WorldWideScience

Sample records for city primary grades

  1. Closely Reading Informational Texts in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    In this article we discuss the differences between close reading in the primary grades and upper elementary grades. We focus on text selection, initial reading. repeated reading, annotation, text-based discussions, and responding to texts.

  2. An evaluation of the primary 3rd grade English language teaching program: Tekirdağ case

    OpenAIRE

    Çankaya, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempts to find out active English teachers’ opinions regarding the primary 3rd grade ELTP (launched in 2013) in terms of its general overview, content, goals, teaching-learning process and assessment dimensions under the heading of “An Evaluation of the Primary 3rd Grade English Language Teaching Program: Tekirdağ Case” . The study was carried out in the city center of Tekirdağ including 20 state primary schools with 38 teachers in the academic term 2014-2015 spring. In th...

  3. Poetry Proves to Be Positive in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Terrence V.; Wyant, Susan L.

    2008-01-01

    Learning to read and write and achieve good conduct are crucial in the primary grades. One teacher from a state in the Midwest implemented poetry with her second grade students to guide classroom conduct and improve literacy. This article discusses poetry as a literature genre, the benefits of poetry, and poetry curriculum where children read and…

  4. CitySongs: Primary Prevention in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivnick, Helen Q.; Lymburner, Allison M.

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes CitySongs, a primary prevention, out-of-school program in the inner city that promotes social justice through integrated activities aimed at healthy youth development, arts achievement, and community vitality through diversity. Key ideas from social science and human service disciplines that inform the design and…

  5. Evaluation of the primary 3rd grade English language teaching program through teachers’ eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Çankaya, Pınar

    2016-01-01

    The present study attempts to find out active English teachers’ opinions regarding the primary 3rd grade English Language Teaching Program (ELTP) which was launched in 2013 in terms of its general overview, content,  goals, teaching-learning process and assessment dimensions in the city center of Tekirdağ including 20 primary schools with 38 teachers in the academic term 2014-2015 spring. In this evaluation study, quantitavive data were used in order to explore how teachers evaluate the prima...

  6. Oral hygiene in primary schoolchildren in Benin City, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Alakija, W

    1981-01-01

    Oral hygiene was assessed in children from two primary schools in Benin City, Nigeria. Good oral hygiene was not related to the socioeconomic class of the children but to the method of cleaning the teeth. Girls had better oral hygiene than boys. It is suggested that the local method of using chewing sticks should be encouraged, and emphasis placed on frequency and thoroughness of use.

  7. Using Logistic Regression to Model New York City Restaurant Grades Over a Two-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nadler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A knowledge gap exists in the role of restaurant type on the prediction of attaining the highest grade possible from the local health inspection agency. This study identified disparities using logistic regression between the issuance of a Grade A and restaurant type and location. This study tested the eight most inspected types of restaurants within the City of New York and calculated the odds ratios of their receiving the highest inspection grade by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. A fitted equation has been proposed for the prediction of receiving the highest inspection grade based upon the citywide results of these eight restaurant types from calendar years 2011 and 2012. The results suggest that certain styles of restaurants have lower odds of receiving the highest grade in comparison to American-style restaurants.

  8. Pollution: Problems and Solutions. Grade Nine, Unit One, 9.1 Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Sandra; Campbell, Bruce

    The ninth grade unit of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271) studies the economic and political realities of the inner city. This document, the first unit of the 9th grade section, deals with the ecological crises involving pollution and its causes. Specific problems include air pollution, pesticides, herbicides,…

  9. Capitalism. Grade Ten. Unit One, 10.1. Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Norman

    The tenth grade unit of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271) deals with the political-economic systems in the United States. The first unit of the sequence focuses specifically on capitalism in a democracy. The document deals with both the theoretical and practical aspects of capitalism. The theoretical section…

  10. Socialism. Grade Ten, Unit Two, 10.2. Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Helen

    The socialism unit of the tenth grade level of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271) explores a selected history of socialist thought and the theoretical model of socialism. Three case studies of socialism are explored: Great Britain, Sweden, and Israel. The case studies are designed to answer questions concerning…

  11. The Effect of Educational Modules Strategy on the Direct and Postponed Study's Achievement of Seventh Primary Grade Students in Science, in Comparison with the Conventional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alelaimat, Abeer Rashed; Ghoneem, Khowla Abd Al Raheem

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at revealing the effect of educational modules strategy on the direct and postponed study's achievement of seventh primary grade students in science, in comparison with the conventional approach. The sample of the study consists of (174) male and female students randomly chosen from schools in the city of Mafraq, students are…

  12. Prevalence of deciduous dental caries and the risk factors in first grade primary school students in Chancheng District of Foshan City%佛山市禅城区一年级小学生乳牙龋病流行状况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄诺蓓; 陈志斌; 王新; 周子亮; 翟炜东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of deciduous dental caries and the risk factors in first grade primary school students in Chancheng District of Foshan City, thus to provide scientific bases for prevention and treatment on caries. Methods A sample of 291 first grade primary school students was selected using random cluster sampling method. The caries of deciduous teeth were examined and the questionnaires were sent to their parents. The data were analyzed with SPSS 13.0 software package. Results The caries prevalence rate of deciduous teeth was 33.7% ,with mean dmft 0. 97. There was no significant difference of prevalence rate between two genders (P > 0. 05). Logistic regression analysis showed that number of child in the family, the main beverages everyday , and the frequency of intake of sweet food, were risk factors of deciduous dental caries. Conclusion It was important to strengthen the education of the oral hygiene knowledge, to change dietetic habits, and to introduce good oral hygiene habits.%目的 调查佛山市禅城区一年级小学生乳牙龋病状况及其相关影响因素,为龋病防治工作提供参考.方法 采用随机整群抽样法,抽取291名一年级小学生进行乳牙龋病检查,同时向其家长派发口腔健康调查问卷.对数据进行统计分析.结果 佛山市禅城区一年级小学生乳牙患龋率为33.7%,龋均为0.97±1.79,统计分析显示男女间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).进行影响龋病的单因素分析,发现是否独生子女、母亲的学历、日常的主要饮料、进食甜食的频率和进食后漱口的频率对小学生乳牙患龋率有影响.多因素Logistic回归分析表明是否独生子女、日常主要饮料和进食甜食的频率是儿童乳牙患龋的危险因素.结论 加强口腔卫生知识宣教,改善小学生的饮食习惯,养成良好的口腔卫生习惯,是预防乳牙龋病发生的有效措施.

  13. Teaching Fables in the Junior Grades of Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Vidović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the ways in which fables can help pupils in the junior grades of primary school develop their oral and written skills. It is written from a cognitive perspective within literary studies, focusing on a study of animal characters and morals in fables and researching the cognitive operations that result in hybrid animal characters. It also focuses on the universal character of morals, which can be viewed as an outcome of the process of conceptual integration. Addressing the universal nature of the main characters appearing in fables, as well as the universal issues expressed in their morals, the article looks at several possibilities for follow-up classroom activities. By devising extra activities aimed at developing their pupils‘ language skills, teachers of Croatian and English can motivate pupils to apply the topics in fables to everyday situations, thus encouraging them to develop their language skills as well as their capacity for judgement, character identification and value formation.

  14. A rabbit model of graded primary mechanical injury to brainstem

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    YU Yong-min

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To introduce a new animal model of graded mechanical primary brainstem injury (BSI. Methods: Altogether 45 rabbits were subjected to BSI by type II biological impact machine designed by the Third Military Medical University. The animals were divided into 4 experimental groups (n=10 and 1 control group (n=5 ac-cording to different magnitudes of impact pressure imposed on the occipital nodule: Group 1, 500-520 kPa; Group 2, 520-540 kPa; Group 3, 540-560 kPa; Group 4, 560-580 kPa and Group 5, 0 kPa with 20 kPa increase in each grade. The im-pact depth was a constant 0.5 cm. After injury, the clinical symptoms and signs as well as pathological changes were observed. Results: Rabbits in Group 1 revealed mild physiologi-cal reaction of BSI. They had localized cerebral contusion with punctate hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH was limited to the peripheral tissues at the impact area. In Group 2, obvious physiological reaction was observed. Local pathological lesions reached the superfi-cial layer of brainstem tissues; focal hemorrhage and girdle-shaped SAH in basilar pon were observed under microscope. In Group 3, BSI was more severe with a long respiratory depression. Pathological lesions reached the inner portion of brainstem with massive hemorrhage and the whole brainstem was wrapped by subarachnoid hematoma. In Group 4, most rabbits died due to severe BSI. Pathological lesions deepened to the central brainstem with wide patho-logical change, rapture of the medulla oblongata central canal. Group 5 was the control group, with normal brainstem structure and no lesion observed. Conclusion: This model successfully simulates differ-ent levels of brainstem mechanical injury and clearly shows the subsequent pathological changes following injury. It takes two external parameters (impact pressure and depth and has a similar injury mechanism to clinical accelerating BSI. Moreover it is reproducible and stable, thus being be

  15. A rabbit model of graded primary mechanical injury to brainstem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong-min; WANG Xiao-wei; XUE Hai-bin; XIA Peng; LI Hong-wei; DAI Guo-xin; JI Xiao-yuan; ZHAO Hui; YIN Zhi-yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To introduce a new animal model of graded mechanical primary brainstem injury (BSI).Methods:Altogether 45 rabbits were subjected to BSI by type Ⅱ biological impact machine designed by the Third Military Medical University.The animals were divided into 4 experimental groups (n=10) and 1 control group (n=5) according to different magnitudes of impact pressure imposed on the occipital nodule:Group 1,500-520 kPa; Group 2,520-540 kPa; Group 3,540-560 kPa; Group 4,560-580 kPa and Group 5,0 kPa with 20 kPa increase in each grade.The impact depth was a constant 0.5 cm.After injury,the clinical symptoms and signs as well as pathological changes were observed.Results:Rabbits in Group 1 revealed mild physiological reaction of BSI.They had localized cerebral contusion with punctate hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was limited to the peripheral tissues at the impact area.In Group 2,obvious physiological reaction was observed.Local pathological lesions reached the superficial layer ofbrainstem tissues; focal hemorrhage and girdleshaped SAH in basilar pon were observed under microscope.In Group 3,BSI was more severe with a long respiratory depression.Pathological lesions reached the inner portion of brainstem with massive hemorrhage and the whole brainstem was wrapped by subarachnoid hematoma.In Group 4,most rabbits died due to severe BSI.Pathological lesions deepened to the central brainstem with wide pathological change,rapture of the medulla oblongata central canal.Group 5 was the control group,with normal brainstem structure and no lesion observed.Conclusion:This model successfully simulates different levels ofbrainstem mechanical injury and clearly shows the subsequent pathological changes following injury.It takes two external parameters (impact pressure and depth) and has a similar injury mechanism to clinical accelerating BSI.Moreover it is reproducible and stable,thus being beneficial for exploring pathophysiological mechanism,diagnosis and

  16. Epidemiology of Head Lice Infestation in Primary SchoolPupils, in Khajeh City, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

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    M Shayeghi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae or head louse is an obligate ectoparasite transmitted mainly through physical contact. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of head lice infestation rate and some risk factors in Primary School pupils, in Khajeh City East Azerbaijan Province, IranMethods: We selected 20 primary schools of Khajeh City during 2008 and 2009. Totally 500 pupils including 200 boys and 300 girls from all grade 1-5 were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling in rural areas of Khajeh City and were examined for lice. In addition, a standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each pupil. Results were analyzed by SPSS software.Results: The total prevalence of head lice infestation in this study was 4.8%. and the prevalence rate was significantly higher in girls (6.66% than in boys (2%. Epidemiological factors such as: sex, school grade, family size, parent's education, type of house, hair washing (per week, number of using comb per day, were evaluated and results showed significant difference in head lice infestation and sex, school grade ,family size ,father education ,and type of house (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world, and due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in crowded families, family by lower levels of father's education and socioeconomic status in our study and rural area, it is necessary to give health education for families to prevent of pediculosis in this area.

  17. Social Skills of First-Grade Primary School Students and Pre-School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulay, Hulya; Akman, Berrin; Kargi, Eda

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of social skills of the first-grade primary school students who received preschool education and not. The sample group of the study consists of 521 children studying in the first grade of primary schools in Turkish provinces of Ankara, Kars, Malatya, Igdir, Samsun, Mersin, Gaziantep, Karabuk,…

  18. Powerful Possibilities for Primary Grades: Combining Informational Text with Content Literacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Lettie K.; Burbano de Lara, Anna; Davis, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the authors' efforts as teachers to incorporate more informational text into primary grade lessons with the use of content literacy practices. Describes two lessons using content reading strategies and practices with informational text. Encourages other teachers in primary grades to incorporate informational text into their classrooms by…

  19. Investigation of chloride-release of nuclear grade resin in PWR primary system coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new preparation technique is developed for making the low-chloride nuclear-grade resin by commercial resin. The chloride remained in nuclear grade resin may release to PWR primary coolant. The amount of released chloride is depended on the concentration of boron, lithium, other anion impurities, and remained chloride concentration in resin

  20. "Three-Grade Criteria" of Radical Resection for Primary Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengchen Ma; Jia Fan; Zhenggang Ren; Jinglin Xia; Liwen Huang; Zhaoyou Tang; Xinda Zhou; Zhiying Lin; Lunxiu Qin; Qinghai Ye; Huichuan Sun; Zhiquan Wu

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study was designed to develop the "ThreeGrade Criteria" for radical resection of primary liver cancer (PLC) and to evaluate its clinical significance.METHODS Criteria for radical resection of PLC were summed up to 3 grades based on criterion development. Grade I: complete removal of all gross tumors with no residual tumor at the excision margin. Grade Ⅱ: on or the primary branches of the portal vein, the common hepatic duct or its dition to the above criteria, negative postoperative follow-up result including AFP dropping to a normal level (with positive AFP before surgery)within 2 months after operation, and no residual tumor upon diagnostic imaging.The clinical data from 354 patients with PLC who underwent hepatectomy were reviewed retrospectively. Based on the "Three-Grade Criteria" these patients were divided into 6 groups: Grade Ⅰ radical group,Grade Ⅰ palliative group, Grade Ⅱ radical group, Grade Ⅱ palliative group,Grade Ⅲ radical group, Grade Ⅲ palliative group. The survival rate of each group was calculated by the life-table method and the rates compared among the groups.RESULTS The survival rate of patients receiving radical treatment was better than those receiving palliative treatment (P<0.01). Survival improved as more criteria were applied. The 5-year survival rate of the patients in Grade Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ who underwent radical resection was 43.2%,51.2% and 64.4%, respectively (P<0.01).CONCLUSION The "Three-Grade Criteria" may be applied for judging the curability of resection therapy for PLC. The stricter the criterion used,the better the survival would be. Adopting high-grade criteria to select cases and guide operations and strengthening postoperative follow-up would improve the results of hepatectomy for PLC.

  1. Epidemiology of Head Lice Infestation in Primary SchoolPupils, in Khajeh City, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shayeghi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground: Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae or head louse is an obligate ectoparasite transmitted mainly through physical contact. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of head lice infestation rate and some risk factors in Primary School pupils, in Khajeh City East Azerbaijan Province, Iran "n "nMethods: We selected 20 primary schools of Khajeh City during 2008 and 2009. Totally 500 pupils including 200 boys and 300 girls from all grade 1-5 were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling in rural areas of Khajeh City and were examined for lice. In addition, a standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each pupil. Results were analyzed by SPSS software. "n "nResults: The total prevalence of head lice infestation in this study was 4.8%. and the prevalence rate was significantly higher in girls (6.66% than in boys (2%. Epidemiological factors such as: sex, school grade, family size, parent's education, type of house, hair washing (per week, number of using comb per day, were evaluated and results showed significant difference in head lice infestation and sex, school grade ,family size ,father education ,and type of house (P< 0.05. "n "nConclusion: Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world, and due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in crowded families, family by lower levels of father's education and socioeconomic status in our study and rural area, it is necessary to give health education for families to prevent of pediculosis in this area.

  2. Teacher qualification and the achievement gap in early primary grades.

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    Donald Easton-Brooks

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Title I of the No Child Left Behind Act (P.L. 107-110, 115 Stat. 1245, 2002 holds schools accountable for reducing the academic achievement gap between the different ethnic groups and requires elementary school teachers to have at least a bachelors degree and a state certification. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of the qualification requirement of NCLB to the goal of reducing the academic achievement gap. The study found that students with a certified teacher for most of their early school experience scored higher in reading than students who did not have a certified teacher. In addition, certification was associated with slightly narrowing the academic gap between African American and European American students across early elementary grades.

  3. Physioeconomic Poverty Analysis of Grade 1 Employees of Rawalpindi City, Pakistan

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    Sabeen Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty though a universal phenomenon, is the worst challenge in the modern era, which is termed as the age of information and technology. The present study was designed to estimate the incidence of poverty for the grade I employees of Rawalpindi city. Determinants of poverty were explored by using Probit model, which was significant in the determination of the poverty status of the household. Following variables were used in the model; household size, education, experience, working individual, extra income and migration are the variables. For that objective, data from 150 household were collected through questionnaires. The results of the poverty indices showed that about twenty percent households were poor among grade 1 employees of Rawalpindi city. The result of probit models indicated that having large household size, with no extra income and migrants were increasing the probability of being poor while educational attainment and experiences did not had significant effect. On the other hand working individuals and migration were decreasing the probability of being poor.

  4. The Concurrent Validity Between Primary School Academic Success Grades and OKÖSYS Subtest Grades

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    Cem GÜZELLER

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether the tests used in Secondary Education Student Selection & Placement Exam (OKÖSYS is reasonable enough to predict the academic level of secondary school institutions. The canonical correlations analysis model was used. The study was performed on 586 candidates on 7 the grade of schools in center of Antalya, Burdur and Isparta regions. The students were chosen randomly and participated in OKÖSYS of 2002, The result of study, %39 of independent variation of variable was dependent variable group of subtest explained by canonic variable, %38 of dependent variable group of subtest was explained independentvariation of variable by canonic variable, It has also been determined that increased lessons which were science, turkish, citizenship, social science in secondary education results in increase in the subtest Turkish, social science, science, and math.

  5. Diagnosis of type of Bullying in eight grade students from Mexico City

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    Minerva Ramírez Almaraz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to investigate the type of bullying among Mexican adolescents. 480 students (average 13.72 years with a standard deviation of .60 attended eight grade in 12 public schools in Mexico City responded an adaptation of the questionnaire of the Ombudsman of Spain (2007. Data from the survey indicated that in all participating schools exist the different types of abuse explored by the instrument, including those that occur through the use of ICT. The percentage of spectators (students who had observed abuse was higher compared to those who said they had received and performed some of the types of investigated school bullying. As for the differences between gender, women expressed more frequently perform indirect abuse, whereas males reported conduct most often both direct and indirect harassment.

  6. Primary undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma in the perihepatic space: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Beom; Kim, Song Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is a pleomorphic soft tissue sarcoma derived from histiocytes capable of fibroblastic transformation. UPS affects soft tissues of the body, especially the extremities and retroperitoneum, and primary UPS in the perihepatic space is extremely rare. We report a case of primary perihepatic UPS in a 44-year-old male, who presented with fever and right upper abdominal discomfort.

  7. Primary intracranial haemangiopericytoma: comparison of survival outcomes and metastatic potential in WHO grade II and III variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Omprakash; Robbins, Peter; Knuckey, Neville; Bynevelt, Michael; Wong, George; Lee, Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    Primary intracranial haemangiopericytomas (HPC) are rare, highly vascular tumours with a high propensity for local recurrence and distant metastasis. Optimal treatment includes maximal surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. In 2007, new histopathological grading criteria were introduced to differentiate between high grade (World Health Organization [WHO] grade III) and low grade (WHO grade II) tumours. Given the rarity of this tumour, there is a paucity of information regarding the prognostic significance of histological grade. We conducted a retrospective review of our 20 year experience in treating 27 patients with HPC at our institution. Statistical analysis to compare overall survival, local recurrence rate and metastatic potential between the two grades were conducted using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The estimated median survival for grade II HPC was 216 months and for grade III tumours was 142 months. On multivariate analysis, grade II tumours were associated with better survival than grade III lesions (hazard ratio=0.16, 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.95; p=0.044). During the study period, 33% of grade III tumours developed local recurrence compared to 21% of grade II tumours. Metastases were found in 36% of grade II patients and 25% of grade III patients. There was no significant statistical difference in local recurrence rate and metastasis between the two grades. Higher histological grading in HPC is associated with worse overall survival. However based on our series higher histological grading is not associated with higher local recurrence or distant metastatic rates. PMID:24726230

  8. Response to Intervention for Reading Difficulties in the Primary Grades: Some Answers and Lingering Questions

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    Denton, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the current research base and identify research needs related to response to intervention (RTI) frameworks in primary-grade reading. Research is reviewed on early reading instruction and intervention, the implementation of multitiered reading interventions, and the determination of intervention…

  9. A Study of low achievement on Third Grade primary School Failed Students in Minoufiya

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Elwan1, Nagwa Mohamed2 & Mohamed Shebl3

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted on 374 students who constituted about one fourth of third grade primary school failed students in whole Minoufiya governorate & 100 never failed students from the same classes as a control group. Semi structured psychiatric interview and thorough, neurological examination, beside sociodemographic data sheet & psychometric assessment using children depressive inventory children's phobia scale and

  10. Desert Life, Experimental Edition Prepared for Testing in the Primary Grades.

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    Shelby, Betty; And Others

    This unit and teacher's guide were prepared for use with primary grade children. The activities include the construction of a desert terrarium, the study of cacti, and the use of animal sort cards. A special section is devoted to the way parents can help with the unit. A detailed list of needed materials is provided in the guide. This work was…

  11. Home and school predictors of reading achievement in linguistically diverse learners in the intermediate primary grades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Elsäcker, W. van

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to explain the variation in reading comprehension and reading vocabulary of native and non-native speakers of Dutch in grade 3 of primary schools in the Netherlands from home and school predictors. Results indicate that, for reading comprehension, in the Dutch grou

  12. Catalytic effect of activated carbon on bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The catalytic effect of activated carbon on the bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores using mixture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was investigated. The results show that the addition of activated carbon can greatly accelerate the rate and efficiency of copper dissolution from low-grade primary copper sulfide ores. The solution with the concentration of 3.0 g/L activated carbon is most beneficial to the dissolution of copper. The resting time of the mixture of activated carbon and ores has an impact on the bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores. The 2 d resting time is most favorable to the dissolution of copper. The enhanced dissolution rate and efficiency of copper can be attributed to the galvanic interaction between activated carbon and chalcopyrite. The addition of activated carbon obviously depresses the dissolution of iron and the bacterial oxidation of ferrous ions in solution. The lower redox potentials are more favorable to the copper dissolution than the higher potentials for low-grade primary copper sulfide ores in the presence of activated carbon.

  13. Using the Text Structures of Information Books to Teach Writing in the Primary Grades

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    Clark, Sarah K.; Jones, Cindy D.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Teaching children in the primary grades the text structures and features used by authors of information text has been shown to improve comprehension of information texts and provide the scaffolding and support these children need in order to write their own information texts. As teachers implement the "English Language Arts Common Core State…

  14. Spelling Instruction in the Primary Grades: Teachers' Beliefs, Practices, and Concerns

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    Doyle, Antoinette; Zhang, Jing; Mattatall, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examined Canadian teachers' beliefs, practices and concerns about spelling instruction in the primary grades. Data from surveys (n = 56) indicated that most teachers believe that spelling is important and plan for spelling instruction. For most teachers, the spelling words and activities used, and the instructional resources they chose,…

  15. Children's Perceptions of Parental Attitude Affecting Breakfast Skipping in Primary Sixth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tereza Sy; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Griffiths, Sian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Breakfast skipping is an international public health concern. This study investigated the prevalence of breakfast skipping among primary sixth-grade students in Hong Kong and the impact of students' perceptions of parental attitudes on breakfast skipping. Methods: A total of 426 students aged 10-14 years in 4 local schools participated…

  16. Viet Nam. Grade Six, Unit One. 6.1. Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Fred

    This sixth grade unit is one of a sequential learning series of the Focus On Inner City Social Studies (FICSS) project developed in accordance with the needs and problems of an urban society. A description of the project is provided in SO 008 271. The units are designed to help students investigate the conditions under which people in other…

  17. A rare cause of Cauda equina syndrome: Epidural high grade primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma

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    Ambarish A Mathesul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cauda equina syndrome (CES may be caused by herniated disc, tumor, trauma, and spinal infections. However, CES due to epidural high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL is very rare. Up to our knowledge, few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of epidural high-grade NHL presenting as CES. A 55-year-old man presented with CES caused by extradural compression by primary NHL. The patient underwent an L4-L5 laminectomy. The operative findings were suggestive of well-demarcated epidural tumor. The final histopathological diagnosis revealed epidural high-grade NHL. NHL causing CES is rare. This report highlights the importance of keeping afresh the various causes of CES for prompt diagnosis and management.

  18. Facilitating EFL Students with Learning Difficulties in Grade C of the Greek State Primary School

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    Konstantina Kotsi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on supporting 3rd grade pupils with Learning Difficulties in the Greek State Primary School and proposes an intervention plan for the EFL class. This intervention is considered to be not only beneficial but also effective since the teaching of English as a foreign language starts in the 3rd grade. A case study has been organized for this purpose focusing on four 3rd grade learners facing Learning Difficulties. The specific intervention plan is presented and evaluated according to the data collected during the implementation in the class. The findings of a survey, in the form of a questionnaire, conducted among teachers of English reveal that teachers of English lack the necessary theoretical background as well as the strategies to cope with the pupils with LD in the classroom situation. The appropriate training of teachers is therefore considered an imperative.

  19. Knowledge and Awareness of Primary Teeth and Their Importance among Parents in Bengaluru City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Ila

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Often people responsible for the oral care of children feel or believe that since primary teeth will eventually shed, it is not worthwhile to spend time/money on providing good oral health to children. Parents are the ones who take care of their children and make decisions for them. Hence, they should have knowledge about primary teeth, their health and caring in order to build confidence in their children through tiny teeth. Aim: To assess the knowledge of primary teeth and their importance among parents with children below 12 years. Materials and methods: A total of 1,000 questionnaires containing questions written both in English and in the local language (Kannada) were prepared for data collection and were personally distributed to parents visiting dental clinics for their children’s dental treatment. Statistical analysis: Both descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used. Results: Complaints related to dental caries constituted 82% of children visiting dental clinics among children in Bengaluru city. Only 39% of respondents were aware of all functions of primary teeth. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the parents of Bengaluru city had superficial or partial knowledge of primary teeth and that there is a need to improve this awareness. How to cite this article: Setty JV, Srinivasan I. Knowledge and Awareness of Primary Teeth and Their Importance among Parents in Bengaluru City, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):56-61. PMID:27274157

  20. Teacher Opinions About Evaluation of 6th Grade English Lesson Curriculum in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım ARI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the difficulties during the application of English lesson curriculum at 6th grades of primary schools. Being a qualitative research, this research was designed with single-case type of the case study. The study group consisted of 13 teachers working at 11 primary schools in Eskisehir centrum. Criterion sampling technique, one of the purposive sampling techniques, was used. The data was obtained by interview technique. Descriptive Analysis was used in analyzing the data. Data obtained by interview forms were coded, and particularly analyzed. Some important findings of the study are as follows: 6th grades syllabus’ level is found to be above the level of the students; subjects of the syllabus are intensive, difficult and too much; there are some subjects not being associated with each other. Besides, the time is too limited to cover the subjects.

  1. Developing creative writing and teaching literature in fourth grade of primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Martinec, Matija

    2011-01-01

    Development of creative abilities depends on the way of live of every individual and that is the reason, why there are some differences in their development among different cultures. The second and at same time the hardest part of developing creativity in Slovenian environment starts, when students are in transition from fourth to fifth grade of primary school. Creative abilities are at that time at the lowest point of its development and much more inflexible as in the other periods of lifeti...

  2. Motivation of parents for reading complex texts with children in the first grade of primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Stokanovič, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Family literacy includes activities among two generations in a family and intergenerational activities, which take place between children and adults. This activities include parents reading with their children. The subject of research in my diploma thesis is motivation of parents for reading with their children in the first grade of primary school, with emphasis on complex texts. With latter we think of: longer comprehensive fairytales, vast texts, complex content literature, poetry, comic bo...

  3. Response to Intervention for Reading Difficulties in the Primary Grades: Some Answers and Lingering Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Denton, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the current research base and identify research needs related to response to intervention (RTI) frameworks in primary-grade reading. Research is reviewed on early reading instruction and intervention, the implementation of multitiered reading interventions, and the determination of intervention responsiveness. Areas identified as in need of research include (a) the conditions under which early reading interventions are most effective in RTI contexts,...

  4. Knowing key elements related to Slovenian history in fifth and ninth grade of primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Žaberl, Nina

    2011-01-01

    A study titled Knowing of crucial events related to the history of Slovenia in fifth and ninth grade of primary school, in the theoretical part deals with chronological display of crucial events, that marked formation and development of Slovenia and Slovenes from the prehistoric period to today. Emphasis is on the events and content that had a crucial impact on building the state in which we nowadays live. In continuation the placement of content into the curriculum of nine - years long educa...

  5. Teachers’ views on primary school English language teaching curriculum for the 4th grade

    OpenAIRE

    Hümset Seçkin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates teachers’ views on primary school English language teaching curriculum for the 4th grade. For this aim, objectives, content, activities, materials and equipment and assessment which are the basic  components of the curriculum are taken as the criterion. Besides this, the study investigates teachers’ level of information about the curriculum, the difficulties that were experienced by teachers in implementing the curriculum, the strengths and weaknesses ...

  6. Principals' Role and Public Primary Schools' Effectiveness in Four Latin American Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joan B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of observable and quantifiable traits in and approaches of school principals in enhancing student achievement. Data were gathered on 2,048 fourth-grade students in 96 public primary schools in Leon, Mexico; Belo Horizonte, Brazil; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Santiago, Chile. The UNESCO/ORELAC (United…

  7. Development and Testing of Intervention Model for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention on Primary School Children in Padang City, 2014

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    Meri Neherta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence against children increased in many regions in Indonesia, both in cities and in desa. Keadaan is also happening in the city of Padang, where cases of sexual violence against children is increasing from year to year. Therefore, necessary one model to be able to do primary prevention. Aims & Objectives: The aim of this study is to establish a model of promotion and prevention interventions that can be used as primary prevention of sexual violence against primary school children in Padang City. Material & Methods: The method was combining qualitative and quantitative research. The population of this study was the teachers and students within amount of ten elementary schools in the Padang City with 170 sample of people. Result: The model of intervention through Minangkabau language songs can enhance children's knowledge and assertiveness toward primary prevention of sexual violence. Conclusion: "Neherta" Model is a promotion and prevention interventions model of sexual violence against primary school children in Padang City.

  8. Evaluation of several FDG PET parameters for prediction of soft tissue tumour grade at primary diagnosis and recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of SUV-based parameters derived from [18 F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in order to optimize non-invasive prediction of soft tissue tumour (STT) grade. One hundred and twenty-nine lesions from 123 patients who underwent FDG-PET for primary staging (n = 79) or assessment of recurrence (n = 44) of STT were analyzed retrospectively. Histopathology was the reference standard for tumour grading. Absolute values and tumour-to-liver ratios of several standardized uptake value (SUV) parameters were correlated with tumour grading. At primary diagnosis SUVmax, SUVpeak, SUVmax/SUVliver and SUVpeak/SUVliver showed good correlation with tumour grade. SUVpeak (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic, AUC-ROC: 0.82) and SUVpeak/SUVliver (AUC-ROC: 0.82) separated best between low grade (WHO intermediate, grade 1 sarcoma, and low risk gastrointestinal stromal tumours, GISTs) and high grade (grade 2/3 sarcoma and intermediate/high risk GISTs) lesions: optimal threshold for SUVpeak/SUVliver was 2.4, which resulted in a sensitivity of 79 % and a specificity of 81 %. At disease recurrence, the AUC-ROC was <0.75 for each parameter. A tumour SUVpeak of at least 2.4 fold mean liver uptake predicts high grade histopathology with good diagnostic accuracy at primary staging. At disease recurrence, FDG-PET does not reliably separate high and low grade lesions. (orig.)

  9. Influence of Handwriting Skills during Spelling in Primary and lower Secondary Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie ePontart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We sought to identify, the impact of handwriting skills on the efficiency and temporal course of word spelling across Grades 2-9. Eighty-four students, drawn from primary and lower secondary schools, were asked to perform a dictation task to assess their word spelling. They also had to write out the letters of the alphabet, as well as their firstnames and surnames, from memory to assess their handwriting skills. Handwriting kinematics were recorded using a digitizing tablet and a computer running Eye and Pen software. Results revealed that graphomotor skills (as assessed by the name writing task influenced the success and temporal course of spelling, but only in primary grades, whereas the influence of orthographic knowledge (as assessed by the alphabet task could still be observed in the lower secondary grades, even if it ceased to influence the temporal course and only affected errors. We discuss what these findings tell us about changes in transcription processes over the course of child development.

  10. A primary care-based health needs assessment in inner city Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Kelly, C M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2001, a primary care-based health needs assessment (HNA) in South Inner City of Dublin identified high levels of morbidity and widespread and frequent use of primary care and specialist hospital services as particular concerns. AIMS: This study aims to determine the primary care health needs of a local community, from the perspective of service users and service providers. METHODS: A similar methodology to our 2001 HNA was adopted, involving semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of patients attending two general practices and key informants regarding local health issues and health service utilisation. RESULTS: High levels of morbidity and chronic illness were found. A correlation between the local environment and ill-health was identified, as well as high utilisation of primary care services in the area. CONCLUSION: The establishment of a Primary Care Team would begin to address the health needs of the community.

  11. Impact of Primary Gleason Grade on Risk Stratification for Gleason Score 7 Prostate Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the primary Gleason grade (GG) in Gleason score (GS) 7 prostate cancers for risk of non-organ-confined disease with the goal of optimizing radiotherapy treatment option counseling. Methods: One thousand three hundred thirty-three patients with pathologic GS7 were identified in the Duke Prostate Center research database. Clinical factors including age, race, clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, and pathologic stage were obtained. Data were stratified by prostate-specific antigen and clinical stage at diagnosis into adapted D’Amico risk groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed evaluating for association of primary GG with pathologic outcome. Results: Nine hundred seventy-nine patients had primary GG3 and 354 had GG4. On univariate analyses, GG4 was associated with an increased risk of non-organ-confined disease. On multivariate analysis, GG4 was independently associated with seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) but not extracapsular extension. Patients with otherwise low-risk disease and primary GG3 had a very low risk of SVI (4%). Conclusions: Primary GG4 in GS7 cancers is associated with increased risk of SVI compared with primary GG3. Otherwise low-risk patients with GS 3+4 have a very low risk of SVI and may be candidates for prostate-only radiotherapy modalities.

  12. Impact of Primary Gleason Grade on Risk Stratification for Gleason Score 7 Prostate Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, Bridget F., E-mail: bridget.koontz@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Tsivian, Matvey [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Mouraviev, Vladimir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Sun, Leon [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Vujaskovic, Zeljko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Moul, Judd [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the primary Gleason grade (GG) in Gleason score (GS) 7 prostate cancers for risk of non-organ-confined disease with the goal of optimizing radiotherapy treatment option counseling. Methods: One thousand three hundred thirty-three patients with pathologic GS7 were identified in the Duke Prostate Center research database. Clinical factors including age, race, clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, and pathologic stage were obtained. Data were stratified by prostate-specific antigen and clinical stage at diagnosis into adapted D'Amico risk groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed evaluating for association of primary GG with pathologic outcome. Results: Nine hundred seventy-nine patients had primary GG3 and 354 had GG4. On univariate analyses, GG4 was associated with an increased risk of non-organ-confined disease. On multivariate analysis, GG4 was independently associated with seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) but not extracapsular extension. Patients with otherwise low-risk disease and primary GG3 had a very low risk of SVI (4%). Conclusions: Primary GG4 in GS7 cancers is associated with increased risk of SVI compared with primary GG3. Otherwise low-risk patients with GS 3+4 have a very low risk of SVI and may be candidates for prostate-only radiotherapy modalities.

  13. Combined surgery and chemotherapy for the treatment of primary gastrointestinal intermediate- or high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Bellesi, G.; Alterini, R; Messori, A; Bosi, A; Bernardi, F; Di Lollo, S; Ferrini, P. R.

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-five consecutive patients with primary gastrointestinal intermediate or high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were analysed to assess the efficacy of chemotherapy following surgical tumour resection. Histological subtypes were high grade (n = 18), intermediate grade (n = 36) and unclassified (n = 1). The majority of patients had gastric presentation (71%) and localised disease (84%). Surgery consisted of radical resection in 25 patients (45%) and partial or palliative excision in the remain...

  14. FLASHCARD GAMES IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSES IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS: FIRST AND SECOND GRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Наташа В. Пралица

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how primary school students in the fi rst and the second grades can successfully master the fi rst steps in learning a foreign language with the use of certain game elements. When choosing which games to use, EFL teachers should think not only about their students’ knowledge, needs and different types of learners, but also about the teaching facilities, that is, the size of the classroom and the available equipment and resources, as well as the number of child...

  15. Pediculosis capitis Among Primary School Children and Related Risk Factors in Urmia, the Main City of West Azarbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Hazrati Tappeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediculosis capitis is cosmopolitan health problem. In addition to its physical problems, its psycho­logical effects especially on pupils are more important. This study was conducted to determine the Pediculosis capitis among primary school pupils and also find out the role of probable related risk factors in Urmia city, Iran 2010.Methods: 35 primary schools of Urmia City according to the defined clusters randomly have been selected during 2010. 2040 pupils (866 boys and 1174 girls were included and examined individually and privately by experts. Presence of adult or immature lice or having nits less than 1 cm from the hair basis were defined as positive.Data about demographic features and factors which their effect should be determined were recorded in standard questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS software with proper statistical test.Results: Infestation was determined around 4%. Girls show significantly greater infestation. The availability of suit­able warm water for bathing and hair length (separately in girls and boys are significantly related to infestation load as well as infestation among different age groups.There was no significant relation between parent’s education and job and infestation as well as bathing repetition per week and the kind of energy source which they have. Also there is no significant correlation between educational grades and head lice infestation.Conclusion: The head louse pediculosis is a health problem and remains a health threatening for school chil­dren.Effective risk factors should be determined carefully and regionally. Proper training plays a great role in order to prevent and control the problem

  16. Impact of Instructional Resources on Mathematics Performance of Learners with Dyscalculia in Integrated Primary Schools, Arusha City, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusta, Nyudule; Karugu, Geoffrey; Muthee, Jessica; Tekle, Tesfu

    2016-01-01

    Learners with dyscalculia in the integrated primary schools in Arusha have been performing poorly in the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE). Thus, the journal sought to investigate the impact of instructional resources on mathematics performance of learners with dyscalculia in integrated primary schools found in Arusha city, Tanzania. The…

  17. Comparative genomic and proteomic analysis of high grade glioma primary cultures and matched tumor in situ.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Howley, R

    2012-10-15

    Developing targeted therapies for high grade gliomas (HGG), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, relies largely on glioma cultures. However, it is unclear if HGG tumorigenic signaling pathways are retained under in-vitro conditions. Using array comparative genomic hybridization and immunohistochemical profiling, we contrasted the epidermal and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (EGFR\\/PDGFR) in-vitro pathway status of twenty-six primary HGG cultures with the pathway status of their original HGG biopsies. Genomic gains or amplifications were lost during culturing while genomic losses were more likely to be retained. Loss of EGFR amplification was further verified immunohistochemically when EGFR over expression was decreased in the majority of cultures. Conversely, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ were more abundantly expressed in primary cultures than in the original tumor (p<0.05). Despite these genomic and proteomic differences, primary HGG cultures retained key aspects of dysregulated tumorigenic signaling. Both in-vivo and in-vitro the presence of EGFR resulted in downstream activation of P70s6K while reduced downstream activation was associated with the presence of PDGFR and the tumor suppressor, PTEN. The preserved pathway dysregulation make this glioma model suitable for further studies of glioma tumorigenesis, however individual culture related differences must be taken into consideration when testing responsiveness to chemotherapeutic agents.

  18. Content Area Literacy in the Primary Grades: Teachers' Sense of Efficacy in Teaching Narrative and Informational Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Christine Cherry

    2011-01-01

    Research has documented the scarcity of informational text and the overabundance of narrative text in the primary grades (Duke, 2000; Yopp & Yopp, 2006). The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine primary teachers' beliefs, or efficacy, in teaching narrative and informational text as well as assess their use of both text types in…

  19. Primary High-Grade Poorly Differentiated Angiosarcoma of an Intra-parotid Lymph Node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharne-Asuaje, Eugenia; Dorion, Dominique; Lamarre, Louis; Coindre, Jean Michel; Geha, Sameh

    2016-06-01

    Head and neck angiosarcoma is an infrequent malignant vascular tumor most commonly found in the skin and soft tissue of the head and neck. Most head and neck angiosarcomas are metastatic to cervical lymph nodes from other primitive location. We describe herein a case of primary high-grade poorly differentiated angiosarcoma arising in an intra-parotid lymph node, discuss the value of immunohistochemical stains for differential diagnosis, and review the literature concerning head and neck angiosarcoma. A 47-year-old man presented with a painless mass that had grown for a period of 6 months in the parotid area. The CT-scan revealed a left parotid lesion of 17 mm. Fine needle aspiration was considered suspicious for lymphoma or poorly differentiated carcinoma. A superficial parotidectomy was performed. On gross examination, the lesion was a well-defined, gray, homogeneous mass of 15 mm of diameter. Microscopic examination showed a normal parotid tissue and a poorly differentiated malignant neoplasm in an intra-parotid lymph node. The tumor had a pseudo-alveolar pattern, with large pleomorphic epithelioid cells, abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, large vesicular nuclei, and one or more prominent nucleoli. Atypical mitoses were seen. Neoplastic malignant cells stained positive for Vimentin, CD31, D2-40, factor VIII, ERG, and partially for CD34. A positron emission tomography scan was made to search for a primary neoplasia, but no other tumor was localized. The diagnosis of primary high-grade, poorly differentiated, intra-parotid lymph node angiosarcoma was established. PMID:25930154

  20. Evaluation of several FDG PET parameters for prediction of soft tissue tumour grade at primary diagnosis and recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendler, Wolfgang P. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Chalkidis, Rebecca P.; Ilhan, Harun [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Knoesel, Thomas [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Institute of Pathology, Munich (Germany); Herrmann, Ken [Julius-Maximilians-University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Issels, Rolf D.; Lindner, Lars H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Internal Medicine III, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Cyran, Clemens C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Hacker, Marcus [Vienna General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of SUV-based parameters derived from [{sup 18} F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in order to optimize non-invasive prediction of soft tissue tumour (STT) grade. One hundred and twenty-nine lesions from 123 patients who underwent FDG-PET for primary staging (n = 79) or assessment of recurrence (n = 44) of STT were analyzed retrospectively. Histopathology was the reference standard for tumour grading. Absolute values and tumour-to-liver ratios of several standardized uptake value (SUV) parameters were correlated with tumour grading. At primary diagnosis SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub liver} and SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} showed good correlation with tumour grade. SUV{sub peak} (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic, AUC-ROC: 0.82) and SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} (AUC-ROC: 0.82) separated best between low grade (WHO intermediate, grade 1 sarcoma, and low risk gastrointestinal stromal tumours, GISTs) and high grade (grade 2/3 sarcoma and intermediate/high risk GISTs) lesions: optimal threshold for SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} was 2.4, which resulted in a sensitivity of 79 % and a specificity of 81 %. At disease recurrence, the AUC-ROC was <0.75 for each parameter. A tumour SUV{sub peak} of at least 2.4 fold mean liver uptake predicts high grade histopathology with good diagnostic accuracy at primary staging. At disease recurrence, FDG-PET does not reliably separate high and low grade lesions. (orig.)

  1. FLASHCARD GAMES IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSES IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS: FIRST AND SECOND GRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наташа В. Пралица

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how primary school students in the fi rst and the second grades can successfully master the fi rst steps in learning a foreign language with the use of certain game elements. When choosing which games to use, EFL teachers should think not only about their students’ knowledge, needs and different types of learners, but also about the teaching facilities, that is, the size of the classroom and the available equipment and resources, as well as the number of children in each class. Listening and reading are skills that young learners develop at this stage. Since writing is introduced in the third grade, the aim of foreign language classes in the fi rst and the second grades, among other things, is to familiarise the students with the phonological system of the foreign language and the basic communication skills in spoken interaction. At this stage, young learners acquire a new language through what they hear, see and touch, which makes fl ashcards an essential resource for teachers. Some of the most popular fl ashcard games among young learners are Say the word, Bingo!, Noughts and crosses, Simon Says and Role-play. These games have a positive infl uence on the emotional, social, mental and physical development of children. Another advantage of these games is that their number is virtually unlimited, so that they can be adjusted to almost any topic assigned in the National Curriculum. Both teachers and students can easily make their own sets of fl ashcards for specifi c needs. Through games and specifi c roles they perform, children develop imagination and creativity, but at the same time, they practice different types ofsocially acceptable and unacceptable behaviour.

  2. Effects of primary grades health curriculum project on student and parent smoking attitudes and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R L; Hearne, J T

    1984-01-01

    Family values regarding appropriate attitudes and behaviors are communicated to children from birth. Society's values begin to affect the child at an early age and as these change, so do children's beliefs and attitudes. A change in society's values toward smoking has been evidenced in the last decade by increased social sanctions against smoking and increased militancy of nonsmokers. This longitudinal Primary Grades Health Curriculum Project investigates the relationship between an activity-centered experiential health education program and: 1) positive health attitudes; 2) experimentation use and future expectancy to engage in cigarette smoking; and 3) changes in smoking behavior among the children's parents. Six hundred students in two New York school districts were pretested in their kindergarten year in 1977 on entry level of knowledge and attitudes about health. The results reported here from data collected at the end of third grade indicate that the experimental group possessed more positive attitudes about health, showed less exposure to experimentation with alcohol among their friends and less engagement in smoking cigarettes. A significant number of parents of experimental group students reported that they had changed their smoking habits since their child had entered school as a result of their children's health program. PMID:6560127

  3. The Effects of GeoGebra On Third Grade Primary Students’ Academic Achievement in Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bulut

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effects of GeoGebra on third grade primary students’ academic achievement in fractions concept. This study was conducted with 40 students in two intact classes in Ankara. One of the classes was randomly selected as an experimental group and other for control group. There were 19 students in the experimental group, while 21 students in control group. The matching- only posttest- only control group quasi-experimental design was employed. As a pretest, student’s first term mathematics scores were used. Data were collected with post-test about fractions. The post-test consisted of 22 short ended questions. Thanks to the scores weren’t violated the normality, independent t test was employed. The findings of the study showed that there were significant differences in favor of the experimental group. According to findings of this study, it was recommended that GeoGebra supporting teaching methods can be used on teaching fractions in third grade.

  4. All reovirus subtypes show oncolytic potential in primary cells of human high-grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloussi, S H; Alkassar, M; Urbschat, S; Graf, N; Gärtner, B

    2011-09-01

    Reoviridae are non-human pathogenic viruses. The family of reoviridae consists of 4 different subtypes. Many studies have proven that the Dearing subtype 3 has oncolytic potential. This potential is related to the RAS protein expression in tumour cells. The aim of this study, was to investigate whether all reovirus subtypes have oncolytic potential and whether there are differences in their efficacy, in particular for high-grade glioma. To evaluate the oncolytic potential, we performed an in vitro head-to-head study for all reovirus subtypes in 5 primary cell cultures of high-grade gliomas. The oncolytic activity was determined using end-point titration with observation of the cytopathogenic effect. For measurement of RAS activity, we performed an immunofluorescent detection stain on all cell cultures. For quantification of the virus, an RT-PCR measurement for all subtypes was performed. All reovirus subtypes showed oncolytic activity in the observed glioma biopsies. These observations correlated with RAS overexpression in the observed cells. All glioma biopsies overexpressed the RAS protein. The quantitative oncolytic potential differed in relation to the single observed cell culture and in relation to the chosen reovirus subtype. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing oncolytic activity for all reovirus subtypes. We show the relationship and correlation between RAS protein overexpression and vulnerability of cells to reovirus. Efficacy of the different subtypes is interindividually different and cannot be forecast. PMID:21637921

  5. Primary T-cell high-grade lymphoma of the feline uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azakami, Daigo; Onozawa, Eri; Miyabe, Masahiro; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Michishita, Masaki; Hirano, Taichi; Momota, Yutaka; Ishioka, Katsumi; Sako, Toshinori

    2016-06-01

    A 12-year-old female American shorthair cat presented with a one-month history of hematuria and general lethargy. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed complete thickening of the left uterine wall. At a diagnostic laparotomy, a large mass arising from the left uterine horn was discovered, and ovariohysterectomy was performed. Histological diagnosis revealed a T-cell high-grade lymphoma of the uterus. After the ovariohysterectomy, the patient achieved complete remission and was maintained by combination chemotherapy from 14 days after surgery. However, relapse occurred in the urinary bladder wall on day 287, and the patient died of postrenal acute renal failure on day 310. This is the first report of a feline case of primary uterine lymphoma that was treated with ovariohysterectomy followed by systemic chemotherapy. PMID:26860355

  6. Teachers’ views on primary school English language teaching curriculum for the 4th grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hümset Seçkin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates teachers’ views on primary school English language teaching curriculum for the 4th grade. For this aim, objectives, content, activities, materials and equipment and assessment which are the basic components of the curriculum are taken as the criterion. Besides this, the study investigates teachers’ level of information about the curriculum, the difficulties that were experienced by teachers in implementing the curriculum, the strengths and weaknesses of the curriculum and teachers’ suggestions for improving the curriculum. This is a qualitative research and employs interview techniques. Data were collected through interviews of 15 primary school English teachers who taught 4th grade students at state schools. In the data analysis procedure descriptive analysis techniques were applied.The results of the research indicated that the participants had negative views about some aspects of the curriculum due to challenges that they encountered during the implementation. It was determined that teachers thought that the level they informed about the program was not sufficient. Teachers emphasized that crowded classrooms, lack of sources and supplementary materials caused problems in implementing the curriculum. It was pointed out that the strongest feature of the curriculum was that it made the students active during the learning process. The weakest feature of the curriculum was that it was overloaded and time allocated to the curriculum was not sufficient. In order to make the curriculum more efficient teachers suggested that more qualified learning materials should be prepared, alloted time for the lesson should be increased, the number of students in the classroom should be reduced and assessment tools should be provided for the teachers.

  7. Determining lead concentration in the blood of primary school children in Damascus city and suburbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the fact that lead is a relatively common element in nature and one of the most pollutant elements which man kind is exposed to in densely populated cities that have a large number of vehicles using leaded petrol which has bad effects on human health particularly children, it is found necessary to scan the health situation related to lead exposure in Damascus. The present work focuses on determining the concentration of lead in the blood of primary school children in Damascus city and some schools in the suburbs of Damascus. 546 blood samples were collected from school children in Damascus city and 183 blood samples from school children in the suburbs of Damascus. Parameters such as student's environmental, social and behavioral information were taken into consideration and correlate with lead concentration in students blood samples. Results showed that 76.3% of the samples have more than 10 μg/100 ml of lead in the blood. Which has lead to the following health effects: Decrease in hemoglobin and vitamin-D, Effects on central nervous system, Deterioration in children growth, decreasing in IQ, and kidney failure. (Authors)

  8. The English Education in Primary Schools in Minor Ethnic Areas in Western China--Taking Leshan City as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    As we all know, China is a country with many ethnic minorities mainly living in the northeastern and southwestern China. The English education in the primary schools in these areas is an important issue. The article analyzes the status quo of English education in primary schools in minor ethnic areas, taking the Leshan city, a western one as an…

  9. [Health Index applied to the city of Araraquara, SP: an instrument to accompaniment the primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Augustus Tadeu Relo de; Caccia-Bava, Maria do Carmo G G; Barbosa, Débora Cristina Modesto

    2013-03-01

    The improvement of the process of evaluation and monitoring of the Primary Care Attention has been yearned by the managers of the different spheres in the context of the Unified System Health - UHS. Thus, in the order to identify the conditions of the health assistance in the city of Araraquara/SP, based on the particular features presented in the inscribe areas of each unit of health. It was adopted by means of a composed indicator aiming to favor a broader view which contemplates the emergency of phenomena from a more including vision. It was used the methodology developed in the Index of Health of Drumond Jr, whose final value of the Index is gotten by the average of the values of the components of each health district. To the components originally adopted - Coefficient of Infant Mortality, Coefficient of Tuberculosis Incidence, Coefficient of Mortality by External Causes and Coefficient of Precocious Mortality by Chronic Diseases - was still added in this study, the Tax of Alphabetization and the Monthly Nominal Average Income of Responsible People for the Domiciles. The 24 Units of Health had been classified according to values obtained in the relation among its components. The results point intra-urban differentials in relation to the majority of the components and lower values for the Health Units located at the periphery of the city. Knowing this fact municipal administration is of fundamental importance to progress in improving the process of evaluation of primary care in the county. PMID:23681337

  10. Study of Application for Excursion Observation Method in Primary School 2nd Grade Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali GAZEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how field trips are conducted at 2nd grade of primary schools as a part of social studies course. Data for this research is compiled from 143 permanent Social Studies teachers working throughout 2011–2012 Education Year in the primary schools of central Kütahya and its districts. Data is compiled by using descriptive search model. In the research, after taking expert opinions, a measuring tool developed by the researcher is used. Data obtained from the research were transferred to computer, and analyses were made. In the analysis of the data, frequency and percentage values have been used to determine the distribution. Also a single factor variance analysis and t-test for independent samples have been used to determine the significance of difference between the variables. As a result of the research, it has been realized that insufficient importance is given to field trip method in Social Studies lessons. Most of the teachers using this method apply it in spring months. Teachers usually make use of field trips independent from unit/topic to increase the students’ motivation, and they generally use verbal expression in the class after tours. The biggest difficulty teachers encounter while using tour-observation method is the students’ undisciplined behavior.

  11. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO (primary HCHO, which together with photochemical production of HCHO from hydrocarbon oxidation (secondary HCHO, lead to high ambient HCHO levels. The CAMx chemical transport model was employed to evaluate the impact of primary HCHO on its ambient concentration, on the ROx radical budget, and on ozone (O3 formation in the MCMA. Important radical sources, including HCHO, HONO, and O3-olefin reactions, were constrained by measurements from routine observations of the local ambient air monitoring network and the MCMA-2003 field campaign. Primary HCHO was found not only contributing significantly to the ambient HCHO concentration, but also enhancing the radical budget and O3 production in the urban atmosphere of the MCMA. Overall in the urban area, total daytime radical production is enhanced by up to 10% and peak O3 concentration by up to 8%. While primary HCHO contributes predominantly to the ambient HCHO concentration between nighttime and morning rush hours, significant influence on the radical budget and O3 production starts early morning, culminates at mid-morning and is sustained until early afternoon.

  12. Language of textbooks in narrative subjects: Understanding words in the seventh grade of primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Emilija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hermetic textbook language poses a significant problem in education of the young in our country. The goal of this paper is to point out to the complexity of vocabulary in textbooks, which contributes to students' lack of understanding of what they are reading. Since we established that textbooks in narrative subjects - history, geography and biology - are mostly used during studying and that students mark them as especially difficult for understanding, the subject of this research is precisely the analysis of words which seventh-grade students from primary school state as unfamiliar on a randomly selected, but balanced in terms of length, textbook text of those subjects. The results of frequency analysis indicate that there are a lot of unfamiliar expert words, and frequently the same number, or even more, of common Serbian words in textbook texts, especially in history. Approximately the same or even larger number of unfamiliar words occurs in familiar texts when compared to unfamiliar, which indicates that the previous usage of texts does not contribute to their understanding. Based on correlation analysis referring to the number of unfamiliar words, frequency of textbook usage, perception of difficulty of the text in textbook, general and the achievement in the particular subject, it was determined that unfamiliar words are not only mentioned by students with low grades, although they do it more often, nor that only these students are the ones complaining how difficult textbooks are to them. Based on regression analysis, the number of unfamiliar words, especially in the history textbook, even figures as a predictor of success, which seems contradictory and can be interpreted differently. The results point out to the fact that inaccessibility of textbook language mostly does not guide the students to learn new words, but causes revolt and thus disables the development of language, scientific concepts and acquiring professional terminology

  13. Educational, developmental goals in the nine - year primary school from grades I to III in Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Petrova Gjorgjeva, Emilija

    2010-01-01

    The paper Educational Development Goals in the Nine-Year Primary School from grades I to III covers the pedagogical approaches in defining the educational goals for forming an autonomous and creative individual. It emphasizes that the educational process in the primary schools plans the educational and functional aims and reviews the new approach in defining the aims, presented by a number of pedagogues, such as L. Bognar, V Clarin, B. Bloom and others. Based on the modern understanding o...

  14. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO (primary HCHO, which together with photochemical production of HCHO from hydrocarbon oxidation (secondary HCHO, lead to high ambient HCHO levels. The CAMx chemical transport model was employed to evaluate the impact of primary HCHO on its ambient concentration, on the ROx radical budget, and on ozone (O3 formation in the MCMA. Important radical sources, including HCHO, HONO, and O3-olefin reactions, were constrained by measurements from routine observations of the local ambient air monitoring network and the MCMA-2003 field campaign. Primary HCHO was found not only to contribute significantly to the ambient HCHO concentration, but also to enhance the radical budget and O3 production in the urban atmosphere of the MCMA. Overall in the urban area, total daytime radical production is enhanced by up to 10% and peak O3 concentration by up to 8%; moreover primary HCHO tends to make O3 both production rates and ambient concentration peak half an hour earlier. While primary HCHO contributes predominantly to the ambient HCHO concentration between nighttime and morning rush hours, significant influence on the radical budget and O3 production starts early in the morning, peaks at mid-morning and is sustained until early afternoon.

  15. Bidirectional Relations between Text Reading Prosody and Reading Comprehension in the Upper Primary School Grades: A Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and from reading comprehension to text reading prosody…

  16. Body Parts, the Water Cycle, Plants, and Dolphins: Adventures in Primary-Grade Whole-Class Composing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the author's personal experiences leading primary grades in whole-class composing. Together they created songs inspired by topics the students were exploring in their homeroom classes. The author systematically describes the songwriting process they employed, identifying specific challenges encountered along the way. The…

  17. Bidirectional relations between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper primary school grades: A longitudinal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and f

  18. An Investigation of Social Behaviors of Primary School Children in Terms of Their Grade, Learning Disability and Intelligence Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukay Yuksel, Muge

    2013-01-01

    In this study, to what extent 7-9-year old primary school children's' social behaviors at school vary depending on their grade, gender and learning disability was investigated. In addition, the predictive value of the intelligence scores of children with normal development and with learning disability was explored for their negative and…

  19. In-the-Moment Teaching Decisions in Primary Grade Reading: The Role of Context and Teacher Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Robin; Bauml, Michelle; Barksdale, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    This study provides insight into the in-the-moment teaching decisions made during reading instruction in the primary grades. Eight exemplary teachers of reading drew upon pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge to make these in-the-moment decisions. Findings indicate the focus of teachers' in-the-moment decisions varied depending…

  20. Primary School English Teachers' Perceptions of the English Language Curriculum of 6th, 7th and 8th Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersen Yanik, Asli

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how the teachers who have different background characteristics perceive the goals and content of the English language curriculum implemented at the 6th, 7th and 8th grades of public primary schools. The study was conducted during the 2004-2005 school year with 368 English teachers selected from the seven regions of…

  1. Dental caries and associated factors among primary school children in Bahir Dar city: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Demilie, Tazebew; Yimer, Mulat; Meshesha, Kassaw; Abera, Bayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries is the most common chronic infectious disease of childhood caused by the interaction of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans and sugary foods on tooth enamel. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among primary school children at Bahir Dar city. Methods A school based cross-sectional study was conducted at Bahir Dar city from October 2013 to January 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select the chil...

  2. Performance of Primary Dental Care Services: An Ecological Study in a Large Brazilian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sibele Souza Esteves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the association between area-level primary dental care performance and area-level demographics, dental treatment need, and health care service indicators. An ecological cross-sectional study was performed in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in 2010. The 142 primary health care (PHC units were grouped based on the following variables: access to individual dental treatment, frequency of dental emergencies, and frequency of individual preventive procedures. The independent variables analyzed were demographic variables, dental treatment need, and health care service indicators. The data were obtained from the information systems of the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the city of Belo Horizonte. We explored the associations between membership in a specific PHC cluster type and the independent variables using multinomial logistic regression with a significance level of 5%. Variables such as the high/very high vulnerability of population, rate of completed treatment, and rate of referrals of users to secondary care were independently associated with the clusters (P<0.05. The performance of primary dental care services was associated with patient demographics, dental treatment need, and referrals. The results of this study have implications for the planning of public policies.

  3. Orthographic performances in a portuguese primary school: A longitudinal study in third and fourth grades

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to understand if children’s spelling errors vary according to their orthographic performances and their grade level. It also aims to understand the way in which children’s awareness of orthography rules relates to their performance. The participants were forty-three children (24 boys and 19 girls) attending the third grade and, the following year, the fourth grade in a Lisbon public school. They were given a spelling task in third grade and again in fourth grade an...

  4. THE IMPACT OF ARCS MOTIVATION MODEL ON MOTIVATION AND SUCCESS LEVEL OF PRIMARY 4TH GRADE STUDENTS IN SOCIAL STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa TAHİROĞLU

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to detect the impact of a teaching-learning process, structured taking the components of ARCS Motivation Model into consideration, on the motivation and success level of primary grade 4 students in social studies. In scope of the study, grouped pretest-posttest testing model is used. The experimental group consists of 32, and the control group 30 students. In order to collect research data, the “Grade 4 and 5 Social Studies Motivation Scale” and “Social Studies Ac...

  5. Teachers' Concerns Regarding the Implementation of Integrated Thematic Instruction: A Study of Primary Grade Teachers in Kanisius Catholic Schools in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rismiati, Catur

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore primary grade teachers' stages of concern and their implementation of an educational reform initiative called Integrated Thematic Instruction (ITI) in Indonesia. The Indonesian minister of education mandated primary grade teachers to implement ITI in 2006. Using a convenience sampling method, 150…

  6. View of parents on the teamwork between the pre-school teacher and primary-school teacher in the first grade of primary school.

    OpenAIRE

    Jakša, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    For this diploma thesis, I have researched teamwork in education and its psychological and other dimensions. The style of teaching in the first grade of primary school was substantially changed with the introduction of the nine-year programme and the inclusion of childcare workers in the teaching process. Teamwork became the statutory approach. Individual teaching was replaced with work in tandem, which includes team planning, team teaching and team evaluation. In my research, I was intereste...

  7. Toxoplasma gondii infection: seroprevalence and associated risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Lagos City, Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Pam Gyang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasma gondii infection has been described as the most widespread zoonotic infection of humans and other animals. Information concerning T. gondii infection among schoolchildren is unavailable in Lagos City, Nigeria. METHODS: This cross-sectional study investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection among primary schoolchildren (PSC from a community located in the center of Lagos, southern Nigeria, from November 2013 to March 2014. A total of 382 PSC were screened for the presence of sera anti-T. gondii antibodies using a latex agglutination test (TOXO Test-MT, Tokyo, Japan. A cutoff titer of ≥ 1:32 was considered positive, while titers ≥ 1:1,024 indicated high responders. Questionnaires were also used to obtain data on possible risk factors from parents/guardians. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence was 24% (91/382, and 83.5% (76/91 of seropositive PSC were classified as high responders. Among the risk factors tested, including contact with cats and soil, consumption of raw meat and vegetables, and drinking unboiled water, none showed statistical significance after multivariate adjustment. No associations were observed among age, gender, body mass index (BMI, and parents' occupation/educational level. CONCLUSIONS: The findings in this study show evidence of active infection, and hence, there is need for urgent preventive measures in this city. Further investigation is required to clarify the transmission routes. Policy makers also need to initiate prevention and control programs to protect pregnant women and immunocompromised patients in particular because they are more severely affected by T. gondii infection.

  8. The Relationship between Happiness, Subjective Well-Being, Creativity and Job Performance of Primary School Teachers in Ramhormoz City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Zohreh; Heidari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the relationship between happiness, subjective well-being, creativity and job performance of primary school teachers in Ramhormoz City. Hence, a sample of 330 individuals was selected through random stratified sampling. The research tools included Oxford Happiness Inventory, Subjective Well-being Scale by Keyes…

  9. The Efficiency of Cluster Method in Improving the Creative Writing Skill of 6th Grade Students of Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahbaz, Namik Kemal; Duran, Gozde

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to search the effect of the cluster method on the creative writing skill of 6th grade students. In this paper, the students of 6-A, studying at Ulas Primary School in 2010-2011 academic year, were divided into two groups as experiment and control. Taking into consideration the various variants, pre-test and last-test…

  10. Analysis of the Relationship Between Geometrical and Algebraic Thinking Levels of Primary Education 8th Grade Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa İLHAN; Behçet ORAL; KİNAY, İsmail

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the relationship between geometrical and algebraic thinking levels of primary education 8th grade students. For this purpose survey method was used. In present research geometric thinking test developed by Ulsiskin (1982) has been employed to detect geometric thinking levels of students. In determining algebraic thinking levels of students algebraic thinking test developed by Altun (2005) was used. The participants of the study consist of 515 students from eight ...

  11. Collaborative Action Research: Teaching of Multiplication and Division in the Second Grade of Primary School

    OpenAIRE

    Lirika Berdynaj; Eda Vula

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of action research methodology used in the teaching and learning process and professional teacher development. In this study are including 58 students of three second grade classes, 3 teachers of those classes and a university professor. Aiming at using a different approach in their teaching of multiplication and division in the second grade, all three teachers agreed to cooperate and jointly plan the learning activities, to observe systematically their student...

  12. Are Attitudes Toward Writing and Reading Separable Constructs? A Study With Primary Grade Children

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Steve; Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether or not attitude towards writing is a unique and separable construct from attitude towards reading for young, beginning writers. Participants were 128 first-grade children (70 girls and 58 boys) and 113 third-grade students (57 girls and 56 boys). Each child was individually administered a 24 item attitude measure, which contained 12 items assessing attitude towards writing and 12 parallel items for reading. Students also wrote a narrative about a personal event in ...

  13. A comparative study of nutritional status between government and private primary school children of Mysore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N C Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: School health has been acknowledged as important since the beginning of 20 th century. Nutritional status is a major component of school health services. This study was undertaken to assess the nutritional status of government and private primary school children of Mysore city. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study design was adopted. One private and one government school were selected using multistage stratified random sampling method. A total of 1566 school children aged 6-12 years were measured for height and weight. Data on demographic details, dietary habits, and physical activity of child and education status, occupation, monthly income of their parents were collected. Results: Of 1566 children, 385 (24.5% were underweight, 132 (8.4% were overweight, and 65 (4.1% were obese. Majority of underweight children 226 (32.5% were found in government school. Except for two overweight children in government school, all overweight and obese children were found in private schools. Socioeconomic status, dietary habits, and physical activity of the child were found to be the determinants of their nutritional status. Conclusion: This study attempt to highlight the dual nutritional problem, under-nutrition among the lower socioeconomic class on one hand and growing epidemic of obesity among the affluent on the other.

  14. Burnout in a sample of primary school teachers in the city of Copiapó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jorquera Gutiérrez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation sought to establish a relationship between burnout and a number of demographic and organizational variables. The sample consisted of 191 primary school teachers of municipal, subsidized and private educational institutions of Copiapó. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and the Cuestionario de Evaluación del Sindrome de Quemarse en el Trabajo (CESQT were used as tools to gather information from burnout levels presented by teachers. Two of them demonstrated an adequate reliability and concurrent validity. The results show a statistically significant relationship between absenteeism variable and all dimensions of burnout as measured by both instruments. No statistically significant differences between variables MBI and CESQT compared by sex, type of contract and income level were observed. When comparing the different dimensions of burnout by type of holder, statistically significant differences were detected in all of them. The results favor the private schools, showing the worst results in municipal schools. Alongside this, a negative correlation between levels of emotional exhaustion and psychological wear developed by teams of teachers and the results of the tests SIMCE [Sistema de Medición de la Calidad de la Educación] for second and fourth grade is observed.

  15. Health-related quality of life among osteoarthritis patients attending primary care clinics of Mangalore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HN Harsha Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA of the knee is the most common type of arthritis of the elderly among Asians. Reports suggest that it affects the quality of life. Hence, this study was undertaken with the objective to know the impact of OA of the knee on 8 domains of health related quality of life (HRQoL which include: (1 Physical functioning (PF, (2 role limitation due to physical health (RP. (3 Emotional well-being/mental health (MH, (4 role limitation due to emotional problems (RE, (5 energy/vitality, (6 social well-being (short form [SF], (7 body pain, (8 general health. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in primary care rural clinics situated on peripheral areas of Mangalore city. Total sample size was calculated to be 77. Patients who met the criteria of modified American Rheumatologic Association Classification for OA of knee were administered a SF-36 questionnaire to measure the HRQoL in the local language version. Mean scores (with its standard deviation across each domain was calculated. Results: Of 80 patients, 38 were males. OA affected HRQoL. Four out 8 factors had more impact on HRQoL (they are PF, RP, MH, RE. Duration of OA is an important determinant on HRQoL. Patients with newer onset of OA (4 years of OA (Domain, Mean, the emotional impact (MH, 44.67; RE, 45.67 reduced but the physical impact (PF, 47.83; RP, 19.75 persisted/got worse. Conclusion: Osteoarthritis had impact on HRQoL. Duration of OA determines the kind of impact. With the onset of OA emotional/mental support would be needed in addition to the medical treatment. As the disease progresses, they tend to cope with emotional/mental problems even as the physical problems persist/increase.

  16. Contributions from transport, solid fuel burning and cooking to primary organic aerosols in two UK cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Allan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter frequently represents the single largest fraction of fine particulates in urban environments and yet the exact contributions from different sources and processes remain uncertain, owing in part to its substantial chemical complexity. Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF has recently proved to be a powerful tool for the purposes of source attribution and profiling when applied to ambient organic aerosol data from the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS. Here we present PMF analysis applied to AMS data from UK cities for the first time. Three datasets are analysed, with the focus on objectivity and consistency. The data were collected in London during the Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment (REPARTEE intensives and Manchester. These occurred during the autumn and wintertime, such that the primary fraction would be prominent. Ambiguities associated with rotationality within sets of potential solutions are explored and the most appropriate solution sets selected based on comparisons with external data. In addition to secondary organic aerosols, three candidate sources of primary organic aerosol (POA were identified according to mass spectral and diurnal profiles; traffic emissions, cooking and solid fuel burning. Traffic represented, on average, 40% of POA during colder conditions and exhibited a hydrocarbon-like mass spectrum similar to those previously reported. Cooking aerosols represented 34% of POA and through laboratory work, their profile was matched with that sampled from the heating of seed oils, rather than previously-published spectra derived from charbroiling. This suggests that in these locations, oil from frying may have contributed more to the particulate than the meat itself. Solid fuel aerosols represented 26% of POA during cold weather conditions but were not discernable during the first REPARTEE experiment, when conditions were warmer than the other campaigns. This factor showed features associated

  17. Supporting the Language Development of Limited English Proficient Students through Arts Integration in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Liane

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at how arts integration can boost the language development of limited English proficient students in kindergarten through second grade. I first review existing research on how young children learn and describe the special challenges faced by children who must learn in an unfamiliar language. I then identify arts-based mechanisms…

  18. Increasing Engagement and Oral Language Skills of ELLs through the Arts in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Liane; Childress-Evans, Karen; Hinga, Briana; Farkas, George

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we look at the impact of an arts integration program offered at five large urban elementary schools on the daily attendance and oral language skills of children in kindergarten through second grade. Many of the children attending these schools spoke a language other than English at home. Teaching artists visited each class weekly…

  19. Instruction in Reading Comprehension for Primary-Grade Students: "A Focus on Text Structure"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna P.

    2005-01-01

    The studies described here are designed to teach reading comprehension to at-risk students in the second and third grades. The focus is on text structure. First, there is an evaluation of a program that teaches students to identify themes of stories and apply those themes to real life; this instruction goes beyond the plot-level focus of typical…

  20. Early Grade Improvement Program, 1986-87. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Robert B.; Jarvis, Carolyn

    New York City's Early Grade Improvement Program (EGIP) was initiated in the 1985-86 school year as an effort to improve pupil achievement in the primary grades through a reduction of class size. Schools without sufficient space to reduce class size through creation of new classes were given EGIP funds to provide paraprofessional assistance to…

  1. The Effect of Resilience on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Trauma-Exposed Inner-City Primary Care Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wrenn, Glenda L.; Wingo, Aliza P.; Moore, Renee; Pelletier, Tiffany; Gutman, Alisa R.; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has previously been associated with increased risk for a variety of chronic medical conditions and it is often underdiagnosed in minority civilian populations. The current study examined the effects of resilience on the likelihood of having a diagnosis of PTSD in an inner-city sample of primary care patients (n = 767). We measured resilience with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, trauma with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Trauma Events Inventor...

  2. The Effect of the Van Hiele Model Based Instruction on the Creative Thinking Levels of 6th Grade Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Tolga; Akkaya, Recai; Celebi Akkaya, Sibel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the Van Hiele model based instruction process on the creative thinking levels of 6th grade primary school students. Pre test-post test matching control group quasi-experimental design was used in the study. Fifty five students enrolled in sixth grades during the 2005-2006 educational year formed…

  3. Pancreatic Metastasis of High-Grade Papillary Serous Ovarian Carcinoma Mimicking Primary Pancreas Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Gunay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reports of epithelial ovarian carcinomas metastatic to the pancreas are very rare. We herein present a metastasis of high grade papillary serous ovarian cancer to mid portion of pancreas. Case. A 42-year-old patient was admitted with a non-specified malignant cystic lesion in midportion of pancreas. She had a history of surgical treatment for papillary serous ovarian adenocarcinoma. A cystic lesion was revealed by an abdominal computerized tomography (CT performed in her follow up . It was considered as primary mid portion of pancreatic cancer and a distal pancreatectomy was performed. The final pathology showed high-grade papillary serous adenocarcinoma morphologically similar to the previously diagnosed ovarian cancer. Discussion. Metastatic pancreatic cancers should be considered in patients who present with a solitary pancreatic mass and had a previous non-pancreatic malignancy. Differential diagnosis of primary pancreatic neoplasm from metastatic malignancy may be very difficult. A biopsy for tissue confirmation is required to differentiate primary and secondary pancreatic tumors. Although, the value of surgical resection is poorly documented, resection may be considered in selected patients. Conclusion. Pancreatic metastasis of ovarian papillary serous adenocarcinoma has to be kept in mind when a patient with pancreatic mass has a history of ovarian malignancy.

  4. Collaborative Action Research: Teaching of Multiplication and Division in the Second Grade of Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirika Berdynaj

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the impact of action research methodology used in the teaching and learning process and professional teacher development. In this study are including 58 students of three second grade classes, 3 teachers of those classes and a university professor. Aiming at using a different approach in their teaching of multiplication and division in the second grade, all three teachers agreed to cooperate and jointly plan the learning activities, to observe systematically their students and to reflect on the outcomes. This way of research doing in their classes enabled them to ‘act’ effectively in designing an action plan appropriate to students’ achievement level. This research was carried out in the period of February 18 to May 31 incorporating several different methods, such as classroom observation, interviewing and worksheets.

  5. Increasing Engagement and Oral Language Skills of ELLs through the Arts in the Primary Grades

    OpenAIRE

    Brouillette, Liane; Childress-Evans, Karen; Hinga, Briana; Farkas, George

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we look at the impact of an arts integration program offered at five large urban elementary schools on the daily attendance and oral language skills of children in kindergarten through second grade. Many of the children attending these schools spoke a language other than English at home. Teaching artists visited each class weekly for 28 weeks, co-teaching theater and dance lessons with the teacher. School engagement was measured by comparing attendance on days with and withou...

  6. The dynamics of narrative writing in primary grade children: Writing process factors predict story quality

    OpenAIRE

    Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Morken, Frøydis; Helland, Wenche A.; Helland, Turid

    2016-01-01

    In this study of third grade school children, we investigated the association between writing process measures recorded with key stroke logging and the final written product. Moreover, we examined the cognitive predictors of writing process and product measures. Analyses of key strokes showed that while most children spontaneously made local online revisions while writing, few revised previously written text. Children with good reading and spelling abilities made more online revisions than th...

  7. Primary study of quantitative measurement in different grades of COPD using low-dose multislice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the feasibility of airway measurement at the trunk of apical bronchus of right upper lobe in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and airway dimensions and lung density changes in different COPD stages. Methods: 1) Fifteen randomly selected COPD patients underwent low -dose chest multi -slice CT scan. The wall thickness-to-diameter ratio (TDR) and percentage wall area (WA%) at apical bronchus of right upper lobe section and mean TDR and WA% of small airway (<2 mm) were calculated. 2) Another fifty-five randomly selected COPD patients were divided into 4 groups on the basis of pulmonary function tests. There were sixteen patients with grade 1, sixteen patients with grade 2, fourteen patients with grade 3. and nine patients with grade 4. Fifteen non-COPD patients were selected as controls. The total lung was scanned with low-dose multi-slice CT during inspiration. The mean lung attenuation (MLA) and voxel index (VI) were measured. Inner area of bronchus (Ai), TDR and WA% of the apical bronchus of right upper lobe were measured. Results: 1) The TDR of the apical bronchus of right were smaller than the mean TDR of the small airways; The WA% of the apical bronchus of right were larger than the mean WA% of the small airways; but there were good correlation (r=0.793 and 0.784, respectively). 2) The MLA values were decreased with increase of COPD stage. The VI values were increased with increase of COPD stage. However, the values did not differ between adjacent stages. The luminal areas of stage 3-4 patients were smaller than that of other stages. There was no statistics difference in TDR between adjacent groups, except between stages 3 and 4. For WA%, the higher stage group had higher WA%. Conclusion: There were good correlations for TDR and WA% between the apical bronchus of right upper lobe and small airway. WA% is the most sensitive index for detecting thickened airway. (authors)

  8. The dynamics of narrative writing in primary grade children: Writing process factors predict story quality

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this study of third grade school children, we investigated the association between writing process measures recorded with key stroke logging and the final written product. Moreover, we examined the cognitive predictors of writing process and product measures. Analyses of key strokes showed that while most children spontaneously made local online revisions while writing, few revised previously written text. Children with good reading and spelling abilities made more online revisions than th...

  9. Supporting the Language Development of Limited English Proficient Students through Arts Integration in the Primary Grades

    OpenAIRE

    Brouillette, Liane

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at how arts integration can boost the language development of limited English proficient students in kindergarten through second grade. I first review existing research on how young children learn and describe the special challenges faced by children who must learn in an unfamiliar language. I then identify arts-based mechanisms that boost the language development of limited English proficient students and examine strategies used by a successful urban arts-and-literacy prog...

  10. Are preoperative sex-related differences of affective symptoms in primary brain tumor patients associated with postoperative histopathological grading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Andre; Jenewein, J; Krayenbühl, N; Woernle, C; Bellut, D

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the impact of the histopathological tumor type on affective symptoms before surgery among male and female patients with supratentorial primary brain tumors. A total of 44 adult patients were included in the study. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Additionally, clinical interviews, including the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), were conducted. The general function of patients was measured with the Karnofsky Performance Status scale (KPS). All measures were obtained before surgery and therefore before the final histopathological diagnosis. All self-rating questionnaires but not the HDRS, showed significantly higher scores in female patients. The functional status assessed with the KPS was lower in female patients and correlated to the somatic part of the BDI. We further found a tendency for higher HDRS scores in male patients with a WHO grade 4 tumor stage compared to female patients. This finding was supported by positive correlations between HDRS scores and WHO grade in male and negative correlations between HDRS scores and WHO grade in female patients. In conclusion the preoperative evaluation of affective symptoms with self-rating questionnaires in patients with brain tumors may be invalidated by the patient’s functional status. Depression should be explored with clinical interviews in these patients. Sex differences of affective symptoms in this patient group may also be related to the malignancy of the tumor, but further studies are needed to disentangle this relationship. PMID:26468140

  11. Primary Education for All in the City of Mumbai, India: The Challenge Set by Local Actors. School Mapping and Local-Level Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Nalini

    This book discusses primary education of the poor in the city of Mumbai, India. It focuses on the city of Mumbai itself and the poor who live in it, answering questions such as What makes the city the way it is? What does it mean to be poor in Mumbai? and How does the poverty of the poor in Mumbai affect their chances of receiving a basic…

  12. Contributions from transport, solid fuel burning and cooking to primary organic aerosols in two UK cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Allan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter frequently represents the single largest fraction of fine particulates in urban environments and yet the exact contributions from different sources and processes remain uncertain, owing in part to its substantial chemical complexity. Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF has recently proved to be a powerful tool for the purposes of source attribution and profiling when applied to ambient organic aerosol data from the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS. Here we present PMF analysis applied to AMS data from UK cities for the first time. Three datasets are analysed, with the focus on objectivity and consistency. The data were collected in London during the Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment (REPARTEE intensives and Manchester. These occurred during the autumn and wintertime, such that the primary fraction would be prominent. Ambiguities associated with rotationality within sets of potential solutions are explored and the most appropriate solution sets selected based on comparisons with external data. In addition to secondary organic aerosols, three candidate sources of primary organic aerosol (POA were identified according to mass spectral and diurnal profiles; traffic emissions, cooking and solid fuel burning (for space heating. Traffic represented, on average, 40% of POA during colder conditions and exhibited a hydrocarbon-like mass spectrum similar to those previously reported. Cooking aerosols represented 34% of POA and through laboratory work, their profile was matched with that sampled from the heating of seed oils, rather than previously-published spectra derived from charbroiling. This suggests that in these locations, oil from frying may have contributed more to the particulate than the meat itself. Solid fuel aerosols represented 26% of POA during cold weather conditions but were not discernable during the first REPARTEE campaign, when conditions were warmer than the other campaigns. This factor showed

  13. High-Grade Acute Organ Toxicity as a Positive Prognostic Factor in Primary Radiochemotherapy for Anal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test for a possible correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity during primary radiochemotherapy and treatment outcome for patients with anal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 2009, 72 patients with anal carcinoma were treated at our department (10 patients had stage I, 28 patients had stage II, 11 patients had stage IIIA, and 13 patients had stage IIIB cancer [Union Internationale Contre le Cancer criteria]). All patients received normofractionated (1.8 Gy/day, five times/week) whole-pelvis irradiation including iliac and inguinal lymph nodes with a cumulative dose of 50.4 Gy. Concomitant chemotherapy regimen consisted of two cycles of 5-fluorouracil (1,000 mg/m2total body surface area (TBSA)/day as continuous intravenous infusion on days 1-4 and 29-32) and mitomycin C (10 mg/m2/TBSA, intravenously on days 1 and 29). Toxicity during treatment was monitored weekly, and any incidence of Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) grade of ≥3 for skin reaction, cystitis, proctitis, or enteritis was assessed as high-grade acute organ toxicity for later analysis. Results: We found significant correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity and overall survival, locoregional control, and stoma-free survival, which was independent in multivariate analysis from other possible prognostic factors: patients with a CTC acute organ toxicity grade of ≥3 had a 5-year overall survival rate of 97% compared to 30% in patients without (p < 0.01, multivariate analysis; 97% vs. 48%, p = 0.03 for locoregional control, and 95% vs. 59%, p = 0.05 for stoma-free survival). Conclusions: Our data indicate that normal tissue and tumor tissue may behave similarly with respect to treatment response, since high-grade acute organ toxicity during radiochemotherapy showed itself to be an independent prognostic marker in our patient population. This hypothesis should be further analyzed by using biomolecular and clinical levels in future clinical trials.

  14. Urban Space as a Primary Source: Local History and Historical Thinking in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how local history can be used by teachers to help develop historical thinking skills such as source analysis, the collection of data, and the creation of historical arguments. Using New York City as a case study, this article argues that urban spaces and local communities provide historical evidence that can be read and…

  15. Evaluation of sixth grade primary schoolchildren's knowledge about avulsion and dental reimplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Lithiene Ribeiro; Sundefeld, Maria Lucia Marçal Mazza; de Andrade, Dalton Francisco; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2009-08-01

    Dental trauma, particularly tooth avulsion, is a frequent cause of tooth loss in children, adolescents, and young adults. The avulsed tooth should be immediately reimplanted in its alveolus. This procedure can be performed by anyone at the accident site and not only by dental surgeons. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge of sixth graders of the city of Araçatuba, SP, about dental avulsion and tooth reimplantation through a structured and standardized survey. Our sample consisted of 778 students. The data collected was processed using the program EPIINFO 2000. Most students were around 12 years of age and 94.5% related to practice some kind of sports. Results demonstrated that the possibility of tooth reimplantation after dental avulsion is not acknowledged among these students and dental traumatism was associated to caries, toothache, and use of orthodontic appliances. Only 18.9% of the students associated dental traumatism to an impact trauma; 3.6% would store the tooth in milk, and 3.1% believed the tooth could be reimplanted by anyone present at the accident site. In summary, the results show an overall the lack of knowledge about dental traumatism and highlight the need of special programs designed to educate school-aged students about emergency procedures to handle cases of dental traumatisms. PMID:19459922

  16. LISTENING TO MUSIC IN THE FIRST THREE GRADES OF PRIMARY SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Šulentić Begić, Jasna; Tomljanović, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Since school year 2006-2007 music lessons in primary schools have been carried out by the open model, which considers the music field of listening to music as a default activity. In fact, only active listening to quality music can empower pupils to critical and aesthetic evaluation of music and that is how they become competent users of musical culture. This paper reviews the thinking of different authors about listening to music as a teaching area and also research that was conducted in thre...

  17. THE IMPACT OF ARCS MOTIVATION MODEL ON MOTIVATION AND SUCCESS LEVEL OF PRIMARY 4TH GRADE STUDENTS IN SOCIAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa TAHİROĞLU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to detect the impact of a teaching-learning process, structured taking the components of ARCS Motivation Model into consideration, on the motivation and success level of primary grade 4 students in social studies. In scope of the study, grouped pretest-posttest testing model is used. The experimental group consists of 32, and the control group 30 students. In order to collect research data, the “Grade 4 and 5 Social Studies Motivation Scale” and “Social Studies Achievement Test” were run on both groups at the beginning and end of the research process. Data was analyzed by means of unrelated samples t-test. The analysis indicated that according to measurements at the beginning of the study, motivation and success level of experimental and control group students showed similarity. Meanwhile, tests after the process showed meaningful difference in favour of the experimental group students in terms of their motivation and success level. Such findings demonstrate that structuring teaching-learning processes according to ARCS Motivation Model will positively enhance the level of success and motivation of students towards a given subject.

  18. Opinions of primary school sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students about subjects of science-technology-society-environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Doğru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, opinions of primary school students about science-technology-society-environment and relation of these opinions in terms of many variables are analysed. In this research, it was used of individual survey model from the general survey model. Total 408 students, as 228 of them are girls and 180 of them are boys attending to two state one private school during the first term of school year of 2010-2011 in Antalya constitute the study group of research. Student questionnaire about the subjects of STSE developed by the researchers as data collection tool was applied to sixth, seventh and eighth grade students in the research. In this study, students of second grade tend to choose agree and totally agree regarding to the questionnaire items of STSE subjects. Moreover, it is found out that there is determined significant relationship between some items and sex variable when Cramer V coefficient values are analyzed to determine the relation between opinions about STSE and sex variable. It is seen that girls participated in STSE subjects more than boys considering these items in general. In this study, there is determined significant relationship between some items and school type of students considering Cramer V coefficient values to determine the relation between opinions of participants about STSE and variable of school type. Students of private school tend to choose agree and totally agree regarding to the questionnaire items of STSE subjects more than state schools’ students.

  19. EVALUATION OF EDUCATIONAL ABILITIES IN CHILDREN WITH MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, FIRST GRADE STUDENTS, FROM SPECIAL PRIMARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIKJ-IVANOVIKJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Educational process for children with mild intellectual disability in special primary schools in the Republic of Macedonia is realized byspecial Curriculum for students with difficulties in psychological development, prepared by the Bureau for Development of Education from the Ministry of Education and Science. These programs are developmental, and specially adapted to the abilities and capabilities of students with intellectual disabilities. The specialeducator observing the individual characteristics of his students should maximally respond to their specific needs and aspirations.The aim of the research was to determine the educational abilities of first-grade students with mild intellectual disability for following the teaching contents of the subjects Macedonian language, Math and Introduction to environment, provided by the Curriculum. Educationalabilities of the examinees were especially weak in Math, while in the Introduction to environment they had average abilities and a littlebetter ability they showed in the area of the Macedonian language. Regarding the variables gender and age, educational abilities of theexaminees did not differ, while regarding the variable level of general abilities there were significant differences in their educational abilities. Special educators said that most of theexaminees were completely or partially able to follow the Curriculum. Curriculum for the first grade students with intellectual disabilitiesgenerally corresponds to the educational abilities of these children.

  20. Prognostic impact of ReTURB in high grade T1 primary bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sanseverino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate whether pathological outcomes of ReTURB have a prognostic impact on recurrence and progression of primitive T1HG bladder cancer. Material and methods: Patients affected by primitive T1HG TCC of bladder underwent restaging TURB (ReTURB. Patients with muscle invasive disease at ReTURB underwent radical cystectomy; those with non-muscle invasive residual (NMI-RT and those with no residual tumour (NRT received an intravesical BCG therapy. We compared recurrence and progression in NMIRT patients and NRT patients at restaging TURB. Patients were followed every 3-6 months with cystoscopy and urine cytology. Results: 212 patients were enrolled in the study. At ReTURB, residual cancer was detected in 92 of 196 (46.9% valuable patients: 14.3% of these were upstaged to T2. At follow up of 26.3 ± 22.8 months, there were differences in recurrence and progression rates between NRT and NMIRT patients: 26.9% and 45.3% (p < 0.001, 10.6% and 23.4% (p 0.03, respectively. Recurrence-free and progression-free survivals were significantly higher in NRT compared to NMIRT patients: 73.1% and 54.7% (p < 0.001, 89.4% and 76.6 (p 0.03, respectively. Conclusions: ReTURB allows to identify a considerable number of residual and understaged cancer. Patients with NMIRT on ReTURB have worse prognosis than those with NRT in terms of recurrence and progression free survival. These outcomes seem to suggest a prognostic impact of findings on ReTURB that could be a valid tool in management of high grade T1 TCC.

  1. Neural predictors of individual differences in response to math tutoring in primary-grade school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Swigart, Anna G; Tenison, Caitlin; Jolles, Dietsje D; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Fuchs, Lynn; Menon, Vinod

    2013-05-14

    Now, more than ever, the ability to acquire mathematical skills efficiently is critical for academic and professional success, yet little is known about the behavioral and neural mechanisms that drive some children to acquire these skills faster than others. Here we investigate the behavioral and neural predictors of individual differences in arithmetic skill acquisition in response to 8-wk of one-to-one math tutoring. Twenty-four children in grade 3 (ages 8-9 y), a critical period for acquisition of basic mathematical skills, underwent structural and resting-state functional MRI scans pretutoring. A significant shift in arithmetic problem-solving strategies from counting to fact retrieval was observed with tutoring. Notably, the speed and accuracy of arithmetic problem solving increased with tutoring, with some children improving significantly more than others. Next, we examined whether pretutoring behavioral and brain measures could predict individual differences in arithmetic performance improvements with tutoring. No behavioral measures, including intelligence quotient, working memory, or mathematical abilities, predicted performance improvements. In contrast, pretutoring hippocampal volume predicted performance improvements. Furthermore, pretutoring intrinsic functional connectivity of the hippocampus with dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices and the basal ganglia also predicted performance improvements. Our findings provide evidence that individual differences in morphometry and connectivity of brain regions associated with learning and memory, and not regions typically involved in arithmetic processing, are strong predictors of responsiveness to math tutoring in children. More generally, our study suggests that quantitative measures of brain structure and intrinsic brain organization can provide a more sensitive marker of skill acquisition than behavioral measures. PMID:23630286

  2. Pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city, India – A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Savadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The consumption of tobacco related products by the school teachers is a bad habit because it sends a wrong signal to young minds of students. It is injurious to health and is a waste of money and also is a wrong role model for the students.Objectives To find out the prevalence of pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city and to determine the factors influencing the use of tobacco among primary school teachers.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using random sampling technique among 400 teachers aged 21 to 60 years from 78 primary schools in Belgaum city during March to December 2009.Results Overall, prevalence of any form of tobacco use among primary school teachers was 14.50%. Only male teachers 46.03% used tobacco. 37.93% were using smoking type of tobacco, 46.56% used smokeless & 15.51%were using both types of tobacco products. Most of the users initiated tobacco use by 16 to 20 years of age. A substantial number of teachers initiated tobacco use for fun, imitation and peer pressure. 58.33% of the teachers were using tobacco due to un-satisfaction from profession, 37.50% due to family problems.Conclusion High proportion of male teachers used tobacco than female teachers, because of social norm. Almost all the teachers consciously avoided tobacco use in school premises. Students will be encouraged to start using tobacco, if they observe use of tobacco products by teachers who are the role models for students. It was concluded that it would be beneficial to conduct educational programs and seminars encouraging tobacco cessation to this professional group, along with school children.

  3. THE EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES IN THE PRIMARY EDUCATION 5TH GRADE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM IN TERMS OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to know the teachers’ opinions in terms of multiple intelligence theory about the objectives and activities in the units of “Earth, Sun and Moon” and the “Electricity in Our Life” in the primary education 5th grade science and technology curriculum. The survey model was used in this study. The population of this study consists of 262 5th grade teachers working in the center of Malatya. The sample consists of 190 5th grade teachers who were selected randomly. Quest...

  4. E-Learning Materials for 3rd Grade of Primary School - Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Repnik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for the development of natural science competences of children to choose the right approach to teaching the physics. E-learning materials developed so far are a useful addition to the learning process. Their function is to assist in explaining the real world around us. Among other goals, this means the explanation of experiments and preparation to conduct them. In the frame of our national project we have prepared the e-learning materials which cover the basics of physics for primary school pupils. Children are encouraged to study the materials and conduct their own experiments. Teachers who have used our materials are giving us very encouraging responses and would like to use other learning materials prepared in this way.

  5. Knowledge attitudes and practices of grade three primary schoolchildren in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis and malaria in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwer Kimberly C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helminth infection rates in grade three children are used as proxy indicators of community infection status and to guide treatment strategies in endemic areas. However knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of this target age group (8-10 years in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis (STHs and malaria is not known at a time when integrated plasmodium - helminth control strategies are being advocated. This study sought to assess KAP of grade 3 children in relation to schistosomiasis, STHs and malaria in order to establish an effective school based health education for disease transmission control. Methods Grade 3 children (n = 172 attending four randomly selected primary schools (one in rural and 3 in the commercial farming areas in Zimbabwe were interviewed using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. The urine filtration technique was used to determine S. haematobium infection status. Infection with S. mansoni and STHs was determined using a combination of results from the Kato Katz and formol ether concentration techniques. P. falciparum was diagnosed by examination of Giemsa stained thick blood smears. Results It was observed that 32.0%, 19.2% and 4.1% of the respondents had correct knowledge about the causes of schistosomiasis, malaria and STHs, respectively, whilst 22.1%, 19.2% and 5.8% knew correct measures to control schistosomiasis, malaria and STHs. Sixty-two percent and 44.8% did not use soap to wash hands after toilet and before eating food respectively, whilst 33.1% never wore shoes. There were no functional water points and soap for hand washing after toilet at all schools. There was a high prevalence distribution of all parasites investigated in this study at Msapa primary school - S. haematobium (77.8%, S. mansoni (33.3% hookworms (29.6% and P. falciparum (48.1%. Reports that participant had suffered from schistosomiasis and malaria before were significant predictors of

  6. PATIENTS’ SATISFACTION WITH PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS SERVICES IN KUWAIT CITY, KUWAIT

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Doghaither, Abdullah H.; Abdelrhman, Badreldin M.; Saeed, Abdalla A.W.; Al-Kamil, Abdullah A.; Majzoub, Mohieldin M.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Assessment of patient satisfaction offers a way of optimizing health status and prevents waste of medical resources. The direct measurement of patient satisfaction is a new phenomenon in Kuwait. Objective: Assess patient satisfaction with respect to primary health care services and study any patterns of association of sociodemographic variables on the patient satisfaction level. Methods: The sample consisted of 301 patients selected systematically from five primary health care cen...

  7. PRIMARY SCHOOL FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS IN MATH ARE DONE TO COMPREHEND TOPICS TEACHING SMART BOARD APPLICATIONS FOR STUDENT FEEDBACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Nur KIRALI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study in teaching primary fifth grade students in math are done to comprehend topics is to their views about the smart boards applications.Research Working Group has established, in the education year 2012-2013,on 111 students in an primary school studying in Istanbul,Fatih. The scanning model was used in the research. In this application, aritmatik mean and standard deviation values were used in the distribution of the students view. In the students views about Smart Board Practices in math lesson,’ttest’ was used to determine if there is a meaningful difference in gender thinking. According to the research findings, through the use of the smart board in the course of mathematics, students told that they had better understood the phrase the lesson,had been getting the increase in their interest and wasn’t bored in the lesson. Another result obtained in research, students opinions has not been significantly different according to gender

  8. Primary pulmonary low-grade angiosarcoma characterized by mismatch between {sup 18}F-FDG FET and dynamic contrast-enhanced CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Eun Young; Lee, Ho Yun; Han, Joung Ho; Choi, Joon Young [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We report a rare case of primary pulmonary low-grade angiosarcoma on dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. A 38-year-old, asymptomatic woman was hospitalized because of an abnormality on chest radiography. A dynamic contrast-enhanced chest CT showed a 1.2 cm-sized irregular-margined nodule with strong and persistent enhancement in the right lower lobe. The lesion had low metabolic activity on an {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan. The patient underwent a wedge resection for the lesion, and pathology revealed a primary pulmonary low-grade angiosarcoma.

  9. Primary sources of PM2.5 organic aerosol in an industrial Mediterranean city, Marseille

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haddad, I.; Marchand, N.; Wortham, H.; Piot, C.; Besombes, J.-L.; Cozic, J.; Chauvel, C.; Armengaud, A.; Robin, D.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.

    2011-03-01

    Marseille, the most important port of the Mediterranean Sea, represents a challenging case study for source apportionment exercises, combining an active photochemistry and multiple emission sources, including fugitive emissions from industrial sources and shipping. This paper presents a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) approach based on organic markers and metals to apportion the primary sources of organic aerosol in Marseille, with a special focus on industrial emissions. Overall, the CMB model accounts for the major primary anthropogenic sources including motor vehicles, biomass burning and the aggregate emissions from three industrial processes (heavy fuel oil combustion/shipping, coke production and steel manufacturing) as well as some primary biogenic emissions. This source apportionment exercise is well corroborated by 14C measurements. Primary OC estimated by the CMB accounts on average for 22% of total OC and is dominated by the vehicular emissions that contribute on average for 17% of OC mass concentration (vehicular PM contributes for 17% of PM2.5). Even though industrial emissions contribute only 2.3% of the total OC (7% of PM2.5), they are associated with ultrafine particles (Dp<80 nm) and high concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals such as Pb, Ni and V. On one hand, given that industrial emissions governed key primary markers, their omission would lead to substantial uncertainties in the CMB analysis performed in areas heavily impacted by such sources, hindering accurate estimation of non-industrial primary sources and secondary sources. On the other hand, being associated with bursts of submicron particles and carcinogenic and mutagenic components such as PAH, these emissions are most likely related with acute ill-health outcomes and should be regulated despite their small contributions to OC. Another important result is the fact that 78% of OC mass cannot be attributed to the major primary sources and, thus, remains un

  10. Opinions of primary school sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students about subjects of science-technology-society-environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Doğru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, opinions of primary school students about science-technology-society-environment and relation of these opinions in terms of many variables are analysed. For this purpose, screening type of commonly used descriptive researches in education field was used in the study. Total 408 students, as 228 of them are girls and 180 of them are boys attending to two state one private school during the first term of school year of 2010-2011 in Antalya constitute the study group of research.  Student questionnaire about the subjects of STSE developed by the researcher as data collection tool was applied to sixth, seventh and eighth grade students in the research. It was determined opinions of students about STSE are positive by analyzing sub-titles “science and technology, technology, effect of technology on society, effect of science-technology on society, effect of society on science and technology, effect of science and technology on environment, effect of technology on environment and effect of society on environment” included in the questionnaire, and significant variations were determined between variable of sex and type of school and some iteIn this study, opinions of primary school students about science-technology-society-environment and relation of these opinions in terms of many variables are analysed. For this purpose, screening type of commonly used descriptive researches in education field was used in the study. Total 408 students, as 228 of them are girls and 180 of them are boys attending to two state one private school during the first term of school year of 2010-2011 in Antalya constitute the study group of research.  Student questionnaire about the subjects of STSE developed by the researcher as data collection tool was applied to sixth, seventh and eighth grade students in the research. It was determined opinions of students about STSE are positive by analyzing sub-titles “science and technology, technology, effect of

  11. The Evaluation of Texts In “National Culture” Theme That Placed in Secondary Part of Primary School 7th Grade Turkish Textbooks

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    Dilek CERAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The text that place in Turkish lesson books have an important place for teaching Turkish. The aim of study is evaluate the texts of “National Culture” subject in 7th grade Turkish textbooks, which are belonging to different publishers. For this purpose, by beginning from the features that are supposed to be in reading and listening texts of Turkish lesson books, which are in 2006 Primary Turkish Lesson Teaching Program, the texts of 7th grade Turkish textbooks of four different publishers, have been analyzed. The study is descriptive document analyze has been done in evaluating and studying of the texts that are in National Culture theme of Primary School 7th grade Turkish Textbooks. The texts have been evaluated under four main titles; quantity, the harmony of sub-themes with main themes. But free reading texts were not assessed.

  12. Does Clinical Staging and Histological Grading Show Parallelism In Oral Submucous Fibrosis? A Retrospective Study from an Indian City

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    Manish Narayan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: There was no correlation between clinical staging and histopathological grading of oral submucous fibrosis. The test results were statistically not significant. (p=0.635 This may be due to difference in severity and extent of fibrosis in different parts of the oral mucosa. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(3.000: 145-149

  13. Career Education Program: Geneva Area City Schools. [Grade 6 Units: Food Production, Ecology, Mind and Body, and Food Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    Four curriculum units for the sixth grade level focus on: (1) food production and nutrition, (2) food services, (3) physical and mental health, and (4) environmental conservation. Each unit's behavioral unit objectives emphasize career possibilities in the industries related to the unit's topic. A chart format is used to list suggested content…

  14. 城市广场色彩规划初探%A Primary Study on City Square Color Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建滨; 王旭

    2012-01-01

    From defining the concept of city square color and analyzing its features, we put forward three principles of square color planning which is based on the premise that we advocate respecting people's psychological perception. Furthermore, under the guide of color psychology, we try to make a primary study on the methods and applications in city square color and lighting color planning from the macroscopic angle of functional properties and the microcosmic angle of the elements.%该文从界定城市广场色彩的概念和分析其特点入手,在提倡尊重使用人群心理感知的前提下提出了广场色彩规划的三原则,并在色彩心理学的指导下,从功能性质的宏观角度和构成元素的微观角度初步探究城市广场色彩及照明色彩规划的方法及其应用.

  15. Evaluation of Combination of Natural and Artificial Lighting Condition in Primary Schools (Case Study: Baneh City of Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed alireza Mousavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Promoting the health and safety is an important part of the fundamental mission of schools and one factor in designing and operating schools that always has been important is lighting. As students spend considerable hours in the classroom and school, lighting should be designed appropriately and in accordance with the standards, to protect them from injuries. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the combination of natural and artificial lighting condition in primary schools of Baneh city, Kurdistan, Iran. Materials & Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It's population consisted of primary schools in the city of Baneh and 12 schools were randomly selected as samples. Measurement has been done, using observation method in those schools by completing the assessment form. Then collected data were analyzed by SPSS 19, using descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis Test. Results: Results showed that the windows to the floor area in the most of schools classes were in standard range and just in 7 classes, the windows to the floor area ratio were less than standard. ANOVA showed the mean of luminance in those schools in p≤0.05 was significant and most of classes were in range of standard luminance. Comparison of luminance in schools corridors with standard showed that corridors luminance of 3schools were less than standard range. Conclusions: The amount of luminance in all schools was not appropriate especially in old schools. Therefore, to reduce the effect of inappropriate lightning on health in some classes, it is necessary to redesign the system. Furthermore, for parsimony, the lightning system modification is required to achieve standard luminance which is important.

  16. The project of decontamination of Tominari primary school in date city, Fukushima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The previous principal reports his concerned decontamination process of the school, localizing at 60 km distance from Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, after its Accident (Mar. 2011). The school was defined as one of 11 with >3.8 mc-Sv/h ambient dose necessary for decontamination by Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science an Technology (MEXT). Measurements of the dose by Date City and MEXT started from April, which revealed that it was 3.3-5.5 mc-Sv/h at 1 m height of the schoolyard. Decontamination was done by weeding, then removal of the ground soil at 3) and spreading a new soil, resulting in the reduction of the dose to 0.75 mc-Sv/h at 50 cm height. Unexpectedly, the removed soil was buried for tentative storage by wrapping with Volclay tarpaulin in a 140 cm deep hole at the corner of the yard, which was a result of residents' disagreement with the scheduled estate. Decontamination of school circumstances was conducted in July by experts, PTA voluntary parents and applied volunteers with their repeated meetings involving the radiological explanation of even radiation units. The classroom ambient dose at 50 cm height was declined from 0.11 to 0.06 mc-Sv, pavements from 2-3 to 0.7-1.0, plantings from 3.7 to 0.7, and the bank between the yard and schoolhouse from 4-5 to 1-1.5. The swimming pool water was first purified with zeolite, which made its radiocesium level below the standard limit <50 Bq/L, then was released out, and the pool was filled with fresh city water (<7 Bq/L). The ambient dose 6-8 mc-Sv/h around the pool at 50 cm height was reduced to 0.7-0.8 after decontamination. The project finished within July. Now the decontamination is still under progress for the forest and resident's houses; pupils are enjoying lessons, swimming and sports; and the author looks back the successful importance of experts' easy explanation about radiology. (T.T)

  17. Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0±14.2 Bq/m3, 83.4±6.0 Bq/m3, 61.6±6.4 Bq/m3, 63.7±5.4 Bq/m3 and 87.5±6.Bq/m3 and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m3, 5.5 Bq/m3, 1.1 Bq/m3, 1.0 Bq/m3 and 24 Bq/m3 respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm-3 set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The ''within regions''(different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region ''1''(p = 0.783) and versus region ''5''(P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region ''3''(P = 0.0160) and also versus region ''4''(p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq mountains whereas other

  18. Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R.

    2011-10-01

    Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0±14.2 Bq/m3, 83.4±6.0 Bq/m3, 61.6±6.4 Bq/m3, 63.7±5.4 Bq/m3 and 87.5±6.Bq/m3 and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m3, 5.5 Bq/m3, 1.1 Bq/m3, 1.0 Bq/m3 and 24 Bq/m3 respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm-3 set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The "within regions" (different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region "1" (p = 0.783) and versus region "5" (P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region "3" ( P = 0.0160) and also versus region "4" (p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq mountains whereas other

  19. Prevalence of Depression and Depression Care for Populations Registered in Primary Care in Two Remote Cities in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of depression has been widely studied in high-income countries and in large cities of low-income countries; however, little is known about the prevalence and treatment gap of depression in remote areas of the Amazonian region in Brazil. Objectives The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence of depression in adults registered with the Family Health Strategy in two remote cities in the Brazilian Amazon and to investigate the proportion of individuals with depression that received mental health care. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of an adult population registered with primary care clinics in the cities of Coari and Tefé, State of Amazon, Brazil. Depression was defined as a score of ≥10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Depression care was evaluated by asking participants with depression if they received antidepressants and/or had been seen by a health professional at a community mental health center in the three months prior to the interview. Poisson regression was used to examine the unadjusted and adjusted associations between depression and exposure variables. Results The overall prevalence of depression was 19.1% (95% CI: 17.2–21.1), with 22.2% (95% CI: 19.3–25.0) among women and 16.0% (95% CI: 13.4–18.5) among men. The prevalence of depression in Coari and Tefé were 18.3% (CI 95% 15.7–21.0) and 19.9% (95% CI:17.2–22.7), respectively. Being a woman, lacking social support, increasing exposure to stressful life events and having a higher number medical comorbidities were consistently associated with depression. Lower educational attainment and income, tobacco use, and risky alcohol use were also associated with depression in the unadjusted analyses. Only 11.5% of those with depression were receiving antidepressants and/or visited the mental health care facility during the three months prior to the interview. Conclusion Approximately one in five adults in our sample had depression. A high

  20. Grading of parameters for urban tree inventories by city officials, arborists and academics using the Delphi method

    OpenAIRE

    Östberg, Johan; Delshammar, Tim; Wiström, Björn; Busse Nielsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Tree inventories are expensive to conduct and update, so every inventory carried out must be maximized. However, increasing the number of constituent parameters increases the cost of performing and updating the inventory, illustrating the need for careful parameter selection. This paper reports the results of a systematic expert rating of tree inventories aiming to quantify the relative importance of each parameter. Using the Delphi method, panels comprising city officials, arborists and acad...

  1. The effect of resilience on posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed inner-city primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrenn, Glenda L; Wingo, Aliza P; Moore, Renee; Pelletier, Tiffany; Gutman, Alisa R; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J

    2011-07-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has previously been associated with increased risk for a variety of chronic medical conditions and it is often underdiagnosed in minority civilian populations. The current study examined the effects of resilience on the likelihood of having a diagnosis of PTSD in an inner-city sample of primary care patients (n=767). We measured resilience with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, trauma with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Trauma Events Inventory, and assessed for PTSD with the modified PTSD symptom scale. Multiple logistic regression model with presence/absence of PTSD as the outcome yielded 3 significant factors: childhood abuse, nonchild abuse trauma, and resilience. One type of childhood abuse in moderate to severe range (OR, 2.01; p = .0001), 2 or more types of childhood abuse in moderate to severe range (OR, 4.00; p trauma exposure (OR, 3.33; p < or = .0001), were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of PTSD, while resilience was robustly and significantly associated with a decreased likelihood of PTSD (OR, 0.93; p < or = .0001). By understanding the role of resilience in recovery from adverse experiences, improved treatment and interventional methods may be developed. Furthermore, these results suggest a role for assessing resilience in highly traumatized primary care populations as a way to better characterize risk for PTSD and direct screening/psychiatric referral efforts. PMID:21999030

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder prevalence in children from some primary schools in the city of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Piola

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder” (ADHD has been characterized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV TR. Studies worldwide recorded a significant increase in the diagnosis of ADHD, resulting thus an increase in the consumption of psychostimulants drugs in primary school children .The objective of this evaluation is to determine the prevalence of ADHD and their treatment in school-age children i in the city of Rosario.A cross sectional study was conducted through voluntary anonymous surveys and for mothers, parents and / or guardians of children attending primary school educational establishments.2691 surveys were distributed, collected and answered 1474.Of these, 1.29% (n = 19 took psicof stimulants, and 0.68% (n = 10 of them take itat the moments of this surveys. 0.68% (n = 10 had a diagnosis of ADHD. Most were treated with methylphenidate. A child was engaged in psychological treatment alone.Although the literature on ADHD reports a prevalence between 3 and 7% in this revsión is lower. We used the drugs of choice for this condition, primarily methylphenidate, either alone or combined. We emphasize that the observed prevalence is much higher in men, forming these 90% of those diagnosed.

  3. Differentiation of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma and High-Grade Glioma with Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast-Enhanced Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Preoperative differentiation of primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) from other tumors is important for presurgical staging, intraoperative management, and postoperative treatment. Dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (DSC perfusion MRI) can provide in vivo assessment of the microvasculature in intracranial mass lesions. Purpose: To determine the utility of DSC perfusion MRI in the differentiation of PCNSLs and high-grade gliomas, as well as their pathological and physiological differences. Material and Methods: Nine patients with pathologically proven PCNSLs and 11 patients with high-grade gliomas were examined using a 1.5T MRI scanner. DSC perfusion MRI was performed by gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI). The maximum rCBV ratio, the signal intensity-time curves, and the percentage of signal intensity recovery were obtained. The maximum relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) ratio and the percentage of signal intensity recovery of PCNSLs were compared with those of high-grade gliomas by using Student's t test. Microvessel density (MVD) was evaluated using immunohistochemical staining of surgical specimens with anti-CD34, and MVDs of the two tumor groups were compared by using Student's t test. Results: The maximum rCBV ratio of primary intracranial lymphomas was 1.72±0.59, while that of high-grade gliomas was 4.86±2.18. PCNSLs tended to have relatively low perfusion compared to high-grade gliomas (P=0.001), and the MVD labeled by anti-CD34 of PCNSLs was much lower than that of gliomas (P<0.001). The signal intensity-time curve of primary intracranial lymphomas was different from that of high-grade gliomas. The percentage of signal intensity recovery was significantly greater in PCNSLs compared with that of high-grade gliomas (P<0.001). Conclusion: The difference in DSC perfusion MRI characteristics between PCNSLs and high-grade gliomas is determined by their different vascularities and

  4. The Prevalance of Anemia and Nutriotional Anemia in Primary School Children in the City of Aydın

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ziya Aral

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of anemia and nutritional anemia in primary school children in the city of Aydın. Materials and Methods: In Aydın, the central town of Aydın province, a total of 496 students (56% were female were enrolled into the study by using stratified random sampling method. The students were from the primary schools located in socio-economically low, medium, and high areas of primary health care centers. The avarage age of the students was 10.2±2 years. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and Chi-Square test. Results: The prevalence of anemia, iron-deficiency (ID, iron-deficiency anemia (IDA, vitamin B12 deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia was 15.7%, 38.7%, 8.3%, 9.1%, 0.8%, respectively. No folic acid deficiency was detected. Among the anemias, 42% of them were microcytic, 58% of them were normocytic and the 45.5% of the microcytic anemias were IDA. Among the females, the rate of ID was 45.1% and the rate of IDA was 11.6%, while in boys the same rates were 30.6% and 4.1%, respectively (p<0.05. Microcytosis was present in 36.5% of subjects with IDA. The Mentzer index was <13 in 13.3% of subjects with microcytic anemia and IDA, and in 77.7% of children with microcytic anemia and no IDA (p<0.001. Regarding socio-demographic characteristics of children; the only statistically significant difference was in the parameters of mother education and anemia. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia represents a minor public health problem according to the World Health Organization criteria among the primary school students in the central town of Aydın province. Exploration of the reason of anemia among pre-school children, proper treatment of nutritional anemia cases with adequate duration and dose, dietary organizations and proper follow-up will lower the incidence of anemia and nutritional anemia among primary school children. Our study

  5. Computer Assisted Educational Material Preparation for Fourth Grade Primary School Students’ English Language Class in Teaching Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Yüzen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, using ADDIE instructional design model, it is aimed to prepare English language educational material for 4th grade primary students to teach them numbers. At the same time, ARCS model of motivation’s attention, relevance and satisfaction phases are also taken into consideration. This study also comprises of Design Based Research which includes design, theory and application processes. The first phase of the ADDIE method is the analysis where there is a discussion with primary school English language teachers so as to determine the topic, the content and the target groups. During the design phase; objectives, strategies, activities, assessments, and methods of learning are determined to organize and present the content on the basis of learning objectives. In the development phase; images, animations and user interface are created in accordance with students’ ages. Additionally, sounds including the pronunciation of digits and numbers are created and the codes of the visual scenarios that are designed are written in ActionScript 2.0 in Adobe Flash CS3 Professional. At the implementation phase, some of the target group students are tested with prototype material that has been implemented. In the classroom, students learn both the pronunciation and the spelling of the numbers. After checking their spelling and typing errors of numbers with quizzes, the students repeat what they have learned and then they take the spelling quizzes. The program checks the misspelled words. Students who correctly complete the quizzes are entitled to have one flag. And when they have all the flags (4 flag, they receive a certificate of achievement. With this rewarding technique, it is intended to raise the motivation of the students. Finally, at the evaluation step, the observed problems in the materials are revised. At every stage of the process, expert evaluations are consulted. With this study that is based on ADDIE instructional designed model and

  6. Secret World of the Forbidden City: Splendors from Imperial China, 1644-1911 and Change and Continuity: Chinese Americans in California. Exhibition Information and Curriculum Guide for Teachers Grades 2-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    The materials in this curriculum guide were designed to prepare teachers and students in grades 2-11 for the "Secret World of the Forbidden City: Splendors from China's Imperial Palace 1644-1911" exhibition at the Oakland Museum of California Education Department, to inform teachers and students about Imperial China, and to illuminate the…

  7. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE ATTITUDE MOTIVES FORMATION TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN OF THE NORTHERN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Ildarovna Busheva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Current issue under the study of problems of positive motivation formation for education of active attitude to physical culture and sports among primary school age children living in the northern city,is the study of students engaged and not engaged in physical culture and sports and main reasons research for passive attitude to the activity. In Surgut, KhMARYugra, 350 pupils were involved in theresearch of the age 710 years from the gymnasium named after Salmanov F.K. Following the procedure of L.I. Lubysheva active and passive attitude motives to primary school age children’s physicalactivity living in the northern city. We have identified 13 motives to the activity and 20 passive motives to the physical activity. During the research two groups of motives were identified reducing 710year old pupils’ motor activity. The first group of motives consists of the lack of organization and equipment; the second group consists of the lack of sports education (lack of physical culture valuecomprehension in human life. Children of primary school age living in the northern city point out various reasons explaining their passivity to the motor activity, physical culture and sports.Eliminating these causes is the first step to the positive motivation formation of physical activity. It requires to combine efforts of educational institutions work, physical education teachers and coachesto encourage healthy lifestyles, sports and recreational activities and students motivation increase to the motor activity, physical culture and sports in their spare time.

  8. The Effects of Phonemic Awareness Instruction in First Grade on the Reading Scores of Rural Primary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Linda H.; Vinzant, Rebecca S.

    A study investigated the effect of phonemic awareness instruction on the reading ability of first and second grade students. Participants were 100 second graders who had been in 5 first grades at Westside Elementary in Searcy, Arkansas. Using a posttest only control group design and a t test for independent samples, it was found that second grade…

  9. Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder with coexisting high-grade urothelial carcinoma: a case report and a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Khalbuss Walid; Bui Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Primary neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urinary bladder are rare. Here, we report a case of an 82-year-old man who presented with hematuria and was found to have an ulcerated lesion in the bladder. A diagnosis of small neuroendocrine cell carcinoma with coexisting minor high-grade urothelial components was rendered. In this report, the clinical, cytological, histological, and immunohistochemical features of this case are described, and a review of the literature about this neoplasm ...

  10. Primary Gleason Grade 4 Impact on Biochemical Recurrence After Permanent Interstitial Brachytherapy in Japanese Patients With Low- or Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To reveal a predictive factor for biochemical recurrence (BCR) after permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) using iodine-125 seed implantation in patients with localized prostate cancer classified as low or intermediate risk based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. Methods and Materials: From January 2004 to December 2009, 414 consecutive Japanese patients with clinically localized prostate cancer classified as low or intermediate risk based on the NCCN guidelines were treated with PPB. The clinical factors including pathological data reviewed by a central pathologist and follow-up data were prospectively collected. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the factors associated with BCR. Results: Median follow-up was 36.5 months. The 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year BCR-free rates using the Phoenix definition were 98.3%, 96.0%, 91.6%, and 87.0%, respectively. On univariate analysis, the Gleason score, especially primary Gleason grade 4 in biopsy specimens, was a strong predicting factor (p < 0.0001), while age, initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, T stage, and minimal dose delivered to 90% of the prostate volume (D90) were insignificant. Multivariate analysis indicated that a primary Gleason grade 4 was the most powerful prognostic factor associated with BCR (hazard ratio = 6.576, 95% confidence interval, 2.597–16.468, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: A primary Gleason grade 4 carried a worse BCR prognosis than the primary grade 3 in patients treated with PPB. Therefore, the indication for PPB in patients with a Gleason sum of 4 + 3 deserves careful and thoughtful consideration.

  11. FAR FROM THE CITY LIGHTS: ENGLISH READING PERFORMANCE OF ESL LEARNERS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF RURAL PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintswalo Manyike

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the findings of a research study, in which the English reading performances of Grade 7 English Second Language (ESL learners in four different types of rural primary school which use English as the language of learning and teaching (LoLT were observed, are examined and how poor scores can be partly explained by the social context of learners and schools is explored. Although the Language in Education Policy in South Africa seeks to distribute and maintain the linguistic capital of the official languages through its support of multilingualism, the predominant preference for English as the LoLT in schooling disadvantages most ESL learners and perpetuates inequality in learner outcomes. This situation is exacerbated in certain school contexts such as those in rural settings. Bourdieu’s theory of linguistic capital and Coleman’s distinction between school social capital and home social capital are used as theoretical frameworks to the empirical inquiry undertaken in this study. The findings indicate a difference in the grammar and comprehension scores of learners in the respective participating schools as well as a sharp difference in the performance of learners in the different types of school involved. This suggests the current use of English as the LoLT does not mean that linguistic capital is equally distributed throughout schools. School type can thus act as an agent of cultural reproduction which influences learner outcomes.

  12. Grading of Parameters for Urban Tree Inventories by City Officials, Arborists, and Academics Using the Delphi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östberg, Johan; Delshammar, Tim; Wiström, Björn; Nielsen, Anders Busse

    2013-03-01

    Tree inventories are expensive to conduct and update, so every inventory carried out must be maximized. However, increasing the number of constituent parameters increases the cost of performing and updating the inventory, illustrating the need for careful parameter selection. This article reports the results of a systematic expert rating of tree inventories aiming to quantify the relative importance of each parameter. Using the Delphi method, panels comprising city officials, arborists, and academics rated a total of 148 parameters. The total mean score, the top ranking parameters, which can serve as a guide for decision-making at practical level and for standardization of tree inventories, were: Scientific name of the tree species and genera, Vitality, Coordinates, Hazard class, and Identification number. The study also examined whether the different responsibilities and usage of urban tree databases among organizations and people engaged in urban tree inventories affected their prioritization. The results revealed noticeable dissimilarities in the ranking of parameters between the panels, underlining the need for collaboration between the research community and those commissioning, administrating, and conducting inventories. Only by applying such a transdisciplinary approach to parameter selection can urban tree inventories be strengthened and made more relevant.

  13. A Study on Primary School Students’ Being Cyber Bullies and Victims According to Gender, Grade, and Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz, Metin

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important students’ problems is cyber bullying that occurs by using technological devices. Research on cyber bullying is mostly based on the types of technological devices used for cyber bullying and the gender difference. Although these variables come to the forefront in studies, there is less research based on variables, such as socioeconomic status and grades. This study analysed whether the level of being the cyber bully and victim differed in terms of the “gender”, “grade...

  14. The Place and Importance of Values Education in 4.th and 5th. Grade Primary School Social Studies Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Yiğit

    2013-11-01

    varied beginning from 1970s. Superka and his colleagues (1976 argue that there are five basic approaches to values education: inculcation, moral development, analysis, values clarification and action learning. On the other hand, Sunal and Haas (2002 identified three approaches to values education: values clarification, value analysis and character education. While discussing the basic processes and principles of values education, we claim that values education should not be given only as theoretical knowledge. If the students are not supported with real-life examples and experiences, theoretical information will result in reducing the interest in values education. It is also stated that using concrete terms, instead of abstract ones, will help primary school children to get the idea more effectively. We also mention the limitation of rewarding a student for his/her good manners and actions. At this point, we analyzed several studies conducted in this area and found that rewarding a student too much will result in undermining the sense of helpfulness (Batson, et al., 1978 and hindering intrinsic motivation (Kohn, 1993; Deci&Ryan, 1985. Other basic processes and principles of values education discussed in this study are; the role of teachers in values education, group study for effective values education, promoting reasoning and logic while developing empathy, the role of self-esteem, and developing the sense of ‘us’ instead of ‘me’. Content analysis was conducted to collect data from the 2004 Social Studies program published by Ministry of Education and the 4th and 5th grade Social Studies textbooks. The researchers identified the frequencies of words and references regarding values and then categorized them to provide a meaningful content. After creating the coding frames, collected data was gathered under the relevant codes. Five main characteristic features of values are defined in the 2004 Social Studies 4th and 5th grade program. Those are: 1- Values are

  15. High-grade acute organ toxicity as positive prognostic factor in primary radio(chemo)therapy for locally advanced, inoperable head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to test for a possible correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity during primary radio(chemo)therapy and treatment outcome in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Patients and methods: from 05/1994 to 01/2009, 216 HNSCC patients were treated with radio(chemo)therapy in primary approach. They received normofractionated (2 Gy/fraction) irradiation including associated nodal drainage sites to a cumulative dose of 70 Gy. 151 patients received additional concomitant chemotherapy (111 patients 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin C, 40 patients cisplatin-based). Toxicity during treatment was monitored weekly according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC), and any toxicity grade CTC ≥ 3 of mucositis, dysphagia or skin reaction was assessed as high-grade acute organ toxicity for later analysis. Results: a statistically significant coherency between high-grade acute organ toxicity and overall survival as well as locoregional control was found: patients with CTC ≥ 3 acute organ toxicity had a 5-year overall survival rate of 4% compared to 8% in patients without (p < 0.01). Thereby, multivariate analyses revealed that the correlation was independent of other possible prognostic factors or factors that may influence treatment toxicity, especially concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy technique or treatment-planning procedure. Conclusion: these data indicate that normal tissue and tumor tissue may behave similarly with respect to treatment response, as high-grade acute organ toxicity during radio(chemo)therapy showed to be an independent prognostic marker in the own patient population. However, the authors are aware of the fact that a multivariate analysis in a retrospective study generally has statistical limitations. Therefore, their hypothesis should be further analyzed on biomolecular and clinical levels and other tumor entities in prospective trials. (orig.)

  16. A Phase I Study of the Combination of Sorafenib With Temozolomide and Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Primary and Recurrent High-Grade Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den, Robert B., E-mail: robert.den@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kamrava, Mitchell [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Sheng, Zhi [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Programs in Gene Function and Expression and Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria; Dougherty, Erin; Marinucchi, Michelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lawrence, Yaacov R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Center for Translational Research in Radiation Oncology, Sheba Medical Center (Israel); Hegarty, Sarah; Hyslop, Terry [Department of Biostatistics, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Andrews, David W.; Glass, Jon [Department of Neurosurgery, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Friedman, David P. [Department of Radiology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Green, Michael R. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Programs in Gene Function and Expression and Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Camphausen, Kevin [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Despite recent advances in the management of high-grade and recurrent gliomas, survival remains poor. Antiangiogenic therapy has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of high-grade gliomas both in preclinical models and in clinical trials. We sought to determine the safety and maximum tolerated dose of sorafenib when combined with both radiation and temozolomide in the primary setting or radiation alone in the recurrent setting. Methods and Materials: This was a preclinical study and an open-label phase I dose escalation trial. Multiple glioma cell lines were analyzed for viability after treatment with radiation, temozolomide, or sorafenib or combinations of them. For patients with primary disease, sorafenib was given concurrently with temozolomide (75 mg/m{sup 2}) and 60 Gy radiation, for 30 days after completion of radiation. For patients with recurrent disease, sorafenib was combined with a hypofractionated course of radiation (35 Gy in 10 fractions). Results: Cell viability was significantly reduced with the combination of radiation, temozolomide, and sorafenib or radiation and sorafenib. Eighteen patients (11 in the primary cohort, 7 in the recurrent cohort) were enrolled onto this trial approved by the institutional review board. All patients completed the planned course of radiation therapy. The most common toxicities were hematologic, fatigue, and rash. There were 18 grade 3 or higher toxicities. The median overall survival was 18 months for the entire population. Conclusions: Sorafenib can be safely combined with radiation and temozolomide in patients with high-grade glioma and with radiation alone in patients with recurrent glioma. The recommended phase II dose of sorafenib is 200 mg twice daily when combined with temozolomide and radiation and 400 mg with radiation alone. To our knowledge, this is the first publication of concurrent sorafenib with radiation monotherapy or combined with radiation and temozolomide.

  17. A Phase I Study of the Combination of Sorafenib With Temozolomide and Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Primary and Recurrent High-Grade Gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Despite recent advances in the management of high-grade and recurrent gliomas, survival remains poor. Antiangiogenic therapy has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of high-grade gliomas both in preclinical models and in clinical trials. We sought to determine the safety and maximum tolerated dose of sorafenib when combined with both radiation and temozolomide in the primary setting or radiation alone in the recurrent setting. Methods and Materials: This was a preclinical study and an open-label phase I dose escalation trial. Multiple glioma cell lines were analyzed for viability after treatment with radiation, temozolomide, or sorafenib or combinations of them. For patients with primary disease, sorafenib was given concurrently with temozolomide (75 mg/m2) and 60 Gy radiation, for 30 days after completion of radiation. For patients with recurrent disease, sorafenib was combined with a hypofractionated course of radiation (35 Gy in 10 fractions). Results: Cell viability was significantly reduced with the combination of radiation, temozolomide, and sorafenib or radiation and sorafenib. Eighteen patients (11 in the primary cohort, 7 in the recurrent cohort) were enrolled onto this trial approved by the institutional review board. All patients completed the planned course of radiation therapy. The most common toxicities were hematologic, fatigue, and rash. There were 18 grade 3 or higher toxicities. The median overall survival was 18 months for the entire population. Conclusions: Sorafenib can be safely combined with radiation and temozolomide in patients with high-grade glioma and with radiation alone in patients with recurrent glioma. The recommended phase II dose of sorafenib is 200 mg twice daily when combined with temozolomide and radiation and 400 mg with radiation alone. To our knowledge, this is the first publication of concurrent sorafenib with radiation monotherapy or combined with radiation and temozolomide.

  18. Understanding the Concept of Information Literacy Students--For Example, the City Library "Don Mihovil Pavlinovic" Imotski

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the understanding of the term information literacy of primary and secondary school students, from the fifth grade of elementary school to the fourth year of high school at the local level, and who are members of the City Library in Imotski. The study examined 98 members of the City Library, through a…

  19. Is there a role for hyperbaric oxygen as primary treatment for grade IV radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis? a prospective pilot-feasibility study and review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellis, Athanasios [Surgical Department, University of Athens, Aretaieion Hospital (Greece); Deliveliotis, Charalambos [Urologic Department, University of Athens, Sismanoglio General Hospital (Greece); Kalentzos, Vasileios; Vavasis, Pavlos; Skolarikos, Andreas [Diving and Hyperbaric Oxygen Department, Naval and Veterans Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To examine the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen as the primary treatment for Grade IV radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and Methods: Hyperbaric oxygen was prospectively applied as a primary treatment option in 11 patients with Grade IV radiation cystitis. Primary endpoint was the incidence of complete and partial response to treatment. Secondary endpoints included the duration of response, the correlation of treatment success-rate to the interval between the onset of haematuria and initiation of therapy, blood transfusion need and total radiation dose, the number of sessions to success, the avoidance of surgery and the overall survival. Results: All patients completed therapy without complications for a mean follow-up of 17.82 months (range 3 to 34). Mean number of sessions needed was 32.8 (range 27 to 44). Complete and partial response rate was 81.8% and 18.2%, respectively. However, in three patients the first treatment session was not either sufficient or durable giving a 72.7% rate of durable effect. Interestingly, all 9 patients with complete response received therapy within 6 months of the haematuria onset compared to the two patients with partial response who received therapy at 8 and 10 months from the haematuria onset, respectively (p = 0.018). The need for blood transfusion (p = 0.491) and the total radiation dose (p = 0.259) were not correlated to success-rate. One patient needed cystectomy, while all patients were alive at the end of follow-up. Conclusions: Early primary use of hyperbaric oxygen to treat radiation-induced grade IV cystitis is an effective and safe treatment option. (author)

  20. Is there a role for hyberbaric oxygen as primary treatment for grade IV radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis? a prospective pilot-feasibility study and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Dellis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To examine the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen as the primary treatment for Grade IV radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and Methods Hyperbaric oxygen was prospectively applied as a primary treatment option in 11 patients with Grade IV radiation cystitis. Primary endpoint was the incidence of complete and partial response to treatment. Secondary endpoints included the duration of response, the correlation of treatment success-rate to the interval between the onset of haematuria and initiation of therapy, blood transfusion need and total radiation dose, the number of sessions to success, the avoidance of surgery and the overall survival. Results All patients completed therapy without complications for a mean follow-up of 17.82 months (range 3 to 34. Mean number of sessions needed was 32.8 (range 27 to 44. Complete and partial response rate was 81.8% and 18.2%, respectively. However, in three patients the first treatment session was not either sufficient or durable giving a 72.7% rate of durable effect. Interestingly, all 9 patients with complete response received therapy within 6 months of the haematuria onset compared to the two patients with partial response who received therapy at 8 and 10 months from the haematuria onset, respectively (p = 0.018. The need for blood transfusion (p = 0.491 and the total radiation dose (p = 0.259 were not correlated to success-rate. One patient needed cystectomy, while all patients were alive at the end of follow-up. Conclusions Early primary use of hyperbaric oxygen to treat radiation-induced grade IV cystitis is an effective and safe treatment option.

  1. Physical intimate partner violence and low birth weight in newborns from primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel de Souza MEZZAVILLA; Maria Helena HASSELMANN

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the association between physical intimate partner violence and low birth weight. Methods This cross-sectional study included 604 children with approximately 30 days of age who visited four primary health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro , Brazil, for the second dose of hepatitis B vaccine. Children with a birth weight below 2.500 g were considered underweight. Information regarding physical intimate partner violence was obtained by the Portuguese ve...

  2. Knowledge and Use of Zinc Supplementation in the Management of Childhood Diarrhoea among Health Care Workers in Public Primary Health Facilities in Benin-City, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Zinc supplementation reduces the severity, duration and recurrence of childhood acute diarrhoea. These beneficial effects of zinc in the treatment of diarrhoea led to the inclusion of a 10-14 days treatment regimen by the WHO/UNICEF. This study assessed the level of knowledge and use of zinc supplementation in the management of childhood diarrhoea among health care workers in public primary health facilities in Benin-City, Nigeria. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was carried out among...

  3. Do Reading Practices Make a Difference? Evidence from PIRLS Data for Hong Kong and Taiwan Primary School Grade 4 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Shek-Kam; Xiao, Xiao-Yun; Ko, Hwa-Wei; Lam, Joseph Wai-Ip; Hui, Sau-Yan; Ng, Hung-Wai

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of classroom pedagogic reading practices and out-of-school practices in explaining why the reading attainment of Hong Kong Grade 4 students was superior to that of their counterparts in Taiwan in the 2006 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study. Analyses of scores from 9,301 students (4,712 from Hong Kong…

  4. Incorporating Informational Texts in the Primary Grades: A Research-Based Rationale, Practical Strategies, and Two Teachers' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights the literacy practices of two second grade teachers--one in an affluent suburb of a major metropolitan area and the other in a large urban school district. The article describes how these teachers use informational texts to engage their students, to provide children with opportunities to learn about the world around them,…

  5. Dynamic CT perfusion imaging of intra-axial brain tumours: differentiation of high-grade gliomas from primary CNS lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) allows to quantitatively assess haemodynamic characteristics of brain tissue. We investigated if different brain tumor types can be distinguished from each other using Patlak analysis of PCT data. PCT data from 43 patients with brain tumours were analysed with a commercial implementation of the Patlak method. Four patients had low-grade glioma (WHO II), 31 patients had glioblastoma (WHO IV) and eight patients had intracerebral lymphoma. Tumour regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn in a morphological image and automatically transferred to maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and permeability (K Trans). Mean values were calculated, group differences were tested using Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney U-tests. In comparison with normal parenchyma, low-grade gliomas showed no significant difference of perfusion parameters (p > 0.05), whereas high-grade gliomas demonstrated significantly higher values (p Trans, p Trans values compared with unaffected cerebral parenchyma (p = 0.0078) but no elevation of CBV. High-grade gliomas show significant higher CBV values than lymphomas (p = 0.0078). PCT allows to reliably classify gliomas and lymphomas based on quantitative measurements of CBV and K Trans. (orig.)

  6. The combination of Ki67, histological grade and estrogen receptor status identifies a low-risk group among 1,854 chemo-naïve women with N0/N1 primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Carina; Bak, Martin; Borgquist, Signe;

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to confirm a previously defined prognostic index, combining a proliferation marker, histological grade, and estrogen receptor (ER) in different subsets of primary N0/N1 chemo-naïve breast cancer patients....

  7. Assessment of primary school students’ level of understanding the concepts of 2nd grade life sciences course based on different variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altıntaş Gülşen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The course of Life Sciences is one of the pivot courses taught in the first three years of primary school. Ensuring children get to know their environment and gain correct information related to their problems by making them investigate their natural and socio-cultural environment as well as providing them with necessary information, skills and behaviors for environmental adaptation are among the main purposes of Life Sciences course. The concepts to be instilled in students in line with these purposes are important. Since concepts are mostly intellectual and non-physical, they can only exist tangibly through examples. This study aims to assess Primary School Students’ Level of Understanding the Concepts of 2nd Grade Life Sciences Course Based on Different Variables. 17 concepts included in the 2nd Grade Life Sciences course within the subject of School Excitement were addressed within the study, and students were requested to define and exemplify these concepts. A total of 102 students from five different primary schools of upper-middle and lower socioeconomic classes located in Manisa and Istanbul were included in the study in line with the intentional maximum diversity sample selection. The answers given by students for each concept were categorized and analyzed in terms of liking or disliking home, school, technology and the course of Life Sciences.

  8. Comparison of Values in 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th Grade Primary Education Music Class Students'? Workbooks According to Rokeach?s and Akbas's Value Classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakirer, H. Serdar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the values in the songs of 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary education music classes students? workbooks according to the value categorizations proposed by Rockeach and Akbas and which values among the categories mentioned are taught to the students in the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary education…

  9. Examination of the primary first grade students‘ self -perceptionİlköğretim birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin benlik algısı düzeyinin incelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Özkara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it is aimed to decide self-perception levels of 1st grade primary school students, who start a different environment like primary school for the first time after a secure environment like family. 66-76 month-old students, who continue 1st grade in a primary school and who have not had any preschool education in the city center of Antalya, constitute the universe of the research. 85 children, who are chosen by random sample method from the 1st grades of government schools in Antalya’s one of the central counties, Kepez, and their mothers (n=85 and teachers (n=10, constitute the sample of the research. Data of research is collected with Demoulin’s Self-Perception Scale for Children (6-year-old, which is translated into Turkish and tested for validity and reliability by Kuru-Turaşlı (2006. It is decided that perceptions of mother, teacher and student groups’ about primary school 1st grade students’ levels of self-respect, self-efficacy and self-perception show parallelism. Özetİlköğretim birini sınıf öğrencilerinin benlik algısı düzeyini belirlemek amacıyla yapılan bu çalışmanın evrenini, Antalya İl merkezinde okul öncesi eğitimi almamış İlköğretim birinci sınıfa devam eden 66-76 aylar arasındaki öğrencileri oluşturmaktadır. Örneklemini ise, 2012-2013 eğitim öğretim yılında Antalya merkez ilçelerinden Kepez ilçesine bağlı devlet okullarının birinci sınıfına yeni başlayan çocuklar evreninden tesadüfî örneklem yöntemi ile seçilen 85 çocuk, anneleri ve öğretmenleri (n=10 oluşturmuştur. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak, Demoulin Çocuklar için Benlik Algısı Ölçeği (6 yaş kullanılmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen sonuçlara göre birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin öz saygı, öz yeterlilik ve benlik algısı düzeylerine ilişkin anne, öğretmen ve öğrenci gruplarının algılarının paralellik gösterdiği görülmüştür. Örnekleme al

  10. Examination of Activities in Primary School Social Studies Curriculum Guides (4th to 7th Grades in Terms of Value Education Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman YİĞİTTİR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the situation of sample activities in social studies curriculum guides in terms of value education approaches. In this study document analysis, one of qualitative methods, was employed. Primary school social studies curriculum guides were used as data sources. Data collected from documents were analyzed through content analysis. The results of this study showed that in total 98 (40.2% sample activities, prepared toward value education approaches, are in curriculum guides. In this context, it is detected that values clarification is the most used approach in the sample activities and 7th grade has much more sample activities than others.

  11. Analyzing "Our Arabic language Textbooks" of the Last Grade of Primary Stage with Reference to Bloom’s Taxonomy of the Cognitive Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Zakariya Abu – Dabat

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the contents of ‘Our Arabic Language’ Textbooks for 4th, 5th, and 6th grades of the primary stage in Jordan, also studying and examining the questions employed in the Textbooks. In this respect the main aim was to examine those questions covered the six levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy. From the main aim five questions arise to be answered. Referring to the questions, the results of the study showed that the contents of the Textbooks (the scope of the study) was con...

  12. Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder with coexisting high-grade urothelial carcinoma: a case report and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalbuss Walid

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urinary bladder are rare. Here, we report a case of an 82-year-old man who presented with hematuria and was found to have an ulcerated lesion in the bladder. A diagnosis of small neuroendocrine cell carcinoma with coexisting minor high-grade urothelial components was rendered. In this report, the clinical, cytological, histological, and immunohistochemical features of this case are described, and a review of the literature about this neoplasm is presented. The differential diagnoses of small cell tumor in urinary bladder washing specimens are discussed.

  13. A Study on the Effect of Use of Experimental Method in Teaching the Topic of Simple Machines on 7th Grade Primary School Students Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    TELLİ, Ali; Halil İbrahim YILDIRIM; ŞENSOY, Önder; Necati YALÇIN

    2004-01-01

    This research was carried our in order to determine the effect upon students\\' achievement of student-centered teaching by doing experiment method; in which the students were active and they learnt through practicing and experiencing, in comparison with the influence of teacher-centered teaching method in which the students were passive. Research was executed on the students who are educated at two separate 7th grades in a primary school in Osmaniye province\\'s Düziçi town. One of the 7...

  14. Use of the curriculum research framework (CRF) for developing a reading-comprehension curricular supplement for the primary grades

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This article describes nine phases of curriculum-development activities conducted by the Language and Reading Research Consortium (LARRC), the end result of which was to arrive at a research-based supplemental curriculum that could be used by teachers of English-speaking or bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children in prekindergarten and English-speaking children in kindergarten to third grade to bring about significant changes in students’ language skills as a route to improved reading com...

  15. Use of the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) score in patients with brain metastases from primary tumours not represented in the diagnosis-specific GPA studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Assessment of prognostic factors might influence treatment decisions in patients with brain metastases. Based on large studies, the diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (GPA) score is a useful tool. However, patients with unknown or rare primary tumours are not represented in this model. A pragmatic approach might be use of the first GPA version which is not limited to specific primary tumours. Patients and methods: This retrospective analysis examines for the first time whether the GPA is a valid score in patients not eligible for the diagnosis-specific GPA. It includes 71 patients with unknown primary tumour, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer, thyroid cancer or other uncommon primaries. Survival was evaluated in uni- and multivariate tests. Results: The GPA significantly predicted survival. Moreover, improved survival was seen in patients treated with surgical resection or radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. The older recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) score was significant in univariate analysis. However, the multivariate model with RPA, GPA and surgery or SRS versus none showed that only GPA and type of treatment were independent predictors of survival. Conclusion: Ideally, cooperative research efforts would lead to development of diagnosis-specific scores also for patients with rare or unknown primary tumours. In the meantime, a pragmatic approach of using the general GPA score appears reasonable. (orig.)

  16. THE EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES IN THE PRIMARY EDUCATION 5TH GRADE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM IN TERMS OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRBÜZTÜRK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to know the teachers’ opinions in terms of multiple intelligence theory about the objectives and activities in the units of “Earth, Sun and Moon” and the “Electricity in Our Life” in the primary education 5th grade science and technology curriculum. The survey model was used in this study. The population of this study consists of 262 5th grade teachers working in the center of Malatya. The sample consists of 190 5th grade teachers who were selected randomly. Questionnaire was used to collect data that are consisted of 70 items. Teachers are asked to select one dominant intelligence type for 65 objectives and activities. To analyze the data, the background information of teachers like seniority, graduated faculty, whether or not they had in-service education were compared to teachers opinions about which intelligence area is suitable with these objectives and activities and these comparison information was given and commented with frequencies, percentages and cross tabs. Given the results of this study, about evaluating the objectives and activities in these units, taking all activities in the teaching-learning process into consideration, it is discovered that, teachers generally focus on visual, spatial, logical and mathematical intelligence areas and they think in the same way regardless of their seniority, graduated faculty, and whether or not they had in-service education about teaching-learning theories and models. Some advices are given based on the results of this study.

  17. Perceptions of Parents about the Duties of Primary School Administrators Related to the Attendance Education of Primary School First Grade Students’ Families to School Life

    OpenAIRE

    Özbaş, Mehmet; Erzincan Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü, Eğitim Yönetimi, Teftiş, Planlama ve Ekonomisi Anabilim Dalı Öğretim Üyesi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find the duties of primary school administrators according to the parents of first graders through a multi-subject study at real experimental model in which perceptions of the student families who have been trained about their children’s attendance to school life and the ones who have not been trained with support of educational administration domain expert were determined. The participating parents were divided into two groups: an experimental group, receiving fam...

  18. PRIMARY SCHOOL THE 6th, 7th AND 8th GRADE STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS AND MISCONCEPTIONS ON POINT, LINE AND PLANE CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif DANE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Geometry is established on the undefined concepts. Misunderstanding of the basic concepts in geometry lesson, students will prevent to comprehend on the understanding of other geometry issues exactly. The purpose of this study is to determine the primary six, seven and eight grade students’ the levels of perception and their misconceptions related to the point, line, and plane concepts (Undefined concepts which are the basic concepts Interview protocol including semi-structured essay type questions was formed (GP in the light of expert opinions of GP under Elementary Mathematics Program framework. The interview protocol was asked students’ responses about point, line and plane. Students’ opinions are classified according to their levels of perception. Themes were determined for each level of perception and each theme were divided sub-themes according to the students’ relationship concepts. The descriptive analysis was used for data analysis. Sampling consists of eight primary schools in which each six, seven and eight grade classrooms randomly including 461 of students. Survey method is carried out as a research method. As a result, the students have been identified some difficulties on which the comprehension of the basic geometry concepts such as point, line, and plane. In addition, these concepts are confused with each other and they have some misconceptions.

  19. Characterization of the graded distribution of primary particles and wear behavior in the A390 alloy ring with various Mg contents fabricated by centrifugal casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The centrifugal casting is one of the most effective methods for processing FGMs. • Functionally graded ring with high outer surface hardness can be produced by Al-Si alloys. • Functionally graded ring with high inner surface hardness can be produced by Al-Si-Mg alloys. • The addition of Mg element makes change the gradient distribution of the particles in Al-Si-Mg alloys. - Abstract: Three kinds of functionally graded rings using A390 as a base alloy and containing 0, 6 and 12 wt%Mg were prepared by centrifugal casting, and their microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated and compared. It is shown that the A390 ring without Mg content takes a characteristic of the primary Si particles distribution in the inner and outer layers. The 6%Mg ring reinforced by Si/Mg2Si particles has a different performance with its particles distribution only in the inner layer. Regarding the 12%Mg ring, the Mg2Si reinforced particle is distributed near the entire cross-section. It is demonstrated that the existence of the light in situ Mg2Si particles with lower density rather Al liquid makes changes to the gradient distribution of particles across the cross-section. Characteristics and distribution of the primary particles were assessed by the optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) and image analyzer software. The hardness and wear rate along the thickness of samples were measured to investigate the variation in the mechanical properties corresponding to the variation in microstructure. Also, the worn surfaces of the material were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study the dominant wear regime

  20. Sex, Grade-Level and Stream Differences in Learning Environment and Attitudes to Science in Singapore Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Jarina; Fraser, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Learning environment research provides a well-established approach for describing and understanding what goes on in classrooms and has attracted considerable interest in Singapore. This article reports the first study of science classroom environments in Singapore primary schools. Ten scales from the What Is Happening In this Class?,…

  1. The Effects of an Individualised ICT-Based Music Education Programme on Primary School Students' Musical Competence and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bravo, Juan R.; Cardona-Moltó, M. Cristina; Hernández-Bravo, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an information and communications technology (ICT)-based individualised music education programme on primary students' musical competence. A 2 × 3 aptitude treatment interaction factorial design was used to assess the impact of the programme as a function of students' musical aptitude (MA)…

  2. The World of Barilla Taylor: A Primary Source-Based Kit for Students in Grades 8-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Kelly; Stearns, Liza

    1995-01-01

    Examines a primary source-based kit that describes the life of a young woman factory worker in early 19th-century New England. The kit includes five document sets, utilizing maps, newspaper articles, deeds, letters, poems, and other artifacts. The document sets illustrate various topics including mill life and personal life. (MJP)

  3. Marine Environmental Protection Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors, and Curricular Involvement of Taiwanese Primary School Students in Senior Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wen-cheng; Lu, Shiau-yun

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, rapid changes in the Earth's climate and environment have influenced our lives greatly. The ocean occupies 70% of the Earth's surface and is intimately related to the regulation of climate, fostering of life, and also to social economy, as well as sports and leisure. Students in the senior years of primary education are…

  4. Craniospinal irradiation with concurrent temozolomide for primary metastatic pediatric high-grade or diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. A first report from the GPOH-HIT-HGG Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K.; Schlamann, A.; Pietschmann, S.; Kortmann, R.D. [University Medical Center Leipzig, Department of Radiation Oncology, Leipzig (Germany); Guckenberger, M. [University Medical Center Wuerzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Warmuth-Metz, M. [University Medical Center Wuerzburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Glueck, A. [Clinic for Radiation Oncology Schwabing, Muenchen (Germany); Wawer, A. [University Medical Center Muenchen Schwabing, Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Muenchen (Germany); Kramm, C.; Bueren, A.O. von [University Medical Center Goettingen, Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Goettingen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    High-grade (HGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) with primary metastatic spread are extremely rare and have a dismal prognosis. Analogous to simultaneous radiochemotherapy in non-metastatic HGG and DIPG, concurrent craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and metronomic temozolomide (metroTMZ) may represent a reasonable therapeutic approach. However, the antitumor efficacy and toxicity of this treatment still have to be investigated. Between March 2007 and December 2012, six children with primary metastatic HGG (n=4) or DIPG (n=2) received CSI and concurrent metroTMZ based on individual treatment recommendations and, in some cases, within the HIT-HGG 2007 multicenter trial. Outcome and treatment-related toxicities were evaluated. All patients received irradiation to the entire craniospinal axis (35.2 Gy, n=5; 36 Gy, n=1:) and 5 received a local boost to macroscopic tumor deposits. Simultaneously, metroTMZ (75 mg/m{sup 2}/day, n=5; 60 mg/m{sup 2}/day, n=1) was administered. Additionally, 1 patient received nimotuzumab once per week. Within a median follow-up of 10.0 months (range 6.5-18.7 months), all patients experienced disease progression and 5 patients died. Median progression-free survival was 4.0±0.8 months (range 2.4-10.7 months) and median overall survival was 7.6±3.5 months (range 4.0-17.6 months). Acute myelosuppression most severely limited application of this aggressive treatment strategy. Severe hematotoxicities (= grade 3) occurred in all patients and metroTMZ had to be interrupted or discontinued in 4 out of 6 cases. Concurrent CSI and metroTMZ might represent a feasible treatment approach for primary metastatic HGG and DIPG. On the basis of our experience, severe but manageable acute hematotoxicity has to be expected. An international effort is warranted to reassess the efficacy and toxicity of this approach within a prospective study. (orig.)

  5. Mammographycally occult high grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) as second primary breast cancer, detected with MRI: a case report:

    OpenAIRE

    Zebic-Sinkovec, Marta; Kadivec, Maksimiljan; Podobnik, Gasper; Skof, Erik; Snoj, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Background Contralateral breast cancer (CLB) is the most common second primary breast cancer in patients diagnosed with breast cancer. The majority of patients harbouring CLB tumours develop the invasive disease. Almost all invasive carcinomas are believed to begin as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions. The sensitivity of MRI for DCIS is much higher than that of mammography. Case report We report the case of a woman who was treated with breast conserving therapy 10 years ago. At that tim...

  6. EVALUATION OF EDUCATIONAL ABILITIES IN CHILDREN WITH MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, FIRST GRADE STUDENTS, FROM SPECIAL PRIMARY SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    KOSTIKJ-IVANOVIKJ Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Educational process for children with mild intellectual disability in special primary schools in the Republic of Macedonia is realized byspecial Curriculum for students with difficulties in psychological development, prepared by the Bureau for Development of Education from the Ministry of Education and Science. These programs are developmental, and specially adapted to the abilities and capabilities of students with intellectual disabilities. The specialeducator observing the individual chara...

  7. Primary and secondary contributions to aerosol light scattering and absorption in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    OpenAIRE

    G. Paredes-Miranda; W. P. Arnott; Jimenez, J. L.; Aiken, A. C.; J. S. Gaffney; Marley, N. A.

    2008-01-01

    A photoacoustic spectrometer, a nephelometer, an aetholemeter, and an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to measure at ground level real-time aerosol light absorption, scattering, and chemistry at an urban site located in north east Mexico City (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexican Petroleum Institute, denoted by IMP), as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environments field experiment, MILAGRO, in March 2006. Photoacoustic and reciprocal nephelometer measurements at 532 ...

  8. Knowledge level of primary care physicians who works in Denizli city center and interns in Pamukkale University medical faculty about alzheimer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ergin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Many communities in the world are rapidly ageing, with aging dementia seen in the elderly, incidence and prevalence of Alzheimer and #8217;s disease which is the most common cause of dementia is also increasing. Therefore, primary care physicians will need to play a more significant role on the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer diseases in near future. The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness on Alzheimers disease among primary care physicians who works in Denizli city center and interns in the Medical Faculty in Pamukkale University. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on primary care physicians who works in Denizli city center and interns in the Medical Faculty in Pamukkale University. 93 (60.4% family physicians and 65 (89.0% interns, a total of 158 (69.6% people participated in the study. The University of Alabama Alzheimers Disease Knowledge Test which consists of 12 questions was used to determine Alzheimers disease knowledge score. Data are evaluated by descriptive statistics, and either Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the statistical differences between numeric variables. RESULTS: The mean of Alzheimers disease knowledge score of family physicians and interns were 5.16+/-1.83 and 7.34+/-1.85, respectively (p <0.001. Interns who previously took any course on Alzheimers disease had a higher average score of 8.41+/-1.67 than that of those who did not take any course 5.07+/-1.95, (p=0.04. Previous course among family physicians did not make any difference (p=0.568. CONCLUSION: Alzheimers disease knowledge among primary care physicians and interns is insufficient. Authorities should take the necessary actions to improve this situatio [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 131-136

  9. Prevalence and Determinants of Pre-Hypertension among Omani Adults Attending Non-Communicable Disease Screening Program in Primary Care Setting in Sohar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdullah Al-Maqbali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of pre-hypertension and its association with some selected cardiovascular risk factors among the Omani adult population in the primary healthcare setting.Method: A cross-sectional study involving a sample taken from a National Screening Program of chronic non-communicable diseases in primary healthcare institutions, Sohar city, Sultanate of Oman (July 2006 - December 2007. Inclusion criteria included Omanis aged 40 years or above residents of Sohar city attending primary healthcare institutions not previously diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or chronic kidney diseases. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the demographic, physical and metabolic characteristics. Univariate analysis was used to identify the significant association between the characteristics and normal blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension. Chi-squared test was used for categorical variables analysis and independent t-test was used for continuous variables analysis. In order to examine the strength of significant associations, the multinomial logistic regression analysis was used.Results: There were 1498 participants, 41% were males and 59% were females. Overall, pre-hypertension was observed in 45% of the total study population (95% CI: 0.422 - 0.473. There were more males affected than females (46% versus 44%. About 34% of the total study population was hypertensive. The multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that an increase of one unit of age, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and total blood cholesterol, were significantly associated with higher risk in both pre-hypertension and hypertension. High odds ratio of pre-hypertension and hypertension was found with the total blood cholesterol.Conclusion: The prevalence of pre-hypertension was high among the Omani adult population. The determinants of pre-hypertension in this research age, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and total blood

  10. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION SUPPORTING CHILDREN WITH BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AND THEIR REFERENCE PERSONS IN LOWER PRIMARY SCHOOL (GRADES 1-3)

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Background: in Germany we may state that despite all efforts of inclusive education there is a tendency towards segregated education as far as “Emotional and Social Development” is concerned. In Berlin, the “Transition” project could be developed. By the help of this support approach it was possible all participating children to stay at their primary schools. Aims: the survey was meant to find out in which way the support, in context of the “Transition” project, has contributed to successf...

  11. Opinions of primary school sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students about subjects of science-technology-society-environment

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞRU, Mustafa; Şeker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    In this study, opinions of primary school students about science-technology-society-environment and relation of these opinions in terms of many variables are analysed. For this purpose, screening type of commonly used descriptive researches in education field was used in the study. Total 408 students, as 228 of them are girls and 180 of them are boys attending to two state one private school during the first term of school year of 2010-2011 in Antalya constitute the study group of research.  ...

  12. Opinions of primary school sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students about subjects of science-technology-society-environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Doğru; Fatih Şeker

    2012-01-01

    In this study, opinions of primary school students about science-technology-society-environment and relation of these opinions in terms of many variables are analysed. For this purpose, screening type of commonly used descriptive researches in education field was used in the study. Total 408 students, as 228 of them are girls and 180 of them are boys attending to two state one private school during the first term of school year of 2010-2011 in Antalya constitute the study group of research.&n...

  13. Spontaneous regression and recurrence of primary low-grade B-cell gastric lymphoma on the gastric stump 15 and 20 years after gastroresection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentimone, F; Moncini, C; Pastine, F; Gerini, A; Lucchesi, Q

    2002-09-01

    The recurrence of primary gastric lymphoma (PGL) on the gastric stump after gastroresection is rare. We describe the case of an 84-year-old man who had recurrences 15 and 20 years after a Billroth I gastrectomy. The concordance of the three gastric biopsies showing a low grade B-cell lymphocytic lymphoma of the mucosa-associated tissue, demonstrated the recurrence of the disease. The patient has serological evidence of Helicobacter pylori infection but the eradication therapy had no effect on the evolution of the disease. The case suggests that PGL is really a particular entity in the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma group, characterized by a long spontaneous natural history, with long lasting spontaneous remissions and recurrences. PMID:12094145

  14. Primary high-grade B-cell lymphoma of the breast with concurrent IGH-BCL2 and MYC-IGL translocations in an adolescent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiayuan; Jones, Ashley; Giller, Roger H; Swisshelm, Karen; McGavran, Loris; Meltesen, Lynne; Carstens, Billie; McGranahan, Amy N; Albano, Edythe A

    2011-01-01

    BCL2 and MYC are oncogenes often deregulated in lymphomas. Concurrent IGH-BCL2 and MYC translocations result in a highly aggressive behavior of these tumors. Both primary breast lymphoma and lymphoma with concurrent BCL2-IGH and MYC translocations are rare and are primarily seen in adult patients. As a result of limited clinician experience and the condition's rarity, it poses a great challenge to pediatric pathologists and oncologists in terms of making an accurate diagnosis and choosing better treatment regimens. In this article, we report a case of an adolescent patient who presented with high-grade breast lymphoma with concurrent BCL2-IGH and MYC-IGL translocations, and we review the clinical, pathological, and genetic features; management strategies; and outcomes associated with this unusual neoplasm. PMID:21491965

  15. A Comparative Study of Diadochokinesis and the Rate of Reading and Talking in Second Grade Primary Students of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hourieh Ahadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Children with speech and language disorders can have reduced diadochokinesis (DDK rates. Although a relationship has been proposed between DDK and the rate of speech, there is no consensus among the experts and its credibility remains questioned. The purpose of this study was to compare oral DKK with the rate of speech and reading in normal students.Methods: One hundred second grade female students participated in this descriptive-comparative study. The subjects were asked to read a text of their book, tell a story, and perform some oral DDK tasks. The elapsed time was measured by Cool Edit software. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the data. Data analysis was performed using Student t-test.Results: Time history durations of DDK tasks /tâ/, /pâ/ and /kâ/ were 4.10, 4.15 and 4.74 ms, respectively. The rate of reading was 3.1 syllables per second and rate of talking was 2.8 syllables per second. No relationship between the rate of speech and DDK was found, still, we found a significant association between the reading rate and DDK in /kâ/ (p=0.03 and /pâtâkâ/ (P<0.01.Conclusion: Relevant DDK tasks can be utilized in order to improve the reading rate. Reading rate was higher than speech rate and the rate of bilabial diadochokinesis in mono syllables is the highest rate that may be expected during the treatments.

  16. Mammographycally occult high grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) as second primary breast cancer, detected with MRI: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contralateral breast cancer (CLB) is the most common second primary breast cancer in patients diagnosed with breast cancer. The majority of patients harbouring CLB tumours develop the invasive disease. Almost all invasive carcinomas are believed to begin as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions. The sensitivity of MRI for DCIS is much higher than that of mammography. We report the case of a woman who was treated with breast conserving therapy 10 years ago. At that time the invasive medullary carcinoma was diagnosed in the left breast. Ten years later mammographically occult DCIS was diagnosed with MRI-guided core biopsy in contralateral breast. There might be a potential role of MRI screening as part of an annual follow-up for patients diagnosed with breast cancer

  17. 吉林市城区某小学英语成绩影响因素调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of the Related Influencing Factors on English Subjects in a Primary School of Jilin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳晴; 陈建军; 周忠玲

    2015-01-01

    Purpose] In order to provide ideas for improving primary school students English learning effect and education counter⁃measures, investigate the related influencing factors about the city primary school English subjects. [Method] Choose 148 stu⁃dents in four classes from Grade Five in a primary school of Jilin City as the investigation objects, and use questionnaire and inter⁃view method, investigate some correlation factors of primary school English discipline result distribution, use Excel 2003 and SPSS13.0 for data collection and analysis. [Result] The influence factors selected in this investigation, in addition to the correlation of gender is not obvious (P>0.05), the habits of using the English dictionaries, mother's level of education, extra-class continuation training, the differences of Chinese and mathematics achievement are related to the primary school students ’English achievement distribution (P<0.05). [Conclusion] During the process of primary school English education teaching, pay attention to the family ed⁃ucation, especially the mother’s education, develop a good habit of using dictionaries, the importance of the intensive language training, at the same time, also pay attention to the relationship of the students' balanced development of the subject and the Eng⁃lish language expertise.%[目的]调查分析城区小学生英语学科成绩的相关影响因素,为提高小学生英语学习效果与教育对策提供思路。[方法]选择吉林市城区某小学的五年级4个班的全体148名学生为调查对象,采用问卷调和访谈法,对小学生英语学科成绩分布的一些相关性因素进行调查,并用Excel2003和SPSS13.0进行数据整理与分析。[结果]在本调查所选择的影响因素中,除性别的相关性不明显外(P>0.05),英语词典使用习惯、母亲受教育程度、课外补习培训、语文和数学学科成绩的不同,都与小学生的英语

  18. Remission of primary low-grade gastric lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type in immunocompromised pediatric patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuharu Ohno; Taichirou Kosaka; Izumi Muraoka; Takashi Kanematsu; Akira Tsuru; Eiichi Kinoshita; Hiroyuki Moriuchi

    2006-01-01

    We report the remission of primary gastric lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type in two immunocompromised pediatric patients. Patient 1,a 14-year-old boy in an immunocompromised state of unknown cause, complained of repeated abdominal pain.Examinations revealed gastric MALT with local invasionand lymph node involvement. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) antibody was positive. H pylori eradication was abandoned due to its adverse effects. The MALT lesion spontaneously regressed over the next 24 months without any treatment for lymphoma. Patient 2, a 6-year-old boy, underwent cord blood transplantation for the treatment of adrenoleukodystrophy. He was administered immunosuppressants for graft-versus-host disease after transplantation. Nausea and hematochezia appeared and further examinations revealed gastric MALT with H pylori gastritis. Treatment consisting of medication for the H pylori infection alone eradicated the Hpylori and completely resolved the patient's MALT lesion,as well. Patients 1 and 2 were followed up over periods of 10 years and 3 years, respectively, without any signs of relapse. In conclusion, gastric lymphoma of the MALT type can be cured by conservative treatment even in immunocompromised pediatric patients.

  19. Impact of the ABCDE triage in primary care emergency department on the number of patient visits to different parts of the health care system in Espoo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantonen Jarmo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Finnish emergency departments (ED serve both primary and secondary health care patients and are therefore referred to as combined emergency departments. Primary care doctors are responsible for the initial assessment and treatment. They, thereby, also regulate referral and access to secondary care. Primary health care EDs are easy for the public to access, leading to non-acute patient visits to the emergency department. This has caused increased queues and unnecessary difficulties in providing immediate treatment for urgent patients. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether the flow of patients was changed by implementing the ABCDE-triage system in the EDs of Espoo City, Finland. Methods The numbers of monthly visits to doctors were recorded before and after intervention in Espoo primary care EDs. To study if the implementation of the triage system redirects patients to other health services, the numbers of monthly visits to doctors were also scored in the private health care, the public sector health services of Espoo primary care during office hours and local secondary health care ED (Jorvi hospital. A face-to-face triage system was applied in the primary care EDs as an attempt to provide immediate treatment for the most acute patients. It is based on the letters A (patient sent directly to secondary care, B (to be examined within 10 min, C (to be examined within 1 h, D (to be examined within 2 h and E (no need for immediate treatment for assessing the urgency of patients' treatment needs. The first step was an initial patient assessment by a health care professional (triage nurse. The introduction of this triage system was combined with information to the public on the "correct" use of emergency services. Results After implementation of the ABCDE-triage system the number of patient visits to a primary care doctor decreased by up to 24% (962 visits/month as compared to the three previous years in the EDs

  20. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION SUPPORTING CHILDREN WITH BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AND THEIR REFERENCE PERSONS IN LOWER PRIMARY SCHOOL (GRADES 1-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike BECKER

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: in Germany we may state that despite all efforts of inclusive education there is a tendency towards segregated education as far as “Emotional and Social Development” is concerned. In Berlin, the “Transition” project could be developed. By the help of this support approach it was possible all participating children to stay at their primary schools. Aims: the survey was meant to find out in which way the support, in context of the “Transition” project, has contributed to successful inclusive learning of students with considerable problems in their social behaviour. Methods:a semi-standardized questionnaire for interviewing class teachers of regular school classes was used, and furthermore school certificates were assessed concerning regular school attendance as well as performance in Mathematics and German. Nine Berlin schools took part in the survey. The response rate was 96%. Results: the current survey shows that inclusive education in case of considerable problems in social behaviour may be successful by counselling parents and teachers, by cooperation with school and by youth aid, as well as by way of a temporary learning group relieving both students with difficult behaviour as well as the overall group and the teachers, one succeeds with practicing recognition and acceptance, even despite serious behavioural problems at school. Conclusion: the results clearly show that the teacher - student interaction and the student - student interaction improves significantly in the subjective perception of class teachers. For this relationship to work, all those participating in it need “a specific environment”.

  1. Long-term results of graded pneumatic dilatation under endoscopic guidance in patients with primary esophageal achalasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet Dobrucali; Yusuf Erzin; Murat Tuncer; Ahmet Dirican

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Achalasia is the best known primary motor disorder of the esophagus in which the lower esophageal sphincter(LES) has abnormally high resting pressure and incomplete relaxation with swallowing. Pneumatic dilatation remains the first choice of treatment. The aims of this study were to determine the long term clinical outcome of treating achalasia initially with pneumatic dilatation and usefulness of pneumatic dilatation technique under endoscopic observation without fluoroscopy.METHODS: A total of 65 dilatations were performed in 43patients with achalasia [23 males and 20 females, the mean age was 43 years (range, 19-73)]. All patients underwent an initial dilatation by inflating a 30 mm balloon to 15 psi under endoscopic control. The need for subsequent dilatation was based on symptom assessment. A 3.5 cm balloon was used for repeat procedures.RESULTS: The 30 mm balloon achieved a satisfactory result in 24 patients (54%) and the 35 mm ballon in 78% of the remainder (14/18). Esophageal perforation as a short-term complication was observed in one patient (2.3%). The only late complication encountered was gastroesophageal reflux in 2 (4%) patients with a good response to dilatation. The mean follow-up period was 2.4 years (6 mo - 5 years). Of the patients studied, 38 (88%) were relieved of their symptoms after only one or two sessions. Five patients were referred for surgery(one for esophageal perforation and four for persistent or recurrent symptoms). Among the patients whose follow up information was available, the percentage of patients in remission was 79% (19/24) at 1 year and54% (7/13) at 5 years.CONCLUSION: Performing balloon dilatation under endoscopic observation as an outpatient procedure is simple, safe and efficacious for treating patients with achalasia and referral of surgical myotomy should be considered for patients who do not respond to medical therapy or individuals that do not desire pneumatic dilatations.

  2. Potential prescription patterns and errors in elderly adult patients attending public primary health care centers in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Corona-Rojo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available José Antonio Corona-Rojo1, Marina Altagracia-Martínez1, Jaime Kravzov-Jinich1, Laura Vázquez-Cervantes1, Edilberto Pérez-Montoya2, Consuelo Rubio-Poo31Division of Biological Sciences and Health, Metropolitan Autonomous University, Campus Xochimilco (UAM-X, Xochimilco, México; 2National Polytechnical Institute (IPN, México DF; 3Faculty of Higher Studies – Zaragoza (FES-Zaragoza, National Autonomous University of México (UNAM, México City, MéxicoIntroduction: Six out of every 10 elderly persons live in developing countries.Objective: To analyze and assess the drug prescription patterns and errors in elderly outpatients attending public health care centers in Mexico City, Mexico.Materials and methods: A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in 2007. Fourteen hundred prescriptions were analyzed. Prescriptions of ambulatory adults aged >70 years who were residents of Mexico City for at least two years were included. Prescription errors were divided into two groups: (1 administrative and legal, and (2 pharmacotherapeutic. In group 2, we analyzed drug dose strength, administration route, frequency of drug administration, treatment length, potential drug–drug interactions, and contraindications. Variables were classified as correct or incorrect based on clinical literature. Variables for each drug were dichotomized as correct (0 or incorrect (1. A Prescription Index (PI was calculated by considering each drug on the prescription. SPSS statistical software was used to process the collected data (95% confidence interval; p < 0.05.Results: The drug prescription pattern in elderly outpatients shows that 12 drugs account for 70.72% (2880 of prescribed drugs. The most prescribed drugs presented potential pharmacotherapeutic errors (as defined in the present study. Acetylsalicylic acid–captopril was the most common potential interaction (not clinically assessed. Potential prescription error was high (53% of total prescriptions. Most

  3. Primary and secondary contributions to aerosol light scattering and absorption in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paredes-Miranda

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A photoacoustic spectrometer, a nephelometer, an aetholemeter, and an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to measure at ground level real-time aerosol light absorption, scattering, and chemistry at an urban site located in north east Mexico City (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexican Petroleum Institute, denoted by IMP, as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environments field experiment, MILAGRO, in March 2006. Photoacoustic and reciprocal nephelometer measurements at 532 nm accomplished with a single instrument compare favorably with conventional measurements made with an aethelometer and a TSI nephelometer. The diurnally averaged single scattering albedo at 532 nm was found to vary from 0.60 to 0.85 with the peak value at midday and the minimum value at 7 a.m. local time, indicating that the Mexico City plume is likely to have a net warming effect on local climate. The peak value is associated with strong photochemical generation of secondary aerosol. It is estimated that the same-day photochemical production of secondary aerosol (inorganic and organic is approximately 40 percent of the aerosol mass concentration and light scattering in association with the peak single scattering albedo. A strong correlation of aerosol scattering at 532 nm and total aerosol mass concentration was found, and an average mass scattering efficiency factor of 3.8 m2/g was determined. Comparisons of photoacoustic and aethalometer light absorption with oxygenated organic aerosol concentration (OOA indicate a very small systematic bias of the filter based measurement associated with OOA and the peak aerosol single scattering albedo.

  4. Primary and secondary contributions to aerosol light scattering and absorption in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paredes-Miranda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A photoacoustic spectrometer, a nephelometer, an aethalometer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to measure at ground level real-time aerosol light absorption, scattering, and chemistry at an urban site located in North East Mexico City (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexican Petroleum Institute, denoted by IMP, as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environments field experiment, MILAGRO, in March 2006. Photoacoustic and reciprocal nephelometer measurements at 532 nm accomplished with a single instrument compare favorably with conventional measurements made with an aethalometer and a TSI nephelometer. The diurnally averaged single scattering albedo at 532 nm was found to vary from 0.60 to 0.85 with the peak value at midday and the minimum value at 07:00 a.m. local time, indicating that the Mexico City plume is likely to have a net warming effect on local climate. The peak value is associated with strong photochemical generation of secondary aerosol. It is estimated that the photochemical production of secondary aerosol (inorganic and organic is approximately 75% of the aerosol mass concentration and light scattering in association with the peak single scattering albedo. A strong correlation of aerosol scattering at 532 nm and total aerosol mass concentration was found, and an average mass scattering efficiency factor of 3.8 m2/g was determined. Comparisons of photoacoustic and aethalometer light absorption with oxygenated organic aerosol concentration (OOA indicate a very small systematic bias of the filter based measurement associated with OOA and the peak aerosol single scattering albedo.

  5. Primary and secondary contributions to aerosol light scattering and absorption in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Jimenez, J. L.; Aiken, A. C.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2009-06-01

    A photoacoustic spectrometer, a nephelometer, an aethalometer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to measure at ground level real-time aerosol light absorption, scattering, and chemistry at an urban site located in North East Mexico City (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexican Petroleum Institute, denoted by IMP), as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environments field experiment, MILAGRO, in March 2006. Photoacoustic and reciprocal nephelometer measurements at 532 nm accomplished with a single instrument compare favorably with conventional measurements made with an aethalometer and a TSI nephelometer. The diurnally averaged single scattering albedo at 532 nm was found to vary from 0.60 to 0.85 with the peak value at midday and the minimum value at 07:00 a.m. local time, indicating that the Mexico City plume is likely to have a net warming effect on local climate. The peak value is associated with strong photochemical generation of secondary aerosol. It is estimated that the photochemical production of secondary aerosol (inorganic and organic) is approximately 75% of the aerosol mass concentration and light scattering in association with the peak single scattering albedo. A strong correlation of aerosol scattering at 532 nm and total aerosol mass concentration was found, and an average mass scattering efficiency factor of 3.8 m2/g was determined. Comparisons of photoacoustic and aethalometer light absorption with oxygenated organic aerosol concentration (OOA) indicate a very small systematic bias of the filter based measurement associated with OOA and the peak aerosol single scattering albedo.

  6. GIS as a Tool for Education Decision Support System: A Demonstration with Public Primary Schools in Zaria City Kaduna State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Wali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed at demonstrating the use of GIS in the display of data about primary schools in the walled part of Zaria city, Kaduna State. It is hoped that the database and its graphic display in maps will guide decision making at the primary education level in the study area. Coordinates of the schools were obtained with a handheld GPS receiver, while their attribute data were obtained from the local education authority and triangulated with questionnaires administered to the headmasters of the schools. ArcGIS 9.2 version software was used for buffer zone (1 km. The result indicates that there are 31 public primary schools in the study area. The oldest was established in 1921 and the latest in 2007. Graphic displays of some attributes of the schools were produced. The buffer zones produced suggest no pupil walks more than a kilometer to reach school. It is recommended that in the future, GIS tools should be applied when managing school data. Capacities to achieve this should be developed.

  7. Integration of BOLD-fMRI and DTI into radiation treatment planning for high-grade gliomas located near the primary motor cortexes and corticospinal tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of integrating the blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data into radiation treatment planning for high-grade gliomas located near the primary motor cortexes (PMCs) and corticospinal tracts (CSTs). A total of 20 patients with high-grade gliomas adjacent to PMCs and CSTs between 2012 and 2014 were recruited. The bilateral PMCs and CSTs were located in the normal regions without any overlapping with target volume of the lesions. BOLD-fMRI, DTI and conventional MRI were performed on patients (Karnofsky performance score ≥ 70) before radical radiotherapy treatment. Four different imaging studies were conducted in each patient: a planning computed tomography (CT), an anatomical MRI, a DTI and a BOLD-fMRI. For each case, three treatment plans (3DCRT, IMRT and IMRT-PMC&CST) were developed by 3 different physicists using the Pinnacle planning system. Our study has shown that there was no significant difference between the 3DCRT and IMRT plans in terms of dose homogeneity, but IMRT displayed better planning target volume (PTV) dose conformity. In addition, we have found that the Dmax and Dmean to the ipsilateral and contralateral PMC and CST regions were considerably decreased in IMRT-PMC&CST group (p < 0.001). In conclusion, integration of BOLD-fMRI and DTI into radiation treatment planning is feasible and beneficial. With the assistance of the above-described techniques, the bilateral PMCs and CSTs adjacent to the target volume could be clearly marked as OARs and spared during treatment

  8. A TEXTLINGUISTIC APPROACH TO THE ACTIVITIES EXISTED IN THE THEME OF ‘EMOTIONS’ IN THE TURKISH TEXTBOOK OF THE EIGTH GRADE OF PRIMARY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker AYDIN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this study, the activities prepared for the parsing of the short stories titled “Nerede İnsan Varsa Orada Umut Vardır, Kedi Ağaca Çıktı and Hazır Olun Fırtına Geliyor” reviewed within the context of emotions, in the Turkish textbooks of the eighth grade of primary education, were studied within the framework of the standards of the textlinguistics. The activities of the title of ‘The Understanding and Analysis of the Text’ were parsed and commented by the method of descriptive analysis but it was observed that the activities in question remained at the level of microstructure. The activities called as the word exercises are evaluated as the activities in which the functions and the contextual meanings of the words, in the fiction of the story, are not examined and which are not incompatible with the coherence and cohesion of the text and which aim only to teach the lexical meaning of the words. In the analyzed texts, it was not paid attention to the reiterations and proforms which knit the story as a whole and lead to the semantic macrostructure. In the Turkish teaching program (6-8th grades, the acquisitions of the title of ‘The Understanding and Analysis of the Text Read’ have generally a textlinguistic feature however the activities prepared to reach these acquisitions are inadequate to gain the students the competence of communication requiring the internalizing of the notion ‘text’, understanding and producing of the text by the students. In this respect, it is recommended to re-prepare the activities in the student workbooks to reveal the macrostructure of the text.

  9. Age-Grade Distribution, 1984-85. OEA Analytic Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    The 1984-85 age-grade distribution for the New York City Public Schools shows that one-third of the city's approximately 850,000 general education and resource room students were above the standard age for their grade. The proportion of overage students increased in the upper grades; in grades nine, ten, and eleven, over half were above standard…

  10. Assessing Capacity and Disease Burden in a Virtual Network of New York City Primary Care Providers Following Hurricane Sandy

    OpenAIRE

    Sebek, Kimberly; Jacobson, Laura; Wang, Jason; Newton-Dame, Remle; Singer, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Urban contexts introduce unique challenges that must be addressed to ensure that areas of high population density can function when disasters occur. The ability to generate useful data to guide decision-making is critical in this context. Widespread adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems in recent years has created electronic data sources and networks that may play an important role in public health surveillance efforts, including in post-disaster situations. The Primary Care Info...

  11. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Primary School Children Aged 8–13 Years in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangani, Ismail N.; Kiplamai, Festus K.; Kamau, Jane W.; Onywera, Vincent O.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The understanding of obesity as a growing health problem in Africa and Tanzania in particular is hampered by lack of data as well as sociocultural beliefs in which overweight and obesity are revered. This study sought to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children aged 8–13 years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Method. A cross-sectional analytical research design was used to study overweight and obesity in primary schools in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The target population was 150,000 children aged 8–13 years. Stratified random sampling was used to select 1781 children. Weight and height were taken and WHO standards for children were used to determine weight status. Results. Findings showed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.9% and 6.7%, respectively (N = 1781). However, 6.2% of the children were underweight. There were significant differences in mean BMI between children in private and public schools (p = 0.021), between male and female (p obesity among primary school children is significant and requires management and prevention strategies.

  12. related Factors of complete basic Immunization on children and Vaccine Management at Primary Health care and Health Post in X Subdistrict Depok city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Afriani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available background:Immunization is an effective primary prevention against infectious diseases on children. The purpose of this study was to determine the related factors to the completeness of basic immunization on children and vaccine management at primary health care and posyandu in X Subdistric, Depok City. Methods:The study used a cross-sectional design with a sample of 140 mothers of children aged at least 11 months, and qualitatif study about vaccines management. Mother and child data collection using questionnaires and child health card (Kartu Menuju Sehat in December 2012–May 2013. Vaccine management data was collected at 2 primary health care and 2 posyandu with interview and observation. Data analysis was performed with Chi-square test. result:The largest percentage of mothers who have children under the age of at least 11 months of age <30 years, at least graduated from junior high school education, no work, have a low knowledge about immunization. Vaccine management in clinics and neighborhood health center for storage after use of vaccines in posyandu not be returned to the community health center, recording and reporting is not done on the book of the records so that the possibility of scattered or lost, and the person in charge of managing the vaccine instead of pharmacy personnel. Residual use of the vaccine in posyandu not directly returned to the health center. Recording the use of vaccines in posyandu not carried on the books, so it is probable scattered or lost. Manager vaccine at primary health care should a technical pharmacy in accordance with Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009 conclusion: Completeness of basic immunization of children under one years old (82,9%, incomplete biggest measles immunization (15,0%. Factors parental characteristics (age, education, occupation, knowledge and the availability of the vaccine were not significantly associated with children complete basic immunization. recommendation: Improving health

  13. Sport injury among primary and middle school students in Shenzhen city;a retrospective study%深圳市中小学生运动伤害现况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌清琼; 王峰娟; 周丽; 吴小敏; 陈青山

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of sports injuries among primary and middle school students and to provide related preventive measures. Methods A retrospective survey on injuries during previous one year was conducted among 3 600 primary and middle school students selected by means of stratified cluster sampling in Shenzhen city. Results The incidence of sports injuries was 21.61%. The injury incidence of third grade students(9. 62% ) was lower than that of other grades. The boys had a higher injury incidence than girls (23. 93 % vs 18.40% ), the only-child higher than the non-only-child( 26. 43% vs 18. 24% ), and the children from temporary household higher than the permanent residential children (24. 07% vs 18. 53% ). Running,playing basketball and soccer,and skating/skateboard were the main sports causing injuries. The students reported 1 536 absenses of class, 4 994 days of activity limitation, and 66 460 RMB yuan of medical expenses due to the injuries. Classification tree analysis showed that playing was the most important risk factor and the boys who liked playing and imitation or mischief were at a higher risk of injury. Conclusion The rate of sport injuries among school children in Shenzhen city is high. Safe management and education should be strengthened in order to prevent injuries among the school children.%目的 了解广东省深圳市中小学生运动伤害现况及影响因素,以减少运动伤害的发生.方法 分层整群抽取3 540名深圳市中小学生,回顾性调查1年间运动伤害情况.结果 中小学运动伤害发生率为21.61%,3年级(9.62%)低于其他年级,男生(23.93%)高于女生(18.40%),独生子女(26.43%)高于非独生子女(18.24%),暂住户籍(24.07%)高于本地户籍(18.53%);导致伤害的运动主要是跑步(31.76%)和篮球(26.93%);不同运动导致伤害的部位和伤害后果不同,伤害后累计缺课1 536节,活动受限4 994.5 d,医疗费用66 460元;分类树分析显示,打

  14. Investigation on intestinal helminth infection in primary school students in Nanning city%南宁市小学生肠道蠕虫感染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡缨; 李艳文; 石焕焕

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解南宁市小学生肠道蠕虫感染现状,为儿童保健及寄生虫病防治工作提供科学依据.方法:按照自愿受检的原则,对南宁市12所小学的5 769名学生进行肠道蠕虫的病原学检查,并分析阳性者的感染情况.结果:肠道蠕虫总感染率为6.74% (389/5 769),均为单一虫种和轻度感染;蛔虫、鞭虫和钩虫的总感染率为2.84% (164/5 769),感染率城乡差异明显,男女生感染率差异无统计学意义,低年级组学生感染率最高;华支睾吸虫感染率为3.90% (225/5 769),感染率城乡差异明显,男女生感染率差异有统计学意义,高年级组学生感染率最高;感染者大多有不良饮食习惯和或卫生习惯.结论:只有全面推进和落实健康教育工作,才能降低肠道蠕虫感染,切实保护儿童身体健康.%Objective: To understand the current situation of intestinal helminth infection in primary school students in Nanning city, and provide a scientific basis for child health care and prevention and control of parasitic diseases. Methods: According to the principle of voluntariness, etiological examination of intestinal helminth was conducted among 5 769 students from 12 primary schools in Nanning city, and the infectious status of positive cases was analyzed. Results: The total infection rate of intestinal helminth was 6.74% (389/ 5 769) , all the cases were infected by simple intestinal helminth and the infection was mild; the total infection rate of roundworm, whipworm, and hookworm was 2. 84% (164/5 769) , the difference of infection rate between urban areas and rural areas was significant, there was no statistically significant difference in the infection rate between boys and girls, the infection rate in low - grade students was the highest; the infection rate of clonorchis sinensis was 3. 90% (225/5 769) , the difference of infection rate between urban areas and rural areas was significant, there was statistically significant

  15. Molecular MRI differentiation between primary central nervous system lymphomas and high-grade gliomas using endogenous protein-based amide proton transfer MR imaging at 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To show the ability of using the amide proton transfer-weighted (APTW) MRI signals as imaging biomarkers to differentiate primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) from high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Eleven patients with lymphomas and 21 patients with HGGs were examined. Magnetization-transfer (MT) spectra over an offset range of ±6 ppm and the conventional MT ratio (MTR) at 15.6 ppm were acquired. The APTW signals, total chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer signal (integral between 0 and 5 ppm, CESTtotal), and MTR signal were obtained and compared between PCNSLs and HGGs. The diagnostic performance was assessed with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The PCNSLs usually showed more homogeneous APTW hyperintensity (spatially compared to normal brain tissue) than the HGGs. The APTWmax, APTWmax-min and CESTtotal signal intensities were significantly lower (P < 0.05, 0.001 and 0.05, respectively), while the APTWmin and MTR were significantly higher (both P < 0.01) in PCNSL lesions than in HGG lesions. The APTW values in peritumoral oedema were significantly lower for PCNSLs than for HGGs (P < 0.01). APTWmax-min had the highest area under the ROC curve (0.963) and accuracy (94.1 %) in differentiating PCNSLs from HGGs. The protein-based APTW signal would be a valuable MRI biomarker by which to identify PCNSLs and HGGs presurgically. (orig.)

  16. Molecular MRI differentiation between primary central nervous system lymphomas and high-grade gliomas using endogenous protein-based amide proton transfer MR imaging at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shanshan [Southern Medical University, Department of Radiology, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yu, Hao; Wang, Xianlong; Lu, Shilong; Feng, Lyujin; Wen, Zhibo [Southern Medical University, Department of Radiology, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Li, Yufa [Southern Medical University, Department of Pathology, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Yi; Heo, Hye-Young; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Zhou, Jinyuan [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To show the ability of using the amide proton transfer-weighted (APTW) MRI signals as imaging biomarkers to differentiate primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) from high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Eleven patients with lymphomas and 21 patients with HGGs were examined. Magnetization-transfer (MT) spectra over an offset range of ±6 ppm and the conventional MT ratio (MTR) at 15.6 ppm were acquired. The APTW signals, total chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer signal (integral between 0 and 5 ppm, CEST{sub total}), and MTR signal were obtained and compared between PCNSLs and HGGs. The diagnostic performance was assessed with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The PCNSLs usually showed more homogeneous APTW hyperintensity (spatially compared to normal brain tissue) than the HGGs. The APTW{sub max}, APTW{sub max-min} and CEST{sub total} signal intensities were significantly lower (P < 0.05, 0.001 and 0.05, respectively), while the APTW{sub min} and MTR were significantly higher (both P < 0.01) in PCNSL lesions than in HGG lesions. The APTW values in peritumoral oedema were significantly lower for PCNSLs than for HGGs (P < 0.01). APTW{sub max-min} had the highest area under the ROC curve (0.963) and accuracy (94.1 %) in differentiating PCNSLs from HGGs. The protein-based APTW signal would be a valuable MRI biomarker by which to identify PCNSLs and HGGs presurgically. (orig.)

  17. An Example of Democracy Education in Primary Schools: School Student Councils (Case of Elazığ City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri GÖMLEKSİZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this descriptive study is to determine the opinions of primary schoolteachers and members of student councils about the efficiency level of the student councils inprimary schools. For the purpose of the study, a 20-item Likert-type scale was developed bythe researchers. Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient of the scale was calculated to be .94.245 students and 199 primary school teachers were included in the study. Independent groupsT-test, One way Anova and LSD tests were utilized to analyze the data. Both the teachers’and the students’ views were evaluated in terms of socio-economic levels of the schools. Theresults of the study indicated that both the teachers and the students found student council activities effective and useful. Findings also revealed that teachers and students had positiveopinions toward student councils. It is suggested that student council activities be maintained.Additionally, some useful implications are discussed based on the research findings in orderto conduct student councils effectively.

  18. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modeling and Analysis of the Proposed Channel Modifications and Grade Control Structure on the Blue River near Byram's Ford Industrial Park, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Blue River Channel Modification project being implemented by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is intended to provide flood protection within the Blue River valley in the Kansas City, Mo., metropolitan area. In the latest phase of the project, concerns have arisen about preserving the Civil War historic area of Byram's Ford and the associated Big Blue Battlefield while providing flood protection for the Byram's Ford Industrial Park. In 1996, the USACE used a physical model built at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) in Vicksburg, Miss., to examine the feasibility of a proposed grade control structure (GCS) that would be placed downstream from the historic river crossing of Byram's Ford to provide a subtle transition of flow from the natural channel to the modified channel. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USACE, modified an existing two-dimensional finite element surface-water model of the river between 63d Street and Blue Parkway (the 'original model'), used the modified model to simulate the existing (as of 2006) unimproved channel and the proposed channel modifications and GCS, and analyzed the results from the simulations and those from the WES physical model. Modifications were made to the original model to create a model that represents existing (2006) conditions between the north end of Swope Park immediately upstream from 63d Street and the upstream limit of channel improvement on the Blue River (the 'model of existing conditions'). The model of existing conditions was calibrated to two measured floods. The model of existing conditions also was modified to create a model that represents conditions along the same reach of the Blue River with proposed channel modifications and the proposed GCS (the 'model of proposed conditions'). The models of existing conditions and proposed conditions were used to simulate the 30-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence floods. The discharge from the calibration flood of May 15, 1990, also

  19. Actual Condition of Quality Control of X-ray Imaging System in Primary Care Institution: focused on Gwangju Metropolitan City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the expanded use of radiation in modern medical practices, the most important issue in regards to efforts to reduce individual exposure dose is quality assurance. Therefore in order to study the present condition of quality assurance, the Gwangju Metropolitan City area was divided into five districts each containing ten hospitals. Four experiments were conducted: a reproducibility experiment for kVp, mA, and examination time (sec) intensity of illumination; half-value layer (HVL) measurement; and beam perpendicularity test matching experiment. The tube voltage reproducibility experiment for all fifty hospitals resulted in a 95.33% passing rate and mA and examination time both resulted in a 77.0% passing rate. The passing rate for intensity of illumination was 86.0% and 52.0% for HVL, which was the lowest passing rate of all four factors. For the beam perpendicularity test matching experiment, generally the central flux is matched to within 1.5.deg. . Of all fifty hospitals 30.0% were beyond 3.deg. . The results of the survey showed that 58% responded that they knew about quality assurance cycle. All fifty respondents stated that they have not received any training in regards to quality assurance at their current place of employment. Although quality assurance is making relative progress, the most urgent issue is awareness of the importance of quality assurance. Therefore, the implementation of professional training focusing on safety management and accurate quality assurance of radiation will reduce the exposure to radiation for radiologists and patients and higher quality imaging using less dosage will also be possible

  20. Career Education Program: Geneva Area City Schools. [Grade 3 Units: Money and Banking, Weather, The Hospital Emergency Room, and Let's Go to Town].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    Four curriculum units for the third grade level focus on: (1) weather station jobs and the weather prediction system; (2) hospital emergency room workers and the room's function; (3) bank workers and the banking industry; and (4) various urban workers. Behavioral objectives linking the units focus on increasing students' awareness of and…

  1. [Family Health Support Centers: challenges and opportunities from the perspective of primary care professionals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andréa Tenório Correia da; Aguiar, Márcia Ernani de; Winck, Kelly; Rodrigues, Karen Gonzaga Walter; Sato, Mariana Eri; Grisi, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero; Brentani, Alexandra; Rios, Izabel Cristina

    2012-11-01

    Family Health Support Centers (NASF) were created in Brazil to increase the case-resolution capacity of primary healthcare. Prior to their implementation in the West Side of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, a series of workshops were held for primary healthcare professionals to prepare a proposal for such centers. Hermeneutic analysis was used to study the transcribed material. The thematic categories were: role, constitution, and functioning of the NASF, relationship with family health teams, and interdisciplinarity. The participants' expected the NASF to be an empowering device for comprehensiveness of care, intervening in an existing culture of unnecessary referrals while fostering linkage with other levels of care. The participants also expected the NASF to contribute to the discussion on health professionals' training and stimulating reflection with policymakers on health indicators based exclusively on the number of consultations. These indicators fail to reflect the impact on the services' activities and the quality of care offered to the population in the coverage area. PMID:23147949

  2. Analysis of an effective solution to excessive heat supply in a city primary heating network using gas-fired boilers for peak-load compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hai-Chao; Jiao, Wen-Ling; Zou, Ping-Hua; Liu, Jing-Cheng [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, mail box 2645, 202 Haihe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Through investigation of the Dengfeng heating network in the city of Daqing, China, for the 2007-2008 heating season, we found serious problems of excessive heat supply in the primary heating network. Therefore, we propose the application of gas-fired boilers in underperforming heating substations as peak-load heat sources to effectively adapt to the regulation demands of seasonal heat-load fluctuations and reduce the excessive heat supply. First, we calculated the excessive heat supply rates (EHSRs) of five substations using detailed investigative data. We then discussed the feasibility of the proposed scheme providing energy savings from both energetic and exergetic points of view. The results showed that the average EHSR of the five substations between January and March was 20.57% of the gross heat production but consequently reduced to 6.24% with the installation of the gas-fired boilers. Therefore, the combined heating scheme with coal as the basic heat-source and gas-fired boilers as peak-load heat sources is energy-efficient to some extent, although requires the use of natural gas. Meanwhile, the exergy decreased by 10.97%, which indicates that the combined heating scheme effectively reduces the primary energy consumption and pollutant emission of the heating systems. (author)

  3. Nutritional Status of Primary and Secondary School Students in Weihui City%卫辉市中小学生营养现状调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂强强; 张子祥; 朱建勇; 范静怡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the nutritional status of primary and secondary school students in Weihui city, Henan province, so as to provide basis for improving health - care in schools. Methods According to the physical examination data of primary and secondary students in Weihui city during 2011 -2012 academic year, physical health indicators of which were statistically analyzed. Results Totally 46 511 students within 6-15 years old were examined. Detect rates of malnutrition, low weight status, obesity and over weight were respectively 7. 17% , 45. 6% , 6. 60% and 3. 75%. Additionally, it showed significant differences with respect of areas and gender when combining the detection rates of malnutrition and low weight. The combined detection rates of schoolboys and schoolgirls in rural areas and urban areas were 56. 14% , 55. 28% , 50. 58% and 45. 07% , respectively. Conclusion Malnutrition and low weight are prevalent in primary and secondary students, especially the rural ones.%目的 了解河南省卫辉市中小学生的营养状况,为开展学校卫生保健工作提供依据.方法 依据2011-2012学年卫辉市46 511名6~15岁小学、初中学生体检资料,根据身高标准体重值,进行营养状况分析.结果 该市中小学生营养不良、较低体重、肥胖、超重检出率依次为7.17%、45.60%、6.60%和3.75%;学生营养不良、较低体重合并检出率有城乡、性别差异,以农村男女学生为甚,其次为城区男生、城区女生,检出率以次为56.14%、55.28%、50.58%和45.07%.结论 卫辉市中小学学生特别是农村学生营养不良、较低体重状况较重,应采取积极有效的措施实施进行干预.

  4. 西安市城区六年级超重肥胖学生BMI及其影响因素分析%The BMI of the sixth grade students with overweight and obesity in Xi'an city and their related influencing fac-tors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 张月芳; 杨丽芳; 俱西驰; 张欢; 郭萌

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解西安城区六年级超重肥胖学生饮食、运动状况,为制定儿童超重肥胖的预防措施提供科学依据。方法回顾性分析西安城区295名六年级超重肥胖小学生2009-2012年体重指数(BM I)变化情况;问卷调查其饮食习惯及运动状况。结果2009-2012年超重肥胖学生BM I值呈逐年上升趋势( P<0.001)。超重肥胖儿童食欲好、进食速度快、每天坚持吃早餐人数少、喜吃甜食、有睡前加餐及喝奶习惯。超重肥胖学生看电视打游戏的时间长,而户外运动时间短。结论不良的饮食习惯及静态活动多而户外活动少等是小学高年级学生发展为超重肥胖儿童的影响因素。%Objective To invesgate diet habits and movement conditions for the sixth grade students with overweight and obesity in Xi'an City ,and provide scientific preventive measures about overweight and obesity .Methods 295 sixth grade students with overweight and obesity from Xi'an City were studied about body mass index (BMI) changes in 2009-2012 years ;known their diet habits and movement type through questionnaires .Results Their BMI value increased year by year (P<0 . 001) .The students had some bad habits ,including overeating ,eating fast and eating breakfast fewer .They liked eating sweets and snacks ,drinking milk before sleep .They spended much more time on watching TV and playing games .Their outdoor sports time was shorter .Conclusion The influencing factors about overweight and obese of high grade students in primary school are various ,mainly including bad diet habits and more static activities and less outdoor activities .

  5. Pay for Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2008-01-01

    The practice of paying students to earn good grades either in class or on standardized achievement tests has touched off a storm of controversy. Praised by some educators as a way of linking economic rewards to school performance, it is being tested in a number of large cities, such as New York, Baltimore and Chicago, as well as some smaller…

  6. Human Resources and Vaccine Management at Provincial Health Office, District/City Health Office and Primary Health Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Leny Susyanty

    2015-03-01

    (GAIN UCI 2010–2014 stated that the general problems of decline in immunization coverage and quality of service were caused by several things, one of which is the lack of quantity, quality and distribution of human resources. Methods: A cross-sectional mix-method study to investigate human resources in vaccine management had been conducted in two provinces in 2012. Primary data were collected by interviewing stakeholders thoroughly, secondary data collection and observation were also carried out. Analysis was done by scoring for data concerning education, length of employment, training experience and knowledge. Result:The number of Vaccine management officers are still lacking. While the immunization guidelines required minimal two officers for each health centers. Officers’ knowledge in primary health centers is still inadequate, especially in terms of the vaccine and Coldchain (Ice Lined Refrigerators. Officers at Provincial Health Office had been trained in vaccine management, but not all officers at District Health Office and Primary Health Centers had received training yet. Suggestion: This study suggests the addition of the quantity and quality of human resources in vaccine management, because the officers can affect the quality of the vaccines, because vaccines need a special handling to maintain the quality to provide immunity and prevent the occurrence of diseases that can be prevented by immunization (PD3I.Key words: vaccine, human resources, training, knowledge

  7. PSYCHOTROPIC MEDICINE PRESCRIPTIONS IN A PRIMARY CARE UNIT IN A BIG CITY OF SÃO PAULO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Oliveira da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming toknowthe consumptionprofileof psychotropic drugs inpopulation ofperipheral region of abig cityof São Paulo State, 800 prescriptionsfromaPrimary CareUnitareassessedaccordingto344/98-SVS/MS.In that timethecontrolof these drugs were mademanually.The results showed1371 drugsdispensedandamong those1134were psychotropic.Thetotal was64,513pillunits, an average of 107 units with 1.7 drugs per prescription, while82.1% came from public services. The total number of drugs prescribed per prescription had themajority (60.0% onedrug, 20.3%, two drugs, three drugs 11.6%, 6.6% four or moremedications, including those not controlled (14% . Twenty drugswerenot on the standard list.Of controlled, 78.4% belonged to theclassC1 and21.6% toB1.There is a large consumption ofpsychotropic medications for thispoorpopulation, with a prevalence of antidepressants. Thesubsequent implementation of the computerized system significantly reduced the units dispensed,indicating that forms of management are factors to be considered in the rational use of drugs,such as the use of technologies and also the wide range of approaches to health education, such astraining of health professionals, including prescribers

  8. Anemia status of primary and middle school students in Pingdu city%平度市中小学生贫血状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋转; 李芹; 臧金林

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To know the anemia status of primary and middle school students in Pingdu city and provide the basis for mak-ing more effective preventive therapy strategies.Methods:The surveillance data of anemia of school students in Pingdu city during 2010 were statistically analyzed.Results:A total of 997 students were surveyed in 2010 ,the incidence of anemia was 3.71 %.The rate of inci-dence of anemia was higher with the students,age increased and there was significant difference(χ2 =1 5.53,P =0.0037).The incidence of anemia in girls was significantly higher than that in boys of 14、1 7 ages(P <0.001)Conclusion:The rate of incidence of anemia of students was lower in Pingdu city,while it is necessary to pay attention to the anemia of 1 7-age group especially girl students.Improve the imple-mentation of health education in schools and enhance the self health care consciousness in students to maintain the low incidence of anemia.%目的::分析平度市中小学生贫血患病状况,为制定更有针对性的贫血防治措施提供依据.方法:利用2010年平度市学生体质与健康调研所获得的贫血患病数据进行统计学分析.结果:2010年平度市共调查中小学生997人,贫血检出率为3.71%,随着年龄的增加,学生贫血检出率逐渐增高(χ2=15.53,P =0.0037),各年龄组性别比较,14岁组和17岁组男女比较有统计学意义(P <0.001),女生贫血率明显高于男生.结论:平度市中小学生贫血检出率较低,但应注意17岁年龄组学生的贫血情况,尤其是女生,加强健康干预,防治缺铁性贫血,提高儿童身体健康和智力发育水平.

  9. 浅析绵阳生态城市建设%Primary Analysis for the Establishment of Ecological City of Mianyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新合

    2005-01-01

    This paper probes into the establishment of ecological city of Mianyang and directive thoughts, measures,and countermoves are put forward based on analyzing the current situation about ecological environment of Mianyang City.

  10. 中国四城市中小学生白水及饮料的饮用量%Daily intake of plain water and beverages of primary and middle school students in four cities of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜松明; 胡小琪; 张倩; 王晓君; 潘慧; 高建梅; 宋峻; 高春霖; 何志凡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the daily consumption of plain water and beverages of primary and middle school students in four cities of China.Methods A total of 5914 students from Beijing,Shanghai,Guangzhou and Chengdu were selected using multiple-stage random sampling method,and 5868 students completed the study from September to October 2011.The information on amounts and types of drinking water was recorded using a 24 hour measurement for seven consecutive days.The amount of plain water and beverages was analyzed for subjects in different gender,grades and cities.Results The daily consumption of plain water of subjects was (744 ± 484) ml (68.3% of total drinking water) with statistically significant difference among the Guangzhou,Beijing,Shanghai and Chengdu ((869 ± 528),(818 ±518),(702 ±471),and (573 ±333)ml;F =113.74,P <0.05).The amount of plain water in boys (809 ± 534) ml was significantly higher than in girls (683 ± 436) ml (Z =9.58,P < 0.05) while higher in urban (792 ± 531) ml than in rural (695 ± 427) ml (Z =-6.09,P < 0.05).The consumption of plain water in high school students was the highest (829 ±513)ml,and that in primary students was the lowest (672 ±426) ml (F =55.23,P < 0.05).The average daily consumption of beverages was (345 ± 287) ml (31.7% of total drinking water) and the highest in Shanghai (424 ± 304) ml,then in Beijing (347 ± 303) ml and in Guangzhou (316 ± 267) ml,the lowest in Chengdu (293 ± 255) ml (F =58.94,P < 0.05).The consumption of beverages for stduents in urban areas (394 ± 301)ml was higher than that in rural areas (296 ± 264)ml (Z =-14.48,P < 0.05),but no significant difference between boys (348 ± 306) ml and girls (342 ±269) ml (Z =-1.44,P > 0.05).The consumption of beverages of high school students (356 ± 309) ml and middle school students (360 ± 301) ml were higher than primary school students (328 ± 263) ml (F =8.37,P < 0.05).Conclusion The major drinking water of primary and middle school

  11. Cities within Cities: An Urbanization Approach in the Gulf Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bamakhrama, Salim Salah

    2015-01-01

    Within Dubai, nineteen out of the original 112 mega-projects carried the word city in their names, a phenomenon that is common in Gulf cities such as Dubai, Riyadh and Abu Dhabi. To further explore this phenomenon, this thesis focuses on three aspects that affect the dynamic relationship between the primary city and the cities within cities (sub-cities) in the Gulf region with special emphasis on Dubai. First, the naming problem of the sub-city illustrates why the tension between competing id...

  12. Water intake of primary and middle school students in four cities of China%中国四城市中小学生的饮水量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜松明; 潘慧; 胡小琪; 张倩; 王晓君; 卢立新; 邹淑蓉; 范健文; 李晓辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查中国4个城市中小学生饮水量,为制定中国中小学生饮水参考摄人量标准提供科学依据.方法 采用多阶段随机抽样的方法,于201 1年9-10月在北京、上海、广州、成都抽取了5914名中小学生,完成调查5868名.采用连续7d24h的饮水记录法,调查研究对象每次饮水量等信息.分析比较不同城市、城乡、性别、年龄段中小学生的饮水量.结果 中国4个城市中小学生每天的饮水量为(1089±540) ml;北京、上海、成都、广州分别为(1165 ±549)、(1126 ±544)、(866±421)、(1185±568)ml,各城市之间的差异有统计学意义(F=114.28,P<0.05);男生每天饮水量[(1157±575)ml]高于女生[(1026±498)ml] (Z=8.88,P<0.05);城区[(1185±578) ml]高于农村[(991±480)ml] (Z=13.94,P<0.05);7~ 10、11 ~13和14 ~ 17岁3个年龄段中小学生的饮水量依次增加,分别为(953±483)、(1134±551)和(1170±557) ml,差异有统计学意义(x2=91.53,P<0.05).结论 在中国4个城市中,不同城市、城乡、性别、年龄中小学生的饮水量存在差别.%Objective To investigate total intake of drinking water of primary and middle school students in four cities of China,and to provide scientific evidence for developing standard of intake of drinking water for primary and middle school students in China.Methods A total of 5914 primary and middle school students were selected from Beijing,Shanghai,Chengdu and Guangzhou using multi-stage random sampling method and 5868 subjects completed the survey.The information on the amounts of daily drinking water was recorded for seven consecutive days using a 24 hour measurement.The amounts of daily drinking water among different cities and ages and between boys and girls or urban and rural were analyzed.Results The average daily total drinking water of subjects was (1089 ± 540)ml,with significant differences among the four cities ((1165 ± 549),(1126 ± 544),(866 ± 421),(1185 ± 568) ml in

  13. Microorganisms and viruses causing diarrhea in infants and primary school children and their relation with age and sex in Zakho city, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijdan M.S. Mero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diarrheal diseases in children are a major public health concern in developing countries. Diarrheal infection spreads through contaminated food or drinking-water, or from person-to-person as a result of poor hygiene. This study was conducted to investigate the incidence of different microorganisms associated with diarrhea in infants and primary school children and their relation to sex and age in Zakho city, Kurdistan region, Iraq. Methods: During the period from September 2013 to May 2014, 600 diarrheic samples were collected from both sexes and different ages (4-8 years (65.38 and 64.07%, while parasites were among >6-10 years (64.67 and 60.11%. High viral prevalence were recorded among ages <2 to 6 years with the peak among <2 years (40.54%. Conclusions: From this study we conclude that about 57% of diarrheal cases were associated with bacteria, parasites, and viruses with E. coli, E. histolytica, G. lamblia and rotavirus as leading microorganisms. The mixed prevalence with two or more microorganisms was documented in 179 (37.36% out of 479 positive samples and the rate of microbial prevalence was found to be gender and age dependent. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3266-3273

  14. 如何实施小学高年级语文阅读教学%How to Implement the Teaching of Chinese Reading in Senior Grade of Primary School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡黎红

    2014-01-01

    In the process of primary school Chinese teaching of senior grade,reading teaching is an important part of the grade five or six years of primary school Chinese teaching to cultivate the focus should be on the students’ reading ability and writing ability. Therefore,the article the author’s own teaching practice and experience, analyzes how to improve the Chinese teaching of the elementary school higher grades, promoting elementary student’s reading ability, improve efficiency of primary school Chinese teaching.%在小学语文高年级教学的过程中,阅读教学是其重要组成部分,五六年级的小学语文教学培养重点应该是学生的阅读能力与写作能力。因此,结合教学实践以及经验,对如何提高小学高年级的语文教学进行分析,旨在提升小学生的阅读能力,提升小学语文教学的效率。

  15. DENGUE VECTOR CONTROL BEHAVIOR IN PRIMARY SCHOOL COMMUNITY IN TEMBALANG DISTRICT, SEMARANG CITY=PENGENDALIAN VEKTOR DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE PADA KOMUNITAS SEKOLAH DASAR DI KECAMATAN TEMBALANG, KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryani Pujiyanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISHAbstractTembalang district was a Dengue endemic area in Semarang City that had a highest incidence rate of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF in 2010. Aedes vector control behavior was still low. School community’s vector control behavior played a role in dengue prevention programs in schools. The purpose of the study was to identify knowledge, attitude and behavior of dengue vector control in primary school community. This study used across sectional design. Samples were 107 primary school teachers and janitors in Tembalang District, Semarang City in 2011. Sampel was choosed with proportional random sampling method. Data were collected through interviews using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed descriptively (univariat analysis. Results showed that school community awareness in dengue transmission was low because respondents did not know about secondary infection of DHF and the existence of Aedes mosquito that perceived unserious in community. Respondents did not feel as risk population because dengue was understood as a disease that attacked school children rather than adults. The effectiveness of mosquito nest eradication (PSN for vector control activity in Tembalang District did not have positive response from school community. Vector control and biting prevention in school environment were need improvement. This study recommended health promotion to DHF infection, mosquito nest eradication activities, and DHF vector behavior for teacher and janitorsINDONESIANAbstrakKecamatan Tembalang merupakan wilayah endemis DBD dengan angka kesakitan DBD tertinggi di Kota Semarang pada Tahun 2010.Perilaku pengendalian jentik nyamuk Aedes di lingkungan sekolah di Kecamatan Tembalang masih rendah. Pemahaman komunitas sekolah terhadap upaya pengendalian vektor ikut berperan dalam program pencegahan DBD di sekolah.Tujuan penelitian adalah mengidentifikasi pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku pengendalian vektor DBD pada komunitas sekolah dasar

  16. Knowledge and misconception on HIV/AIDS and associated factors among primary school students within the window of opportunity in Mekelle city, North Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haftay Gebremedhin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV has emerged as a major health and development concern worldwide. Today, more than half of all new infections strike people under the age of 25 years. In Ethiopia, information on knowledge about HIV/AIDS among these early adolescents is a little known. Therefore, this study aimed to assess knowledge and misconception on HIV/AIDS among school students within the window of opportunity in North Ethiopia. Methods: A school based cross sectional study was conducted among primary school students in Mekelle City from February 1 to 30, 2013. A total of 845 students were included in the study using a multi-stage sampling technique. Descriptive, binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 845 students were participated in the study (97.6% of the plan. Respondents had poor knowledge on transmission (35.8% and prevention (56.6% methods of HIV/AIDS. School source of information [AOR=2.39, 95%CI (1.41, 4.06] and peer discussion [AOR=1.60, 95% CI (1.17, 2.17] were the factors that lead for students to have a good knowledge on transmission methods of HIV/AIDS. Paternal education [AOR=0.50, 95%CI (0.31, 0.81], parental discussion [AOR=1.55, 95%CI (1.16, 2.07] and school source of information [AOR=1.58, 95% CI (1.01, 2.46] were also the factors that predict good knowledge on prevention methods of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: There exists poor knowledge on prevention and transmission methods and also a misconception towards HIV/AIDS. So, strengthening the current HIV/AIDS education program and further revising strategies for AIDS risk reduction in adolescents should be considered.

  17. Evaluation of the Volatility Basis-Set Approach for Modeling Primary and Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Pandis, S. N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    Anthropogenic air pollution is an increasingly serious problem for public health, agriculture, and global climate. Organic material (OM) contributes ~ 20-50% to the total fine aerosol mass at continental mid-latitudes. Although OM accounts for a large fraction of PM2.5 concentration worldwide, the contributions of primary and secondary organic aerosol have been difficult to quantify. In this study, new primary and secondary organic aerosol modules were added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (Gaydos et al., 2007), for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism (Carter, 2000; ENVIRON, 2006) based on recent smog chamber studies (Robinson et al., 2007). The new modeling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach (Lane et al., 2007): both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. The emission inventory, which uses as starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory (CAM, 2006), is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments (Robinson et al., 2007). Sensitivity tests where POA is considered as nonvolatile and POA and SOA as chemically reactive are also described. In all cases PMCAMx is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during March 2006. The modeling domain covers a 180x180x6 km region in the MCMA with 3x3 km grid resolution. The model predictions are compared with Aerodyne's Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) observations from the MILAGRO Campaign. References Robinson, A. L.; Donahue, N. M.; Shrivastava, M. K.; Weitkamp, E. A.; Sage, A. M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Lane, T. E.; Pandis, S. N.; Pierce, J. R., 2007. Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging. Science 315, 1259-1262. Gaydos, T. M.; Pinder, R. W.; Koo, B.; Fahey, K. M.; Pandis, S. N., 2007. Development and application of a three- dimensional aerosol

  18. Social Cognitive Predictors of Breakfast Consumption in Primary School’s Male Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzaei, Amin; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Ghazanfari, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to test the usefulness of social cognitive theory (SCT) in explaining breakfast consumption in a sample of primary male students. Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study were 358 male students (3rd, 4th and 5th grades) from eight public primary schools of Ilam city. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire based on components of SCT. Bivariate correlations and multiple logistic regression analysis using an Enter method were used to identif...

  19. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bak, M; Vach, W; Rose, C

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... had clinical impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  20. 张掖市高档肉牛地方类群培育的路径和模式%The Path and Mode of High-grade Cattle Local Groups Breeding in Zhangye City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢凤君; 彭涛; 宋建红; 卢凤林

    2011-01-01

    在实地调研、专家访谈、文献查阅的基础上,运用战略管理理论和系统分析方法,深入分析了张掖市高档肉牛地方类群培育的产业基础、主体需求和环境条件,重点从张掖市高档肉牛地方类群培育的核心群、扩繁群、商品群3大群系的建设,提出了张掖市高档肉牛地方类群培育的路径和模式,并制定了张掖市高档肉牛地方类群培育的保障措施,具体包括建立协作委员会、建综合服务网络、系统开展配套研究、建立合理的运作模式等.%Basing on the consultation about related documents, the interviewing with related experts, and the in-person in-vestigation, this dissertation applied such methods as system analysis, strategic management and so on, deeply analysed the in-dustry base, demand,environment of high-grade cattle groups breeding in Zhangye city, and puted forward the path and mode of high-grade cattle local core groups, propagate groups and merchandise groups breeding, establishes the guarantee measures in order to build committee, service net, reasonable operation mode.

  1. Improving language-focused comprehension instruction in primary-grade classrooms:impacts of the Let’s Know! experimental curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, Amy; Logan, Jessica; Cain, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study was designed to test the impacts of a curriculum supplement, Let’s Know! on the quantity and quality of language-focused comprehension instruction in pre-Kindergarten to third grade classrooms. Sixty classrooms (12 per each of pre-K to grade 3) were enrolled in the study, with 40 teachers assigned to implement one of two versions of the experimental Let’s Know! curriculum and 20 assigned to a control condition, in which they maintained their typical language-arts...

  2. 机载 LIDAR 技术在城市建筑物高度分级中的应用%The Application on the Height Grading of City Buildings Using Airborne LIDAR Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文博; 张锦; 郭磐石

    2015-01-01

    机载LIDAR技术解决了如何快速、准确地获取地物高度的难题,同时为地物高度信息的应用提供了有效的技术手段。本文根据地理国情普查中建筑物分类指标体系,分析离散点云数据高程关系和分类过程,实现了一种基于点云阶层式分类的城市建筑物高度分级的技术方法,并在Terrascan软件环境下验证了该方法的可行性和快速性。%The airborne LIDAR technology not only has solved the problem of how to obtain the object height rapidly and accurately, but also provides the effective technology means for the application of the height information.According to the classification index of the National Geographical Conditions Survey of the buildings, this article analysis the relation of discrete cloud points elevation and the process of the classification, realizes the method of height grading of city buildings rapidly based on the hierarchical classification of cloud points.This Method is verified the feasibility and the quickness by Tarascan software.

  3. Aprendizagem de conceitos geométricos pelo futuro professor das séries iniciais do Ensino Fundamental e as novas tecnologias Geometric concepts learning by the future primary grades teacher in primary education and new technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raquel Miotto Morelatti

    2006-12-01

    , the student who learned through this curriculum did not learn enough about Geometry and is not able to realize the relationship about this content and the reality. On the other hand, the teacher who does not know Geometry is not able to notice the beauty and the importance of this subject to the individual development. Geometry instigates the child to observe and notice similarities, differences; as well as to identify irregularities. The aim of this paper is to identify the knowledge level of the students from Specific Center of Teachers' Formation and Improvement (CEFAM, who are future primary grades teachers of São Paulo State, about the concepts of point, straight line, plain, angles, polygons and circumferences; and to verify the contributions of computer for building these geometric concepts. Thus, we have leaded a research with 30 students of CEFAM from Presidente Prudente-SP. Based on the identification of learning difficulties we organized and developed the intervention - formation schema, using the computer as a learning instrument and work projects that were supported by the Constructionist approach. The future teacher who does not understand Geometry will not be able to contribute for the development of the geometric notion of a child. This notion is the one that able the child to observe, understand, describe and represent, in organized way, the world where we live.

  4. 18F-FDG PET/CT for initial assessment and response monitoring in a case of high grade primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland: A case report and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid lymphoma is a rare disease entity of elderly females. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is said to be the precursor of thyroid lymphoma, suggesting a role of chronic antigen stimulation in the development of the disease. We present a case of male with lymphocytic thyroiditis who presented with painless progressive neck enlargement and pathology revealed features of high grade lymphoma. Staging and posttreatment 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was performed. This report reemphasizes the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis, staging, and assessment of therapy response in patients with extranodal lymphoma, including the primary thyroid lymphoma

  5. 苏州市小学中高年级学生心理健康状况调查研究%An Investigation of Psychological Health Condition of Middle and High Grade Students in Primary Schools in Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐英; 龚椿雅

    2012-01-01

      使用MHT问卷对苏州市小学中高年级学生心理健康状况进行调查。结果表明:男女性别之间心理健康水平差异大,女生的心理健康水平普遍低于男生;四五六各年级之间心理健康水平差异显著,四年级学生心理健康水平最低,其次是五年级,再次是六年级。苏州小学生的心理总体水平是健康的,但在焦虑、人际交往、孤独、冲动、恐怖和躯体症状各个分量表上还有很多心理问题,需要我们及时有效地开展小学生心理健康教育活动。%  By using MHT questionnaire to survey the mental health situation of the primary school students from middle and high grades in Suzhou,the result shows that the general psychological status of Suzhou pupils are at a healthy level. Specifically there is a big gap between the psychological status of the male students and the female ones and the psychological status of female students seems to be worse than that of male students. In addition, there is a big difference in the psychological status among the students from Grade Four, Grade Five and Grade Six. Among them,students from Grade Four stand at the lowest level of the psychological status, followed by stu⁃dents of Grade Five and Grade Six Although the general mental status of Suzhou pupils seems to be healthy, there exist numerous psychological problems in anxiety, interpersonal communication,loneliness,impulse, terror and so⁃matoform symptoms, which makes it necessary for us to carry out the mental health education activity timely and effectively among pupils.

  6. What Classroom Observations Reveal About Primary Grade Reading Comprehension Instruction Within High Poverty Schools Participating in the Federal Reading First Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, Rebecca S.

    2011-01-01

    Reading comprehension is one of the most critical academic skills to be acquired in school; therefore, the comprehension instruction provided by teachers is of utmost importance. This study examined 3 years of classroom observation data to describe the comprehension instruction provided by kindergarten through third-grade teachers who were participating in the federal Reading First reading reform initiative within 22 high-poverty Title I schools located in rural, suburban, and urban school di...

  7. 重庆市主城区小学高年级学生行为问题调查%An Epidemiology Study on Child Behavior Problems among High-Grade Primary School Students in Chongqing Urban Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱田; 杜莲; 胡华; 蒙华庆; 傅一笑; 罗庆华; 邱海棠

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and related factors of behavior problems among the high-grade primary school students (in Grade 4 to Grade 6) in Chongqing urban area. Methods By means of cross-sectional survey, a total of 3 137 high-grade primary school students in Chongqing urban area were investigated with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, version for parents) and self-designed basic information questionnaire. Results The relevance ratio of behavior problems was 27.26%. The univariate analysis revealed that type of school, grade, residential and family environment, and parental attitude toward children had effects on children's behavior problems with significance difference (P<0.05). The stepwise regression revealed that grade, educational level of father, healthy conditions of parents, family structure, academic performance and parental attitude toward children were the independent and main influencing factors (P<0.05). Conclusion The relevance ratio of behavior problems among high-grade primary school students in Chongqing urban area is much higher, which is related to the following factors: family situation, parental attitude toward children, social and school environment. It indicates that the status of children's mental heath is not optimistic in Chongqing urban area. Comprehensive measures combining family, school with psychologist should be taken to reduce the prevalence of behavioral problems.%目的 了解重庆市主城区小学高年级(4~6年级)学生行为问题发生率和特点,并探究其相关影响因素.方法 采用横断面调查的方法,应用儿童行为量表(CBCL)(家长版)和自制的一般情况调查问卷,对重庆市主城区3137名小学高年级学生进行调查与分析.结果 本次调查的3137名小学生中行为问题检出率为27.26%.单因素分析结果显示,小学生行为问题发生在学校类型、所在年级、学生家庭情况、父母管教态度及居住环境等因素水平上

  8. Strong synergy with APR-246 and DNA-damaging drugs in primary cancer cells from patients with TP53 mutant High-Grade Serous ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Åsa; Glaessgen, Daria; Alfredsson, Jessica; Wiman, Klas G.; Bajalica-Lagercrantz, Svetlana; Mohell, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Background Mutation in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 is an early event in the development of high-grade serous (HGS) ovarian cancer and is identified in more than 96 % of HGS cancer patients. APR-246 (PRIMA-1MET) is the first clinical-stage compound that reactivates mutant p53 protein by refolding it to wild type conformation, thus inducing apoptosis. APR-246 has been tested as monotherapy in a Phase I/IIa clinical study in hematological malignancies and prostate cancer with promising result...

  9. THE EFFECT OF A FIGURE WHERE SYMMETRY USED IN TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS IS APPLIED ON WRITING SKILLS OF TURKISH LANGUAGE AND PRIMARY MATHEMATICS TEACHING 1ST GRADE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine AKTAŞ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available With this study, it is aimed to afford an artistic development for science of mathematics with using literary language and learn with associating visual themes and imaginariness in essays. In the study, different written expression works, which are composed about same symmetric figure, of first grade preservice teachers of Turkish Language and Mathematics Teaching are compared.This study will put forth the grasp of communication skill of preservice students who are implementers of new program of Turkish and Mathematics lesson used from 2005 and in which the importance of this skill is emphasized. Also this study will contribute education of preservice students henceforwards.

  10. 小学低年级识字回生现象及解决路径%Phenomenon and solution ways of the literacy retrogradation phenomenon of lower grade of primary school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爽; 王安全

    2013-01-01

    The new curriculum reform, primary school lower grade literacy amount increases in literacy, pressure, low grade primary school students have read retrogradation phenomenon.This comprehensive literacy retrogradation phenomenon is analyzed, that the reason mainly has:literacy retrogradation of teachers' literacy, light to read and write, literacy teaching mode, lack of innovation, the students review not properly consolidate method. According to the author read retrogradation phenomenon of read-write combination, diversified literacy method, optimization of review and consolidate the lower literacy retrogradation rate.%  新课程改革后,小学低年级识字量增大,在识字压力增大的情况下,小学低年级学生出现了识字回生现象。本文针对识字回生现象进行了综合分析,认为出现识字回生的原因主要有:教师重识字,轻读写、识字教学模式化,缺乏创新性、学生复习巩固方法不得当。针对识字回生现象笔者提出了通过读写结合、多元化的识字方法、优化复习巩固降低识字回生率。

  11. AN EVALUATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS AND TEACHERS’ OPINIONS ABOUT IN EDUCATIONAL UNIONS TO ACCORDING VARIOUS VARIABLES: CASE OF MALATYA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tezcan YASAN

    2012-03-01

    design was used. After the related literature was examined, the theoretical framework was constructed and the questionnaire was drafted. The instrument used for data collection in this study was originally developed by the researcher. Before this draft was administered, the opinions of specialists, administrators and teachers were taken about the content and the language of this questionnaire and the necessary improvements were made. According to the results, Cronbach Alpha Coefficient was 0,8564 for the overall questionnaire. This study was carried out in Malatya city centre (total 3508 administrators and teachers who work at 163 primary schools in 2007-2008 academic year. Using stratified sampling method, 43 administrators and 323 teachers working at 24 schools were selected randomly. A total of 366 questionnaires were validated and evaluated. The questionnaire that has 24 items was administered to these administrators and teachers. Data were analyzed by SPSS program. In comparisons, T-test and Mann-Whitney U test (for the variables of gender, branch, type of task and being a member of the union, One Way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests (for seniority and education level were utilized to analyze the data. The results of this study showed that there were meaningful differences between the views of the trade union members and the ones that have no membership. While there were meaningful differences between the views of participants according to the variables of gender, branch, seniority and education level, there were not meaningful differences between the views of participants only according to the variable of type of task. According to the T-Test results (which has been made between males: N=238 and females: N=128, there were meaningful differences between the views of the men and women trade union members at the first item. At the first item, the ideas of women were more negative than the ideas of men. According to the T-Test results (which has been made between class

  12. Recalled Test Anxiety in Relation to Achievement, in the Context of General Academic Self-Concept, Study Habits, Parental Involvement and Socio-Economic Status among Grade 6 Ethiopian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. Mohan; Asfaw, Abebech

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive nature of test anxiety on achievement in the presence of perceived general academic self-concept, study habits, parental involvement in children's learning and socio-economic status. From a population of 2482 Grade 6 students from seven government primary schools of a sub-city in Addis Ababa, 497 participants…

  13. Optimal Grading

    OpenAIRE

    Robertas Zubrickas

    2010-01-01

    Assuming that teachers are concerned with human capital formation and students - with ability signaling, in this paper we model a teacher-student relationship as an agency problem with conflicting interests. In our model, the teacher elicits effort from the student rewarding for it with a grade, the utility of which to the student is an ability signal inferred by the job market. In the event that the job market does not observe individual teachers' grading practice, teachers find grades as co...

  14. On Influential Factors of Medical Tangles in the Third Grade A-level Hospitals in Some City%某市三甲医院医疗纠纷影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 孟祥志

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate cases of medical tangle in resent years in the Third grade A‐level hos‐pitals in some city and analyze the factors affacting the occurance of medical tangles .Methods:Analyze 211 re‐cords of medical tangle happened in three Third grade A‐level hospitals in some city during the period from January 2011 to December 2013 retrospectively ,take the cases which ,based on 1∶2 ,were involved the con‐current same kind of cases in charged by different doctors from the same section as the control group .Collect the basic data ,the data of patient party and the data of the medical party .Make single factor analysis and multiple factor analysis on the factors which may affect the occurance of medical tangle with χ2 test and logis‐tic regression model .Results:The single factor analysis revealed that medical costs ,education degree ,jobs , types of medical insurance of the patient partys ,medical service attitude and actions of the medical staff were the factors w hich resulted in the medical tangles ;multiple factor analysis of logistic regression hinted that medical service attitude and actions of the medical staff were the independent factors which resulted in the medical tangles .Conclusion:Medical service attitude and actions of the medical staff are the independent fac‐tors w hich result in the medical tangles and they are also the protective factors .%目的:调查某市三甲医院近年发生的医疗纠纷案例,分析影响医疗纠纷发生的因素。方法:回顾性分析2011年1月~2013年12月某市三所三甲医院发生医疗纠纷的档案211份,按1∶2纳入同期同科室不同医生管床的同种病例作为对照组。采集病例的基本信息、患方信息、医方信息,应用χ2检验及 Logical回归模型对可能影响医疗纠纷发生的因素进行单因素和多因素分析。结果:单因素分析结果显示,医疗费用、患方文化程度、职业和医保类别、医务人员

  15. Education Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  16. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  17. Curriculum Guide for Spanish Language Arts, Primary Level C = Guia para la ensenanza de las artes del lenguaje espanol, primaria, nivel C. (Grade 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking primary students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study skills, literature appreciation, and writing skills. Sections…

  18. Calculation and Word Problem-Solving Skills in Primary Grades--Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Longitudinal Interrelations with Task-persistent Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Kikas, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary school math skills form a basis for academic success down the road. Different math skills have different antecedents and there is a reason to believe that more complex math tasks require better self-regulation. Aims: The study aimed to investigate longitudinal interrelations of calculation and problem-solving skills, and…

  19. AIDS Related Knowledge and Sexual Behavior of Students at High Grade in Primary School%小学高年级学生艾滋病相关知识及性行为调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓丽; 孙宏伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解山东省某小学高年级学生对艾滋病的基本知识以及性行为的发生情况,为学校开展性健康教育提供有效依据。方法采用自填式问卷,于2013年对山东某小学488名学生进行调查。结果被调查的小学生知道艾滋病病毒可以通过血液、母婴、注射器及性交传播的分别38.4%、28.8%、28.2%、10.2%。对非传播途径共餐以及蚊虫叮咬的正确作答率为16.1%和13%。4.7%的小学生有过性行为,12.8%的小学生接触过色情内容。结论小学高年级学生缺乏艾滋病基本知识,有一定比例的性行为发生,小学性健康教育工作刻不容缓。%Objective to explore the basic knowledge of AIDS and sexual behavior of the high grade students in primary school ,and to provide evidence for sexual health education .Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 488 students in a primary school in Shandong province .Results The rates of students that know HIV through blood ,mother to child ,syringes and sex-ually transmitted were respectively 38.4%,28.8%,28.2%,10.2%.On the non propagating way about dining and mosquito biting the correct rate was 16.1%and 13%.4.7%of the students had sexual behaviors ,12.8%of primary school children had exposed to porno-graphic content.Conclusion High grade primary school students lack basic knowledge of AIDS ,have the certain proportion of sexual behavior .The sexual health education breaks no delay in primary school .

  20. 小学高年级学生艾滋病相关知识及性行为调查报告%AIDS Related Knowledge and Sexual Behavior of Students at High Grade in Primary School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓丽; 孙宏伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解山东省某小学高年级学生对艾滋病的基本知识以及性行为的发生情况,为学校开展性健康教育提供有效依据。方法采用自填式问卷,于2013年对山东某小学488名学生进行调查。结果被调查的小学生知道艾滋病病毒可以通过血液、母婴、注射器及性交传播的分别38.4%、28.8%、28.2%、10.2%。对非传播途径共餐以及蚊虫叮咬的正确作答率为16.1%和13%。4.7%的小学生有过性行为,12.8%的小学生接触过色情内容。结论小学高年级学生缺乏艾滋病基本知识,有一定比例的性行为发生,小学性健康教育工作刻不容缓。%Objective to explore the basic knowledge of AIDS and sexual behavior of the high grade students in primary school ,and to provide evidence for sexual health education .Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 488 students in a primary school in Shandong province .Results The rates of students that know HIV through blood ,mother to child ,syringes and sex-ually transmitted were respectively 38.4%,28.8%,28.2%,10.2%.On the non propagating way about dining and mosquito biting the correct rate was 16.1%and 13%.4.7%of the students had sexual behaviors ,12.8%of primary school children had exposed to porno-graphic content.Conclusion High grade primary school students lack basic knowledge of AIDS ,have the certain proportion of sexual behavior .The sexual health education breaks no delay in primary school .

  1. 乳山市农村小学生心理健康状况调查%Study on psychological health state of rural primary school students in Rushan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂宏; 王丹; 丛晓娜; 段建国; 郑旗

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To understand the current situation of psychological health among rural primary school students in Rushan city, and provide a theoretical basis for solving psychological health problems of the pupils effectively. Methods: Three thousand students were selected from 10 schools by multistage cluster sampling method in rural areas of Rushan city. Results: The mean scores of behavioral problems, learning disabilities, emotional disturbance, character flaws were 4. 38, 3. 37, 3. 25 , and 3. 23, respectively; the detection rates of deviation from high to low were conduct disorder (16. 1% ) , learning disabilities (14. 8% ) , mood disorders ( 15. 7% ) , personality defects (13. 2% ) , and so on. The influencing factors of psychological health of the primary school students in rural area of Rushan city were sex, age, class, maternal occupation, and family monthly income, and so on. Conclusion: There are different psychological problems a-mong the primary school students in rural area of Rushan city, effective measures should be taken to improve their psychological health.%目的:了解乳山市农村小学生的心理健康状况,为有效解决小学生的心理健康问题提供理论依据.方法:采用随机整群抽样法随机抽取乳山市10所小学共3 000名.结果:行为障碍、学习障碍、情绪障碍、性格缺陷得分均值分别为4.38、3.37、3.25和3.23;从偏离检出率分析得偏离检出率较高的依次为行为障碍(16.1%)、学习障碍(14.8%)、性格缺陷(15.7%)、社会适应障碍(13.2%)等.小学生心理健康的影响因素包括性别、年龄、班级、母亲职业、家庭月收入等.结论:乳山市农村小学生均存在不同的心理健康问题,应采取有效措施改善其心理健康状况.

  2. Family influencing factors of behavior problems among primary school students in Mudanjiang city%牡丹江市小学生行为问题及家庭影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙加司; 蔡景钰; 王烈

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解黑龙江省牡丹江市小学生行为问题发生情况及特点,探讨家庭因素对小学生行为问题的影响,为其预防和干预措施的制定提供依据.方法 采用随机抽样方法,应用家长用儿童行为量表(CBCL)及父母养育方式评价量表(EMBU)对牡丹江市4所小学4~6年级1 350名在校学生进行问卷调查.结果 牡丹江市小学生行为问题检出率为19.3%,男生为20.3%,女生为18.6%;躯体主诉、焦虑抑郁、社交问]题、攻击性行为、思维问题、内向性问题和行为总分分别为(2.50 ±2.89)、(3.73±3.96)、(2.54±2.81)、(4.31±4.73)、(2.17±3.00)、(8.34±8.15)和(22.03±20.07)分,与国内人群评价结果比较得分较高;相关分析结果表明,父、母温暖与小学生行为问题的发生呈负相关关系(P<0.01),而父亲惩罚、干涉、偏爱、拒绝、过保护和母亲过保护、拒绝、惩罚、偏爱与小学生行为问题的发生呈正相关关系(P<0.01);多元线性回归分析结果表明,小学生行为问题发生的主要影响因素为:母亲拒绝(β=0.206)、生活事件数(β=0.195)、与父母关系(β=0.133)、父亲过保护(β=0.124)、独生子女(β=0.083)与小学生行为问题关系密切,能影响小学生行为问题发生.结论 家庭环境因素对小学生儿童行为问题的发生具有重要影响,改善家庭环境对降低小学生行为问题发生率具有重要作用.%Objective To explore family influencing factors of the behavior problems among primary school students. Methods Questionaire research was conducted with Acbenbach' s Child Behavior Check List(CBCL) and Egma Minnen av Bardndosnauppforstran(EMBU) among 1 350 students at 4-6 grade in primary schools in Mudanjiang city. Results The prevalence of behavior problems in the students was 19.3% ( 20.3% in boys, 18. 6% in girls). The scores of somato-complaints. anxiety-depression, social intercourse problems, aggressive behavior, thinking problems

  3. Aspectos epidemiológicos do uso de drogas entre estudantes do ensino médio no município de Palhoça 2003 Epidemiologic aspects of drug use among 5th grade to 12th grade students in the city of Palhoça 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Sanceverino

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a prevalência do uso de drogas entre estudantes do ensino médio em um município do Sul do Brasil, em 2003, além de averiguar se houve utilização de algum serviço de saúde. Foi realizado em nove - entre dez - escolas de ensino médio da rede pública e particular. A amostra foi de 889 (18, 1% em um universo de 4.909 estudantes - 4.139 (84,3% da rede pública e 770 (15,7% da rede particular. Os participantes responderam a questionário que seguiu o modelo utilizado por Galduróz, Noto e Carlini no IV Levantamento sobre o Uso de Drogas entre Estudantes de 1º e 2º graus em Dez Capitais Brasileiras. Os dados foram inseridos no Programa Epi Info 6.04d e observou-se que as drogas de maior prevalência foram o álcool, o tabaco, os inalantes, a maconha e as anfetaminas. Excetuando-se o álcool e o tabaco, as drogas mais consumidas entre as mulheres foram os inalantes, a maconha, os tranqüilizantes, as anfetaminas e os sedativos; e entre os homens, os inalantes, a maconha, as anfetaminas, os tranqüilizantes e a cocaína. O consumo de drogas também é maior entre estudantes de maior faixa etária e os que freqüentam as aulas no período noturno. Não se verificaram diferenças significativas entre os níveis socioeconômicos. Foram feitas comparações com outras pesquisas.The main objectives of this work were to investigate the prevalence of drug use among 5th grade to 12th grade students in a small city in the south of Brazil and to verify if they use any kind of health service. The study was carried out in nine out of a total of ten public and private schools. The sample consisted of 889 (18,10% students out of a total of 4,909 students, 4,139 (84,31% in public schools and 770 (15,69% in private ones. The participants answered a questionnaire that followed a model used by Galduróz, Noto and Carlini (1997 in the 4th Study of Drug Use Among Elementary and High School Students in Ten Brazilian Capital

  4. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  5. Status quo of training demands of nursing staff in three grade class A general hospitals in Shenzhen city%深圳市三级甲等综合医院护理人员培训需求现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小梅; 丁小容; 李敏红; 曾杏珍; 余颖娟; 梁桂玲

    2014-01-01

    [目的]了解护理人员对院内培训的培训内容、培训方式、培训时间的需求现状,为制订针对性的培训提供依据。[方法]采用整群抽样的方法对深圳市3家三级甲等综合医院654名护理人员采用自行设计的问卷进行调查,并进行统计学分析。[结果]护理人员最希望培训的内容为专科知识,而不同的群体之间培训内容需求又存在一定的差异;对不同的培训内容希望有不同的培训特点并采取不同的培训方式;80.6%护理人员希望培训时间能够具有一定的灵活性和自主选择性。[结论]培训内容应因人而异,不同的培训内容应采取不同的培训方式,同时培训本身能有一定的灵活性以增强培训效果。%Obj ective:To know about the status quo of training demands of nursing staff for training content,training methods and training time,so as to provide the basis for formulating targeted training.Methods:A total of 654 nurses were surveyed by adopt cluster sampling method and self de-signed questionnaire in three grade class A general hospital in Shenzhen city.Related data were statistical analysed.Results:The most training con-tent nursing staff hope was specialized knowledge.And training content re-quirements existed certain differences between different groups.Nursing staff hope different characteristics for different training contents,and adopt different ways of training.80.6% of nursing staff hoped that the training time have a certain flexibility and independent selectivity.Conclusion:The training content should be different from person to person.Different ways of training should be adopted for different training contents.At the same time,training itself can have a certain flexibility in order to improve train-ing effect.

  6. Ideal Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Meitner, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Erika Meitner discusses her new book: Ideal Cities. This collection of autobiographical narrative and lyric poems explores the relationship between body and place—specifically the pleasures and dangers of women’s corporeal experiences. Ideal Cities is guided by an epigraph from Song of Songs, and the metaphorical idea of bodies as cities, and cities as bodies. How do women’s bodies become sites of inscription via sex, childbirth, and other highly physical acts? These poems also investigate ur...

  7. Sin City?

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Pieter A; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? Weinvestigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners bymoving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danishcouples. We find that of the couples who married in the city, the ones who stay inthe city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who marriedoutside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. Thiscorrelation ...

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of primary open-angle glaucoma in a city of Eastern China: a population-based study in Pudong New District, Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jiangnan; Zou, Haidong; Lee, Richard K.; Tong, Xiaowei; Tang, Wenli; Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Rong; Ge, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of primary open-angle glaucoma among the urban population of Pudong New District, Shanghai. Methods Three residents’ committees were randomly selected from Pudong New District, and residents aged 50 and older were screened for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) from March to April 2011. In remote screening, the tests on visual acuity, refraction, intraocular pressure (IOP), and the photographs of ant...

  9. Cost-effectiveness of counselling, graded-exercise and usual care for chronic fatigue: evidence from a randomised trial in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabes-Figuera Ramon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is common and has been shown to result in high economic costs to society. The aim of this study is to compare the cost-effectiveness of two active therapies, graded-exercise (GET and counselling (COUN with usual care plus a self-help booklet (BUC for people presenting with chronic fatigue. Methods A randomised controlled trial was conducted with participants consulting for fatigue of over three months’ duration recruited from 31 general practices in South East England and allocated to one of three arms. Outcomes and use of services were assessed at 6-month follow-up. The main outcome measure used in the economic evaluation was clinically significant improvements in fatigue, measured using the Chalder fatigue scale. Cost-effectiveness was assessed using the net-benefit approach and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Results Full economic and outcome data at six months were available for 163 participants; GET = 51, COUN = 58 and BUC = 54. Those receiving the active therapies (GET and COUN had more contacts with care professionals and therefore higher costs, these differences being statistically significant. COUN was more expensive and less effective than the other two therapies. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of GET compared to BUC was equal to £987 per unit of clinically significant improvement. However, there was much uncertainty around this result. Conclusion This study does not provide a clear recommendation about which therapeutic option to adopt, based on efficiency, for patients with chronic fatigue. It suggests that COUN is not cost-effective, but it is unclear whether GET represents value for money compared to BUC. Clinical Trial Registration number at ISRCTN register: 72136156

  10. Long-term outcome after first relapse for patients who received primary radiation therapy at Stanford University for stage I and II low grade follicular lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate outcome after first relapse for 79 patients with stage I (n=32) and II (n=47) follicular small cleaved-cell (FSC, n=48) and follicular mixed small cleaved-cell and large-cell (FMX, n=31) lymphoma treated with Radiation Therapy (RT) at Stanford University between 1961 and 1994. Patients and Methods: Most patients had received doses of 35 to 45 Gy to involved (n=30) or extended fields (n=39) or total/subtotal lymphoid irradiation (n=9). Details of history, examination, investigations at first relapse and long-term outcome were obtained by chart review. Results: Median time to relapse was 2 years. Most relapses were detected on history (30%) or physical examination (66%). Positive relapse investigations included lymphangiogram (n=19), chest radiograph (n=5) and bone marrow biopsy (n=6). Known extent of relapsed disease was: stage I, n=30; stage II, n=26; stage III, n=10; and stage IV, n=8. Patients were managed with 'watchful waiting' (37%), further RT (39%), chemotherapy [CT, (17%)], or RT+CT (5%). Actuarial survival rates after relapse at 5,10,15 and 20 years were 56%, 35%, 17% and 17% respectively. Median survival was 5.3 years after relapse. Median survival for relapse stage I,II,III, and IV was 10.2, 5.5, 3.0 and 1.1 years respectively. Progression-free survival rates at 5,10,15 and 20 years after relapse were 44%,22%, 22% and 22% respectively. Factors associated with reduced survival were increasing age, increasing relapse stage, symptoms, transformation to high or intermediate grade lymphoma and >/=3 relapse sites. Survival was the same for initial management with 'watchful waiting' or RT. Conclusion: Relapse following RT in early stage FSC and FMX lymphoma not necessarily fatal. Young, asymptomatic patients with limited disease on relapse have a relatively good prognosis

  11. Exploration of Junior-Grade Chinese Homework in Primary School%小学低年级语文作业探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡萍

    2015-01-01

    The primary school Chinese homework should be started from teacher’s careful design. Teachers should enhance curriculum consciousness,exquisitely design homework of high value,improve the effectiveness of assignment,and attach importance to evaluation and correction of homework,so as to make students fall in love with homework.%小学语文作业应该从教师的用心设计开始,增强课程意识,精心设计具有较高训练价值的作业,提高作业布置的有效性,在评价与批改上下功夫,从而让学生爱上作业。

  12. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...... urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  13. Using the Orff Music Teaching in Primary School Grade Five or Six%奥尔夫音乐教学法在小学五、六年级的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范钰

    2014-01-01

    音乐是小学教学的重要组成部分,在音乐教学中,采用奥尔夫音乐教学法,其是奥尔夫和著名舞蹈家军特创设的动作、舞蹈、语言作为音乐集合体的教学形式,具有综合性、即兴性和实践性的特点,针对奥尔夫音乐教学法在小学五、六年级的运用进行了探讨。%Music is an important part of primary school teaching,in music teaching,the Orff music teaching method,which is Orff and the famous dancer Dororee Gunthen creating movement,dance,music language as collective teaching form,it is comprehensive,improvisation and practical features,this article is for the use in the primary school is grade five or six the Orff music teaching method discussion.

  14. City Diesel raises its profile in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of the beginning of July 1993, Neste Oil's virtually sulphur- free City Diesel will become available throughout southern Finland. Up until now, the fuel has been in trial use only. Thanks to a favourable tax break, City Diesel will cost drivers the same as normal grades

  15. An evaluation on the relationship between the learning fields “musical perception and acquainting” and “musical creativity” based on teaching program of 2006 primary education music classes of sixth grade level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökalp Parasız

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was intended to focus on the success levels of “B. Musical Perception and Acquainting” learning field and of “C. Musical Creativity” learning field based on the teaching program of 2006 primary education music classes of sixth grade level and relationship between these two learning fields was evaluated. In this study the basic stages, the vision, the basic approach, and the structure of the teaching program of 2006 primary education music classes and the general aims, basic skills and valuation, teaching methods and techniques and learning-teaching period were examined. Source scanning related to these subjects was done. Outcomes and activities related to “B. Müziksel Algı ve Bilgilenme” and “C. Müziksel Yaratıcılık” learning fields in this study were analyzed by using observation method. Sample group of this study consisted of 6-A, 6-C, 6-E, 6-G classes in IMKB İnönü Primary School in Erzurum depended on Ministry of National Education. To analyze all data based on observation, frequency (f percent (% analysis method was used. Findings and comments part of the study included data that was acquired as a result of outcomes of two basic learning fields and in this part data were interpreted according to the findings. After collecting all data and evaluating the relationship between “B. Musical Perception and Acquainting” learning field and “C. Musical Creativity” learning field, to the results, it was acquired that these two learning fields had supportive and complementary to each other. According to the results of the study, when music class practices are structured considering the relationship between two basic learning fields, learning becomes easier and more comprehensible and by this way, learning continuity will be provided.

  16. Growth and development and its influencing factors of primary and secondary school students in Longhua Subdistrict of Baoan District of Shenzhen City%深圳市宝安区龙华街道中小学学生生长发育状况及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美施; 潘彩珠; 王琳

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过了解深圳市中小学生生长发育与营养状况,为开展学校卫生及中小学生保健工作提供依据.方法 2010年3-7月对龙华街道21 074名学生的身高、体重、视力、龋齿等情况进行检查,并选取深圳市宝安区龙华街道1所私立学校(龙丰学校)和2所公立学校(龙华中学、清湖小学)采用问卷调查的形式对学生家长进行调查.结果 公立中小学学生的视力不良的平均比例略高于私立中小学;私立小学学生身高上等、下等学生所占的比例较公立小学学生大;公立学校的学生肥胖比例远高于私立学校,营养不良的比例则明显低于私立学校;学生的生长发育状况与饮食搭配(P<0.01)、家长职业(P<0.01)、运动情况(P<0.01),父母文化程度(P<0.01)有显著的关系.结论 该区应加强父母的健康知识宣传教育,培养孩子良好的饮食,运动和起居生活习惯,采取有效措施加强学校的卫生保健工作.%[ Objective] To understand the growth and development and nutritional status of primary and secondary school students in Shenzhen City, and provide evidence for carrying out school health and health care of primary and middle school students. [Methods]A total of 21 074 students in Longhua Subdistrict were selected for height, weight , vision, dental caries checks from March-July 2010. Meanwhile, a private schools ( Longfeng School ) and 2public schools (Longhua Middle School , Qinghu Primary School) were selected for questionnaire survey on students' parents. [ Results] The average proportion of poor eyesight in public school was higher than that of private school. The proportion of students' height of high grade and low grade in private primary school was higher than that in public primary school. The obesity rate in public school was much higher than private school, while the malnutrition rate was on the contrary. The growth and development of students was significantly associated

  17. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...... emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban...

  18. 巧用暗示,提高小学低年级语文课堂教学的效率%Clever Use of Hint,Improving the Efficiency of Chinese Classroom Teaching the Lower Grades of Primary School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾春霞

    2014-01-01

    低年级小学生自制力差,有意注意的时间很短,加上良好的语文学习习惯欠缺,导致他们总会在课堂上出现注意力不集中,甚至做小动作等情况。这时,如果教者能合理地、适当地运用一些语言、表情、目光、手势等暗示法,势必可以使师生情感之间产生默契的交融,让学生的大脑保持激活状态,并让学生于不知不觉中变“要我学”为“我要学”,从而提高低年级语文的课堂教学效率。%Low grade primary school students of poor self-control,attention for a short time,coupled with lack of good language learning habits,cause they always appeared distracted in class,even small movements,and so on. At this point,If the teacher can reasonably,propely use some language,facial expression,eyes,gestures suggestive method,certainly will makes the teachers and students emotion between the blend have a tacit understanding,let the students keep the brainactivation state,and let students imperceptibly become“want me to learn” to“I want to learn”,so as to improve the low grade language efficiency of classroom teaching.

  19. Limerick City

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Postcard. Colour photograph of River Shannon with Limerick City in background. Number 2/LK-018. Printed on reverse "Limerick city, where the Shannon river meets the sea is one of the most progressive of Irish cities, where the past and present mingle pleasantly. That part of the city called Newtown Pery was designed and planned in 1767, and is the Limerick of wide streets crossing at right angles, and the pleasantly tree-sprinkled People's Park. The tall column in the park commemorates Thomas...

  20. 登山锻炼对小学三年级学生身体素质影响的研究%Influence mountaineering exercise on physical quality of three-grade students at primary school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱小梅; 陈慧; 王珍妮; 蒋龙

    2012-01-01

    Mountaineering exercise, as a contemporary popular outdoor aerobic exercise aroused more and more attention. This research selects three -grade 113 students at primary school as research subjects, who are divided into the experimental group and the control group, the experimental group of 56 students, 57 students in the control group. The experimental group did the exercise for a year, two times a week, while the control group received conventional PE exercise. A year later, a comparative analysis of two groups of students were made in the physical changes and differences. Research shows that mountaineering exercise can obviously improve primary school grade three students' heart and lung function as well as body shape and speed quality.%登山锻炼作为当下较为流行的户外有氧健身运动,其健康价值越来越受到人们的重视。选取湖南省长沙市岳麓区岳南路小学三年级113名学生作为实验对象,分为实验组和对照组,实验组56名同学,对照组57名同学.对实验组进行为期一学年,每周两次的登山训练,对照组则进行常规体育课锻炼。一学年后比较分析两组学生各身体指标的变化及差异,探析登山锻炼对小学三年级学生身体素质的影响。研究表明,登山锻炼对于改善和提高小学三年级学生的心肺功能有明显作用,对小学三年级学生的身体形态、速度素质也能带来积极影响。

  1. Tabla de Especificaciones e Instructivo sobre Elaboracion de Pruebas Objetivas en la Ensenanza Primaria, para las asignaturas de Estudios Sociales, Idioma Espanol, Matematicas y Ciencias Naturales (Specification Tables and Instructions for the Construction of Objective Tests in the Primary Grades in Social Studies, Spanish, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Educacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Direccion de Bienestar Estudiantil y Educacion Especial.

    This booklet presents specification tables illustrating the relative importance given to topics on tests within a particular subject area. The general subject areas are social studies, Spanish, mathematics, and natural sciences. Tables are provided for final exams in each of these areas for several primary grades, illustrating the importance of…

  2. The Proficiency Level of Goals of Consistency and to Appropriatenes to The Level of Pupils For Humanities Course in 3rd Year of Primary Schools (Standart Definition- Erzurum City Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürbüz OCAK

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish the contextual standards of the social studies lesson in the third year primary school by analyzing the views of teachers.Thus, with the help of literature review, the questionnaire for the contextual standars of social studies lesson was developed depending on the views of teachers and standards were grouped according to the importance of factors. Whit this questionnaire some features of the contextual standars of the socialstudies lesson were analyzed. For example their level of consistency with goals, appropriatenes to the level of pupils and the existence in context (textbook were examined.In the study a survey method was used. Subjects were 533 teachers in 36 primary schools selected out of 70 with a random sampling technique in Erzurum city. The data from 374 received questionnaires were analyzed by using frequency, persentage, and q square techniques with SPSS at the α:0,05 significancelevel.As aresult of the statistical analyses, the developed standards were supported by teachers according to goals of consistency 86.5%, to appropriatenes to the level of pupils 89.6%, but to their existence in context(in the textbook 14.6%. 85.4% of the teachers decided that standards do not exist in the context.

  3. Professores discriminados: um estudo sobre os docentes do sexo masculino nas séries do ensino fundamental Discriminated teachers: a study of male teachers in the early grades of primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Oliveira Rabelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar algumas representações de gênero que envolvem a docência nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental no Rio de Janeiro (Brasil e em Aveiro (Portugal, especialmente as representações geradoras de discriminações que afetam os homens atuantes na profissão. Socialmente definida como feminina, tal profissão carrega representações que podem diferenciar as práticas e as escolhas, sendo que muitas delas associam o magistério ao feminino e alegam que os professores homens estariam fora de lugar. A partir da análise qualitativa e quantitativa de questionários e entrevistas com professores desse segmento, examinamos, então, quais são as representações de gênero que circulam em relação à docência nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental, se existe discriminação em relação a eles, bem como se os homens que entram na profissão são desprovidos de preconceitos e ajudariam a diminuir as discriminações de gênero. Concluímos que o simples fato de existir um professor do sexo masculino nas salas de aula pode provocar várias representações de gênero; nesse sentido, os professores podem ou não tentar quebrar tais representações, o que aconteceu com alguns dos participantes desta investigação. Mesmo sofrendo preconceitos, porém, muitos se aproveitam das vantagens da masculinidade na sociedade. Apesar disso, demarcamos que a presença de professores do sexo masculino nas séries iniciais é uma forma de inserir as questões de gênero na educação, demonstrar às crianças na escola que o homem também pode escolher essa atividade com sucesso e evidenciar que a aptidão para o magistério não depende do sexo.This article aims to analyze some gender representations of teachers of the early grades of primary education in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil and Aveiro (Portugal, especially the representations that generate discrimination affecting male teachers. Socially defined as female, such

  4. 浅谈小学低年级音乐欣赏教学的情感体验%A Brief Discussion on the Emotional Experience of Music Appreciation Teaching for Lower Grades in Primary ;Schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怡; 赵誉千

    2015-01-01

    音乐是听觉的艺术,同时它又是情感的艺术。音乐教学活动在不脱离音乐听觉实践的基础上,不能忽视抓住学生音乐审美过程中最活跃的心理因素———情感因素。笔者从小学低年级音乐欣赏教学过程中的点滴体会谈起,阐述了如何通过形式多样的教学方法,丰富学生情感体验,以感受美、表现美、创造美为核心,不时点燃学生的情感火花。%Music is an audio art, as well as an emotional art. Based on music audio practice, the most active psychological factor, emotional factor, should be grasped in students' music aesthetics. Starting from the writer's experience in music appre-ciation teaching for lower grades in primary schools, this paper e-laborates how to use diversified teaching methods to enrich stu-dents' emotional experience with experiencing, expressing and creating beauty as the core, thus igniting the spark of students' e-motions.

  5. Honest Grading, Grade Inflation and Reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Tim; Schwager, Robert

    2012-01-01

    When grades lose their informative value because the percentage of students receiving the best grade rises without any corresponding increase in ability, this is called grade inflation. Conventional wisdom says that such grade inflation is unavoidable since it is essentially costless to award good grades. In this paper, we point out an effect driving into the opposite direction: Grade inflation is not actually costless, since it has an impact on future cohorts of graduates, or, put differentl...

  6. Digital Storytelling in Primary-Grade Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Leslie M.

    2013-01-01

    As digital media practices become readily available in today's classrooms, literacy and literacy instruction are changing in profound ways (Alvermann, 2010). Professional organizations emphasize the importance of integrating new literacies (New London Group, 1996) practices into language-arts instruction (IRA, 2009; NCTE, 2005). As a result,…

  7. An Investigation of Primary School Students' Perceptions of Violence Revealed Through Their Drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Saban

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, primary school students' perceptions of violence were investigated by means of pictures drawn by them. The participants included 80 students between the ages of 9 and 11 who attended three primary schools (3rd, 4th, and 5th grades in the city of Konya during the 2011-2012 academic year. According to the findings of the study, the students mostly drew pictures of general violence which occurred in a family environment in the form of physical violence. In addition, students drew “father” as a figure practicing violence most, and “male child” and “mother” as figures exposed to violence most.

  8. An Investigation of Primary School Students' Perceptions of Violence Revealed Through Their Drawings

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Saban; Merve Gül Akbulut

    2012-01-01

    In this study, primary school students' perceptions of violence were investigated by means of pictures drawn by them. The participants included 80 students between the ages of 9 and 11 who attended three primary schools (3rd, 4th, and 5th grades) in the city of Konya during the 2011-2012 academic year. According to the findings of the study, the students mostly drew pictures of general violence which occurred in a family environment in the form of physical violence. In addition, students drew...

  9. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge...

  10. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... on the block” that will potentially be a game-changer for urban governance, economics and everyday life. Here we are thinking of the unmanned aerial vehicle or drone as the popular term has it. Therefore, the paper asks how life in “drone city” may play out. Drones may alter the notion of surveillance by means...

  11. Investigation on learning and living conditions of the students in private primary school of Shenzhen City%深圳市私立小学学生学习和生活条件的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林孟端; 陈美施

    2013-01-01

    [ Objective ] To understand the learning and living conditions of the students in private primary school of Shenzhen City. [Methods] One public and 1 private primary school (2 300 students in total ) were selected for investigation by questionnaire which included the general condition, the family situation, family situation, learning and living environment, daily activity, habits and customs, diet and nutrition. [Results] The educational background of private school students' parents was lower than that of the public school students, with significant difference (P < 0. 01). The main occupations of public and private school students' fathers were commercial and service business. The main occupations of their mothers were housewives, commercial and service business. The structure of family was the core family. Mode of growth was in common with the parents . The relationships of students and their parents (relatives) were good . The income of public school students family was better than that of the private school students. The living condition of public school students family was better than the private school students. The eating habits and dietary condition of public school students family was better than the private school students. [ Conclusion] The learning and living condition of the private primary school students is worse than that of the public primary school students in Shenzhen City. Related department should strengthen the support to private primary school students.%目的 了解深圳市私立小学学生学习和生活条件.方法 选择深圳市宝安区某街道公私立小学各1所,对2300名公私立小学学生进行问卷调查.调查内容包括小学学生一般情况、家庭情况、学习生活环境、日常活动和生活习惯及饮食营养.结果 私立小学学生父亲、母亲的总体文化程度低于公立小学,两者间的差别有统计学意义(P<0.01).公私立小学学生父亲的职业均以商业和服务业为主;

  12. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  13. Potential Cities_

    OpenAIRE

    Budzynski, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Buildings and urban construction are understood in this paper as representations of the city. Their meanings, however, are often invisible, positing unrealized urban visions, which are both imbedded in and which call up chains of associations expressing desires and fears. Narratives of what the city should be often contain the rejection of the existing urban situation. Understanding architectural objects as potential underscores their imaginary nature. Freud, for example, uses the Roman ruins...

  14. Beautiful city

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino

    2009-01-01

    Proponents of the City Beautiful movement advocated for sizable public investments in monumental spaces, street beautification, and classical architecture. Today, economists and policymakers see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract people and jobs to cities. But past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisure amenities for urban growth and development. In this article, Jerry Carlino uses a new data set on the number of leisure tourist ...

  15. City Beautiful

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino; Saiz, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The City Beautiful movement, which in the early 20th century advocated city beautification as a way to improve the living conditions and civic virtues of the urban dweller, had languished by the Great Depression. Today, new urban economic theorists and policymakers are coming to see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract population, especially the highly skilled and their employers. However, past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisur...

  16. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    M Batty

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  17. Cytological grading of breast carcinoma on fine needle aspirates and its relation with histological grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Phukan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grading of breast carcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is beneficial for selecting patients for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Aims: To grade the breast carcinoma on FNAC using Robinson grading system and to assess the concordance of cytological grading (CG with histological grading (HG using Elston-Ellis modification of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grading system. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for 1-year, comprising of 50 female patients attending outpatient departments (OPD as well as admitted in various surgical wards of a teaching hospital, diagnosed as breast carcinoma. FNAC smears were stained with May-Grunwald-Giemsa and Papanicolaou (Pap stains and CG was done using Robinson system on Pap stained smears. The results were compared with HG system after resection of tumors. Results: Of 50 cases, 14 (28% cases were graded as grade I, 24 (48% grade II, and 12 (24% grade III by CG, whereas 9 (18%, 28 (56% and 13 (26% cases were graded as grade I, II and III by HG. The result showed overall 72% concordance of CG with HG, with grade II and grade III showing highest degree of concordance (83.33%, which is comparable to previous studies. Kappa measurement showed a higher degree of agreement in high-grade tumors compared with low-grade tumors (0.73 in grade III, 0.53 in grade II and 0.39 in grade I. Conclusion: Cytological grading is comparable to HG in majority of cases. Because neoadjuvant chemotherapy is becoming increasingly popular as primary treatment modality of breast cancer, CG could be a useful parameter in selecting the mode of therapy and predicting tumor behavior.

  18. Sustainable cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed

  19. Automatic Grading of the Post-Harvest Fruit: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Haisheng; Cai, Jinxing; Liu, Xiufeng

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical fruit grading and automatic fruit grading have been detailed in this paper. The studies and applications of mechanical fruit grading, and computer visual and automatic fruit grading were also particularized. Computer vision technology for detecting fruit size, color, bruise and surface defects and evaluation of fruit overall quality were discussed. The primary problems and development in the future in application of automatic fruit grading in China were pointed out in the end.

  20. Improving Grading Consistency through Grade Lift Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Ido

    2010-01-01

    We define Grade Lift as the difference between average class grade and average cumulative class GPA. This metric provides an assessment of how lenient the grading was for a given course. In 2006, we started providing faculty members individualized Grade Lift reports reflecting their position relative to an anonymously plotted school-wide…

  1. Poetry in Third Grade: Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeres, Diane Carver; Gregg, Madeleine

    2007-01-01

    Poetry should be an integral part of children's learning in elementary school. This article explains the classroom structures and routines through which third-grade students in an inner-city school became familiar with poetic language and learned to appreciate the artistry of poetry. Most of the students were struggling readers. Reading poetry…

  2. Design of the Urban Land Grading Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the urban land grading system based on the selfdeveloped GIS software.The system establishes the system template,the relevant data structure and the empirical formulas of the affecting factor and economic data of land use.Besides,the system can calculate the service radius,sum and land grade automatically.Furthermore,it can do statistics and query on various land information and show the result of land grading with spatial and attribute data.This paper illustrates the result by giving an example of the commercial land grading of the urban area of Wuhan City by the urban land grading system.

  3. INVESTIGATION OF PRIMARY FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS’KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION LEVEL OF NASREDDIN HODJA AND KELOĞLAN İLKÖĞRETİM BEŞİNCİ SINIF ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN NASREDDİN HOCA VE KELOĞLAN’A İLİŞKİN BİLGİ VE ALGI DÜZEYLERİNİN İNCELENMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol DURAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how primary fifth grade students'levels of knowledge and perception about Nasreddin Hodja and Keloğlan. This study were tried to find answer of these question: “Which is the level of students' knowledge about Nasreddin Hodja and Keloğlan?”, “Which sources students learned Keloğlan tales?”, “Can Students detect correctly perceive the message to be given in jokes or tales”. In this study, the descriptive model; content and descriptive analysis technique was used. The study group is 172 primary fifth grade students chosen at random in Uşak city center. In this study, a data collection tool, Investigation of Primary Fifth Grade Students’ Knowledge and Perception Related toNasreddin Hodja and Keloğlan, developed by the researcher, was used. According to the survey, students define Nasreddin Hodja as “funny, reverse, donkey riding, witty and knowledgeable”. But some students define Nasreddin Hodja as "a liar and deceitful. This rate for the number of students cannot be underestimated. Students define Keloğlan as “bald, cartoon character and intelligent”. In addition, in the students responses, Keloğlan "lazy and disobedient" features stand out. More than half of the students have been failed or very failed to percept the message to be given in Nasreddin Hodja jokes. However, more than half of the students have been success or very success to percept the message to be given in Keloğlan tales. İlköğretim beşinci sınıf öğrencilerinin Nasreddin Hoca ve Keloğlan ile ilgili bilgi ve algı düzeylerini belirlemeyi amaçlayan bu araştırmada, “Öğrencilerin Nasreddin Hoca ve Keloğlan ile ilgili bilgi masallarını hangi kaynaklardan öğrendikleri” ve “Fıkralarda veya masallarda verilmek istenen mesajı doğru algılayıp algılayamadıkları” araştırılmaya çalışılmıştır. Araştırmada, betimsel tarama modeli; içerik ve betimsel analiz tekniği kullanılmıştır. Ara

  4. 北京市东城区中小学教室卫生学现状分析%Analysis of the classroom health's status for primary and secondary schools in Dongcheng District of Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉蓉; 黄剑辉; 秦媛

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解北京市东城区中小学校教学环境卫生现状,为不断改善学生学习、生活环境提供参考依据.方法 选取北京市东城区70所中小学校的210间教室,进行教室人均面积、课桌椅、采光、照明、微小气候及黑板等方面的卫生学检测,并对检测数据进行统计学分析.结果 中小学校教室人均面积、课桌面照度、课桌及课椅分配符合达标率分别为97.14%、91.43%、76.19%和87.62%;黑板照明、窗地比、采光系数、后墙反射系数、教室CO2浓度及教室温度达标率分别为20.00%、41.43%、16.67%、51.90%、42.86%和35.71%.结论 北京市东城区各中小学校教学环境现状以黑板照明低和教室采光不足为突出问题.%OBJECTIVE To study the teaching environment's health status of on primary and secondary schools in Dongcheng District of Beijing City so as to provide reference evidence for improving the studying and living environment of the students.METHODS The schools health were measured in 210 classrooms of 70 primary and secondary schools in the entire district and the classroom space per capita,desk and chair,classroom lighting and illumination,microclimate,and blackboard were collected and analyzed statistically by SPSS 11.5.RESULTS The qualified rates of classroom space per capita,table and chair illumination,desk allocation,and chair allocation were 97.14%,91.43%,76.19% and 87.62% respectively.The qualified rates of blackboard illumination,window land ratio,illumination coefficient,reflection coefficient of backboard,CO2 density and temperature in the classrooms were 20.00%,41.43%,16.67%,51.90%,42.86% and 35.71% respectively.CONCLUSION It is the biggest problem that the blackboard illumination and the classroom lighting of the teaching environment is not sufficient of primary and secondary schools in Dongcheng District of Beijing City.

  5. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trads, Søren Frimann; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services with...... potential visitors, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of...... - or willingness to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  6. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project exploring sustainable ways of urban living. The project renders a scenario comprised of an array of simple conversions of existing urban spaces and buildings, in the attempt to tie strategies ranging from urban planning to interior design into a coherent vision of a...... sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  7. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  8. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  9. City Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  10. Investigation and analysis on the production cost of primary agricultural products in Guigang City%贵港市大宗农产品生产成本调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈升民; 陈莉; 张敏; 朱丹青

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate agricultural production cost and farmers' income in Guigang City in order to provide references for policy making and to increase fanners' income. [Method]The kilometer network monitoring technology method and random sampling method were used to investigate the production status, external costs, and cost composition of plant farming and poultry breeding industries of 235 peasant households, ranging from 112 villages to 60 towns in Guiping County, Pingnan County, Gangbei District, Gangnan District, and Qintang District in Guigang City from 2008-2009. [Result]Primary agricultural products in Guigang were rice, sugar cane, corn, peanut, vegetable, sericulture, pig, poultry, and aquatic products. The expenses of fertilizers, seeds and seedlings, and pesticide accounted for 40- 60%, 5-30%, and 7-20% of the total expenditure cost respectively; the feeding cost accounted for more than 76% in the total industry cost. The average opportunity cost was 5,346 Yuan. [Suggestion]It was suggested that, in order to improve the efficiency of agricultural production and increase farmers' income in Guigang City, the rational arrangement of farming production depended on gaining resource advantage, supporting the community of poultry and livestock, strengthening government' s" support for agricultural production, decreasing agricultural production cost, reinforcing agricultural science and technology support, improving agricultural service system and land transfer mechanism, conducting large-scale operation, etc.%[目的]了解贵港市农户的农业生产成本及收益情况,为促进农民增收及政府决策提供参考.[方法]于2008~2009年通过农业资源公里网点监测体系,采用随机抽样方法调查贵港市辖的桂平市、平南县、港北区、港南区和覃塘区的60个乡(镇)112个行政村235户农户生产情况、种养业生产成本和构成现状.[结果]农业大宗农产品为水稻、甘蔗、

  11. Sleeping condition and correlated factors among students at primary school in Lanzhou City%兰州市小学生睡眠状况调查及相关因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶新华; 陈虹; 原新慧; 席莉华; 张晓宇; 张艳; 陈彩霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the sleeping condition of children and correlated factors among students at primary school in Lanzhou City. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among the parents of 3 283 students at primary school, stratified random sampling selected in four urban districts of Lanzhou. Results The sleeping time was getting shorter and shorter with the growth of students in primary school (f=25.32, P <0.01). The total sleeping time among students at primary school was less than 10 h a day in Lanzhou. The influence factors of children's total sleeping time were children's age, weight, gender, the time of homework, sleeping with their parent, amateur study, family accident, the education background and occupation of parents', and the time of going to bed of fosterer, etc. The prevalence of sleeping disorders was 16.24% in the students of primary school in Lanzhou with 18.22% in boys and 14.07% in girls (P <0.05). The main risk factors that affected the sleeping conditions were weight, irregular sleep, not enough sleeping time, adenoids, watching nervous TV and acute exercise before 30 min to sleep, the bedroom with TV, sleeping with their parent, anxiety of the father, the parents' bad marriage, etc. Conclusion The total sleeping time of the students from primary school in Lanzhou is below the standard requirements. There is a lower prevalence of sleeping disorders than that in developed city. The main influence factors of the sleeping were the family and social environment, schoolwork burden, habits of children and their parents' high education and anxiety.%目的 了解兰州市小学生睡眠状况及影响因素.方法 采用分层整群随机抽样的方法在兰州市4个区选取3 283名小学生,在严格质量控制下进行睡眠问卷调查.结果 兰州市小学生全天总睡眠时间小于10 h,随年龄增长而减少,各组间均数呈线形趋势,以10岁为界,有显著性差异(f=25.32,P<0.01);睡眠时间的影响因素有年龄

  12. Prediction of Annual Precipitation Grade in Baoji City Based on Weighted Markov Chain%基于权马尔可夫链的宝鸡市年降水量状态预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文彦君

    2012-01-01

    In order to make a comprehensive analysis on the temporal distribution regularity and variation trend, providing scientific basis for water resource prediction, prevention and mitigation of flood & drought disaster, water regulation, as well as water resource management, the annual precipitation grade of Baoji were analyzed by using weighted Markov chain. Considering the uncertainty and imprecision of precipitation process, the precipitation numbers of Baoji from 1956 to 2009 were classified into 5 grades: drought, partial drought, normal, partial abundance and abundance, by using mean-standard deviation classification method. Regarding standardized self-coefficients as weights, the precipitation grades of the future years in Baoji were predicted by using weighted Markov chain. Analysis on stationary distribution showed that, the probabilities of 5 grades above were respectively 0.1305, 0.2767, 0.2751, 0.2075, 0.1101. The partial drought and normal grades dominated in the long-term precipitation process, reflecting warming-drying trend of climate changing in Baoji.%为了全面分析宝鸡市自然降水的时间分布规律和变化趋势,为该区域水资源预测、旱涝灾害防治、水量调度和水资源管理提供依据,对宝鸡市年降水量状态进行了权马尔可夫链分析.针对降水过程中的不确定和不精确性,采用均值-标准差分级法,将宝鸡市1956-2009年降水量分为干旱、偏旱、正常、偏涝、雨涝5个状态.以规范化的各阶自相关系数为权重,采用权马尔可夫链模型对宝鸡市未来年份的降水量状态进行预测.平稳分析结果表明,宝鸡市多年降水过程中干旱、偏旱、正常、偏涝、雨涝等5种状态出现的概率分别为0.1305、0.2767、0.2751、0.2075、0.1101.宝鸡市未来多年降水过程中偏旱和正常状态占优势,而雨涝出现概率较低,反映了该区域气候暖干化的长期变化.

  13. Toronto smog report card 2002 : final grade D +

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    The Toronto Environmental Alliance has published an annual Smog Report Card for Toronto since 1997 to evaluate the progress that has been made by the city on reducing the environmental and health impacts of smog. The city's final grade for 2002 was a D +, an improvement over last year, partly due to the city's anti-smog actions and honoured commitments to clean air through the adoption of a new bike plan, the launching of a new public education campaign, and by endorsing the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol on climate change. This report card presented a grade for Smog Prevention and Reduction (D), Budget (F), Intergovernmental Relations (B), and Public Education (F). It was recommended that in order to receive a better grade next year, the city will have to purchase green electricity from renewable energy sources, reduce emissions in municipal fleet vehicles and improve public transit. 14 refs.

  14. Survey of ADHD among primary and middle school students in urban area of Guiyang city%贵阳城区中小学生注意缺陷多动障碍调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张碧昌; 朱焱; 邓冰; 文秋生; 孙袁; 王秀荣

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨贵阳市城区儿童注意缺陷多动障碍的患病情况及影响因素,为防治该病提供依据.方法:采用整群随机抽样抽取贵阳城区中小学生3 016名为调查对象,用Conners量表(家长问卷)对儿童进行初筛,然后对可疑患儿及家长进行病史访谈、智力测试并按DSM -Ⅳ诊断标准进行诊断.结果:ADHD的患病率为0.73%,其中注意缺陷型占77.3%,多动-冲动型占9.1%,注意缺陷伴多动冲动型占13.6%.男孩的患病率为1.3%,女孩患病率为0.3%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).影响儿童ADHD的因素为:性别、母亲孕期情绪低落、父母婚姻关系、父母是否理解孩子的想法、孩子有困难是否愿意告诉父母、孩子性格及学习成绩、好朋友的多少、与同学的关系.结论:儿童ADHD的患病率处于较低水平,影响儿童ADHD的因素是多方面的,干预儿童ADHD应该关注儿童家庭养育环境和在学校的学习生活情况.%Objective: To explore the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the effect factors among the children in urban area of Guiyang city, provide a basis for prevention and treatment of the disease. Methods: A cluster random sampling method was used to choose 3 016 primary and middle school students from urban area of Guiyang city as investigation objects, Conners scale was used for primary screening, then the suspected children and their parents were interviewed, intelligence test was conducted, and all the children were diagnosed according to DSM - IV diagnostic criterion. Results: The prevalence of ADHD was 0. 73% , the proportions of inattentive type, hyperactive/impulsive type, inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive type were 77. 3% , 9. 1% and 13. 6% , respectively. The incidences of ADHD in boys and girls were 1. 3% and 0. 3% , respectively, there was significant difference (P <0. 05) . The effect factors of ADHD in children included gender, maternal depression during

  15. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003). But......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  16. OPINIONS OF PRIMARY EDUCATION SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS ABOUT TEACHING OF HISTORY TOPICS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES AND SIGNIFICANCE OF HISTORY İLKÖĞRETİM YEDİNCİ SINIF ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN SOSYAL BİLGİLER DERSLERİNDE TARİH KONULARININ İŞLENİŞİ VE TARİHİN DEĞERİ İLE İLGİLİ GÖRÜŞLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan KAYA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at determining primary education seventh grade students’ opinions on teaching of history topics in social science cources and significance of history in their lives. The population of the study comprises of 20 pieces seventh grade classes in 4 primary schools with medium socio-economic levels in the city center of Erzurum. As the sample of the study, a total of 200 students (10 students from each class were chosen via random sampling from seventh grade classes of these schools according to the appropriate sampling method. Required data for this qualitative research was acquired by a 4-item questionnaire comprising of open-ended questions. Content analysis method was adopted in analysis of the obtained data in this study. Findings shows that methods in line with constructivist approach remain limited in teaching of the topics; students like methods in which they are more active; such as drama and acting they like learning history, and, in general, they think that learning history makes a great contribution to their lives. Bu araştırmanın amacı, İlköğretim yedinci sınıf öğrencilerinin sosyal bilgiler dersinde tarih konularının işlenişi ve tarihin yaşamlarındaki değeri ile ilgili görüşlerini tespit edebilmektir.Araştırmanın evrenini, Erzurum merkezde sosyo-ekonomik bakımdan orta düzeyde 4 ilköğretim okulundaki toplam 20 tane yedinci sınıf şubesi oluşturmaktadır. Örneklem olarak uygun örnekleme yöntemine göre seçilen bu okulların yedinci sınıflarından tesadüfî örneklem yoluyla her sınıftan 10’ar öğrenci olmak üzere toplam 200 öğrenci seçilmiştir. Nitel araştırma yöntemi ile gerçekleştirilen bu araştırma için gerekli olan veriler, 4 adet açık uçlu sorudan oluşan bir anket vasıtasıyla edinilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda elde edilen verilerin çözümlenmesinde içerik analizi yöntemi benimsenmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre derslerin işlenişinde yap

  17. Primary Keyboarding Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Valery; And Others

    Beginning with a rationale for implementing a primary grade keyboarding course, this paper describes the implementation of such a course at the Bernardsville (New Jersey) Elementary School. The methods and procedures discussed include the essential concepts to consider when teaching keyboarding and the materials necessary to implement the program.…

  18. 普洱市初中一年级学生体质与膳食营养状况调查分析%Survey and analysis of physical fitness and dietary nutrition of first grade students in junior high school in Pu'er City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙竹花; 陈燕; 万婧; 张乾勇; 麻微微

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the physical fitness and dietary nutrition of first grade students in junior high school from urban and rural areas of Pu'er City in Yunnan Province.Methods A total of 498 first grade students aged 13-year-old from two junior high schools in urban and rural areas of Pu'er City in May 2011 were selected as participants with random cluster sampling method.Height, weight and chest circumference of the students were measured.And their recent sports results were accessed and 3-day dietary survey was performed with 24 h recall method.Results Height of male and female students in urban areas were significantly higher than that in the rural areas (P < 0.05).Low weight rate of female students in rural areas was significantly higher than that in urban areas, while the obesity rate was significantly lower in rural areas (P < 0.05).Energy and various nutrients intake of students in urban areas were significantly higher, while calcium intake was significantly insufficient both in urban and rural areas.Conclusion In Pu'er City, health status of first grade students in junior high school is not optimistic, with unreasonable dietary structure and unsatisfactory nutritional status.This indicates that effective measures should be taken to improve the students' dietary intake and nutritional status.%目的 了解云南省普洱市城市和农村初中一年级学生体质与膳食营养状况.方法 按照整群随机抽样的方法选取2011年5月普洱市城乡各两所学校初中一年级13岁学生共498名为调查对象,测量其身高、体重和胸围,查阅最近一次的运动成绩,用24 h回顾法进行3d膳食调查.结果 城镇男、女学生身高均显著高于乡村学生(P<0.05).乡村女生较低体重率显著高于城镇女生,而肥胖率显著低于城镇女生(P<0.05).城镇学生能量和各种营养素摄入量普遍高于乡村学生,城乡学生钙摄入量均不足.结论 普洱市初中一年级学生体质健康状况不

  19. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal...... performance. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  20. Will Primary Grade Title I Students Demonstrate Greater Achievement in Reading With the Use of Audio-Visual Aids Than Those Who Haven't Utilized the Same Media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skobo, Kathleen Ward

    Forty-two first, second, and third grade students participated in a 15-week study to determine the effects of audiovisual aids on reading achievement. The students were pretested and posttested using the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills. Each group received 40 minutes of small group and individual instruction each day. The experimental group…

  1. 苏州市区中小学生饮食健康调查及分析%Investigation and Analysis of Dietary Health Among Students of Primary School and Junior High School in Suzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏红; 马姣姣; 孔玉兰

    2012-01-01

    A dietary health-related questionnaire was designed and conducted in 511 students of 9 primary and junior high schools in Pingjiang, Jinchang, Canglang and the New District of Suzhou city. The result showed that 61.87% of students had dairy foods in their breakfast, but lacked of vegetables and fruits. A proportion of students had not good habit such as picking about food, preferring foreign fast foods, drinking soft drink instead of water. Their main sports activity was in school. They achieved information about good diet through fami- ly, reading and school. We suggested that the education about dietary health should be improved.%以问卷调查的方式,对苏州市平江区、沧浪区、金阊区、新区的9所学校511位五年级至初二的学生进行了调查。调查发现,学生的早餐规律性尚可,早餐含乳制品的学生比例达61.87%,但普遍缺少蔬菜或水果;休息日用餐规律性出现波动;学生的运动时间主要在学校体育课;大部分学生饮食习惯尚可,但也有一定比例的学生存在挑食、喜欢洋快餐、用饮料代替饮水等不良习惯;家庭教育、书刊阅读是学生获取饮食健康信息的主要渠道。针对这些情况学校和家庭都应该加强学生饮食健康教育方式方法的研究,提高教育效果,使学生终身受益。

  2. 大理市苍山森林火险等级区划研究%Study on the Division of Forest Fire Danger Grade in Cangshan Mountain of Dali City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国斌

    2015-01-01

    Take the data processing ,supplementary investigation ,statistical analysis and other methods ,according to the burning of the forest to forest fire ring theory ,three elements in the burning of the forest fire danger of online distribution ring value as the divi -sion standard of quantitative ,the woodlands of Cangshan divided into 3 grade of fire zone;the results show that:the combustion types in Cangshan forest land ,easy combustion type accounted for 87.9%;super fire area and the level of fire area up to 20731.9 hm2 ,ac-counting for 69.4%of the area of forest land.The results show that ,Dali Cangshan forest fire rank high ,large fire hazard ,is a nation-al risk fire area.%采取数据处理、补充调查、统计分析等方法,根据森林燃烧环网理论,以林火三要素在森林燃烧环网上分布的火险值作为定量划分标准,将苍山的林地划分为3个火险等级区;苍山林地燃烧类型中,易燃类占87.9%;特级火险区和一级火险区的面积达20731.9 hm2,占林地面积的69.4%。研究表明,大理苍山森林火险等级高,火灾危险性大,属全国高危火险区域。

  3. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  4. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  5. 小学低年级班级中小组“捆绑”管理策略的探究%Inquiry Group“Lower Grades in Primary School in the Bundle”Management Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢桂明; 曾孝辉

    2014-01-01

    Traditional class management mainly includes the class teacher,class committee,group,students of grade four,management mode, the teacher with the highest authority,however,the enforcement of traditional class management modeand receive the teaching effect is not very good,this article is for the team“team low grade class bundling”management strategies are discussed.%传统的班级管理主要包括班主任、班委会、小组、学生四级管理模式,其中,班主任具有最高权威,但是,传统的班级管理模式的执行力度和收到的教学效果都不是很好,对小组低年级班级中小组“捆绑”管理策略进行探讨。

  6. Predicting Dyslexia in a Transparent Orthography from Grade 1 Literacy Skills: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective cohort study to explore the predictability of dyslexia from 1st-grade literacy skills in Italian students. We followed 407 Italian students in primary school from the 1st through the 3rd grades. Students were diagnosed with dyslexia in the 3rd grade. We retrospectively tested participants' 1st-grade performance in…

  7. Investigation of Current Situation of Learning Motivation, Social Anxiety and Loneliness of the Left-behind Children in Rural Primary School

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Biyun; Xu Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC) and the Children’s Lonelin...

  8. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers,...

  9. Gleason grading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000920.htm Gleason grading system To use the sharing features on this page, ... score of between 5 and 7. Gleason Grading System Sometimes, it can be hard to predict how ...

  10. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  11. Sister Cities Flourish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building sister city relation,also known as friendsh ip city,is a common channel for cities in different countries to keep a closer tie and communication.According to the statistics from China International Friendship Cities Association,up to the end of 2007,1087 provinces and states and 314 cities from 120 countries in the world have found their sister cities in China.Among them,Japan has the largest amount of Chinese sister cities,that is 200 provinces and 33 cities,and takes up almost 17 percent of the total number.

  12. Drinking in different periods of a day of primary and middle school students in four cities of China%中国四城市中小学生每天不同时间段的饮水量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 胡小琪; 杜松明; 潘慧; 王晓君; 张东; 朱珍妮; 罗圆; 鞠勇

    2013-01-01

    204)ml(Z =64.5,P < 0.01).Conclusion The amount of drinking water of primary and middle school students in different periods of a day was different in four cities of China.%目的 调查北京、上海、成都、广州中小学生每天不同时间段的饮水量.方法 采用多阶段随机抽样的方法,于2011年9-10月在北京、上海、广州、成都抽取了5914名中小学生,完成调查5868名.采用连续7d24h的饮水记录法,由调查对象利用定量用具详细记录每天8个时间段,上午、下午、晚上,以及就餐时与非就餐时饮水的种类及量,分析不同时间段的水和饮料的饮用量.结果 早餐前、早餐时、早餐后、午餐时、午餐后、晚餐时、晚餐后和夜间的饮水量分别为(99±101)、(130±106)、(191±155)、(96±107)、(246±172)、(90±101)、(188±135)、(50±81) ml(F=1679.77,P<0.01).按照3个时段划分时,上午的饮水量最高[(420±242)ml],依次是下午[(341±199)ml]和晚上[(327±195) ml](F=325.23,P<0.01);上午、下午、晚上白水饮用量分别是(270±209)、(250±179)和(224±177) ml(F=84.89,P<0.01);饮料的饮用量在上午[(151±133) ml]最高,其次是晚上[(103±122) ml],下午[(91±199) ml]最低(F=373.56,P<0.01).就餐时与非就餐时的饮水量分别为(316±247)、(773±445)ml(Z=65.2,P<0.01).非就餐时,白水饮用量[(579±408) ml]高于饮料[(194±204) ml](Z=64.5,P<0.01);就餐时,白水[(165±194)ml]和饮料[(151±152)ml]之间的差异无统计学意义(Z=0.59,P=0.56).结论 中国4个城市中小学生每天不同时段的饮水量差别较大.

  13. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinquan; Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  14. La Adquisición de Conocimiento Ortográfico en Niños de 1er a 3er Año de Educación Básica Orthographic Knowledge Acquisition in 1st to 3rd Grade Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Diuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se exploró la adquisición de conocimiento ortográfico en base al análisis de la escritura de palabras, en niños argentinos de 1er a 3er año de educación básica. Se analizó también la relación entre el conocimiento fonológico y el ortográfico. Se administraron dos pruebas de escritura: una prueba con palabras que variaban en su complejidad fonológica y otra con palabras de distinta complejidad ortográfica, que incluían correspondencias consistentes independientes del contexto, consistentes dependientes del contexto y correspondencias inconsistentes. Se observó que las correspondencias consistentes independientes del contexto fueron mejor escritas en todos los grados, seguidas de las inconsistentes dominantes, las dependientes del contexto y las inconsistentes no dominantes. Los niños de grados superiores se desempeñaron mejor que aquellos en grados inferiores.Orthographic knowledge acquisition in Argentine children from the 1st to 3rtl grade of primary school was explored. The relationship between phonological and orthographic knowledge was also analyzed. Two written test were administered: one presented stimuli with different phonological complexity, and in the other the children had to write words of different orthographic complexity, including context-independent consistent correspondences, consistent context dependent and inconsistent correspondences. The results showed that context-independent consistent correspondences were the best written in the three grades, followed by dominant inconsistent correspondences, context dependent, and no dominant inconsistent correspondences. Higher grade children performed better than lower grade children.

  15. Are grades really oppressive?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张心宇

    2015-01-01

    Are grades really oppressive? The broad question's answer is of course open: it varies in different condition and in prerequisites. Like in Daily Californian,"Why Grades are Oppressive", the title tells us it standing: yes, grades are oppressive. In the article, the authors (this article was written by 16 students of the class) pointed out that the grading system has had a violent and powerfully destructive effect on our lives. Because grading focuses our attention on class requirements that we have no say in determination. And this makes many students equate their self-worth with the grades they get in exams. Besides, grades are intimately connected with a larger system of control in community, which trains students to be submissive and not to question or challenge it. In the end, the authors conclude that they should take responsibility for evaluating their own learning process.

  16. Related factors of mental health in primary and junior high students with single parent family in urban area of Tianjin city%天津市区单亲中小学生心理健康相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓菲; 梁瑞华; 毛富强; 冯秀娟; 刘霞; 刘宏伟; 侯筱菲; 柳雷

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解天津市区单亲中小学生心理健康状况及其影响因素.方法 采用多级分层随机整群抽样方法,抽取天津市1 625名中小学生,采用自编一般情况调查表、心理健康诊断测验(MHT)、父母教养方式评价量表(EMBU)进行调查.结果 天津市区中小学生单亲比率为10.8%,和平区最高,为12.85%,七年级学生单亲比率最高,为12.79%;父母文化程度为本科的学生在学习焦虑、对人焦虑、自责倾向、过敏倾向、恐怖倾向方面的得分低于父母为中专的学生,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);单亲中小学生心理健康问题(总分≥65分)检出率为20%;单亲学生的心理健康状况在总分及各个因子得分均高于双亲学生(P<0.05);父亲惩罚严厉、拒绝否认的教养方式与单亲学生MHT的8个因子均呈正相关(P<0.01);母亲过分干涉保护、拒绝否认、惩罚严厉的教养方式与学习焦虑、对人焦虑、孤独倾向、过敏倾向、身体症状、恐怖倾向等均呈正相关(P<0.05).结论 天津市单亲中小学生存在较多的心理健康问题.%Objective To study mental health condition and its influence factors among primary and junior high students in single parent family. Methods Totally 1 625 students from 36 classes were examined with a self-designed common status questionnaire, Mental Health of Test ( MHT) , and Egma Minnea av Bardndosnauppforstran ( EMBU). Results Among the students, 10. 8% were from single parent family. The percentage of students with single parent family was 12. 79% for the students in grade 7. The students with parents having college education showed significantly lower scores than the students with parents having technical secondary school education for anxiety,self-accusation,sensitivity,and fear( all P < 0. 05). The students with single parent family had a detection rate of 20% for mental health problems (total score ≥65). The score of mental health for students

  17. Good Looks, Good Grades? An Empirical Analysis of the Influence of Students' Physical Attractiveness on Grading by Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkake, Imke; Kiechle, Thomas; Klein, Markus; Rosar, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Many educational studies like PISA have shown that school performance is not purely determined by scholarly achievements. Apart from students’ efforts, there are other criteria that influence school grades. One of these is the physical attractiveness of students, an aspect that has largely been ignored in national educational studies up to now. Based on a sample of three secondary high school classes in a large German city we tested the extent to which school grades are affected by the physic...

  18. INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION OF SHENYANG CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping-yu

    2003-01-01

    Industrial transformation represents a unique economic phenomenon in China's regional economy,and old industrial city reconstruction has long been a key problem that affects state security. As a typical old indus-trial city in China, Shenyang established its heavy industrial city position in the First Five-year Plan period (1953-1957), and this industrial structure has been consolidated for a long time. After 1978, Shenyang began its long last-ing industrial reconstruction in an all-round way by 3 main initiatives including restructuring economic system, up-grading traditional industrial technology and developing high-tech industry. In the end of the 1990s, it could be I-dentified that remarkable structural changes took place in city economy at large as well as individual industrial sec-tor. According to the GDP proportion change, Shenyang is on the way to a high level industrial structure. The sec-ondary industry also engendered significant shifting as smelting and textile industry declined sharply but IT industry increased largely. Although the ratio of the heavy industry to the light industry changed periodically, the heavy in-dustrial output value most time kept a high proportion over 60% of the gross industrial output value in the past five decades. Shenyang has favorable conditions for developing equipment manufacturing industry, but it should carry out the program by establishing its leading role in urban economy plan, building "Theme Industrial Parks", improv-ing Tiexi Industrial Zone, removing any kind of system barrier, enlarging private and other ownerships economy and improving technology, marketing and management by IT application. In response to economy globalization,Shenyang needs to expand the cooperation worldwide and improve the cohesion with surrounding cities.

  19. A Regular City

    OpenAIRE

    Arina Sharavina

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the first plans of Chita, which served as the basis for the city development. It presents contribution to the city history made by the Decembrist Dmiry Zavalishin’s, who was the first author of the city development plan. Peculiarities of the quarter development of the realized city plan are also presented.

  20. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  1. Effects of Selected Exercises on Elementary School Third Grade Girl Students’ Motor Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhtiari, Sabah; Shafinia, Parvaneh; Ziaee, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the influence of selected exercises on motor development in elementary school third grade girl students in Ahwaz City, Iran. Methods The present study was semi–experimental, performed as field and using experimental and control groups. The statistical population included all third grade girl students of elementary schools of Ahvaz city (10,500 subjects). Forty of whom were randomly selected (cluster stage) and then were divided randomly into two ex...

  2. Effect of Selected Exercises on Elementary School Third Grade Girl Students' Motor Development

    OpenAIRE

    Sabah Bakhtiari; Parvaneh Shafinia; Vahid Ziaee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose:The aim of this study was to examine the influence of selected exercises on motor development in elementary school third grade girl students in Ahwaz City, Iran.Methods:The present study was semi-experimental, performed as field and using experimental and control groups. The statistical population included all third grade girl students of elementary schools of Ahvaz city (10,500 subjects). Forty of whom were randomly selected (cluster stage) and then were divided randomly into two exp...

  3. Current treatment of low grade astrocytoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Louise; Romner, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    Through a comprehensive review of the current literature, the present article investigates several aspects of low grade astrocytomas (LGA), including prognostic factors, treatment strategies and follow-up regimes. LGA are in general relatively slow-growing primary brain tumours, but they have a...

  4. Research on Middle and Primary School Students' Cognition Level to Number- Grade Four and Grade Eight Students as Example%藏汉中小学生对数的认知水平研究——以四年级与八年级学生为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巴桑卓玛

    2012-01-01

    对692名藏汉学生对数的认知水平进行测试、问卷调查及访谈.比较同一地区同一年级的藏汉学生对数的认知表现的民族差异性.四年级藏汉学生数的总体认知有显著差异,八年级藏汉学生对数的总体认知有显著差异(P〈0.001).四年级藏汉学生对数的不同认知水平有显著差异(P〈0.05),八年级藏汉学生数的不同认知水平无显著差异.四年级汉族男女学生对数的总体认知没有显著差异,四年级藏族男女学生对数的总体认知无显著差异.八年级汉族男女学生对数的总体认知没有显著差异,八年级藏族男女学生对数的总体认知无显著差异.语言环境、社会家庭环境,教学环境,数学学习动机等因素影响藏族学生数的认知发展.%This paper reported findings from a comparative research of students, number cognition between Han and Tibetan students. In this research, 692 Han and Tibetan students were tested about number cognition .There were significant differences between Han and Tibetan fourth grade students on number test. There were significant differences between Han and Tibetan eighth grade students on knowing number test. In general, Han' number cognition was better than the Tibetan. There were significant differences between Han and Tibetan fourth grade students on the number of different cognitive level. There are no significant differences between Han and Tibetan eighth grade students on the number of different cognitive level. There are no significant differences between Han boys and Han girls; There are no significant differences between Tibetan boys and Tibetan girls. However, language environment, social and family environment, teaching environment, learning motivation, which influenced number cognitive development of Tibetan students.

  5. Primary Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Primary Syphilis Information for adults A A A This image ... ulcer with a red base, typical of primary syphilis. Overview Primary syphilis is a disease caused by ...

  6. Investigation on individual dose level and health status of radiation workers in 5 third-level grade-A hospitals of Shijiazhuang City in 2013%2013年石家庄市5家三甲医院放射工作人员个人剂量水平与健康状况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 陈岩; 师振祥; 张圆圆; 孟月杰

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] To analyze the individual dose level and occupational health examination results of radiation workers in third-level grade-A hospitals of Shijiazhuang City,provide a scientific basis for radiological protection and management in Hebei Province.[Methods] According to the methods of the Testing criteria of personnel dosimetry performance (GBZ 207-2008),the Basic standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources (GBZ 128-2002) and the Specifications of individual monitoring for occupational external exposure (GBZ 128-2002),the individual dose monitoring and occupational health examination were performed among radiation workers in 5 third-level grade-A hospitals of Shijiazhuang City.[Results] The average annual dose equivalents of radiation workers in different posts were between 0.83 mSv/a and 1.50 mSv/a,while the dose equivalent of general diagnostic X-ray radiology staff,interventional radiology staff,nuclear medicine radiology staff and radiation therapy staff was 0.96 mSv/a,1.50 mSy/a,1.06 mSv/a and 0.83 mSv/a,respectively.There was no statistically significant correlation between the rate of abnormal physical examination results and the annual per capita effective dose among radiation workers in different posts (P>0.05).[Conclusion] The radiological protection and health management in 5 third-level grade-A hospitals of Shijiazhuang City are satisfactory,and the effective protective measures can reduce the radiation dose of exposure workers.%目的 通过分析石家庄辖区内三甲医院放射工作人员个人剂量水平与职业健康检查结果,为河北省放射卫生防护与监督管理工作提供科学依据.方法 采用GBZ 207-2008《外照射个人剂量系统性能检验规范》、GB 18871-2002《电离辐射防护与辐射源安全基本标准》GBZ 128-2002《职业性外照射个人监测规范》中的方法,对石家庄市内5家三甲医院的放射工作人员进行个人剂量监

  7. Graded cluster algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In the cluster algebra literature, the notion of a graded cluster algebra has been implicit since the origin of the subject. In this work, we wish to bring this aspect of cluster algebra theory to the foreground and promote its study. We transfer a definition of Gekhtman, Shapiro and Vainshtein to the algebraic setting, yielding the notion of a multi-graded cluster algebra. We then study gradings for finite type cluster algebras without coefficients, giving a full classification. Translating ...

  8. Project Based Learning in Multi-Grade Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Sabahattin; Baykan, Ayse Aysun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate project based learning in multi-grade classes. This study, based on a student-centered learning approach, aims to analyze students' and parents' interpretations. The study was done in a primary village school belonging to the Centre of Batman, already adapting multi-grade classes in their education system,…

  9. 首位城市过大是否阻碍省域经济协调发展--基于中国省级面板数据的实证分析%Is the Primary City too Big to Prevent the Harmonious Development of Provincial Economy:Based on an Empirical Analysis of Chinese Provincial Panel Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田超

    2015-01-01

    由空间集聚引起的经济增长和地区差距是空间经济学关注的重要主题。在全球化、市场化以及分权化的背景下,中国各省对于各自区域的发展战略拥有了更大的自主权,同时,各省首位城市往往意味着更强大的政治资源,因而导致其发展过快,吸收外围城市的各种要素,从而拉大省域地区差距。基于中国各省份2000-2012年的面板数据,试图分析各省份首位城市规模对于省域经济协调发展的影响,即首位城市过大是否会在刺激区域经济增长的同时扩大地区差距。首先计算了各省份首位城市GDP 占所在省份比重,从宏观上得出中西部省份比重较高的结论,进一步通过生产函数构建经济增长和首位城市规模的模型,并运用OLS估计和IV估计,回归结果表明,首位城市规模与经济增长间呈现倒U型的关系,即存在最优的首位城市规模使得经济增长最快。同时,各省份的经济发展水平以及规模均会影响其最优数值,经济发展水平越高、建成区面积越小以及劳动人口越多的省份其最优首位城市规模越大。另一方面,对地区差距和首位城市规模的关系进行研究后发现,首位城市规模的增加会拉大省域内部地区差距。因此,政府在促进省域经济协调发展时,不应将重点放在平衡地区空间分布的政策上,而是构建完善的制度和规划以增强首位城市的承载力。%Economic growth and regional disparities caused by spatial agglomeration are the main themes of spatial economics. Under the background of globalization, marketization and decentralization, Chinese provinces enjoy greater autonomy in their own regional development strategy. Meantime, being the provincial primary cites means gaining more powerful political resources, which enables these cities to develop rapidly and absorb various elements from peripheral cities, and provincial

  10. 2006 Toronto smog report card : final grade C-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This annual report card evaluated the progress made by the City of Toronto toward reducing the environmental and health impacts of smog. The final grade for 2006 was a C-, the same as for 2005. The highest grade of B+ was issued in 2004. The report card evaluated City Council actions based on their clean air commitments. Although the summer of 2006 was one of the best on record, with only 11 smog days, the grade of C- was issued because the performance of the City's Air Quality Improvement record was poor. Toronto Environmental Alliance strongly recommended that important changes be made to improve air quality, transit and waste disposal. It recommended that the City should address the real causes of unclean air, which are motor vehicle exhaust and toxic pollution. This report card graded the performance on initiatives in the following six major areas: energy; transit; air quality plan; walking and biking; fleets and fuels; and, intergovernmental action. The report recommended that efforts should be made to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which cause global warming. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Cities and Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew K. Rose

    2005-01-01

    If one ranks cities by population, the rank of a city is inversely related to its size, a well-documented phenomenon known as Zipf's Law. Further, the growth rate of a city's population is uncorrelated with its size, another well-known characteristic known as Gibrat's Law. In this paper, I show that both characteristics are true of countries as well as cities; the size distributions of cities and countries are similar. But theories that explain the size-distribution of cities do not obviously...

  12. Discussion on Interesting Teaching Methods in Low-Grade Primary School Musical Classroom%浅谈小学低年级音乐课堂趣味性教学方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蒙蒙

    2014-01-01

    对于低年级的孩子们来说,趣味性教学方法的使用是提高课堂效率的核心手段。列举了几种常用的趣味性音乐教学方法,并结合实际教学案例来展示趣味性教学方法的应用。实践表明,趣味性教学方法可以有效地激发学生的“想象力”和“模仿力”,切实提高课堂效率。%For low grade children, the use of interesting teaching method is the key method to improve classroom efficiency. Application ex-amples of several interesting music teaching method combined with the practical teaching case to show interesting teaching method. Practice shows that the interest teaching method can stimulate students’effective“imagination”and“imitation”, improve the efficiency of the classroom.

  13. The Effect of Empowerment Group Psychodrama on Anxiety and Terror of Primary School Students in the Grade 4 to 5%增能团体心理剧干预小学高年级学生焦虑恐怖心理效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉; 龚定宏; 徐奇

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of empowerment group psychodrama on anxiety and terror of high grade primary school students and its mechanism , and provide effective intervention methods to promote the mental health of higher grades students in primary school.Methods:Selecting students in 4 and 5 grade in a primary school in a community of Pudong New Area in Shanghai with stratified cluster sampling method ,and dividing them into intervention group and control group ,The intervention group was carried out 5-times empowerment group psychodrama ,while the control group was not carried out no in-terventions.Using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale(SAS)and Marks Scale for Compulsions Phobias ,Obses-sions and Rituals (MSCPOR) as evaluation tool.Results:Before intervention,there were not significant differences in each factor of MSCPOR and SAS between two groups;After intervention ,There were signifi-cant differences in the terror factor of MSCPOR ,coarse points and the standard score of SAS (F=4.40, 6.26,6.10;P<0.05).Conclusion:Empowerment group psychodrama has better intervention ,control effect on terror and anxiety for high grade primary school students ,and has certain positive effect on com-pulsive behavior and the overall terror compulsive behavior.%目的:探索增能团体心理剧干预小学高年级学生群体的焦虑、恐怖心理效果,并探讨其影响机制,为促进小学高年级学生心理健康提供有效干预方法. 方法:采用分层整群抽样方法,在上海市浦东新区某社区一所小学内抽取4、5年级各2个班级,随机将4、5年级各1个班级的所有学生作为干预组,另2个班级(4、5年级各1个班级)的学生即作为对照组,对干预组开展共计5次的增能团体心理剧活动,而对照组则不做任何干预. 采用焦虑自评量表和Marks恐怖强迫量表作为心理测评工具. 结果:增能团体心理剧干预前,干预组与对照组在MSCPOR和SAS的各个因子中均无显著统计学差异,

  14. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  15. Controlling Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanoyevitch, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In this article concerning grade inflation, the author restricts his attention to the college and university level, although many of the tools and ideas developed here should be useful for high schools as well. The author considers the relationships between grades instructors assign and scores they receive on end-of-the semester student…

  16. [Grading of neuroendocrine tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeger, W; Schnabel, P A; Komminoth, P

    2016-07-01

    The current WHO classification of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) differentiates between typical carcinoids (low grade NET), atypical carcinoids (intermediate grade NET) and small cell and large cell carcinomas (high grade NET) according to the prognosis. Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas are graded in an identical way. Together with the TNM system this enables a preoperative estimation of the prognosis in biopsies and fine needle aspirates. Well-differentiated tumors are graded into G1 tumors by the number of mitoses, tumors (2-20 mitoses/10 HPF, Ki-67 3-20 %). Discrepancies between the number of mitoses and the Ki-67 index are not uncommon and in these cases the higher value of the two should be applied. The more differentiated tumors of the G3 type have to be differentiated from undifferentiated carcinomas of the small cell type and large cell type with a much poorer prognosis. Prognosis relevant grading of thyroid cancers is achieved by special subtyping so that the G1-G3 system is not applicable. The rare cancers of the parathyroid gland and of the pituitary gland are not graded. Adrenal tumors also have no grading system. The prognosis is dependent on the Ki-67 index and with some reservations on the established scoring systems. PMID:27379621

  17. Grading Exceptional Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers often grapple with the challenge of giving report card grades to students with learning disabilities and English language learners. The authors offer a five-step model that "offers a fair, accurate, and legal way to adapt the grading process for exceptional learners." The model begins with a high-quality reporting system for all students…

  18. Beef grading by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  19. Making Grading Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Edward; Smith, Bruce

    Two teachers have developed a procedure for grading student compositions that seems fairer to both them and their students. The students are given a choice of which papers they wish to submit for grading, and when they do submit work, the papers are identified by a number only (chosen by the student and indexed in a class card file). Each teacher…

  20. Are catholic primary schools more effective than public primary schools?

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Elder; Christopher Jepsen

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the causal effects of Catholic primary schooling on student outcomes such as test scores, grade retention, and behavior. Catholic school students have substantially better average outcomes than do public school students throughout the primary years, but we present evidence that selection bias is entirely responsible for these advantages. Estimates based on several empirical strategies, including an approach developed by Altonji et al. (2005a) to use selection on observable...

  1. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  2. For a Safer City. A Friendlier City. And a More Beautiful City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Busi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the safety of mobility in the urban environment has been emerging as a primary social topic for some time now due to the number of casualties and, more generally, due to the impact on living conditions in the city. If correctly formulated, in fact, this subject has implications primarily and fundamentally with regard to the quality of urban life, as the citizen, and the vulnerable road user in particular, is severely restricted in their use of urban public paces. Consequently, an increasingly greater focus is being placed on acquiring methods, techniques and strategies for addressing the issue of planning, constructing and managing roads, squares and urban green spaces (and above all, applying the logic of reclaiming the historic and consolidated city in order that the city can be used to its full potential by the citizen. The subject itself therefore presents an opportunity to re-establish urban planning regulations (and, more generally, city regulations in accordance with the renewed interest in public spaces. The article discusses this matter and includes supporting elements and examples, also referring to the implications on the urban landscape.

  3. High-grade acute organ toxicity and p16{sup INK4A} expression as positive prognostic factors in primary radio(chemo)therapy for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehrany, Narges; Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Hess, Clemens F.; Wolff, Hendrik A. [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Goettingen (Germany); Kitz, Julia; Li, Li; Kueffer, Stefan [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Pathology, Goettingen (Germany); Lorenzen, Stephan; Beissbarth, Tim [University Medical Center, Department of Medical Statistics, Goettingen (Germany); Burfeind, Peter [University Medical Center, Institute for Human Genetics, Goettingen (Germany); Reichardt, Holger M. [University Medical Center, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Goettingen (Germany); Canis, Martin [Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Goettingen (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Superior treatment response and survival for patients with human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive head and neck cancer (HNSCC) are documented in clinical studies. However, the relevance of high-grade acute organ toxicity (HGAOT), which has also been correlated with improved prognosis, has attracted scant attention in HPV-positive HNSCC patients. Hence we tested the hypothesis that both parameters, HPV and HGAOT, are positive prognostic factors in patients with HNSCC treated with definite radiotherapy (RT) or radiochemotherapy (RCT). Pretreatment tumor tissue and clinical records were available from 233 patients receiving definite RT (62 patients) or RCT (171 patients). HPV infection was analysed by means of HPV DNA detection or p16{sup INK4A} expression; HGAOT was defined as the occurrence of acute organ toxicity >grade 2 according to the Common Toxicity Criteria. Both variables were correlated with overall survival (OS) using Cox proportional hazards regression. Positivity for HPV DNA (44 samples, 18.9 %) and p16{sup INK4A} expression (102 samples, 43.8 %) were significantly correlated (p < 0.01), and HGAOT occurred in 77 (33 %) patients. Overall, the 5-year OS was 23 %; stratified for p16{sup INK4A} expression and HGAOT, OS rates were 47 %, 42 %, 20 % and 10 % for patients with p16{sup INK4A} expression and HGAOT, patients with HGAOT only, patients with p16{sup INK4A} expression only, and patients without p16{sup INK4A} expression or HGAOT, respectively. After multivariate testing p16{sup INK4A} expression (p = 0.003) and HGAOT (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with OS. P16{sup INK4A} expression and HGAOT are independent prognostic factors for OS of patients with HNSCC, whereas p16{sup INK4A} expression is particularly important for patients without HGAOT. (orig.) [German] Ein besseres Therapieansprechen von humanen Papillomavirus (HPV)-positiven Kopf-Hals-Tumoren (HNSCC) ist durch Studien belegt. Weniger Beachtung hat bisher die Relevanz unerwuenschter

  4. Bright Lights, Big Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Overabundant lighting has become another pollution source in the Chinese cities The glow of electric lights illuminating the nights of ever-brighter cities has been regarded as one of the signs of prosperity and modern civilization.

  5. A Crowded City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Over 4 million vehicles on road challenge Beijing’s city management Beijing, the city once known as the kingdom of bicycles, has become clogged with automobiles, the Beijing Municipal Government Publicity Office said on December 18.

  6. Five Obstacles to Grading Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators seeking to reform grading must combat five long-held traditions that stand as formidable obstacles to change: (1) Grades should provide the basis for differentiating students; (2) grade distributions should resemble a bell-shaped curve; (3) grades should be based on students' standing among classmates; (4) poor grades prompt students to…

  7. Color space conversion for linear color grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dah-Jye

    2000-10-01

    Color grading is an important process for various industries such as food processing, fruit and vegetable grading, etc. Quality and price are often determined by the color of product. For example, darker red color for apples means higher price. In color machine vision applications, image is acquired with a color CCD camera that outputs color information in three channels, red, gree, and blue. When grading color, these three primary colors must be processed to determine the color level for separation. A very popular color space conversion technique for color image processing is RGB-to-HSI, where HSI represents hue, saturation, and intensity, respectively. However, the conversion result is still 3D information that makes determining color grades very difficult. A new color space conversion technique that can be implemented for high-speed real-time processing for color grading is introduced in this paper. Depending on the application, different color space conversion equations must be used. The result of this technique is a simple one-dimensional array that represents different color levels. This linear array makes linear color grading adjustment possible.

  8. Globalization and cities

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Mina

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the basic concepts on cities within contemporary globalisation. First, it briefly reviews the city perspective within the world system theory (concepts of over-urbanisation, under-urbanisation, and dependent urbanisation), new international division of labour, theory of the second circuit of capital and informational society. The second part of the paper is dedicated to the concepts of global and world cities and their implications for the cities in developed and develop...

  9. Cities as Spatial Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinand Rauch

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that Zipf's Law for cities can emerge as a property of a clustering process. If initially uniformly distributed people chose their location based on a specific gravity equation as found in trade studies, they will form cities that follow Zipf's Law in expected value. This view of cities as spatial agglomerations is supported empirically by the observation that larger cities are surrounded by larger hinterland areas and larger countryside populations.

  10. The Creative Cities Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Creative Cities Network, started by UNESCO in 2004, is one of the world’s highest-level non-governmental organizations in creative industry. The network focuses on the excellence of its member cities as its main product, and finds ways to maintain relevance in city life, local economy

  11. Imagineering the city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van den Berg

    2015-01-01

    Cities today are products. The urban experience is commodified into marketable items by urban entrepreneurs. Urban administrations, city marketers, politicians, local businesses and other actors all over the world are developing entrepreneurial strategies to sell their city. From "‘I ♥ New York"’ to

  12. Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

  13. The relationship between social anxiety and self-esteem, self-awareness in grade 4-6 primary students%4~6年级小学生社交焦虑与自尊及自我意识的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志礼; 胡华; 陈品红; 蒙华庆; 王慧; 罗庆华; 傅一笑; 杜莲; 邱海棠; 邱田

    2012-01-01

    目的 探索4~6年级小学生社交焦虑情况及与自尊和自我意识的关系.方法 分层随机抽取重庆市主城区的3所小学校(重点、普通及农民工小学各l所)的568名在校4~6年级小学生,采用儿童社交焦虑量表(SASC)、Pies-Harris 儿童自我意识量表、自尊量表(SES)对小学生进行问卷调查.结果 ①小学生总社交焦虑及两大因子得分显著高于中国城市常模(P<0.01);②女生的社交焦虑总分及害怕否定评价[(4.84±4.26)分,(3.08±2.91)分)]高于男生[(4.12±3.95)分,(2.54±2.63)分,P<0.05];随年级的增高,六年级学生害怕否定评价的得分[(3.22±2.82)分]高于五年级[(2.53±2.76)分,P<0.01]和四年级[(2.54±2.68)分,P<0.05];农民工小学、单亲家庭和收入相对低的家庭者社交焦虑得分较高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);③小学生总社交焦虑及两大因子与其自尊水平呈显著正相关( r=0.305,0.282,0.270),与自我意识及各因子呈不同程度的负相关(r=-0.202~-0.511),相关均达到显著性(P<0.01);④小学生害怕否定评价能被自我意识中的焦虑和合群解释占25.5%;社交回避及苦恼能被自我意识中的焦虑、合群和智力与学校情况解释占20.4%;总的社交焦虑能被自我意识中的焦虑和合群解释占28.2%.结论 4~6年级小学生有较高的社交焦虑水平;不同性别、年级、学校、家庭结构、家庭月收入的小学生社交焦虑水平存在差异,其社交焦虑与自我意识和自尊水平密切相关.%Objective To explore the status of social anxiety and study the relationship between social anxiety and self-consciousness,self-esteem among primary students.Methods Using stratified randomization sampling method,568 primary students in grade 4 ~ 6 were investigated with social anxiety scale for children( SASC ),self-consciousness scale for children(PHCSS) and self-esteem scale(SES).Results ①The score of SASC in

  14. Economics across the Primary Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkle, Sarapage, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines lesson plans for teaching economics in the primary grades, designed to complement the video series, "Econ and Me." Suggests activities incorporate mathematics, language arts, geography, and science. Targets the following specific economic concepts in individual lesson plans: scarcity, choice, production, goods, opportunity cost,…

  15. Prevalência de sobrepeso e fatores associados em crianças ingressantes no ensino fundamental em um município da região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil Overweight, obesity and associated factors in first grade schoolchildren in a city of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise Mondini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou a prevalência de sobrepeso e sua associação com fatores sócio-ambientais em crianças ingressantes na primeira série do ensino público fundamental do Município de Cajamar, São Paulo, Brasil, em 2005. Sobrepeso foi definido pelo índice de massa corporal, segundo sexo e idade. As variáveis sócio-ambientais foram obtidas por meio de questionário aplicado junto às mães das crianças (58,6%. Associação entre sobrepeso e variáveis independentes foi verificada mediante técnica de regressão de Poisson. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 17%. Obesidade materna (RP = 3,54; IC: 2,16-5,80, freqüência elevada de consumo de alimentos "não saudáveis" (RP = 2,12; IC: 1,30-3,45, assistir à televisão por mais de quatro horas/dia (RP = 2,08; IC: 1,03-4,20 e disponibilidade domiciliar per capita de óleo (cerca de três colheres sopa/dia (RP = 1,52; IC: 1,01-2,31 apresentaram-se como fatores independentes associados ao excesso de peso infantil. O ambiente familiar apresentou forte influência sobre a condição de sobrepeso em escolares ingressantes no ensino fundamental. Ações de prevenção e controle do sobrepeso deveriam envolver a instituição escolar e também os pais ou responsáveis pelas crianças.This study assessed the prevalence of overweight in public school first graders and the association between overweight and socio-environmental factors in a city in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil. Children enrolling in public school first grade in Cajamar in 2005 were assessed. Overweight was defined according to body mass index, by gender and age. Socio-environmental information was obtained using a questionnaire applied to 58.6% of the children's mothers. Poisson regression models were used to evaluate associations between overweight in schoolchildren and socio-environmental variables. Seventeen percent of the children were overweight. Factors associated with overweight were: mother's obesity (PR = 3

  16. A social work study on quality on quality of physical education programs in primary schools: A case study of governmental and non-for-profit schools in city of Esfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Arabmomeni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical education is one of the most important parts of schoolchildren studies and it could influence of social and academic performance of children, significantly. This paper studies physical education among schoolchildren who attend elementary schools in city of Esfahan, Iran over for the educational calendar of 2010-2011. The study selects 52 schools as sample, 18 non-for-profit and 34 governmental schools and half of them belong to female students. The results of this study indicate that physical education has a somewhat better quality in non-for-profit educational system compared with governmental ones although this difference is not statistically significance (P<0.05. In our survey, ten percent of time, physical education was performed poorly, twenty five percent was in average condition, forty eight percent was in good condition and seventeen percent was in excellent condition.

  17. individual dose monitoring results of radiation workers in a first-class hospital at Grade 3 of Tianjin City from 2010-2011%2010-2011年天津市某三甲医院放射工作人员个人剂量监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪莹; 栾海; 阮水富

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解和掌握个人剂量监测工作情况,发现存在的问题,探索建立个人剂量监测的新模式,更好地对不同职业类型(放射诊断、放射治疗、核医学、介入治疗)的放射工作人员进行监督管理.方法 选取天津市某三甲医院作为调查对象,整理分析了某三甲医院2010-2011年387人次个人剂量监测结果.结果 某三甲医院的不同职业类型的放射工作人员中的介入治疗工作人员的人均年剂量当量最高,为0.58 mSv,为放射治疗的8倍之多.介入治疗工作人员个人剂量高于放射诊断、放射治疗以及核医学工作人员.结论 应针对放射工作人员,尤其是介入治疗工作人员提出可行的加强放射防护的对策,为做好该市的个人剂量监测工作提供借鉴和指导.%[Objective] To understand and grasp the situation of individual dose monitoring, to identify gaps, and explore and create a new model for individual dose monitoring, so as to carry out management and supervision on radiation workers with different occupations (diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine , interventional treatment ). [ Methods ] A first-class hospital at Grade 3 was selected as study object, the monitoring results of 387 person-times from 2010-2011 were analyzed. [Results] The survey found that individual dose of workers engaged in interventional treatment (0.58 mSv) is highest among all radiation occupations and 8 times of radiotherapy, higher than those in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine. [ Conclusion] For radiation workers, especially the workers engaged in interventional therapy, the feasible countermeasures for radiological protection enhancement should be raised as the reference and guidance of individual dose monitoring in this city.

  18. 中枢神经系统原发淋巴瘤和高级别星形细胞瘤MR灌注成像的对比研究%The comparative study of perfusion MR imaging in primary central nervous system lymphomas and high grade astrocytomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄飚; 梁长虹; 刘红军; 王广谊; 周正根

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of perfusion MR imaging in differential diagnosis between primary central nervous system lymphomas(PCNSL)and high grade astrocytomas.Methods Twelve patients with PCNSL and 23 patients with high grade astrocytomas were preoperatively examined using a 1.5T MR unit.Routine MR sequences were performed followed by dynamic susceptibility contrastenhanced MR perfusion imaging.The perfusion color images and the time-signal intensity curves of the two tumor groups were compared.The relative cerebral blood volume(rCBV)within the tumor parenchyma was measured and the data were analyzed with unpaired Student's t-test.Results The rCBVs within the tumor parenchyma of the PCNSL and high grade astrocytomas were 1.78±0.5 1 and 3.87±0.87 respectively.The rCBV in the PCNSL was significantly lower than that of the high grade astrocytoma(P<0.05).When the time-signal intensity curves were compared,the PCNSL showed a trend towards the baseline after the first pass and the curves even overshot above the baseline in 7 out of 12 cases,whereas the high grade astrocytoma showed a trend to be close to the baseline but couldn't return to the baseline completely.Conclusion The MR perfusion imaging can be very useful in distinguishing the PCNSL from high grade astrocytomas.%目的 探讨MR灌注成像鉴别中枢神经系统原发淋巴瘤(PCNSL)和高级别星形细胞瘤的价值.方法 PCNSL患者12例,高级别星形细胞肿瘤患者23例,手术前行常规MR检查及MR灌注检查,比较其MR灌注伪彩图像和灌注曲线,测量肿瘤实质部分最大相对脑血容量(rCBV),将所测量数值进行t检验.结果 PCNSL实质部分rCBV平均为1.8±0.5;高级别星形细胞瘤实质部分rCBV平均为3.9±0.9,二者之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).PCNSL实质区域时间-信号曲线对比剂首过后曲线逐渐接近基线,12例中有7例超过基线水平.高级别星形细胞瘤实质区域时间-信号曲线对比剂首过后曲线逐渐

  19. Primary endometrioid stromal sarcoma of the ovary: a clinicopathologic study of 27 cases with morphologic and behavioral features similar to those of uterine low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Esther; Egger, Jean-François; Young, Robert H

    2014-03-01

    course with a better prognosis than other ovarian sarcomas, indicating the importance of correct diagnosis. The differential diagnosis of these neoplasms is in the first instance with a metastasis from the uterus; knowledge of the status of the uterus is paramount in this distinction. Associated ovarian endometriosis suggests a primary tumor. When a primary ovarian origin is determined, the differential diagnosis is most often with a sex cord-stromal tumor, particularly a granulosa cell tumor because of a diffuse growth of cells with scant cytoplasm. PMID:24525500

  20. The gender difference on oral health knowledge in the students of Conghua City primary schools%从化市小学生口腔健康观念知晓率的性别差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯惠芬; 钟春仪; 巢枫榕

    2012-01-01

    采用随机整群抽样的方法,抽取某小学四年级学生331 名进行问卷调查,了解从化市小学生在接受口腔保健知识与观念的宣教中的性别差异.各项知识性题目回答的正确率女生高于男生.应注意男、女生之间的差异,更好地引导学生进行口腔保健.%Questionnaire survey on oral health knowledge was conducted in 331 elementary school students of the fourth grade. Female students replied the accuracy is higher than the male students. Attention should be paid for the gender difference in oral health education.

  1. Grade inflation : fact or myth?

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, Amelia L.; Roger M. Valientes

    2008-01-01

    Real grade inflation is the upward shift in grades without a similar rise in achievement (Kohn [2002]; Rosovsky and Hartley [2002]). It implies a decline in standards and obscures the role of grades as a signal of academic ability. Guskey [2003] believes that resolving the debate on grade inflation depends on clarifying the purpose/meaning of grades. Grades may be used either to discriminate among students or to reflect the degree to which students have learned. The research attempts to valid...

  2. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage;

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth...... can be serious threats to the realization of the socio-economic contributions that cities can make. However, as a result of considerable diversity of competences combined with interactive learning and innovation, cities may also solve these problems. The ‘urban order’ may form a platform for...... innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden. It...

  3. Me, the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for identity of cities looks rather urgent and attracts attention of many researchers. Addressing this issue, the article draws an analogy between a human person and a city. Like a city, a human being needs to comprehend his self-identity in order to resist depressive tendencies. It is shown that a person’s depressive symptoms are similar to those of cities. The city identity necessary to resist depression can be searched for both historically and geographically. The historical aspect consists of local myths and legends about the city and the citizens. The geographical aspect of identity comprises features of the terrain, climate, flora and fauna of the region where the city is located.

  4. [Ecological sensitivity of Shanghai City based on GIS spatial analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian-jun; Liu, Yong-juan

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, five sensitivity factors affecting the eco-environment of Shanghai City, i.e., rivers and lakes, historical relics and forest parks, geological disasters, soil pollution, and land use, were selected, and their weights were determined by analytic hierarchy process. Combining with GIS spatial analysis technique, the sensitivities of these factors were classified into four grades, i.e., highly sensitive, moderately sensitive, low sensitive, and insensitive, and the spatial distribution of the ecological sensitivity of Shanghai City was figured out. There existed a significant spatial differentiation in the ecological sensitivity of the City, and the insensitive, low sensitive, moderately sensitive, and highly sensitive areas occupied 37.07%, 5.94%, 38.16%, and 18.83%, respectively. Some suggestions on the City's zoning protection and construction were proposed. This study could provide scientific references for the City's environmental protection and economic development. PMID:20879541

  5. Investigation into Self-Medication of Drugs for Primary and Adjunct Therapy in Psychiatric Diseases Among Students in Chittagong City of Bangladesh: A Comparison Between Medical and Nonmedical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Nishat Chowdhury; Ahsanul Haque; Farjana Aysha

    2012-01-01

    Background: All kinds of drugs are available over the counter in Bangladesh. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the over the counter use of self medicated drugs for primary and adjunct therapy in psychiatric diseases among medical and nonmedical students. Materials and Methods: 101 medical students and 186 nonmedical students were found, who used at least one of the nine drugs (believed as antipsychotics among nonmedical people) under survey within 6 months prior to survey da...

  6. Tinea capitis among children at one suburban primary school in the City of Maputo, Mozambique Tinea capitis entre as crianças de uma escola primária suburbana na Cidade Maputo, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsin M. Sidat; Della Correia; Titos Paulo Buene

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of Tinea capitis among schoolchildren at one primary school and also identified the causative agents. Scalp flakes were collected from children presenting clinical signs suggestive of Tinea capitis. Dermatophytes were identified by following standard mycological procedures. This study found a clinical prevalence of Tinea capitis of 9.6% (110/1149). The dermatophytes isolated were Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton violaceum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes...

  7. Integrating Emerging Technologies in Teaching Ugandan Traditional Dances in K-12 Schools in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabingo, Alfdaniels

    2015-01-01

    Schools in New York City have made attempts to embrace and support the strand of "making connections", which is laid out in the New York City Department of Dance blueprint for teaching and learning in dance for grades PreK-12. Accordingly, some schools have integrated Ugandan traditional dances into the dance curriculum, and dance…

  8. Biophilic Cities Are Sustainable, Resilient Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Newman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition of the need for daily contact with nature, to live happy, productive, meaningful lives. Recent attention to biophilic design among architects and designers acknowledges this power of nature. However, in an increasingly urban planet, more attention needs to be aimed at the urban scales, at planning for and moving towards what the authors call “biophilic cities”. Biophilic cities are cities that provide close and daily contact with nature, nearby nature, but also seek to foster an awareness of and caring for this nature. Biophilic cities, it is argued here, are also sustainable and resilient cities. Achieving the conditions of a biophilic city will go far in helping to foster social and landscape resilience, in the face of climate change, natural disasters and economic uncertainty and various other shocks that cities will face in the future. The paper identifies key pathways by which biophilic urbanism enhances resilience, and while some are well-established relationships, others are more tentative and suggest future research and testing.

  9. Physical activity during the school day in public primary schools in Mexico City La actividad física durante la jornada escolar en escuelas primarias públicas en la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Jennings-Aburto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the physical activity (PA of students and describe the school environment surrounding PA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between November 2005 and March 2006, in Mexico City, we conducted quantitative and qualitative observations to describe the PA and the school context. RESULTS: Recess and physical education class (PE were the only opportunities to participate in PA. PE occurred one time per week with a duration of 39.8±10.6 minutes which is less than national and international recommendations. Students participated in moderate-to-vigorous PA 29.2±17.8% of PE. The dynamics of PE did not promote the inclusion of all students or PA. During recess there was overcrowding of the school patio and no equipment for PA or organization of PA. DISCUSSION: The PA of students in public schools in Mexico City can be improved by increasing the quantity and quality of PE and increasing opportunities for activity during recess.OBJETIVO: Cuantificar la actividad física (AF en niños escolares y describir el entorno escolar relacionado con la AF. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre noviembre de 2005 y marzo de 2006 en la Ciudad de México, se realizó observación directa cuantitativa y cualitativa para describir el nivel de AF y el contexto escolar durante recreo y clases de educación física (CEF. RESULTADOS: El recreo y las CEF fueron los únicos espacios en los que se realizó AF. Las CEF se impartieron una vez a la semana y duraron 39.8±10.6 minutos, lo que está por debajo de las recomendaciones internacionales. Se participó en actividades moderadas-vigorosas 29.2±17.8% de las CEF. La dinámica de las CEF no favoreció la AF. Durante el recreo se observó saturación del patio y no se realizaron actividades organizadas ni se utilizaron materiales para promover la AF. DISCUSIÓN: Se recomienda incrementar la calidad y la cantidad de las CEF y el tiempo dedicado a jugar durante el recreo.

  10. 云浮市无偿献血初筛血型错误原因分析及预防%Cause analysis and prevention of primary screening blood type errors of donating blood in Yunfu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高炳谏; 区勇勤; 李惠玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:对无偿献血者ABO血型初筛错误进行原因分析,并采取相应的预防措施,以减少初筛血型的错误率。方法统计2010~2014年本站无偿献血标本94298人次中初筛血型与实验室正反定型检测结果血型进行比较分析。结果94298例无偿献血标本中,发现初筛血型错误368例,错误率0.39%,以B型误判为O型最高,占17.12%,其次为AB型误判为A型,占15.22%;各采血点分布差异明显,新兴、罗定采血点错误率最高,分别占0.58%和0.44%;各年份比较,初筛血型错误率逐年下降。结论初筛血型错误大多是由于人为因素导致,应增强工作人员的质量意识和责任心教育,加强理论知识和操作技能的培训,严格遵守操作规程,改善献血环境和试剂的管理,使献血前ABO血型筛查错误降到最低。%Objective To analyze the causes of primary screening errors of the ABO blood types of voluntary blood donors and take corresponding preventative measures to reduce the error rate of primary screening blood type. Methods The primary screening blood types and the laboratory positive and negative blood grouping test results of 94 298 donat-ing blood specimens of our station between 2010 and 2014 were analyzed comparatively. Results Of the 94 298 donat-ing blood specimens,368 cases of primary screening blood type errors were found,with the error rate of 0.39%,of which type B misjudged as type O was the commonest,accounting for 17.12%,followed by type AB misjudged as type A,ac-counting for 15.22%.The errors distributed significantly differently over each blood collection station and the error rates in Xinxing and Luoding blood collection stations were the highest,accounting for 0.58% and 0.44% respectively.As for the errors of different years,the primary screening blood type error rate decreased year by year. Conclusion As primary screening blood type errors are mainly caused by human factors,enhancement of

  11. Single-Sex Classes and Academic Achievement in Two Inner-City Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kusum; Vaught, Claire; Mitchell, Ethel W.

    1998-01-01

    Compared two single-sex and two coeducational fifth-grade classes (90 students) from inner-city schools for academic achievement. Class grades were consistently higher in the single-sex classes, although the difference was not always statistically significant. Standardized-test data showed no trend, although coeducational groups performed better…

  12. Pollution and city size: can cities be too small?

    OpenAIRE

    Borck, Rainald; TABUCHI Takatoshi

    2015-01-01

    We study the optimal and equilibrium size of cities in a monocentric city model with environmental pollution. Pollution is related to city size through the effect of population on production, commuting, and housing consumption. If pollution is local, we find that equilibrium cities are too large, mirroring standard results in the theory of city systems. When pollution is global and per capita pollution declines with city size, however, equilibrium cities may be too small.

  13. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  14. The Games Cities Play. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Amoe Pak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoe, Ruth

    This is a simulation game and a part of the environmental education program developed by the Highline Public Schools. The game emphasizes why a city is formed, how it grows, where it develops, and some problems with which it must cope. It is designed to be used with elementary students in the intermediate grades. The materials were tried and…

  15. Investigation of Current Situation of Learning Motivation, Social Anxiety and Loneliness of the Left-behind Children in Rural Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Biyun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC and the Children’s Loneliness Scale (CLS. Results: (1 The learning motivation of the left-behind children in rural primary school is in a slightly higher medium level. Social anxiety is significantly higher than normal level in Chinese city, and the level of loneliness of about 1/5 of the left-behind children is relatively high. (2 The score of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children in the level of knowledge learning has significant grade differences, without significant gender differences. (3 The level of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children is slightly higher than that of non-left-behind children, but both differences are not significant.

  16. Physical Properties of Normal Grade Biodiesel and Winter Grade Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Azmi Zakaria; W. Mahmood Mat Yunus; Monir Norozi; Harrison Lau Lik Nang; Mohd Maarof Moksin; Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini

    2011-01-01

    In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the the...

  17. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect......This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...

  18. Primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert; Pachman, Jiri [Pardubice Univ. (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemical Technology

    2013-06-01

    The first chapter provides background such as the basics of initiation and differences between requirements on primary explosives used in detonators and igniters. The authors then clarify the influence of physical characteristics on explosive properties, focusing on those properties required for primary explosives. Furthermore, the issue of sensitivity is discussed. All the chapters on particular groups of primary explosives are structured in the same way, including introduction, physical and chemical properties, explosive properties, preparation and documented use.

  19. Primary pulmonary Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of primary pulmonary Hodgkin's lymphoma (PPHL) are presented, a male aged 21, and a female aged 32 years. Symptoms included non-productive cough, shortness of breath, low grade fever, wheezing and weight loss. Duration of illness varied between 6 weeks in the male patient to female patient. Both patients were given an empirical trial of antibiotics and anti-cough measures with no response. Radiological studies carried out after failure to respond to medical treatment, revealed the presence of pulmonary parenchymal masses in both patients. Cytology, bronchoscopic and transbronchial biopsies were not diagnostic, which led to opened wedge resections. Finally, the diagnosis of primary pulmonary Hodgkin's disease was reached after supportive immunohistochemical staining (CD 30 and CD 15 both positive in Rs cells). Both patients were regarded as stage I extranodal (IE) after exhaustive measures failed to demonstrate involvement of other body cites. (author)

  20. 苏州市中小学女教师体育健身活动现状调查与分析%Investigation and analysis on primary and middle school female teachers' physical activity condition in Suzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林辉; 陈瑞琴

    2011-01-01

    By utilizing the methods of literature, questionnaire survey and mathematical statistics, this paper made a survey of the physical exercise and body-building related to primary and middle female teachers of some schools in Suzhou. The author mainly analyzed the major factors influencing the current condition of primary and middle female teachers' physical exercise and body-building, and put forward some corresponding proposals in order to provide the theoretic foundation for their physical exercise and body-building.%该研究主要采用文献资料法、问卷调查法和数理统计法等研究方法,对苏州市部分中小学女教师的体育健身活动现状进行调查,分析影响这一教师群体体育健身活动的因素,并提出相应建议,以期为她们的体育健身提供理论依据.

  1. Primary fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Jensen, L T; Foldager, Marie Viftrup;

    1990-01-01

    Serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide have previously been reported to be low in some patients with primary fibromyalgia and the aim of this study was to determine if such patients differ clinically from primary fibromyalgia patients with normal levels of procollagen...... type III aminoterminal peptide. Subjective symptoms, tender points and dynamic muscle strength in 45 women with primary fibromyalgia were related to serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide. Patients with low serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide...... concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide of primary fibromyalgia patients are connected to the disease impact....

  2. Syphilis - primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary syphilis; Secondary syphilis; Late syphilis; Tertiary syphilis ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted, infectious disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum . This bacterium causes ...

  3. Cities and human security

    OpenAIRE

    Szpak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Cities have been researched mostly in terms of their economic, technological, and social value and significance. Despite some changes in this respect there is still a need to research cities as a fascinating phenomenon, also in respect of its capabilities to increase human security on a local and global scale. The article examines the role of cities for human security in the selected and representative fields such as sustainable development, human rights and environmental protection which are...

  4. Assimilation in multilingual cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier; Verdugo, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    International audience We characterise how the assimilation patterns of minorities into the strong and the weak language differ in a situation of asymmetric bilingualism. Using large variations in language composition in Canadian cities from the 2001 and 2006 Censuses, we show that the differences in the knowledge of English by immigrant allophones (i.e. the immigrants with a mother tongue other than English and French) in English-majority cities are mainly due to sorting across cities. In...

  5. Learning cities 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of historic work in the field of Learning City development. It then proceeds to highlight two contemporary strands of work. The first is the initiative of UNESCO’s Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) in establishing the International Platform of Learning Cities. The second is the work of the PASCAL Observatory, currently manifested in the Learning Cities 2020 programme.

  6. Sound and the City

    OpenAIRE

    Bulley, James; Sahin, Ozden; Spinelli, Emmanuel; Tanaka, Atau; Hosang, Georgina M.; Cubitt, Sean; Drever, John L.; Kanngieser, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Imagining the future soundscape of the city. Researchers from across disciplines explore the rapidly changing urban soundscape — how do the sounds around us affect our daily life? What might a futuristic city sound like? An interactive listening experience exploring the impact that the sounds around us can have on our health, wellbeing and sense of place. Sound and the City installation was exhibited as part of the Universities Week at the Natural History Museum between June 9 — 11, 2...

  7. Assimilation in multilingual cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Using the Public Use Microdata Files of the 2001 and 2006 Canadian Censuses, we study the determinants of the assimilation of language minorities into the city majority language. We show that official minority members (i.e. francophones in English-speaking cities and anglophones in French-speaking cities) assimilate less than the "allophones" (the individuals with a mother tongue other than English or French), and that immigrants generally assimilate less than natives. In addition, the langua...

  8. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  9. Suburbs and Cities

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Matthew I. Spiegel; Susan M. Wachter

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how closely the fortunes of suburbs are tied to the fortunes of the central city. We use similarities in residential housing price dynamics as a measure of how closely the economies of cities and suburbs are related. We develop housing price indices for most of the zip codes in California, and use these in a clustering procedure to see whether cities and suburbs naturally aggregate together, or whether they move separately. We find that central cities tend to...

  10. The Resources 6th And 7th Grade Students Use While Preparing Projects And Performence Tasks For Socıal Studies Course, Use Of The Internet As A Resource, And The Difficulties That They Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan AKDAĞ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the resources benefited by the pupils and the difficulties that they experience while preparing performance and project tasks related to the classroom activities in Social Sciences Program initiated in 2005. The universe of the study is all the sixth and seventh grade students of primary schools in Konya city. In the study, open-ended question with the convenient sampling method, which is used in qualitative research methods, is used, and for analyzing the qualitative data, contents analysis method, which is formed with recessive theme in theoretical sense and sub themes, is applied. The study demonstrated that the sixth grade students use internet, libraries, reference books and the others respectively, and the seventh grade students use internet, reference books, libraries and the others respectively. However, both sixth and seventh grade experience such problems as time limitation, difficulty of assignment and inability to understand, failing to find proper resources, structural characteristics of internet and layout of the assignment. Sixth and seventh grade students experience these problems at different levels. In the light of findings some suggestions are made.

  11. An Empirical Study of the Problem of Primary School Tendency of Kindergarden Education---Taking Nanchang City as an Example%学前教育小学化问题的实证研究*--以南昌市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛淑娟

    2014-01-01

    in the recent years, the primary school tendency of kindergarden education is increasingly serious, and has become a social concern and hot issue. The paper, on the basis of the investigation of kindergarden education of Nanchang city, analyzes the present situation of primary school tendency of kindergarden education and discusses how to follow the law of physical and mental development of kindergarden kids and promote the healthy growth of the children.%近年来学前教育小学化问题日益严重,已经成为社会关注和亟待解决的热点问题。本文通过南昌市学前教育小学化问题的调查,分析了学前教育小学化问题的现状,并就学前教育如何遵循幼儿的身心发展规律,促进幼儿健康成长进行了思考。

  12. Investigation on infection status of tuberculosis and the awareness rate of prevention knowledge among primary and middle school students in Qufu city%曲阜市中小学生结核菌感染状况及其对防治知识的知晓率调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔凡苓

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解曲阜市中小学生结核菌的感染状况及对结核病防治知识的知晓情况,为结核病防治提供可靠的科学依据.方法 对曲阜市3238名中小学生进行纯蛋白衍生物(标准精制结核菌素)(PPD)试验,采用整群抽样的方法对1127名学生进行结核病防治知识进行调查.结果 调查学生3 238名,PPD阳性者423名,感染率为13.06%,学生对结核病防治知识知晓率较低,获得结核病防治知识的途径主要有电视、报纸、宣传画、书籍及杂志,学生对待结核病的行为正确率相对较低.结论 中小学生的结核菌感染不容忽视,对结核病防治知识知晓率较低,将结核病筛查和健康教育纳入学校的制度化管理.%[Objective]To understand the infection status of tuberculosis and awareness rate of knowledge about tuberculosis prevention among primary and middle school students in Qufu city, provide a reliable scientific basis for tuberculosis prevention and control. [Methods]PPD test was conducted in 3 238 primary and middle school students in Qufu city. By using cluster sampling, the awareness rate of knowledge about tuberculosis prevention was investigated in 1 127 students. [Results] Among 3 238 students were surveyed, there were 423 with positive PPD, and the infection rate was 13.06%. The awareness rate of knowledge about tuberculosis prevention was low in students. The main ways that the students obtained the knowledge about tuberculosis prevention included television, newspapers, posters, books and magazines. The correct rate of behaviors towards tuberculosis in students was relatively low. [Conclusion]The tuberculosis infection among primary and middle school students must not be ignored, and the awareness rate of knowledge about tuberculosis prevention is low. The tuberculosis screening and health education should be brought into the institutionalized management in schools.

  13. Discrimination in Grading

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Rema N.; Linden, Leigh L.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an experiment that was designed to test for discrimination in grading in India. We recruited teachers to grade exams. We randomly assigned child "characteristics" (age, gender, and caste) to the cover sheets of the exams to ensure that there is no relationship between these observed characteristics and the exam quality. We find that teachers give exams that are assigned to be lower caste scores that are about 0.03 to 0.08 standard deviations lower than those that are ...

  14. Methods of graded rings

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasescu, Constantin

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this book, graded algebra, has developed in the past decade to a vast subject with new applications in noncommutative geometry and physics. Classical aspects relating to group actions and gradings have been complemented by new insights stemming from Hopf algebra theory. Old and new methods are presented in full detail and in a self-contained way. Graduate students as well as researchers in algebra, geometry, will find in this book a useful toolbox. Exercises, with hints for solution, provide a direct link to recent research publications. The book is suitable for courses on Master level or textbook for seminars.

  15. Detraditionalization and Tourism: old memories, new functions and the reconstruction of city images

    OpenAIRE

    Fortuna, Carlos

    1998-01-01

    The paper opens up with a theoretical interpretation of the process of construction of the identity of cities. It is asserted that globalization entails a growing inter-city competition which, in turn, puts the cities' modernization strategies under pressure. The re-invention of local history and tradition is one of the most valuable competitive resources for city planners, developers and cultural intermediaries to launch modernization. Inter alia, tourist resources (primary...

  16. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  17. ANALYSIS ON 676 CASES OF CONDUCTING HIV VCT IN COMPREHENSIVE THIRD-GRADE HOSPITAL IN 2010 IN URUMQI CITY OF XINJIANG%2010年新疆乌鲁木齐市综合三级医院676例艾滋病自愿咨询检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛秀梅; 高新; 阿玛古丽; 韩婷婷; 王婷; 潘巍; 张金凤

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] Through analyzing the information of cases of conducting HIV VCT in comprehensive third-grade hospital in 2010 in Urumqi city of Xinjiang, to know the infectious status of those cases and provide scientific bases for AIDS prevention and control strategies. [Methods] 676 cases of accepting voluntary counseling and testing in the clinic of Fifth Affiliated Hospital to Xinjiang Medical University in 2010 were investigated, their gender, age, marital status, education and other general information, exposure factors and HIV infection rate were analyzed. The database software was established with Epitade, the rate was tested with x2 test. [Results] In the 676 cases of VCT, HTV infection cases were 12 cases, with a total positive rate of 1.78%. Males 87, females 589; concentrated in the age of 21 to 49 years old, accounting for 92.60%; due to non-marital heterosexual sex counseling and testing, 87 people, 9 were positive, indicating positive detection of non-marital sexual behavior was with relatively high numbers, which became the most important people in AIDS dissemination; 471 people with educational level at middle school or above (excluding junior school), accounting for 69.67%. [Conclusion] AIDS voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), not only early detect, timely treat, prevent the infection and provide psychological support for the subjects (especially HIV), but also effectively reduce risk sexual behaviors, prevent the spread of AIDS.%[目的]通过分析2010年乌鲁木齐市综合三级医院艾滋病自愿咨询检测(VCT)结果的信息,了解艾滋病自愿咨询检测者HIV感染状况,为艾滋病防治策略提供科学依据. [方法]收集2010年在新疆医科大学第五附属医院艾滋病自愿咨询检测(VCT)门诊676例自愿咨询检测者的基本信息,分析其性别、年龄、婚姻、文化程度等一般资 料,暴露因素与HIV感染率的关系.数据库的建立用Epitade软件,率的显著性检验用x2检验. [

  18. The Maximal Graded Left Quotient Algebra of a Graded Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo ARANDA PINO; Mercedes SILES MOLINA

    2006-01-01

    We construct the maximal graded left quotient algebra of every graded algebra A without homogeneous total right zero divisors as the direct limit of graded homomorphisms (of left A-modules)from graded dense left ideals of A into a graded left quotient algebra of A. In the case of a superalgebra,and with some extra hypothesis, we prove that the component in the neutral element of the group of the maximal graded left quotient algebra coincides with the maximal left quotient algebra of the component in the neutral element of the group of the superalgebra.

  19. Environmental Awareness Among Upper Primary School Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Vipinder Nagra; Kulwant Kaur

    2013-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to identify the environmental education awareness of upper primary school teachers (Grade VI to VIII) in relation to type of school, gender and subject streams. Environmental Awareness Test was used for collecting data from a random sample of 200 upper primary school teachers. Statistical techniques such as mean, standard deviation and t test were applied for analysis of data. The results revealed that upper primary school teachers have average level of environ...

  20. Deer City Legend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUHUANZHI; LILIKUN

    2003-01-01

    MORE and more commodities,such as clothes,shoes,millinery,lighters and shavers,now bear the “Made in Wenzhou”mark.It woule appear that Wenzhou grooms the whole nation.Lucheng(deer city)District in central Wenzhou is the nucleus of the city's thriving light industry sector.

  1. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

    development are discussed in the paper, as well as the problems and the new opportunities with which the ‘Experience city' is faced. The article focus on the design of the Danish Experience City with special emphasis on hybrid cultural projects and on performative urban spaces. It present the first findings...... as we engage with the discussion about the trajectory of future research....

  2. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing on...

  3. CHONGQING, the Hot City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chongqing is a well-known city with a history of more than 3,000 years. It is a famous historical and cultural city in China. Chongqing is the birthplace of the Bayu Culture. At present, Chongqing is a municipality directly under the Central Government with the largest area, the most administrative districts and the largest population.

  4. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...

  5. Escaping The Big Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    More white-collar workers consider leaving major metropolises to find opportunities in small and medium-sized cities The energy and excitement of first-tier cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen in Guangdong Province, have long served as magnets attracting enthusiastic young people. But recent surveys have overturned the perception of this urban draw.

  6. Smart cities: event everywhere

    OpenAIRE

    Reboredo Penedo, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The research attempts to provide a big picture from the literature through a Systematic Literature Review about the smart city and the existing standards topics for interchanging data through Smart City Apps. Additionally a prototype was created to analyze one of the standards found in the SLR

  7. Making Cities Better

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Livelihood programs change the lives of urban residents For decades Chinese cities have vied with each other to top national and international development rankings. However, the triennial national list of cities with an advanced living environment judges candidates according to less conventional

  8. Walkout in Crystal City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  9. Reflective cool cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidegger, V.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Our globe is heating, and cities are heating up much more. At the same time, cities are growing and green spaces are substituted by buildings and streets. These man-made surfaces are dark and tend to heat up

  10. Purpose-Driven Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jane A. K.; Kimpton, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Allowing students to improve their grade by revising their written work may help students learn to revise, but it gives them no incentive to turn in quality work from the start. This article proposes a way to invert the process, thereby teaching students how to revise, while enforcing a more disciplined approach to good writing. (Contains 3…

  11. Grades as Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior coursework,…

  12. Social Studies: Grade 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This Manitoba (Canada) curriculum guide for eighth grade social studies students contains suggested teaching strategies and learning activities in four units covering: (1) life during prehistoric and early historic times; (2) ancient civilizations; (3) life in early modern Europe; and (4) life in the modern world. Each unit includes an overview,…

  13. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  14. The Mathematics Literacy Level of Eighth Grade Students

    OpenAIRE

    UYSAL, Esra; YENİLMEZ, Kürşat

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the eighth grade student’s Mathematics Literacy level based on the PISA 2003 Mathematics exam questions and evaluations. Also relationships between distribution of Mathematics Literacy levels and some variables as students’ gender, pre-school education, family’s income and parent’s education level are investigated. Survey method was used in this study. The work group of the study consists of 1047 eighth grade students chosen randomly from 12 primary s...

  15. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  16. Universities Scale Like Cities

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the gross university income in terms of total number of citations over size in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its ...

  17. Performance of a table vibration type coffee grading machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available One of important coffee beans quality is the size uniformity. To confirm with the standart requirement, coffee beans have to be graded before being traded. Until now, grading process is still carried out fully manual, so that the grading cost is very expensive about 40% of total processing cost. Meanwhile, shortage of skill workers is as a limiting factor of the process. Therefore, machine for grading coffee beans is good alternative for grading cost. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed a table vibration type coffee grading machine for grouping of coffee beans in order to consistent quality and reduce grading cost. The machine has dimension of 272 cm length, 126 cm height, and 144 cm width. The machine has three primary components, i.e. grader table, combustion engine, and beam. The machine has three kinds of grader table that each grader table has different holes size, i.e. 7 mm x 7 mm for top grader table, 5 mm x 5 mm for axle grader table, and 4 mm x 4 mm for bottom grader table. Each grader table has dimension of 206 cm length, 105.5 cm height, and 14 cm width. The grading mechanism is by vibration grader table with the power source 5.5 HP combustion engine. The results shown that the outlet are in farms of three grades of coffee beans with connected to each compartement. Assessment of the grading machine reveals that the optimum capacity of 1,406 kg/hour reached when the speed 2,600 rpm and the angle 10O. Economic analysis showed that operational cost for grading one kilogram Robusta coffee beans with moisture content 13—14% wet basis is Rp 7.17.Key words : grading, coffee, quality, vibration table.

  18. A collaborative clinical and population-based curriculum for medical students to address primary care needs of the homeless in New York City shelters : Teaching homeless healthcare to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Naderi, Ramesh; Gaughran, Margaret; Sckell, Blanca

    2016-06-01

    Background Millions of Americans experience homelessness annually. Medical providers do not receive adequate training in primary care of the homeless.Methods Starting in 2012, a comprehensive curriculum was offered to medical students during their family medicine or ambulatory clerkship, covering clinical, social and advocacy, population-based, and policy aspects. Students were taught to: elicit specific social history, explore health expectations, and assess barriers to healthcare; evaluate clinical conditions specific to the homeless and develop plans for care tailored toward patients' medical and social needs; collaborate with shelter staff and community organizations to improve disease management and engage in advocacy efforts. A mixed methods design was used to evaluate students' knowledge, attitudes, and skills including pre- and post-curriculum surveys, debriefing sessions, and observed clinical skills.Results The mean age of the students (n = 30) was 26.5 years; 55 % were female. The overall scores improved significantly in knowledge, attitude, and self-efficacy domains using paired t‑test (p relationship and collaboration with community organizations were key elements. PMID:27277430

  19. Investigation into Self-Medication of Drugs for Primary and Adjunct Therapy in Psychiatric Diseases Among Students in Chittagong City of Bangladesh: A Comparison Between Medical and Nonmedical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishat Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: All kinds of drugs are available over the counter in Bangladesh. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the over the counter use of self medicated drugs for primary and adjunct therapy in psychiatric diseases among medical and nonmedical students. Materials and Methods: 101 medical students and 186 nonmedical students were found, who used at least one of the nine drugs (believed as antipsychotics among nonmedical people under survey within 6 months prior to survey date. The nine drugs used for survey were domperidone, sertraline, amitriptyline, midazolam, diazepam, prochlorperazine bromazepam, flupentixol-melitracen, and clonazepam. Statistical Analysis: Snowball sampling method was used. The symptoms, diseases, etc. of the students and the length of therapies they had followed for the respective drugs were noted. Results: Among nonmedical students, several cases were found where drugs were being self medicated in wrong indications, for example, use of flupentixol melitracen and domperidone to treat headache. Conclusion: The nonmedical students chose the fast acting drugs having the strongest effects for self medication.

  20. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  1. Analysis of a Solar Cooling System for Climatic Conditions of Five Different Cities of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mujahid Rafique

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air high in humidity leads to uncomfortable conditions and promotes the growth of different fungi and bacteria, which may cause health problems. The control of moisture content in the air using traditional air conditioning techniques is not a suitable option due to large consumption of primary energy and hence emission of greenhouse gases. The evaporative cooling technology is a cost effective and eco-friendly alternative but can provide thermal comfort conditions only under low humidity conditions. However, the evaporative cooling method can be used effectively in conjunction with desiccant dehumidifiers for better control of humidity. Such systems can control the temperature and humidity of the air independently and can effectively utilize the low-grade thermal energy resources. In this paper, the theoretical analysis of desiccant based evaporative cooling systems is carried out for five cities in Saudi Arabia (Jeddah, Jazan, Riyadh, Hail, and Dhahran. It has been observed that the coefficient of performance (COP of the system varies from 0.275 to 0.476 for different locations. The water removal capacity of the desiccant wheel is at its maximum for the climatic conditions of Jazan and at its minimum for Hail. The effect of climatic conditions of five cities on regeneration temperature, air mass flow rate, and potential of solar energy has been evaluated using RET Screen software.

  2. Primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Photosynthetic production in the oceans in relation to light, nutrients and mixing processes is discussed. Primary productivity in the estuarine region is reported to be high in comparison to coastal and oceanic waters. Upwelling phenomenon...

  3. Primary Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Izawa, K. -I.

    1997-01-01

    We consider an inflationary universe scenario with multiple stages of inflation. The primary inflation, which may start at the Planck epoch, is followed by secondary inflations, which include the cosmological inflation that causes the primordial density fluctuations of our universe. We point out that an initial condition for a secondary inflation is naturally realized if the e-fold number of the primary inflation is sufficiently large.

  4. Differentiated Reading Instruction: Strategies for the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, Sharon; McKenna, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    All teachers recognize the importance of matching literacy instruction to the ability level and needs of each child--but how can this crucial goal actually be accomplished? This indispensable book provides a research-based framework and flexible, highly practical strategies for making differentiated instruction work. Written by leading experts,…

  5. Sustaining Resilient Families for Children in Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Janice; Kirkland, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    The adversities that today's families face are well-documented and staggering. Even in the midst of tough times, however, many families are able to display resilience. Family resilience refers to the coping mechanisms the family uses as a functional unit to recover from life's setbacks. In this article, the authors present guidelines for creating…

  6. Teaching Math in the Primary Grades: The Learning Trajectories Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarama, Julie; Clements, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Children's thinking follows natural developmental paths in learning math. When teachers understand those paths and offer activities based on children's progress along them, they build developmentally appropriate math environments. The authors explain math learning trajectories and why teaching math using the trajectories approach is effective. A…

  7. Robots, Bulldozers, and Other Map Activities for the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Sandra F.

    1984-01-01

    Described are activities which will increase fluency in the use of north, south, east, west, up, and down; reinforce the proper positioning of the cardinal directions on a map grid; relate map symbols to familiar surface features; give practice in identifying map symbols; and provide an opportunity to construct maps. (RM)

  8. Great cities look small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  9. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  10. Factors influencing local recurrence after excision and radiotherapy for primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between November 1979 and December 1986, 262 patients were treated for primary breast cancer by local excision and radiotherapy at the City Hospital, Nottingham. Local recurrence within the treated breast occurred in 56 patients (21 per cent), in 18 (6.8 per cent) of whom it was gross and uncontrollable. Analysis of clinicopathological features shows patient age, nodal status, tumour size, presence of definitive vascular invasion, adjacent ductal carcinoma in situ and grade to be predictive of local recurrence. A Cox's multivariate analysis of these factors shows the first four to be independently significant. The factors can be combined as a prognostic index which allows identification of patients at high risk of local recurrence. On the basis of these findings the authors altered their selection policy for patients suitable for breast conservation. (author)

  11. Phantom energy from graded algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves, Max; Singleton, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    We construct a model of phantom energy using the graded Lie algebra SU(2/1). The negative kinetic energy of the phantom field emerges naturally from the graded Lie algebra, resulting in an equation of state with w

  12. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Arkitektskole. Bogen  har 3 dele. Principles: Copenhagen Agenda for Sustainable Living, 10 principper udviklet af Ugebrevet Mandag Morgen illustreret af arkitektstuderende. Congress: Futures of Cities, Emerging Urbanisms- Emerging Practices, oplæg fra unge tegnestuer til temaet fremlagt på Student Congress......Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets...

  13. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It thus...... makes an investigation into the complex relationship between the words and policies of the ‘Experience Economy' and the actual urban transformations made in cities with reference to these changes. The paper discusses the cases researched in relation to the state, market, civil society framework as well...

  14. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  15. Exodus to cities and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K

    1990-08-15

    Concerns about deterioration of the quality of life in mega-cities in India, thought to be due to in-migration, are shown to be misplaced in this essay. Not only is the deterioration due merely to rising expectations, but its causes are problems on a national level. It is true that population growth in the 12 largest cities in India, 3.35%, is more rapid than growth rates in the country as a whole, 2.22%. Bangalore is growing the fastest, 5.68% annually, but generally Indian cities are growing less rapidly that many other Asian cities, e.g. Dacca, 7.37%. Urbanization to the extent of 60.70% of the population is in fact necessary for development. The primary reason for in-migration is employment for men, and marriage accompanying employed husbands for women. Contrary to common opinion, the educational status of in- migrants is higher than that of the region, and female literacy is higher in cities than in the rest of the state, e.g., 61% for Bombay, vs. 35% in Maharashtra State. The occupational status is frequently high: production, transport equipment operator, laborer, professional, technical executive managerial, sales and service. Furthermore, as urbanization proceeds, construction laborers and service workers are in demand. Quality of life defined by infant and maternal mortality is higher in cities than in the surrounding rural area. This quality of life is the reason why people migrate to the city. Unfortunately, frustrations are also rising as expectations for improved housing, water, air, transportation and consumer-durables rise faster than they can be supplied. PMID:12343049

  16. Study on fatigue situation and its influential factors among primary school teachers in The East Lake Area of Nanchang City%南昌市东湖区小学教师疲劳现状及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王信颖; 余超; 吴磊

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解南昌市小学教师疲劳的流行现状及其影响因素.方法 采用整群抽样研究方法,在南昌市东湖区10所小学中随机抽取4所小学,对抽中小学校所有从事教学工作的319名教师进行问卷调查与疲劳自评量表检测.结果 (1)83.9%的教师有不同程度的疲劳感,按疲劳测评量表评分标准对其疲劳进行评分,小学教师疲劳平均分为(28.52±15.35)分;(2)疲劳得分的多元线性回归分析提示睡眠质量差、目前工作压力大、现职工作满意和日常工作量大这4个因素与疲劳存在线性关系.结论 小学教师疲劳现象较普遍,其预防应从睡眠质量、目前工作压力程度、对工作满意度和日常工作量4个方面加以重视.%Objective To understand the current epidemic status of fatigue and its influential factors of Nanchang primary school teachers. Methods Cluster sampling methods were used to select 4 primary school teachers from 10 schools in east area of Nanchang city randomly, then questionnaire survey and Fatigue Self-assessment Scale (FSAS) were carried out to all of the target school teachers in teaching. Results ( 1) 83. 9% of teachers had different degrees of fatigue. Counting marks of FSAS judge impairing degrees of fatigue, the average score of the primary school teacher s'fatigue was 28. 52 ± 15. 35; (2) Multivariate linear regression analysis of fatigue score pointed out that four factors including the current work stress, quality of sleep, job satisfaction and daily workload, exist linear relationship with fatigue. Conclusions Fatigue happened among primary school teachers are common. Main factors affecting fatigue were the current work stress, quality of sleep, job satisfaction and daily workload.

  17. Computational hepatocellular carcinoma tumor grading based on cell nuclei classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atupelage, Chamidu; Nagahashi, Hiroshi; Kimura, Fumikazu; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Tokiya, Abe; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Sakamoto, Michiie

    2014-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common histological type of primary liver cancer. HCC is graded according to the malignancy of the tissues. It is important to diagnose low-grade HCC tumors because these tissues have good prognosis. Image interpretation-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been developed to automate the HCC grading process. Generally, the HCC grade is determined by the characteristics of liver cell nuclei. Therefore, it is preferable that CAD systems utilize only liver cell nuclei for HCC grading. This paper proposes an automated HCC diagnosing method. In particular, it defines a pipeline-path that excludes nonliver cell nuclei in two consequent pipeline-modules and utilizes the liver cell nuclear features for HCC grading. The significance of excluding the nonliver cell nuclei for HCC grading is experimentally evaluated. Four categories of liver cell nuclear features were utilized for classifying the HCC tumors. Results indicated that nuclear texture is the dominant feature for HCC grading and others contribute to increase the classification accuracy. The proposed method was employed to classify a set of regions of interest selected from HCC whole slide images into five classes and resulted in a 95.97% correct classification rate. PMID:26158066

  18. Four Steps in Grading Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    The field of education is moving rapidly toward a standards-based approach to grading. School leaders have become increasingly aware of the tremendous variation that exists in grading practices, even among teachers of the same courses in the same department in the same school. Consequently, students' grades often have little relation to their…

  19. [Primary pulmonary sarcomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubcová, T; Jakubec, P

    2009-01-01

    Primary pulmonary sarcomas are rare diseases unlike lung carcinomas. The occurence of these sarcomas is between 0.013-0.40% of all malignant lung tumours. There are malignant mesenchymal tumours. They are flowing from the soft tissue of lung. The pulmonary sarcomas are heterogenic group with various biological behaviour. Their morfologic structure does not digger from the sarcomas of soft tissue. The primary pulmonary sarcomas occur more often in childhood and in young people unlike lung carcinomas. Radiation and some toxic substances are noted risk factors. Some gene mutations, infectious pathoghens and contraception have a possible impact on the origin of some types of the sarcomas. The current hypothesis is, that most of the sarcomas, if not all sarcomas, stem from primitive multipotent mesenchymal cell by malignant transformation in one or more lines. The diagnostic standard is biopsy from tumour with histologic and immunohistochemistry examination of a sample. The basic diagnostic problem is exclusion of a secondary origin of sarcomatic cells in the lung, because pulmonary metastasis of extrapulmonary sarcomas are more often than the primary pulmonary involvement.The optimal treatment is a resection of the tumour.The other therapeutic modalities are radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but results of these modalities are unsatisfactory. There are various chemotherapeutic regimes, monotherapy or combination regimes. The basic cytostatics are doxorubicine, iphosphamide, dacarbazine. Problems of the chemotherapy are high toxicity and relatively low curative effect about 20%.The first studies with biological treatment of the sarcomas of soft tissue have been published recently.This types of drugs could be a part of the complex management of these primary pulmonary tumours in the future. The primary pulmonary sarcomas have mostly aggresive course and often recur. Their prognosis is usually not very good. The survival median is 48 months and 5-years survival ranges

  20. Green Cities : Cities and Climate Change in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Urban sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Brazilian cities are growing. At the national level, the dominance of greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in Brazil masks the fact that emissions from other sectors, like Energy, Transport and Waste, are growing quite rapidly in cities. Compared to other cities around the world, Brazilian cities have low per capita GHG emissions be...

  1. 2005 Toronto smog report card : final grade C-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    This annual Smog Report Card for Toronto evaluates the progress made by the City toward reducing the environmental and health impacts of smog. The final grade for the City in 2005 was a C-, a decrease over the B+ issued in 2004. The report card evaluates City Council actions based on their clean air commitments. In particular, the performance on initiatives in the following six major areas were graded: energy; transit; walking and biking; fleets and fuels; intergovernmental action; and new air quality strategies. Although Toronto had a record number of smog days due to high-temperatures and high pollution levels, it had a better record on smog and climate change than either the provincial or federal levels. Greenhouse gas emissions in Toronto are actually going down, but they are up 12 and 24 per cent at the federal and provincial levels respectively. In 2005, the City of Toronto developed a new Air Quality Management Strategy to replace the Smog Plan. Future evaluations will depend on whether the strategy is effective. The report recommends that efforts should be made to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which cause global warming, as well measures to reduce the urban heat island effect by planting trees, improving energy efficiency and using lighter-coloured materials for roads, parking lots and roofs. The report card criticized that there has been no green power purchased for the City and that the transit ridership growth strategy is behind schedule. It also noted that the City is not pedestrian or bike friendly. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

  3. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This article uses a mixed-method study of Denmark to investigate whether and how Richard Florida's creative class theory should be adapted to small welfare economies. First, we carry out an econometric analyses showing that like in North America, the Danish creative class propels economic growth...... and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...

  4. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  5. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    WE LOVE THE CITY Byen i bygningen, bygningen i byen Lasse Andersson, Ph.d., arkitekt maa, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY vil vi formidle mødet mellem urban design oog arkitektur. Disciplinen ’at bygge by’ har de seneste 20 år ikke tændt hjerterne hos...... fjern og ’usexet’ for unge arkitekter in spe. Det kan fremtidens by ikke være tjent med, og WE LOVE THE CITY vil derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at her er et potentiale. Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY ønsker Utzon Centeret, LasseVegas Kontoret ApS og ADEPT...

  6. Should Cities Regulate Graffiti?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Graffiti, while still a new phenomenon to most Chinese, is becoming more familiar among teenagers in big cities like Beijing and Shanghai. A recent report by Xinhua News Agency discusses the trend. The report said a small

  7. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  8. Other city symphonies

    OpenAIRE

    Hielscher, Eva; Jacobs, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Catalogue description of the film program curated by Eva Hielscher and Steven Jacobs on 'Other City Symphonies' during the 2015 Pordenone Silent Film Festival, including paragraphs on individual films.

  9. Simulacrum City / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2000-01-01

    Veneetsia 7. arhitektuuribiennaali Eesti ekspositsiooni kataloogist Simulacrum City. Tallinn : Eesti Arhitektide Liit, 2000. Teksti autorid Anders Härm, Tarmo Maiste, Andres Kurg, Harry Charrington, kujundaja Jaanus Tamme, fotod Arne Maasik

  10. Earthquakes in cities revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wirgin, Armand

    2016-01-01

    During the last twenty years, a number of publications of theoretical-numerical nature have appeared which come to the apparently-reassuring conclusion that seismic motion on the ground in cities is smaller than what this motion would be in the absence of the buildings (but for the same underground and seismic load). Other than the fact that this finding tells nothing about the motion within the buildings, it must be confronted with the overwhelming empirical evidence (e.g, earthquakes in Sendai (2011), Kathmandu (2015), Tainan City (2016), etc.) that shaking within buildings of a city is often large enough to damage or even destroy these structures. I show, on several examples, that theory can be reconciled with empirical evidence, and suggest that the crucial subject of seismic response in cities is in need of more thorough research.

  11. 柳州市农村寄宿制中小学校学生膳食与营养状况%Dietary and nutritional status of boarding students of primary and secondary schools in rural area of Liuzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 谢昌平; 韦琳; 蓝剑

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the dietary and nutritional status of boarding school students in rural area of Liuzhou City,and provide theoretical basis for carrying out nutritional intervention.[Methods] A total of 6 000 boarding students of primary and secondary schools in rural area of Liuzhou City were selected.The dietary survey was carried out via dietary billing and weighing.The height,weight and hemoglobin content of studems were measured for nutritional evaluation.[Results] Single species of food,irrational dietary structure,generally inadequate intake of key nutrients,especially for high-quality protein,vitamin A and trace elements calcium and zinc existed in rural boarding schools of Liuzhou City,as well as excessive salt intake.The detection rates of malnutrition and low body weight were 7.17% and 52.32% and the prevalence rate of anemia was 16.39%,except for malnutrition,the rests were all over the national average of rural students.[Conclusion] Dietary and nutritional status of students is not optimistic in rural boarding schools of Liuzhou City.Nutrient intake is generally inadequate.Therefore,it is necessary to adopt effective measures to promote rational diet,so as to improve students' nutritional status.%目的 了解柳州市农村寄宿制学校学生的膳食营养状况,为开展学生营养干预提供理论依据.方法 抽取柳州市农村6所寄宿制中小学校学生6 000名,采用24h膳食记账和称重相结合的方法进行膳食调查,同时测量学生的身高、体重和血红蛋白含量,评价营养状况.结果 柳州市农村寄宿制学校食物品种单一,膳食结构不合理,主要营养素摄取量普遍不足,特别是优质蛋白质、维生素A以及微量元素钙和锌;而食盐摄入严重过量.学生营养不良和较低体重检出率为7.17%和52.32%,贫血患病率为16.39%,除营养不良外,其余均高于全国农村学生平均水平.结论 柳州市农村寄宿制学校学生膳食和营养

  12. City, ICT and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Galit Cohen; Peter Nijkamp

    2004-01-01

    New technologies tend to exert a profound influence on modern city life. This paper addresses the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the city. After a broad overview of the potential of ICT in a geographical setting and its possible impact on urban policy in regard to the ICT sector, the paper focusses attention on urban public policy in regard to the ICT sector. This study offers the proposition that urban ICT policy is driven by the stakeholders attitudinal and perc...

  13. Feeding the City

    OpenAIRE

    Roncaglia, Sara; Giorgio Solinas, Pier

    2015-01-01

    Every day in Mumbai 6,000 dabbawalas (literally translated as "those who carry boxes") distribute a staggering 200,000 home-cooked lunchboxes to the city's workers and students. Giving employment and status to thousands of largely illiterate villagers from Mumbai's hinterland, this co-operative has been in operation since the late nineteenth century. It provides one of the most efficient delivery networks in the world: only one lunch in six million goes astray. Feeding the City is an ethnogr...

  14. Aging City Leads Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The northern city of Dalian has become a model of care for the elderly that other Chinese cities are following Chinese Minister of Civil Affairs Li Xueju has called upon civil affairs agencies in the nation to learn from Dalian’s diversified models for elderly care,ranging from running collectively owned and foreign-designed nursing homes to offering tax incentives to private households and companies serving the elderly

  15. Improving the City environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All around the world cities are under severe environmental pressure. Water supplies, traffic congestion, air pollution, noise and waste disposal cause very similar problems in cities that are otherwise quite diverse. And attempts to improve conditions usually run into a range of difficulties. Indeed, environmental problems often persist for years before governments -national, regional and local- make any major effort to address them. 6 refs

  16. Cities in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Shepotylo Oleksandr

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the urban development of transition countries in 1991–2010, primarily focusing on the last decade. Cities in transition face a unique set of challenges that came forth due to interplay of the legacy of socialist urban policies and the transition to the market economy. The socialist urban policies restrained growth of the largest cities and distorted the spatial equilibrium towards more uniform distribution of urban population. The transition to the market economy reduces d...

  17. The Happiness of Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Florida, Richard; Mellander, Charlotta; Rentfrow, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Research on subjective well-being has focused on cross-national differences, while research on cities and regions has shown that human capital is a key factor in metropolitan income and related outcomes. This investigation tests the hypothesis that human capital will have a significant effect on well-being at the metropolitan scale. Using metropolitan level data from the 2009 Gallup-Healthways Survey, we examine the effects of human capital on city happiness alongside many...

  18. Towards smart city education

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Annika; Kortuem, Gerd; Cavero, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability has been an important topic in UK schools for some time, most notably since the Sustainable School Strategy was proposed by the UK Department for Education (DFES) in 2006. However, as smart city technologies emerge and show real promise in contributing to a more sustainable future, it is becoming apparent that new skills for working with the big urban data sets that drive these innovations must be taught to upcoming generations to ensure that they can be active smart city citiz...

  19. Innovation across cities

    OpenAIRE

    Soo, Kwok Tong

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of patenting activity across cities in the OECD, using a sample of 218 cities from 2000 to 2008. We obtain three main results. First, patenting activity is more concentrated than population and GDP. Second, patenting activity is less persistent than population and GDP. Third, patenting exhibits mean-reversion, and is positively associated with GDP, the fragmentation of local government, and population density. Our results suggest that policymakers can infl...

  20. Small Cell City

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan, S.; Steele, R.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, mobile operators have planned their networks to accommodate mobile terminals at ground level. Increasingly, mobile users communicate while stationary from within high-rise buildings. With mobiles operating at a variety of different heights and mobilities, plus the requirement to accommodate increasing teletraffic and multimedia services, there is a need to compact small cells into the three-dimensional city space. This article is concerned with using city buildings to act as el...

  1. Active City Administration

    OpenAIRE

    M .R. Sindhu; Viraj M. Jamle; Pramod M. Shelke; Shrikant G. Baheti

    2012-01-01

    The basic and universal corner stone of good governance are quality of service, quick response mechanisms and above all accountable and transparent process mechanism. The active city administration initiatives resulted in computerization of the legacy systems in government with limited ability to internalize the advances in information and communication technologies.By using active city administration services we able to know real time, quantitative and basic approach of the government servic...

  2. Cities and Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Mare, David C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the productivity (and wage) gains from locating in dense, urban environments. We distinguish between three potential explanations of why firms are willing to pay urban workers more: (1) the urban wage premium is spurious and is the result of omitted ability measures, (2) the urban wage premium works because cities enhance productivity and (3) the urban wage premium is the result of faster skill accumulation in cities. Using a combination of standard regressions, individual...

  3. Hackable Cities : From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change

    OpenAIRE

    de Lange, M.L.; de Waal, Martijn; Foth, Marcus; Verhoeff, Nanna; Martin, Brynskov

    2015-01-01

    The DC9 workshop takes place on June 27, 2015 in Limerick, Ireland and is titled "Hackable Cities: From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change". The notion of "hacking" originates from the world of media technologies but is increasingly often being used for creative ideals and practices of city making. "City hacking" evokes more participatory, inclusive, decentralized, playful and subversive alternatives to often top-down ICT implementations in smart city making. However, these discourses ...

  4. City marketing: online communication plan for the city of Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    Altrichter, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing City Marketing represents marketing efforts of cities in order to attract more visitors. Today, we are confronted everyday with marketing campaigns in all different communication media promoting countries, cities or events. Cities are competing for visitors on a global scale, forcing them to adapt successful marketing strategies for gaining and retaining costumers. Yet, City Marketing still remains an unknown chapter for a big part of the general public an...

  5. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GEOMETRICAL THINKING LEVELS AND INTELLIGENCE DOMAINS OF 8TH GRADE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    BULUT, İlhami; SÜNKÜR, Meral ÖNER; Behçet ORAL; Mustafa İLHAN

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the relationship between geometric thinking levels of 8th grade students and their intelligence domains. The participants of the study consist of 308 students from four schools in Diyarbakır city center during the 2010–2011 education year. Geometric thinking test and multiple intelligence inventory are applied to the participants. During the research, it is determined that 8th grade students focus level-1 (visual level) in terms of geometric thinking. The results...

  7. Study to elevator inspection market in Deyang city, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Yimou

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe and identify the characteristic of elevator inspection market in Deyang city, Sichuan province, China. To describe the market by using PEST analysis, which stands for P( political), E( economy), S( social), T( technology). In order to indentify the characteristic of elevator inspection market in Deyang city, interviewing methods will be applied in this thesis to collect primary data. Scattered distribution of elevator owner is the first characteris...

  8. 山东省滕州市某三级乙等医院低年资护士血糖监测相关知识调查%Investigation on the cognition of blood glucose monitoring knowledge in junior nurses from grade 3 and second-class hospital in Tengzhou City of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊梅; 付伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解低年资护士对血糖监测知识的掌握情况,针对存在问题提出培训对策.方法 2012年10月采用问卷调查法对山东省滕州市某三级乙等医院185名低年资护士进行血糖监测相关知识的调查,了解低年资护士血糖监测、反映血糖水平相关指标的知识掌握程度及低年资护士了解相关知识的途径.结果 共发放问卷185份,回收问卷185份,有效回收率100%.185名低年资护士血糖监测相关知识问卷得分为5~16分,平均(10.23±1.02)分.本科护士得分最高为(12.35±1.12)分,其次是大专护士为(10.62 ±0.56)分;每天监测血糖例次>5次的护士问卷得分较高;低年资护士低血糖界值、餐后2h血糖正常范围和糖化血红蛋白正常界值掌握率均低于40%;血糖前需检查核对项目和消毒方法的掌握率在90%以上;低年资护士获取血糖监测相关知识的途径主要来自于在校期间和实习期间的教育,步入工作岗位后从科室查房和小讲课中获得,主动通过阅读专业期刊和上网查阅资料的人数最少.结论 低年资护士血糖监测操作方面的知识掌握较好,监测指标的知识掌握情况较差,学习主动性较差,建议通过专业思想教育和制定规章制度提高低年资护士对血糖监测知识的学习意识,加强专业知识培训的针对性,提高低年资护士的理论水平.%Objective To study the cognition of junior nurses on blood glucose monitoring knowledge,so as to provide training strategies.Methods Totals of 185 junior nurses from a grade 3 and second-class hospital in Tengzhou City of Shandong Province were investigated with the questionnaire about the knowledge of blood glucose monitoring,blood glucose levels and the ways how the junior nurses get the knowledge.Resrlts One hundred and eighty-five questionnaires were distributed and 185 were retrieved with a effective response rate of 100%.Among 185 junior nurses,the score of blood

  9. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum >grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  10. Primary Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Carre, P.; Kamm, B.; Schoenicke, P.

    2012-01-01

    Primary processing of oil-containing material involves pre-treatment processes, oil recovery processes and the extraction and valorisation of valuable compounds from waste streams. Pre-treatment processes, e.g. thermal, enzymatic, electrical and radio frequency, have an important effect on the oil r

  11. A National Survey of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior of Chinese City Children and Youth Using Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to objectively assess levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) of Chinese city children and youth aged 9 to 17 years old using accelerometers and to examine their differences by gender, age, grade, and weight status. Method: The PA and SB of 2,163 students in 4th grade through 11th grade…

  12. Renal Trauma Management in 8 Cities of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laal M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study, conducted in 8 cities of Iran from 1999 to 2000. Out of total 16,573 trauma patients, 106 (0.63% included in this study had renal injury. This study aimed at investigation of incidence, etiology and management of renal trauma patients in Iran. They were 87 (82.1% male and 19 (17.9% female patients. Renal trauma mechanism was mainly blunt injury (93.4%. Road traffic crashes (61.3% and falls (22.7% were the most leading causes of trauma. These patients had different grade of traumas as follow: Sixty-six (62.3% grade I, 14 (13.2% grade II, 10 (9.4% grade III, 8 (7.5% grade IV and 8 (7.5% grade V. Out of 106 patients, eighty-three (78.3% patients managed conservatively, most had grade I injury (P<0.0001. Twenty-three (21.7% patients underwent different kinds of operation including: 5 (4.7% nephrorrhaphy; 6 (5.7% partial nephrectomy, and 12 (11.8% total nephrectomy. More invasive intervention was needed in patients with higher grades of trauma as all with grade V injury underwent total nephrectomy (P<0.0001. Six patients (5.66% passed away, three due to severe renal injury and hemorrhage, and three because of reasons unrelated to renal trauma. We concluded that most renal traumas are blunt injury and low grade with stable hemodynamic state which can be managed successfully non-operatively. "n© 2009 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

  13. [Primary care in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. PMID:26304179

  14. 营养宣教对南昌市城镇小学生营养知识、营养态度、营养行为的影响%Effects of Nutrition Propaganda and Education on Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Town Primary Students in Nanchang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯花

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解南昌市城镇小学生营养知识、营养态度、营养行为的现状,评价营养宣教对南昌市城镇小学生营养知识、营养态度和营养行为的影响.方法 采取整群抽样法,同时对290名南昌市城镇小学生采用自行设计的问卷调查表进行问卷调查,并进行营养宣教.比较营养宣教前后小学生营养知识、营养态度、营养行为情况.结果 南昌市城镇小学生营养宣教后营养知识评分值、总评分值均显著高于营养宣教前,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.01);营养宣教后营养行为评分值显著高于营养宣教前,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).营养宣教后在非常关心健康、营养好坏对学习和健康有影响、对营养知识感兴趣、愿意放弃自己爱吃而不利于健康的食物、愿意吃不喜欢的健康食品、喜欢参加体育活动等方面所占比例均较营养宣教前增加,但差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).营养宣教后在每周吃5~6次早餐、每天吃早餐等方面所占比例均较营养宣教前增加,但差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).营养宣教后每天喝牛奶所占比例较营养宣教前增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);营养宣教后经常喝(3次及以上)牛奶、有时喝(3次以下)牛奶所占比例均较营养宣教前增加,但差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05);营养宣教后从不喝牛奶所占比例较营养宣教前下降,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).营养宣教后每天进食蔬菜5种以上所占比例均较营养宣教前增加,但差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).结论 营养宣教能提高小学生的营养知识,改善其态度及行为,应在南昌市城镇小学中广泛开展.%Objective To understand the current situation of nutrition knowledge,attitude and behavior of town primary students in Nanchang city,and to evaluate the effects of nutrition propaganda and education on nutrition knowledge, attitude and

  15. The Joint Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The new connections, which high speed train allows to activate among the metropolitan systems, seem to be able to give life to new urban macro-structures for which the transfer time, among the main poles of the railway segment, becomes comparable to an inside moving into the city and therefore considered as an inter-functional mobility. The tunnel effect generated by the high speed connection seems to be able to allow a new temporal and functional joint among the metropolitan systems consequently supporting the possibility, for the users, to move themselves among the different urban functions belonging to the different cities. The birth of these urban aggregations seems to drive towards new megalopolis, which we can define for the first time with the term: joint-city. For this new metropolitan settlement it seems to be very interesting to investigate the constitutive peculiarities, the systemic articulation, its relational structures, the evolutionary scenarios, and so on. The urban functions (activities can be considered as structures of relationships between people that allows to define "organizational links" inside the community; the urban functions are located in specific places inside urban container or in open spaces. The urban functions represent the urban engines and the functional system can be thought as the “soul of the city", abstract but essential to its survival. In the definition set out here the analysis is carried out for many interconnected urban functional system points (specifically those in Rome and Naples. The new high speed railway has to be considered not only as a new channel of mobility between cities, but as a real possibility of joint between the functional systems of the two centres. A final consideration can be carried out in relation to the possibility of implementing new measures of governance of urban transformations considering the new macro-city: the "Joint City".

  16. Cellular telephone use among primary school children in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: There is some concern about potential health risks of cellular telephone use to children. We assessed data on how many children own a cellular telephone and on how often they use it in a population-based sample. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among children in their fourth elementary school year, with a median-age of 10 years. The study was carried out in Mainz (Germany), a city with about 200,000 inhabitants. The study base comprised all 37 primary schools in Mainz and near surroundings. Altogether, 1933 children from 34 primary schools took part in the survey (participation rate of 87.8%). Results: Roughly a third of all children (n = 671, 34.7%) reported to own a cellular telephone. Overall, 119 (6.2%) children used a cellular telephone for making calls at least once a day, 123 (6.4%) used it several times a week and 876 (45.3%) children used it only once in a while. The remaining 805 (41.6%) children had never used a cellular telephone. The probability of owning a cellular telephone among children was associated with older age, being male, having no siblings, giving full particulars to height and weight, more time spent watching TV and playing computer games, being picked up by their parents from school by car (instead of walking or cycling) and going to bed late. The proportion of cellular telephone owners was somewhat higher in classes with more children from socially disadvantaged families. Conclusions: Our study shows that both ownership of a cellular telephone as well as the regular use of it are already quite frequent among children in the fourth grade of primary school. With regard to potential long-term effects, we recommend follow-up studies with children

  17. Transcriptional analysis of aggressiveness and heterogeneity across grades of astrocytomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjing Wang

    Full Text Available Astrocytoma is the most common glioma, accounting for half of all primary brain and spinal cord tumors. Late detection and the aggressive nature of high-grade astrocytomas contribute to high mortality rates. Though many studies identify candidate biomarkers using high-throughput transcriptomic profiling to stratify grades and subtypes, few have resulted in clinically actionable results. This shortcoming can be attributed, in part, to pronounced lab effects that reduce signature robustness and varied individual gene expression among patients with the same tumor. We addressed these issues by uniformly preprocessing publicly available transcriptomic data, comprising 306 tumor samples from three astrocytoma grades (Grade 2, 3, and 4 and 30 non-tumor samples (normal brain as control tissues. Utilizing Differential Rank Conservation (DIRAC, a network-based classification approach, we examined the global and individual patterns of network regulation across tumor grades. Additionally, we applied gene-based approaches to identify genes whose expression changed consistently with increasing tumor grade and evaluated their robustness across multiple studies using statistical sampling. Applying DIRAC, we observed a global trend of greater network dysregulation with increasing tumor aggressiveness. Individual networks displaying greater differences in regulation between adjacent grades play well-known roles in calcium/PKC, EGF, and transcription signaling. Interestingly, many of the 90 individual genes found to monotonically increase or decrease with astrocytoma grade are implicated in cancer-affected processes such as calcium signaling, mitochondrial metabolism, and apoptosis. The fact that specific genes monotonically increase or decrease with increasing astrocytoma grade may reflect shared oncogenic mechanisms among phenotypically similar tumors. This work presents statistically significant results that enable better characterization of different human

  18. Transcriptional analysis of aggressiveness and heterogeneity across grades of astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjing; Funk, Cory C; Eddy, James A; Price, Nathan D

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytoma is the most common glioma, accounting for half of all primary brain and spinal cord tumors. Late detection and the aggressive nature of high-grade astrocytomas contribute to high mortality rates. Though many studies identify candidate biomarkers using high-throughput transcriptomic profiling to stratify grades and subtypes, few have resulted in clinically actionable results. This shortcoming can be attributed, in part, to pronounced lab effects that reduce signature robustness and varied individual gene expression among patients with the same tumor. We addressed these issues by uniformly preprocessing publicly available transcriptomic data, comprising 306 tumor samples from three astrocytoma grades (Grade 2, 3, and 4) and 30 non-tumor samples (normal brain as control tissues). Utilizing Differential Rank Conservation (DIRAC), a network-based classification approach, we examined the global and individual patterns of network regulation across tumor grades. Additionally, we applied gene-based approaches to identify genes whose expression changed consistently with increasing tumor grade and evaluated their robustness across multiple studies using statistical sampling. Applying DIRAC, we observed a global trend of greater network dysregulation with increasing tumor aggressiveness. Individual networks displaying greater differences in regulation between adjacent grades play well-known roles in calcium/PKC, EGF, and transcription signaling. Interestingly, many of the 90 individual genes found to monotonically increase or decrease with astrocytoma grade are implicated in cancer-affected processes such as calcium signaling, mitochondrial metabolism, and apoptosis. The fact that specific genes monotonically increase or decrease with increasing astrocytoma grade may reflect shared oncogenic mechanisms among phenotypically similar tumors. This work presents statistically significant results that enable better characterization of different human astrocytoma grades

  19. Primary School Teachers’ Belief of Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Kürşad; Bökeoğlu, Ömay Çokluk

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determineefficacy belief of primary school teachers. In the survey model study,“Teacher Efficacy Scale” was used to gather data. The scaledeveloped by Woolfolk and Hoy (1990) was adapted to Turkish by theauthors. The scale includes 22 likert type items to determine efficacybeliefs of teachers. Study group of the research consists of 250teachers who work in primary schools in Ankara city centre. In thestudy, percentage, frequency, arithmetic average, t te...

  20. Relationship among child-abuse, depressive symptoms and sleep quality in grade 4-6 primary students%4~6年级小学生儿童虐待经历与抑郁情绪、睡眠质量的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雍那; 赵雯婧; 刘海霞; 程雪; 傅一笑; 罗庆华; 邱海棠; 邱田; 王慧; 胡华; 蒙华庆; 陈品红; 杜莲; 屈远; 邹志礼; 王婷

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between child-abuse and depressive symptoms, sleep quality in primary students. Methods: Using stratified randomization sampling method, 1523 primary students in grade 4-6 were selected and assessed with the Child Abuse Scale, Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children (DSRSC), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index ( PSQI). The total score of the DSRSC ≥ 15 meant the children had depressive symptoms; and the total score of PSQI >7 meant the children had sleep problem. Totally 1417 valid questionnaires were analyzed. Results: The rates of child abuse, depressive symptoms and sleep quality were 41.7%, 23.2%, and 26. 2%, respectively. The scores of PSQI, sleep latency, sleep time, habitual sleep efficiency, daytime dysfunction were higher in abused subjects than non abused ones (Ps < 0. 05); and the scores of PSQI, sleep latency, sleep time, and habitual sleep efficiency in subjects with depressive symptom were higher than that in subjects without depressive symptom (Ps < 0. 05). Correlation analysis showed that the total scores of PSQI and DSRSC were negatively correlated with physical abuse and verbal abuse (r= -0. 06 - -0. 72, P < 0. 05). The scores of PSQI, sleep latency, habitual sleep efficiency were positively correlated with DSRSC total score (r= 0. 13 -0. 14, P < 0. 01).Conclusion: It indicates that child abuse, depressive symptoms and sleep quality problem are common in primary students in grade 4-6. The child abuse, especially physical abuse and verbal abuse may have negative effects on the mood and sleep quality in primary students, which should be noticed.%目的:探讨儿童虐待经历与小学生抑郁情绪、睡眠质量的关系.方法:分层抽取重庆市主城3区的9所小学校(重点、普通及农民工小学各3所)的1523名在校4-6年级小学生.运用儿童受虐量表评定小学生的受虐待状况,量表总分中负的分值代表虐待;儿童抑郁自评量表(DSRSC)评定小学