用生理盐水涂片法、碘液涂片法、饱和盐水浮聚法检查肠道寄生虫,同时检查肠道致病菌.调查对象共433人,433份粪样中仅检出3例粪类圆线虫和2例结肠内阿米巴;肠道致病菌阳性101份,阳性率为22.75%,其中产碱杆菌阳性5例.乙型副伤寒杆菌阳性78例,伤寒杆菌阳性6例,痢疾杆菌阳性7例,其他5例.唐山市农村小学生肠道寄生虫感染率较低,但是肠道致病菌的感染率较高.%To determine the pathogens for intestinal infections, rural and more urban primary school students in Tangshan were randomly tested. Fecal samples were collected and intestinal parasites and intestinal bacteria were detected using the saline smear method, iodine smear, and saturated salt water flotation method. In 433 fecal samples from 433 subjects,Strongyloides stercoralis infection was detected in 3 samples and Entamoeba coli infection was detected in 2 samples. Of the samples, 101 were infected with intestinal pathogenic bacteria. Samples tested positive for infection at a rate of 22.75 % ; 5 samples were positive for Alcaligenes, 78 were positive for Bacillus paratyphi B, 6 were positive for Salmonella typhi, 7 were positive for Shigella, and 5 were positive for other pathogens. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was lower in rural primary school students, but the prevalence of intestinal bacteria was higher in the City of Tangshan.

  16. 2011年北京市怀柔区中小学生视力不良现状%Poor vision status of primary and middle school students in Huairou District of Beijing City in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵爱国

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To understand and grasp the vision status of primary and middle school students in the Huairou District of Beijing City,and provide a scientific basis for the development of students eyesight protection measures.[Methods] The vision monitoring data of physical examination,including 27 105 primary and middle school students of 38 schools in 2011,was analyzed.[Results]The detection rate of poor vision was 54.31%,among which the detection rate was 39.18% of primary school students,65.13% of junior secondary school students and 80.89% of high school students respectively.The poor vision detection rate increased with the growth of the school age.The poor vision detection rate of urban students was 61.00%,while that of rural students was 41.66%,the former was higher than the latter.The poor vision detection rate of boys was 49.31% and that of girls was 59.53%,the girls was higher than the boys.[Conclusion] The poor eyesight status of primary and middle school students is not optimistic in Huairou District.The detection rate is still at a high level,which should attract great attention from students,parents,schools and the whole society.It is urgent to adopt a comprehensive prevention and control measures to protect vision of students.%目的 了解和掌握北京市怀柔区中小学生的视力现状,为制定学生视力保护措施和防治对策提供科学依据.方法 对2011年辖区内38所学校27 105名中小学生健康检查资料中的视力监测数据进行分析.结果 怀柔区学生视力不良检出率为54.31%.其中小学学生检出率为39.18%,初中学生检出率为65.13%,高中学生检出率为80.89%,视力不良检出率是随着学龄段的增长而升高.城市学生视力不良检出率为61.00%,乡村学生视力不良检出率为41.66%,城市高于乡村.男生视力不良检出率为49.31%,女生视力不良检出率为59.53%,女生高于男生.结论 怀柔区中小学生视力不良情况不

  17. 金坛市小学生膳食健康教育干预效果评价%Effects of health education on Chinese Dietary Guidelines and relative nutritional knowledge, attitude and behavior among primary school students in Jintan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾根梅; 孙桂菊; 沈洁; 张朋; 刘福康; 黄桂玲; 王少康; 杨瑾; 杨立刚; 艾月仙

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过健康教育,提高江苏省金坛市小学生相关知识、态度、行为水平,培养小学生的良好饮食习惯.方法 选取金坛市2所小学307名五年级学生为调查对象,对其进行膳食指南相关营养知识、态度、行为调查,选择其中1所学校为干预学校,进行相关营养知识健康教育,另1所学校作为对照,3个月后对干预效果进行评价.结果 干预学校学生基线调查和终期调查营养知识得分分别为(4.51±2.32)、(9.82±2.65)分,差异有统计学意义(t=-28.74,P<0.05);对照学校学生基线调查和终期调查营养知识得分分别为(5.18±1.98)、(5.86±1.75)分,差异无统计学意义;干预学校小学生健康教育干预后的营养知识明显提高,饮食行为趋于合理,听说过膳食指南的学生由15.5%(17/109)提高到84.4%(92/109)(χ2=103.21,P<0.05),每天吃早餐的学生由59.8%(65/109)上升到72.5%(79/109)(χ20=4.01,P=0.045),每周不吃膨化食品的学生由16.5%(18/109)上升到35.7%(39/109)(χ2=10.48,P=0.001),差异均有统计学意义.结论 营养健康教育可提高小学生的营养知识水平,改善其饮食理念和饮食行为.%Objective To improve knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) of dietary nutrition among primary school students through health education. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 307 students of grade 5 in 2 primary schools in Jintan city,Jiangsu province. The students in one school were given health education on the Chinese Dietary Guidelines 2007 for 3 months and the other school was taken as control group. The effect was evaluated 3 months after the education. Results After the education, the nutritional knowledge of the students improved significantly and their dietary behavior became more reasonable. The students who learnd the Chinese Dietary Guidelines rised from 15.5 % ( 17/109 ) to 84.4 % ( 92/109 ) (X2 = 103. 21, P < 0. 05 ) and the percentage of the students having

  18. Primary School Teachers' Opinion on Digital Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana; Drîngu, Maria-Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports of Romania through order no. 3654/29.03.2012 approved the Framework Plan for Primary Education, Preparatory Grade, First and Second Grades. New subjects and syllabuses were introduced. In 2014-2015 school year appeared new school textbooks for first and second grade. Unlike the previous textbooks…

  19. OPINIONS OF PRIMARY EDUCATION SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS ABOUT TEACHING OF HISTORY TOPICS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES AND SIGNIFICANCE OF HISTORY İLKÖĞRETİM YEDİNCİ SINIF ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN SOSYAL BİLGİLER DERSLERİNDE TARİH KONULARININ İŞLENİŞİ VE TARİHİN DEĞERİ İLE İLGİLİ GÖRÜŞLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan KAYA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at determining primary education seventh grade students’ opinions on teaching of history topics in social science cources and significance of history in their lives. The population of the study comprises of 20 pieces seventh grade classes in 4 primary schools with medium socio-economic levels in the city center of Erzurum. As the sample of the study, a total of 200 students (10 students from each class were chosen via random sampling from seventh grade classes of these schools according to the appropriate sampling method. Required data for this qualitative research was acquired by a 4-item questionnaire comprising of open-ended questions. Content analysis method was adopted in analysis of the obtained data in this study. Findings shows that methods in line with constructivist approach remain limited in teaching of the topics; students like methods in which they are more active; such as drama and acting they like learning history, and, in general, they think that learning history makes a great contribution to their lives. Bu araştırmanın amacı, İlköğretim yedinci sınıf öğrencilerinin sosyal bilgiler dersinde tarih konularının işlenişi ve tarihin yaşamlarındaki değeri ile ilgili görüşlerini tespit edebilmektir.Araştırmanın evrenini, Erzurum merkezde sosyo-ekonomik bakımdan orta düzeyde 4 ilköğretim okulundaki toplam 20 tane yedinci sınıf şubesi oluşturmaktadır. Örneklem olarak uygun örnekleme yöntemine göre seçilen bu okulların yedinci sınıflarından tesadüfî örneklem yoluyla her sınıftan 10’ar öğrenci olmak üzere toplam 200 öğrenci seçilmiştir. Nitel araştırma yöntemi ile gerçekleştirilen bu araştırma için gerekli olan veriler, 4 adet açık uçlu sorudan oluşan bir anket vasıtasıyla edinilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda elde edilen verilerin çözümlenmesinde içerik analizi yöntemi benimsenmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre derslerin işlenişinde yap

  20. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities ...... of being mobile, as well as profoundly altering the process and perspective of data collection and feedback to governments, businesses and citizens.......This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid...

  1. Central Place Theory and Distribution of Post Offices in Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The feasibility of application of the Central Place Theory in the distribution of post offices in cities is analysed, the grade scale structure and space distribution structure Shijiazhauang of post offices in city are studied, the research results prove the actual value of the Central Place Theory, and the suggestion of adjustment in the space distribution Shijiazhuang of post offices in city is put forward.

  2. LA REPITENCIA ESCOLAR EN ESCUELAS PRIMARIAS DE SAN MIGUEL DE TUCUMÁN. UNA APROXIMACIÓN DESDE LAS REPRESENTACIONES SOCIALES Y LAS RELACIONES ENTRE DOCENTES Y ESTUDIANTES REPITENTES (GRADE REPETITION IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS OF SAN MIGUEL DE TUCUMÁN. AN APPROACH FROM TEACHER´S AND GRADE REPEATING PUPIL´S SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalonga Penna María Micaela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo presenta resultados de investigación sobre las representaciones sociales de docentes y estudiantes repitentes acerca de la repitencia, y sus implicaciones en las relaciones entre estos actores educativos. La metodología utilizada fue de tipo cualitativo. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad a docentes y a estudiantes repitentes de primer grado, y observaciones participantes en escuelas de San Miguel de Tucumán. El análisis de los datos se efectuó acorde a la teoría fundamentada. Se identificaron categorías y temas en las entrevistas y observaciones participantes, y se triangularon los datos para elaborar una teoría explicativa del fenómeno. Los resultados mostraron que las representaciones docentes inciden en la conformación de las representaciones de los niños repitentes y en las relaciones áulicas. Las docentes, que definieron a la educación de manera unicausal, se manifestaron favorables a la repitencia. Los estudiantes repitentes se representaron negativamente a la repitencia y a los vínculos con docentes y pares. Las interacciones áulicas evidenciaron comunicaciones unidireccionales y una aplicación desigual de normas. Esto permitía a las docentes mantener una autoimagen satisfactoria, pero influía negativamente en la de los niños repitentes. Las docentes que consideraron a la educación como un proceso complejo, definieron a la repitencia como una situación desfavorable. Las representaciones de los alumnos repitentes sobre la repitencia y las relaciones con docentes y pares aunaron aspectos negativos y positivos. Las relaciones áulicas evidenciaron comunicaciones uni y multi-direccionales y una aplicación de normas más equitativa. La autoimagen de las docentes y de los niños repitentes contenía aspectos positivos y negativos.Abstract: This paper presents research results on teacher´s and grade repeating children’s representations of grade repetition, and its implications for the

  3. Situation analysis of health examination among 4 732 primary school students in Chaozhou city%潮州市区2010年4732名小学生健康体检结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄洁

    2012-01-01

    Objective Learning the physical health of elementary school students in Chaozhou, in order to provide scientific basis for the primary student health intervention measures that fit for the actual conditions of the city. Method 4 732 pupils of Chaohou city were taken physical examination according to the provisions and requirements of "primary and secondary school student healthy management approach" set by Ministry of Public Health. Results The detection rate of physical examination are poor eyesight (48.65%), dental caries (41.06%), obesity (13.23%), trachoma (6.63%) and malnutrition (5.60%). Except dental caries,there was significant difference in the detection rate of the rest 4 items of physical examination between male and female.The rate of poor eyesight in female was significantly higher than male (46.19%,x2=12.89,P<0.01),obesity rate of male(17.13%) was higher than that of female(8.85%,x2=70.40,P<0.01), the trachoma rate of female (7.94%) was significantly higher than that of male (5.47%,x2=ll-69,P<0.01), the malnutrition rate of female (6.38%) was significantly higher than that of male(4.91%, x2=4.79,P<0.05). With the increasing of age,the trend of prevalence of poor eyesight shows increasing (x2=16.15 ,P<0.01) , while that of dental caries shows decreasing. Conclusions The results of physical examination in elementary schools was not good in Chaozhou city. The relevant departments should cany out effective health education, health promotion and promote good health habits actively so that to improve the students' health.%目的 了解潮州市区小学生的身体健康情况,为制订符合本市实际情况的小学生健康干预措施提供科学依据.方法 根据卫生部《中小学生健康体检管理办法》的规定和要求,对潮州市区4 732名小学生进行健康检查.结果学生体检项目的检出率依次为视力不良检出率(48.65%)、龋齿检出率(41.06%)、肥胖检出率(13.23%)、沙眼检出率(6.63

  4. 大理市苍山森林火险等级区划研究%Study on the Division of Forest Fire Danger Grade in Cangshan Mountain of Dali City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国斌

    2015-01-01

    Take the data processing ,supplementary investigation ,statistical analysis and other methods ,according to the burning of the forest to forest fire ring theory ,three elements in the burning of the forest fire danger of online distribution ring value as the divi -sion standard of quantitative ,the woodlands of Cangshan divided into 3 grade of fire zone;the results show that:the combustion types in Cangshan forest land ,easy combustion type accounted for 87.9%;super fire area and the level of fire area up to 20731.9 hm2 ,ac-counting for 69.4%of the area of forest land.The results show that ,Dali Cangshan forest fire rank high ,large fire hazard ,is a nation-al risk fire area.%采取数据处理、补充调查、统计分析等方法,根据森林燃烧环网理论,以林火三要素在森林燃烧环网上分布的火险值作为定量划分标准,将苍山的林地划分为3个火险等级区;苍山林地燃烧类型中,易燃类占87.9%;特级火险区和一级火险区的面积达20731.9 hm2,占林地面积的69.4%。研究表明,大理苍山森林火险等级高,火灾危险性大,属全国高危火险区域。

  5. 中小学特级教师结构现状及其发展对策--基于广东省的实证研究%The Present Status and Development Countermeasures of the Special-grade Teachers in Primary and Secondary Schools---Based on an Empirical Research in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭上观; 林天伦; 何毅

    2014-01-01

    特级教师是师德的表率、育人的模范、教学的专家。特级教师是当地基础教育的宝贵财富。弘扬特级教师精神是时代的要求,社会的需求,教育的需求。为了充分发挥特级教师的示范辐射作用,本文以广东在职的中小学特级教师为例,结合特级教师基本现状调查的思考,从特级教师评选指标、评选方法、激励政策、成长平台等方面提出了相关的建议与对策。%Special-grade Teachers are moral models , education models ,and teaching experts . Special-grade Teachers are valuable assets to local basic education . Carrying forward the spirit of Special-grade Teachers is the requirements of the times and the needs of society and education . In order to give full play to the role of the Special-grade Teachers'demonstration , this thesis takes an empirical research on the present status of primary and secondary Special-grade Teachers in Guangdong . It puts forward relevant suggestions and countermeasures with regard to selection index , selection methods , incentive policiess ,and grow th platform .

  6. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  7. Predicting Dyslexia in a Transparent Orthography from Grade 1 Literacy Skills: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective cohort study to explore the predictability of dyslexia from 1st-grade literacy skills in Italian students. We followed 407 Italian students in primary school from the 1st through the 3rd grades. Students were diagnosed with dyslexia in the 3rd grade. We retrospectively tested participants' 1st-grade performance in…

  8. 苏州市区中小学生饮食健康调查及分析%Investigation and Analysis of Dietary Health Among Students of Primary School and Junior High School in Suzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏红; 马姣姣; 孔玉兰

    2012-01-01

    A dietary health-related questionnaire was designed and conducted in 511 students of 9 primary and junior high schools in Pingjiang, Jinchang, Canglang and the New District of Suzhou city. The result showed that 61.87% of students had dairy foods in their breakfast, but lacked of vegetables and fruits. A proportion of students had not good habit such as picking about food, preferring foreign fast foods, drinking soft drink instead of water. Their main sports activity was in school. They achieved information about good diet through fami- ly, reading and school. We suggested that the education about dietary health should be improved.%以问卷调查的方式,对苏州市平江区、沧浪区、金阊区、新区的9所学校511位五年级至初二的学生进行了调查。调查发现,学生的早餐规律性尚可,早餐含乳制品的学生比例达61.87%,但普遍缺少蔬菜或水果;休息日用餐规律性出现波动;学生的运动时间主要在学校体育课;大部分学生饮食习惯尚可,但也有一定比例的学生存在挑食、喜欢洋快餐、用饮料代替饮水等不良习惯;家庭教育、书刊阅读是学生获取饮食健康信息的主要渠道。针对这些情况学校和家庭都应该加强学生饮食健康教育方式方法的研究,提高教育效果,使学生终身受益。

  9. Almost Graded Prime Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer Jaber

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Graded commutative ring with unity over an abelian group were introduced by many authors such as T. Y. Lam and C. T. C. Wall, and almost prime ideals over commutative rings with unity were introduced by S.M. Batwadeker and P.K. Sharma, and this forced us to try to extend the theory of almost and n-almost prime ideals to the graded case. Approach: We develop the theory of almost and n-almost prime ideals to the graded case. Results: We extended some basic results about almost and n-almost prime ideals to the graded case, and then we gave a relationship between n-almost graded prime ideals and weakly graded prime ideals. Conclusion: The extended results about almost and n-almost graded prime ideals allow us to classify further properties about almost graded prime ideals. 2000 AMS Mathematics Subject Classification: 13 A 02.

  10. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  11. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  12. Saúde mental na atenção primária à saúde: estudo avaliativo em uma grande cidade brasileira Mental health in primary care: an evaluative study in a large Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Onocko Campos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A Atenção Primária à Saúde é reconhecida mundialmente como a responsável pela solução dos principais problemas de saúde da comunidade, incluso a mental. O presente estudo buscou avaliar a articulação entre as redes de atenção primária e de saúde mental em regiões de alta vulnerabilidade social de uma grande cidade brasileira (Campinas - SP através dos parâmetros: pesquisa avaliativa, participativa e predominantemente qualitativa. Foram definidos dois grupos pela técnica de clusters: um de Unidades Básicas de Saúde com maior grau de implantação das ações inovadoras e outro com menor grau de implantação. Posteriormente foi realizada uma comparação. O apoio matricial se mostrou potente para definir fluxos, qualificar as equipes e promover uma assistência conjunta e compartilhada. Detectou-se um papel estratégico do agente comunitário de saúde para identificar ofertas em potencial e propiciar escuta de forma mais próxima à população. As práticas de promoção à saúde ainda não estão consolidadas. Quando os arranjos possibilitam inserções dos profissionais em atividades extramuros, os usuários reconhecem e se apropriam dos espaços, possibilitando ações que se distanciam da tradicional queixa-conduta.Primary Healthcare (PHC is internationally acknowledged to be responsible for dealing with most community health problems, including mental health issues. The scope of this work was to evaluate the links between primary care and mental health in areas of high social vulnerability in a large Brazilian city (Campinas, State of São Paulo using parameters defined in this study. Evaluative and participative - mainly qualitative - research, was conducted. Two groups were defined by cluster technique: one group of Basic Health Units with a higher degree of innovative strategies and another with a lower level of innovation, and the two were then compared. Matrix support was observed as a powerful tool to define

  13. [Grading of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, G; Roth, W; Helpap, B

    2016-07-01

    The current grading of prostate cancer is based on the classification system of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) following a consensus conference in Chicago in 2014. The foundations are based on the frequently modified grading system of Gleason. This article presents a brief description of the development to the current ISUP grading system.

  14. Survey Of high risk behaviors and HIV/STD infection among low-grade FSWs In Guigang City%广西贵港市低档暗娼的高危行为及HIV/STD感染状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健龙; 覃雄林; 覃春伟; 韦薇; 覃冰兵

    2012-01-01

    Objective To learn high risk behaviors, the prevanlence of HIV and other STDs among low-grade female sex workers (FSWs) from different venues of Guigang City, Guangxi Province. Methods Cross-sectional survey was carried out among FSWs (N=444) from all venues of the urban and rural connection areas in Guigang City from September to October 2011. Results The proportion of FSWs recruited from the feet-washing house and the salon (type A) was 34.23% and 37.39% in hostel (type B), 16.44% from small hotels and street hotels (type C), and 11.4% from rented rooms and the dike woman (type D). The median number of served male clients was 3, 2, 3 and 5 among FSWs of type A, type B , type C and type D respectively. And their proportion of consistent condom using with male clients in recent working day was 47.37%, 53.61%, 54.79%, and 60.38%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV/STDs all showed an increasing trend among low-grade FSWs of type A, type B, type C and type D, among whom the prevalence of HIV was 0.66%, 1.81%, 4.11%, and 16.98%, respectively. Additional, the prevalence of syphilis was 13.16%, 15.66%, 17.81% and 18.87% , respectively. Conclusions Compared with those of high-grade FSWs, the middle/low grade had more number of male clients in Guigang City, lower condoms using rate, high prevalence of HIV/STDs among them, which was the main reason for the diffuse proliferation of AIDS in locality. So, HIV/STDs surveillance and behaviors intervention should be mainly focused on local low-grade FSWs to prevent further transmission of HIV epidemic to the general population.%目的 调查了解广西贵港市不同场所,低档暗娼的高危行为特征及艾滋病病毒(HIV)和其他性传播疾病(STD)的感染状况.方法 于2011年9~10月,对贵港市城乡结合部和辖区乡镇所有娱乐场所的低档暗娼开展一次横断面调查.结果 在调查的444人中,洗脚屋/发廊暗娼(A类)占34.23%、旅社/招待所暗娼(B类)占37.39%、

  15. Primary intracerebral lymphoma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Eser

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of primary central nervous lymphoma (PCNSL that may be confused with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of high grade glioma. Primary central nervous lymphoma is a rare tumour and it account for 0.3-3% of intracranial tumours. A 61 year’s old woman was admitted to our clinic with a severe headache, vomiting, left hemiparesia and transient loss of consciousness. Primary central nervous lymphoma may show various biological and radiological characteristics. We herein emphasized being confused with MRI findings of PCNSL and high grade glioma. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3 (3: 409-411Key words: Primary central nervous lymphoma, high grade glioma, B-cell, diagnosis

  16. Analysis of mental health of primary and secondary school teachers in Luoding city%罗定市中小学教师心理健康状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梓朗; 陈志明; 肖垚南; 陈丁玲; 吴逢春

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mental health status of primary and secondary school teachers in Louding city and ana-lyze the characteristics of mental health in different subgroups,which may provide a scientific basis for mental health work of these teachers. Methods Forty - two schools from 21 towns were selected by stratified random sampling method. A total of 1260 teachers of primary and secondary schools in Luoding were randomly selected and evaluated by Self - reporting Inventory(SCL - 90). Results ①The interpersonal sensitivity factor scores of those teachers were significantly lower than domestic norm levels(t = - 4. 399,P < 0. 01), the rest of each factor and total scores of SCL - 90 were higher than domestic norm levels(t = 3. 832 ~ 15. 356,P < 0. 01). ②The so-matization,obsessive - compulsive,depression,anxiety,hostility,horror and pararwia factors scores of female teachers were all signif-icantly higher than those of male teachers(t = - 3. 87 ~ - 1. 978,P < 0. 01). ③The interpersonal sensitivity and hostility factors scores of head teachers were higher than those of other teachers(t = 2. 070,P < 0. 05;t = 2. 256,P < 0. 05). ④The horror and psychoticism factors score of teachers in rural areas were higher than those of other teachers(F = 4. 717,P < 0. 01;F = 5. 520,P < 0. 01). ⑤Score of each factor of the older and highby educated teachers were higher than those of the young(F = 7. 695 ~ 21. 325,P < 0. 01)and low education(F = 181. 587 ~ 431. 086,P < 0. 01)teachers. Conclusion The interpersonal sensitivity of primary and secondary schools teachers is relatively lower in Luoding. There are differences of mental health status of primary and secondary schools teachers in differ-ent gender,age,position,degree and area. Further work should be provided to improve the mental health of teachers.%目的:探讨罗定市中小学教师的心理健康状况,分析其影响因素,为提高教师心理健康水平提供依据。方法采用分层随机

  17. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers,...

  18. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers, Pool...

  19. Expats rank Chinese cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Lv Dong

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, April The results of the "2011 Amazing China- The Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners" election are released. Expats choose Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities as Chinas 10 most attractive cities for foreigners.

  20. Clinical grades: upward bound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Catherine M; Seldomridge, Lisa A

    2005-04-01

    This study examined the relationship of grades earned in paired theory and clinical courses. Data collected during academic years 1997 to 2002 confirmed that grade inflation exists in clinical nursing courses. Problems involved in awarding grades for clinical performance are discussed (e.g., standards of clinical performance, methods used in evaluation of clinical performance, the impossibility of faculty omnipresence, the influence of student effort in grading, the effect of recency, the challenges of keeping good anecdotal records). Solutions to grading problems are proposed, including dividing up performance into agreed-on elements, measurement of these elements on a grading scale that allows for more differentiation of quality in evaluating clinical performance, assigning grades from the beginning of a clinical course, emphasizing all three domains of clinical practice, and evaluating student performance in both laboratory and, clinical settings.

  1. Are grades really oppressive?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张心宇

    2015-01-01

    Are grades really oppressive? The broad question's answer is of course open: it varies in different condition and in prerequisites. Like in Daily Californian,"Why Grades are Oppressive", the title tells us it standing: yes, grades are oppressive. In the article, the authors (this article was written by 16 students of the class) pointed out that the grading system has had a violent and powerfully destructive effect on our lives. Because grading focuses our attention on class requirements that we have no say in determination. And this makes many students equate their self-worth with the grades they get in exams. Besides, grades are intimately connected with a larger system of control in community, which trains students to be submissive and not to question or challenge it. In the end, the authors conclude that they should take responsibility for evaluating their own learning process.

  2. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  3. Wandering Freely in the Paradise of Books and Enjoying the Charm of Reading:A Brief Discussion on Several Measures of Extracurricular Reading for Higher Grades of Primary School%畅游书海乐园享受翰墨文香--浅谈小学高年级课外阅读的几点做法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵明鸽

    2014-01-01

    A good book can make the whole life of a child, while higher grades of primary school are the golden period for chil-dren's reading, however, the present children are deeply attracted by the Internet and media which have reduced their interest in reading. As a teacher for higher grades of primary school, one should strive to create a paradise for children's extracurricular reading and make reading an internal need of children. Teachers should attempt to create an atmosphere for reading on campus and let children grow up in classics.%一本好书会成就孩子的一生,小学高年级又是孩子阅读的黄金期,然而现在的网络媒体深深地吸引住了孩子,他们对于读书更是不屑一顾。作为小学高年级语文教师要努力为孩子创造课外阅读的乐园,让阅读成为孩子一种内在的需要。让书香飘溢校园,让经典伴孩子成长。

  4. La Adquisición de Conocimiento Ortográfico en Niños de 1er a 3er Año de Educación Básica Orthographic Knowledge Acquisition in 1st to 3rd Grade Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Diuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se exploró la adquisición de conocimiento ortográfico en base al análisis de la escritura de palabras, en niños argentinos de 1er a 3er año de educación básica. Se analizó también la relación entre el conocimiento fonológico y el ortográfico. Se administraron dos pruebas de escritura: una prueba con palabras que variaban en su complejidad fonológica y otra con palabras de distinta complejidad ortográfica, que incluían correspondencias consistentes independientes del contexto, consistentes dependientes del contexto y correspondencias inconsistentes. Se observó que las correspondencias consistentes independientes del contexto fueron mejor escritas en todos los grados, seguidas de las inconsistentes dominantes, las dependientes del contexto y las inconsistentes no dominantes. Los niños de grados superiores se desempeñaron mejor que aquellos en grados inferiores.Orthographic knowledge acquisition in Argentine children from the 1st to 3rtl grade of primary school was explored. The relationship between phonological and orthographic knowledge was also analyzed. Two written test were administered: one presented stimuli with different phonological complexity, and in the other the children had to write words of different orthographic complexity, including context-independent consistent correspondences, consistent context dependent and inconsistent correspondences. The results showed that context-independent consistent correspondences were the best written in the three grades, followed by dominant inconsistent correspondences, context dependent, and no dominant inconsistent correspondences. Higher grade children performed better than lower grade children.

  5. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinquan; Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  6. Drinking in different periods of a day of primary and middle school students in four cities of China%中国四城市中小学生每天不同时间段的饮水量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 胡小琪; 杜松明; 潘慧; 王晓君; 张东; 朱珍妮; 罗圆; 鞠勇

    2013-01-01

    204)ml(Z =64.5,P < 0.01).Conclusion The amount of drinking water of primary and middle school students in different periods of a day was different in four cities of China.%目的 调查北京、上海、成都、广州中小学生每天不同时间段的饮水量.方法 采用多阶段随机抽样的方法,于2011年9-10月在北京、上海、广州、成都抽取了5914名中小学生,完成调查5868名.采用连续7d24h的饮水记录法,由调查对象利用定量用具详细记录每天8个时间段,上午、下午、晚上,以及就餐时与非就餐时饮水的种类及量,分析不同时间段的水和饮料的饮用量.结果 早餐前、早餐时、早餐后、午餐时、午餐后、晚餐时、晚餐后和夜间的饮水量分别为(99±101)、(130±106)、(191±155)、(96±107)、(246±172)、(90±101)、(188±135)、(50±81) ml(F=1679.77,P<0.01).按照3个时段划分时,上午的饮水量最高[(420±242)ml],依次是下午[(341±199)ml]和晚上[(327±195) ml](F=325.23,P<0.01);上午、下午、晚上白水饮用量分别是(270±209)、(250±179)和(224±177) ml(F=84.89,P<0.01);饮料的饮用量在上午[(151±133) ml]最高,其次是晚上[(103±122) ml],下午[(91±199) ml]最低(F=373.56,P<0.01).就餐时与非就餐时的饮水量分别为(316±247)、(773±445)ml(Z=65.2,P<0.01).非就餐时,白水饮用量[(579±408) ml]高于饮料[(194±204) ml](Z=64.5,P<0.01);就餐时,白水[(165±194)ml]和饮料[(151±152)ml]之间的差异无统计学意义(Z=0.59,P=0.56).结论 中国4个城市中小学生每天不同时段的饮水量差别较大.

  7. 南昌市小学教师慢性疲劳综合征及相关因素%Chronic fatigue syndrome and related factors among primary school teachers in Nanchang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余超; 吴磊; 阎冀; 江涵; 张欣; 刘月圆; 侯良

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the present epidemic status and distributional characteristics of the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in primary school teachers in Nanchang. Methods: Altogether, 934 teachers were selected from 10 primary schools in Nanchang City, and 893 effective questionnaires were returned. The sample consisted of 341 aged below 30 years, 333 aged 30 - 39,135 aged 40 -49, and 84 aged 50 or above. The 9 items CFS self-assessment scale was developed, according to the 9 symptoms specified in the revised diagnostic criterion of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1994. Participants were assessed with the CFS self-assessment scale and the self-made questionnaires for demographic information and CFS related factors. Then psychosomatic medicine doctors in affiliated hospital of Nanchang University followed up every suspected patients to make a definite diagnosis. Results: The rate of CFS was 12. 9% (95% CI: 10. 7% ~ 15. 1 % ), and the rates of the 4 age groups were 8. 8% , 15. 0% , 14. 1% , and 19. 0% respectively (x2 =7. 37, P <0.05). No significant difference was found in the rates between different genders. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that aged 50 or above (Oft = 2. 44), having strained relationship with students'parents (OR =6. 36) were risk factors for CFS, and higher satisfaction about working environment (OR =0.64), various recreational activities (OR =0.15), always seeking help from others when experiencing troubles (OR = 0. 73) were protective factors. Conclusion: It suggests that the detection rate of CFS is quite high among primary school teachers, with a rising trend with the age increasing. It is helpful to improve teachers-stuilents'parents relationships, working environment, recreational activities and trouble releasing for reducing the rate of chronic fatigue syndrome.%目的:了解南昌市小学教师慢性疲劳综合征(CFS)的流行现状和分布特征,探索CFS的相关因素.方法:采用分

  8. Prevalence of deciduous teeth caries and the risk factors in first grade students of primary school in Nanjing%南京市区一年级儿童乳牙龋病流行状况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽纯; 龚玲; 计艳; 王瑜

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查南京市区一年级儿童乳牙龋病患病现状并分析其相关影响因素。方法:随机抽取南京市620名一年级儿童进行口腔健康检查,并对其父母进行问卷调查,分析儿童乳牙龋齿状况与问卷调查内容的相关性。结果:一年级儿童乳牙总患龋率和龋均分别为69.19%和3.64,乳牙充填率为9.67%。多元线性回归分析显示刷牙时间、饮用碳酸饮料、甜点、糖果巧克力与儿童乳牙患龋有关。结论:南京市一年级儿童乳牙患龋情况较严重,充填率低,应加强龋病的防治工作,强调学校与父母一同开展口腔健康教育。%Objective:To investigate the prevalence of deciduous teeth caries status and the risk factors in first grade students of primary school in Nanjing,and to provide evidence for health service of caries prevention. Methods:A total of 620 first grade primary school students were randomly selected in Nanjing to get oral examinations. The questionnaires were com-pleted by their parents. And the correlation between the deciduous dental caries and questionnaires were analysed. Results:The prevalence rate of deciduous teeth caries was 69. 19%,and the mean dmft was 3. 64,filling rate of deciduous teeth caries was 9. 67%. Logistic regression analysis showed that brushing time,the frequency of intake of sugar drink,sweet food,candy and chocolate were significantly related to the prevalence of deciduous teeth caries. Conclusion:The prevalence of primary teeth caries in first grade students of primary school in Nanjing was serious and low filling rate. It was important to strengthen caries prevention work,organize more oral health education with schools and parents.

  9. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  10. Functionally graded materials with laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hosson, J.T.M.; Pei, Y.T.; Brebbia, CA

    2001-01-01

    Al-40 w/o Si functionally graded materials (FGMs) were produced by a onestep laser cladding process on cast Al-alloy substrate as a possible solution for interfacial problems often present in laser coatings. The microstructure of the FGMs consists of a large amount of silicon primary particles surro

  11. Functionally graded materials produced by laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2000-01-01

    AlSi40 functionally graded materials (FGMs) were produced by a one-step laser cladding process on cast Al-alloy substrate as a possible solution for interfacial problems often present in laser coatings. The microstructure of the FGMs consists of a large amount of silicon primary particles surrounded

  12. Functionally Graded Materials Produced by Laser Cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2000-01-01

    AlSi40 functionally graded materials (FGMs) were produced by a one-step laser cladding process on cast Al-alloy substrate as a possible solution for interfacial problems often present in laser coatings. The microstructure of the FGMs consists of a large amount of silicon primary particles surrounded

  13. Sex Fair Grading in Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Helga

    1984-01-01

    Sex fair performance evaluation has been a primary concern in physical education. A discussion of physiological differences between males and females shows how problems in developing fair evaluation plans arise. Suggestions for developing a sex fair grading plan and an example program adaptable to other settings are offered. (DF)

  14. Epidemiological investigation of irritable bowel syndrome among the students of the third grade of senior high school in Shantou city%汕头市高三学生肠易激综合征流行病学的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佩武; 张耿坤; 汤汉心; 陈少铭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence and medical compliance of irritable bowel syndrome(IBS) among the students of the third grade of senior high school in Shantou city. Methods Three thousand and three hundred senior high school students with IBS defined by Rome Ⅲ criteria were recruited to epidemiological surveys by overall random sampling method. Results The period prevalence of the Roma Ⅲ criteria-positive IBS patients was 13.39%, and there was a significant difference between females and males (17.0% vs 10.3%,P < 0.05). In the IBS patients, the symptoms in 38.01% of cases were diarrhea (168 cases), 26.70% constipation(118 cases), 15.61% mixed pattern(69 cases). and 19.68% unshaped(118 cases). Although period prevalence was high, the medical compliance was poor. Hot food or oily food and intestinal infection was more common in patients with poor medical compliance. Conclusion IBS was a common disease. and frequently occurred among the students of the third grade of senior high school. However, the medical compliance was poor and most of patients received few formal consultation.%目的 了解汕头市高三学生肠易激综合征(irritable bowel syndrome,IBS)的患病率和依从性情况.方法 采用整群随机抽样方法对汕头市3 300名高三学生进行流行病学问卷调查,估算符合罗马Ⅲ标准 IBS 的期间患病率、依从性和危险因素.结果 IBS的患病率为13.39%,女性患病率显著高于男性(17.0% vs 10.3%,P < 0.05);在符合罗马Ⅲ标准的 IBS患者中,38.01%(168 例)为腹泻型;26.70%(118例)为便秘型; 15.61%(69例)为混合型;19.68%(87例)为不定型;肠道感染史和进食辛辣食物等可能是危险因素.结论 IBS 是高三学生的常见病及多发病但大多数没有专科诊治,依从性差.

  15. A Study on the Current Situation and Countermeasures of Primary School Children's Literature Reading:Taking Wuxi City of Jiangsu Province as an Example%小学生儿童文学阅读现状与对策研究--以江苏省无锡市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾媛

    2016-01-01

    采用问卷调查法对无锡市小学生儿童文学阅读状况进行调查,分析小学生对儿童文学认识不足,阅读动机缺乏,阅读选择困难等问题,提出相关策略。%This paper takes a questionnaire survey of Wuxi City primary school children's literature reading status, and analy⁃ses problems of children's literature understanding insufficiency, lack of reading motivation, choose reading difficulties, then puts forward relevant strategies.

  16. Related factors of mental health in primary and junior high students with single parent family in urban area of Tianjin city%天津市区单亲中小学生心理健康相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓菲; 梁瑞华; 毛富强; 冯秀娟; 刘霞; 刘宏伟; 侯筱菲; 柳雷

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解天津市区单亲中小学生心理健康状况及其影响因素.方法 采用多级分层随机整群抽样方法,抽取天津市1 625名中小学生,采用自编一般情况调查表、心理健康诊断测验(MHT)、父母教养方式评价量表(EMBU)进行调查.结果 天津市区中小学生单亲比率为10.8%,和平区最高,为12.85%,七年级学生单亲比率最高,为12.79%;父母文化程度为本科的学生在学习焦虑、对人焦虑、自责倾向、过敏倾向、恐怖倾向方面的得分低于父母为中专的学生,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);单亲中小学生心理健康问题(总分≥65分)检出率为20%;单亲学生的心理健康状况在总分及各个因子得分均高于双亲学生(P<0.05);父亲惩罚严厉、拒绝否认的教养方式与单亲学生MHT的8个因子均呈正相关(P<0.01);母亲过分干涉保护、拒绝否认、惩罚严厉的教养方式与学习焦虑、对人焦虑、孤独倾向、过敏倾向、身体症状、恐怖倾向等均呈正相关(P<0.05).结论 天津市单亲中小学生存在较多的心理健康问题.%Objective To study mental health condition and its influence factors among primary and junior high students in single parent family. Methods Totally 1 625 students from 36 classes were examined with a self-designed common status questionnaire, Mental Health of Test ( MHT) , and Egma Minnea av Bardndosnauppforstran ( EMBU). Results Among the students, 10. 8% were from single parent family. The percentage of students with single parent family was 12. 79% for the students in grade 7. The students with parents having college education showed significantly lower scores than the students with parents having technical secondary school education for anxiety,self-accusation,sensitivity,and fear( all P < 0. 05). The students with single parent family had a detection rate of 20% for mental health problems (total score ≥65). The score of mental health for students

  17. INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION OF SHENYANG CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping-yu

    2003-01-01

    Industrial transformation represents a unique economic phenomenon in China's regional economy,and old industrial city reconstruction has long been a key problem that affects state security. As a typical old indus-trial city in China, Shenyang established its heavy industrial city position in the First Five-year Plan period (1953-1957), and this industrial structure has been consolidated for a long time. After 1978, Shenyang began its long last-ing industrial reconstruction in an all-round way by 3 main initiatives including restructuring economic system, up-grading traditional industrial technology and developing high-tech industry. In the end of the 1990s, it could be I-dentified that remarkable structural changes took place in city economy at large as well as individual industrial sec-tor. According to the GDP proportion change, Shenyang is on the way to a high level industrial structure. The sec-ondary industry also engendered significant shifting as smelting and textile industry declined sharply but IT industry increased largely. Although the ratio of the heavy industry to the light industry changed periodically, the heavy in-dustrial output value most time kept a high proportion over 60% of the gross industrial output value in the past five decades. Shenyang has favorable conditions for developing equipment manufacturing industry, but it should carry out the program by establishing its leading role in urban economy plan, building "Theme Industrial Parks", improv-ing Tiexi Industrial Zone, removing any kind of system barrier, enlarging private and other ownerships economy and improving technology, marketing and management by IT application. In response to economy globalization,Shenyang needs to expand the cooperation worldwide and improve the cohesion with surrounding cities.

  18. Scenography and Dramaturgy of the City

    OpenAIRE

    Ilnitski, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    The perceived deficiencies of the contemporary theory and practice of architecture and urban design lead to the main inquiry of this study: What theoretical approaches could reintroduce “human” elements of life, beauty and wholeness into contemporary cities? The primary thesis is divided further into the principal questions: (1) How practices are connected to space and place? (2) What structures underlie the everyday city life? (3) How nature and life are connected to the built environment? T...

  19. Important Text Characteristics for Early-Grades Text Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Koons, Heather; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core set a standard for all children to read increasingly complex texts throughout schooling. The purpose of the present study was to explore text characteristics specifically in relation to early-grades text complexity. Three hundred fifty primary-grades texts were selected and digitized. Twenty-two text characteristics were identified…

  20. A systems biology approach to study high-grade osteosarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijjer, Marieke Lydia

    2013-01-01

    High-grade osteosarcoma is a primary bone tumor with complex genetic alterations, for which targeted therapy is lacking. The aim of this thesis was to use high-throughput molecular data analysis of high-grade osteosarcoma specimens and model systems, in order to learn more on osteosarcomagenesis and

  1. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  2. Explore the Liver Step-down Drink Prophase and Primary Grade 1 Hypertension Early Intervention of High Blood Pressure%探究自拟清肝降压饮早期干预高血压前期和原发性1级高血压

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄照东

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the analysis from liver step-down drink early intervention the curative effect of prophase and primary grade 1 hypertension. Methods In our hospital in 2010 January to 2012 December were prehypertensive and primary grade 1 hypertension patients of 100 cases for clinical research. Results AAfter treatment, the auxiliary Qinggan Jiangya Decoction in the treatment of observation group patients blood pressure control rate was 93.3%, significantly higher than that of the control group(P<0.05);the observation group of patients with the syndrome was 98.1%, significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Since the quasi qinggan step-down drink prophase and primary grade 1 hypertension early intervention of high blood pressure has good treatment effect, can be widely applied in clinic.%目的:观察分析自拟清肝降压饮早期干预高血压前期和原发性1级高血压的疗效。方法选取我院于2010年1月至2012年12月收治的高血压前期和原发性1级高血压患者100例进行临床研究。结果治疗后,辅助清肝降压饮治疗的观察组患者的血压控制有效率为93.3%,明显优于对照组(P<0.05);观察组患者的证候有效率为98.1%,明显高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论自拟清肝降压饮早期干预高血压前期和原发性1级高血压有着良好的治疗效果,可以在临床上广泛推广。

  3. Advanced Placement Mathematics Calculus, Grade 12 Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, John; And Others

    This document is a guide to the advanced placement program in calculus for grade 12 in the city schools in Warren, Ohio. The program covers analytic geometry, differential and integral calculus of algebraic functions, elementary transcendental functions, and applications of differentiation and integration. The philosophy and aims of the program…

  4. Teaching Literature Grade 9: Integrating the Communication Arts. Poetry. Experimental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Michael

    Designed to demonstrate a variety of ways in which listening, speaking, reading, and writing activities can be built around the study of poetry, this collection of materials, lessons, and activities covers some of the most frequently taught poems in New York City ninth-grade classrooms. The document begins with a general introduction to teaching…

  5. Research and Reflection on the Implementation of"Expe-riential Teaching" in the Mathematics Classroom Teach-ing of Primary School Lower Grades%在小学低年级数学课堂中实施“体验式教学”的研究与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春雷

    2014-01-01

    Experiential teaching is a method of developing and cultivating students' self-learning ability, and it is greatly favored in primary school teaching. Starting from the definition, basic characteristics and meaning of experiential teaching, based on the primary school mathematics textbooks of Jiangsu Education Press version, this paper focuses on the application of experiential teaching in the mathematics classroom teaching of primary school lower grades, hoping to provide some help and references for the popularization and application of experiential teaching.%体验式教学是一种开发和培养学生自我学习能力的授课方式,在小学教学中颇受欢迎。本文以体验式学习的定义、基本特性及意义为切入点,基于苏教版小学数学教材,重点探究了小学低年级数学课堂中体验式教学的应用,期望能对体验式教学的推广和应用有一定的帮助和参考作用。

  6. Grading Exceptional Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers often grapple with the challenge of giving report card grades to students with learning disabilities and English language learners. The authors offer a five-step model that "offers a fair, accurate, and legal way to adapt the grading process for exceptional learners." The model begins with a high-quality reporting system for all students…

  7. Minimum Grading, Maximum Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Theodore; Carifio, James

    2011-01-01

    Fair and effective schools should assign grades that align with clear and consistent evidence of student performance (Wormeli, 2006), but when a student's performance is inconsistent, traditional grading practices can prove inadequate. Understanding this, increasing numbers of schools have been experimenting with the practice of assigning minimum…

  8. Beef grading by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  9. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  10. Grading New York: Accountability and Student Proficiency in America's Largest School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Marcus A.; Cowen, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses a regression discontinuity approach to study the influence of New York City's school grading policy on student math and English language arts (ELA) achievement. We find evidence that students in schools receiving a failing grade realized positive effects in English in the 1st year of sanction, but we find no statistically…

  11. CONDICTIONS FOR LEARNING HOW TO READING AND WRITING BY THE INFANT AND GREAT GRADE ONE AT THE PRIMARY SCHOOL / EL APRESTAMIENTO EN PREESCOLAR Y PRIMER GRADO: CONDICIONES PARA EL APRENDIZAJE DE LA LECTOESCRITURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Ramírez Ramos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this investigation the authors offered considerations related to the children´s preparation for the reading-writing learning process, from the elementary level conception and the preparation period in the first grade. In the same way the common and different elements that approach both levels with the purpose of setting what is needed for the written language learning process were analyzed, making emphasis on knowing the necessities and potentialities, and the importance of considering it on the process conception. RESUMEN El artículo refiere consideraciones de los autores en torno a la preparación de los niños para el aprendizaje de la lectoescritura, a partir de la concepción del grado preescolar y la etapa de aprestamiento en primer grado. En este sentido, se analizan los elementos comunes y diferentes que acercan a ambos niveles en el propósito de disponer para el aprendizaje de la lengua escrita, y se enfatiza el papel del diagnóstico de las necesidades y potencialidades, y la importancia de su consideración en la concepción del apresto.

  12. High grade primary adrenal intravascular large B-cell lymphoma manifesting as Addison disease Linfoma intravascular de alto grado de células B grandes y origen suprarrenal que se manifiesta en forma de enfermedad de Addison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Venizelos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of a 68 aged male who presented with adrenal failure and was diagnosed of high grade large B-cell lymphoma primarily arising in the adrenal glands. The patient was administrated with additional chemotherapy but he passed away 7 months later due to infection in the lungs. Intravascular lymphoma should be suspected in patients with bilateral adrenal masses who present with rapidly progressive adrenal insufficiency.Publicamos el caso poco frecuente de un varón de 68 años de edad que debutó con insuficiencia adrenal y fue diagnosticado de linfoma de alto grado de células B grandes ubicado principalmente en las glándulas suprarrenales. Al paciente le administraron quimioterapia adicional, pero falleció 7 meses después de infección pulmonar. El linfoma intravascular debe sospecharse en los pacientes con masas suprarrenales bilaterales que presenten insuficiencia adrenal rápidamente progresiva.

  13. City health development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Geoff; Acres, John; Price, Charles; Tsouros, Agis

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this evaluation was to review the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the Healthy Cities Network organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 56 cities which participated in Phase III (1998-2002) of the Network. Evidence was gathered from documents either held in WHO archives or made available from Network cities and from interviews with city representatives. CHDPs were the centrepiece of Phase III, evolving from city health plans developed in Phase II. They are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed three types of CHDP, reflecting the realpolitik of each city. For many cities, the process of CHDP was as important as the plan itself.

  14. 塘桥社区小学三年级学生营养知、信、行调查%Investigation on Knowledge Attitude and Practice(KAP)of nutrition among the third grade students in Tangqiao community primary school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞宏毅; 陈宝根; 刘天威; 李宁

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand the students' knowledge,attitude and practice of nutrition in Tangqiao town.Methods:200 third grade students of two primary schools were selected.We made KAP questionnaire survey on nutrition knowledge.Results:The overall condition of KAP of the third grade students in Tangqiao community is good,but there are still some errors in the perspective of knowledge.Conclusion:The nutritional knowledge of pupils should be intervened,improve health literacy,cultivate good habits to provide information and data for further investigation.%目的:为了解塘桥小学生营养知识、态度和行为情况。方法:抽取两所小学三年级学生200人,进行营养知识知信行调查问卷调查。结果:塘桥社区三年级学生整体知信行情况良好,但是还是存在一些错误知识观点。结论:应该对小学生的营养知识进行干预,提高健康素养,培养良好的饮食习惯,为进一步调查提供了资料和数据。

  15. The Effect of Empowerment Group Psychodrama on Anxiety and Terror of Primary School Students in the Grade 4 to 5%增能团体心理剧干预小学高年级学生焦虑恐怖心理效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉; 龚定宏; 徐奇

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of empowerment group psychodrama on anxiety and terror of high grade primary school students and its mechanism , and provide effective intervention methods to promote the mental health of higher grades students in primary school.Methods:Selecting students in 4 and 5 grade in a primary school in a community of Pudong New Area in Shanghai with stratified cluster sampling method ,and dividing them into intervention group and control group ,The intervention group was carried out 5-times empowerment group psychodrama ,while the control group was not carried out no in-terventions.Using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale(SAS)and Marks Scale for Compulsions Phobias ,Obses-sions and Rituals (MSCPOR) as evaluation tool.Results:Before intervention,there were not significant differences in each factor of MSCPOR and SAS between two groups;After intervention ,There were signifi-cant differences in the terror factor of MSCPOR ,coarse points and the standard score of SAS (F=4.40, 6.26,6.10;P<0.05).Conclusion:Empowerment group psychodrama has better intervention ,control effect on terror and anxiety for high grade primary school students ,and has certain positive effect on com-pulsive behavior and the overall terror compulsive behavior.%目的:探索增能团体心理剧干预小学高年级学生群体的焦虑、恐怖心理效果,并探讨其影响机制,为促进小学高年级学生心理健康提供有效干预方法. 方法:采用分层整群抽样方法,在上海市浦东新区某社区一所小学内抽取4、5年级各2个班级,随机将4、5年级各1个班级的所有学生作为干预组,另2个班级(4、5年级各1个班级)的学生即作为对照组,对干预组开展共计5次的增能团体心理剧活动,而对照组则不做任何干预. 采用焦虑自评量表和Marks恐怖强迫量表作为心理测评工具. 结果:增能团体心理剧干预前,干预组与对照组在MSCPOR和SAS的各个因子中均无显著统计学差异,

  16. Interest is the Beginning of Everything---the Cultivation of the Primary School Lower Grade students’ Interest in Writing Words%兴趣是一切的开始--浅谈小学低年级学生写话兴趣的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田敏

    2014-01-01

    One main content of primary school lower grade Chinese language teaching is to write words. Further study of students ’ interest in writing words, to enhance students write the words of enthusiasm,reduce the pressure of students’ writing,develop the students’ writing space, promote the students’ writing personality,has great realistic significance.%低年级语文教学中一项主要的内容就是写话。深入研究低年级学生的写话兴趣,对增强小学生的写话积极性、降低学生的写作压力、拓展学生的写作空间、弘扬学生的写作个性,具有很大的现实意义。

  17. Paperless Grades and Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, James C.; Jones, Dennis; Turner, Sandy

    2003-01-01

    Provides overview of process of switching from paper-based grade reporting to computer-based grading. Authors found that paperless grading decreased number of errors, made student access more immediate, and reduced costs incurred by purchasing and storing grade-scanning sheets. Authors also argue that direct entry grading encourages faculty to…

  18. Characterizations of Graded Distributive Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinghua Chen; Chang'an Li

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we give some characterizations of graded distributive modules, prove some interesting results between graded rings (modules) and lattices under finiteness conditions, and investigate the direct sum of graded distributive modules in terms of orders of graded submodules and homomorphisms of graded factor modules.

  19. 长春市儿童和青少年原发性高血压与肥胖相关性分析%Relationship between primary hypertension and obesity in children and adolescents of Changchun City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦阳; 吴艳英; 金东辉; 闫小萍

    2014-01-01

    目的:总结长春市3~18岁儿童和青少年超重肥胖和原发性高血压的发生率,分析原发性高血压与超重肥胖的相关性,为儿童和青少年超重、肥胖、高血压的防治提供科学依据。方法2012-07至2012-09,采用整群随机抽样对长春市4860名3~18岁儿童和青少年进行高血压、肥胖流行特点的横断面调查。对资料进行统计学分析。结果(1)3~18岁儿童和青少年高血压发生率8.9%。超重肥胖总发生率20.9%,肥胖的高峰期出现于9~11岁。(2)超重组高血压发生率13.17%,肥胖组高血压发生率32.85%,显著高于体重正常组高血压发生率(5.3%),BMI值增加对收缩压升高产生的影响高于对舒张压升高产生的影响。(3)BMI、腰围、腰围身高比(waist to height ratio,WHtR)与收缩压和舒张压均呈正相关,腰围和BMI与血压的相关性优于WHtR,没有明显性别差异。(4)有家族史者超重肥胖发生率为56.3%,无家族史者超重肥胖发生率为18.7%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。(5)高血压更易出现糖、脂代谢紊乱,多元Logistic回归分析显示BMI、腰围、血脂水平是影响血压的主要因素, BMI对收缩压的影响显著,腰围对舒张压的影响差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 BMI能够敏感预测儿童及青少年高血压,目前我国儿童和青少年超重肥胖发生率明显升高,此类人群中高血压发病的危险性显著增强。%Objective To determine the relationship between primary hypertension and obesity in 3-18-years-old children and adolescents of Changchun City so as to provide scientific basis for early prevention of hypertension.Methods Children aged from 3 to 18 years were sampled by random-cluster.Height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured.Questionnaire survey, t-test, and Chi-squared test were conducted

  20. Reaching of Attainment Levels of Algebra Learning Domain in Sixth Grade of Elementary Mathematics Education Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Mert Uyangör

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study is to define reaching of attainment levels of algebra learning domain in sixth grade of elementary mathematics education program. In the study; it has been fulfilled in descriptive featured scanning model because the existing case was tried to define. 510 sixth grade students, determined by stratified sampling method among Elementary Schools in Balıkesir city centre, have applied into the study. As data collecting tool, pre and post test has been used to define the level in obtaining acquisitions of Algebra learning domain in sixth grade of Elementary Mathematics course curriculum applications. Acquired data have been evaluated by using descriptive analysis, t test for related samples and covariance analysis. Effect sizes correlation coefficient was also calculated. In consequence of the study it has been concluded that the students’Algebra test point averages are meaningful in favor of the post -test (p<.05,as a result of Algebra learning domain applications in elementary school sixth grade of Elementary Mathematics course curriculum, but for the reason that the post -test’s absolute success point averages are under 0.75, the complete learning level has notbeen reached, that the students’ obtaining just about %57 of the acquisitions at the level of 75 has shown that the learning process are not as sufficient as expected level for providing accessibility of learning process’ acquisitions, and that students’ level,studying in upper group schools, in attaining acquisitions are highercompared to those in middle and lower group schools, and when the students’ pretest results are taken under control, obtained post test’s corrected results have also significant difference

  1. High-grade acute organ toxicity and p16{sup INK4A} expression as positive prognostic factors in primary radio(chemo)therapy for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehrany, Narges; Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Hess, Clemens F.; Wolff, Hendrik A. [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Goettingen (Germany); Kitz, Julia; Li, Li; Kueffer, Stefan [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Pathology, Goettingen (Germany); Lorenzen, Stephan; Beissbarth, Tim [University Medical Center, Department of Medical Statistics, Goettingen (Germany); Burfeind, Peter [University Medical Center, Institute for Human Genetics, Goettingen (Germany); Reichardt, Holger M. [University Medical Center, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Goettingen (Germany); Canis, Martin [Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Goettingen (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Superior treatment response and survival for patients with human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive head and neck cancer (HNSCC) are documented in clinical studies. However, the relevance of high-grade acute organ toxicity (HGAOT), which has also been correlated with improved prognosis, has attracted scant attention in HPV-positive HNSCC patients. Hence we tested the hypothesis that both parameters, HPV and HGAOT, are positive prognostic factors in patients with HNSCC treated with definite radiotherapy (RT) or radiochemotherapy (RCT). Pretreatment tumor tissue and clinical records were available from 233 patients receiving definite RT (62 patients) or RCT (171 patients). HPV infection was analysed by means of HPV DNA detection or p16{sup INK4A} expression; HGAOT was defined as the occurrence of acute organ toxicity >grade 2 according to the Common Toxicity Criteria. Both variables were correlated with overall survival (OS) using Cox proportional hazards regression. Positivity for HPV DNA (44 samples, 18.9 %) and p16{sup INK4A} expression (102 samples, 43.8 %) were significantly correlated (p < 0.01), and HGAOT occurred in 77 (33 %) patients. Overall, the 5-year OS was 23 %; stratified for p16{sup INK4A} expression and HGAOT, OS rates were 47 %, 42 %, 20 % and 10 % for patients with p16{sup INK4A} expression and HGAOT, patients with HGAOT only, patients with p16{sup INK4A} expression only, and patients without p16{sup INK4A} expression or HGAOT, respectively. After multivariate testing p16{sup INK4A} expression (p = 0.003) and HGAOT (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with OS. P16{sup INK4A} expression and HGAOT are independent prognostic factors for OS of patients with HNSCC, whereas p16{sup INK4A} expression is particularly important for patients without HGAOT. (orig.) [German] Ein besseres Therapieansprechen von humanen Papillomavirus (HPV)-positiven Kopf-Hals-Tumoren (HNSCC) ist durch Studien belegt. Weniger Beachtung hat bisher die Relevanz unerwuenschter

  2. Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

  3. 教育游戏在小学低年级课堂教学中的应用研究%Applied Research on Educational Games in the Lower Grade Classroom Teaching of Primary School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷婷; 张银; 杨传达

    2015-01-01

    This game is generally believed that education is an application to the education process in both the entertainment properties,but also has educational nature,and also to promote student learning games.Educational games can be divided in-to:role-playing,strategy and puzzle category and other categories.Currently,many children addicted to online games,if students are able to use this enthusiasm in learning,the quality of the education of students and the whole community will be greatly improved.Teachers can use educational games for teaching,it would be a great help for students in lower grades.%一般认为教育游戏是在教育教学过程中应用到的一项既具有娱乐性质,同时又具有教育性质的,并且还能够促进学生学习的游戏。教育游戏大致可分为:角色扮演类,策略类和益智类等。目前,许多儿童痴迷于网络游戏,如果学生能够把这种热情用在学习上,那么这个学生乃至全社会的教育质量将会大大提高。教师在小学课堂上能熟练运用教育游戏进行教学,将对低年级学生的教学将会有很大的帮助。

  4. Grading for Understanding - Standards-Based Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Standards-based grading (SBG), sometimes called learning objectives-based assessment (LOBA), is an assessment model that relies on students demonstrating mastery of learning objectives (sometimes referred to as standards). The goal of this grading system is to focus students on mastering learning objectives rather than on accumulating points. I have used SBG in an introductory physics course for the past five years and worked with several physics faculty members to implement SBG in the first and second semester of algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics courses at a primarily undergraduate comprehensive public university with class sizes of 48 students. In this article I will discuss methods for implementing SBG in a physics class.

  5. PRIMARY INVESTIGATION AND DIVERSITY STUDY OF LANDSCAPE PLANT IN JI’AN CITY%吉安市园林植物初步调查及其多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓贤兰; 龙婉婉; 肖春玲; 侯志俊

    2015-01-01

    通过实地踏查,对吉安市(吉州区和青原区)园林植物的种类组成、生活型、观赏特征和园林用途等进行了调查研究。结果表明:吉安市园林植物物种多样性丰富,有园林植物76科148属188种(含变种,不含品种),其中裸子植物有7科17属20种,被子植物69科131属168种,分别占总种数的10.63%和89.36%。组成吉安市园林植物的优势科较少,优势科园林植物种数占吉安市园林植物总种数的37.76%。吉安市园林植物的生活型多样,乔木52种,灌木74种,草本61种,分别占吉安市园林植物总种数的27.65%、39.36%和32.45%。吉安市园林植物观赏功能类型多样,主要可分为观叶类、观花类、观果类、观树形类、藤蔓类和香木(花)类等6类。吉安市园林植物园林用途多样,主要有行道树类、孤散植类、庭荫树类、风景林木类、花灌木类、绿篱类、垂直绿化类、草坪地被类和花坛花境类。%Through field survey, species composition, life form, ornamental characteristics and landscape use of landscape plant in Ji’an City were investigated. The results showed that:the species diversity of landscape plant in Ji’an City was abundant, there are 188 species (including varieties, except cultivated varieties) of landscape plant, belonging to 76 families and 148 genera, in which the gymnosperm accounted for 7 families 17 genera and 20 species, the angiosperm 69 families, 131 genera and 168 species. The number of gymnosperm and angiosperm accounted for 10.63% and 89.36% of the total species respectively. The dominant families consisted of the landscape plant in Ji’an City was few with the percentage of 37.76%of the total landscape plants in Ji’an City. The life form of landscape plant in Ji’an City was diverse including 52 tree, 74 shrub and 61 herb with the percentages of 27.65%, 39.36%and 32.45%respectively. The ornamental function types of landscape

  6. Formative value of descriptive grades in mathematics instruction for beginners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đelić Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive grading has been implemented in the first grade of primary school in the Republic of Serbia from 2003. The monitoring of this system novelty has been absent since research community most often dealt with teachers’ attitudes and their self-evaluation of the competences for descriptive grading. This form of grading, which stems from the social constructivist paradigm, is observed as the trigger of development of the formative approach in assessment, which has been in the focus of theoreticians and practitioners in the past thirty years, especially in the United States of America and Great Britain. The method of content analysis was applied to 316 descriptive grades in mathematics given to first grade primary students. The quality of three key elements was assessed: the description of academic achievement, the description of students’ engagement and the recommendations to achieve further progress, as well as the balance of quality between the elements of the same descriptive grade. Research results have shown that descriptive grades mostly lack the necessary formative capacity. This means that the majority of students this sample of grades was prepared for did not receive quality and comprehensive feedback, which would be conducive for their further education. Formative assessment, as one of the implications of the constructivist theoretical grounding, demands a high level of development of teacher competences for monitoring the progress and assessing the students, which has not been confirmed in the present research.

  7. For a Safer City. A Friendlier City. And a More Beautiful City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Busi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the safety of mobility in the urban environment has been emerging as a primary social topic for some time now due to the number of casualties and, more generally, due to the impact on living conditions in the city. If correctly formulated, in fact, this subject has implications primarily and fundamentally with regard to the quality of urban life, as the citizen, and the vulnerable road user in particular, is severely restricted in their use of urban public paces. Consequently, an increasingly greater focus is being placed on acquiring methods, techniques and strategies for addressing the issue of planning, constructing and managing roads, squares and urban green spaces (and above all, applying the logic of reclaiming the historic and consolidated city in order that the city can be used to its full potential by the citizen. The subject itself therefore presents an opportunity to re-establish urban planning regulations (and, more generally, city regulations in accordance with the renewed interest in public spaces. The article discusses this matter and includes supporting elements and examples, also referring to the implications on the urban landscape.

  8. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  9. The Role of Multimedia in Primary School Lower Grade Writing Teaching%“班班通”为小语低年级识字写字教学画龙点睛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘艳霞

    2014-01-01

    Primary school language teaching task is through listening, speaking, reading and writing training,and targeted use of multimedia in the teaching to undertake to the student training to enable students to increase interest in learning, to open field of vision,to improve the learning efficiency.%小学语文的教学任务是通过听、说、读、写训练学生的能力,在小学语文教学过程中有的放矢地运用多媒体,对学生进行听说读写的训练,能增添学生的学习兴趣,开阔视野,提高学习效率。

  10. The Influence of Beginning Instructional Grade on String Student Enrollment, Retention, and Music Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Linda A.; Porter, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three primary variables concerning the starting grade level of beginning string instruction in public schools: (a) initial enrollment, (b) retention data for both the end of the first year and at the seventh-grade year of instruction, and (c) music performance level in the seventh grade. Secondary…

  11. Health risk assessment of cadmium pollution emergency for urban populations in Foshan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Ming; Zhao, Peipei; Wang, Yanyan; Li, Guiqiu

    2017-03-01

    With rapid socioeconomic development, water pollution emergency has become increasingly common and could potentially harm the environment and human health, especially heavy metal pollution. In this paper, we investigate the Cd pollution emergency that occurred in the Pearl River network, China, in 2005, and we build a migration and transformation model for heavy metals to simulate the spatiotemporal distribution of Cd concentrations under various scenarios of Cd pollution emergency in Foshan City. Moreover, human health hazard and carcinogenic risk for local residents of Foshan City were evaluated. The primary conclusions were as follows: (1) the number of carcinogen-affected people per year under scenario 1 reached 254.41 when the frequency was 0.1 year/time; specifically, the number of people with cancer per year in the area of the Datang, Lubao, and Nanbian waterworks was 189.36 accounting for 74% of the total number per year; (2) at the frequency of 5 years/time, the Lubao waterwork is the only one in extremely high- or high-risk grade, while besides it, the risk grade in the Datang, Nanbian, Xinan, Shitang, and Jianlibao waterworks is in the extremely high or high grade when the frequency is 0.1 year/time; (3) when Cd pollution accidents with the same level occurs again, Cd concentration decreases to a low level in the water only if the migration distance of Cd is at least 40-50 km. Based on the health risk assessment of Cd pollution, this study gives the recommendation that the distance should keep above 50 km in tidal river network of the Pearl River Delta between those factories existing the possibility of heavy metal pollution and the drinking water source. Only then can the public protect themselves from hazardous effects of higher levels of heavy metal.

  12. A Crowded City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Over 4 million vehicles on road challenge Beijing’s city management Beijing, the city once known as the kingdom of bicycles, has become clogged with automobiles, the Beijing Municipal Government Publicity Office said on December 18.

  13. Build a Green City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUYING; HAOXUE

    2005-01-01

    MA'ANSHAN,dubbed ""City of Iron and Steel,""is on the south bank of the Yangtze River in eastern Anhui Province, bordering Jiangsu Province. One of the city's most impressive features is its clean environment.

  14. The relationship between social anxiety and self-esteem, self-awareness in grade 4-6 primary students%4~6年级小学生社交焦虑与自尊及自我意识的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志礼; 胡华; 陈品红; 蒙华庆; 王慧; 罗庆华; 傅一笑; 杜莲; 邱海棠; 邱田

    2012-01-01

    目的 探索4~6年级小学生社交焦虑情况及与自尊和自我意识的关系.方法 分层随机抽取重庆市主城区的3所小学校(重点、普通及农民工小学各l所)的568名在校4~6年级小学生,采用儿童社交焦虑量表(SASC)、Pies-Harris 儿童自我意识量表、自尊量表(SES)对小学生进行问卷调查.结果 ①小学生总社交焦虑及两大因子得分显著高于中国城市常模(P<0.01);②女生的社交焦虑总分及害怕否定评价[(4.84±4.26)分,(3.08±2.91)分)]高于男生[(4.12±3.95)分,(2.54±2.63)分,P<0.05];随年级的增高,六年级学生害怕否定评价的得分[(3.22±2.82)分]高于五年级[(2.53±2.76)分,P<0.01]和四年级[(2.54±2.68)分,P<0.05];农民工小学、单亲家庭和收入相对低的家庭者社交焦虑得分较高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);③小学生总社交焦虑及两大因子与其自尊水平呈显著正相关( r=0.305,0.282,0.270),与自我意识及各因子呈不同程度的负相关(r=-0.202~-0.511),相关均达到显著性(P<0.01);④小学生害怕否定评价能被自我意识中的焦虑和合群解释占25.5%;社交回避及苦恼能被自我意识中的焦虑、合群和智力与学校情况解释占20.4%;总的社交焦虑能被自我意识中的焦虑和合群解释占28.2%.结论 4~6年级小学生有较高的社交焦虑水平;不同性别、年级、学校、家庭结构、家庭月收入的小学生社交焦虑水平存在差异,其社交焦虑与自我意识和自尊水平密切相关.%Objective To explore the status of social anxiety and study the relationship between social anxiety and self-consciousness,self-esteem among primary students.Methods Using stratified randomization sampling method,568 primary students in grade 4 ~ 6 were investigated with social anxiety scale for children( SASC ),self-consciousness scale for children(PHCSS) and self-esteem scale(SES).Results ①The score of SASC in

  15. Functionally Graded Media

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Cédric M.; Epstein, Marcelo; De León, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The notions of uniformity and homogeneity of elastic materials are reviewed in terms of Lie groupoids and frame bundles. This framework is also extended to consider the case Functionally Graded Media, which allows us to obtain some homogeneity conditions.

  16. The Grade Contract Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornscheuer, Joan H.

    1976-01-01

    Adaptations of and variations on the grade contract system are described with emphasis on individualized instruction, fair evaluation, and learner-oriented classes. The method used is described, and results are assessed. (Author/RM)

  17. Prevalência de sobrepeso e fatores associados em crianças ingressantes no ensino fundamental em um município da região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil Overweight, obesity and associated factors in first grade schoolchildren in a city of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise Mondini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou a prevalência de sobrepeso e sua associação com fatores sócio-ambientais em crianças ingressantes na primeira série do ensino público fundamental do Município de Cajamar, São Paulo, Brasil, em 2005. Sobrepeso foi definido pelo índice de massa corporal, segundo sexo e idade. As variáveis sócio-ambientais foram obtidas por meio de questionário aplicado junto às mães das crianças (58,6%. Associação entre sobrepeso e variáveis independentes foi verificada mediante técnica de regressão de Poisson. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 17%. Obesidade materna (RP = 3,54; IC: 2,16-5,80, freqüência elevada de consumo de alimentos "não saudáveis" (RP = 2,12; IC: 1,30-3,45, assistir à televisão por mais de quatro horas/dia (RP = 2,08; IC: 1,03-4,20 e disponibilidade domiciliar per capita de óleo (cerca de três colheres sopa/dia (RP = 1,52; IC: 1,01-2,31 apresentaram-se como fatores independentes associados ao excesso de peso infantil. O ambiente familiar apresentou forte influência sobre a condição de sobrepeso em escolares ingressantes no ensino fundamental. Ações de prevenção e controle do sobrepeso deveriam envolver a instituição escolar e também os pais ou responsáveis pelas crianças.This study assessed the prevalence of overweight in public school first graders and the association between overweight and socio-environmental factors in a city in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil. Children enrolling in public school first grade in Cajamar in 2005 were assessed. Overweight was defined according to body mass index, by gender and age. Socio-environmental information was obtained using a questionnaire applied to 58.6% of the children's mothers. Poisson regression models were used to evaluate associations between overweight in schoolchildren and socio-environmental variables. Seventeen percent of the children were overweight. Factors associated with overweight were: mother's obesity (PR = 3

  18. The Uses of Big Data in Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Luís M A

    2014-03-01

    There is much enthusiasm currently about the possibilities created by new and more extensive sources of data to better understand and manage cities. Here, I explore how big data can be useful in urban planning by formalizing the planning process as a general computational problem. I show that, under general conditions, new sources of data coordinated with urban policy can be applied following fundamental principles of engineering to achieve new solutions to important age-old urban problems. I also show that comprehensive urban planning is computationally intractable (i.e., practically impossible) in large cities, regardless of the amounts of data available. This dilemma between the need for planning and coordination and its impossibility in detail is resolved by the recognition that cities are first and foremost self-organizing social networks embedded in space and enabled by urban infrastructure and services. As such, the primary role of big data in cities is to facilitate information flows and mechanisms of learning and coordination by heterogeneous individuals. However, processes of self-organization in cities, as well as of service improvement and expansion, must rely on general principles that enforce necessary conditions for cities to operate and evolve. Such ideas are the core of a developing scientific theory of cities, which is itself enabled by the growing availability of quantitative data on thousands of cities worldwide, across different geographies and levels of development. These three uses of data and information technologies in cities constitute then the necessary pillars for more successful urban policy and management that encourages, and does not stifle, the fundamental role of cities as engines of development and innovation in human societies.

  19. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  20. Life Satisfaction Among Black Elderly in the Inner City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Herbert M.

    This study is concerned with descriptive characteristics of 575 black elderly born in the West Indies (WI), the South (S) and the North (N), age 60 and older, living in the poverty areas of New York City. The sample is part of a larger replicated probability sample of 1552 elderly in a primary study undertaken by the New York City Department for…

  1. 中枢神经系统原发淋巴瘤和高级别星形细胞瘤MR灌注成像的对比研究%The comparative study of perfusion MR imaging in primary central nervous system lymphomas and high grade astrocytomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄飚; 梁长虹; 刘红军; 王广谊; 周正根

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of perfusion MR imaging in differential diagnosis between primary central nervous system lymphomas(PCNSL)and high grade astrocytomas.Methods Twelve patients with PCNSL and 23 patients with high grade astrocytomas were preoperatively examined using a 1.5T MR unit.Routine MR sequences were performed followed by dynamic susceptibility contrastenhanced MR perfusion imaging.The perfusion color images and the time-signal intensity curves of the two tumor groups were compared.The relative cerebral blood volume(rCBV)within the tumor parenchyma was measured and the data were analyzed with unpaired Student's t-test.Results The rCBVs within the tumor parenchyma of the PCNSL and high grade astrocytomas were 1.78±0.5 1 and 3.87±0.87 respectively.The rCBV in the PCNSL was significantly lower than that of the high grade astrocytoma(P<0.05).When the time-signal intensity curves were compared,the PCNSL showed a trend towards the baseline after the first pass and the curves even overshot above the baseline in 7 out of 12 cases,whereas the high grade astrocytoma showed a trend to be close to the baseline but couldn't return to the baseline completely.Conclusion The MR perfusion imaging can be very useful in distinguishing the PCNSL from high grade astrocytomas.%目的 探讨MR灌注成像鉴别中枢神经系统原发淋巴瘤(PCNSL)和高级别星形细胞瘤的价值.方法 PCNSL患者12例,高级别星形细胞肿瘤患者23例,手术前行常规MR检查及MR灌注检查,比较其MR灌注伪彩图像和灌注曲线,测量肿瘤实质部分最大相对脑血容量(rCBV),将所测量数值进行t检验.结果 PCNSL实质部分rCBV平均为1.8±0.5;高级别星形细胞瘤实质部分rCBV平均为3.9±0.9,二者之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).PCNSL实质区域时间-信号曲线对比剂首过后曲线逐渐接近基线,12例中有7例超过基线水平.高级别星形细胞瘤实质区域时间-信号曲线对比剂首过后曲线逐渐

  2. The Creative Cities Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Creative Cities Network, started by UNESCO in 2004, is one of the world’s highest-level non-governmental organizations in creative industry. The network focuses on the excellence of its member cities as its main product, and finds ways to maintain relevance in city life, local economy

  3. Revisiting city connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a new perspective on city connectivity in order to analyze non-hub cities and their position in the world economy. The author revisits the different approaches discussed in the Global Commodity Chains (GCC), Global Production Networks (GPN) and World City Network (WCN) discou

  4. Constructivist Pedagogy in Primary Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, Julie; Guyton, Edi; Bowen, Christie

    Noting the difficulty in translating constructivist theory into effective practice, this study examined how primary school teachers implemented constructivist education into their kindergarten through second-grade classrooms. Participating in the study were six teachers who had received master's degrees from a constructivist program and who had…

  5. 临湘市中小学饮用水水质现状及介水传染病发病情况分析%Current situation of drinking water and water-borne communicable infection in the primary and middle schools of Linxiang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅芳; 唐美秀; 刘娟; 彭喜春; 梁绍先; 唐明德

    2011-01-01

    Objective To research the condition of water quality and the incidence of water-bome infection of the primary and middle schools of Linxiang city, and to provide scientific basis for improving drinking water quality and protecting students' physical and mental health.Methods Selecting drinking water samples from 14 primary and middle schools of Linxiang city, the national standard method was used to analyze the quality of the water, and were surveyed by a self-designed questionnaire the incidence of water-bome infection diseases.Results The qualification rate of drinking water was 78.57%, the fecal coliform exceeded the standard in unqualified water.According to the research, in the recent one year, the incidence of enteritis, bacillary dysentery and hepatitis A were 1.80%, 0.19% and 0.06% in the 14 schools.Conclusion Drinking water of the primary and middle schools of Linxiang city is polluted by the fecal coliform.%目的 了解临湘市中小学校饮用水的水质质量及介水传染病的发病情况,为进一步改善饮水质量、保护学生的身心健康提供科学依据.方法 选取临湘市14所中小学校,对生活饮用水按照国家水质分析标准方法进行水质分析,并按照拟定的调查表对学生进行介水传染病的发病情况调查.结果 该市中小学校饮用水合格率仅为78.57%,其中水质不合格主要原因为粪大肠菌群超标;14所学校近1 a饮水学生的肠炎、细菌性痢疾、甲型肝炎的发病率分别为1.80%,O.19%.0.06%.结论 临湘市中小学校的生活饮用水存在粪大肠菌污染隐患.

  6. 小学高年级英语课外实践作业的设计%How to Design Out-of-class Practical Homework for Higher-grade Children in Primary School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈碧园

    2012-01-01

    Out-of-class practical homework is a children. Such homework includes children's reading kind of assignment for primary school upper-level references and doing investigation, means learning extension, exploration and application, and it also needs to be easily finished. Out-of-class practical homework should play the role of having classroom study reinforced, interests increased and language ability enhanced.%小学高年级英语课外实践性作业也是课外作业的一种形式。设计小学英语高年级课外实践性作业应当注重查阅性、调查性、延伸性、应用性、操作性和探索性,尽可能使学生通过课外作业巩固、深化课堂知识,激发学习英语的兴趣,发展综合语言运用的能力。

  7. How to Design Out-of-class Practical Homework for Higher-grade Children in Primary School%论淘宝网的媒介融合之道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志申

    2012-01-01

    淘宝网开展的媒介融合实践,对于提升自身品牌,延伸网购群体范围等有很大的帮助,同时,依托媒介融合,还获得了更大的回报与竞争优势。淘宝网的媒介融合,还存在介质融合太单纯,移动媒介融合战略不清晰,对植入性广告的融合拓展不够的问题。未来应注重媒介使用行为习惯的融合,积极推行移动媒介战略,融合发展植入性广告。%Out-of-class practical homework is a kind of assignment for primary school upper-level children. Such homework includes children's reading references and doing investigation, means learning extension, exploration and application, and it also needs to be easily finished. Out-of-class practical homework should play the role of having classroom study reinforced, interests increased and ability enhanced. language

  8. 创设情境,提高小学低段作文课的有效性%The Creation of Context, to Improve the Validity of the Composition of Low Grades in Primary School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺秉梅

    2014-01-01

    作为当代小学语文教师,应该知道在小学语文低段作文课的练习与学习中,相应的情境创设尤为重要,它更能激发小学生潜在的思维,激活写作兴趣,提高写作能力。论述了情境创设对于提高小学生低段作文写作能力的重要性,介绍了创设小学生写作情境的有效方法,教学实践证实了方法的有用性,可以有效提高小学生低段作文的写作能力。%As a Chinese teacher in elementary school, should know that in the practice and study of primary school Chinese low segment composition class, creating the corresponding situation is particularly important, it can stimulate students’thinking potential, active interest in writing and improve their writing ability. Discusses the importance of creating situations for students to improve their writing ability and low seg-ment, and introduces some effective methods for the creation of pupils’ writing situation, teaching practice proves useful method, can effectively improve the pupils of lower section of writing ability.

  9. THE URBAN IDENTITY OF ROMANIAN CITIES REPRESENTED IN STUDENTS’ POSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANISLAI DANIEL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the paper, we presented theoretical aspects related to urban identity and to the urban image. In the second part, we presented an exploratory experimental research realised in 2016, at Pomi Middle School, Satu Mare County, Romania. In this activity, students in the 8th grade formed several teams and each team realised a poster, picking as a subject one large city in Romania and presented the characteristic features of that city. Based on our criteria, we analysed those posters by paying attention to what students underlined about the identity of the respective cities.

  10. The Analysis of Reading Skills and Visual Perception Levels of First Grade Turkish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Aysel; Sivri, Diler Ayvaz

    2016-01-01

    In this study, primary school first grade students' reading skills and visual perception levels were investigated. Sample of the study, which was designed with relational scanning model, consisted of 168 first grade students studying at three public primary schools in Kozlu, Zonguldak, in 2013-2014 education year. Students' reading level, reading…

  11. A social work study on quality on quality of physical education programs in primary schools: A case study of governmental and non-for-profit schools in city of Esfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Arabmomeni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical education is one of the most important parts of schoolchildren studies and it could influence of social and academic performance of children, significantly. This paper studies physical education among schoolchildren who attend elementary schools in city of Esfahan, Iran over for the educational calendar of 2010-2011. The study selects 52 schools as sample, 18 non-for-profit and 34 governmental schools and half of them belong to female students. The results of this study indicate that physical education has a somewhat better quality in non-for-profit educational system compared with governmental ones although this difference is not statistically significance (P<0.05. In our survey, ten percent of time, physical education was performed poorly, twenty five percent was in average condition, forty eight percent was in good condition and seventeen percent was in excellent condition.

  12. 土地利用与土地覆盖变化对中小城市净初级生产力的影响%The Influence of Land Use and Cover Change on Net Primary Productivity of Middle-sized and Small Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙政国; 杨齐; 李建龙

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore and research the influence of land use and cover change (LUCC) on net primary productivity of middle-sized and small cities during urbanization process, taking Zhangjiagang City as the study area, the author applied the MODIS image data and models related to net primary productivity (NPP) to estimate the act and potential NPP in 2008 and studied the characteristics of spatial distribution of the losing NPP caused by LUCC. The results showed that, in urbanization, because of the LUCC of Zhangjiagang City, it lost a lot of NPP, the NPP in city area decreased sharply, the value of NPPLUCE in forest and grassland relatively low, and' which of agro-ecosystems was minimum for irrigation and fertilization, so had a higher production than potential NPP. The NPPluce in Zhangjiagang appeared to have a decline trend from city to rural areas, there had two protuberance peaks on the urban and rural connecting areas and industrial regions in countryside. The results also showed that, the disturbance to natural ecosystem was decreased by applying management measures and technology ways, then the loss of NPP caused by LUCC and human activities was minimized. It took a feasible way to decrease human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) and resolve existing problems in related to natural resource exhausted and sustainable development.%为了探索研究当前城市化进程中,土地利用与土地覆盖变化对中小城市净初级生产力的影响,以 张家港为研究区域,利用MODIS遥感影像数据和NPP相关模型,分别估算2008年的实际和潜在的净初 级生产力(NPPact和NPP.),研究土地利用覆盖变化造成NPP损失(NPP lucc)的空间分布.结果表明,在张 家港的城市化进程中,由于土地利用和土地覆盖方式的改变损失了大量的NPP,城市区域年净初级生产 量以较大幅度减少;林草生态系统的NPP lucc较低,农业用地由于灌溉、施肥、田间管理等,导致其具有比 潜

  13. 山西阳泉河底农村小学体育课现状调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of Rural Primary Schools' Physical Education of Hedi Town in Yangquan City of Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    研究目的:了解农村小学体育课现状,致力于体育教育的改革,推进素质教育的实施,为农村小学体育课开展及改革提出建议。研究方法:文献资料法、问卷调查法。研究结论:河底镇农村小学体育课开课实数不足,体育课的教学内容较少;专职体育教师的比例较少,兼职体育教师比例较大;基础设施较差,体育场地较为简陋,体育经费少,实施新课程标准较差。%Objective: To understand the status of rural primary school physical education, to reform physical education, to promote quality education, and to make recommendations for rural primary school physical education and carry out reforms. Methods: literature: the use of libraries and network resources, access to relevant information,analyze and organize information. Questionnaire:Hedi Town suburb total of eight primary schools, select one of five different elementary school students, issuing 120 questionnaires recovered 116 valid questionnaires. River town of primary school PE teachers were distributed eight questionnaires recovered eight valid questionnaires. Research findings and results: Hedi Town commenced inadequate physical education in rural primary schools reals,less physical education teaching content;less proportion of full-time physical education teachers, a large proportion of part-time physical education teachers; poor infrastructure,more primitive courts,less sports funding,poor implementation of the new curriculum standards.

  14. The Needs of Primary English Teachers for an In-Service Teacher Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enisa Mede

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the needs of the primary English teachers at a private school about an in-service teacher training program. Under the light of former studies and literature, this study attempts to find out their needs on the predefined concepts namely, adaptation of teaching methods, emphasis on language skills, utilization of technology, classroom environment, instructional practices and material development. The differences between the needs of the participating teachers according to their grade level (K1-4 were examined as well. A sample of 60 primary English teachers working in private schools around different cities in Turkey participated in this study. Data were collected through a triangulated approach, in which questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and teacher diaries were administered to the participating teachers. The findings revealed except for the material development, the primary English teachers are in a high need of a design for an in-service training program on the predefined concepts. Besides, the only difference between the grade levels was in relation to the utilization of technology. These findings will serve as basis for the design of a new in-service teacher training program to meet their needs in the following academic years.

  15. 广州市三甲医院急诊科护理人员共情能力与工作环境相关性研究%A study on the correlation between empathy ability of nursing staff and working environment in the emergency department of the hospitals at the level of grade Ⅲclass A in Guangzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐彩虹

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨广州市三级甲等医院急诊科护士共情能力及护士工作环境感知的现状,分析不同人口社会学因素对护士共情能力的影响,探讨护士工作环境与护士共情能力的相关性。方法:采用非实验设计的描述性研究方法,对广州市8家三甲医院急诊科300名在岗临床一线护士进行问卷调查,采用 SPSS19.0软件对所收集资料进行统计分析。结果:广州市三级甲等医院急诊科护士不同学历、不同人事情况的护士共情能力差异有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05);护士工作环境感知各维度得分及总分均与护理人员共情能力呈正相关(P ﹤0.05),进一步多元线性回归分析,得出护士共情能力与医护关系、患者信息交流、团队合作、冲突处理方式有线性回归关系,呈正相关(P ﹤0.05)。结论:广州市三级甲等医院急诊科护士的共情能力及工作环境感知在中等水平,护士的共情能力受多种因素影响;护理管理者应制定管理计划,采取有针对性的、有效的培训措施,增强护士的共情能力,促进护患沟通,建立良好护患关系,提高护理质量。%Objective:To study the correlation between empathy ability of nursing staff and working environment in the emergency de-partment of the hospitals at the level of grade Ⅲclass A in Guangzhou city through the investigation on the perception of the nursing staff. Methods:A questionnaire survey was conducted on 300 on - the - job clinical nurses in the emergency department of 8 hospitals at the lev-el of grade Ⅲclass A in Guangzhou city and the collected data were statistically processed and analyzed by using SPSS19. 0 software. Re-sults:There was statistically significant difference in the comparison of empathy ability between the nurses with different educational back-ground and different employment forms(P ﹤ 0. 05);the score of each dimension of the nurse

  16. Learning to research in first grade: Bridging the transition from narrative to expository texts and tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Richard

    Decades of research indicate that students at all academic grade and performance levels perform poorly with informational texts and tasks and particularly with locating assignment-relevant information in expository texts. Students have little understanding of the individual tasks required, the arc of the activity, the hierarchical structure of the information they seek, or how to reconstitute and interpret the information they extract. Poor performance begins with the introduction of textbooks and research assignments in fourth grade and continues into adulthood. However, to date, neither educators nor researchers have substantially addressed this problem. In this quasi-experimental study, we ask if first-grade children can perform essential tasks in identifying, extracting, and integrating assignment-relevant information and if instruction improves their performance. To answer this question, we conducted a 15-week, teacher-led, intervention in two first-grade classrooms in an inner-city Nashville elementary school. We created a computer learning environment (NoteTaker) to facilitate children's creation of a mental model of the research process and a narrative/expository bridge curriculum to support the children's transition from all narrative to all expository texts and tasks. We also created a new scaffolding taxonomy and a reading-to-research model to focus our research. Teachers participated in weekly professional development workshops. The results of this quasi-experimental study indicate that at-risk, first-grade children are able to (a) identify relevant information in an expository text, (b) categorize the information they identify, and (c) justify their choice of category. Children's performance in the first and last tasks significantly improved with instruction, and low-performing readers showed the greatest benefits from instruction. We find that the children's performance in categorizing information depended upon content-specific knowledge that was not

  17. [Results of school children with enterobiasis in Tainan city, treated with mebendazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J H; Huang, W H; Chen, E R; Hu, S C

    1995-01-01

    There were 2,471 school children suffering from enterobiasis in six primary schools of Tainan city. The infected children in five primary schools, Po-Ai, Yung-Hua, Fu-Hsiao, Pao-Jeng and Hsin-Nan, were treated with one single dosage of 100 mg mebendazole. In Shih-Men primary school, the sixth, the students were given placebos as a control group. Negative conversion rates of infected children were examined after three weeks of chemotherapy and school children in the six primary schools were surveyed for enterobiasis two months after chemotherapy to obtain infection rates. The method of examination was two consecutive-day adhesive cellophane perianal swabs. With the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of treatment, positive reduction rates were used and calculated according to the infection rates of school children gained before and after chemotherapy. Those rates in Pao-Jeng, Fu-Hsiao, Yung-Hua, Po-Ai and Hsin-Nan were 62.1%, 47.8%, 41.8%, 37.1% and 3.3%, respectively, and in Shih-Men 3.9%. Judging the data obtained from each grade or each class of schools showed that the efficacy of chemotherapy in reducing the rate of infection was variable. Hence, one single dose of mebendazole and education on personal hygiene were not sufficient to reduce the prevalence of enterobiasis in primary schools. This was because the cycle of E. vermicularis was relatively short, cutting out the routes of transmission was very difficult, and the factors involved were very complex. Overall, though the positive reduction rate presented in Hsin-Nan primary school showed nearly no success in reducing the infection, the other four schools showed valuable rates. Whether continue a treatment, of about three-months in duration, can inhibit the prevalence of enterobiasis among children in primary schools or not will need further study.

  18. The gender difference on oral health knowledge in the students of Conghua City primary schools%从化市小学生口腔健康观念知晓率的性别差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯惠芬; 钟春仪; 巢枫榕

    2012-01-01

    采用随机整群抽样的方法,抽取某小学四年级学生331 名进行问卷调查,了解从化市小学生在接受口腔保健知识与观念的宣教中的性别差异.各项知识性题目回答的正确率女生高于男生.应注意男、女生之间的差异,更好地引导学生进行口腔保健.%Questionnaire survey on oral health knowledge was conducted in 331 elementary school students of the fourth grade. Female students replied the accuracy is higher than the male students. Attention should be paid for the gender difference in oral health education.

  19. Me, the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for identity of cities looks rather urgent and attracts attention of many researchers. Addressing this issue, the article draws an analogy between a human person and a city. Like a city, a human being needs to comprehend his self-identity in order to resist depressive tendencies. It is shown that a person’s depressive symptoms are similar to those of cities. The city identity necessary to resist depression can be searched for both historically and geographically. The historical aspect consists of local myths and legends about the city and the citizens. The geographical aspect of identity comprises features of the terrain, climate, flora and fauna of the region where the city is located.

  20. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...... size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect...

  1. Integrating Emerging Technologies in Teaching Ugandan Traditional Dances in K-12 Schools in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabingo, Alfdaniels

    2015-01-01

    Schools in New York City have made attempts to embrace and support the strand of "making connections", which is laid out in the New York City Department of Dance blueprint for teaching and learning in dance for grades PreK-12. Accordingly, some schools have integrated Ugandan traditional dances into the dance curriculum, and dance…

  2. Serving Grades Over the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, James K.

    This paper demonstrates a grade server that allows college students to access their grades over the Internet from the instructor's home page. Using a CGI (common gateway interface) program written in Visual Basic, the grades are read directly from an Excel spreadsheet and presented to the requester after he/she enters a password. The grade for…

  3. Graded-index magnonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  4. Investigation of Current Situation of Learning Motivation, Social Anxiety and Loneliness of the Left-behind Children in Rural Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Biyun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC and the Children’s Loneliness Scale (CLS. Results: (1 The learning motivation of the left-behind children in rural primary school is in a slightly higher medium level. Social anxiety is significantly higher than normal level in Chinese city, and the level of loneliness of about 1/5 of the left-behind children is relatively high. (2 The score of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children in the level of knowledge learning has significant grade differences, without significant gender differences. (3 The level of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children is slightly higher than that of non-left-behind children, but both differences are not significant.

  5. 扬中市中小学生疟疾防治知识知晓率调查分析%Investigation and analysis of awareness rate of malaria knowledge in primary and middle school stu-dents in Yangzhong City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴荣凤; 肖敏; 徐红梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the awareness rate of malaria knowledge in primary and middle school students in Yangzhong City. Methods By stratified random sampling, we conducted a sample question⁃naire survey in the primary and middle school students on their knowledge towards malaria. Results A total of 432 people were investigated, and 57.18%responded correctly to six or more questions in general. The aware⁃ness rate concerning malaria transmission , important symptoms, typical clinical manifestations, methods for di⁃agnosis of malaria, the classification and hazards of malaria, treatment of malaria, options for medication, pre⁃vention strategies, eradication of the mosquitoes and World Malaria Day was 54.17%, 58.8%, 85.65%, 59.03%, 54.4%, 96.76%, 45.83%, 25%, 62.5% and 37.96%, respectively. Conclusion Primary and middle school students in Yangzhong city needs improving on their knowledge towards awareness of malaria, especial⁃ly those from primary schools in rural areas.%目的:了解扬中市中小学生疟疾防治知识知晓水平。方法采用分层随机不等比例抽样调查方法,问卷调查中小学生一般情况、疟疾常识知晓情况等。结果共调查432人,6个及以上问题回答正确率57.18%。调查对象对“疟疾传播途径、主要症状、典型临床表现、诊断方法、疟疾的类别及危害、患病后如何处理、治疗药物、预防疟疾方法、灭蚊方法和疟疾宣传日”的知晓率分别是54.17%、58.8%、85.65%、59.03%、54.4%、96.76%、45.83%、25%、62.5%和37.96%。结论扬中市中小学生的疟疾防治知识知晓水平亟待提高,应该重点加强对农村地区小学生的疟防常识普及。

  6. MANPOWER FOR PRIMARY MEDICAL CARE IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Motameni

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available Iran is a large country with a total area of 1,645,000 square kilometers. The country’s population is estimated at about 31 millions. There is an uneven distribution of the population, varying from 2 to 50 per square kilometer. Sixty per cent of the total population (18 millions is living in nearly 66,000 small and large village’s scattered throughout the country. A total of 10,000 physicians provide the main source of medical manpower, however more than 40% of these physicians are located in the capital city of Teheran. The physician to population ratio for the country is about 1 per 3,000 and the figure reaches 100,000 in some rural areas. Each year a total of 600 graduates is added to the health manpower , but technical and socio-economic handicapping factors make the rural and low-income areas less attractive to the new graduates. In this paper the reconstruction of health services around the concept of Primary Medical Care has been reposed for the country’s health development. Taking into consideration the country’s special geographical and demographic features, two levels of primary care workers have been suggested; the first group with 4 year’s training in curative and preventive services, and the second group at grade 9 level in education. It is foreseen that the two afore-mentioned groups will form a network of auxiliaries to the physicians in extending health services to the remote areas of the country.

  7. Primary Study of the Extreme Rainfall Event in Suining City on 30 June 2013%“13·6·30”遂宁市特大暴雨成因的初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙俊; 邓国卫; 张渝杰; 陈佳; 吕斌

    2014-01-01

    提利用自动气象站雨量资料、常规观测资料、雷达资料以及 NCEP 再分析资料,对2013年6月30日至7月2日四川遂宁地区特大暴雨过程中高原低涡和西南涡的耦合作用对本次特大暴雨的影响以及低空急流演化特征和强暴雨的关系进行初步探讨。结果表明:当高原涡和西南涡发生耦合时会使得高空低涡发展加强,并激发遂宁暴雨天气的产生。急流为高空低涡的发展提供不稳定能量。超低空急流和低空急流对强降水有提前2 h 的指示意义,低空急流指数增大的过程和降水量的强度成正比关系。%Based on the rain gauge data from automatic weather stations,conventional observations and NCEP analysis data,the extreme rainstorm that hit Suining City from 30 June to 2 July 2013 and the rela-tionship between the extreme rainstorm and the LLJ evolution are studied primarily.This extrem event was caused by the coupling interaction between plateau and southwest vortexes.The results show that the high-level vortex development is strengthened when the coupling interaction occurs between plateau and southwest vortexes,stimulating the generation of rainstorms in Suining City.Jet stream provides unstable energy for the development of high-level vortex.Ultra-low-level jet and low-level jet cannot cause a strong rainfall immediately,and sometimes severe rainfall process may occur two hours later.The degree of in-crease in the low-level jet index (I)and the intensity of rainfall have a direct proportional relationship.

  8. Physical activity during the school day in public primary schools in Mexico City La actividad física durante la jornada escolar en escuelas primarias públicas en la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Jennings-Aburto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the physical activity (PA of students and describe the school environment surrounding PA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between November 2005 and March 2006, in Mexico City, we conducted quantitative and qualitative observations to describe the PA and the school context. RESULTS: Recess and physical education class (PE were the only opportunities to participate in PA. PE occurred one time per week with a duration of 39.8±10.6 minutes which is less than national and international recommendations. Students participated in moderate-to-vigorous PA 29.2±17.8% of PE. The dynamics of PE did not promote the inclusion of all students or PA. During recess there was overcrowding of the school patio and no equipment for PA or organization of PA. DISCUSSION: The PA of students in public schools in Mexico City can be improved by increasing the quantity and quality of PE and increasing opportunities for activity during recess.OBJETIVO: Cuantificar la actividad física (AF en niños escolares y describir el entorno escolar relacionado con la AF. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre noviembre de 2005 y marzo de 2006 en la Ciudad de México, se realizó observación directa cuantitativa y cualitativa para describir el nivel de AF y el contexto escolar durante recreo y clases de educación física (CEF. RESULTADOS: El recreo y las CEF fueron los únicos espacios en los que se realizó AF. Las CEF se impartieron una vez a la semana y duraron 39.8±10.6 minutos, lo que está por debajo de las recomendaciones internacionales. Se participó en actividades moderadas-vigorosas 29.2±17.8% de las CEF. La dinámica de las CEF no favoreció la AF. Durante el recreo se observó saturación del patio y no se realizaron actividades organizadas ni se utilizaron materiales para promover la AF. DISCUSIÓN: Se recomienda incrementar la calidad y la cantidad de las CEF y el tiempo dedicado a jugar durante el recreo.

  9. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  10. The Resources 6th And 7th Grade Students Use While Preparing Projects And Performence Tasks For Socıal Studies Course, Use Of The Internet As A Resource, And The Difficulties That They Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan AKDAĞ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the resources benefited by the pupils and the difficulties that they experience while preparing performance and project tasks related to the classroom activities in Social Sciences Program initiated in 2005. The universe of the study is all the sixth and seventh grade students of primary schools in Konya city. In the study, open-ended question with the convenient sampling method, which is used in qualitative research methods, is used, and for analyzing the qualitative data, contents analysis method, which is formed with recessive theme in theoretical sense and sub themes, is applied. The study demonstrated that the sixth grade students use internet, libraries, reference books and the others respectively, and the seventh grade students use internet, reference books, libraries and the others respectively. However, both sixth and seventh grade experience such problems as time limitation, difficulty of assignment and inability to understand, failing to find proper resources, structural characteristics of internet and layout of the assignment. Sixth and seventh grade students experience these problems at different levels. In the light of findings some suggestions are made.

  11. Methods of graded rings

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasescu, Constantin

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this book, graded algebra, has developed in the past decade to a vast subject with new applications in noncommutative geometry and physics. Classical aspects relating to group actions and gradings have been complemented by new insights stemming from Hopf algebra theory. Old and new methods are presented in full detail and in a self-contained way. Graduate students as well as researchers in algebra, geometry, will find in this book a useful toolbox. Exercises, with hints for solution, provide a direct link to recent research publications. The book is suitable for courses on Master level or textbook for seminars.

  12. Text Complexity: Primary Teachers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Relyea-Kim, E. Jackie; Kung, Melody; Elmore, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The research question was, "What text characteristics do primary teachers think are most important for early grades text complexity?" Teachers from across the United States accomplished a two-part task. First, to stimulate teachers' thinking about important text characteristics, primary teachers completed an online paired-text…

  13. The Power and Potential of Primary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Denise N.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2012-01-01

    Using primary sources with students has untapped potential for expanding and deepening the reading experiences of elementary and middle grade students. Primary sources expands teachers' palette of reading materials, allows students to connect more closely to topics for learning, and deepens their understanding of the past. This article argues for…

  14. The Maximal Graded Left Quotient Algebra of a Graded Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo ARANDA PINO; Mercedes SILES MOLINA

    2006-01-01

    We construct the maximal graded left quotient algebra of every graded algebra A without homogeneous total right zero divisors as the direct limit of graded homomorphisms (of left A-modules)from graded dense left ideals of A into a graded left quotient algebra of A. In the case of a superalgebra,and with some extra hypothesis, we prove that the component in the neutral element of the group of the maximal graded left quotient algebra coincides with the maximal left quotient algebra of the component in the neutral element of the group of the superalgebra.

  15. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2011-01-01

    for innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden....... It is shown that the cities have the potential to significantly contribute to a more sustainable development through increased material recycling and energy recovery. Waste prevention may increase this potential. For example, instead of constituting 3% of the total greenhouse gas emission problem, it seems......There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth...

  16. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  17. Purpose-Driven Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jane A. K.; Kimpton, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Allowing students to improve their grade by revising their written work may help students learn to revise, but it gives them no incentive to turn in quality work from the start. This article proposes a way to invert the process, thereby teaching students how to revise, while enforcing a more disciplined approach to good writing. (Contains 3…

  18. Social Studies: Grade 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This Manitoba (Canada) curriculum guide for eighth grade social studies students contains suggested teaching strategies and learning activities in four units covering: (1) life during prehistoric and early historic times; (2) ancient civilizations; (3) life in early modern Europe; and (4) life in the modern world. Each unit includes an overview,…

  19. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  20. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...

  1. Suburbs and Cities

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Matthew I. Spiegel; Susan M. Wachter

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how closely the fortunes of suburbs are tied to the fortunes of the central city. We use similarities in residential housing price dynamics as a measure of how closely the economies of cities and suburbs are related. We develop housing price indices for most of the zip codes in California, and use these in a clustering procedure to see whether cities and suburbs naturally aggregate together, or whether they move separately. We find that central cities tend to...

  2. Performance of a table vibration type coffee grading machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available One of important coffee beans quality is the size uniformity. To confirm with the standart requirement, coffee beans have to be graded before being traded. Until now, grading process is still carried out fully manual, so that the grading cost is very expensive about 40% of total processing cost. Meanwhile, shortage of skill workers is as a limiting factor of the process. Therefore, machine for grading coffee beans is good alternative for grading cost. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed a table vibration type coffee grading machine for grouping of coffee beans in order to consistent quality and reduce grading cost. The machine has dimension of 272 cm length, 126 cm height, and 144 cm width. The machine has three primary components, i.e. grader table, combustion engine, and beam. The machine has three kinds of grader table that each grader table has different holes size, i.e. 7 mm x 7 mm for top grader table, 5 mm x 5 mm for axle grader table, and 4 mm x 4 mm for bottom grader table. Each grader table has dimension of 206 cm length, 105.5 cm height, and 14 cm width. The grading mechanism is by vibration grader table with the power source 5.5 HP combustion engine. The results shown that the outlet are in farms of three grades of coffee beans with connected to each compartement. Assessment of the grading machine reveals that the optimum capacity of 1,406 kg/hour reached when the speed 2,600 rpm and the angle 10O. Economic analysis showed that operational cost for grading one kilogram Robusta coffee beans with moisture content 13—14% wet basis is Rp 7.17.Key words : grading, coffee, quality, vibration table.

  3. Primary fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S; Jensen, L T; Foldager, M

    1990-01-01

    Serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide have previously been reported to be low in some patients with primary fibromyalgia and the aim of this study was to determine if such patients differ clinically from primary fibromyalgia patients with normal levels of procollagen...... type III aminoterminal peptide. Subjective symptoms, tender points and dynamic muscle strength in 45 women with primary fibromyalgia were related to serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide. Patients with low serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide...... concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide of primary fibromyalgia patients are connected to the disease impact....

  4. Advancing smartness of traditional settlements-case analysis of Indian and Arab old cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Dhingra

    2016-12-01

    The study enlists smart urban elements in our existing old cities, which are derived from extensive literature study of Middle East cities and primary surveys of around 160 samples in a medium sized old Indian city in Rajasthan. The study assesses the baseline situation of culturally rich and varied old cities and need to advance from their inherent smartness using innovative and interactive ICT and urban engineering solutions.

  5. Evaluation on the effect of brief group psychological counseling application in mental health program for students of high grade primary school%短程团体心理咨询在小学高年级学生心理健康促进中运用的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐奇; 龚定宏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of brief group psychological counseling in promoting students psychological health of high grade in primary school. Methods Two classes were randomly selected from a primary school in a community of Pudong New Area in Shanghai from October 2014 to November 2014, with stratified cluster sampling method in 4,5 grade ( the boy 30, the girl 24) as the research object, the other 2 classes (4,5 grade 1 classes;the boy 25,the girl 31) of students as control group, in the intervention group students brief group counseling was carried out, while the control group received the routine psychological health education course. Using the mental health diagnosis test (MHT) as a psychological assessment tool, MHT scores of two groups of students and factors were analyszed by the test analysis. Results Before intervention, the intervention group and the control group in the mental health diagnosis test (MHT) had no significant difference in each factor (P>0.05). After the intervention, significant were found differences between the intervention group and the control group in MHT learning anxiety, anxiety to people, self accusation tendency, allergic tendency, body symptom, terror tendency and the total score(6.46±3.01, 8.59±3.40; 3.04±1.91, 4.45±2.43; 3.56± 2.13, 5.30 ± 2.10; 4.37 ± 1.93, 5.84 ± 2.63; 3.76 ± 2.82, 5.46 ± 3.38; 2.15 ± 2.34, 3.91 ± 3.00; 32.44 ± 13.07, 44.52±17.59)(t=-3.47、-3.38、-4.30、-3.35、-2.87、-3.40、-4.10 ,P0.05),在干预结束时,干预组MHT的学习焦虑、对人焦虑、自责倾向、过敏倾向、身体症状、恐怖倾向因子分以及总分均低于对照组(6.46±3.01,8.59±3.40;3.04±1.91,4.45±2.43;3.56±2.13,5.30±2.10;4.37±1.93,5.84±2.63;3.76±2.82,5.46±3.38;2.15±2.34,3.91±3.00;32.44±13.07,44.52±17.59),差异具有统计学意义(t=-3.47、-3.38、-4.30、-3.35、-2.87、-3.40、-4.10,P均<0.05)。结论短程团体心理咨询对于小学高年级群

  6. The Design of Group Counseling Scheme for the Preven-tion of Sexual Assault on Grade Four Girl Students of Rural Primary Schools%农村小学四年级女生预防性侵害团体辅导方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揭康丽

    2015-01-01

    The group counseling scheme is mainly for Grade Four girl students of rural primary schools, playing the important role of schools in sexual education, especially the prevention of sexual assault. Based on child developmental psychology, group psy-chological counseling was implemented to help students correctly learn about the characteristics of boy and girl students, and the principles of relationship between boys and girls, and grasp the knowledge and skills of preventing sexual assault.%本团体辅导方案主要是针对农村四年级女生,发挥学校在性教育中特别是性侵害预防中的重要作用。以儿童发展心理学理论为根据,以团体心理辅导的形式展开,帮助学生正确认识男女生的特点,了解男女生交往的界限和原则,掌握儿童性侵害的防范知识和技巧。

  7. 新疆乌鲁木齐市28家不同级别医院间全血细胞计数比对调查分析%Comparative analysis of complete blood count among 28 hospitals with different grade in Urumchi City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 杨志伟; 张朝霞

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the difference in complete blood count (CBC) within the defined time among 28 hospitals with different grade in Urumchi City, explore its influencing factors,offer the countermeasures, and further to provide scientific evidence for the mutual recognition among different medical institutions. Methods Totally 28 laboratories with different grade were enrolled in the investigation. Three fresh blood samples were employed to perform complete blood counting, in-cluding normal and pathological specimens. The measuring time and turn around time (TAT) were de-fined. Results According to the literature report on biological variability of testing results, the per-missible deviation of CBC was tentatively prescribed as follows: WBC 15% ;RBC 6% ;HB 7% ;HCT 6 % ;PLT 25 %. Qualification decision was based on the external quality assessment (EQA) criteria of Clinical Laboratory Centre of the Health Ministry. Qualification: the total score of five measured items is higher than or equal to 80%;disqualification: the total score of five measured items is lower than 80%. For the first and second sample, 26 laboratories (92.86%) were qualified;for the third sample (only 21 laboratories enrolled), 14 laboratories (67%) were qualified. Conclusion 28 laboratories par-ticipated in this test. The results of five items are congruent for the first and second sample (normalspecimens) in 28 laboratories, and the measured results are comparable. By contrast, the comparative result is unsatisfactory for the third sample (pathological specimen), mainly due to the narrow linear range of equipment. Meanwhile, the laboratory quality management should be strengthened.%目的 于新疆乌鲁木齐市不同级别医院,在规定时间内测定新鲜血液,求其测值的差异,探讨其影响因素,提出解决办法,为各医疗机构检查结果的互认提供科学依据.方法 共调查28家不同级别实验室,进行全血细胞计数(CBC),共3个标本,分正常与病理

  8. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  9. Write More, Grade Less: Five Practices for Effectively Grading Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    One of the dilemmas that teachers frequently face is grading student papers. As a teacher, the author regularly reads research regarding instructional practices, grading, and assessment, but struggled to translate theory into practice in her own classroom. The intent of this article is to share one method of instructing and grading writing that…

  10. Pollination biology of basal angiosperms (ANITA grade).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, Leonard B; Bernhardt, Peter; Devall, Margaret S; Chen, Zhi-Duan; Luo, Yi-Bo; Fan, Jian-Hua; Yuan, Liang-Chen; Williams, Joseph H

    2009-01-01

    The first three branches of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree consist of eight families with ∼201 species of plants (the ANITA grade). The oldest flower fossil for the group is dated to the Early Cretaceous (115-125 Mya) and identified to the Nymphaeales. The flowers of extant plants in the ANITA grade are small, and pollen is the edible reward (rarely nectar or starch bodies). Unlike many gymnosperms that secrete "pollination drops," ANITA-grade members examined thus far have a dry-type stigma. Copious secretions of stigmatic fluid are restricted to the Nymphaeales, but this is not nectar. Floral odors, floral thermogenesis (a resource), and colored tepals attract insects in deceit-based pollination syndromes throughout the first three branches of the phylogenetic tree. Self-incompatibility and an extragynoecial compitum occur in some species in the Austrobaileyales. Flies are primary pollinators in six families (10 genera). Beetles are pollinators in five families varying in importance as primary (exclusive) to secondary vectors of pollen. Bees are major pollinators only in the Nymphaeaceae. It is hypothesized that large flowers in Nymphaeaceae are the result of the interaction of heat, floral odors, and colored tepals to trap insects to increase fitness.

  11. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  12. CHONGQING, the Hot City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chongqing is a well-known city with a history of more than 3,000 years. It is a famous historical and cultural city in China. Chongqing is the birthplace of the Bayu Culture. At present, Chongqing is a municipality directly under the Central Government with the largest area, the most administrative districts and the largest population.

  13. City Improves State Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EnjoyceZhu

    2003-01-01

    As China's new leadership drafts measures to help ailing Stateowned enterprises(SOEs),Changchun,a strategic city in the Rust Belt,is reaping benefits unseen in more than a decade of SOE reform.Home to a large number of SOEs,Changchun has had its share of bureaucracy and stagnation.The city initiated a program called,“Saving SOEs

  14. City profile: Paramaribo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrest, H.J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Paramaribo, the largest and only significant urban area in Suriname, is a typical primate city. The majority of the countries’ population resides here and the majority of political, social and economic functions is clustered in the urban zone. In the course of the 20th century, the city changed dram

  15. Responsive City Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper presents and discusses perspectives extracted from two interviews conducted during the experiments Urban Responsive Lighting. The two experts embody two different fields related to city lighting: architecture & public lighting industry. The representatives were invited to the test...... on applied technologies and responsive light design in the contemporary cities....

  16. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It thus...

  17. Reflective cool cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidegger, V.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Our globe is heating, and cities are heating up much more. At the same time, cities are growing and green spaces are substituted by buildings and streets. These man-made surfaces are dark and tend to heat up

  18. Deer City Legend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUHUANZHI; LILIKUN

    2003-01-01

    MORE and more commodities,such as clothes,shoes,millinery,lighters and shavers,now bear the “Made in Wenzhou”mark.It woule appear that Wenzhou grooms the whole nation.Lucheng(deer city)District in central Wenzhou is the nucleus of the city's thriving light industry sector.

  19. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets Arkitekt...

  20. Orientations and Motivation in the Acquisition of English as a Second Language Among High School Students in Quebec City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmechri, Faiza; Hummel, Kirsten

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the emergence of orientations and their relation to motivation in a predominantly monolingual context. Participants were 93 Quebec City francophone Grade 11 high school students learning English as a Second Language. (Author/JL)

  1. Analysis of a Solar Cooling System for Climatic Conditions of Five Different Cities of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mujahid Rafique

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air high in humidity leads to uncomfortable conditions and promotes the growth of different fungi and bacteria, which may cause health problems. The control of moisture content in the air using traditional air conditioning techniques is not a suitable option due to large consumption of primary energy and hence emission of greenhouse gases. The evaporative cooling technology is a cost effective and eco-friendly alternative but can provide thermal comfort conditions only under low humidity conditions. However, the evaporative cooling method can be used effectively in conjunction with desiccant dehumidifiers for better control of humidity. Such systems can control the temperature and humidity of the air independently and can effectively utilize the low-grade thermal energy resources. In this paper, the theoretical analysis of desiccant based evaporative cooling systems is carried out for five cities in Saudi Arabia (Jeddah, Jazan, Riyadh, Hail, and Dhahran. It has been observed that the coefficient of performance (COP of the system varies from 0.275 to 0.476 for different locations. The water removal capacity of the desiccant wheel is at its maximum for the climatic conditions of Jazan and at its minimum for Hail. The effect of climatic conditions of five cities on regeneration temperature, air mass flow rate, and potential of solar energy has been evaluated using RET Screen software.

  2. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  3. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    There are over 20 cities world-wide with a population of over 10 million people. We have entered ‘The Millennium of the City’. The growth of urban populations has been accompanied by profound changes of the cities’ economic and social profile and of the cities themselves. The world economy...... is increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing...... on experience. We will argue for a human turn in the research on liveabil- ity and urbanisation, and debates the concept of liveability. We will take Copenhagen as our main case and compare with other cities from around the world....

  4. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...... premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles are more likely to move from rural areas to cities while married couples are more likely to make...... the reverse movement. A second prediction of the model is that attractive singles benefit most from a dense market (i.e. from being choosy). Those predictions are tested with a unique Danish dataset....

  5. Universities Scale Like Cities

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the gross university income in terms of total number of citations over size in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its ...

  6. Governing the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Strategy frames the contemporary epistemological space of urbanism: major cities across the globe such as New York, London and Sydney invest time, energy and resources to craft urban strategies. Extensive empirical research projects have proposed a shift towards a strategic framework to manage...... cities. This theoretical curiosity is reflected in the rising interest in urban strategy from practice. For instance, the World Bank regularly organizes an Urban Strategy Speaker Series, while the powerful network CEOs for Cities lobbies for a strategic approach to urban development. Critical scholars...... such as Zukin diagnose not a shift in but a shift to strategic thinking in the contemporary city. This article poses the question: what makes strategy such an attractive ‘thought style’ in relation to imagining and managing cities? How can we understand the practice of urban strategy? And what are its intended...

  7. Encaminhamentos da atenção primária para avaliação neurológica em Porto Alegre, Brasil Referrals from primary care to neurological assessment in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Finkelsztejn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available No Sistema Único de Saúde do Brasil (SUS, os níveis de atenção à saúde se inserem no modelo hierárquico através do sistema de referência e contrarreferência. Em um projeto para atender às demandas represadas do nível primário ao secundário, denominado "Mutirão da Saúde", realizado em Porto Alegre, os médicos neurologistas do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, após cada atendimento realizado, responderam a um instrumento para avaliar os encaminhamentos realizados pela rede de atenção primária à saúde (APS. A avaliação foi positiva, mostrando que os encaminhamentos foram realmente necessários em 85% dos casos; entretanto, foi parcialmente contraditória, tendo em vista que 41,7% dos encaminhamentos eram situações clínicas que deveriam ser manejadas no atendimento primário. A avaliação também revelou que 50% dos casos necessitavam de exames complementares. Devido a uma possível regionalização aleatória dos encaminhamentos, o resultado não nos possibilitou uma estimativa apropriada da prevalência por territórios das unidades de APS, informação esta importante para a organização do fluxo de encaminhamentos e planejamento dos recursos alocados pelos gestores, tanto locais quanto municipais.In the Unified Health System in Brazil (SUS, the levels of health care fall within the hierarchical model with the reference and counter-reference systems. In a project to meet the repressed demands of primary and secondary levels, called "Mutirão da Saúde", held in Porto Alegre, the neurologists of the Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, after each call made, answered a questionnaire to assess referrals performed by the network of primary health care (PHC. The evaluation was positive, showing that the referrals were really needed in 85% of cases; however, it was partially contradictory, given that 41.7% of referrals were medical conditions that should be managed in primary care. The evaluation also revealed that

  8. Developing social skills in the first grade of primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Moder, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Social skills enable people to behave in the social space as they are expected to, to have satisfactory social relationships, to learn, to communicate with others and to solve conflicts. Mastering social skills enables individuals to effectively meet their own social needs, without harming others. People learn the appropriate management of social skills in lifelong socialization, because it lasts from our first breath to the very last exhalation. In the theoretical part of the thesis I am ...

  9. Listening Comprehension in Primary Level Grades Two, Four and Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Juhani E.; Anttila, Minttu

    2003-01-01

    Studied aspects of listening comprehension skills in 107 second, fourth, and sixth graders in Finland using the Sentence Verification technique. Findings, comparable with previous research, show age-related improvement in listening comprehension for narrative, but not expository, passages. Cluster analysis produced four comprehension strategies.…

  10. Dr. Martin Luther King: A Unit for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Kelli

    1986-01-01

    Presents a unit consisting of 4 lessons which focus on Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s childhood, his adult life and family, his civil rights work, and the national holiday which commemorates his birthday. Each lesson features specific objectives, learning activities, and instructional guidelines for the teacher. (TRS)

  11. Sixth grade transition groups: An approach to primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellem, D W

    1990-06-01

    For many students, the transition from elementary school to middle school is beset with a variety of social, emotional, and logistical stressors. In addition, many students lack the skills and self-confidence that they need in order to negotiate successfully these predictable changes and challenges. This paper examines a 3-day social problem-solving and stress reduction curriculum. An evaluation involving 308 students from six elementary schools indicated that 94% found the program helpful.

  12. Atenção básica e dinâmica urbana nos grandes municípios paulistas, Brasil Primary health care and urban dynamics in large cities in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza d'Ávila Viana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os Estudos de Linha de Base do Projeto de Expansão e Consolidação do Saúde da Família construíram indicadores e modelos de atenção básica para os 62 municípios paulistas com mais de 100 mil habitantes, e apontaram uma diversidade de comportamento destes indicadores e modelos em relação às diferentes dinâmicas urbanas do estado. Nesse sentido, houve a necessidade de realizar uma reflexão sobre saúde e uso urbano do território. O principal objetivo desta reflexão foi compreender melhor sobre como a dinâmica urbana tem influência no perfil, na organização e no funcionamento do sistema de saúde. A partir daí, foi possível extrair algumas hipóteses e discussões sobre como a urbanização paulista impõe desafios à expansão e consolidação da atenção básica e do Programa Saúde da Família nos municípios estudados.The Baseline Studies on the Project for Expansion and Consolidation of the Family Health Strategy created primary health care indicators and models for the 62 municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in São Paulo State, Brazil, and identified varying patterns for these indicators and models in relation to different urban dynamics in the State. The studies showed the need to reflect on health in relation to urban land use. The main objective was to gain a better understanding of how urban dynamics influence the health system's profile, organization, and operation, based on which it was possible to extract some hypotheses and discussions regarding how urbanization in São Paulo State creates challenges for the expansion and consolidation of primary health care and the Family Health Program in these municipalities.

  13. Inflated Grades, Enrollments & Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Stone

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the past 13 years that call attention to deficient academic standards in American higher education are enumerated. Particular attention is given the Wingspread Group's recent An American Imperative: Higher Expectations for Higher Education. Low academic standards, grade inflation, and budgetary incentives for increased enrollment are analyzed and a call is made for research at the state level. Reported trends in achievement and GPAs are extrapolated to Tennessee and combined with local data to support the inference that 15% of the state's present day college graduates would not have earned a diploma by mid 1960s standards. A conspicuous lack of interest by public oversight bodies is noted despite a growing public awareness of low academic expectations and lenient grading and an implicit budgetary impact of over $100 million. Various academic policies and the dynamics of bureaucratic control are discussed in relationship to the maintenance of academic standards. The disincentives for challenging course requirements and responsible grading are examined, and the growing movement to address academic quality issues through better training and supervision of faculty are critiqued. Recommendations that would encourage renewed academic integrity and make learning outcomes visible to students, parents, employers, and the taxpaying public are offered and briefly discussed.

  14. Cities, Towns and Villages, City Limits of City of Dubuque, IA, Published in 2007, City of Dubuque.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as 'City Limits of City of...

  15. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  16. The Implications of Grade Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Fleisher, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The authors review current and past practices of the grade inflation controversy and present ways to return to each institution’s established grading guidelines. Students are graded based on knowledge gathered. Certain faculty members use thorough evaluative methods, such as written and oral pres...

  17. Investigation into Self-Medication of Drugs for Primary and Adjunct Therapy in Psychiatric Diseases Among Students in Chittagong City of Bangladesh: A Comparison Between Medical and Nonmedical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishat Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: All kinds of drugs are available over the counter in Bangladesh. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the over the counter use of self medicated drugs for primary and adjunct therapy in psychiatric diseases among medical and nonmedical students. Materials and Methods: 101 medical students and 186 nonmedical students were found, who used at least one of the nine drugs (believed as antipsychotics among nonmedical people under survey within 6 months prior to survey date. The nine drugs used for survey were domperidone, sertraline, amitriptyline, midazolam, diazepam, prochlorperazine bromazepam, flupentixol-melitracen, and clonazepam. Statistical Analysis: Snowball sampling method was used. The symptoms, diseases, etc. of the students and the length of therapies they had followed for the respective drugs were noted. Results: Among nonmedical students, several cases were found where drugs were being self medicated in wrong indications, for example, use of flupentixol melitracen and domperidone to treat headache. Conclusion: The nonmedical students chose the fast acting drugs having the strongest effects for self medication.

  18. Investigation on knowledge and behavior about walking traffic injury among primary school teachers in Shijiazhuang City%石家庄市小学教师步行交通伤害及相关知识行为情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马新颜; 姜彩肖

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the degree of knowledge and correct behaviors about walking traffic injury in primary school teachers of Shijiazhuang City, and provide evidence for effective intervention of traffic injury control of pupils. [ Methods] Stratified random sampling was adopted to investigate the primary school teachers about traffic injuries and related knowledge and behavior by questionnaire survey. The age and gender and other factors influencing the walking traffic injury and related knowledge and behavior of primary school teachers were analyzed. [ Results] During the past 1 year 34.0% teachers got injured in walking. The awareness rate of traffic safety knowledge was not significantly different between primary school teachers with different gender and age. There was significant difference in different genders of the teachers obeying the traffic rules of "using pedestrian bridge when encountering guardrail in the middle of road" ( P 0. 05). The difference of teaching students consciously abiding traffic rules was significantly between ages(P <0. 05). [ Conclusion] The awareness and behaviors rates of injury knowledge are high among primary school teachers in Shijiazhuang City and the incidence of walking traffic injury is relatively low.%目的 了解石家庄市小学教师的步行交通伤害及相关知识行为,为有效开展小学生交通伤害干预工作提供依据.方法 采用分层随机抽样的方法,对石家庄市小学教师步行交通伤害及相关知识行为情况进行问卷调查,分析年龄、性别等因素对小学教师的步行交通伤害及相关知识行为的影响.结果 过去1年中有34.0%的教师在步行时受到交通伤害.不同性别、不同年龄的小学教师交通安全知识知晓程度差异无统计学意义.不同性别教师对于遵守“遇到道路中间有护栏时走人行天桥”的交通规则差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);关于当有急事遇到红灯时仍等绿灯亮了再走,

  19. Integralidade e Atenção Primária à Saúde: avaliação na perspectiva dos usuários de unidades de saúde do município de São Paulo Integrality and Primary Health Care: assessment in the perspective of health services users in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Sala

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Na cidade de São Paulo, os serviços de Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS atuam nos modelos do Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF e da Programação em Saúde. Ambos envolvem a questão da integralidade. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar processos de integralidade em unidades de APS localizadas no Município de São Paulo, sob o ponto de vista dos usuários dos serviços. As categorias de avaliação consideradas foram acessibilidade, porta de entrada, vínculo, elenco de serviços, coordenação, enfoque familiar, e orientação comunitária. Foram comparados os dois modelos de organização dos serviços na APS presentes no Município. O Questionário adaptado do Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool foi aplicado a uma amostra de usuários dos dois modelos de APS. Os resultados principais apontaram para o bom desempenho nas categorias de porta de entrada, elenco de serviços e coordenação. Enfoque familiar, orientação comunitária e acessibilidade receberam as piores avaliações. Diferenças significantes entre os dois modelos envolvem melhor registro em prontuário, melhores atividades orientadas à comunidade, menor referenciamento ao especialista e horário de atendimento mais adequado no modelo do PSF. Questões mais imediatamente relacionadas à prestação direta de serviços foram mais bem avaliadas, enquanto as relacionadas com a organização e a cultura dos serviços receberam piores pontuações.In the city of São Paulo, the Primary Health Care (PHC outpatient clinics function based on the models of the Family Health Program (FHP and Health Program. Both models involve integrality issues. The aim of this study is to assess the integrality achievement in PHC outpatient clinics located in the city of São Paulo, based on users' opinion. The categories were: access to first contact, continuity, coordination, services catalogue, community orientation and family orientation. The two models of services organization at the PHC

  20. Effect Evaluation on the Intervention Measure for Overweight and Obese Children in Primary School in Xianmen City%学龄期儿童肥胖干预对身高发育水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友兰; 杨晓剑; 杜玉开; 管纪惠

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of group obesity intervention on body height development in overweight and obese children in primary schools in Xiamen. Methods Two primary schools with same basic conditions and located in the areas with high incidence rate of obesity in Xiamen were selected, one as the intervention group, and another as a control group. In the intervention school, a program of "focus on obesity control to create health-promoting school" and related health promotion were carried out, but no program and activities were did in the control school. The baseline survey was finished before April 2006 in two schools and then the 840 students were followed-up for 5 years, tracking and taken weight measurement once per month. Results After the intervention, the rates of overweight and obesity in the intervention school were decreased (x2=27.198, P0.05). Conclusion The intervention to obesity in children had no significant effect on their body development.%目的 对学龄期儿童进行群体性肥胖干预,探讨儿童肥胖干预对儿童身高发育水平的影响.方法 在厦门市肥胖发生率较高的地区选择条件基本相同的两所小学,1所为干预学校,1所为对照学校.干预学校开展“中国/WHO以肥胖控制为切入点发展健康促进项目”活动,对照学校不开展相关活动.2006年4月-2010年4月,对两所学校各840名学生进行每月一次的身高、体重监测,持续监测5年.结果 干预后,干预学校学生的超重率和肥胖率显著下降(x2=27.198,P<0.001),干预学校学生的体质指数(BMl)均值下降明显,与对照学校学生比较,差异有统计学意义(t=-93.814,P<0.01).干预学校学生干预后的BMI值与干预前BMI值相减求差值,对照学校学生也与自己干预前BMI值相减求差值,对两组差值进行独立样本t检验,差异有统计学意义(t=-89.785,P<0.01).干预学校学生干预后的身高值与干预前身高值相减求差值,对照学校学生也

  1. 某市城区中小学生营养状况的调查分析%Survey Analysis of Primary and Middle School Students Nutrition in A City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡艳华; 贺勇; 任有勋

    2012-01-01

    nutrition and nutrition surplus of Primary and middle school students in zhucheng are serious. Should carry out intervention work of poor nutrition and overweight and obese in the primary and middle school students as soon as possible.

  2. Primary hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Madkhali, Tarıq; Alhefdhi, Amal; Chen, Herbert; Elfenbein, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder caused by overactivation of parathyroid glands resulting in excessive release of parathyroid hormone. The resultant hypercalcemia leads to a myriad of symptoms. Primary hyperparathyroidism may increase a patient’s morbidity and even mortality if left untreated. During the last few decades, disease presentation has shifted from the classic presentation of severe bone and kidney manifestations to most patients now being diagnosed on rou...

  3. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  4. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rojas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of  technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects  the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City,  creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  5. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum >grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  6. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  7. Cities and Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Bruce; Noring, Luise; Garrelts, Nantke

    institutions, it is municipalities across Europe in general and Germany in particular who are responsible for planning, delivering, and, in some cases, financing the housing, education, and full integration of new arrivals. “Cities and Refugees: The European Response” is a collaboration of the Brookings...... Centennial Scholar Initiative and the Foreign Policy program, with key research led by the Copenhagen Business School. It aims to show the extent to which cities are at the vanguard of this crisis and to deepen our understanding of the role and capacity of city governments and local networks in resettlement...... and long-term economic and social integration....

  8. 边疆地区小学数学双语教师心理健康状况分析--以新疆克州某市为例%A Survey on Mathematics Bilingual Teachers’ Mental Health for Primary Schools---Illustrated by the Case Study of a City in Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏波; 方敏; 曹吉祥

    2015-01-01

    To learn the state of mathematics bilingual teachers’ mental health of primary schools in frontier minority areas in our country, this study chose SCL - 90 to assess 126 mathematics bilingual teachers’ mental health of a city in Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture. Score of frontier bilingual teachers’ mental health for primary school mathematics in SCL - 90 is lower than that of the local adults with the significant difference(P<0.01), and 11%of the mathematics bilingual teachers for primary schools suffered severe psychological reactions and obstacles. At the same time, the levels of teachers’ mental health is significantly different between different teaching ages (P<0.01), however, different genders are not. In frontier areas, therefore, the mental health status of the primary school mathematics bilingual teachers is not optimistic, which should be paid more positive attention by the society. And it is recom-mended that the communication between and among schools, families and teachers should be strengthened to promote the health development of teachers’ psychology.%选用SCL-90对新疆克州某市的126名小学数学双语教师进行心理健康评估,以了解我国边疆少数民族地区小学数学双语教师心理健康状况。结果显示:边疆地区小学数学双语教师SCL-90得分低于地方成人,且差异显著(P<0.01),其中有11%的人出现了较为严重的心理反应和障碍,同时,这些教师的心理健康水平在不同教龄间存在显著差异(P<0.01)。由此可见,边疆小学数学双语教师的心理健康状况不容乐观,应引起社会的积极关注,建议加强学校、家庭、教师三者之间的相互沟通,共同推动教师心理的健康发展。

  9. 2011-2012学年北京市昌平区中小学生营养状况监测结果%Nutritional status of primary and secondary school students in Changping District of Beijing City from 2011-2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张崛; 崔永强; 刘玉红; 黄艳丽; 刘晓培; 王金飞; 滕淑凤

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解北京市昌平区2011-2012学年中小学生营养状况.方法 对昌平区2011-2012学年中小学生体检资料进行分析.结果 53 991名中小学生,营养不良检出率13.97%,以轻度营养不良(89.15%)为主,女生高于男生(P<0.05),城镇高于乡村(但P>0.05),初中高于小学和高中(P<0.05);营养过剩检出率为34.86%,肥胖(21.72%)多于超重(13.15%),男生高于女生(P<0.05),城镇高于乡村(P<0.05),初中高于小学和高中(P<0.05).结论 昌平区中小学生营养不良和营养过剩同时并存,有关部门应加强营养宣教,有针对性地开展干预措施.%To understand the nutritional status of primary and secondary school students in Changping District of Beijing City from 2011-2012.[Methods] The physical examination data of primary and secondary school students in Changping District from 2011-2012 were analyzed.[Results] Among 53 991 primary and secondary school students,malnutrition detection rate was 13.97%,most with mild malnutrition (89.15%),more girls than boys (P < 0.05),town worse than countryside (but P > 0.05),secondary school higher than elementary school and high school (P < 0.05) ; Nutrition surplus detection rate was 34.86%,obesity (21.72%) higher than overweight (13.15%),more boys than girls (P < 0.05),town higher than countryside (P < 0.05),secondary school higher than elementary school and high school (P < 0.05).[Condusion] Malnutrition and nutrition surplus coexists in primary and secondary school students in Changping District.Relevant departments should strengthen nutrition education and carry out targeted interventions.

  10. The curative effect observation of primary suture combined with Kangfuxin Liquid in treatment of grade Ⅲ dog bite wound%一期缝合联合康复新液治疗犬咬伤Ⅲ类伤口愈合的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璐华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨一期缝合联合康复新液治疗犬咬伤Ⅲ类伤口愈合的疗效。方法将本院2012年3月~2014年10月收治的60例不同犬咬伤Ⅲ类伤口的患者随机分为实验组与对照组。实验组采用一期缝合联合康复新液方法,对照组按照犬咬伤的常规处理,分别在治疗后半个月、1个月观察实验组与对照组的总体疗效,以及两组的创面愈合时间、换药次数、治疗费用。结果实验组患者治疗后半个月、1个月的总体疗效明显高于对照组,两组之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。实验组患者的创面愈合时间、换药次数及治疗费用均明显小于对照组,两组之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论一期缝合联合康复新液可明显提高治疗狗咬伤Ⅲ类伤口的疗效,值得临床推广应用。%Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy of the primary suture combined with Kangfuxin Liquid in the treat-ment of grade lil dog bite wound. Methods: sixty patients with grade m dog bite wound admittea to our hospilal from March 2012 to october 2014 were randomly diwded into the experimental group and the control group.the experimental group received the pnmary suture combined with silver clressing method and the control group received the routine treatment for dog bite wound.the total effective rates,wound healing time,numbers of times of dressing change and treatment costs of the experimental group and the control group were observed half a month and one month after che lrealment. Results: the total effeccive rate of the experimental group half a month and one month after che treatment were significantly higher than those of Lhe control group.with statistically significant differences (P<0.05).the wound healing time,numbers of times of dressing change and treatment costs of the experimental group were all smaller than those of lhe control group,with statistically significant differences (P<0.05).Conclusion: The

  11. Analysis of Nutritional Status in Changping District among 2010 -2011 Grade Primary and Secondary Students%2010~2011学年北京市昌平区中小学生营养状况监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张崛; 郭红侠; 崔永强; 刘玉红; 黄艳丽; 刘晓培; 王金飞; 滕淑凤

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解昌平区2010 ~2011学年中小学生营养状况.方法 对昌平区2010 ~2011学年中小学生体检资料进行分析.结果 营养良好检出率51.5%,女生高于男生(P<0.05),乡村高于城镇(P<0.05),小学高于高中高于初中(P<0.05);营养过剩检出率34.8%,肥胖(21.0%)多于超重(13.8%),男生高于女生(P<0.05),城镇高于乡村(P<0.05),初中高于小学高于高中(P<0.05);营养不良检出率13.7%,以轻度营养不良为主(12.2%),女生高于男生(P<0.05),城镇高于乡村(但P>0.05),初中高于小学高于高中(P<0.05).结论 昌平区中小学生营养不良和营养过剩同时并存,有关部门应加强营养宣教,有针对性地开展干预措施.%Objective Understand the 2010 - 2011 academic year students' status of nutrition of Changping district. Methods The status of nutritional status of the primary and secondary students of Changping District in Beijing among 2009 -2010 grade was analyzed. Results The good nutrition detection rate was 51.5% ,boy higher than girl(P 0.05),junior high school above elementary school and high school(P < 0.05). Conclusion In Changping district, malnutrition and nutrition surplus coexisted among primary and secondary students,and relevant departments should strengthen nutrition mission , targeted intervention measures should be taken.

  12. Going beyond the Fab Five: Helping Students Cope with the Unique Linguistic Challenges of Expository Reading in Intermediate Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhihui

    2008-01-01

    As students transition from primary to intermediate grades, the kind of materials that they are expected to read and write become more heavily dominated by expository texts. Expository texts contain grammatical patterns that are distinct from those used in primary-grade storybooks. These linguistic features pose new comprehension challenges for…

  13. 南通市5家三级医院青年医师思想状况调查分析%An investigation and analysis of the ideological situation among young doctors in the third-grade hospitals in Nantong City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建军; 陈建荣; 何书; 陆洁玉; 陈卫军; 缪旭东; 黄宇

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To understand the current ideological situation among young doctors and to provide empirical evidences for improving the pertinence of the ideological and political education and the sound development of young doc-tors. Methods:A self-designed questionnaire was applied to survey 356 clinical doctors under the age of 40 years old from five third-grade hospitals in Nantong City, and the statistical analysis of the investigation was made. Results: Young doc-tors adopted proper mainstream values and good professional ethics with relatively stronger sense of belonging to their pro-fession, but there were also noteworthy ideological conditions: high working pressure, financial pressure in living, profes-sional disappointment, solely professional skills-centered tendency, and potential moral cognition problems, and so on. Conclusion: Guiding their enthusiasms for career development in the right direction and correcting their unhealthy views and values to reduce harmful influence are the key points of the ideological and political work among young doctors. Sug-gestions made here include:enhancing ideological education and guidance, providing guarantee for career development, re-inforcing professionalism construction, and bettering psychological support system.%目的:了解青年医师思想现状,为加强思想政治教育针对性、促进青年医师健康成长提供依据。方法:采用自制问卷系统抽样调查的方法,对南通市5家三级医院356名40岁以下临床医师进行调查和统计分析。结果:(1)生活压力首要来源占45.7%的是经济负担过重,超过住房紧张、家庭矛盾等因素。面对医疗改革深化,担心收入下降占33.5%。社会压力、经济压力太大,“啃老”难以避免占35.1%;变换工作与收入福利待遇有关占42.0%。(2)热爱本职工作占47.6%,工作繁忙但仍有自己目标占34.0%。在工作取得重大业绩时,能得到激励和发展机会占50

  14. Investigation of the Effect Factors of Primary and Secondary School Principals ’ Cultivation ---Taking Hengshui City as an Example%小学校长培训效果影响因素调查研究--以衡水市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伏彬; 郭环洲; 刘晓梅

    2014-01-01

    以衡水市小学校长为对象,对影响小学校长培训效果的因素进行问卷调查和访谈。调查结果显示,影响小学校长培训效果的因素主要有培训制度、培训机构、培训教师、培训内容、培训模式、校长自身等方面。针对影响因素,高度重视小学校长培训工作,切实落实培训经费,加强培训教师队伍建设,开展校长培训需求调研,采用灵活多样培训方式,提高校长敬业精神等是改进问题的关键。%Taking primary and secondary school principals in Hengshui city as an object, we made questionnaires and interview on the factors of primary and secondary school headmasters’ cultivation. According to the results of the survey, the main factors affecting the efficiency of Headmasters’ cultivation are training system, training organization, training teachers, training content, training modes, and the principals themselves etc. In view of the factors, attaching great importance to the work of the middle school principals’ cultivation , fully implementing training funds, strengthening the training of teachers team construction, carrying out the training needs survey, adopting flexible and various training methods, and improving the professionalism are the key to solve the problems.

  15. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  16. Ecological city planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Rueda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A territory, a city, a neighbourhood are all ecosystems; a mixture of chemico-physical and organic elements related to each other. That which defines an ecological system is the set of rules and characteristics which condition its relationships, and its duration in time is guaranteed by its efficiency and internal organization which applied to the city is translated in the reduction of the use of natural resources and in the increase of social organization. To increase the efficiency of the urban systems is the necessary condition for the formulation of ecological city planning favouring the maximum liveability of sites. Liveability is directly correlated to the optimization of numerous elements (public space, equipment, services, building techniques, innovative technology, social cohesion, biodiversity. To carry out such objectives, ecological city planning proposes a new model of town planning on three levels (subsoil, ground level, and upper level.

  17. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  18. Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

  19. Earthquakes in cities revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wirgin, Armand

    2016-01-01

    During the last twenty years, a number of publications of theoretical-numerical nature have appeared which come to the apparently-reassuring conclusion that seismic motion on the ground in cities is smaller than what this motion would be in the absence of the buildings (but for the same underground and seismic load). Other than the fact that this finding tells nothing about the motion within the buildings, it must be confronted with the overwhelming empirical evidence (e.g, earthquakes in Sendai (2011), Kathmandu (2015), Tainan City (2016), etc.) that shaking within buildings of a city is often large enough to damage or even destroy these structures. I show, on several examples, that theory can be reconciled with empirical evidence, and suggest that the crucial subject of seismic response in cities is in need of more thorough research.

  20. Should Cities Regulate Graffiti?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Graffiti, while still a new phenomenon to most Chinese, is becoming more familiar among teenagers in big cities like Beijing and Shanghai. A recent report by Xinhua News Agency discusses the trend. The report said a small