WorldWideScience

Sample records for city primary grades

  1. Testing the Efficacy of "INSIGHTS" on Student Disruptive Behavior, Classroom Management, and Student Competence in Inner City Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClowry, Sandra Graham; Snow, David L.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Rodriguez, Eileen T.

    2010-01-01

    A prevention trial tested the efficacy of "INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament" as compared to a Read Aloud attention control condition in reducing student disruptive behavior and enhancing student competence and teacher classroom management. Participants included 116 first and second grade students, their parents, and their 42 teachers in six…

  2. Research on Spelling in Primary Grades (ERIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenbaugh, Roger

    1993-01-01

    Presents annotations of nine conference papers and practica in the ERIC database that deal with spelling research in the primary grades. Notes that the entries in the annotated bibliography were published between 1990 and 1992. (RS)

  3. Grade repetition in primary school from teachers’ perspective

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    Malinić Dušica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available School underachievement is exhibited gradually, in different forms, while grade repetition figures as one of the most prominent forms of underachievement. In order to observe this phenomenon from different perspectives, we conducted a research aimed at identifying teacher attitudes towards grade repetition and grade repeaters in primary school, based on their perceptions of: (a the cause of grade repetition; (b the responsibility for grade repetition and (c grade repetition as an educational measure. The administered questionnaire was constructed for the purposes of the research, descriptive statistics was used, and data were obtained on the sample of 136 teachers from 31 primary schools from the territory of the City of Belgrade. The results point out to the conclusion that teachers perceive grade repetition as, first and foremost, the consequence of students’ lack of interest in school and learning and undisciplined behavior in class. By treating student underachievement mainly as a consequence of laziness, lack of motivation and insufficient effort, teachers transfer responsibility to others, assessing that the personal degree of responsibility for the underachievement of their students is very low. The responsibility for underachievement is perceived more as a problem of the student, his/her family, peer group, than as the problem of teachers themselves. The concluding part points out to certain teaching procedures and methods that have proved to be useful in the prevention of student underachievement.

  4. Primary-Grade Teacher Candidates' Views on Museum Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Ayse Mentis

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the primary-grade teacher candidates' views on museum education. The research is a descriptive research that used survey model. The study group is made up of 209 primary-grade teacher candidates who were seniors in the Primary-Grade Teaching Program. They were all attending Konya University's Faculty of Education. A survey…

  5. Improving reading in the primary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Nell K; Block, Meghan K

    2012-01-01

    Almost fifteen years have passed since the publication of the National Research Council's seminal report Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, which provided research-based recommendations on what could be done to better position students in prekindergarten through third grade for success in grade four and above. This article by Nell Duke and Meghan Block first examines whether specific key recommendations from the report have been implemented in U.S. classrooms. They find that recommendations regarding increased access to kindergarten and greater attention to and improvement of students' word-reading skills have been widely adopted. Others have not. Vocabulary and comprehension, long neglected in the primary grades, still appear to be neglected. Contrary to the report's recommendations, attention to building conceptual and content knowledge in science and social studies has actually decreased in the past fifteen years. In other words, the easier-to-master skills are being attended to, but the broader domains of accomplishment that constitute preparation for comprehension and learning in the later grades--vocabulary knowledge, comprehension strategy use, and conceptual and content knowledge--are being neglected. Near stagnation in fourth-grade students' comprehension achievement is thus unsurprising. The authors then turn to research and reviews of research on improving primary-grade reading published since 1998, when Preventing Reading Difficulties was issued. They discuss several instructional approaches identified as effective in improving word-reading skill, vocabulary and conceptual knowledge, comprehension strategies, and reading outside of school; they discuss advances in interventions for struggling readers, and in whole-school literacy reform. Duke and Block then identify three key obstacles that have prevented widespread adoption of these best practices in teaching reading. The first obstacle is a short-term orientation toward instruction and

  6. Closely Reading Informational Texts in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    In this article we discuss the differences between close reading in the primary grades and upper elementary grades. We focus on text selection, initial reading. repeated reading, annotation, text-based discussions, and responding to texts.

  7. An evaluation of the primary 3rd grade English language teaching program: Tekirdağ case

    OpenAIRE

    Çankaya, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempts to find out active English teachers’ opinions regarding the primary 3rd grade ELTP (launched in 2013) in terms of its general overview, content, goals, teaching-learning process and assessment dimensions under the heading of “An Evaluation of the Primary 3rd Grade English Language Teaching Program: Tekirdağ Case” . The study was carried out in the city center of Tekirdağ including 20 state primary schools with 38 teachers in the academic term 2014-2015 spring. In th...

  8. Poetry Proves to Be Positive in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Terrence V.; Wyant, Susan L.

    2008-01-01

    Learning to read and write and achieve good conduct are crucial in the primary grades. One teacher from a state in the Midwest implemented poetry with her second grade students to guide classroom conduct and improve literacy. This article discusses poetry as a literature genre, the benefits of poetry, and poetry curriculum where children read and…

  9. Evaluation of the primary 3rd grade English language teaching program through teachers’ eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Çankaya, Pınar

    2016-01-01

    The present study attempts to find out active English teachers’ opinions regarding the primary 3rd grade English Language Teaching Program (ELTP) which was launched in 2013 in terms of its general overview, content,  goals, teaching-learning process and assessment dimensions in the city center of Tekirdağ including 20 primary schools with 38 teachers in the academic term 2014-2015 spring. In this evaluation study, quantitavive data were used in order to explore how teachers evaluate the prima...

  10. The dynamics of giftedness in the upper primary grades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.C.G.

    2016-01-01

    Titel: The dynamics of giftedness in the upper primary grades Auteur: Joyce C.G. Gubbels Engelse samenvatting: Giftedness is often defined as an IQ-score of 130 or higher, that indicates strong analytical abilities. The research by Joyce Gubbels shows that in addition to analytically gifted childr

  11. More than Numbers: Teaching ELLs Mathematical Language in Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistla, Michelle; Feng, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Teaching English Language Learners (ELL) academics while they are acquiring English language skills is a challenge for teachers. This action research examines the use of Response To Intervention (RTI) in teaching ELLs mathematical language and its effect on students' math achievement in primary grades. It shows that when mathematical language…

  12. CitySongs: Primary Prevention in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivnick, Helen Q.; Lymburner, Allison M.

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes CitySongs, a primary prevention, out-of-school program in the inner city that promotes social justice through integrated activities aimed at healthy youth development, arts achievement, and community vitality through diversity. Key ideas from social science and human service disciplines that inform the design and…

  13. Using Logistic Regression to Model New York City Restaurant Grades Over a Two-Year Period

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    David Nadler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A knowledge gap exists in the role of restaurant type on the prediction of attaining the highest grade possible from the local health inspection agency. This study identified disparities using logistic regression between the issuance of a Grade A and restaurant type and location. This study tested the eight most inspected types of restaurants within the City of New York and calculated the odds ratios of their receiving the highest inspection grade by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. A fitted equation has been proposed for the prediction of receiving the highest inspection grade based upon the citywide results of these eight restaurant types from calendar years 2011 and 2012. The results suggest that certain styles of restaurants have lower odds of receiving the highest grade in comparison to American-style restaurants.

  14. Oral hygiene in primary schoolchildren in Benin City, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Alakija, W

    1981-01-01

    Oral hygiene was assessed in children from two primary schools in Benin City, Nigeria. Good oral hygiene was not related to the socioeconomic class of the children but to the method of cleaning the teeth. Girls had better oral hygiene than boys. It is suggested that the local method of using chewing sticks should be encouraged, and emphasis placed on frequency and thoroughness of use.

  15. Stop Tobacco in Restaurants: Fifth Grade Students STIR City Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ronald Vaughan

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a campaign called STIR: Stop Tobacco in Restaurants, that was started by fourth and fifth grade students. The goal was to end smoking in public places, including restaurants, bowling alleys, sports bars, and pool halls. For two years they motivated their peers, coordinated an information campaign to urge kids and adults to…

  16. The Effect of Educational Modules Strategy on the Direct and Postponed Study's Achievement of Seventh Primary Grade Students in Science, in Comparison with the Conventional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alelaimat, Abeer Rashed; Ghoneem, Khowla Abd Al Raheem

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at revealing the effect of educational modules strategy on the direct and postponed study's achievement of seventh primary grade students in science, in comparison with the conventional approach. The sample of the study consists of (174) male and female students randomly chosen from schools in the city of Mafraq, students are…

  17. Teaching Fables in the Junior Grades of Primary School

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    Ester Vidović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the ways in which fables can help pupils in the junior grades of primary school develop their oral and written skills. It is written from a cognitive perspective within literary studies, focusing on a study of animal characters and morals in fables and researching the cognitive operations that result in hybrid animal characters. It also focuses on the universal character of morals, which can be viewed as an outcome of the process of conceptual integration. Addressing the universal nature of the main characters appearing in fables, as well as the universal issues expressed in their morals, the article looks at several possibilities for follow-up classroom activities. By devising extra activities aimed at developing their pupils‘ language skills, teachers of Croatian and English can motivate pupils to apply the topics in fables to everyday situations, thus encouraging them to develop their language skills as well as their capacity for judgement, character identification and value formation.

  18. A rabbit model of graded primary mechanical injury to brainstem

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    YU Yong-min

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To introduce a new animal model of graded mechanical primary brainstem injury (BSI. Methods: Altogether 45 rabbits were subjected to BSI by type II biological impact machine designed by the Third Military Medical University. The animals were divided into 4 experimental groups (n=10 and 1 control group (n=5 ac-cording to different magnitudes of impact pressure imposed on the occipital nodule: Group 1, 500-520 kPa; Group 2, 520-540 kPa; Group 3, 540-560 kPa; Group 4, 560-580 kPa and Group 5, 0 kPa with 20 kPa increase in each grade. The im-pact depth was a constant 0.5 cm. After injury, the clinical symptoms and signs as well as pathological changes were observed. Results: Rabbits in Group 1 revealed mild physiologi-cal reaction of BSI. They had localized cerebral contusion with punctate hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH was limited to the peripheral tissues at the impact area. In Group 2, obvious physiological reaction was observed. Local pathological lesions reached the superfi-cial layer of brainstem tissues; focal hemorrhage and girdle-shaped SAH in basilar pon were observed under microscope. In Group 3, BSI was more severe with a long respiratory depression. Pathological lesions reached the inner portion of brainstem with massive hemorrhage and the whole brainstem was wrapped by subarachnoid hematoma. In Group 4, most rabbits died due to severe BSI. Pathological lesions deepened to the central brainstem with wide patho-logical change, rapture of the medulla oblongata central canal. Group 5 was the control group, with normal brainstem structure and no lesion observed. Conclusion: This model successfully simulates differ-ent levels of brainstem mechanical injury and clearly shows the subsequent pathological changes following injury. It takes two external parameters (impact pressure and depth and has a similar injury mechanism to clinical accelerating BSI. Moreover it is reproducible and stable, thus being be

  19. A rabbit model of graded primary mechanical injury to brainstem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong-min; WANG Xiao-wei; XUE Hai-bin; XIA Peng; LI Hong-wei; DAI Guo-xin; JI Xiao-yuan; ZHAO Hui; YIN Zhi-yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To introduce a new animal model of graded mechanical primary brainstem injury (BSI).Methods:Altogether 45 rabbits were subjected to BSI by type Ⅱ biological impact machine designed by the Third Military Medical University.The animals were divided into 4 experimental groups (n=10) and 1 control group (n=5) according to different magnitudes of impact pressure imposed on the occipital nodule:Group 1,500-520 kPa; Group 2,520-540 kPa; Group 3,540-560 kPa; Group 4,560-580 kPa and Group 5,0 kPa with 20 kPa increase in each grade.The impact depth was a constant 0.5 cm.After injury,the clinical symptoms and signs as well as pathological changes were observed.Results:Rabbits in Group 1 revealed mild physiological reaction of BSI.They had localized cerebral contusion with punctate hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was limited to the peripheral tissues at the impact area.In Group 2,obvious physiological reaction was observed.Local pathological lesions reached the superficial layer ofbrainstem tissues; focal hemorrhage and girdleshaped SAH in basilar pon were observed under microscope.In Group 3,BSI was more severe with a long respiratory depression.Pathological lesions reached the inner portion of brainstem with massive hemorrhage and the whole brainstem was wrapped by subarachnoid hematoma.In Group 4,most rabbits died due to severe BSI.Pathological lesions deepened to the central brainstem with wide pathological change,rapture of the medulla oblongata central canal.Group 5 was the control group,with normal brainstem structure and no lesion observed.Conclusion:This model successfully simulates different levels ofbrainstem mechanical injury and clearly shows the subsequent pathological changes following injury.It takes two external parameters (impact pressure and depth) and has a similar injury mechanism to clinical accelerating BSI.Moreover it is reproducible and stable,thus being beneficial for exploring pathophysiological mechanism,diagnosis and

  20. Prevalence of deciduous dental caries and the risk factors in first grade primary school students in Chancheng District of Foshan City%佛山市禅城区一年级小学生乳牙龋病流行状况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄诺蓓; 陈志斌; 王新; 周子亮; 翟炜东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of deciduous dental caries and the risk factors in first grade primary school students in Chancheng District of Foshan City, thus to provide scientific bases for prevention and treatment on caries. Methods A sample of 291 first grade primary school students was selected using random cluster sampling method. The caries of deciduous teeth were examined and the questionnaires were sent to their parents. The data were analyzed with SPSS 13.0 software package. Results The caries prevalence rate of deciduous teeth was 33.7% ,with mean dmft 0. 97. There was no significant difference of prevalence rate between two genders (P > 0. 05). Logistic regression analysis showed that number of child in the family, the main beverages everyday , and the frequency of intake of sweet food, were risk factors of deciduous dental caries. Conclusion It was important to strengthen the education of the oral hygiene knowledge, to change dietetic habits, and to introduce good oral hygiene habits.%目的 调查佛山市禅城区一年级小学生乳牙龋病状况及其相关影响因素,为龋病防治工作提供参考.方法 采用随机整群抽样法,抽取291名一年级小学生进行乳牙龋病检查,同时向其家长派发口腔健康调查问卷.对数据进行统计分析.结果 佛山市禅城区一年级小学生乳牙患龋率为33.7%,龋均为0.97±1.79,统计分析显示男女间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).进行影响龋病的单因素分析,发现是否独生子女、母亲的学历、日常的主要饮料、进食甜食的频率和进食后漱口的频率对小学生乳牙患龋率有影响.多因素Logistic回归分析表明是否独生子女、日常主要饮料和进食甜食的频率是儿童乳牙患龋的危险因素.结论 加强口腔卫生知识宣教,改善小学生的饮食习惯,养成良好的口腔卫生习惯,是预防乳牙龋病发生的有效措施.

  1. Socialism. Grade Ten, Unit Two, 10.2. Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Helen

    The socialism unit of the tenth grade level of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271) explores a selected history of socialist thought and the theoretical model of socialism. Three case studies of socialism are explored: Great Britain, Sweden, and Israel. The case studies are designed to answer questions concerning…

  2. Social Skills of First-Grade Primary School Students and Pre-School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulay, Hulya; Akman, Berrin; Kargi, Eda

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of social skills of the first-grade primary school students who received preschool education and not. The sample group of the study consists of 521 children studying in the first grade of primary schools in Turkish provinces of Ankara, Kars, Malatya, Igdir, Samsun, Mersin, Gaziantep, Karabuk,…

  3. Mitigating the Effects of Negative Stereotyping of Aging and the Elderly in Primary Grade Reading Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutknecht, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Discusses depictions of aging and the elderly in primary grade reading instructional materials. Investigates the attitudes of primary grade students toward aging and the elderly. Suggests instructional approaches and materials that can mitigate the effects of negative stereotyping of aging and the elderly. (RS)

  4. Powerful Possibilities for Primary Grades: Combining Informational Text with Content Literacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Lettie K.; Burbano de Lara, Anna; Davis, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the authors' efforts as teachers to incorporate more informational text into primary grade lessons with the use of content literacy practices. Describes two lessons using content reading strategies and practices with informational text. Encourages other teachers in primary grades to incorporate informational text into their classrooms by…

  5. Epidemiology of Head Lice Infestation in Primary SchoolPupils, in Khajeh City, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

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    M Shayeghi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae or head louse is an obligate ectoparasite transmitted mainly through physical contact. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of head lice infestation rate and some risk factors in Primary School pupils, in Khajeh City East Azerbaijan Province, IranMethods: We selected 20 primary schools of Khajeh City during 2008 and 2009. Totally 500 pupils including 200 boys and 300 girls from all grade 1-5 were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling in rural areas of Khajeh City and were examined for lice. In addition, a standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each pupil. Results were analyzed by SPSS software.Results: The total prevalence of head lice infestation in this study was 4.8%. and the prevalence rate was significantly higher in girls (6.66% than in boys (2%. Epidemiological factors such as: sex, school grade, family size, parent's education, type of house, hair washing (per week, number of using comb per day, were evaluated and results showed significant difference in head lice infestation and sex, school grade ,family size ,father education ,and type of house (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world, and due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in crowded families, family by lower levels of father's education and socioeconomic status in our study and rural area, it is necessary to give health education for families to prevent of pediculosis in this area.

  6. Development of Dental Health Knowledge Tests for the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Susan P.

    1981-01-01

    A project was designed to provide evaluation materials for dental health education programs at the primary level. Reliable test instruments that assessed cognitive understanding of dental concepts by primary age children were designed. (JN)

  7. Teaching the Writing Process in Primary Grades: One Teacher's Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Linda E.; Thacker, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how one such teacher, Shirley Thacker, developed and implemented a successful writing program in her first grade classroom, which is known as Thackerville. Shirley describes how she motivated a classroom of first-graders to use the writing process in a workshop format and how this approach affected the children's perceptions…

  8. "Three-Grade Criteria" of Radical Resection for Primary Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengchen Ma; Jia Fan; Zhenggang Ren; Jinglin Xia; Liwen Huang; Zhaoyou Tang; Xinda Zhou; Zhiying Lin; Lunxiu Qin; Qinghai Ye; Huichuan Sun; Zhiquan Wu

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study was designed to develop the "ThreeGrade Criteria" for radical resection of primary liver cancer (PLC) and to evaluate its clinical significance.METHODS Criteria for radical resection of PLC were summed up to 3 grades based on criterion development. Grade I: complete removal of all gross tumors with no residual tumor at the excision margin. Grade Ⅱ: on or the primary branches of the portal vein, the common hepatic duct or its dition to the above criteria, negative postoperative follow-up result including AFP dropping to a normal level (with positive AFP before surgery)within 2 months after operation, and no residual tumor upon diagnostic imaging.The clinical data from 354 patients with PLC who underwent hepatectomy were reviewed retrospectively. Based on the "Three-Grade Criteria" these patients were divided into 6 groups: Grade Ⅰ radical group,Grade Ⅰ palliative group, Grade Ⅱ radical group, Grade Ⅱ palliative group,Grade Ⅲ radical group, Grade Ⅲ palliative group. The survival rate of each group was calculated by the life-table method and the rates compared among the groups.RESULTS The survival rate of patients receiving radical treatment was better than those receiving palliative treatment (P<0.01). Survival improved as more criteria were applied. The 5-year survival rate of the patients in Grade Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ who underwent radical resection was 43.2%,51.2% and 64.4%, respectively (P<0.01).CONCLUSION The "Three-Grade Criteria" may be applied for judging the curability of resection therapy for PLC. The stricter the criterion used,the better the survival would be. Adopting high-grade criteria to select cases and guide operations and strengthening postoperative follow-up would improve the results of hepatectomy for PLC.

  9. 10 Strategies to Improve Writing Instruction in the Primary Grades

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    Campbell-Rush, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    Explaining the importance of a good foundation in writing to educators would be a case of preaching to the choir. The same can be said about identifying the connection between reading and writing. Writing can occur in the primary classroom in three ways. Demonstration writing happens when the teacher composes and writes in front of the class,…

  10. The Concurrent Validity Between Primary School Academic Success Grades and OKÖSYS Subtest Grades

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    Cem GÜZELLER

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether the tests used in Secondary Education Student Selection & Placement Exam (OKÖSYS is reasonable enough to predict the academic level of secondary school institutions. The canonical correlations analysis model was used. The study was performed on 586 candidates on 7 the grade of schools in center of Antalya, Burdur and Isparta regions. The students were chosen randomly and participated in OKÖSYS of 2002, The result of study, %39 of independent variation of variable was dependent variable group of subtest explained by canonic variable, %38 of dependent variable group of subtest was explained independentvariation of variable by canonic variable, It has also been determined that increased lessons which were science, turkish, citizenship, social science in secondary education results in increase in the subtest Turkish, social science, science, and math.

  11. Physioeconomic Poverty Analysis of Grade 1 Employees of Rawalpindi City, Pakistan

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    Sabeen Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty though a universal phenomenon, is the worst challenge in the modern era, which is termed as the age of information and technology. The present study was designed to estimate the incidence of poverty for the grade I employees of Rawalpindi city. Determinants of poverty were explored by using Probit model, which was significant in the determination of the poverty status of the household. Following variables were used in the model; household size, education, experience, working individual, extra income and migration are the variables. For that objective, data from 150 household were collected through questionnaires. The results of the poverty indices showed that about twenty percent households were poor among grade 1 employees of Rawalpindi city. The result of probit models indicated that having large household size, with no extra income and migrants were increasing the probability of being poor while educational attainment and experiences did not had significant effect. On the other hand working individuals and migration were decreasing the probability of being poor.

  12. Primary and secondary organic carbon downwind of Mexico City

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    X.-Y. Yu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study particulate matter transport and transformation in the Megacity environment, fine particulate carbons were measured simultaneously at two supersites, suburban T1 and rural T2, downwind of Mexico City during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006. Organic carbon (OC, element carbon (EC, and total carbon (TC=OC+EC were determined in near real-time using a Sunset semi-continuous OC/EC field analyzer. The semi-empirical EC tracer method was used to derive primary organic carbon (POC and secondary organic carbon (SOC. Diurnal variations of primary and secondary carbons were observed at T1 and T2, which resulted from boundary layer inversion and impacted by local traffic patterns. The majority of organic carbon particles at T1 and T2 were secondary. The SOC% (SOC%=SOC/TC×100% at T1 ranged from 1.2–100% with an average of 80.7±14.4%. The SOC% at T2 ranged from 12.8–100% with an average of 80.1±14.0%. The average EC to PM2.5 percentage (ECPM%=EC/PM2.5×100% and OCPM% were 6.0% and 20.0% over the whole sampling time at T1. The POC to PM percentage (POCPM% and SOCPM% were 3.7% and 16.3%, respectively at the same site. The maximum ECPM% was 21.2%, and the maximum OCPM% was 57.2% at T1. The maximum POCPM% was 12.9%, and the maximum SOCPM% was 49.7% at the suburban site. Comparison of SOC and POC at T1 and T2 showed similar characteristics under favorable meteorological conditions, which indicated that transport between the two supersites took place. Strong correlations between EC and carbon monoxide (CO and odd nitrogen species (NO and NOx were observed at T1. This indicated that EC had nearby sources, such as local traffic emissions. The EC/CO ratio derived by linear regression analysis, when parameters in μg C/m3 and μg/m3, respectively, was 0.0045 at T1. Correlations were also seen

  13. Primary and secondary organic carbon downwind of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-Y. Yu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study particulate matter transport and transformation in the Megacity environment, fine particulate carbon was measured simultaneously at two supersites, suburban T1 and rural T2, downwind of Mexico City during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006. Organic carbon (OC, element carbon (EC, and total carbon (TC=OC+EC were determined in near real-time using a Sunset semi-continuous OCEC field analyzer. The semi-empirical EC tracer method was used to derive primary organic carbon (POC and secondary organic carbon (SOC. Diurnal variations of primary and secondary carbon were observed at T1 and T2, which resulted from boundary layer inversion and impacted by local traffic patterns. The majority of organic carbon particles at T1 and T2 were secondary. The SOCTC% (SOC%=SOC/TC×100% at T1 ranged from 0.5–93.8% with an average of 63.5±17.2%. The SOCTC% at T2 ranged from 9.3–98.1% with an average of 67.4±12.4%. The average EC to PM2.5 percentage (ECPM%=EC/PM2.5×100% and OCPM% were 6.0% and 20.0% over the whole sampling time at T1. The POC to PM percentage (POCPM% and SOCPM% were 3.7% and 16.3%, respectively at the same site. The maximum ECPM% was 21.2%, and the maximum OCPM% was 57.2% at T1. The maximum POCPM% was 12.9%, and the maximum SOCPM% was 49.7% at T1. Comparison of SOC and POC at T1 and T2 showed similar characteristics under favorable meteorological conditions, which indicated that transport from T1 towards T2 took place. Strong correlations between EC and carbon monoxide (CO and odd nitrogen species (NO and NOx were observed at T1. This indicated that EC had nearby sources, such as local traffic emissions. The EC/CO ratio derived by linear regression analysis, with units of μg C/m3 and μg/m3, respectively, was 0.004 at T1. Correlations were also seen between

  14. Sino-Japanese Friendship-City Primary School Pupils Table Tennis Tournament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>To celebrate the 35th anniversary of the normalization of diplomatic relations between China and Japan,the Sino-Japanese friendship-city primary school pupils table tennis tournament,one of the important activities of 2007,

  15. Primary undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma in the perihepatic space: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Beom; Kim, Song Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is a pleomorphic soft tissue sarcoma derived from histiocytes capable of fibroblastic transformation. UPS affects soft tissues of the body, especially the extremities and retroperitoneum, and primary UPS in the perihepatic space is extremely rare. We report a case of primary perihepatic UPS in a 44-year-old male, who presented with fever and right upper abdominal discomfort.

  16. Learning Strategies Which 4th. Grade Primary School Students Using In Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram TAY

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to find out the learning strategies of 4th grade primary school students in social sciences studies. The data of the research collected by “learning strategies public survey” which was developed by the researcher and it was implied in face to face way. While analyzing the data in this research, Mean and Standard Deviation were used. The findings of the research could be summarized as follows: 4th grade primary school students, in social sciences studies, have always used strategies of mental rehearsal, close and open rehearsal, elaboration, retrieval and motivation. Meanwhile, those students have rarely used attention strategies, chunking strategies and organizing strategies. On the other hand, 4th grade students have never used mnemonic strategies and meta-cognitive strategies.

  17. Primary intracranial haemangiopericytoma: comparison of survival outcomes and metastatic potential in WHO grade II and III variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Omprakash; Robbins, Peter; Knuckey, Neville; Bynevelt, Michael; Wong, George; Lee, Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    Primary intracranial haemangiopericytomas (HPC) are rare, highly vascular tumours with a high propensity for local recurrence and distant metastasis. Optimal treatment includes maximal surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. In 2007, new histopathological grading criteria were introduced to differentiate between high grade (World Health Organization [WHO] grade III) and low grade (WHO grade II) tumours. Given the rarity of this tumour, there is a paucity of information regarding the prognostic significance of histological grade. We conducted a retrospective review of our 20 year experience in treating 27 patients with HPC at our institution. Statistical analysis to compare overall survival, local recurrence rate and metastatic potential between the two grades were conducted using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The estimated median survival for grade II HPC was 216 months and for grade III tumours was 142 months. On multivariate analysis, grade II tumours were associated with better survival than grade III lesions (hazard ratio=0.16, 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.95; p=0.044). During the study period, 33% of grade III tumours developed local recurrence compared to 21% of grade II tumours. Metastases were found in 36% of grade II patients and 25% of grade III patients. There was no significant statistical difference in local recurrence rate and metastasis between the two grades. Higher histological grading in HPC is associated with worse overall survival. However based on our series higher histological grading is not associated with higher local recurrence or distant metastatic rates. PMID:24726230

  18. Spelling Instruction in the Primary Grades: Teachers' Beliefs, Practices, and Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Antoinette; Zhang, Jing; Mattatall, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examined Canadian teachers' beliefs, practices and concerns about spelling instruction in the primary grades. Data from surveys (n = 56) indicated that most teachers believe that spelling is important and plan for spelling instruction. For most teachers, the spelling words and activities used, and the instructional resources they chose,…

  19. Home and school predictors of reading achievement in linguistically diverse learners in the intermediate primary grades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Elsäcker, W. van

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to explain the variation in reading comprehension and reading vocabulary of native and non-native speakers of Dutch in grade 3 of primary schools in the Netherlands from home and school predictors. Results indicate that, for reading comprehension, in the Dutch grou

  20. Catalytic effect of activated carbon on bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The catalytic effect of activated carbon on the bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores using mixture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was investigated. The results show that the addition of activated carbon can greatly accelerate the rate and efficiency of copper dissolution from low-grade primary copper sulfide ores. The solution with the concentration of 3.0 g/L activated carbon is most beneficial to the dissolution of copper. The resting time of the mixture of activated carbon and ores has an impact on the bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores. The 2 d resting time is most favorable to the dissolution of copper. The enhanced dissolution rate and efficiency of copper can be attributed to the galvanic interaction between activated carbon and chalcopyrite. The addition of activated carbon obviously depresses the dissolution of iron and the bacterial oxidation of ferrous ions in solution. The lower redox potentials are more favorable to the copper dissolution than the higher potentials for low-grade primary copper sulfide ores in the presence of activated carbon.

  1. Our Environment. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume I. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on the environment that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  2. People Around Us. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume V. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on "people around us" that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  3. Intriguing Animals. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume IV. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on intriguing animals that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  4. Using the Text Structures of Information Books to Teach Writing in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah K.; Jones, Cindy D.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Teaching children in the primary grades the text structures and features used by authors of information text has been shown to improve comprehension of information texts and provide the scaffolding and support these children need in order to write their own information texts. As teachers implement the "English Language Arts Common Core State…

  5. Get Them Talking! Using Student-Led Book Talks in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Alida K.

    2016-01-01

    This teaching tip details one teacher's implementation of student-led book talks in her primary-grade classroom. The author describes a simple gradual-release method that she has successfully used with her students in order to get them talking about the books that they are reading independently. She found that when used in the readers' workshop…

  6. Semantic Categorization and Reading Skill across Dutch Primary Grades: Development Yes, Relationship No

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Ormel, Ellen A.; Hermans, Daan; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, Anna M. T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the development of semantic categorization and its relationship with reading was investigated across Dutch primary grade students. Three Exemplar-level tasks (Experiment 1) and two Superordinate-level tasks (Experiment 2) with different types of distracters (phonological, semantic and perceptual) were administered to assess…

  7. Diagnosis of type of Bullying in eight grade students from Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minerva Ramírez Almaraz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to investigate the type of bullying among Mexican adolescents. 480 students (average 13.72 years with a standard deviation of .60 attended eight grade in 12 public schools in Mexico City responded an adaptation of the questionnaire of the Ombudsman of Spain (2007. Data from the survey indicated that in all participating schools exist the different types of abuse explored by the instrument, including those that occur through the use of ICT. The percentage of spectators (students who had observed abuse was higher compared to those who said they had received and performed some of the types of investigated school bullying. As for the differences between gender, women expressed more frequently perform indirect abuse, whereas males reported conduct most often both direct and indirect harassment.

  8. Viet Nam. Grade Six, Unit One. 6.1. Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Fred

    This sixth grade unit is one of a sequential learning series of the Focus On Inner City Social Studies (FICSS) project developed in accordance with the needs and problems of an urban society. A description of the project is provided in SO 008 271. The units are designed to help students investigate the conditions under which people in other…

  9. Facilitating EFL Students with Learning Difficulties in Grade C of the Greek State Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina Kotsi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on supporting 3rd grade pupils with Learning Difficulties in the Greek State Primary School and proposes an intervention plan for the EFL class. This intervention is considered to be not only beneficial but also effective since the teaching of English as a foreign language starts in the 3rd grade. A case study has been organized for this purpose focusing on four 3rd grade learners facing Learning Difficulties. The specific intervention plan is presented and evaluated according to the data collected during the implementation in the class. The findings of a survey, in the form of a questionnaire, conducted among teachers of English reveal that teachers of English lack the necessary theoretical background as well as the strategies to cope with the pupils with LD in the classroom situation. The appropriate training of teachers is therefore considered an imperative.

  10. A rare cause of Cauda equina syndrome: Epidural high grade primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish A Mathesul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cauda equina syndrome (CES may be caused by herniated disc, tumor, trauma, and spinal infections. However, CES due to epidural high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL is very rare. Up to our knowledge, few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of epidural high-grade NHL presenting as CES. A 55-year-old man presented with CES caused by extradural compression by primary NHL. The patient underwent an L4-L5 laminectomy. The operative findings were suggestive of well-demarcated epidural tumor. The final histopathological diagnosis revealed epidural high-grade NHL. NHL causing CES is rare. This report highlights the importance of keeping afresh the various causes of CES for prompt diagnosis and management.

  11. Teacher Opinions About Evaluation of 6th Grade English Lesson Curriculum in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım ARI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the difficulties during the application of English lesson curriculum at 6th grades of primary schools. Being a qualitative research, this research was designed with single-case type of the case study. The study group consisted of 13 teachers working at 11 primary schools in Eskisehir centrum. Criterion sampling technique, one of the purposive sampling techniques, was used. The data was obtained by interview technique. Descriptive Analysis was used in analyzing the data. Data obtained by interview forms were coded, and particularly analyzed. Some important findings of the study are as follows: 6th grades syllabus’ level is found to be above the level of the students; subjects of the syllabus are intensive, difficult and too much; there are some subjects not being associated with each other. Besides, the time is too limited to cover the subjects.

  12. Motivation of parents for reading complex texts with children in the first grade of primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Stokanovič, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Family literacy includes activities among two generations in a family and intergenerational activities, which take place between children and adults. This activities include parents reading with their children. The subject of research in my diploma thesis is motivation of parents for reading with their children in the first grade of primary school, with emphasis on complex texts. With latter we think of: longer comprehensive fairytales, vast texts, complex content literature, poetry, comic bo...

  13. Knowing key elements related to Slovenian history in fifth and ninth grade of primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Žaberl, Nina

    2011-01-01

    A study titled Knowing of crucial events related to the history of Slovenia in fifth and ninth grade of primary school, in the theoretical part deals with chronological display of crucial events, that marked formation and development of Slovenia and Slovenes from the prehistoric period to today. Emphasis is on the events and content that had a crucial impact on building the state in which we nowadays live. In continuation the placement of content into the curriculum of nine - years long educa...

  14. Influence of Handwriting Skills during Spelling in Primary and lower Secondary Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie ePontart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We sought to identify, the impact of handwriting skills on the efficiency and temporal course of word spelling across Grades 2-9. Eighty-four students, drawn from primary and lower secondary schools, were asked to perform a dictation task to assess their word spelling. They also had to write out the letters of the alphabet, as well as their firstnames and surnames, from memory to assess their handwriting skills. Handwriting kinematics were recorded using a digitizing tablet and a computer running Eye and Pen software. Results revealed that graphomotor skills (as assessed by the name writing task influenced the success and temporal course of spelling, but only in primary grades, whereas the influence of orthographic knowledge (as assessed by the alphabet task could still be observed in the lower secondary grades, even if it ceased to influence the temporal course and only affected errors. We discuss what these findings tell us about changes in transcription processes over the course of child development.

  15. Principals' Role and Public Primary Schools' Effectiveness in Four Latin American Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joan B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of observable and quantifiable traits in and approaches of school principals in enhancing student achievement. Data were gathered on 2,048 fourth-grade students in 96 public primary schools in Leon, Mexico; Belo Horizonte, Brazil; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Santiago, Chile. The UNESCO/ORELAC (United…

  16. 触摸屏书写汉字之工整性与纸张书写相关性实验*--以南京市某小学三年级学生为例%The Correlation Experiment Between Neatness of Touch Screen Writing and Paper Writing-A Case Study of Primary School Grade Three Students in Nanjing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄峰; 高楠楠; 仇宏斌; 李艺

    2015-01-01

    Based on the fact that Chinese character writing on touch screen is increasingly common, consequently, there are plenty of questions on the issue needed to answer. The study demands the subjects to write on touch screen and paper (traditional pen-writing, i.e.) respectively, then compares the correlations between the two writing ways on neatness and beauty. Considering the representativeness of and potential impacts on the acceptance to new objects and study consciousness of Chinese characters writing, pupils in grade three of one certain primary school is chosen as the subject in this study; and 28 characters in poem Trip on Mountain written by a well-known Tang Dynasty poetry Du Mu serve as samples given the literacy level of subjects and the features of stroke and structure of Chinese characters. The study utilizes software for Chinese character writing on touch screen to access and primarily process the data of writing on touch screen and on paper, then to get points of every subject and on every aspect: stroke, structure and the whole character, ifnally analyze the data by SPSS. The results show that positive correlation lies in the neatness and beauty of characters written by subjects on touch screen and on paper. This conclusion is a favor of that Chinese character writing on touch screen is reasonable and signiifcant.%基于触摸屏的汉字书写越来越多见,而关于触摸屏的汉字书写,有许多问题需要回答。该文通过让被试分别在触摸屏和纸张上(即传统纸笔书写)进行书写,比较两种书写在工整性方面的相关性。考虑到对新事物的接受度和汉字书写学习意识两个方面的代表性和可能影响,以某小学三年级一个班的学生为被试;考虑到被试的识字水平及汉字笔画及结构等意义上的特征,以杜牧的七绝《山行》中的28个字为样本字。采用基于触摸屏的汉字书写软件来获取并初步处理基于触摸屏的书写和基于纸张

  17. Impact of Primary Gleason Grade on Risk Stratification for Gleason Score 7 Prostate Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the primary Gleason grade (GG) in Gleason score (GS) 7 prostate cancers for risk of non-organ-confined disease with the goal of optimizing radiotherapy treatment option counseling. Methods: One thousand three hundred thirty-three patients with pathologic GS7 were identified in the Duke Prostate Center research database. Clinical factors including age, race, clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, and pathologic stage were obtained. Data were stratified by prostate-specific antigen and clinical stage at diagnosis into adapted D’Amico risk groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed evaluating for association of primary GG with pathologic outcome. Results: Nine hundred seventy-nine patients had primary GG3 and 354 had GG4. On univariate analyses, GG4 was associated with an increased risk of non-organ-confined disease. On multivariate analysis, GG4 was independently associated with seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) but not extracapsular extension. Patients with otherwise low-risk disease and primary GG3 had a very low risk of SVI (4%). Conclusions: Primary GG4 in GS7 cancers is associated with increased risk of SVI compared with primary GG3. Otherwise low-risk patients with GS 3+4 have a very low risk of SVI and may be candidates for prostate-only radiotherapy modalities.

  18. Impact of Primary Gleason Grade on Risk Stratification for Gleason Score 7 Prostate Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, Bridget F., E-mail: bridget.koontz@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Tsivian, Matvey [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Mouraviev, Vladimir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Sun, Leon [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Vujaskovic, Zeljko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Moul, Judd [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the primary Gleason grade (GG) in Gleason score (GS) 7 prostate cancers for risk of non-organ-confined disease with the goal of optimizing radiotherapy treatment option counseling. Methods: One thousand three hundred thirty-three patients with pathologic GS7 were identified in the Duke Prostate Center research database. Clinical factors including age, race, clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, and pathologic stage were obtained. Data were stratified by prostate-specific antigen and clinical stage at diagnosis into adapted D'Amico risk groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed evaluating for association of primary GG with pathologic outcome. Results: Nine hundred seventy-nine patients had primary GG3 and 354 had GG4. On univariate analyses, GG4 was associated with an increased risk of non-organ-confined disease. On multivariate analysis, GG4 was independently associated with seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) but not extracapsular extension. Patients with otherwise low-risk disease and primary GG3 had a very low risk of SVI (4%). Conclusions: Primary GG4 in GS7 cancers is associated with increased risk of SVI compared with primary GG3. Otherwise low-risk patients with GS 3+4 have a very low risk of SVI and may be candidates for prostate-only radiotherapy modalities.

  19. Combined surgery and chemotherapy for the treatment of primary gastrointestinal intermediate- or high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Bellesi, G.; Alterini, R; Messori, A; Bosi, A; Bernardi, F; Di Lollo, S; Ferrini, P. R.

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-five consecutive patients with primary gastrointestinal intermediate or high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were analysed to assess the efficacy of chemotherapy following surgical tumour resection. Histological subtypes were high grade (n = 18), intermediate grade (n = 36) and unclassified (n = 1). The majority of patients had gastric presentation (71%) and localised disease (84%). Surgery consisted of radical resection in 25 patients (45%) and partial or palliative excision in the remain...

  20. Development and Testing of Intervention Model for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention on Primary School Children in Padang City, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meri Neherta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence against children increased in many regions in Indonesia, both in cities and in desa. Keadaan is also happening in the city of Padang, where cases of sexual violence against children is increasing from year to year. Therefore, necessary one model to be able to do primary prevention. Aims & Objectives: The aim of this study is to establish a model of promotion and prevention interventions that can be used as primary prevention of sexual violence against primary school children in Padang City. Material & Methods: The method was combining qualitative and quantitative research. The population of this study was the teachers and students within amount of ten elementary schools in the Padang City with 170 sample of people. Result: The model of intervention through Minangkabau language songs can enhance children's knowledge and assertiveness toward primary prevention of sexual violence. Conclusion: "Neherta" Model is a promotion and prevention interventions model of sexual violence against primary school children in Padang City.

  1. A primary care-based health needs assessment in inner city Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Kelly, C M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2001, a primary care-based health needs assessment (HNA) in South Inner City of Dublin identified high levels of morbidity and widespread and frequent use of primary care and specialist hospital services as particular concerns. AIMS: This study aims to determine the primary care health needs of a local community, from the perspective of service users and service providers. METHODS: A similar methodology to our 2001 HNA was adopted, involving semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of patients attending two general practices and key informants regarding local health issues and health service utilisation. RESULTS: High levels of morbidity and chronic illness were found. A correlation between the local environment and ill-health was identified, as well as high utilisation of primary care services in the area. CONCLUSION: The establishment of a Primary Care Team would begin to address the health needs of the community.

  2. Comparative genomic and proteomic analysis of high grade glioma primary cultures and matched tumor in situ.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Howley, R

    2012-10-15

    Developing targeted therapies for high grade gliomas (HGG), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, relies largely on glioma cultures. However, it is unclear if HGG tumorigenic signaling pathways are retained under in-vitro conditions. Using array comparative genomic hybridization and immunohistochemical profiling, we contrasted the epidermal and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (EGFR\\/PDGFR) in-vitro pathway status of twenty-six primary HGG cultures with the pathway status of their original HGG biopsies. Genomic gains or amplifications were lost during culturing while genomic losses were more likely to be retained. Loss of EGFR amplification was further verified immunohistochemically when EGFR over expression was decreased in the majority of cultures. Conversely, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ were more abundantly expressed in primary cultures than in the original tumor (p<0.05). Despite these genomic and proteomic differences, primary HGG cultures retained key aspects of dysregulated tumorigenic signaling. Both in-vivo and in-vitro the presence of EGFR resulted in downstream activation of P70s6K while reduced downstream activation was associated with the presence of PDGFR and the tumor suppressor, PTEN. The preserved pathway dysregulation make this glioma model suitable for further studies of glioma tumorigenesis, however individual culture related differences must be taken into consideration when testing responsiveness to chemotherapeutic agents.

  3. Content Area Literacy in the Primary Grades: Teachers' Sense of Efficacy in Teaching Narrative and Informational Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Christine Cherry

    2011-01-01

    Research has documented the scarcity of informational text and the overabundance of narrative text in the primary grades (Duke, 2000; Yopp & Yopp, 2006). The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine primary teachers' beliefs, or efficacy, in teaching narrative and informational text as well as assess their use of both text types in…

  4. Pediculosis capitis Among Primary School Children and Related Risk Factors in Urmia, the Main City of West Azarbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Hazrati Tappeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediculosis capitis is cosmopolitan health problem. In addition to its physical problems, its psycho­logical effects especially on pupils are more important. This study was conducted to determine the Pediculosis capitis among primary school pupils and also find out the role of probable related risk factors in Urmia city, Iran 2010.Methods: 35 primary schools of Urmia City according to the defined clusters randomly have been selected during 2010. 2040 pupils (866 boys and 1174 girls were included and examined individually and privately by experts. Presence of adult or immature lice or having nits less than 1 cm from the hair basis were defined as positive.Data about demographic features and factors which their effect should be determined were recorded in standard questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS software with proper statistical test.Results: Infestation was determined around 4%. Girls show significantly greater infestation. The availability of suit­able warm water for bathing and hair length (separately in girls and boys are significantly related to infestation load as well as infestation among different age groups.There was no significant relation between parent’s education and job and infestation as well as bathing repetition per week and the kind of energy source which they have. Also there is no significant correlation between educational grades and head lice infestation.Conclusion: The head louse pediculosis is a health problem and remains a health threatening for school chil­dren.Effective risk factors should be determined carefully and regionally. Proper training plays a great role in order to prevent and control the problem

  5. Evaluation of several FDG PET parameters for prediction of soft tissue tumour grade at primary diagnosis and recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendler, Wolfgang P. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Chalkidis, Rebecca P.; Ilhan, Harun [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Knoesel, Thomas [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Institute of Pathology, Munich (Germany); Herrmann, Ken [Julius-Maximilians-University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Issels, Rolf D.; Lindner, Lars H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Internal Medicine III, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Cyran, Clemens C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Hacker, Marcus [Vienna General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of SUV-based parameters derived from [{sup 18} F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in order to optimize non-invasive prediction of soft tissue tumour (STT) grade. One hundred and twenty-nine lesions from 123 patients who underwent FDG-PET for primary staging (n = 79) or assessment of recurrence (n = 44) of STT were analyzed retrospectively. Histopathology was the reference standard for tumour grading. Absolute values and tumour-to-liver ratios of several standardized uptake value (SUV) parameters were correlated with tumour grading. At primary diagnosis SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub liver} and SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} showed good correlation with tumour grade. SUV{sub peak} (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic, AUC-ROC: 0.82) and SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} (AUC-ROC: 0.82) separated best between low grade (WHO intermediate, grade 1 sarcoma, and low risk gastrointestinal stromal tumours, GISTs) and high grade (grade 2/3 sarcoma and intermediate/high risk GISTs) lesions: optimal threshold for SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} was 2.4, which resulted in a sensitivity of 79 % and a specificity of 81 %. At disease recurrence, the AUC-ROC was <0.75 for each parameter. A tumour SUV{sub peak} of at least 2.4 fold mean liver uptake predicts high grade histopathology with good diagnostic accuracy at primary staging. At disease recurrence, FDG-PET does not reliably separate high and low grade lesions. (orig.)

  6. FLASHCARD GAMES IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSES IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS: FIRST AND SECOND GRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наташа В. Пралица

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how primary school students in the fi rst and the second grades can successfully master the fi rst steps in learning a foreign language with the use of certain game elements. When choosing which games to use, EFL teachers should think not only about their students’ knowledge, needs and different types of learners, but also about the teaching facilities, that is, the size of the classroom and the available equipment and resources, as well as the number of children in each class. Listening and reading are skills that young learners develop at this stage. Since writing is introduced in the third grade, the aim of foreign language classes in the fi rst and the second grades, among other things, is to familiarise the students with the phonological system of the foreign language and the basic communication skills in spoken interaction. At this stage, young learners acquire a new language through what they hear, see and touch, which makes fl ashcards an essential resource for teachers. Some of the most popular fl ashcard games among young learners are Say the word, Bingo!, Noughts and crosses, Simon Says and Role-play. These games have a positive infl uence on the emotional, social, mental and physical development of children. Another advantage of these games is that their number is virtually unlimited, so that they can be adjusted to almost any topic assigned in the National Curriculum. Both teachers and students can easily make their own sets of fl ashcards for specifi c needs. Through games and specifi c roles they perform, children develop imagination and creativity, but at the same time, they practice different types ofsocially acceptable and unacceptable behaviour.

  7. Effects of primary grades health curriculum project on student and parent smoking attitudes and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R L; Hearne, J T

    1984-01-01

    Family values regarding appropriate attitudes and behaviors are communicated to children from birth. Society's values begin to affect the child at an early age and as these change, so do children's beliefs and attitudes. A change in society's values toward smoking has been evidenced in the last decade by increased social sanctions against smoking and increased militancy of nonsmokers. This longitudinal Primary Grades Health Curriculum Project investigates the relationship between an activity-centered experiential health education program and: 1) positive health attitudes; 2) experimentation use and future expectancy to engage in cigarette smoking; and 3) changes in smoking behavior among the children's parents. Six hundred students in two New York school districts were pretested in their kindergarten year in 1977 on entry level of knowledge and attitudes about health. The results reported here from data collected at the end of third grade indicate that the experimental group possessed more positive attitudes about health, showed less exposure to experimentation with alcohol among their friends and less engagement in smoking cigarettes. A significant number of parents of experimental group students reported that they had changed their smoking habits since their child had entered school as a result of their children's health program. PMID:6560127

  8. Primary T-cell high-grade lymphoma of the feline uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azakami, Daigo; Onozawa, Eri; Miyabe, Masahiro; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Michishita, Masaki; Hirano, Taichi; Momota, Yutaka; Ishioka, Katsumi; Sako, Toshinori

    2016-06-01

    A 12-year-old female American shorthair cat presented with a one-month history of hematuria and general lethargy. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed complete thickening of the left uterine wall. At a diagnostic laparotomy, a large mass arising from the left uterine horn was discovered, and ovariohysterectomy was performed. Histological diagnosis revealed a T-cell high-grade lymphoma of the uterus. After the ovariohysterectomy, the patient achieved complete remission and was maintained by combination chemotherapy from 14 days after surgery. However, relapse occurred in the urinary bladder wall on day 287, and the patient died of postrenal acute renal failure on day 310. This is the first report of a feline case of primary uterine lymphoma that was treated with ovariohysterectomy followed by systemic chemotherapy. PMID:26860355

  9. Grouping of Cities In Terms Of Primary Health Indicators in Turkey: An Application of Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan TEKİN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is thought that to determine the differences between cities that locate in Turkey is important in the context of primary health care indicators. The subject of this study is the classification of cities in Turkey in terms of health indicators. The cluster analysis method which is the one of the data mining and multivariate statistical methods is used for classification method. The main objective of the study is to examine the point of results of movement transformation in health in terms of basic health indicators on the basis of cities.. In this context, 81 cities, in Turkey are grouped with sixteen health indicators which is assumed to demonstrate the effectiveness of health care services, by the years of 2013. And also compared with the health and socio-economic development ranking in the previous studies. Providences are gathered in 21, 13, 11, 7 and 5 clusters. 11’s, 7’s and 5’s clusters are determined as the most significant clusters. As a result of the study the development gap between eastern and western provinces emerges in terms of the health variables.

  10. Study of Application for Excursion Observation Method in Primary School 2nd Grade Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali GAZEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how field trips are conducted at 2nd grade of primary schools as a part of social studies course. Data for this research is compiled from 143 permanent Social Studies teachers working throughout 2011–2012 Education Year in the primary schools of central Kütahya and its districts. Data is compiled by using descriptive search model. In the research, after taking expert opinions, a measuring tool developed by the researcher is used. Data obtained from the research were transferred to computer, and analyses were made. In the analysis of the data, frequency and percentage values have been used to determine the distribution. Also a single factor variance analysis and t-test for independent samples have been used to determine the significance of difference between the variables. As a result of the research, it has been realized that insufficient importance is given to field trip method in Social Studies lessons. Most of the teachers using this method apply it in spring months. Teachers usually make use of field trips independent from unit/topic to increase the students’ motivation, and they generally use verbal expression in the class after tours. The biggest difficulty teachers encounter while using tour-observation method is the students’ undisciplined behavior.

  11. Language of textbooks in narrative subjects: Understanding words in the seventh grade of primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Emilija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hermetic textbook language poses a significant problem in education of the young in our country. The goal of this paper is to point out to the complexity of vocabulary in textbooks, which contributes to students' lack of understanding of what they are reading. Since we established that textbooks in narrative subjects - history, geography and biology - are mostly used during studying and that students mark them as especially difficult for understanding, the subject of this research is precisely the analysis of words which seventh-grade students from primary school state as unfamiliar on a randomly selected, but balanced in terms of length, textbook text of those subjects. The results of frequency analysis indicate that there are a lot of unfamiliar expert words, and frequently the same number, or even more, of common Serbian words in textbook texts, especially in history. Approximately the same or even larger number of unfamiliar words occurs in familiar texts when compared to unfamiliar, which indicates that the previous usage of texts does not contribute to their understanding. Based on correlation analysis referring to the number of unfamiliar words, frequency of textbook usage, perception of difficulty of the text in textbook, general and the achievement in the particular subject, it was determined that unfamiliar words are not only mentioned by students with low grades, although they do it more often, nor that only these students are the ones complaining how difficult textbooks are to them. Based on regression analysis, the number of unfamiliar words, especially in the history textbook, even figures as a predictor of success, which seems contradictory and can be interpreted differently. The results point out to the fact that inaccessibility of textbook language mostly does not guide the students to learn new words, but causes revolt and thus disables the development of language, scientific concepts and acquiring professional terminology

  12. Educational, developmental goals in the nine - year primary school from grades I to III in Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Petrova Gjorgjeva, Emilija

    2010-01-01

    The paper Educational Development Goals in the Nine-Year Primary School from grades I to III covers the pedagogical approaches in defining the educational goals for forming an autonomous and creative individual. It emphasizes that the educational process in the primary schools plans the educational and functional aims and reviews the new approach in defining the aims, presented by a number of pedagogues, such as L. Bognar, V Clarin, B. Bloom and others. Based on the modern understanding o...

  13. Body Parts, the Water Cycle, Plants, and Dolphins: Adventures in Primary-Grade Whole-Class Composing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the author's personal experiences leading primary grades in whole-class composing. Together they created songs inspired by topics the students were exploring in their homeroom classes. The author systematically describes the songwriting process they employed, identifying specific challenges encountered along the way. The…

  14. Bidirectional relations between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper primary school grades: A longitudinal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and f

  15. Primary School English Teachers' Perceptions of the English Language Curriculum of 6th, 7th and 8th Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersen Yanik, Asli

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how the teachers who have different background characteristics perceive the goals and content of the English language curriculum implemented at the 6th, 7th and 8th grades of public primary schools. The study was conducted during the 2004-2005 school year with 368 English teachers selected from the seven regions of…

  16. Computer Assisted Educational Material Preparation for Fourth Grade Primary School Students' English Language Class in Teaching Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüzen, Abdulkadir; Karamete, Aysen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, using ADDIE instructional design model, it is aimed to prepare English language educational material for 4th grade primary students to teach them numbers. At the same time, ARCS model of motivation's attention, relevance and satisfaction phases are also taken into consideration. This study also comprises of Design Based Research…

  17. Bidirectional Relations between Text Reading Prosody and Reading Comprehension in the Upper Primary School Grades: A Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and from reading comprehension to text reading prosody…

  18. An Investigation of Social Behaviors of Primary School Children in Terms of Their Grade, Learning Disability and Intelligence Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukay Yuksel, Muge

    2013-01-01

    In this study, to what extent 7-9-year old primary school children's' social behaviors at school vary depending on their grade, gender and learning disability was investigated. In addition, the predictive value of the intelligence scores of children with normal development and with learning disability was explored for their negative and…

  19. The English Education in Primary Schools in Minor Ethnic Areas in Western China--Taking Leshan City as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    As we all know, China is a country with many ethnic minorities mainly living in the northeastern and southwestern China. The English education in the primary schools in these areas is an important issue. The article analyzes the status quo of English education in primary schools in minor ethnic areas, taking the Leshan city, a western one as an…

  20. [Health Index applied to the city of Araraquara, SP: an instrument to accompaniment the primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Augustus Tadeu Relo de; Caccia-Bava, Maria do Carmo G G; Barbosa, Débora Cristina Modesto

    2013-03-01

    The improvement of the process of evaluation and monitoring of the Primary Care Attention has been yearned by the managers of the different spheres in the context of the Unified System Health - UHS. Thus, in the order to identify the conditions of the health assistance in the city of Araraquara/SP, based on the particular features presented in the inscribe areas of each unit of health. It was adopted by means of a composed indicator aiming to favor a broader view which contemplates the emergency of phenomena from a more including vision. It was used the methodology developed in the Index of Health of Drumond Jr, whose final value of the Index is gotten by the average of the values of the components of each health district. To the components originally adopted - Coefficient of Infant Mortality, Coefficient of Tuberculosis Incidence, Coefficient of Mortality by External Causes and Coefficient of Precocious Mortality by Chronic Diseases - was still added in this study, the Tax of Alphabetization and the Monthly Nominal Average Income of Responsible People for the Domiciles. The 24 Units of Health had been classified according to values obtained in the relation among its components. The results point intra-urban differentials in relation to the majority of the components and lower values for the Health Units located at the periphery of the city. Knowing this fact municipal administration is of fundamental importance to progress in improving the process of evaluation of primary care in the county. PMID:23681337

  1. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO (primary HCHO, which together with photochemical production of HCHO from hydrocarbon oxidation (secondary HCHO, lead to high ambient HCHO levels. The CAMx chemical transport model was employed to evaluate the impact of primary HCHO on its ambient concentration, on the ROx radical budget, and on ozone (O3 formation in the MCMA. Important radical sources, including HCHO, HONO, and O3-olefin reactions, were constrained by measurements from routine observations of the local ambient air monitoring network and the MCMA-2003 field campaign. Primary HCHO was found not only contributing significantly to the ambient HCHO concentration, but also enhancing the radical budget and O3 production in the urban atmosphere of the MCMA. Overall in the urban area, total daytime radical production is enhanced by up to 10% and peak O3 concentration by up to 8%. While primary HCHO contributes predominantly to the ambient HCHO concentration between nighttime and morning rush hours, significant influence on the radical budget and O3 production starts early morning, culminates at mid-morning and is sustained until early afternoon.

  2. Didactic games and toys in first grades of city and rural primary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Stroj, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Playing is one of the most important activities in the everyday life of a child as well as an essential part of its development. The act of playing often includes objects – usually toys and board games. When children enter school, they are in their middle childhood, which means they still need a lot of play for their normal development (physical, cognitive, social, etc.). This is why it is important to integrate play also into school environment – as a component part of classes (in a form of ...

  3. THE IMPACT OF ARCS MOTIVATION MODEL ON MOTIVATION AND SUCCESS LEVEL OF PRIMARY 4TH GRADE STUDENTS IN SOCIAL STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa TAHİROĞLU

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to detect the impact of a teaching-learning process, structured taking the components of ARCS Motivation Model into consideration, on the motivation and success level of primary grade 4 students in social studies. In scope of the study, grouped pretest-posttest testing model is used. The experimental group consists of 32, and the control group 30 students. In order to collect research data, the “Grade 4 and 5 Social Studies Motivation Scale” and “Social Studies Ac...

  4. Teachers' Concerns Regarding the Implementation of Integrated Thematic Instruction: A Study of Primary Grade Teachers in Kanisius Catholic Schools in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rismiati, Catur

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore primary grade teachers' stages of concern and their implementation of an educational reform initiative called Integrated Thematic Instruction (ITI) in Indonesia. The Indonesian minister of education mandated primary grade teachers to implement ITI in 2006. Using a convenience sampling method, 150…

  5. View of parents on the teamwork between the pre-school teacher and primary-school teacher in the first grade of primary school.

    OpenAIRE

    Jakša, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    For this diploma thesis, I have researched teamwork in education and its psychological and other dimensions. The style of teaching in the first grade of primary school was substantially changed with the introduction of the nine-year programme and the inclusion of childcare workers in the teaching process. Teamwork became the statutory approach. Individual teaching was replaced with work in tandem, which includes team planning, team teaching and team evaluation. In my research, I was intereste...

  6. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO (primary HCHO, which together with photochemical production of HCHO from hydrocarbon oxidation (secondary HCHO, lead to high ambient HCHO levels. The CAMx chemical transport model was employed to evaluate the impact of primary HCHO on its ambient concentration, on the ROx radical budget, and on ozone (O3 formation in the MCMA. Important radical sources, including HCHO, HONO, and O3-olefin reactions, were constrained by measurements from routine observations of the local ambient air monitoring network and the MCMA-2003 field campaign. Primary HCHO was found not only to contribute significantly to the ambient HCHO concentration, but also to enhance the radical budget and O3 production in the urban atmosphere of the MCMA. Overall in the urban area, total daytime radical production is enhanced by up to 10% and peak O3 concentration by up to 8%; moreover primary HCHO tends to make O3 both production rates and ambient concentration peak half an hour earlier. While primary HCHO contributes predominantly to the ambient HCHO concentration between nighttime and morning rush hours, significant influence on the radical budget and O3 production starts early in the morning, peaks at mid-morning and is sustained until early afternoon.

  7. Dental caries and associated factors among primary school children in Bahir Dar city: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Demilie, Tazebew; Yimer, Mulat; Meshesha, Kassaw; Abera, Bayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries is the most common chronic infectious disease of childhood caused by the interaction of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans and sugary foods on tooth enamel. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among primary school children at Bahir Dar city. Methods A school based cross-sectional study was conducted at Bahir Dar city from October 2013 to January 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select the chil...

  8. Are Attitudes toward Writing and Reading Separable Constructs? A Study with Primary Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steve; Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether attitude toward writing is a unique and separable construct from attitude toward reading for young beginning writers. Participants were 128 first-grade children (70 girls and 58 boys) and 113 third-grade students (57 girls and 56 boys). We individually administered to each child a 24-item attitude measure that contained…

  9. AB TEMPORAL TRIP GENERATION MODELLING FOR PRIMARY ACTIVITIES: A CASE STUDY OF FAST GROWING METROPOLITAN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhimaji K. Katti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transportation planning for any city evolves on the basis of complex interplay between urban activity, transport and land use system to result in varied travel patterns. Travel pattern can be defined at micro level to include individual journey departure and arrival time, journey duration and distances to make way for temporal trip generation and distribution from specific area. Trip generation is the first step of four stages of travel forecasting analysis mostly followed all over the world. Traditionally, it is focused on the prediction of aggregate trip generation by a household rather than the choice of individual activity participation. However, spatial and temporal activity domains are equally important in forecasting process and strategic urban transportation planning. The present paper attempts to develop Activity Based (AB Temporal Trip Generation Models (ABTGM for primary activities to cover work and educational trips considering fast growing Surat city of Gujarat, India as study area. Home interview surveys are carried to provide household and socioeconomic characteristics and the activity travel diary information to focus on the activity based tours rather the trips.

  10. The Efficiency of Cluster Method in Improving the Creative Writing Skill of 6th Grade Students of Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahbaz, Namik Kemal; Duran, Gozde

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to search the effect of the cluster method on the creative writing skill of 6th grade students. In this paper, the students of 6-A, studying at Ulas Primary School in 2010-2011 academic year, were divided into two groups as experiment and control. Taking into consideration the various variants, pre-test and last-test…

  11. Are Attitudes Toward Writing and Reading Separable Constructs? A Study With Primary Grade Children

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Steve; Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether or not attitude towards writing is a unique and separable construct from attitude towards reading for young, beginning writers. Participants were 128 first-grade children (70 girls and 58 boys) and 113 third-grade students (57 girls and 56 boys). Each child was individually administered a 24 item attitude measure, which contained 12 items assessing attitude towards writing and 12 parallel items for reading. Students also wrote a narrative about a personal event in ...

  12. Collaborative Action Research: Teaching of Multiplication and Division in the Second Grade of Primary School

    OpenAIRE

    Lirika Berdynaj; Eda Vula

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of action research methodology used in the teaching and learning process and professional teacher development. In this study are including 58 students of three second grade classes, 3 teachers of those classes and a university professor. Aiming at using a different approach in their teaching of multiplication and division in the second grade, all three teachers agreed to cooperate and jointly plan the learning activities, to observe systematically their student...

  13. The Relationship between Happiness, Subjective Well-Being, Creativity and Job Performance of Primary School Teachers in Ramhormoz City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Zohreh; Heidari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the relationship between happiness, subjective well-being, creativity and job performance of primary school teachers in Ramhormoz City. Hence, a sample of 330 individuals was selected through random stratified sampling. The research tools included Oxford Happiness Inventory, Subjective Well-being Scale by Keyes…

  14. Toxoplasma gondii infection: seroprevalence and associated risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Lagos City, Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Pam Gyang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasma gondii infection has been described as the most widespread zoonotic infection of humans and other animals. Information concerning T. gondii infection among schoolchildren is unavailable in Lagos City, Nigeria. METHODS: This cross-sectional study investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection among primary schoolchildren (PSC from a community located in the center of Lagos, southern Nigeria, from November 2013 to March 2014. A total of 382 PSC were screened for the presence of sera anti-T. gondii antibodies using a latex agglutination test (TOXO Test-MT, Tokyo, Japan. A cutoff titer of ≥ 1:32 was considered positive, while titers ≥ 1:1,024 indicated high responders. Questionnaires were also used to obtain data on possible risk factors from parents/guardians. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence was 24% (91/382, and 83.5% (76/91 of seropositive PSC were classified as high responders. Among the risk factors tested, including contact with cats and soil, consumption of raw meat and vegetables, and drinking unboiled water, none showed statistical significance after multivariate adjustment. No associations were observed among age, gender, body mass index (BMI, and parents' occupation/educational level. CONCLUSIONS: The findings in this study show evidence of active infection, and hence, there is need for urgent preventive measures in this city. Further investigation is required to clarify the transmission routes. Policy makers also need to initiate prevention and control programs to protect pregnant women and immunocompromised patients in particular because they are more severely affected by T. gondii infection.

  15. The Dynamics of Narrative Writing in Primary Grade Children: Writing Process Factors Predict Story Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Koss Torkildsen, Janne; Morken, Frøydis; Helland, Wenche A.; Helland, Turid

    2016-01-01

    In this study of third grade school children, we investigated the association between writing process measures recorded with key stroke logging and the final written product. Moreover, we examined the cognitive predictors of writing process and product measures. Analyses of key strokes showed that while most children spontaneously made local…

  16. Underachievement in Primary Grade Students: A Review of Kindergarten Enrollment and DIBELS Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Shawnik Marie

    2013-01-01

    Student underachievement in kindergarten through Grade 3 continues to be a challenge in the Philadelphia School District. The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlation study was to examine, using record archives from one Philadelphia school, whether there is a relationship between (a) reading achievement scores for the Dynamic…

  17. A comparative study of nutritional status between government and private primary school children of Mysore city

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    N C Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: School health has been acknowledged as important since the beginning of 20 th century. Nutritional status is a major component of school health services. This study was undertaken to assess the nutritional status of government and private primary school children of Mysore city. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study design was adopted. One private and one government school were selected using multistage stratified random sampling method. A total of 1566 school children aged 6-12 years were measured for height and weight. Data on demographic details, dietary habits, and physical activity of child and education status, occupation, monthly income of their parents were collected. Results: Of 1566 children, 385 (24.5% were underweight, 132 (8.4% were overweight, and 65 (4.1% were obese. Majority of underweight children 226 (32.5% were found in government school. Except for two overweight children in government school, all overweight and obese children were found in private schools. Socioeconomic status, dietary habits, and physical activity of the child were found to be the determinants of their nutritional status. Conclusion: This study attempt to highlight the dual nutritional problem, under-nutrition among the lower socioeconomic class on one hand and growing epidemic of obesity among the affluent on the other.

  18. Pancreatic Metastasis of High-Grade Papillary Serous Ovarian Carcinoma Mimicking Primary Pancreas Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Gunay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reports of epithelial ovarian carcinomas metastatic to the pancreas are very rare. We herein present a metastasis of high grade papillary serous ovarian cancer to mid portion of pancreas. Case. A 42-year-old patient was admitted with a non-specified malignant cystic lesion in midportion of pancreas. She had a history of surgical treatment for papillary serous ovarian adenocarcinoma. A cystic lesion was revealed by an abdominal computerized tomography (CT performed in her follow up . It was considered as primary mid portion of pancreatic cancer and a distal pancreatectomy was performed. The final pathology showed high-grade papillary serous adenocarcinoma morphologically similar to the previously diagnosed ovarian cancer. Discussion. Metastatic pancreatic cancers should be considered in patients who present with a solitary pancreatic mass and had a previous non-pancreatic malignancy. Differential diagnosis of primary pancreatic neoplasm from metastatic malignancy may be very difficult. A biopsy for tissue confirmation is required to differentiate primary and secondary pancreatic tumors. Although, the value of surgical resection is poorly documented, resection may be considered in selected patients. Conclusion. Pancreatic metastasis of ovarian papillary serous adenocarcinoma has to be kept in mind when a patient with pancreatic mass has a history of ovarian malignancy.

  19. Burnout in a sample of primary school teachers in the city of Copiapó

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    Ricardo Jorquera Gutiérrez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation sought to establish a relationship between burnout and a number of demographic and organizational variables. The sample consisted of 191 primary school teachers of municipal, subsidized and private educational institutions of Copiapó. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and the Cuestionario de Evaluación del Sindrome de Quemarse en el Trabajo (CESQT were used as tools to gather information from burnout levels presented by teachers. Two of them demonstrated an adequate reliability and concurrent validity. The results show a statistically significant relationship between absenteeism variable and all dimensions of burnout as measured by both instruments. No statistically significant differences between variables MBI and CESQT compared by sex, type of contract and income level were observed. When comparing the different dimensions of burnout by type of holder, statistically significant differences were detected in all of them. The results favor the private schools, showing the worst results in municipal schools. Alongside this, a negative correlation between levels of emotional exhaustion and psychological wear developed by teams of teachers and the results of the tests SIMCE [Sistema de Medición de la Calidad de la Educación] for second and fourth grade is observed.

  20. Collaborative Action Research: Teaching of Multiplication and Division in the Second Grade of Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirika Berdynaj

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the impact of action research methodology used in the teaching and learning process and professional teacher development. In this study are including 58 students of three second grade classes, 3 teachers of those classes and a university professor. Aiming at using a different approach in their teaching of multiplication and division in the second grade, all three teachers agreed to cooperate and jointly plan the learning activities, to observe systematically their students and to reflect on the outcomes. This way of research doing in their classes enabled them to ‘act’ effectively in designing an action plan appropriate to students’ achievement level. This research was carried out in the period of February 18 to May 31 incorporating several different methods, such as classroom observation, interviewing and worksheets.

  1. Primary study of quantitative measurement in different grades of COPD using low-dose multislice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the feasibility of airway measurement at the trunk of apical bronchus of right upper lobe in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and airway dimensions and lung density changes in different COPD stages. Methods: 1) Fifteen randomly selected COPD patients underwent low -dose chest multi -slice CT scan. The wall thickness-to-diameter ratio (TDR) and percentage wall area (WA%) at apical bronchus of right upper lobe section and mean TDR and WA% of small airway (<2 mm) were calculated. 2) Another fifty-five randomly selected COPD patients were divided into 4 groups on the basis of pulmonary function tests. There were sixteen patients with grade 1, sixteen patients with grade 2, fourteen patients with grade 3. and nine patients with grade 4. Fifteen non-COPD patients were selected as controls. The total lung was scanned with low-dose multi-slice CT during inspiration. The mean lung attenuation (MLA) and voxel index (VI) were measured. Inner area of bronchus (Ai), TDR and WA% of the apical bronchus of right upper lobe were measured. Results: 1) The TDR of the apical bronchus of right were smaller than the mean TDR of the small airways; The WA% of the apical bronchus of right were larger than the mean WA% of the small airways; but there were good correlation (r=0.793 and 0.784, respectively). 2) The MLA values were decreased with increase of COPD stage. The VI values were increased with increase of COPD stage. However, the values did not differ between adjacent stages. The luminal areas of stage 3-4 patients were smaller than that of other stages. There was no statistics difference in TDR between adjacent groups, except between stages 3 and 4. For WA%, the higher stage group had higher WA%. Conclusion: There were good correlations for TDR and WA% between the apical bronchus of right upper lobe and small airway. WA% is the most sensitive index for detecting thickened airway. (authors)

  2. Increasing Engagement and Oral Language Skills of ELLs through the Arts in the Primary Grades

    OpenAIRE

    Brouillette, Liane; Childress-Evans, Karen; Hinga, Briana; Farkas, George

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we look at the impact of an arts integration program offered at five large urban elementary schools on the daily attendance and oral language skills of children in kindergarten through second grade. Many of the children attending these schools spoke a language other than English at home. Teaching artists visited each class weekly for 28 weeks, co-teaching theater and dance lessons with the teacher. School engagement was measured by comparing attendance on days with and withou...

  3. Health-related quality of life among osteoarthritis patients attending primary care clinics of Mangalore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HN Harsha Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA of the knee is the most common type of arthritis of the elderly among Asians. Reports suggest that it affects the quality of life. Hence, this study was undertaken with the objective to know the impact of OA of the knee on 8 domains of health related quality of life (HRQoL which include: (1 Physical functioning (PF, (2 role limitation due to physical health (RP. (3 Emotional well-being/mental health (MH, (4 role limitation due to emotional problems (RE, (5 energy/vitality, (6 social well-being (short form [SF], (7 body pain, (8 general health. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in primary care rural clinics situated on peripheral areas of Mangalore city. Total sample size was calculated to be 77. Patients who met the criteria of modified American Rheumatologic Association Classification for OA of knee were administered a SF-36 questionnaire to measure the HRQoL in the local language version. Mean scores (with its standard deviation across each domain was calculated. Results: Of 80 patients, 38 were males. OA affected HRQoL. Four out 8 factors had more impact on HRQoL (they are PF, RP, MH, RE. Duration of OA is an important determinant on HRQoL. Patients with newer onset of OA (4 years of OA (Domain, Mean, the emotional impact (MH, 44.67; RE, 45.67 reduced but the physical impact (PF, 47.83; RP, 19.75 persisted/got worse. Conclusion: Osteoarthritis had impact on HRQoL. Duration of OA determines the kind of impact. With the onset of OA emotional/mental support would be needed in addition to the medical treatment. As the disease progresses, they tend to cope with emotional/mental problems even as the physical problems persist/increase.

  4. High-Grade Acute Organ Toxicity as a Positive Prognostic Factor in Primary Radiochemotherapy for Anal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test for a possible correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity during primary radiochemotherapy and treatment outcome for patients with anal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 2009, 72 patients with anal carcinoma were treated at our department (10 patients had stage I, 28 patients had stage II, 11 patients had stage IIIA, and 13 patients had stage IIIB cancer [Union Internationale Contre le Cancer criteria]). All patients received normofractionated (1.8 Gy/day, five times/week) whole-pelvis irradiation including iliac and inguinal lymph nodes with a cumulative dose of 50.4 Gy. Concomitant chemotherapy regimen consisted of two cycles of 5-fluorouracil (1,000 mg/m2total body surface area (TBSA)/day as continuous intravenous infusion on days 1-4 and 29-32) and mitomycin C (10 mg/m2/TBSA, intravenously on days 1 and 29). Toxicity during treatment was monitored weekly, and any incidence of Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) grade of ≥3 for skin reaction, cystitis, proctitis, or enteritis was assessed as high-grade acute organ toxicity for later analysis. Results: We found significant correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity and overall survival, locoregional control, and stoma-free survival, which was independent in multivariate analysis from other possible prognostic factors: patients with a CTC acute organ toxicity grade of ≥3 had a 5-year overall survival rate of 97% compared to 30% in patients without (p < 0.01, multivariate analysis; 97% vs. 48%, p = 0.03 for locoregional control, and 95% vs. 59%, p = 0.05 for stoma-free survival). Conclusions: Our data indicate that normal tissue and tumor tissue may behave similarly with respect to treatment response, since high-grade acute organ toxicity during radiochemotherapy showed itself to be an independent prognostic marker in our patient population. This hypothesis should be further analyzed by using biomolecular and clinical levels in future clinical trials.

  5. Primary non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma of the salivary gland: A spectrum of lymphoepithelial sialadenitis, low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue with transformation to high-grade lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agale Shubhangi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoid infiltrates of the salivary gland can be either reactive or neoplastic. The reactive lesion, lymphoepithelial sialadenitis (LESA may be associated with Sjogren′s syndrome (SS or may occur as an isolated salivary gland enlargement. Patients with LESA/SS have a particularly high risk of subsequently developing lymphoma, which is a low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT type lymphoma of the salivary gland. We document a rare case of primary non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma of the parotid gland arising in the background of LESA and with a rare example of transformation from low grade to high-grade B cell lymphoma of MALT type.

  6. Primary Education for All in the City of Mumbai, India: The Challenge Set by Local Actors. School Mapping and Local-Level Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Nalini

    This book discusses primary education of the poor in the city of Mumbai, India. It focuses on the city of Mumbai itself and the poor who live in it, answering questions such as What makes the city the way it is? What does it mean to be poor in Mumbai? and How does the poverty of the poor in Mumbai affect their chances of receiving a basic…

  7. Evaluation of sixth grade primary schoolchildren's knowledge about avulsion and dental reimplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Lithiene Ribeiro; Sundefeld, Maria Lucia Marçal Mazza; de Andrade, Dalton Francisco; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2009-08-01

    Dental trauma, particularly tooth avulsion, is a frequent cause of tooth loss in children, adolescents, and young adults. The avulsed tooth should be immediately reimplanted in its alveolus. This procedure can be performed by anyone at the accident site and not only by dental surgeons. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge of sixth graders of the city of Araçatuba, SP, about dental avulsion and tooth reimplantation through a structured and standardized survey. Our sample consisted of 778 students. The data collected was processed using the program EPIINFO 2000. Most students were around 12 years of age and 94.5% related to practice some kind of sports. Results demonstrated that the possibility of tooth reimplantation after dental avulsion is not acknowledged among these students and dental traumatism was associated to caries, toothache, and use of orthodontic appliances. Only 18.9% of the students associated dental traumatism to an impact trauma; 3.6% would store the tooth in milk, and 3.1% believed the tooth could be reimplanted by anyone present at the accident site. In summary, the results show an overall the lack of knowledge about dental traumatism and highlight the need of special programs designed to educate school-aged students about emergency procedures to handle cases of dental traumatisms. PMID:19459922

  8. Learning to write in science in the primary grades: A contextual study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Sheryl L.

    This study described the way three children appropriated scientific discourse in their writing (and drawing) during second and third grades. Their scientific writing was situated within an "integrated" curriculum in which science instruction included hands-on activities as well as literacy events such as the reading of informational books and the writing of various scientific texts. The study included long-term participant observation of the children during their science lessons. Interviews of the teachers and children were also conducted. The findings indicate that, in this community, the process of learning how to express new scientific ideas in word and images is a complex one, in which children must simultaneously take up distinct theoretical ideas, scientific vocabulary, generic text structure, generic linguistic skills, methods of illustration to express empirical and theoretical ideas, and audience awareness. Writing in this science classroom was highly scaffolded by classroom discussion, teacher read-alouds, hands-on activities, and teacher modeling, as well as by the kinds of writing tasks (or genre set) that were made available to children. Three children, Hannah, Jason, and Rose, took up various aspects of this scaffolding in unique ways, producing unique forms of scientific writing and drawing as they constructed meanings in science. The study provides insights into the relationship between contextual influences and young children's appropriation of scientific discourse. The study has implications for elementary school science instruction, at a time when "scientific literacy" is highly contested.

  9. LISTENING TO MUSIC IN THE FIRST THREE GRADES OF PRIMARY SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Šulentić Begić, Jasna; Tomljanović, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Since school year 2006-2007 music lessons in primary schools have been carried out by the open model, which considers the music field of listening to music as a default activity. In fact, only active listening to quality music can empower pupils to critical and aesthetic evaluation of music and that is how they become competent users of musical culture. This paper reviews the thinking of different authors about listening to music as a teaching area and also research that was conducted in thre...

  10. Opinions of primary school sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students about subjects of science-technology-society-environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Doğru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, opinions of primary school students about science-technology-society-environment and relation of these opinions in terms of many variables are analysed. In this research, it was used of individual survey model from the general survey model. Total 408 students, as 228 of them are girls and 180 of them are boys attending to two state one private school during the first term of school year of 2010-2011 in Antalya constitute the study group of research. Student questionnaire about the subjects of STSE developed by the researchers as data collection tool was applied to sixth, seventh and eighth grade students in the research. In this study, students of second grade tend to choose agree and totally agree regarding to the questionnaire items of STSE subjects. Moreover, it is found out that there is determined significant relationship between some items and sex variable when Cramer V coefficient values are analyzed to determine the relation between opinions about STSE and sex variable. It is seen that girls participated in STSE subjects more than boys considering these items in general. In this study, there is determined significant relationship between some items and school type of students considering Cramer V coefficient values to determine the relation between opinions of participants about STSE and variable of school type. Students of private school tend to choose agree and totally agree regarding to the questionnaire items of STSE subjects more than state schools’ students.

  11. EVALUATION OF EDUCATIONAL ABILITIES IN CHILDREN WITH MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, FIRST GRADE STUDENTS, FROM SPECIAL PRIMARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIKJ-IVANOVIKJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Educational process for children with mild intellectual disability in special primary schools in the Republic of Macedonia is realized byspecial Curriculum for students with difficulties in psychological development, prepared by the Bureau for Development of Education from the Ministry of Education and Science. These programs are developmental, and specially adapted to the abilities and capabilities of students with intellectual disabilities. The specialeducator observing the individual characteristics of his students should maximally respond to their specific needs and aspirations.The aim of the research was to determine the educational abilities of first-grade students with mild intellectual disability for following the teaching contents of the subjects Macedonian language, Math and Introduction to environment, provided by the Curriculum. Educationalabilities of the examinees were especially weak in Math, while in the Introduction to environment they had average abilities and a littlebetter ability they showed in the area of the Macedonian language. Regarding the variables gender and age, educational abilities of theexaminees did not differ, while regarding the variable level of general abilities there were significant differences in their educational abilities. Special educators said that most of theexaminees were completely or partially able to follow the Curriculum. Curriculum for the first grade students with intellectual disabilitiesgenerally corresponds to the educational abilities of these children.

  12. THE IMPACT OF ARCS MOTIVATION MODEL ON MOTIVATION AND SUCCESS LEVEL OF PRIMARY 4TH GRADE STUDENTS IN SOCIAL STUDIES

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    Mustafa TAHİROĞLU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to detect the impact of a teaching-learning process, structured taking the components of ARCS Motivation Model into consideration, on the motivation and success level of primary grade 4 students in social studies. In scope of the study, grouped pretest-posttest testing model is used. The experimental group consists of 32, and the control group 30 students. In order to collect research data, the “Grade 4 and 5 Social Studies Motivation Scale” and “Social Studies Achievement Test” were run on both groups at the beginning and end of the research process. Data was analyzed by means of unrelated samples t-test. The analysis indicated that according to measurements at the beginning of the study, motivation and success level of experimental and control group students showed similarity. Meanwhile, tests after the process showed meaningful difference in favour of the experimental group students in terms of their motivation and success level. Such findings demonstrate that structuring teaching-learning processes according to ARCS Motivation Model will positively enhance the level of success and motivation of students towards a given subject.

  13. The linguistic demands of the Common Core State Standards for reading and writing informational text in the primary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kathryn L

    2012-05-01

    Forty-five states and four U.S. territories have committed to implementing the new Common Core State Standards, with the goal of graduating students from our K-12 programs who are ready for college and careers. For many, the new standards represent a shift in genre focus, giving much more specific attention to informational genres. Beginning in the primary grades, the standards set high expectations for students' interaction with informational text, many of which are significantly more linguistically demanding than the standards that they replace. These increased demands are likely to pose difficulties not only for students currently receiving language support, but also for students without identified delays or disabilities. This article describes several of the kindergarten through fifth-grade standards related to informational text, highlighting the linguistic demands that each poses. In addition, instructional strategies are provided that teachers and speech-language pathologists can use to support the understanding and formulation of informational text for listening, reading, speaking, and writing.

  14. Neural predictors of individual differences in response to math tutoring in primary-grade school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Swigart, Anna G; Tenison, Caitlin; Jolles, Dietsje D; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Fuchs, Lynn; Menon, Vinod

    2013-05-14

    Now, more than ever, the ability to acquire mathematical skills efficiently is critical for academic and professional success, yet little is known about the behavioral and neural mechanisms that drive some children to acquire these skills faster than others. Here we investigate the behavioral and neural predictors of individual differences in arithmetic skill acquisition in response to 8-wk of one-to-one math tutoring. Twenty-four children in grade 3 (ages 8-9 y), a critical period for acquisition of basic mathematical skills, underwent structural and resting-state functional MRI scans pretutoring. A significant shift in arithmetic problem-solving strategies from counting to fact retrieval was observed with tutoring. Notably, the speed and accuracy of arithmetic problem solving increased with tutoring, with some children improving significantly more than others. Next, we examined whether pretutoring behavioral and brain measures could predict individual differences in arithmetic performance improvements with tutoring. No behavioral measures, including intelligence quotient, working memory, or mathematical abilities, predicted performance improvements. In contrast, pretutoring hippocampal volume predicted performance improvements. Furthermore, pretutoring intrinsic functional connectivity of the hippocampus with dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices and the basal ganglia also predicted performance improvements. Our findings provide evidence that individual differences in morphometry and connectivity of brain regions associated with learning and memory, and not regions typically involved in arithmetic processing, are strong predictors of responsiveness to math tutoring in children. More generally, our study suggests that quantitative measures of brain structure and intrinsic brain organization can provide a more sensitive marker of skill acquisition than behavioral measures. PMID:23630286

  15. Prognostic impact of ReTURB in high grade T1 primary bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sanseverino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate whether pathological outcomes of ReTURB have a prognostic impact on recurrence and progression of primitive T1HG bladder cancer. Material and methods: Patients affected by primitive T1HG TCC of bladder underwent restaging TURB (ReTURB. Patients with muscle invasive disease at ReTURB underwent radical cystectomy; those with non-muscle invasive residual (NMI-RT and those with no residual tumour (NRT received an intravesical BCG therapy. We compared recurrence and progression in NMIRT patients and NRT patients at restaging TURB. Patients were followed every 3-6 months with cystoscopy and urine cytology. Results: 212 patients were enrolled in the study. At ReTURB, residual cancer was detected in 92 of 196 (46.9% valuable patients: 14.3% of these were upstaged to T2. At follow up of 26.3 ± 22.8 months, there were differences in recurrence and progression rates between NRT and NMIRT patients: 26.9% and 45.3% (p < 0.001, 10.6% and 23.4% (p 0.03, respectively. Recurrence-free and progression-free survivals were significantly higher in NRT compared to NMIRT patients: 73.1% and 54.7% (p < 0.001, 89.4% and 76.6 (p 0.03, respectively. Conclusions: ReTURB allows to identify a considerable number of residual and understaged cancer. Patients with NMIRT on ReTURB have worse prognosis than those with NRT in terms of recurrence and progression free survival. These outcomes seem to suggest a prognostic impact of findings on ReTURB that could be a valid tool in management of high grade T1 TCC.

  16. First-grade retention in the Flemish educational context: Effects on children's academic growth, psychosocial growth, and school career throughout primary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goos, Mieke; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick; Petry, Katja; de Bilde, Jerissa

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the effects of first-grade retention on children's academic growth, psychosocial growth, and future school career by following a cohort of first graders until the start of secondary school. The study took place in the Flemish educational context where primary school students are taught in uniform curricular year groups; the same curricular goals are set for all students, irrespective of ability; and grade retention is used as the main way to cater for students not reaching these goals. Propensity score stratification was used to deal with selection bias. Three-level curvilinear growth curve models, encompassing both grade and age comparisons, were used to model children's growth in math skills, reading fluency skills, and psychosocial skills. Two-level logistic regression models were used to model children's likelihood of repeating any grade between Grades 2 and 6, transitioning to a special education primary school, moving to another primary school, and transitioning to the A (versus B) track in secondary education. Overall, results showed that first-grade retention was less helpful for struggling students than generally thought by parents and educators. Limitations of the study and further research suggestions are provided, and practical implications are discussed.

  17. THE EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES IN THE PRIMARY EDUCATION 5TH GRADE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM IN TERMS OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to know the teachers’ opinions in terms of multiple intelligence theory about the objectives and activities in the units of “Earth, Sun and Moon” and the “Electricity in Our Life” in the primary education 5th grade science and technology curriculum. The survey model was used in this study. The population of this study consists of 262 5th grade teachers working in the center of Malatya. The sample consists of 190 5th grade teachers who were selected randomly. Quest...

  18. Investigating Portfolio Assessment with Learners of the 3rd Grade in a Greek State Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Kouzouli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Assessment is a field increasingly explored in relation to the parameters it involves. The special characteristics of the learners and the interactive relationship between instruction and assessment lead to the use not only of traditional assessment techniques but also of alternative methods such as the portfolio. This study intends to investigate the implementation of a process portfolio in a Greek state primary school with a class of third graders aged between 8-9, concentrating on integration of skills. The findings show that this technique is appropriate for young learners and that it meets specific pedagogical and assessment criteria. It also exerts positive impact on metacognitive awareness, learner autonomy and positive attitude towards learning. Finally, the findings give insight to emerging problems and issues requiring further research.

  19. Primary pulmonary low-grade angiosarcoma characterized by mismatch between {sup 18}F-FDG FET and dynamic contrast-enhanced CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Eun Young; Lee, Ho Yun; Han, Joung Ho; Choi, Joon Young [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We report a rare case of primary pulmonary low-grade angiosarcoma on dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. A 38-year-old, asymptomatic woman was hospitalized because of an abnormality on chest radiography. A dynamic contrast-enhanced chest CT showed a 1.2 cm-sized irregular-margined nodule with strong and persistent enhancement in the right lower lobe. The lesion had low metabolic activity on an {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan. The patient underwent a wedge resection for the lesion, and pathology revealed a primary pulmonary low-grade angiosarcoma.

  20. PRIMARY SCHOOL FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS IN MATH ARE DONE TO COMPREHEND TOPICS TEACHING SMART BOARD APPLICATIONS FOR STUDENT FEEDBACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Nur KIRALI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study in teaching primary fifth grade students in math are done to comprehend topics is to their views about the smart boards applications.Research Working Group has established, in the education year 2012-2013,on 111 students in an primary school studying in Istanbul,Fatih. The scanning model was used in the research. In this application, aritmatik mean and standard deviation values were used in the distribution of the students view. In the students views about Smart Board Practices in math lesson,’ttest’ was used to determine if there is a meaningful difference in gender thinking. According to the research findings, through the use of the smart board in the course of mathematics, students told that they had better understood the phrase the lesson,had been getting the increase in their interest and wasn’t bored in the lesson. Another result obtained in research, students opinions has not been significantly different according to gender

  1. Students’ Strategies of Measuring Time Using Traditional Gasing Game in Third Grade of Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Jaelani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of measuring time has difficulty for children because itis intangible. Standard units often use directly by teacher for learning time measurement. Many researches involved game in designinglearning material to facilitate fun and meaningful learning for children. For this reason, learning of time measurement that connect with children’s daily experience was designed. The context of this research was traditional gasing game. The study is situated in implementation of Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education, labeled as PMRI. This research aimed acquire learning trajectory of time measurement using traditional gasing game for the third grader of primary school by describing students’ progress in learning. Design research methodology comprising preparing for the experiment, teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis was used. The research was conducted in SD (Sekolah Dasar Pusri (Pupuk SriwijayaPalembang as one of PMRI (Pendidikan Matematika RealistikIndonesia school. The result of the teaching experiment showed thatlearning design could foster students to experience reinvention of time measurement historically. It stimulated students to emerge their sense of time, measure time using non standar unit, understand the concept of standard unit, and measure time using standar unit. Students’ strategies that were emerged showed students’progress through situation and problems that were provided by traditional gasing game.

  2. Assessing capacity and disease burden in a virtual network of New York City primary care providers following Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebek, Kimberly; Jacobson, Laura; Wang, Jason; Newton-Dame, Remle; Singer, Jesse

    2014-08-01

    Urban contexts introduce unique challenges that must be addressed to ensure that areas of high population density can function when disasters occur. The ability to generate useful data to guide decision-making is critical in this context. Widespread adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems in recent years has created electronic data sources and networks that may play an important role in public health surveillance efforts, including in post-disaster situations. The Primary Care Information Project (PCIP) at the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has partnered with local clinicians to establish an electronic data system, and this network provides infrastructure to support primary care surveillance activities in New York City. After Hurricane Sandy, PCIP generated several sets of data to contribute to the city's efforts to assess the impact of the storm, including daily connectivity data to establish practice operations, data to examine patterns of primary care utilization in severely affected and less affected areas, and data on the frequency of respiratory infection diagnosis in the primary care setting. Daily patient visit data from three heavily affected neighborhoods showed the health department where primary care capacity was most affected in the weeks following Sandy. Overall transmission data showed that practices in less affected areas were quicker to return to normal reporting patterns, while those in more affected areas did not resume normal data transmissions for a few months. Rates of bronchitis increased after Sandy compared to the two prior years; while this was most likely attributable to a more severe flu season, it demonstrates the capacity of primary care networks to pick up on these types of post-emergency trends. Hurricane Sandy was the first disaster situation where PCIP was asked to assess public health impact, generating information that could contribute to aid and recovery efforts. This experience allowed us to

  3. The Application of Audio Lingual Method to Sixth-grade Primary School English Teaching--A Case Study of New PEP Teaching Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房薇薇

    2016-01-01

    The audio lingual method is a distinctive teaching method centering on listening and speaking, which is widely used in English teaching for many years. I analyze the sixth-grade primary school English textbooks with the application of this method. Through analysis, I consider that the audio lingual method is suitable for English teaching of primary school students since oral practice is their main teaching aim.

  4. Pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city, India – A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Savadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The consumption of tobacco related products by the school teachers is a bad habit because it sends a wrong signal to young minds of students. It is injurious to health and is a waste of money and also is a wrong role model for the students.Objectives To find out the prevalence of pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city and to determine the factors influencing the use of tobacco among primary school teachers.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using random sampling technique among 400 teachers aged 21 to 60 years from 78 primary schools in Belgaum city during March to December 2009.Results Overall, prevalence of any form of tobacco use among primary school teachers was 14.50%. Only male teachers 46.03% used tobacco. 37.93% were using smoking type of tobacco, 46.56% used smokeless & 15.51%were using both types of tobacco products. Most of the users initiated tobacco use by 16 to 20 years of age. A substantial number of teachers initiated tobacco use for fun, imitation and peer pressure. 58.33% of the teachers were using tobacco due to un-satisfaction from profession, 37.50% due to family problems.Conclusion High proportion of male teachers used tobacco than female teachers, because of social norm. Almost all the teachers consciously avoided tobacco use in school premises. Students will be encouraged to start using tobacco, if they observe use of tobacco products by teachers who are the role models for students. It was concluded that it would be beneficial to conduct educational programs and seminars encouraging tobacco cessation to this professional group, along with school children.

  5. Screening for amblyopia among grade-1 students in primary school with uncorrected vision and stereopsis test in central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing; LI Shi-ming; LI Jin-ling; LI Si-yuan; LIU Luo-ru; WANG Yang; LI He

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening for amblyopia at earliest is important for early treatment and better prognosis.This study aimed to evaluate the validity of uncorrected distant and near visual acuity (VA) and stereoacuity for screening amblyopia in grade-1 students in primary school in central China.Methods By stratified cluster sampling,3112 grade-1 students from 11 Anyang primary schools were selected for the study.All the participants underwent uncorrected distant and near VA,stereopsis test,cycloplegic refraction,best corrected VA (BCVA),cover test,and ocular movement examination.VA was measured with a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (IogMAR) chart.Stereoacuity was measured with the Lang Ⅱ stereo card and TNO test.Amblyopia was defined as the BCVA less than or equal to 0.1 IogMAR units of any eye in the absence of significant pathological abnormalities.The sensitivity,specificity,and positive and negative predictive value of uncorrected VA and stereoacuity for amblyopia were analyzed.Results Out of the 3112 eligible students,2893 (92.96%) completed the examinations.The average age of the students was (7.10±0.41) years.Screened by distant VA with low cutoff (IogMAR 0.1),high cutoff (IogMAR 0.0),and near VA (IogMAR 0.0),31.64%,73.18%,and 50.23% students were abnormal,respectively.Screened by stereopsis test,only 4.69% students were abnormal.Diagnosed by a senior pediatric ophthalmologist,61 students had amblyopia.The sensitivities of distant VA with low/high cutoff and near VA were 92.31%,100%,and 80.77%,respectively,whereas that of stereoacuity by TNO test was 15.38%.Simultaneous testing of either two of the three tests improved the sensitivity.Conclusions Distant VA test of high cutoff alone displays a high sensitivity but a low specificity.Simultaneous testing of distant VA of low cutoff and stereoacuity is a better choice to balance between sensitivity and specificity.

  6. The Evaluation of Texts In “National Culture” Theme That Placed in Secondary Part of Primary School 7th Grade Turkish Textbooks

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    Dilek CERAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The text that place in Turkish lesson books have an important place for teaching Turkish. The aim of study is evaluate the texts of “National Culture” subject in 7th grade Turkish textbooks, which are belonging to different publishers. For this purpose, by beginning from the features that are supposed to be in reading and listening texts of Turkish lesson books, which are in 2006 Primary Turkish Lesson Teaching Program, the texts of 7th grade Turkish textbooks of four different publishers, have been analyzed. The study is descriptive document analyze has been done in evaluating and studying of the texts that are in National Culture theme of Primary School 7th grade Turkish Textbooks. The texts have been evaluated under four main titles; quantity, the harmony of sub-themes with main themes. But free reading texts were not assessed.

  7. The Effect of Learning Geometry Topics of 7th Grade in Primary Education with Dynamic Geometer's Sketchpad Geometry Software to Success and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesan, Cenk; Caliskan, Sevdane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of learning geometry topics of 7th grade in primary education with dynamic geometer's sketchpad geometry software to student's success and retention. The experimental research design with The Posttest-Only Control Group was used in this study. In the experimental group, dynamic geometer's…

  8. The Informational Text Structure Survey (ITS[superscript 2]): An Exploration of Primary Grade Teachers' Sensitivity to Text Structure in Young Children's Informational Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Kumar, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    There has been no research reported about if or how well primary grade teachers can identify information text structures in children's authentic informational texts. The ability to do so accurately and reliably is a prerequisite for teachers to be able to teach students how to recognize and use text structures to assist them in comprehending…

  9. PATIENTS’ SATISFACTION WITH PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS SERVICES IN KUWAIT CITY, KUWAIT

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Doghaither, Abdullah H.; Abdelrhman, Badreldin M.; Saeed, Abdalla A.W.; Al-Kamil, Abdullah A.; Majzoub, Mohieldin M.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Assessment of patient satisfaction offers a way of optimizing health status and prevents waste of medical resources. The direct measurement of patient satisfaction is a new phenomenon in Kuwait. Objective: Assess patient satisfaction with respect to primary health care services and study any patterns of association of sociodemographic variables on the patient satisfaction level. Methods: The sample consisted of 301 patients selected systematically from five primary health care cen...

  10. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2011 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Baltimore City Public Schools. Grade 4, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-page report presents overall results, achievement level percentages and average score results, scores at selected percentiles, average scores for district and large cities, results for student groups (school race, gender, and eligibility for National School Lunch Program) in 2011, and score gaps for student groups. In 2011, the average…

  11. The Nation's Report Card Mathematics 2011 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Baltimore City Public Schools. Grade 4, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-page report presents overall results, achievement level percentages and average score results, scores at selected percentiles, average scores for district and large cities, results for student groups (school race, gender, and eligibility for National School Lunch Program) in 2011, and score gaps for student groups. In 2011, the average…

  12. Does Clinical Staging and Histological Grading Show Parallelism In Oral Submucous Fibrosis? A Retrospective Study from an Indian City

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    Manish Narayan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: There was no correlation between clinical staging and histopathological grading of oral submucous fibrosis. The test results were statistically not significant. (p=0.635 This may be due to difference in severity and extent of fibrosis in different parts of the oral mucosa. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(3.000: 145-149

  13. Understanding the Mental Health Needs of Primary School Children in an Inner-City Local Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Latha; Theodosiou, Louise; Bond, Caroline; Blackburn, Clare; Spicer, Freya; Lever, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    There is growing awareness of mental health problems among children, and schools are increasingly being encouraged to take a wider role in preventing mental health difficulties. Local population studies are needed to inform delivery of universal through to targeted services. In the current study, parents and teachers of 2% of primary school…

  14. 城市广场色彩规划初探%A Primary Study on City Square Color Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建滨; 王旭

    2012-01-01

    From defining the concept of city square color and analyzing its features, we put forward three principles of square color planning which is based on the premise that we advocate respecting people's psychological perception. Furthermore, under the guide of color psychology, we try to make a primary study on the methods and applications in city square color and lighting color planning from the macroscopic angle of functional properties and the microcosmic angle of the elements.%该文从界定城市广场色彩的概念和分析其特点入手,在提倡尊重使用人群心理感知的前提下提出了广场色彩规划的三原则,并在色彩心理学的指导下,从功能性质的宏观角度和构成元素的微观角度初步探究城市广场色彩及照明色彩规划的方法及其应用.

  15. Evaluation of Combination of Natural and Artificial Lighting Condition in Primary Schools (Case Study: Baneh City of Kurdistan Province, Iran

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    Seyyed alireza Mousavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Promoting the health and safety is an important part of the fundamental mission of schools and one factor in designing and operating schools that always has been important is lighting. As students spend considerable hours in the classroom and school, lighting should be designed appropriately and in accordance with the standards, to protect them from injuries. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the combination of natural and artificial lighting condition in primary schools of Baneh city, Kurdistan, Iran. Materials & Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It's population consisted of primary schools in the city of Baneh and 12 schools were randomly selected as samples. Measurement has been done, using observation method in those schools by completing the assessment form. Then collected data were analyzed by SPSS 19, using descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis Test. Results: Results showed that the windows to the floor area in the most of schools classes were in standard range and just in 7 classes, the windows to the floor area ratio were less than standard. ANOVA showed the mean of luminance in those schools in p≤0.05 was significant and most of classes were in range of standard luminance. Comparison of luminance in schools corridors with standard showed that corridors luminance of 3schools were less than standard range. Conclusions: The amount of luminance in all schools was not appropriate especially in old schools. Therefore, to reduce the effect of inappropriate lightning on health in some classes, it is necessary to redesign the system. Furthermore, for parsimony, the lightning system modification is required to achieve standard luminance which is important.

  16. Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R.

    2011-10-01

    Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0±14.2 Bq/m3, 83.4±6.0 Bq/m3, 61.6±6.4 Bq/m3, 63.7±5.4 Bq/m3 and 87.5±6.Bq/m3 and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m3, 5.5 Bq/m3, 1.1 Bq/m3, 1.0 Bq/m3 and 24 Bq/m3 respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm-3 set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The "within regions" (different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region "1" (p = 0.783) and versus region "5" (P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region "3" ( P = 0.0160) and also versus region "4" (p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq mountains whereas other

  17. The Effects of Phonemic Awareness Instruction in First Grade on the Reading Scores of Rural Primary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Linda H.; Vinzant, Rebecca S.

    A study investigated the effect of phonemic awareness instruction on the reading ability of first and second grade students. Participants were 100 second graders who had been in 5 first grades at Westside Elementary in Searcy, Arkansas. Using a posttest only control group design and a t test for independent samples, it was found that second grade…

  18. Primary Gleason Grade 4 Impact on Biochemical Recurrence After Permanent Interstitial Brachytherapy in Japanese Patients With Low- or Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To reveal a predictive factor for biochemical recurrence (BCR) after permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) using iodine-125 seed implantation in patients with localized prostate cancer classified as low or intermediate risk based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. Methods and Materials: From January 2004 to December 2009, 414 consecutive Japanese patients with clinically localized prostate cancer classified as low or intermediate risk based on the NCCN guidelines were treated with PPB. The clinical factors including pathological data reviewed by a central pathologist and follow-up data were prospectively collected. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the factors associated with BCR. Results: Median follow-up was 36.5 months. The 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year BCR-free rates using the Phoenix definition were 98.3%, 96.0%, 91.6%, and 87.0%, respectively. On univariate analysis, the Gleason score, especially primary Gleason grade 4 in biopsy specimens, was a strong predicting factor (p < 0.0001), while age, initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, T stage, and minimal dose delivered to 90% of the prostate volume (D90) were insignificant. Multivariate analysis indicated that a primary Gleason grade 4 was the most powerful prognostic factor associated with BCR (hazard ratio = 6.576, 95% confidence interval, 2.597–16.468, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: A primary Gleason grade 4 carried a worse BCR prognosis than the primary grade 3 in patients treated with PPB. Therefore, the indication for PPB in patients with a Gleason sum of 4 + 3 deserves careful and thoughtful consideration.

  19. An Epidemiological Study Of Hypertension Amongst Children From Various Primary Schools Of Surat City

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    Thakor H.G

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of hypertension in school children aged 10 years and above? Objectives: 1. To find out the prevalence of hypertension. 2. To generate a profile of hypertensive cases. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected primary schools run by Surat Manipal Corporation. Participants: School children aged 10 years and above. Sample size: 2250 children (1092 boys, 158girls Study variables: Age, sex, body weight, body mass index Outcome variables: Prevalence of hypertension. Statistical analysis: X2 test Results: Overall prevalence of hypertension in children was 2.3 percent, separately in girls and 0.9 percent in boys. Body weight above 40kgms and body mass index (BMI above 20 were differentiating points as children weighing more than 40kgms and/or with BMI more than 20 significantly higher prevalence of hypertension. Most of the cases were asymptomatic and also had no suggestive symptoms in the past.

  20. 关于小学低年级识字教学的几点思考%Some Points on Literacy Teaching in Primary Grades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任艳红

    2016-01-01

    Chinese course standards indicate that literacy teaching is the basis of Chinese teaching in primary grades. During the Chinese teaching in primary grades, only students enhance their literacy ability constantly can they do better reading and writing. Thus it is very important to make students interested in Chinese characters learning. The paper explores the literacy teaching in primary grades and proposes some specific measures for reference.%语文课程标准指出,识字教学是小学低年级语文教学的基础。在小学低年级语文教学中,学生只有不断提升识字能力,才能更好地进行阅读和写作,因此让学生对汉字学习产生兴趣至关重要。文章对小学低年级识字教学展开探究,提出了几点具体措施,以供借鉴。

  1. The Prevalance of Anemia and Nutriotional Anemia in Primary School Children in the City of Aydın

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    Yusuf Ziya Aral

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of anemia and nutritional anemia in primary school children in the city of Aydın. Materials and Methods: In Aydın, the central town of Aydın province, a total of 496 students (56% were female were enrolled into the study by using stratified random sampling method. The students were from the primary schools located in socio-economically low, medium, and high areas of primary health care centers. The avarage age of the students was 10.2±2 years. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and Chi-Square test. Results: The prevalence of anemia, iron-deficiency (ID, iron-deficiency anemia (IDA, vitamin B12 deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia was 15.7%, 38.7%, 8.3%, 9.1%, 0.8%, respectively. No folic acid deficiency was detected. Among the anemias, 42% of them were microcytic, 58% of them were normocytic and the 45.5% of the microcytic anemias were IDA. Among the females, the rate of ID was 45.1% and the rate of IDA was 11.6%, while in boys the same rates were 30.6% and 4.1%, respectively (p<0.05. Microcytosis was present in 36.5% of subjects with IDA. The Mentzer index was <13 in 13.3% of subjects with microcytic anemia and IDA, and in 77.7% of children with microcytic anemia and no IDA (p<0.001. Regarding socio-demographic characteristics of children; the only statistically significant difference was in the parameters of mother education and anemia. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia represents a minor public health problem according to the World Health Organization criteria among the primary school students in the central town of Aydın province. Exploration of the reason of anemia among pre-school children, proper treatment of nutritional anemia cases with adequate duration and dose, dietary organizations and proper follow-up will lower the incidence of anemia and nutritional anemia among primary school children. Our study

  2. Evaluation of Primary Immunization Coverage in an Industrial City of Uttar Pradesh

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    Chaturvedi R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is gradual albeit a slow progress in the performance of routine immunization in India over last few years. Six states with high population contribute to 80% of 8.1 million unimmunized children in the country out of which 52% of the total unimmunized reside in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar alone. Objectives :1. To study the primary immunization coverage of children aged 12-23 months in the slums of Kanpur Nagar 2.To calculate drop out rate for various vaccines. Methodology: 30 cluster sampling technique. Results: 52.38% study subjects were fully immunized, 29.52% were partially immunized and 18.10% were not immunized at all. Coverage was highest for BCG vaccine (81.90% and lowest for Hepatitis B3(41.90%. Drop out rate for DPT / OPV (I-III, DPTI – Measles and BCG – Measles was 25.88%, 34.70% and 35.46% respectively. Conclusion: Sustained efforts are required to achieve the target of universal coverage of immunization in children.

  3. The Place and Importance of Values Education in 4.th and 5th. Grade Primary School Social Studies Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Yiğit

    2013-11-01

    varied beginning from 1970s. Superka and his colleagues (1976 argue that there are five basic approaches to values education: inculcation, moral development, analysis, values clarification and action learning. On the other hand, Sunal and Haas (2002 identified three approaches to values education: values clarification, value analysis and character education. While discussing the basic processes and principles of values education, we claim that values education should not be given only as theoretical knowledge. If the students are not supported with real-life examples and experiences, theoretical information will result in reducing the interest in values education. It is also stated that using concrete terms, instead of abstract ones, will help primary school children to get the idea more effectively. We also mention the limitation of rewarding a student for his/her good manners and actions. At this point, we analyzed several studies conducted in this area and found that rewarding a student too much will result in undermining the sense of helpfulness (Batson, et al., 1978 and hindering intrinsic motivation (Kohn, 1993; Deci&Ryan, 1985. Other basic processes and principles of values education discussed in this study are; the role of teachers in values education, group study for effective values education, promoting reasoning and logic while developing empathy, the role of self-esteem, and developing the sense of ‘us’ instead of ‘me’. Content analysis was conducted to collect data from the 2004 Social Studies program published by Ministry of Education and the 4th and 5th grade Social Studies textbooks. The researchers identified the frequencies of words and references regarding values and then categorized them to provide a meaningful content. After creating the coding frames, collected data was gathered under the relevant codes. Five main characteristic features of values are defined in the 2004 Social Studies 4th and 5th grade program. Those are: 1- Values are

  4. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE ATTITUDE MOTIVES FORMATION TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN OF THE NORTHERN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Ildarovna Busheva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Current issue under the study of problems of positive motivation formation for education of active attitude to physical culture and sports among primary school age children living in the northern city,is the study of students engaged and not engaged in physical culture and sports and main reasons research for passive attitude to the activity. In Surgut, KhMARYugra, 350 pupils were involved in theresearch of the age 710 years from the gymnasium named after Salmanov F.K. Following the procedure of L.I. Lubysheva active and passive attitude motives to primary school age children’s physicalactivity living in the northern city. We have identified 13 motives to the activity and 20 passive motives to the physical activity. During the research two groups of motives were identified reducing 710year old pupils’ motor activity. The first group of motives consists of the lack of organization and equipment; the second group consists of the lack of sports education (lack of physical culture valuecomprehension in human life. Children of primary school age living in the northern city point out various reasons explaining their passivity to the motor activity, physical culture and sports.Eliminating these causes is the first step to the positive motivation formation of physical activity. It requires to combine efforts of educational institutions work, physical education teachers and coachesto encourage healthy lifestyles, sports and recreational activities and students motivation increase to the motor activity, physical culture and sports in their spare time.

  5. High-grade acute organ toxicity as positive prognostic factor in primary radio(chemo)therapy for locally advanced, inoperable head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to test for a possible correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity during primary radio(chemo)therapy and treatment outcome in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Patients and methods: from 05/1994 to 01/2009, 216 HNSCC patients were treated with radio(chemo)therapy in primary approach. They received normofractionated (2 Gy/fraction) irradiation including associated nodal drainage sites to a cumulative dose of 70 Gy. 151 patients received additional concomitant chemotherapy (111 patients 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin C, 40 patients cisplatin-based). Toxicity during treatment was monitored weekly according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC), and any toxicity grade CTC ≥ 3 of mucositis, dysphagia or skin reaction was assessed as high-grade acute organ toxicity for later analysis. Results: a statistically significant coherency between high-grade acute organ toxicity and overall survival as well as locoregional control was found: patients with CTC ≥ 3 acute organ toxicity had a 5-year overall survival rate of 4% compared to 8% in patients without (p < 0.01). Thereby, multivariate analyses revealed that the correlation was independent of other possible prognostic factors or factors that may influence treatment toxicity, especially concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy technique or treatment-planning procedure. Conclusion: these data indicate that normal tissue and tumor tissue may behave similarly with respect to treatment response, as high-grade acute organ toxicity during radio(chemo)therapy showed to be an independent prognostic marker in the own patient population. However, the authors are aware of the fact that a multivariate analysis in a retrospective study generally has statistical limitations. Therefore, their hypothesis should be further analyzed on biomolecular and clinical levels and other tumor entities in prospective trials. (orig.)

  6. A Phase I Study of the Combination of Sorafenib With Temozolomide and Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Primary and Recurrent High-Grade Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den, Robert B., E-mail: robert.den@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kamrava, Mitchell [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Sheng, Zhi [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Programs in Gene Function and Expression and Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria; Dougherty, Erin; Marinucchi, Michelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lawrence, Yaacov R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Center for Translational Research in Radiation Oncology, Sheba Medical Center (Israel); Hegarty, Sarah; Hyslop, Terry [Department of Biostatistics, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Andrews, David W.; Glass, Jon [Department of Neurosurgery, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Friedman, David P. [Department of Radiology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Green, Michael R. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Programs in Gene Function and Expression and Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Camphausen, Kevin [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Despite recent advances in the management of high-grade and recurrent gliomas, survival remains poor. Antiangiogenic therapy has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of high-grade gliomas both in preclinical models and in clinical trials. We sought to determine the safety and maximum tolerated dose of sorafenib when combined with both radiation and temozolomide in the primary setting or radiation alone in the recurrent setting. Methods and Materials: This was a preclinical study and an open-label phase I dose escalation trial. Multiple glioma cell lines were analyzed for viability after treatment with radiation, temozolomide, or sorafenib or combinations of them. For patients with primary disease, sorafenib was given concurrently with temozolomide (75 mg/m{sup 2}) and 60 Gy radiation, for 30 days after completion of radiation. For patients with recurrent disease, sorafenib was combined with a hypofractionated course of radiation (35 Gy in 10 fractions). Results: Cell viability was significantly reduced with the combination of radiation, temozolomide, and sorafenib or radiation and sorafenib. Eighteen patients (11 in the primary cohort, 7 in the recurrent cohort) were enrolled onto this trial approved by the institutional review board. All patients completed the planned course of radiation therapy. The most common toxicities were hematologic, fatigue, and rash. There were 18 grade 3 or higher toxicities. The median overall survival was 18 months for the entire population. Conclusions: Sorafenib can be safely combined with radiation and temozolomide in patients with high-grade glioma and with radiation alone in patients with recurrent glioma. The recommended phase II dose of sorafenib is 200 mg twice daily when combined with temozolomide and radiation and 400 mg with radiation alone. To our knowledge, this is the first publication of concurrent sorafenib with radiation monotherapy or combined with radiation and temozolomide.

  7. A Brief Discussion on Chinese Literacy Teaching for Lower Grades of Primary School%浅谈小学低年级语文识字教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐嘉笛

    2014-01-01

    It is clearly defined in"Chinese Curriculum Standard"that the quantity of literacy for students at their primary school stage is 3000 and they are required to be able to write 2500 characters. Students of lower grades are required to recognize 1600~1800 characters and be able to write 800~1000 characters. The new "Chinese Curriculum Standard" emphasizes on more recognition and less writing of characters, mainly focusing on the teaching of lower grades. It is thus clear that literacy teaching is the key but difficult point in the Chinese teaching for lower grades of primary school. Therefore, how to efficiently implement Chinese literacy teaching for lower grades in diverse ways and make students recognize characters independently and happily is a long-term task for primary school Chinese teachers.%《语文课程标准》明确规定院小学阶段学生的识字量为3000字,其中要会写2500个汉字。而低年级要求学生认识1600~1800个汉字,其中会写800~1000个汉字。新的《语文课程标准》强调多识字、少写字,而且把识字集中在低年级教学。可见识字教学是小学低年级语文教学中的重点,同时也是小学低年级语文教学的难点。因此,如何高效、多样化地开展低年级语文识字教学,让学生自主快乐识字是小学语文教师需要长期探索的任务。

  8. Grading of Parameters for Urban Tree Inventories by City Officials, Arborists, and Academics Using the Delphi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östberg, Johan; Delshammar, Tim; Wiström, Björn; Nielsen, Anders Busse

    2013-03-01

    Tree inventories are expensive to conduct and update, so every inventory carried out must be maximized. However, increasing the number of constituent parameters increases the cost of performing and updating the inventory, illustrating the need for careful parameter selection. This article reports the results of a systematic expert rating of tree inventories aiming to quantify the relative importance of each parameter. Using the Delphi method, panels comprising city officials, arborists, and academics rated a total of 148 parameters. The total mean score, the top ranking parameters, which can serve as a guide for decision-making at practical level and for standardization of tree inventories, were: Scientific name of the tree species and genera, Vitality, Coordinates, Hazard class, and Identification number. The study also examined whether the different responsibilities and usage of urban tree databases among organizations and people engaged in urban tree inventories affected their prioritization. The results revealed noticeable dissimilarities in the ranking of parameters between the panels, underlining the need for collaboration between the research community and those commissioning, administrating, and conducting inventories. Only by applying such a transdisciplinary approach to parameter selection can urban tree inventories be strengthened and made more relevant.

  9. Is there a role for hyberbaric oxygen as primary treatment for grade IV radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis? a prospective pilot-feasibility study and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Dellis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To examine the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen as the primary treatment for Grade IV radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and Methods Hyperbaric oxygen was prospectively applied as a primary treatment option in 11 patients with Grade IV radiation cystitis. Primary endpoint was the incidence of complete and partial response to treatment. Secondary endpoints included the duration of response, the correlation of treatment success-rate to the interval between the onset of haematuria and initiation of therapy, blood transfusion need and total radiation dose, the number of sessions to success, the avoidance of surgery and the overall survival. Results All patients completed therapy without complications for a mean follow-up of 17.82 months (range 3 to 34. Mean number of sessions needed was 32.8 (range 27 to 44. Complete and partial response rate was 81.8% and 18.2%, respectively. However, in three patients the first treatment session was not either sufficient or durable giving a 72.7% rate of durable effect. Interestingly, all 9 patients with complete response received therapy within 6 months of the haematuria onset compared to the two patients with partial response who received therapy at 8 and 10 months from the haematuria onset, respectively (p = 0.018. The need for blood transfusion (p = 0.491 and the total radiation dose (p = 0.259 were not correlated to success-rate. One patient needed cystectomy, while all patients were alive at the end of follow-up. Conclusions Early primary use of hyperbaric oxygen to treat radiation-induced grade IV cystitis is an effective and safe treatment option.

  10. Is there a role for hyperbaric oxygen as primary treatment for grade IV radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis? a prospective pilot-feasibility study and review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellis, Athanasios [Surgical Department, University of Athens, Aretaieion Hospital (Greece); Deliveliotis, Charalambos [Urologic Department, University of Athens, Sismanoglio General Hospital (Greece); Kalentzos, Vasileios; Vavasis, Pavlos; Skolarikos, Andreas [Diving and Hyperbaric Oxygen Department, Naval and Veterans Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To examine the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen as the primary treatment for Grade IV radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and Methods: Hyperbaric oxygen was prospectively applied as a primary treatment option in 11 patients with Grade IV radiation cystitis. Primary endpoint was the incidence of complete and partial response to treatment. Secondary endpoints included the duration of response, the correlation of treatment success-rate to the interval between the onset of haematuria and initiation of therapy, blood transfusion need and total radiation dose, the number of sessions to success, the avoidance of surgery and the overall survival. Results: All patients completed therapy without complications for a mean follow-up of 17.82 months (range 3 to 34). Mean number of sessions needed was 32.8 (range 27 to 44). Complete and partial response rate was 81.8% and 18.2%, respectively. However, in three patients the first treatment session was not either sufficient or durable giving a 72.7% rate of durable effect. Interestingly, all 9 patients with complete response received therapy within 6 months of the haematuria onset compared to the two patients with partial response who received therapy at 8 and 10 months from the haematuria onset, respectively (p = 0.018). The need for blood transfusion (p = 0.491) and the total radiation dose (p = 0.259) were not correlated to success-rate. One patient needed cystectomy, while all patients were alive at the end of follow-up. Conclusions: Early primary use of hyperbaric oxygen to treat radiation-induced grade IV cystitis is an effective and safe treatment option. (author)

  11. FAR FROM THE CITY LIGHTS: ENGLISH READING PERFORMANCE OF ESL LEARNERS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF RURAL PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintswalo Manyike

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the findings of a research study, in which the English reading performances of Grade 7 English Second Language (ESL learners in four different types of rural primary school which use English as the language of learning and teaching (LoLT were observed, are examined and how poor scores can be partly explained by the social context of learners and schools is explored. Although the Language in Education Policy in South Africa seeks to distribute and maintain the linguistic capital of the official languages through its support of multilingualism, the predominant preference for English as the LoLT in schooling disadvantages most ESL learners and perpetuates inequality in learner outcomes. This situation is exacerbated in certain school contexts such as those in rural settings. Bourdieu’s theory of linguistic capital and Coleman’s distinction between school social capital and home social capital are used as theoretical frameworks to the empirical inquiry undertaken in this study. The findings indicate a difference in the grammar and comprehension scores of learners in the respective participating schools as well as a sharp difference in the performance of learners in the different types of school involved. This suggests the current use of English as the LoLT does not mean that linguistic capital is equally distributed throughout schools. School type can thus act as an agent of cultural reproduction which influences learner outcomes.

  12. Dynamic CT perfusion imaging of intra-axial brain tumours: differentiation of high-grade gliomas from primary CNS lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) allows to quantitatively assess haemodynamic characteristics of brain tissue. We investigated if different brain tumor types can be distinguished from each other using Patlak analysis of PCT data. PCT data from 43 patients with brain tumours were analysed with a commercial implementation of the Patlak method. Four patients had low-grade glioma (WHO II), 31 patients had glioblastoma (WHO IV) and eight patients had intracerebral lymphoma. Tumour regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn in a morphological image and automatically transferred to maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and permeability (K Trans). Mean values were calculated, group differences were tested using Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney U-tests. In comparison with normal parenchyma, low-grade gliomas showed no significant difference of perfusion parameters (p > 0.05), whereas high-grade gliomas demonstrated significantly higher values (p Trans, p Trans values compared with unaffected cerebral parenchyma (p = 0.0078) but no elevation of CBV. High-grade gliomas show significant higher CBV values than lymphomas (p = 0.0078). PCT allows to reliably classify gliomas and lymphomas based on quantitative measurements of CBV and K Trans. (orig.)

  13. Dynamic CT perfusion imaging of intra-axial brain tumours: differentiation of high-grade gliomas from primary CNS lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, Peter; Xyda, Argyro; Knauth, Michael [University of Goettingen, Medical Center, Department of Neuroradiology, Goettingen (Germany); Klotz, Ernst [Computed Tomography, SIEMENS Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany); Tronnier, Volker [University Schleswig-Holstein, Department of Neurosurgery, Luebeck (Germany); Hartmann, Marius [University of Heidelberg, Medical Center, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Neurology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) allows to quantitatively assess haemodynamic characteristics of brain tissue. We investigated if different brain tumor types can be distinguished from each other using Patlak analysis of PCT data. PCT data from 43 patients with brain tumours were analysed with a commercial implementation of the Patlak method. Four patients had low-grade glioma (WHO II), 31 patients had glioblastoma (WHO IV) and eight patients had intracerebral lymphoma. Tumour regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn in a morphological image and automatically transferred to maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and permeability (K {sup Trans}). Mean values were calculated, group differences were tested using Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney U-tests. In comparison with normal parenchyma, low-grade gliomas showed no significant difference of perfusion parameters (p > 0.05), whereas high-grade gliomas demonstrated significantly higher values (p < 0.0001 for K {sup Trans}, p < 0.0001 for CBV and p = 0.0002 for CBF). Lymphomas displayed significantly increased mean K{sup Trans} values compared with unaffected cerebral parenchyma (p = 0.0078) but no elevation of CBV. High-grade gliomas show significant higher CBV values than lymphomas (p = 0.0078). PCT allows to reliably classify gliomas and lymphomas based on quantitative measurements of CBV and K {sup Trans}. (orig.)

  14. Do Reading Practices Make a Difference? Evidence from PIRLS Data for Hong Kong and Taiwan Primary School Grade 4 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Shek-Kam; Xiao, Xiao-Yun; Ko, Hwa-Wei; Lam, Joseph Wai-Ip; Hui, Sau-Yan; Ng, Hung-Wai

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of classroom pedagogic reading practices and out-of-school practices in explaining why the reading attainment of Hong Kong Grade 4 students was superior to that of their counterparts in Taiwan in the 2006 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study. Analyses of scores from 9,301 students (4,712 from Hong Kong…

  15. Incorporating Informational Texts in the Primary Grades: A Research-Based Rationale, Practical Strategies, and Two Teachers' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights the literacy practices of two second grade teachers--one in an affluent suburb of a major metropolitan area and the other in a large urban school district. The article describes how these teachers use informational texts to engage their students, to provide children with opportunities to learn about the world around them,…

  16. The combination of Ki67, histological grade and estrogen receptor status identifies a low-risk group among 1,854 chemo-naïve women with N0/N1 primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Carina; Bak, Martin; Borgquist, Signe;

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to confirm a previously defined prognostic index, combining a proliferation marker, histological grade, and estrogen receptor (ER) in different subsets of primary N0/N1 chemo-naïve breast cancer patients....

  17. Assessment of primary school students’ level of understanding the concepts of 2nd grade life sciences course based on different variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altıntaş Gülşen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The course of Life Sciences is one of the pivot courses taught in the first three years of primary school. Ensuring children get to know their environment and gain correct information related to their problems by making them investigate their natural and socio-cultural environment as well as providing them with necessary information, skills and behaviors for environmental adaptation are among the main purposes of Life Sciences course. The concepts to be instilled in students in line with these purposes are important. Since concepts are mostly intellectual and non-physical, they can only exist tangibly through examples. This study aims to assess Primary School Students’ Level of Understanding the Concepts of 2nd Grade Life Sciences Course Based on Different Variables. 17 concepts included in the 2nd Grade Life Sciences course within the subject of School Excitement were addressed within the study, and students were requested to define and exemplify these concepts. A total of 102 students from five different primary schools of upper-middle and lower socioeconomic classes located in Manisa and Istanbul were included in the study in line with the intentional maximum diversity sample selection. The answers given by students for each concept were categorized and analyzed in terms of liking or disliking home, school, technology and the course of Life Sciences.

  18. Understanding the Concept of Information Literacy Students--For Example, the City Library "Don Mihovil Pavlinovic" Imotski

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the understanding of the term information literacy of primary and secondary school students, from the fifth grade of elementary school to the fourth year of high school at the local level, and who are members of the City Library in Imotski. The study examined 98 members of the City Library, through a…

  19. Comparison of Values in 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th Grade Primary Education Music Class Students'? Workbooks According to Rokeach?s and Akbas's Value Classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakirer, H. Serdar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the values in the songs of 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary education music classes students? workbooks according to the value categorizations proposed by Rockeach and Akbas and which values among the categories mentioned are taught to the students in the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary education…

  20. Examination of Activities in Primary School Social Studies Curriculum Guides (4th to 7th Grades in Terms of Value Education Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman YİĞİTTİR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the situation of sample activities in social studies curriculum guides in terms of value education approaches. In this study document analysis, one of qualitative methods, was employed. Primary school social studies curriculum guides were used as data sources. Data collected from documents were analyzed through content analysis. The results of this study showed that in total 98 (40.2% sample activities, prepared toward value education approaches, are in curriculum guides. In this context, it is detected that values clarification is the most used approach in the sample activities and 7th grade has much more sample activities than others.

  1. Analyzing "Our Arabic language Textbooks" of the Last Grade of Primary Stage with Reference to Bloom’s Taxonomy of the Cognitive Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Zakariya Abu – Dabat

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the contents of ‘Our Arabic Language’ Textbooks for 4th, 5th, and 6th grades of the primary stage in Jordan, also studying and examining the questions employed in the Textbooks. In this respect the main aim was to examine those questions covered the six levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy. From the main aim five questions arise to be answered. Referring to the questions, the results of the study showed that the contents of the Textbooks (the scope of the study) was con...

  2. A Study on the Effect of Use of Experimental Method in Teaching the Topic of Simple Machines on 7th Grade Primary School Students Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    TELLİ, Ali; Halil İbrahim YILDIRIM; ŞENSOY, Önder; Necati YALÇIN

    2004-01-01

    This research was carried our in order to determine the effect upon students\\' achievement of student-centered teaching by doing experiment method; in which the students were active and they learnt through practicing and experiencing, in comparison with the influence of teacher-centered teaching method in which the students were passive. Research was executed on the students who are educated at two separate 7th grades in a primary school in Osmaniye province\\'s Düziçi town. One of the 7...

  3. Use of the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) score in patients with brain metastases from primary tumours not represented in the diagnosis-specific GPA studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Assessment of prognostic factors might influence treatment decisions in patients with brain metastases. Based on large studies, the diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (GPA) score is a useful tool. However, patients with unknown or rare primary tumours are not represented in this model. A pragmatic approach might be use of the first GPA version which is not limited to specific primary tumours. Patients and methods: This retrospective analysis examines for the first time whether the GPA is a valid score in patients not eligible for the diagnosis-specific GPA. It includes 71 patients with unknown primary tumour, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer, thyroid cancer or other uncommon primaries. Survival was evaluated in uni- and multivariate tests. Results: The GPA significantly predicted survival. Moreover, improved survival was seen in patients treated with surgical resection or radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. The older recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) score was significant in univariate analysis. However, the multivariate model with RPA, GPA and surgery or SRS versus none showed that only GPA and type of treatment were independent predictors of survival. Conclusion: Ideally, cooperative research efforts would lead to development of diagnosis-specific scores also for patients with rare or unknown primary tumours. In the meantime, a pragmatic approach of using the general GPA score appears reasonable. (orig.)

  4. Use of the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) score in patients with brain metastases from primary tumours not represented in the diagnosis-specific GPA studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, C. [Nordland Hospital, Bodoe (Norway). Dept. of Oncology and Palliative Medicine; Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Andratschke, N.H. [University Hospital Rostock (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Geinitz, H. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Grosu, A.L. [University Hospital Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-08-15

    Background and purpose: Assessment of prognostic factors might influence treatment decisions in patients with brain metastases. Based on large studies, the diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (GPA) score is a useful tool. However, patients with unknown or rare primary tumours are not represented in this model. A pragmatic approach might be use of the first GPA version which is not limited to specific primary tumours. Patients and methods: This retrospective analysis examines for the first time whether the GPA is a valid score in patients not eligible for the diagnosis-specific GPA. It includes 71 patients with unknown primary tumour, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer, thyroid cancer or other uncommon primaries. Survival was evaluated in uni- and multivariate tests. Results: The GPA significantly predicted survival. Moreover, improved survival was seen in patients treated with surgical resection or radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. The older recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) score was significant in univariate analysis. However, the multivariate model with RPA, GPA and surgery or SRS versus none showed that only GPA and type of treatment were independent predictors of survival. Conclusion: Ideally, cooperative research efforts would lead to development of diagnosis-specific scores also for patients with rare or unknown primary tumours. In the meantime, a pragmatic approach of using the general GPA score appears reasonable. (orig.)

  5. THE EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES IN THE PRIMARY EDUCATION 5TH GRADE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM IN TERMS OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRBÜZTÜRK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to know the teachers’ opinions in terms of multiple intelligence theory about the objectives and activities in the units of “Earth, Sun and Moon” and the “Electricity in Our Life” in the primary education 5th grade science and technology curriculum. The survey model was used in this study. The population of this study consists of 262 5th grade teachers working in the center of Malatya. The sample consists of 190 5th grade teachers who were selected randomly. Questionnaire was used to collect data that are consisted of 70 items. Teachers are asked to select one dominant intelligence type for 65 objectives and activities. To analyze the data, the background information of teachers like seniority, graduated faculty, whether or not they had in-service education were compared to teachers opinions about which intelligence area is suitable with these objectives and activities and these comparison information was given and commented with frequencies, percentages and cross tabs. Given the results of this study, about evaluating the objectives and activities in these units, taking all activities in the teaching-learning process into consideration, it is discovered that, teachers generally focus on visual, spatial, logical and mathematical intelligence areas and they think in the same way regardless of their seniority, graduated faculty, and whether or not they had in-service education about teaching-learning theories and models. Some advices are given based on the results of this study.

  6. Physical intimate partner violence and low birth weight in newborns from primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel de Souza MEZZAVILLA; Maria Helena HASSELMANN

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the association between physical intimate partner violence and low birth weight. Methods This cross-sectional study included 604 children with approximately 30 days of age who visited four primary health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro , Brazil, for the second dose of hepatitis B vaccine. Children with a birth weight below 2.500 g were considered underweight. Information regarding physical intimate partner violence was obtained by the Portuguese ve...

  7. An Analysis of Writing Teaching in Low Grade of Primary School%试析进行小学低年级写话教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明凤

    2014-01-01

    A part of writing is to practice writing, is the basis of the composition. Low grade primary school writing teaching should be based on the students’ interest in learning, adhere to a gradual, from easy to difficult principle, constantly encouraging students, carry out reasonable, standard, scientific, standardized writing teaching, then lay a foundation for future writing. Therefore, this paper discusses the low grade primary school writing teaching strategies.%写话属于练习作文的一个组成部分,是作文的基础。小学低年级的写话教学需要立足于学生的学习兴趣,坚持循序渐进、从易到难的原则,不断地激励学生,实施合理、标准、科学、规范的写话教学,进而奠定将来写作文的基础。为此,论述了进行小学低年级写话教学的策略。

  8. 中山市2006~2007年中小学生近视调查分析%Myopia investigation of primary and middle school students in zhongshan City from 2006 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师利农; 叶伟明; 黄永权; 梁玉婵; 钟玉红; 黄志达; 刘永全; 黄恩哲

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and correlative factor of myopia in primary and middle school students in Zhongshan City. Methods An epidemiological survey was carried out by Zhongshan SuHuaChan hospital, including three schools in town, three schools in urban, apply question investigation and retinoscopy. Results In this investigation, there were 9379 persons, the prevalence of myopia (spherical equivalent, SE>-0.50D) was 58.03%, it increased from 8.04% (first grade in primary school) to 86.68% (latest grade in senior middle school). There was no difference of the prevalence of myopia between in town primary school and in urban primary school (P>0.05), in junior middle school it was higher in urban than in town (P<0.01), it was higher in graduation class than in non-graduation class (P<0.05 in town, P<0.001 in city). In this investigation it showed that eyes exercise had not effect upon preventing myopia from increasing (P>0.05). Total time reading in one day, time reading in one time, time reading outside of class time was close correlative to the prevalence of myopia; correlation coefficients were 0.995, 0.992 and 0.999, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of myopia is high in primary and middle school in Zhongshan City, and it increases yearly, it is important that relieve study burden of students to prevent myopia from increasing.%目的 探讨中山市中小学近视情况及相关因素.方法 采用随机整群抽样调查方法.在2006年至2007年期间,对中山市中小学通过随机抽样在市区和镇区6所学校(包括市区3所镇区3所)进行调查,采用问卷调查和散瞳验光检查其屈光度.各年级间及镇区与市区之间学生近视发病率采用卡方检验,近视率与用眼时间用相关系数分析.结果 此次调查对象共9379人,近视5443人,近视率58.03%,近视率从小学一年级8.04%上升到高三86.68%,市区和镇区小学近视率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),初中阶段市区近

  9. The Utilization of Gleason Grade as the Primary Criterion for Ordering Nuclear Bone Scan in Newly Diagnosed Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad W. M. Ritenour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of nuclear bone scans for staging newly diagnosed prostate cancer has decreased dramatically due to PSA-driven stage migration. The current criteria for performing bone scans are based on limited historical data. This study evaluates serum PSA and Gleason grade in predicting positive scans in a contemporary large series of newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. Eight hundred consecutive cases of newly diagnosed prostate cancer over a 64-month period underwent a staging nuclear scan. All subjects had histologically confirmed cancer. The relationship between PSA, Gleason grade, and bone scan was examined by calculating series of crude, stratified, and adjusted odds ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Four percent (32/800 of all bone scans were positive. This proportion was significantly lower in patients with Gleason score ≤7 (1.9% vs. Gleason score ≥8 (18.8%, p 30 ng/ml compared to ≤30 ng/ml (p 10 ng/ml compared to ≤10 ng/ml (p = 0.002. The combination of Gleason score and PSA enhances predictability of bone scans in newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. The PSA threshold for ordering bone scans should be adjusted according to Gleason score. For patients with Gleason scores ≤7, we recommend a bone scan if the PSA is >30 ng/ml. However, for patients with a high Gleason score (8–10, we recommend a bone scan if the PSA is >10 ng/ml.

  10. A Study on Reading Comprehension Skills of Primary School 5th Grade Students--Learning Basic Reading and Writing Skills through Phonics-Based Sentence Method or Decoding Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusdemir Kayiran, Bilge; Karabay, Aysegul

    2012-01-01

    This research aims at investigating the influence of two methods implemented in primary reading and writing teaching programs--phonics-based sentence method and decoding (analysis) method--on primary school 5th grade students' reading comprehension achievement. Also, the study considers the relationship between socio-economic status and reading…

  11. ADHD Medication and Social Self-Understanding: Social Practice Research with a First Grade in a Danish Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Karen-Lis; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the contradictions, dilemmas, and struggles in a Danish primary school practice involved in medicating children diagnosed with ADHD. It draws on a social practice research study of a 7-year-old boy diagnosed with ADHD, who was medicated against his will. It focuses on his struggles when being medicated, and…

  12. The World of Barilla Taylor: A Primary Source-Based Kit for Students in Grades 8-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Kelly; Stearns, Liza

    1995-01-01

    Examines a primary source-based kit that describes the life of a young woman factory worker in early 19th-century New England. The kit includes five document sets, utilizing maps, newspaper articles, deeds, letters, poems, and other artifacts. The document sets illustrate various topics including mill life and personal life. (MJP)

  13. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  14. Marine Environmental Protection Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors, and Curricular Involvement of Taiwanese Primary School Students in Senior Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wen-cheng; Lu, Shiau-yun

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, rapid changes in the Earth's climate and environment have influenced our lives greatly. The ocean occupies 70% of the Earth's surface and is intimately related to the regulation of climate, fostering of life, and also to social economy, as well as sports and leisure. Students in the senior years of primary education are…

  15. Sex, Grade-Level and Stream Differences in Learning Environment and Attitudes to Science in Singapore Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Jarina; Fraser, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Learning environment research provides a well-established approach for describing and understanding what goes on in classrooms and has attracted considerable interest in Singapore. This article reports the first study of science classroom environments in Singapore primary schools. Ten scales from the What Is Happening In this Class?,…

  16. The Effects of an Individualised ICT-Based Music Education Programme on Primary School Students' Musical Competence and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bravo, Juan R.; Cardona-Moltó, M. Cristina; Hernández-Bravo, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an information and communications technology (ICT)-based individualised music education programme on primary students' musical competence. A 2 × 3 aptitude treatment interaction factorial design was used to assess the impact of the programme as a function of students' musical aptitude (MA)…

  17. Craniospinal irradiation with concurrent temozolomide for primary metastatic pediatric high-grade or diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. A first report from the GPOH-HIT-HGG Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K.; Schlamann, A.; Pietschmann, S.; Kortmann, R.D. [University Medical Center Leipzig, Department of Radiation Oncology, Leipzig (Germany); Guckenberger, M. [University Medical Center Wuerzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Warmuth-Metz, M. [University Medical Center Wuerzburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Glueck, A. [Clinic for Radiation Oncology Schwabing, Muenchen (Germany); Wawer, A. [University Medical Center Muenchen Schwabing, Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Muenchen (Germany); Kramm, C.; Bueren, A.O. von [University Medical Center Goettingen, Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Goettingen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    High-grade (HGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) with primary metastatic spread are extremely rare and have a dismal prognosis. Analogous to simultaneous radiochemotherapy in non-metastatic HGG and DIPG, concurrent craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and metronomic temozolomide (metroTMZ) may represent a reasonable therapeutic approach. However, the antitumor efficacy and toxicity of this treatment still have to be investigated. Between March 2007 and December 2012, six children with primary metastatic HGG (n=4) or DIPG (n=2) received CSI and concurrent metroTMZ based on individual treatment recommendations and, in some cases, within the HIT-HGG 2007 multicenter trial. Outcome and treatment-related toxicities were evaluated. All patients received irradiation to the entire craniospinal axis (35.2 Gy, n=5; 36 Gy, n=1:) and 5 received a local boost to macroscopic tumor deposits. Simultaneously, metroTMZ (75 mg/m{sup 2}/day, n=5; 60 mg/m{sup 2}/day, n=1) was administered. Additionally, 1 patient received nimotuzumab once per week. Within a median follow-up of 10.0 months (range 6.5-18.7 months), all patients experienced disease progression and 5 patients died. Median progression-free survival was 4.0±0.8 months (range 2.4-10.7 months) and median overall survival was 7.6±3.5 months (range 4.0-17.6 months). Acute myelosuppression most severely limited application of this aggressive treatment strategy. Severe hematotoxicities (= grade 3) occurred in all patients and metroTMZ had to be interrupted or discontinued in 4 out of 6 cases. Concurrent CSI and metroTMZ might represent a feasible treatment approach for primary metastatic HGG and DIPG. On the basis of our experience, severe but manageable acute hematotoxicity has to be expected. An international effort is warranted to reassess the efficacy and toxicity of this approach within a prospective study. (orig.)

  18. Primary School Lower Grade Writing Start Exploration%小学低年级写话起步探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘淑琴

    2014-01-01

    Chinese teaching of low grades is the starting stage of language accumulation,is the foundation of reading and writing. Using text materials in this fertile soil,combined with the characteristics of the text in some sentence paragraph,adroitly write words,reduce the difficulty of writing words,stimulate students’ interest in writing. As long as the teacher write words training consciousness,let the teaching really service for writing words,according to the characteristics of the text,making familiar text become spring head for children to write words,believe that low grade writing this piece of garden will be grass green.%低段的语文教学,是语言积累的起始阶段,是阅读与写作的基础。用好文本教材这块肥沃的土壤,结合文本中一些句段的特点,巧练写话,降低写话难度,激发学生的写话兴趣。只要老师有写话训练的意识,让教学真正为写话保驾护航,根据文本特点,让熟悉的文本成为孩子写话的源头活水,相信低年级写话这片园地里一定会芳草青青。

  19. EVALUATION OF EDUCATIONAL ABILITIES IN CHILDREN WITH MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, FIRST GRADE STUDENTS, FROM SPECIAL PRIMARY SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    KOSTIKJ-IVANOVIKJ Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Educational process for children with mild intellectual disability in special primary schools in the Republic of Macedonia is realized byspecial Curriculum for students with difficulties in psychological development, prepared by the Bureau for Development of Education from the Ministry of Education and Science. These programs are developmental, and specially adapted to the abilities and capabilities of students with intellectual disabilities. The specialeducator observing the individual chara...

  20. Mammographycally occult high grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) as second primary breast cancer, detected with MRI: a case report:

    OpenAIRE

    Zebic-Sinkovec, Marta; Kadivec, Maksimiljan; Podobnik, Gasper; Skof, Erik; Snoj, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Background Contralateral breast cancer (CLB) is the most common second primary breast cancer in patients diagnosed with breast cancer. The majority of patients harbouring CLB tumours develop the invasive disease. Almost all invasive carcinomas are believed to begin as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions. The sensitivity of MRI for DCIS is much higher than that of mammography. Case report We report the case of a woman who was treated with breast conserving therapy 10 years ago. At that tim...

  1. The investigation of the reading attitudes of second grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil İşeri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the reading attitudes of 6th, 7th and 8th level primary school students in respect to several variables using the “Reading Attitude Scale towards Primary School Second Grade Students” which is developed by Özbay and Uyar (2009. Study group consists of 508 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th levels of state primary schools in Niğde city centre. Thus, the reading attitudes of 6th, 7th and 8th level students in accordance with gender and school variables are intended to be defined. At the end of the study, the reading attitude levels of the second grade students are seen positive. It is concluded that the reading attitude score averages of second grade students show a significant difference with regard to genders, schools and classes at which they study.

  2. Selected Personal Factors as Determinants of Final Grades in Technical Drawing 2

    OpenAIRE

    Jake M. Laguador

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the interest of First Year Engineering students towards engineering program at Lyceum of the Philippines University (LPU) in Batangas City during SY 2011-2012 as the primary data in predicting the final grades of engineering students in Technical Drawing (TD) 2 together with the gender, type of high school attended and high school Grade-Point Average (GPA) as secondary data. Descriptive method of research was utilized in the study. Students with high category of GPA duri...

  3. 小学低年级写话教学的四要素%On the Four Elements in Writing Teaching for Lower Grades of Primary Schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏

    2015-01-01

    写话练习是小学低年级语文教学中必不可少的环节,新课标低年级写话的建议是使学生对写话有兴趣,写自己想说的话,写想象中的事物,写出自己对周围的认识和感想。孩子的童年是五颜六色的,诗意的色彩也是不容忽略的。因此,低年级写话需要兴趣、真实、想象和诗意四要素的结合。%Writing practice is a necessary part in lower-grade Chinese teaching of primary schools. The new curriculum stan-dard suggests that students should be interested in writing, write what they want to say and what they image, as well as their their understanding and feelings of their surroundings. Childhood is colorful, so the colors of poetic conception should not be ignored. Therefore, writing teaching for lower grades needs the integration of interest, reality, imagination and poetic conception.

  4. 小学低年级识字教学浅探%Literacy Teaching in the Lower Grades of Primary School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管小明

    2012-01-01

    识字教学是低年级语文教学的重点和难点。在整个识字教学中,要重视教给学生识字方法。笔者结合多年小学语文教学经验,总结出演示动作法、直观印象法、故事导入法、析字构成法、猜谜法、迁移法几种简便可行的识字教学法,仅供大家参考。%Literacy teaching is an important and difficult point in Chinese teaching of the lower grades.In the teaching of literacy,it is necessary to attach great importance to teaching students methods of literacy.Combining with the experience of longterm primary school lower grade language teaching,the writer sums up some simple and feasible teaching methods:demonstrating action teaching method,visual impression method,story introduction method,character-analysis method,guessing words method and reflection method.

  5. A Comparative Study of Diadochokinesis and the Rate of Reading and Talking in Second Grade Primary Students of Tehran, Iran

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    Hourieh Ahadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Children with speech and language disorders can have reduced diadochokinesis (DDK rates. Although a relationship has been proposed between DDK and the rate of speech, there is no consensus among the experts and its credibility remains questioned. The purpose of this study was to compare oral DKK with the rate of speech and reading in normal students.Methods: One hundred second grade female students participated in this descriptive-comparative study. The subjects were asked to read a text of their book, tell a story, and perform some oral DDK tasks. The elapsed time was measured by Cool Edit software. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the data. Data analysis was performed using Student t-test.Results: Time history durations of DDK tasks /tâ/, /pâ/ and /kâ/ were 4.10, 4.15 and 4.74 ms, respectively. The rate of reading was 3.1 syllables per second and rate of talking was 2.8 syllables per second. No relationship between the rate of speech and DDK was found, still, we found a significant association between the reading rate and DDK in /kâ/ (p=0.03 and /pâtâkâ/ (P<0.01.Conclusion: Relevant DDK tasks can be utilized in order to improve the reading rate. Reading rate was higher than speech rate and the rate of bilabial diadochokinesis in mono syllables is the highest rate that may be expected during the treatments.

  6. How to Cultivate Students’Writing Imagination Ability in the Middle Grade of Primary School%如何培养小学中年级学生的写作想象力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆

    2014-01-01

    Imagination plays a role which can not be ignored in Chinese writing in the middle grade of primary school , Teachers should let imagination become an important means to cultivate students' writing ability according to the personality and learning characteristics of students in primary school middle grade.%想象力在小学中年级的语文写作中起着不可忽视的作用。教师要根据小学中年级学生的个性与学习特点,让想象力成为培养学生写作能力的重要手段。

  7. Primary pulmonary low-grade marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type with prominent hyalinosis. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Masaru; Nakamura, Shigeo; Ban, Satoshi; Inagaki, Masaharu; Sugihara, Shiro; Yoshida, Katsue; Masawa, Nobuhide

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of primary pulmonary low-grade marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type with prominent sclerosis, which morphologically resembled pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma (PHG) or inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) of the lung. The patient, a 66-year-old Japanese female with a history of Sjögren's syndrome and primary biliary cirrhosis, presented with a lower left lobe mass 6.8 cm in diameter. Histologically, the lesion is characterized by dense bundles of collagen with scattered plasma cells, mature small lymphocytes, and histiocytes among the collagen bundles. Only the peripheral area of the nodule contained dense lymphoplasmacytoid and histiocytoid infiltrates. A few centrocyte-like cells were obscured by the numerous plasma cells and plasmacytoid cells. In addition, lymphoepithelial lesions and colonalized lymphoid follicles were identified by immunohistochemistry alone. Although PHG and IPT are unlikely to be confused with pulmonary MALT-type lymphomas, the present case suggests that MALT-type lymphoma should be added to the list of differential diagnoses for PHG and IPT. PMID:12498224

  8. Cardiac troponin testing in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and systemic sclerosis-spectrum disorders: biomarkers to distinguish between primary cardiac involvement and low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael; Lilleker, James B; Herrick, Ariane L; Chinoy, Hector

    2015-05-01

    Primary cardiac involvement, an under-recognised manifestation of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and systemic sclerosis (SSc)-spectrum disorders, is associated with significant mortality. Within these two conditions, traditional skeletal muscle enzyme testing may not effectively distinguish between skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement, especially in patients with subclinical cardiac disease. Accurate biomarkers are thus required to screen for cardiac disease, to better inform both therapeutic decision-making and treatment response. The widespread uptake of cardiac troponin testing has revolutionised the management of acute coronary syndromes. While cardiac troponin I (cTnI) appears specific to the myocardium, cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is also expressed by skeletal muscle, including regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There is increasing interest about the role of cardiac troponins as a putative biomarker of primary cardiac involvement in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders. Herewith we discuss subclinical cardiac disease in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders, the respective roles of cTnI and cTnT testing, and the re-expression of cTnT within regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There remains wide variation in access to cardiac troponin testing nationally and internationally. We propose two pragmatic clinical pathways using cardiac troponins, preferably measuring concomitant cTnT followed by confirmatory (cardiac) cTnI to screen patients for subclinical cardiac disease and/or low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity, and also an agenda for future research.

  9. Remission of primary low-grade gastric lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type in immunocompromised pediatric patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuharu Ohno; Taichirou Kosaka; Izumi Muraoka; Takashi Kanematsu; Akira Tsuru; Eiichi Kinoshita; Hiroyuki Moriuchi

    2006-01-01

    We report the remission of primary gastric lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type in two immunocompromised pediatric patients. Patient 1,a 14-year-old boy in an immunocompromised state of unknown cause, complained of repeated abdominal pain.Examinations revealed gastric MALT with local invasionand lymph node involvement. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) antibody was positive. H pylori eradication was abandoned due to its adverse effects. The MALT lesion spontaneously regressed over the next 24 months without any treatment for lymphoma. Patient 2, a 6-year-old boy, underwent cord blood transplantation for the treatment of adrenoleukodystrophy. He was administered immunosuppressants for graft-versus-host disease after transplantation. Nausea and hematochezia appeared and further examinations revealed gastric MALT with H pylori gastritis. Treatment consisting of medication for the H pylori infection alone eradicated the Hpylori and completely resolved the patient's MALT lesion,as well. Patients 1 and 2 were followed up over periods of 10 years and 3 years, respectively, without any signs of relapse. In conclusion, gastric lymphoma of the MALT type can be cured by conservative treatment even in immunocompromised pediatric patients.

  10. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION SUPPORTING CHILDREN WITH BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AND THEIR REFERENCE PERSONS IN LOWER PRIMARY SCHOOL (GRADES 1-3

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    Ulrike BECKER

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: in Germany we may state that despite all efforts of inclusive education there is a tendency towards segregated education as far as “Emotional and Social Development” is concerned. In Berlin, the “Transition” project could be developed. By the help of this support approach it was possible all participating children to stay at their primary schools. Aims: the survey was meant to find out in which way the support, in context of the “Transition” project, has contributed to successful inclusive learning of students with considerable problems in their social behaviour. Methods:a semi-standardized questionnaire for interviewing class teachers of regular school classes was used, and furthermore school certificates were assessed concerning regular school attendance as well as performance in Mathematics and German. Nine Berlin schools took part in the survey. The response rate was 96%. Results: the current survey shows that inclusive education in case of considerable problems in social behaviour may be successful by counselling parents and teachers, by cooperation with school and by youth aid, as well as by way of a temporary learning group relieving both students with difficult behaviour as well as the overall group and the teachers, one succeeds with practicing recognition and acceptance, even despite serious behavioural problems at school. Conclusion: the results clearly show that the teacher - student interaction and the student - student interaction improves significantly in the subjective perception of class teachers. For this relationship to work, all those participating in it need “a specific environment”.

  11. Long-term results of graded pneumatic dilatation under endoscopic guidance in patients with primary esophageal achalasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet Dobrucali; Yusuf Erzin; Murat Tuncer; Ahmet Dirican

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Achalasia is the best known primary motor disorder of the esophagus in which the lower esophageal sphincter(LES) has abnormally high resting pressure and incomplete relaxation with swallowing. Pneumatic dilatation remains the first choice of treatment. The aims of this study were to determine the long term clinical outcome of treating achalasia initially with pneumatic dilatation and usefulness of pneumatic dilatation technique under endoscopic observation without fluoroscopy.METHODS: A total of 65 dilatations were performed in 43patients with achalasia [23 males and 20 females, the mean age was 43 years (range, 19-73)]. All patients underwent an initial dilatation by inflating a 30 mm balloon to 15 psi under endoscopic control. The need for subsequent dilatation was based on symptom assessment. A 3.5 cm balloon was used for repeat procedures.RESULTS: The 30 mm balloon achieved a satisfactory result in 24 patients (54%) and the 35 mm ballon in 78% of the remainder (14/18). Esophageal perforation as a short-term complication was observed in one patient (2.3%). The only late complication encountered was gastroesophageal reflux in 2 (4%) patients with a good response to dilatation. The mean follow-up period was 2.4 years (6 mo - 5 years). Of the patients studied, 38 (88%) were relieved of their symptoms after only one or two sessions. Five patients were referred for surgery(one for esophageal perforation and four for persistent or recurrent symptoms). Among the patients whose follow up information was available, the percentage of patients in remission was 79% (19/24) at 1 year and54% (7/13) at 5 years.CONCLUSION: Performing balloon dilatation under endoscopic observation as an outpatient procedure is simple, safe and efficacious for treating patients with achalasia and referral of surgical myotomy should be considered for patients who do not respond to medical therapy or individuals that do not desire pneumatic dilatations.

  12. Prevalence and Determinants of Pre-Hypertension among Omani Adults Attending Non-Communicable Disease Screening Program in Primary Care Setting in Sohar City

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    Ali Abdullah Al-Maqbali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of pre-hypertension and its association with some selected cardiovascular risk factors among the Omani adult population in the primary healthcare setting.Method: A cross-sectional study involving a sample taken from a National Screening Program of chronic non-communicable diseases in primary healthcare institutions, Sohar city, Sultanate of Oman (July 2006 - December 2007. Inclusion criteria included Omanis aged 40 years or above residents of Sohar city attending primary healthcare institutions not previously diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or chronic kidney diseases. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the demographic, physical and metabolic characteristics. Univariate analysis was used to identify the significant association between the characteristics and normal blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension. Chi-squared test was used for categorical variables analysis and independent t-test was used for continuous variables analysis. In order to examine the strength of significant associations, the multinomial logistic regression analysis was used.Results: There were 1498 participants, 41% were males and 59% were females. Overall, pre-hypertension was observed in 45% of the total study population (95% CI: 0.422 - 0.473. There were more males affected than females (46% versus 44%. About 34% of the total study population was hypertensive. The multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that an increase of one unit of age, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and total blood cholesterol, were significantly associated with higher risk in both pre-hypertension and hypertension. High odds ratio of pre-hypertension and hypertension was found with the total blood cholesterol.Conclusion: The prevalence of pre-hypertension was high among the Omani adult population. The determinants of pre-hypertension in this research age, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and total blood

  13. Knowledge level of primary care physicians who works in Denizli city center and interns in Pamukkale University medical faculty about alzheimer disease

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    Ahmet Ergin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Many communities in the world are rapidly ageing, with aging dementia seen in the elderly, incidence and prevalence of Alzheimer and #8217;s disease which is the most common cause of dementia is also increasing. Therefore, primary care physicians will need to play a more significant role on the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer diseases in near future. The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness on Alzheimers disease among primary care physicians who works in Denizli city center and interns in the Medical Faculty in Pamukkale University. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on primary care physicians who works in Denizli city center and interns in the Medical Faculty in Pamukkale University. 93 (60.4% family physicians and 65 (89.0% interns, a total of 158 (69.6% people participated in the study. The University of Alabama Alzheimers Disease Knowledge Test which consists of 12 questions was used to determine Alzheimers disease knowledge score. Data are evaluated by descriptive statistics, and either Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the statistical differences between numeric variables. RESULTS: The mean of Alzheimers disease knowledge score of family physicians and interns were 5.16+/-1.83 and 7.34+/-1.85, respectively (p <0.001. Interns who previously took any course on Alzheimers disease had a higher average score of 8.41+/-1.67 than that of those who did not take any course 5.07+/-1.95, (p=0.04. Previous course among family physicians did not make any difference (p=0.568. CONCLUSION: Alzheimers disease knowledge among primary care physicians and interns is insufficient. Authorities should take the necessary actions to improve this situatio [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 131-136

  14. Primary and secondary contributions to aerosol light scattering and absorption in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    OpenAIRE

    G. Paredes-Miranda; W. P. Arnott; Jimenez, J. L.; Aiken, A. C.; J. S. Gaffney; Marley, N. A.

    2008-01-01

    A photoacoustic spectrometer, a nephelometer, an aetholemeter, and an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to measure at ground level real-time aerosol light absorption, scattering, and chemistry at an urban site located in north east Mexico City (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexican Petroleum Institute, denoted by IMP), as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environments field experiment, MILAGRO, in March 2006. Photoacoustic and reciprocal nephelometer measurements at 532 ...

  15. A TEXTLINGUISTIC APPROACH TO THE ACTIVITIES EXISTED IN THE THEME OF ‘EMOTIONS’ IN THE TURKISH TEXTBOOK OF THE EIGTH GRADE OF PRIMARY EDUCATION

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    İlker AYDIN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this study, the activities prepared for the parsing of the short stories titled “Nerede İnsan Varsa Orada Umut Vardır, Kedi Ağaca Çıktı and Hazır Olun Fırtına Geliyor” reviewed within the context of emotions, in the Turkish textbooks of the eighth grade of primary education, were studied within the framework of the standards of the textlinguistics. The activities of the title of ‘The Understanding and Analysis of the Text’ were parsed and commented by the method of descriptive analysis but it was observed that the activities in question remained at the level of microstructure. The activities called as the word exercises are evaluated as the activities in which the functions and the contextual meanings of the words, in the fiction of the story, are not examined and which are not incompatible with the coherence and cohesion of the text and which aim only to teach the lexical meaning of the words. In the analyzed texts, it was not paid attention to the reiterations and proforms which knit the story as a whole and lead to the semantic macrostructure. In the Turkish teaching program (6-8th grades, the acquisitions of the title of ‘The Understanding and Analysis of the Text Read’ have generally a textlinguistic feature however the activities prepared to reach these acquisitions are inadequate to gain the students the competence of communication requiring the internalizing of the notion ‘text’, understanding and producing of the text by the students. In this respect, it is recommended to re-prepare the activities in the student workbooks to reveal the macrostructure of the text.

  16. Integration of BOLD-fMRI and DTI into radiation treatment planning for high-grade gliomas located near the primary motor cortexes and corticospinal tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of integrating the blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data into radiation treatment planning for high-grade gliomas located near the primary motor cortexes (PMCs) and corticospinal tracts (CSTs). A total of 20 patients with high-grade gliomas adjacent to PMCs and CSTs between 2012 and 2014 were recruited. The bilateral PMCs and CSTs were located in the normal regions without any overlapping with target volume of the lesions. BOLD-fMRI, DTI and conventional MRI were performed on patients (Karnofsky performance score ≥ 70) before radical radiotherapy treatment. Four different imaging studies were conducted in each patient: a planning computed tomography (CT), an anatomical MRI, a DTI and a BOLD-fMRI. For each case, three treatment plans (3DCRT, IMRT and IMRT-PMC&CST) were developed by 3 different physicists using the Pinnacle planning system. Our study has shown that there was no significant difference between the 3DCRT and IMRT plans in terms of dose homogeneity, but IMRT displayed better planning target volume (PTV) dose conformity. In addition, we have found that the Dmax and Dmean to the ipsilateral and contralateral PMC and CST regions were considerably decreased in IMRT-PMC&CST group (p < 0.001). In conclusion, integration of BOLD-fMRI and DTI into radiation treatment planning is feasible and beneficial. With the assistance of the above-described techniques, the bilateral PMCs and CSTs adjacent to the target volume could be clearly marked as OARs and spared during treatment

  17. 吉林市城区某小学英语成绩影响因素调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of the Related Influencing Factors on English Subjects in a Primary School of Jilin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳晴; 陈建军; 周忠玲

    2015-01-01

    Purpose] In order to provide ideas for improving primary school students English learning effect and education counter⁃measures, investigate the related influencing factors about the city primary school English subjects. [Method] Choose 148 stu⁃dents in four classes from Grade Five in a primary school of Jilin City as the investigation objects, and use questionnaire and inter⁃view method, investigate some correlation factors of primary school English discipline result distribution, use Excel 2003 and SPSS13.0 for data collection and analysis. [Result] The influence factors selected in this investigation, in addition to the correlation of gender is not obvious (P>0.05), the habits of using the English dictionaries, mother's level of education, extra-class continuation training, the differences of Chinese and mathematics achievement are related to the primary school students ’English achievement distribution (P<0.05). [Conclusion] During the process of primary school English education teaching, pay attention to the family ed⁃ucation, especially the mother’s education, develop a good habit of using dictionaries, the importance of the intensive language training, at the same time, also pay attention to the relationship of the students' balanced development of the subject and the Eng⁃lish language expertise.%[目的]调查分析城区小学生英语学科成绩的相关影响因素,为提高小学生英语学习效果与教育对策提供思路。[方法]选择吉林市城区某小学的五年级4个班的全体148名学生为调查对象,采用问卷调和访谈法,对小学生英语学科成绩分布的一些相关性因素进行调查,并用Excel2003和SPSS13.0进行数据整理与分析。[结果]在本调查所选择的影响因素中,除性别的相关性不明显外(P>0.05),英语词典使用习惯、母亲受教育程度、课外补习培训、语文和数学学科成绩的不同,都与小学生的英语

  18. Impact of the ABCDE triage in primary care emergency department on the number of patient visits to different parts of the health care system in Espoo City

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    Kantonen Jarmo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Finnish emergency departments (ED serve both primary and secondary health care patients and are therefore referred to as combined emergency departments. Primary care doctors are responsible for the initial assessment and treatment. They, thereby, also regulate referral and access to secondary care. Primary health care EDs are easy for the public to access, leading to non-acute patient visits to the emergency department. This has caused increased queues and unnecessary difficulties in providing immediate treatment for urgent patients. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether the flow of patients was changed by implementing the ABCDE-triage system in the EDs of Espoo City, Finland. Methods The numbers of monthly visits to doctors were recorded before and after intervention in Espoo primary care EDs. To study if the implementation of the triage system redirects patients to other health services, the numbers of monthly visits to doctors were also scored in the private health care, the public sector health services of Espoo primary care during office hours and local secondary health care ED (Jorvi hospital. A face-to-face triage system was applied in the primary care EDs as an attempt to provide immediate treatment for the most acute patients. It is based on the letters A (patient sent directly to secondary care, B (to be examined within 10 min, C (to be examined within 1 h, D (to be examined within 2 h and E (no need for immediate treatment for assessing the urgency of patients' treatment needs. The first step was an initial patient assessment by a health care professional (triage nurse. The introduction of this triage system was combined with information to the public on the "correct" use of emergency services. Results After implementation of the ABCDE-triage system the number of patient visits to a primary care doctor decreased by up to 24% (962 visits/month as compared to the three previous years in the EDs

  19. Molecular MRI differentiation between primary central nervous system lymphomas and high-grade gliomas using endogenous protein-based amide proton transfer MR imaging at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shanshan [Southern Medical University, Department of Radiology, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yu, Hao; Wang, Xianlong; Lu, Shilong; Feng, Lyujin; Wen, Zhibo [Southern Medical University, Department of Radiology, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Li, Yufa [Southern Medical University, Department of Pathology, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Yi; Heo, Hye-Young; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Zhou, Jinyuan [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To show the ability of using the amide proton transfer-weighted (APTW) MRI signals as imaging biomarkers to differentiate primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) from high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Eleven patients with lymphomas and 21 patients with HGGs were examined. Magnetization-transfer (MT) spectra over an offset range of ±6 ppm and the conventional MT ratio (MTR) at 15.6 ppm were acquired. The APTW signals, total chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer signal (integral between 0 and 5 ppm, CEST{sub total}), and MTR signal were obtained and compared between PCNSLs and HGGs. The diagnostic performance was assessed with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The PCNSLs usually showed more homogeneous APTW hyperintensity (spatially compared to normal brain tissue) than the HGGs. The APTW{sub max}, APTW{sub max-min} and CEST{sub total} signal intensities were significantly lower (P < 0.05, 0.001 and 0.05, respectively), while the APTW{sub min} and MTR were significantly higher (both P < 0.01) in PCNSL lesions than in HGG lesions. The APTW values in peritumoral oedema were significantly lower for PCNSLs than for HGGs (P < 0.01). APTW{sub max-min} had the highest area under the ROC curve (0.963) and accuracy (94.1 %) in differentiating PCNSLs from HGGs. The protein-based APTW signal would be a valuable MRI biomarker by which to identify PCNSLs and HGGs presurgically. (orig.)

  20. Potential prescription patterns and errors in elderly adult patients attending public primary health care centers in Mexico City

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    José Antonio Corona-Rojo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available José Antonio Corona-Rojo1, Marina Altagracia-Martínez1, Jaime Kravzov-Jinich1, Laura Vázquez-Cervantes1, Edilberto Pérez-Montoya2, Consuelo Rubio-Poo31Division of Biological Sciences and Health, Metropolitan Autonomous University, Campus Xochimilco (UAM-X, Xochimilco, México; 2National Polytechnical Institute (IPN, México DF; 3Faculty of Higher Studies – Zaragoza (FES-Zaragoza, National Autonomous University of México (UNAM, México City, MéxicoIntroduction: Six out of every 10 elderly persons live in developing countries.Objective: To analyze and assess the drug prescription patterns and errors in elderly outpatients attending public health care centers in Mexico City, Mexico.Materials and methods: A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in 2007. Fourteen hundred prescriptions were analyzed. Prescriptions of ambulatory adults aged >70 years who were residents of Mexico City for at least two years were included. Prescription errors were divided into two groups: (1 administrative and legal, and (2 pharmacotherapeutic. In group 2, we analyzed drug dose strength, administration route, frequency of drug administration, treatment length, potential drug–drug interactions, and contraindications. Variables were classified as correct or incorrect based on clinical literature. Variables for each drug were dichotomized as correct (0 or incorrect (1. A Prescription Index (PI was calculated by considering each drug on the prescription. SPSS statistical software was used to process the collected data (95% confidence interval; p < 0.05.Results: The drug prescription pattern in elderly outpatients shows that 12 drugs account for 70.72% (2880 of prescribed drugs. The most prescribed drugs presented potential pharmacotherapeutic errors (as defined in the present study. Acetylsalicylic acid–captopril was the most common potential interaction (not clinically assessed. Potential prescription error was high (53% of total prescriptions. Most

  1. 焦作市中小学教师职业紧张状况及其影响因素%Occupational stress and its influencing factors among teachers in primary and secondary schools of Jiaozu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽敏; 张洁; 李云霞; 安伟锋; 李蓬

    2012-01-01

    group scored higher in professional tasks and coping resources. The graduating class teachers had more occupational stress tasks, stronger stress response and less coping resources. The personal stress reaction and operational stress response from strong to weak were village level, township level, district level and city level. Municipal school teachers' coping resource got the highest score. The personal stress reaction was mainly affected by grade, school level, occupational tasks overload, task boundaries, sense of responsibility, work environment and rational way. [ Conclusion] Stress problem of different degrees exist in primary and secondary school teachers in Jiaozuo City. It is necessary to reduce the teacher occupational tasks, improve working conditions and enhance the personal coping resources for prevention and control.

  2. Primary and secondary contributions to aerosol light scattering and absorption in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Jimenez, J. L.; Aiken, A. C.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2009-06-01

    A photoacoustic spectrometer, a nephelometer, an aethalometer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to measure at ground level real-time aerosol light absorption, scattering, and chemistry at an urban site located in North East Mexico City (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexican Petroleum Institute, denoted by IMP), as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environments field experiment, MILAGRO, in March 2006. Photoacoustic and reciprocal nephelometer measurements at 532 nm accomplished with a single instrument compare favorably with conventional measurements made with an aethalometer and a TSI nephelometer. The diurnally averaged single scattering albedo at 532 nm was found to vary from 0.60 to 0.85 with the peak value at midday and the minimum value at 07:00 a.m. local time, indicating that the Mexico City plume is likely to have a net warming effect on local climate. The peak value is associated with strong photochemical generation of secondary aerosol. It is estimated that the photochemical production of secondary aerosol (inorganic and organic) is approximately 75% of the aerosol mass concentration and light scattering in association with the peak single scattering albedo. A strong correlation of aerosol scattering at 532 nm and total aerosol mass concentration was found, and an average mass scattering efficiency factor of 3.8 m2/g was determined. Comparisons of photoacoustic and aethalometer light absorption with oxygenated organic aerosol concentration (OOA) indicate a very small systematic bias of the filter based measurement associated with OOA and the peak aerosol single scattering albedo.

  3. Potential prescription patterns and errors in elderly adult patients attending public primary health care centers in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Rojo, José Antonio; Altagracia-Martínez, Marina; Kravzov-Jinich, Jaime; Vázquez-Cervantes, Laura; Pérez-Montoya, Edilberto; Rubio-Poo, Consuelo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Six out of every 10 elderly persons live in developing countries. Objective To analyze and assess the drug prescription patterns and errors in elderly outpatients attending public health care centers in Mexico City, Mexico. Materials and methods A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in 2007. Fourteen hundred prescriptions were analyzed. Prescriptions of ambulatory adults aged >70 years who were residents of Mexico City for at least two years were included. Prescription errors were divided into two groups: (1) administrative and legal, and (2) pharmacotherapeutic. In group 2, we analyzed drug dose strength, administration route, frequency of drug administration, treatment length, potential drug–drug interactions, and contraindications. Variables were classified as correct or incorrect based on clinical literature. Variables for each drug were dichotomized as correct (0) or incorrect (1). A Prescription Index (PI) was calculated by considering each drug on the prescription. SPSS statistical software was used to process the collected data (95% confidence interval; p <0.05). Results The drug prescription pattern in elderly outpatients shows that 12 drugs account for 70.72% (2880) of prescribed drugs. The most prescribed drugs presented potential pharmacotherapeutic errors (as defined in the present study). Acetylsalicylic acid–captopril was the most common potential interaction (not clinically assessed). Potential prescription error was high (53% of total prescriptions). Most of the prescription errors were due to omissions of dosage, administration route, and length of treatment and may potentially cause harm to the elderly outpatients. Conclusions A high number of potential prescription errors were found, mainly due to omissions. The drug prescription pattern of the study population is mainly constituted by 12 drugs. The results indicate that prescription quality depends on the number of prescribed drugs per prescription (p < 0

  4. Primary and secondary contributions to aerosol light scattering and absorption in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paredes-Miranda

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A photoacoustic spectrometer, a nephelometer, an aetholemeter, and an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to measure at ground level real-time aerosol light absorption, scattering, and chemistry at an urban site located in north east Mexico City (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexican Petroleum Institute, denoted by IMP, as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environments field experiment, MILAGRO, in March 2006. Photoacoustic and reciprocal nephelometer measurements at 532 nm accomplished with a single instrument compare favorably with conventional measurements made with an aethelometer and a TSI nephelometer. The diurnally averaged single scattering albedo at 532 nm was found to vary from 0.60 to 0.85 with the peak value at midday and the minimum value at 7 a.m. local time, indicating that the Mexico City plume is likely to have a net warming effect on local climate. The peak value is associated with strong photochemical generation of secondary aerosol. It is estimated that the same-day photochemical production of secondary aerosol (inorganic and organic is approximately 40 percent of the aerosol mass concentration and light scattering in association with the peak single scattering albedo. A strong correlation of aerosol scattering at 532 nm and total aerosol mass concentration was found, and an average mass scattering efficiency factor of 3.8 m2/g was determined. Comparisons of photoacoustic and aethalometer light absorption with oxygenated organic aerosol concentration (OOA indicate a very small systematic bias of the filter based measurement associated with OOA and the peak aerosol single scattering albedo.

  5. Primary and secondary contributions to aerosol light scattering and absorption in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paredes-Miranda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A photoacoustic spectrometer, a nephelometer, an aethalometer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to measure at ground level real-time aerosol light absorption, scattering, and chemistry at an urban site located in North East Mexico City (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexican Petroleum Institute, denoted by IMP, as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environments field experiment, MILAGRO, in March 2006. Photoacoustic and reciprocal nephelometer measurements at 532 nm accomplished with a single instrument compare favorably with conventional measurements made with an aethalometer and a TSI nephelometer. The diurnally averaged single scattering albedo at 532 nm was found to vary from 0.60 to 0.85 with the peak value at midday and the minimum value at 07:00 a.m. local time, indicating that the Mexico City plume is likely to have a net warming effect on local climate. The peak value is associated with strong photochemical generation of secondary aerosol. It is estimated that the photochemical production of secondary aerosol (inorganic and organic is approximately 75% of the aerosol mass concentration and light scattering in association with the peak single scattering albedo. A strong correlation of aerosol scattering at 532 nm and total aerosol mass concentration was found, and an average mass scattering efficiency factor of 3.8 m2/g was determined. Comparisons of photoacoustic and aethalometer light absorption with oxygenated organic aerosol concentration (OOA indicate a very small systematic bias of the filter based measurement associated with OOA and the peak aerosol single scattering albedo.

  6. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Primary School Children Aged 8–13 Years in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangani, Ismail N.; Kiplamai, Festus K.; Kamau, Jane W.; Onywera, Vincent O.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The understanding of obesity as a growing health problem in Africa and Tanzania in particular is hampered by lack of data as well as sociocultural beliefs in which overweight and obesity are revered. This study sought to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children aged 8–13 years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Method. A cross-sectional analytical research design was used to study overweight and obesity in primary schools in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The target population was 150,000 children aged 8–13 years. Stratified random sampling was used to select 1781 children. Weight and height were taken and WHO standards for children were used to determine weight status. Results. Findings showed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.9% and 6.7%, respectively (N = 1781). However, 6.2% of the children were underweight. There were significant differences in mean BMI between children in private and public schools (p = 0.021), between male and female (p obesity among primary school children is significant and requires management and prevention strategies.

  7. Investigation on intestinal helminth infection in primary school students in Nanning city%南宁市小学生肠道蠕虫感染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡缨; 李艳文; 石焕焕

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解南宁市小学生肠道蠕虫感染现状,为儿童保健及寄生虫病防治工作提供科学依据.方法:按照自愿受检的原则,对南宁市12所小学的5 769名学生进行肠道蠕虫的病原学检查,并分析阳性者的感染情况.结果:肠道蠕虫总感染率为6.74% (389/5 769),均为单一虫种和轻度感染;蛔虫、鞭虫和钩虫的总感染率为2.84% (164/5 769),感染率城乡差异明显,男女生感染率差异无统计学意义,低年级组学生感染率最高;华支睾吸虫感染率为3.90% (225/5 769),感染率城乡差异明显,男女生感染率差异有统计学意义,高年级组学生感染率最高;感染者大多有不良饮食习惯和或卫生习惯.结论:只有全面推进和落实健康教育工作,才能降低肠道蠕虫感染,切实保护儿童身体健康.%Objective: To understand the current situation of intestinal helminth infection in primary school students in Nanning city, and provide a scientific basis for child health care and prevention and control of parasitic diseases. Methods: According to the principle of voluntariness, etiological examination of intestinal helminth was conducted among 5 769 students from 12 primary schools in Nanning city, and the infectious status of positive cases was analyzed. Results: The total infection rate of intestinal helminth was 6.74% (389/ 5 769) , all the cases were infected by simple intestinal helminth and the infection was mild; the total infection rate of roundworm, whipworm, and hookworm was 2. 84% (164/5 769) , the difference of infection rate between urban areas and rural areas was significant, there was no statistically significant difference in the infection rate between boys and girls, the infection rate in low - grade students was the highest; the infection rate of clonorchis sinensis was 3. 90% (225/5 769) , the difference of infection rate between urban areas and rural areas was significant, there was statistically significant

  8. Sport injury among primary and middle school students in Shenzhen city;a retrospective study%深圳市中小学生运动伤害现况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌清琼; 王峰娟; 周丽; 吴小敏; 陈青山

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of sports injuries among primary and middle school students and to provide related preventive measures. Methods A retrospective survey on injuries during previous one year was conducted among 3 600 primary and middle school students selected by means of stratified cluster sampling in Shenzhen city. Results The incidence of sports injuries was 21.61%. The injury incidence of third grade students(9. 62% ) was lower than that of other grades. The boys had a higher injury incidence than girls (23. 93 % vs 18.40% ), the only-child higher than the non-only-child( 26. 43% vs 18. 24% ), and the children from temporary household higher than the permanent residential children (24. 07% vs 18. 53% ). Running,playing basketball and soccer,and skating/skateboard were the main sports causing injuries. The students reported 1 536 absenses of class, 4 994 days of activity limitation, and 66 460 RMB yuan of medical expenses due to the injuries. Classification tree analysis showed that playing was the most important risk factor and the boys who liked playing and imitation or mischief were at a higher risk of injury. Conclusion The rate of sport injuries among school children in Shenzhen city is high. Safe management and education should be strengthened in order to prevent injuries among the school children.%目的 了解广东省深圳市中小学生运动伤害现况及影响因素,以减少运动伤害的发生.方法 分层整群抽取3 540名深圳市中小学生,回顾性调查1年间运动伤害情况.结果 中小学运动伤害发生率为21.61%,3年级(9.62%)低于其他年级,男生(23.93%)高于女生(18.40%),独生子女(26.43%)高于非独生子女(18.24%),暂住户籍(24.07%)高于本地户籍(18.53%);导致伤害的运动主要是跑步(31.76%)和篮球(26.93%);不同运动导致伤害的部位和伤害后果不同,伤害后累计缺课1 536节,活动受限4 994.5 d,医疗费用66 460元;分类树分析显示,打

  9. Nebraska Vocational Agribusiness Curriculum for City Schools. Career Opportunities in Agribusiness. Basic Skill in Agribusiness. A Curriculum Guide. 10th Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Designed for use with high school sophomores, this agribusiness curriculum for city schools contains thirty-one units of instruction in the areas of career opportunities in agribusiness and vocational agribusiness skills. Among the units included are (1) Career Selection, (2) Parliamentary Procedure and Public Speaking, (3) Career Opportunities in…

  10. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modeling and Analysis of the Proposed Channel Modifications and Grade Control Structure on the Blue River near Byram's Ford Industrial Park, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Blue River Channel Modification project being implemented by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is intended to provide flood protection within the Blue River valley in the Kansas City, Mo., metropolitan area. In the latest phase of the project, concerns have arisen about preserving the Civil War historic area of Byram's Ford and the associated Big Blue Battlefield while providing flood protection for the Byram's Ford Industrial Park. In 1996, the USACE used a physical model built at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) in Vicksburg, Miss., to examine the feasibility of a proposed grade control structure (GCS) that would be placed downstream from the historic river crossing of Byram's Ford to provide a subtle transition of flow from the natural channel to the modified channel. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USACE, modified an existing two-dimensional finite element surface-water model of the river between 63d Street and Blue Parkway (the 'original model'), used the modified model to simulate the existing (as of 2006) unimproved channel and the proposed channel modifications and GCS, and analyzed the results from the simulations and those from the WES physical model. Modifications were made to the original model to create a model that represents existing (2006) conditions between the north end of Swope Park immediately upstream from 63d Street and the upstream limit of channel improvement on the Blue River (the 'model of existing conditions'). The model of existing conditions was calibrated to two measured floods. The model of existing conditions also was modified to create a model that represents conditions along the same reach of the Blue River with proposed channel modifications and the proposed GCS (the 'model of proposed conditions'). The models of existing conditions and proposed conditions were used to simulate the 30-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence floods. The discharge from the calibration flood of May 15, 1990, also

  11. Career Education Program: Geneva Area City Schools. [Grade 3 Units: Money and Banking, Weather, The Hospital Emergency Room, and Let's Go to Town].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    Four curriculum units for the third grade level focus on: (1) weather station jobs and the weather prediction system; (2) hospital emergency room workers and the room's function; (3) bank workers and the banking industry; and (4) various urban workers. Behavioral objectives linking the units focus on increasing students' awareness of and…

  12. related Factors of complete basic Immunization on children and Vaccine Management at Primary Health care and Health Post in X Subdistrict Depok city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Afriani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available background:Immunization is an effective primary prevention against infectious diseases on children. The purpose of this study was to determine the related factors to the completeness of basic immunization on children and vaccine management at primary health care and posyandu in X Subdistric, Depok City. Methods:The study used a cross-sectional design with a sample of 140 mothers of children aged at least 11 months, and qualitatif study about vaccines management. Mother and child data collection using questionnaires and child health card (Kartu Menuju Sehat in December 2012–May 2013. Vaccine management data was collected at 2 primary health care and 2 posyandu with interview and observation. Data analysis was performed with Chi-square test. result:The largest percentage of mothers who have children under the age of at least 11 months of age <30 years, at least graduated from junior high school education, no work, have a low knowledge about immunization. Vaccine management in clinics and neighborhood health center for storage after use of vaccines in posyandu not be returned to the community health center, recording and reporting is not done on the book of the records so that the possibility of scattered or lost, and the person in charge of managing the vaccine instead of pharmacy personnel. Residual use of the vaccine in posyandu not directly returned to the health center. Recording the use of vaccines in posyandu not carried on the books, so it is probable scattered or lost. Manager vaccine at primary health care should a technical pharmacy in accordance with Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009 conclusion: Completeness of basic immunization of children under one years old (82,9%, incomplete biggest measles immunization (15,0%. Factors parental characteristics (age, education, occupation, knowledge and the availability of the vaccine were not significantly associated with children complete basic immunization. recommendation: Improving health

  13. Investigation on Myopia of Primary and Middle School Students in Rushan City in 2014%乳山市2014年中小学生近视状况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杭; 刘迎春; 王俊凤

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the status of myopia of primary and middle school students in Rushan city to provide basis to make further intervention measures.Method:1932 students in two primary and middle schools were selected by stratified cluster random sampling ,it included 1036 pupils and 896 junior school students,all of them were conducted visual inspection and questionnaire survey.Result:There were 1009 students suffer short-sightedness.The detection rate was 52.22%.Patients with mild myopia were 658,which was 65.21%;patients with mild to moderate myopia were 220,which was 21.86%;patients with high degrees of myopia were 131,which was 12.93%.The total incidence rate of pupils suffered short-sightedness was 41%;incidence rate in one to the fifth grade in primary school was respectively 24%,32%,42%,49%,60%. The total incidence rate of junior school students sufferd short-sightedness was 64%;incidence rate in six to nine grade was respectively 62%,65%,65%,69%.Conclusion:The prevalence rate of myopia is high among the investigated primary and middle school students,and increased obviously with the increase of the grate, targeted intervention measures should be taken to effective prevente the myopia.%目的:调查乳山市中小学生近视状况,为进一步制定干预措施提供依据。方法:分层整群随机抽取本市各2所中小学校的1932名学生进行视力检查和问卷调查,其中小学生1036人,中学生896人。结果:共有1009名学生患有近视,检出率为52.22%;其中,轻度近视658名,占65.21%;中度近视220名,占21.86%;重度近视131名,占12.93%。小学生总发病率为41%,小学一至五年级的发病率依次为24%、32%、42%、49%、60%;初中生总发病率为65%,六至九年级的发病率依次为62%、65%、65%、69%。结论:被调查的中小学生群体近视患病率较高,随着年级的升高,学生的近视眼率呈明显上升趋势,近视程度也在不断加深,

  14. 西安市城区六年级超重肥胖学生BMI及其影响因素分析%The BMI of the sixth grade students with overweight and obesity in Xi'an city and their related influencing fac-tors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 张月芳; 杨丽芳; 俱西驰; 张欢; 郭萌

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解西安城区六年级超重肥胖学生饮食、运动状况,为制定儿童超重肥胖的预防措施提供科学依据。方法回顾性分析西安城区295名六年级超重肥胖小学生2009-2012年体重指数(BM I)变化情况;问卷调查其饮食习惯及运动状况。结果2009-2012年超重肥胖学生BM I值呈逐年上升趋势( P<0.001)。超重肥胖儿童食欲好、进食速度快、每天坚持吃早餐人数少、喜吃甜食、有睡前加餐及喝奶习惯。超重肥胖学生看电视打游戏的时间长,而户外运动时间短。结论不良的饮食习惯及静态活动多而户外活动少等是小学高年级学生发展为超重肥胖儿童的影响因素。%Objective To invesgate diet habits and movement conditions for the sixth grade students with overweight and obesity in Xi'an City ,and provide scientific preventive measures about overweight and obesity .Methods 295 sixth grade students with overweight and obesity from Xi'an City were studied about body mass index (BMI) changes in 2009-2012 years ;known their diet habits and movement type through questionnaires .Results Their BMI value increased year by year (P<0 . 001) .The students had some bad habits ,including overeating ,eating fast and eating breakfast fewer .They liked eating sweets and snacks ,drinking milk before sleep .They spended much more time on watching TV and playing games .Their outdoor sports time was shorter .Conclusion The influencing factors about overweight and obese of high grade students in primary school are various ,mainly including bad diet habits and more static activities and less outdoor activities .

  15. An Example of Democracy Education in Primary Schools: School Student Councils (Case of Elazığ City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri GÖMLEKSİZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this descriptive study is to determine the opinions of primary schoolteachers and members of student councils about the efficiency level of the student councils inprimary schools. For the purpose of the study, a 20-item Likert-type scale was developed bythe researchers. Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient of the scale was calculated to be .94.245 students and 199 primary school teachers were included in the study. Independent groupsT-test, One way Anova and LSD tests were utilized to analyze the data. Both the teachers’and the students’ views were evaluated in terms of socio-economic levels of the schools. Theresults of the study indicated that both the teachers and the students found student council activities effective and useful. Findings also revealed that teachers and students had positiveopinions toward student councils. It is suggested that student council activities be maintained.Additionally, some useful implications are discussed based on the research findings in orderto conduct student councils effectively.

  16. Actual Condition of Quality Control of X-ray Imaging System in Primary Care Institution: focused on Gwangju Metropolitan City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the expanded use of radiation in modern medical practices, the most important issue in regards to efforts to reduce individual exposure dose is quality assurance. Therefore in order to study the present condition of quality assurance, the Gwangju Metropolitan City area was divided into five districts each containing ten hospitals. Four experiments were conducted: a reproducibility experiment for kVp, mA, and examination time (sec) intensity of illumination; half-value layer (HVL) measurement; and beam perpendicularity test matching experiment. The tube voltage reproducibility experiment for all fifty hospitals resulted in a 95.33% passing rate and mA and examination time both resulted in a 77.0% passing rate. The passing rate for intensity of illumination was 86.0% and 52.0% for HVL, which was the lowest passing rate of all four factors. For the beam perpendicularity test matching experiment, generally the central flux is matched to within 1.5.deg. . Of all fifty hospitals 30.0% were beyond 3.deg. . The results of the survey showed that 58% responded that they knew about quality assurance cycle. All fifty respondents stated that they have not received any training in regards to quality assurance at their current place of employment. Although quality assurance is making relative progress, the most urgent issue is awareness of the importance of quality assurance. Therefore, the implementation of professional training focusing on safety management and accurate quality assurance of radiation will reduce the exposure to radiation for radiologists and patients and higher quality imaging using less dosage will also be possible

  17. The appropriateness to level of values cultural for humanities course in 3rd year of primary schools according to teachers' views (standart definition- Erzurum city sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürbüz Ocak

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish the contextual standards of the social studies lesson in the third year primary school by analyzing the views of teachers. Thus, with the help of literature mien: the questionnaire for the contextual standards of social studies lesson a as developed depending on the views of teachers and standards were grouped according to the importance of factors. Whit this questionnaire some features of the contextual standards of the social studies lesson were anal, %ed. For example their appropriateness to the level of value cultural and the existence in context {textbooks sere examined. In the study a survey method was used. Subjects were 533 teachers in 36 primary schools selected out of 70 with a random sampling technique in Erzurum city. The data from 374 received questionnaires were analyzed by using frequency, percentage, and square techniques with SPSS at the ?:0,05 significance level As result of the statistical analyses, the developed standards were supported by teachers according to their appropriateness to the level of values cultural 98.9%, but to their existence in context fin the textbook 14.6%. 85.4% of the teachers decided that standards do not exist in the context.

  18. [Family Health Support Centers: challenges and opportunities from the perspective of primary care professionals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andréa Tenório Correia da; Aguiar, Márcia Ernani de; Winck, Kelly; Rodrigues, Karen Gonzaga Walter; Sato, Mariana Eri; Grisi, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero; Brentani, Alexandra; Rios, Izabel Cristina

    2012-11-01

    Family Health Support Centers (NASF) were created in Brazil to increase the case-resolution capacity of primary healthcare. Prior to their implementation in the West Side of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, a series of workshops were held for primary healthcare professionals to prepare a proposal for such centers. Hermeneutic analysis was used to study the transcribed material. The thematic categories were: role, constitution, and functioning of the NASF, relationship with family health teams, and interdisciplinarity. The participants' expected the NASF to be an empowering device for comprehensiveness of care, intervening in an existing culture of unnecessary referrals while fostering linkage with other levels of care. The participants also expected the NASF to contribute to the discussion on health professionals' training and stimulating reflection with policymakers on health indicators based exclusively on the number of consultations. These indicators fail to reflect the impact on the services' activities and the quality of care offered to the population in the coverage area. PMID:23147949

  19. Nutritional Status of Primary and Secondary School Students in Weihui City%卫辉市中小学生营养现状调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂强强; 张子祥; 朱建勇; 范静怡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the nutritional status of primary and secondary school students in Weihui city, Henan province, so as to provide basis for improving health - care in schools. Methods According to the physical examination data of primary and secondary students in Weihui city during 2011 -2012 academic year, physical health indicators of which were statistically analyzed. Results Totally 46 511 students within 6-15 years old were examined. Detect rates of malnutrition, low weight status, obesity and over weight were respectively 7. 17% , 45. 6% , 6. 60% and 3. 75%. Additionally, it showed significant differences with respect of areas and gender when combining the detection rates of malnutrition and low weight. The combined detection rates of schoolboys and schoolgirls in rural areas and urban areas were 56. 14% , 55. 28% , 50. 58% and 45. 07% , respectively. Conclusion Malnutrition and low weight are prevalent in primary and secondary students, especially the rural ones.%目的 了解河南省卫辉市中小学生的营养状况,为开展学校卫生保健工作提供依据.方法 依据2011-2012学年卫辉市46 511名6~15岁小学、初中学生体检资料,根据身高标准体重值,进行营养状况分析.结果 该市中小学生营养不良、较低体重、肥胖、超重检出率依次为7.17%、45.60%、6.60%和3.75%;学生营养不良、较低体重合并检出率有城乡、性别差异,以农村男女学生为甚,其次为城区男生、城区女生,检出率以次为56.14%、55.28%、50.58%和45.07%.结论 卫辉市中小学学生特别是农村学生营养不良、较低体重状况较重,应采取积极有效的措施实施进行干预.

  20. Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Sudanese Primary School Pupils in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayri, Hiba O; Muneer, Siddig E; Ahmed, Saifeldeen B; Osman, Magdi A; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted in Saudi Arabia to assess the nutritional status of primary school Sudanese pupils and explore its' correlates. Anthropometric measurements of 400 (200 males and 200 females) students of age 6-12 were taken. Their daily food intake was assessed using food frequency and 24 h recall method. Data about the socio-economic characteristics of the students' families was collected through personal interview using a questionnaire. The study revealed that 31 and 8.75 % of the respondents suffer from underweight and overweight, respectively. The respondents' average daily intake of calories and fiber was significantly lower than that of the DRI, while their intake of protein, carbohydrates, unsaturated fat, some vitamins and iron was significantly higher than that of the DRI (unbalanced meals). Apart from the family monthly income none of the hypothesized predictors of the respondents' nutritional status were found to be significantly correlated with the students' nutritional status indicators.

  1. Human Resources and Vaccine Management at Provincial Health Office, District/City Health Office and Primary Health Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Leny Susyanty

    2015-03-01

    (GAIN UCI 2010–2014 stated that the general problems of decline in immunization coverage and quality of service were caused by several things, one of which is the lack of quantity, quality and distribution of human resources. Methods: A cross-sectional mix-method study to investigate human resources in vaccine management had been conducted in two provinces in 2012. Primary data were collected by interviewing stakeholders thoroughly, secondary data collection and observation were also carried out. Analysis was done by scoring for data concerning education, length of employment, training experience and knowledge. Result:The number of Vaccine management officers are still lacking. While the immunization guidelines required minimal two officers for each health centers. Officers’ knowledge in primary health centers is still inadequate, especially in terms of the vaccine and Coldchain (Ice Lined Refrigerators. Officers at Provincial Health Office had been trained in vaccine management, but not all officers at District Health Office and Primary Health Centers had received training yet. Suggestion: This study suggests the addition of the quantity and quality of human resources in vaccine management, because the officers can affect the quality of the vaccines, because vaccines need a special handling to maintain the quality to provide immunity and prevent the occurrence of diseases that can be prevented by immunization (PD3I.Key words: vaccine, human resources, training, knowledge

  2. PSYCHOTROPIC MEDICINE PRESCRIPTIONS IN A PRIMARY CARE UNIT IN A BIG CITY OF SÃO PAULO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Oliveira da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming toknowthe consumptionprofileof psychotropic drugs inpopulation ofperipheral region of abig cityof São Paulo State, 800 prescriptionsfromaPrimary CareUnitareassessedaccordingto344/98-SVS/MS.In that timethecontrolof these drugs were mademanually.The results showed1371 drugsdispensedandamong those1134were psychotropic.Thetotal was64,513pillunits, an average of 107 units with 1.7 drugs per prescription, while82.1% came from public services. The total number of drugs prescribed per prescription had themajority (60.0% onedrug, 20.3%, two drugs, three drugs 11.6%, 6.6% four or moremedications, including those not controlled (14% . Twenty drugswerenot on the standard list.Of controlled, 78.4% belonged to theclassC1 and21.6% toB1.There is a large consumption ofpsychotropic medications for thispoorpopulation, with a prevalence of antidepressants. Thesubsequent implementation of the computerized system significantly reduced the units dispensed,indicating that forms of management are factors to be considered in the rational use of drugs,such as the use of technologies and also the wide range of approaches to health education, such astraining of health professionals, including prescribers

  3. 如何实施小学高年级语文阅读教学%How to Implement the Teaching of Chinese Reading in Senior Grade of Primary School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡黎红

    2014-01-01

    In the process of primary school Chinese teaching of senior grade,reading teaching is an important part of the grade five or six years of primary school Chinese teaching to cultivate the focus should be on the students’ reading ability and writing ability. Therefore,the article the author’s own teaching practice and experience, analyzes how to improve the Chinese teaching of the elementary school higher grades, promoting elementary student’s reading ability, improve efficiency of primary school Chinese teaching.%在小学语文高年级教学的过程中,阅读教学是其重要组成部分,五六年级的小学语文教学培养重点应该是学生的阅读能力与写作能力。因此,结合教学实践以及经验,对如何提高小学高年级的语文教学进行分析,旨在提升小学生的阅读能力,提升小学语文教学的效率。

  4. Anemia status of primary and middle school students in Pingdu city%平度市中小学生贫血状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋转; 李芹; 臧金林

    2015-01-01

    目的::分析平度市中小学生贫血患病状况,为制定更有针对性的贫血防治措施提供依据.方法:利用2010年平度市学生体质与健康调研所获得的贫血患病数据进行统计学分析.结果:2010年平度市共调查中小学生997人,贫血检出率为3.71%,随着年龄的增加,学生贫血检出率逐渐增高(χ2=15.53,P =0.0037),各年龄组性别比较,14岁组和17岁组男女比较有统计学意义(P <0.001),女生贫血率明显高于男生.结论:平度市中小学生贫血检出率较低,但应注意17岁年龄组学生的贫血情况,尤其是女生,加强健康干预,防治缺铁性贫血,提高儿童身体健康和智力发育水平.%Objective:To know the anemia status of primary and middle school students in Pingdu city and provide the basis for mak-ing more effective preventive therapy strategies.Methods:The surveillance data of anemia of school students in Pingdu city during 2010 were statistically analyzed.Results:A total of 997 students were surveyed in 2010 ,the incidence of anemia was 3.71 %.The rate of inci-dence of anemia was higher with the students,age increased and there was significant difference(χ2 =1 5.53,P =0.0037).The incidence of anemia in girls was significantly higher than that in boys of 14、1 7 ages(P <0.001)Conclusion:The rate of incidence of anemia of students was lower in Pingdu city,while it is necessary to pay attention to the anemia of 1 7-age group especially girl students.Improve the imple-mentation of health education in schools and enhance the self health care consciousness in students to maintain the low incidence of anemia.

  5. Anemia status of primary and middle school students in Pingdu city%平度市中小学生贫血状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋转; 李芹; 臧金林

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To know the anemia status of primary and middle school students in Pingdu city and provide the basis for mak-ing more effective preventive therapy strategies.Methods:The surveillance data of anemia of school students in Pingdu city during 2010 were statistically analyzed.Results:A total of 997 students were surveyed in 2010 ,the incidence of anemia was 3.71 %.The rate of inci-dence of anemia was higher with the students,age increased and there was significant difference(χ2 =1 5.53,P =0.0037).The incidence of anemia in girls was significantly higher than that in boys of 14、1 7 ages(P <0.001)Conclusion:The rate of incidence of anemia of students was lower in Pingdu city,while it is necessary to pay attention to the anemia of 1 7-age group especially girl students.Improve the imple-mentation of health education in schools and enhance the self health care consciousness in students to maintain the low incidence of anemia.%目的::分析平度市中小学生贫血患病状况,为制定更有针对性的贫血防治措施提供依据.方法:利用2010年平度市学生体质与健康调研所获得的贫血患病数据进行统计学分析.结果:2010年平度市共调查中小学生997人,贫血检出率为3.71%,随着年龄的增加,学生贫血检出率逐渐增高(χ2=15.53,P =0.0037),各年龄组性别比较,14岁组和17岁组男女比较有统计学意义(P <0.001),女生贫血率明显高于男生.结论:平度市中小学生贫血检出率较低,但应注意17岁年龄组学生的贫血情况,尤其是女生,加强健康干预,防治缺铁性贫血,提高儿童身体健康和智力发育水平.

  6. 浅析绵阳生态城市建设%Primary Analysis for the Establishment of Ecological City of Mianyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新合

    2005-01-01

    This paper probes into the establishment of ecological city of Mianyang and directive thoughts, measures,and countermoves are put forward based on analyzing the current situation about ecological environment of Mianyang City.

  7. On the Current Situation and Countermeasures of Prima-ry School Writing Grading%小学作文评改现状及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉

    2015-01-01

    Students' interest in writing determines the effective-ness of writing teaching, while the traditional refined model of writing grading wastes a lot of time and energy, and even becomes the top factor reducing students' interest in writing, and leading to a vicious circle of writing teaching in which teachers are disgust-ed with writing grading and students are disgusted with writing. Therefore, we should break the traditional model of writing grad-ing, clarify the grading standards, implement grade evaluation, encourage students' self-grading and carry out online grading, in order to improve the efficiency of writing grading and stimulate students' interest in writing.%学生作文兴趣的高低决定着作文教学的成败,然而传统的教师精批细改的作文评改模式,耗时费力,收效甚微,甚至成为扼杀学生作文兴趣的罪魁祸首,使作文教学陷入了教师厌改、学生厌写的恶性循环。打破传统作文评改模式,明确评改标准,实行等级评价,鼓励学生自改和实行网络评改可以提高作文评改效率,激发学生作文兴趣。

  8. 中国四城市中小学生白水及饮料的饮用量%Daily intake of plain water and beverages of primary and middle school students in four cities of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜松明; 胡小琪; 张倩; 王晓君; 潘慧; 高建梅; 宋峻; 高春霖; 何志凡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the daily consumption of plain water and beverages of primary and middle school students in four cities of China.Methods A total of 5914 students from Beijing,Shanghai,Guangzhou and Chengdu were selected using multiple-stage random sampling method,and 5868 students completed the study from September to October 2011.The information on amounts and types of drinking water was recorded using a 24 hour measurement for seven consecutive days.The amount of plain water and beverages was analyzed for subjects in different gender,grades and cities.Results The daily consumption of plain water of subjects was (744 ± 484) ml (68.3% of total drinking water) with statistically significant difference among the Guangzhou,Beijing,Shanghai and Chengdu ((869 ± 528),(818 ±518),(702 ±471),and (573 ±333)ml;F =113.74,P <0.05).The amount of plain water in boys (809 ± 534) ml was significantly higher than in girls (683 ± 436) ml (Z =9.58,P < 0.05) while higher in urban (792 ± 531) ml than in rural (695 ± 427) ml (Z =-6.09,P < 0.05).The consumption of plain water in high school students was the highest (829 ±513)ml,and that in primary students was the lowest (672 ±426) ml (F =55.23,P < 0.05).The average daily consumption of beverages was (345 ± 287) ml (31.7% of total drinking water) and the highest in Shanghai (424 ± 304) ml,then in Beijing (347 ± 303) ml and in Guangzhou (316 ± 267) ml,the lowest in Chengdu (293 ± 255) ml (F =58.94,P < 0.05).The consumption of beverages for stduents in urban areas (394 ± 301)ml was higher than that in rural areas (296 ± 264)ml (Z =-14.48,P < 0.05),but no significant difference between boys (348 ± 306) ml and girls (342 ±269) ml (Z =-1.44,P > 0.05).The consumption of beverages of high school students (356 ± 309) ml and middle school students (360 ± 301) ml were higher than primary school students (328 ± 263) ml (F =8.37,P < 0.05).Conclusion The major drinking water of primary and middle school

  9. Potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol in the Mexico City region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors, at least using current mechanisms and parameterizations. In this study, the 3-D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to quantify the contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic vapors (S/IVOC in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to include explicitly the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA, their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007 ("ROB" and Grieshop et al. (2009 ("GRI" are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. The 3-D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS data, and for the first time also with oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements.

    The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (3–6 times with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009, both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. The predicted anthropogenic POA levels are found to agree within 20% with the observed HOA concentrations for both the ROB and GRI simulations, consistent with the interpretation of the emissions inventory by previous studies. The impact of biomass burning POA within the city is underestimated in comparison to the AMS BBOA, presumably due to insufficient nighttime smoldering emissions. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal

  10. Water intake of primary and middle school students in four cities of China%中国四城市中小学生的饮水量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜松明; 潘慧; 胡小琪; 张倩; 王晓君; 卢立新; 邹淑蓉; 范健文; 李晓辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查中国4个城市中小学生饮水量,为制定中国中小学生饮水参考摄人量标准提供科学依据.方法 采用多阶段随机抽样的方法,于201 1年9-10月在北京、上海、广州、成都抽取了5914名中小学生,完成调查5868名.采用连续7d24h的饮水记录法,调查研究对象每次饮水量等信息.分析比较不同城市、城乡、性别、年龄段中小学生的饮水量.结果 中国4个城市中小学生每天的饮水量为(1089±540) ml;北京、上海、成都、广州分别为(1165 ±549)、(1126 ±544)、(866±421)、(1185±568)ml,各城市之间的差异有统计学意义(F=114.28,P<0.05);男生每天饮水量[(1157±575)ml]高于女生[(1026±498)ml] (Z=8.88,P<0.05);城区[(1185±578) ml]高于农村[(991±480)ml] (Z=13.94,P<0.05);7~ 10、11 ~13和14 ~ 17岁3个年龄段中小学生的饮水量依次增加,分别为(953±483)、(1134±551)和(1170±557) ml,差异有统计学意义(x2=91.53,P<0.05).结论 在中国4个城市中,不同城市、城乡、性别、年龄中小学生的饮水量存在差别.%Objective To investigate total intake of drinking water of primary and middle school students in four cities of China,and to provide scientific evidence for developing standard of intake of drinking water for primary and middle school students in China.Methods A total of 5914 primary and middle school students were selected from Beijing,Shanghai,Chengdu and Guangzhou using multi-stage random sampling method and 5868 subjects completed the survey.The information on the amounts of daily drinking water was recorded for seven consecutive days using a 24 hour measurement.The amounts of daily drinking water among different cities and ages and between boys and girls or urban and rural were analyzed.Results The average daily total drinking water of subjects was (1089 ± 540)ml,with significant differences among the four cities ((1165 ± 549),(1126 ± 544),(866 ± 421),(1185 ± 568) ml in

  11. Microorganisms and viruses causing diarrhea in infants and primary school children and their relation with age and sex in Zakho city, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijdan M.S. Mero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diarrheal diseases in children are a major public health concern in developing countries. Diarrheal infection spreads through contaminated food or drinking-water, or from person-to-person as a result of poor hygiene. This study was conducted to investigate the incidence of different microorganisms associated with diarrhea in infants and primary school children and their relation to sex and age in Zakho city, Kurdistan region, Iraq. Methods: During the period from September 2013 to May 2014, 600 diarrheic samples were collected from both sexes and different ages (4-8 years (65.38 and 64.07%, while parasites were among >6-10 years (64.67 and 60.11%. High viral prevalence were recorded among ages <2 to 6 years with the peak among <2 years (40.54%. Conclusions: From this study we conclude that about 57% of diarrheal cases were associated with bacteria, parasites, and viruses with E. coli, E. histolytica, G. lamblia and rotavirus as leading microorganisms. The mixed prevalence with two or more microorganisms was documented in 179 (37.36% out of 479 positive samples and the rate of microbial prevalence was found to be gender and age dependent. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3266-3273

  12. Improving language-focused comprehension instruction in primary-grade classrooms:impacts of the Let’s Know! experimental curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, Amy; Logan, Jessica; Cain, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study was designed to test the impacts of a curriculum supplement, Let’s Know! on the quantity and quality of language-focused comprehension instruction in pre-Kindergarten to third grade classrooms. Sixty classrooms (12 per each of pre-K to grade 3) were enrolled in the study, with 40 teachers assigned to implement one of two versions of the experimental Let’s Know! curriculum and 20 assigned to a control condition, in which they maintained their typical language-arts...

  13. Cost-effectiveness study of oral hypoglycemic agents in the treatment of outpatients with type 2 diabetes attending a public primary care clinic in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León-Castañeda, Christian Díaz; Altagracia-Martínez, Marina; Kravzov-Jinich, Jaime; Cárdenas-Elizalde, Ma del Rosario; Moreno-Bonett, Consuelo; Martínez-Núñez, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, diabetes mellitus presents a high burden for individuals and society. In Latin America, many people with diabetes have limited access to health care, which means that indirect costs may exceed direct health care cost. Diabetes is Mexico’s leading cause of death. Purpose To evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratios of the most used oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) in the treatment of outpatients with type 2 diabetes attending a public primary care clinic in Mexico City. Design A cross-sectional and analytic study was conducted in Mexico City. Methodology Twenty-seven adult outpatients with type 2 diabetes who were treated either with metformin or glibenclamide were included. Acarbose was used as an alternative strategy. The study was carried out from the perspective of Mexican society. Direct medical and nonmedical costs as well as indirect costs were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Efficacies of all drug treatments were evaluated retrospectively. A systematic search was conducted to select published randomized clinical trials based on predetermined inclusion criteria, and treatment success was defined as glycosylated hemoglobin factor ≤ 7%. Efficacy data of each drug and/or combination were analyzed using meta-analysis. The Monte Carlo Markov model was used. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) were used as the unit of effectiveness; incremental and sensitive analyses were performed and a 5% discount rate was calculated. A hypothetical cohort of 10,000 patients was modeled. Results The odds ratios of the success of each drug treatment were obtained from the meta-analyses, and were the following: 5.82 (glibenclamide), 3.86 (metformin), 3.5 (acarbose), and 6.76 (metformin–glibenclamide). The cost-effectiveness ratios found were US$272.63/QALY (glibenclamide), US$296.48/QALY (metformin), and US$409.86/QALY (acarbose). Sensitivity analysis did not show changes for the most cost-effective therapy when the effectiveness probabilities or

  14. Cost-effectiveness study of oral hypoglycemic agents in the treatment of outpatients with type 2 diabetes attending a public primary care clinic in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas-Elizalde MR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Christian Díaz de León-Castañeda, Marina Altagracia-Martínez, Jaime Kravzov-Jinich, Ma del Rosario Cárdenas-Elizalde, Consuelo Moreno-Bonett, Juan Manuel Martínez-NúñezDepartment of Biological Systems and Health Care, Biological and Health Sciences Division, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Mexico DF, MexicoIntroduction: Worldwide, diabetes mellitus presents a high burden for individuals and society. In Latin America, many people with diabetes have limited access to health care, which means that indirect costs may exceed direct health care cost. Diabetes is Mexico's leading cause of death.Purpose: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratios of the most used oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA in the treatment of outpatients with type 2 diabetes attending a public primary care clinic in Mexico City.Design: A cross-sectional and analytic study was conducted in Mexico City.Methodology: Twenty-seven adult outpatients with type 2 diabetes who were treated either with metformin or glibenclamide were included. Acarbose was used as an alternative strategy. The study was carried out from the perspective of Mexican society. Direct medical and nonmedical costs as well as indirect costs were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Efficacies of all drug treatments were evaluated retrospectively. A systematic search was conducted to select published randomized clinical trials based on predetermined inclusion criteria, and treatment success was defined as glycosylated hemoglobin factor ≤ 7%. Efficacy data of each drug and/or combination were analyzed using meta-analysis. The Monte Carlo Markov model was used. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY were used as the unit of effectiveness; incremental and sensitive analyses were performed and a 5% discount rate was calculated. A hypothetical cohort of 10,000 patients was modeled.Results: The odds ratios of the success of each drug treatment were obtained from the meta-analyses, and were the

  15. Profiles of Child Developmental Dimensions in Kindergarten and the Prediction of Achievement in the First and Second Grades of Primary School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mascareño, Mayra; Doolaard, Simone; Bosker, Roel J.

    2014-01-01

    A successful transition from kindergarten to 1st grade requires a positive combination of multiple dimensions of child competence. Using latent class analysis, we simultaneously examined the academic skills, work attitude, and social/behavioral competence of a large sample of Dutch kindergarten chil

  16. Endometrium is not the primary site of origin of pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Welmoed; Mourits, Marian J. E.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Hollema, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma has been proposed to be a potential precursor lesion of pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma. If true, an increased incidence of uterine papillary serous carcinomas would be expected in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, who are at high-risk of developing p

  17. Technical Adequacy of the easyCBM Primary-Level Mathematics Measures (Grades K-2), 2009-2010 Version. Technical Report #1006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Saez, Leilani; Jamgochian, Elisa; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    In the following technical report, we present evidence of the technical adequacy of the easyCBM[R] math measures in grades K-2. In addition to reliability information, we present criterion-related validity evidence, both concurrent and predictive, and construct validity evidence. The results represent data gathered throughout the 2009/2010 school…

  18. A study of visual problems in children scoring low grades and those with lack of concentration at school in Pune city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Ramchandra Paranjpe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A good vision is important for a student to reach his/her full academic potential. Roughly 80 percent of what a child learns in school is information that is presented visually, hence good vision is essential. Methodology: The present study was a cross-sectional study conducted on 100 children within the age group of 5 to 10 completed years and scoring low grades at school exams. The study was conducted with the help of predesigned semi-structured questionnaire which was to be filled by parents. The selected students also undergone vision testing, Colour vision testing, refractive errors, Anterior and Posterior segment examination, squint evaluation by us. Results: Out of the 100 children, 35% children were without any eye problem whereas 65% children showed some kind of vision related problem. It was seen that 55% boys had vision problems compared to 45% in girls. The major visual problems are allergic conjunctivitis (15%, Myopia (22%, convergence weakness (22%, squint (4% and hypermetropia (4%. Roughly 60% parents were aware about some vision problem in their child. Conclusion: Of 100 students with low performance in our study, 65% had treatable visual problems. The low performance can be attributed to the low vision but long term follow up is needed to see the improvement in scores and studies. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 87-88

  19. 张掖市高档肉牛地方类群培育的路径和模式%The Path and Mode of High-grade Cattle Local Groups Breeding in Zhangye City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢凤君; 彭涛; 宋建红; 卢凤林

    2011-01-01

    在实地调研、专家访谈、文献查阅的基础上,运用战略管理理论和系统分析方法,深入分析了张掖市高档肉牛地方类群培育的产业基础、主体需求和环境条件,重点从张掖市高档肉牛地方类群培育的核心群、扩繁群、商品群3大群系的建设,提出了张掖市高档肉牛地方类群培育的路径和模式,并制定了张掖市高档肉牛地方类群培育的保障措施,具体包括建立协作委员会、建综合服务网络、系统开展配套研究、建立合理的运作模式等.%Basing on the consultation about related documents, the interviewing with related experts, and the in-person in-vestigation, this dissertation applied such methods as system analysis, strategic management and so on, deeply analysed the in-dustry base, demand,environment of high-grade cattle groups breeding in Zhangye city, and puted forward the path and mode of high-grade cattle local core groups, propagate groups and merchandise groups breeding, establishes the guarantee measures in order to build committee, service net, reasonable operation mode.

  20. DENGUE VECTOR CONTROL BEHAVIOR IN PRIMARY SCHOOL COMMUNITY IN TEMBALANG DISTRICT, SEMARANG CITY=PENGENDALIAN VEKTOR DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE PADA KOMUNITAS SEKOLAH DASAR DI KECAMATAN TEMBALANG, KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryani Pujiyanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISHAbstractTembalang district was a Dengue endemic area in Semarang City that had a highest incidence rate of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF in 2010. Aedes vector control behavior was still low. School community’s vector control behavior played a role in dengue prevention programs in schools. The purpose of the study was to identify knowledge, attitude and behavior of dengue vector control in primary school community. This study used across sectional design. Samples were 107 primary school teachers and janitors in Tembalang District, Semarang City in 2011. Sampel was choosed with proportional random sampling method. Data were collected through interviews using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed descriptively (univariat analysis. Results showed that school community awareness in dengue transmission was low because respondents did not know about secondary infection of DHF and the existence of Aedes mosquito that perceived unserious in community. Respondents did not feel as risk population because dengue was understood as a disease that attacked school children rather than adults. The effectiveness of mosquito nest eradication (PSN for vector control activity in Tembalang District did not have positive response from school community. Vector control and biting prevention in school environment were need improvement. This study recommended health promotion to DHF infection, mosquito nest eradication activities, and DHF vector behavior for teacher and janitorsINDONESIANAbstrakKecamatan Tembalang merupakan wilayah endemis DBD dengan angka kesakitan DBD tertinggi di Kota Semarang pada Tahun 2010.Perilaku pengendalian jentik nyamuk Aedes di lingkungan sekolah di Kecamatan Tembalang masih rendah. Pemahaman komunitas sekolah terhadap upaya pengendalian vektor ikut berperan dalam program pencegahan DBD di sekolah.Tujuan penelitian adalah mengidentifikasi pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku pengendalian vektor DBD pada komunitas sekolah dasar

  1. Knowledge and misconception on HIV/AIDS and associated factors among primary school students within the window of opportunity in Mekelle city, North Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haftay Gebremedhin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV has emerged as a major health and development concern worldwide. Today, more than half of all new infections strike people under the age of 25 years. In Ethiopia, information on knowledge about HIV/AIDS among these early adolescents is a little known. Therefore, this study aimed to assess knowledge and misconception on HIV/AIDS among school students within the window of opportunity in North Ethiopia. Methods: A school based cross sectional study was conducted among primary school students in Mekelle City from February 1 to 30, 2013. A total of 845 students were included in the study using a multi-stage sampling technique. Descriptive, binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 845 students were participated in the study (97.6% of the plan. Respondents had poor knowledge on transmission (35.8% and prevention (56.6% methods of HIV/AIDS. School source of information [AOR=2.39, 95%CI (1.41, 4.06] and peer discussion [AOR=1.60, 95% CI (1.17, 2.17] were the factors that lead for students to have a good knowledge on transmission methods of HIV/AIDS. Paternal education [AOR=0.50, 95%CI (0.31, 0.81], parental discussion [AOR=1.55, 95%CI (1.16, 2.07] and school source of information [AOR=1.58, 95% CI (1.01, 2.46] were also the factors that predict good knowledge on prevention methods of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: There exists poor knowledge on prevention and transmission methods and also a misconception towards HIV/AIDS. So, strengthening the current HIV/AIDS education program and further revising strategies for AIDS risk reduction in adolescents should be considered.

  2. Evaluation of the Volatility Basis-Set Approach for Modeling Primary and Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Pandis, S. N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    Anthropogenic air pollution is an increasingly serious problem for public health, agriculture, and global climate. Organic material (OM) contributes ~ 20-50% to the total fine aerosol mass at continental mid-latitudes. Although OM accounts for a large fraction of PM2.5 concentration worldwide, the contributions of primary and secondary organic aerosol have been difficult to quantify. In this study, new primary and secondary organic aerosol modules were added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (Gaydos et al., 2007), for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism (Carter, 2000; ENVIRON, 2006) based on recent smog chamber studies (Robinson et al., 2007). The new modeling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach (Lane et al., 2007): both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. The emission inventory, which uses as starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory (CAM, 2006), is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments (Robinson et al., 2007). Sensitivity tests where POA is considered as nonvolatile and POA and SOA as chemically reactive are also described. In all cases PMCAMx is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during March 2006. The modeling domain covers a 180x180x6 km region in the MCMA with 3x3 km grid resolution. The model predictions are compared with Aerodyne's Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) observations from the MILAGRO Campaign. References Robinson, A. L.; Donahue, N. M.; Shrivastava, M. K.; Weitkamp, E. A.; Sage, A. M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Lane, T. E.; Pandis, S. N.; Pierce, J. R., 2007. Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging. Science 315, 1259-1262. Gaydos, T. M.; Pinder, R. W.; Koo, B.; Fahey, K. M.; Pandis, S. N., 2007. Development and application of a three- dimensional aerosol

  3. Aprendizagem de conceitos geométricos pelo futuro professor das séries iniciais do Ensino Fundamental e as novas tecnologias Geometric concepts learning by the future primary grades teacher in primary education and new technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raquel Miotto Morelatti

    2006-12-01

    , the student who learned through this curriculum did not learn enough about Geometry and is not able to realize the relationship about this content and the reality. On the other hand, the teacher who does not know Geometry is not able to notice the beauty and the importance of this subject to the individual development. Geometry instigates the child to observe and notice similarities, differences; as well as to identify irregularities. The aim of this paper is to identify the knowledge level of the students from Specific Center of Teachers' Formation and Improvement (CEFAM, who are future primary grades teachers of São Paulo State, about the concepts of point, straight line, plain, angles, polygons and circumferences; and to verify the contributions of computer for building these geometric concepts. Thus, we have leaded a research with 30 students of CEFAM from Presidente Prudente-SP. Based on the identification of learning difficulties we organized and developed the intervention - formation schema, using the computer as a learning instrument and work projects that were supported by the Constructionist approach. The future teacher who does not understand Geometry will not be able to contribute for the development of the geometric notion of a child. This notion is the one that able the child to observe, understand, describe and represent, in organized way, the world where we live.

  4. 18F-FDG PET/CT for initial assessment and response monitoring in a case of high grade primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland: A case report and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid lymphoma is a rare disease entity of elderly females. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is said to be the precursor of thyroid lymphoma, suggesting a role of chronic antigen stimulation in the development of the disease. We present a case of male with lymphocytic thyroiditis who presented with painless progressive neck enlargement and pathology revealed features of high grade lymphoma. Staging and posttreatment 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was performed. This report reemphasizes the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis, staging, and assessment of therapy response in patients with extranodal lymphoma, including the primary thyroid lymphoma

  5. 苏州市小学中高年级学生心理健康状况调查研究%An Investigation of Psychological Health Condition of Middle and High Grade Students in Primary Schools in Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐英; 龚椿雅

    2012-01-01

      使用MHT问卷对苏州市小学中高年级学生心理健康状况进行调查。结果表明:男女性别之间心理健康水平差异大,女生的心理健康水平普遍低于男生;四五六各年级之间心理健康水平差异显著,四年级学生心理健康水平最低,其次是五年级,再次是六年级。苏州小学生的心理总体水平是健康的,但在焦虑、人际交往、孤独、冲动、恐怖和躯体症状各个分量表上还有很多心理问题,需要我们及时有效地开展小学生心理健康教育活动。%  By using MHT questionnaire to survey the mental health situation of the primary school students from middle and high grades in Suzhou,the result shows that the general psychological status of Suzhou pupils are at a healthy level. Specifically there is a big gap between the psychological status of the male students and the female ones and the psychological status of female students seems to be worse than that of male students. In addition, there is a big difference in the psychological status among the students from Grade Four, Grade Five and Grade Six. Among them,students from Grade Four stand at the lowest level of the psychological status, followed by stu⁃dents of Grade Five and Grade Six Although the general mental status of Suzhou pupils seems to be healthy, there exist numerous psychological problems in anxiety, interpersonal communication,loneliness,impulse, terror and so⁃matoform symptoms, which makes it necessary for us to carry out the mental health education activity timely and effectively among pupils.

  6. THE EFFECT OF A FIGURE WHERE SYMMETRY USED IN TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS IS APPLIED ON WRITING SKILLS OF TURKISH LANGUAGE AND PRIMARY MATHEMATICS TEACHING 1ST GRADE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mine AKTAŞ; Özlem BAYRAK CÖMERT

    2011-01-01

    With this study, it is aimed to afford an artistic development for science of mathematics with using literary language and learn with associating visual themes and imaginariness in essays. In the study, different written expression works, which are composed about same symmetric figure, of first grade preservice teachers of Turkish Language and Mathematics Teaching are compared.This study will put forth the grasp of communication skill of preservice students who are implementers of new program...

  7. What Classroom Observations Reveal About Primary Grade Reading Comprehension Instruction Within High Poverty Schools Participating in the Federal Reading First Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, Rebecca S.

    2011-01-01

    Reading comprehension is one of the most critical academic skills to be acquired in school; therefore, the comprehension instruction provided by teachers is of utmost importance. This study examined 3 years of classroom observation data to describe the comprehension instruction provided by kindergarten through third-grade teachers who were participating in the federal Reading First reading reform initiative within 22 high-poverty Title I schools located in rural, suburban, and urban school di...

  8. 机载 LIDAR 技术在城市建筑物高度分级中的应用%The Application on the Height Grading of City Buildings Using Airborne LIDAR Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文博; 张锦; 郭磐石

    2015-01-01

    机载LIDAR技术解决了如何快速、准确地获取地物高度的难题,同时为地物高度信息的应用提供了有效的技术手段。本文根据地理国情普查中建筑物分类指标体系,分析离散点云数据高程关系和分类过程,实现了一种基于点云阶层式分类的城市建筑物高度分级的技术方法,并在Terrascan软件环境下验证了该方法的可行性和快速性。%The airborne LIDAR technology not only has solved the problem of how to obtain the object height rapidly and accurately, but also provides the effective technology means for the application of the height information.According to the classification index of the National Geographical Conditions Survey of the buildings, this article analysis the relation of discrete cloud points elevation and the process of the classification, realizes the method of height grading of city buildings rapidly based on the hierarchical classification of cloud points.This Method is verified the feasibility and the quickness by Tarascan software.

  9. 朝阳市中小学生教室卫生现状调查分析%Chaoyang City Primary and Secondary School Classrooms Health Survey Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李济然

    2014-01-01

    to grasp the health status of Chaoyang City urban primary and secondary school classroom to improve the learning environment,students. To select 10 primary and secondary schools,each school choice 6 classrooms,detection method of primary school and middle school students,health standards in accordance with state dependent,health index test site. The classroom lighting window size than common measuring 60 classrooms,42 kinds of qualified,a pass rate of 70%;lighting coef icientwere measured 60 classrooms,51 qualified,a pass rate of 85%;the wal swere measured after the reflection coef icient of 53 classrooms,31 kinds of qualified,a pass rate of 58.5%;the desk surface average il uminance a total of 60 measurements classrooms,60 qualified,a pass rate of 100%;the desk il uminance uniformity,were measured and 60 classrooms,1 qualified,a pass rate of 1.7%. Classrooms per capita area: Total measuring 60 classrooms, qualified 19, a pass rate of 31.7% compliance rate desks and chairs:a total of 590 cases of measurement, in line with the number of 35 cases, the rate was 5.9%.%掌握朝阳市市区中小校教室的卫生状况,提出改善学生学习环境建议。抽取10所中小学校、每所学校选择6个教室,依照国家相关的中小学校学生教室卫生标准的检测方法,进行卫生指标现场进行检测。教室采光:窗地面积比共测量60个教室,合格42个,合格率为70.0%;采光系数共测量60个教室,合格51个,合格率为85.0%;后墙壁反射系数共测量53个教室,合格31个,合格率为58.5%;课桌面平均照度共测量60个教室,合格60个,合格率为100%;课桌面照度均匀度,共测量60个教室,合格1个,合格率为1.7%。教室人均面积:共测量60个教室,合格19个,合格率为31.7%.课桌椅符合率:共测量590例,符合人数为35例,符合率为5.9%.

  10. 上海市闸北区低年级小学生视力现状调查%Status quo investigation on low-grade pupils vision in Zhabei District of Shanghai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文燕; 王向东; 熊建菁; 顾峥奕

    2013-01-01

    [目的]了解上海市闸北区低年级小学生的视力现状及学生家庭用眼卫生情况,为学生视力低下的防制提供依据。[方法]随机整群抽取闸北区7所小学中的一~三年级小学生2598人。对学生进行视力检查,并采用问卷调查方式获取学生的家庭用眼卫生情况。[结果]低年级小学生的视力低下率为33.4%,其中男、女生视力低下率分别为31.5%、35.6%,一、二、三年级学生的视力低下率分别为30.2%、31.3%、39.7%。视力低下以轻度为主,占72.5%。绝大部分学生平均每天在家做作业、看书时间超过1 h,仅32.8%的学生做作业、看书间隔休息时间在1h以内。[结论]闸北区小学生视力低下率持续上升,不良用眼卫生习惯普遍存在,应及早对低年级小学生进行用眼行为干预,早期预防近视发生。%[Objective] To investigate the present status of eyesight and eye health at home in low-grade pupils in Shanghai Zhabei District ,and to provide the basis for eyesight protection . [ Methods] Random cluster sampling was done in 7 primary schools .A total of 2 598 pupils of grade 1-3 were in-cluded into our investigation .Visual examination was done for them and questionnaires approach applied to obtain information on pupils and their eye health at home . [ Results] The low vision rate of low -grade pupils in primary schools in Zhabei District was 33.4%, of whom the boys were 31.5%, and the girls 35.6%.For pupils of grade one, two and three, the low vision rates were 30.2%, 31.3%and 39.7%re-spectively, and the mild low vision rates accounted for 72.5% of the total.It took hours per day for most pupils at home to do homework or read ,and only 32.8% pupils had an interval of relaxation in 1 hour or less in doing homework and reading . [ Conclusion] The low vision rate continues to rise ,and the ad-verse eye health habits are prevalent in the pupils .Behavior intervention

  11. 重庆市主城区小学高年级学生行为问题调查%An Epidemiology Study on Child Behavior Problems among High-Grade Primary School Students in Chongqing Urban Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱田; 杜莲; 胡华; 蒙华庆; 傅一笑; 罗庆华; 邱海棠

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and related factors of behavior problems among the high-grade primary school students (in Grade 4 to Grade 6) in Chongqing urban area. Methods By means of cross-sectional survey, a total of 3 137 high-grade primary school students in Chongqing urban area were investigated with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, version for parents) and self-designed basic information questionnaire. Results The relevance ratio of behavior problems was 27.26%. The univariate analysis revealed that type of school, grade, residential and family environment, and parental attitude toward children had effects on children's behavior problems with significance difference (P<0.05). The stepwise regression revealed that grade, educational level of father, healthy conditions of parents, family structure, academic performance and parental attitude toward children were the independent and main influencing factors (P<0.05). Conclusion The relevance ratio of behavior problems among high-grade primary school students in Chongqing urban area is much higher, which is related to the following factors: family situation, parental attitude toward children, social and school environment. It indicates that the status of children's mental heath is not optimistic in Chongqing urban area. Comprehensive measures combining family, school with psychologist should be taken to reduce the prevalence of behavioral problems.%目的 了解重庆市主城区小学高年级(4~6年级)学生行为问题发生率和特点,并探究其相关影响因素.方法 采用横断面调查的方法,应用儿童行为量表(CBCL)(家长版)和自制的一般情况调查问卷,对重庆市主城区3137名小学高年级学生进行调查与分析.结果 本次调查的3137名小学生中行为问题检出率为27.26%.单因素分析结果显示,小学生行为问题发生在学校类型、所在年级、学生家庭情况、父母管教态度及居住环境等因素水平上

  12. Semi-Quantitative Calculations of Primary Tumor Metabolic Activity Using F-18 FDG PET/CT as a Predictor of Survival in 92 Patients With High-Grade Bone or Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Francis; Fuglo, Hanna Maria; Rasmussen, Sine Hvid;

    2015-01-01

    . Clinical data were registered. Accuracy of maximum standardized uptake value of primary tumor (SUVmax) and tumor-to-background (T/B) uptake ratio as prognostic variables and identification of cut-off values to group patients were determined. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank test were used......To assess the prognostic value of primary tumor metabolic activity in patients with high-grade bone sarcomas (BS) or soft tissue sarcomas (STS) using F-18 FDG PET/CT. A single-site, retrospective study including 92 patients with high-grade BS or STS. Pretreatment F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was performed...... to compare survival distributions. Prognostic variables were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Forty-one of 92 patients died during follow-up (45%). Average survival was 6.5 years (95% CI 5.8-7.3 years) and probability of 5-year survival was 52%. Accuracy of SUVmax and T/B uptake...

  13. 小学低年级识字回生现象及解决路径%Phenomenon and solution ways of the literacy retrogradation phenomenon of lower grade of primary school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爽; 王安全

    2013-01-01

    The new curriculum reform, primary school lower grade literacy amount increases in literacy, pressure, low grade primary school students have read retrogradation phenomenon.This comprehensive literacy retrogradation phenomenon is analyzed, that the reason mainly has:literacy retrogradation of teachers' literacy, light to read and write, literacy teaching mode, lack of innovation, the students review not properly consolidate method. According to the author read retrogradation phenomenon of read-write combination, diversified literacy method, optimization of review and consolidate the lower literacy retrogradation rate.%  新课程改革后,小学低年级识字量增大,在识字压力增大的情况下,小学低年级学生出现了识字回生现象。本文针对识字回生现象进行了综合分析,认为出现识字回生的原因主要有:教师重识字,轻读写、识字教学模式化,缺乏创新性、学生复习巩固方法不得当。针对识字回生现象笔者提出了通过读写结合、多元化的识字方法、优化复习巩固降低识字回生率。

  14. 小学低年级亲子阅读的问题分析与指导策略%The Problem Analysis and Guidance Strategies of Parent - Child Reading in the Primary Grades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玲

    2014-01-01

    Parent-child reading is an important way to cultivate children’s independent reading ability.But the research focuses on parent-child reading in the primary grades is not paid so much attention.After analyzing the current situation of parent-child reading in the primary grades,the author points out the problems and put forward with guidance strategies.%亲子阅读是培养儿童基本阅读能力、引导他们迈向自主阅读的重要方式。目前,专门针对小学低年级段亲子阅读活动开展研究的比较少。在深入调查小学低年级亲子阅读现状的基础上,文章梳理与剖析了当前亲子阅读存在的一些问题,并提出了相应的解决策略。

  15. THE EFFECT OF A FIGURE WHERE SYMMETRY USED IN TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS IS APPLIED ON WRITING SKILLS OF TURKISH LANGUAGE AND PRIMARY MATHEMATICS TEACHING 1ST GRADE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine AKTAŞ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available With this study, it is aimed to afford an artistic development for science of mathematics with using literary language and learn with associating visual themes and imaginariness in essays. In the study, different written expression works, which are composed about same symmetric figure, of first grade preservice teachers of Turkish Language and Mathematics Teaching are compared.This study will put forth the grasp of communication skill of preservice students who are implementers of new program of Turkish and Mathematics lesson used from 2005 and in which the importance of this skill is emphasized. Also this study will contribute education of preservice students henceforwards.

  16. Recalled Test Anxiety in Relation to Achievement, in the Context of General Academic Self-Concept, Study Habits, Parental Involvement and Socio-Economic Status among Grade 6 Ethiopian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. Mohan; Asfaw, Abebech

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive nature of test anxiety on achievement in the presence of perceived general academic self-concept, study habits, parental involvement in children's learning and socio-economic status. From a population of 2482 Grade 6 students from seven government primary schools of a sub-city in Addis Ababa, 497 participants…

  17. Curriculum Guide for Spanish Language Arts, Primary Level C = Guia para la ensenanza de las artes del lenguaje espanol, primaria, nivel C. (Grade 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    The curriculum guide for teachers of Spanish language arts for native Spanish-speaking primary students in the Chicago public schools' bilingual education program is introduced by a section defining the areas to be emphasized in the program: word attack, comprehension skills, study skills, literature appreciation, and writing skills. Sections…

  18. Calculation and Word Problem-Solving Skills in Primary Grades--Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Longitudinal Interrelations with Task-persistent Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Kikas, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary school math skills form a basis for academic success down the road. Different math skills have different antecedents and there is a reason to believe that more complex math tasks require better self-regulation. Aims: The study aimed to investigate longitudinal interrelations of calculation and problem-solving skills, and…

  19. 广州市某三甲医院护理人员同理心调查%Investigation of the empathy status of nurses in grade 3 and first-class hospitals of Guangzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王幼芳; 王芳; 李海燕

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解三甲医院护理人员同理心水平及其影响因素.方法 2012年4月采取随机方便抽样方法对广州市某三级甲等医院的180名护士,采用同理心量表进行问卷调查,了解其同理心情况.结果 共发放问卷180份,回收177份,其中回收有效问卷151份,有效回收率为85.3%.151名护理人员的同理心得分为(62.42 ±4.93)分.不同文化程度、婚姻状况、工作时间、职称、同理心相关课程学习情况、聘用类型的护理人员的同理心得分不同,差异有统计学意义(F值分别为27.433,37.170,73.201,58.164,27.707,48.741;P <0.01),其中文化程度、婚姻状况、工作时间、职称、同理心相关课程学习情况对护理人员的同理心水平有影响(t值分别为6.302,2.617,3.397,2.486,3.158;P<0.05).结论 护理人员应重视自身文化水平的提高和同理心相关课程的学习,为患者提供更人性化的优质护理服务,对减少护患纠纷、构建和谐的护患关系具有积极的意义.%Objective To investigate the status and influencing factors of empathy of nurses in grade 3 and first-class hospitals of Guangzhou city.Methods Convenient sampling method was used and a total of 151 nurses of grade 3 and first-class hospitals in Guangzhou city had been interviewed with the empathy scale.Results Of the 180 distributed questionnaires,totally 172 questionnaires were retrieved,the effective response rate was 85.3%.The empathy score of nurses were (62.42 ± 4.93).The significant score difference was found in nurses with different education level,marital status,working hours,professional title,learning of related empathy courses and employ type (F =27.433,37.170,73.201,58.164,27.707,48.741 ; P < 0.01).The influencing factors of empathy were education level,marital status,working hours,professional tide and learning of related empathy courses (t =6.302,2.617,3.397,2.486,3.158,respectively; P < 0.05).Conclusions Nurses should pay attention

  20. On Influential Factors of Medical Tangles in the Third Grade A-level Hospitals in Some City%某市三甲医院医疗纠纷影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 孟祥志

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate cases of medical tangle in resent years in the Third grade A‐level hos‐pitals in some city and analyze the factors affacting the occurance of medical tangles .Methods:Analyze 211 re‐cords of medical tangle happened in three Third grade A‐level hospitals in some city during the period from January 2011 to December 2013 retrospectively ,take the cases which ,based on 1∶2 ,were involved the con‐current same kind of cases in charged by different doctors from the same section as the control group .Collect the basic data ,the data of patient party and the data of the medical party .Make single factor analysis and multiple factor analysis on the factors which may affect the occurance of medical tangle with χ2 test and logis‐tic regression model .Results:The single factor analysis revealed that medical costs ,education degree ,jobs , types of medical insurance of the patient partys ,medical service attitude and actions of the medical staff were the factors w hich resulted in the medical tangles ;multiple factor analysis of logistic regression hinted that medical service attitude and actions of the medical staff were the independent factors which resulted in the medical tangles .Conclusion:Medical service attitude and actions of the medical staff are the independent fac‐tors w hich result in the medical tangles and they are also the protective factors .%目的:调查某市三甲医院近年发生的医疗纠纷案例,分析影响医疗纠纷发生的因素。方法:回顾性分析2011年1月~2013年12月某市三所三甲医院发生医疗纠纷的档案211份,按1∶2纳入同期同科室不同医生管床的同种病例作为对照组。采集病例的基本信息、患方信息、医方信息,应用χ2检验及 Logical回归模型对可能影响医疗纠纷发生的因素进行单因素和多因素分析。结果:单因素分析结果显示,医疗费用、患方文化程度、职业和医保类别、医务人员

  1. Fiscal Decentralization:Transfer Payment, Tax Preferences and the Expand of Primary City%财政分权:转移支付、税收优惠与首位城市增长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田超

    2016-01-01

    中国的财政分权所带来的财权调整使得各省区地区间的经济发展差距发生一系列变化。本文基于中国27个省区2000-2012年的数据样本,通过构建空间面板模型研究了财政分权背景下转移支付和税收优惠对于首位城市规模增长的影响。结果显示,政府的转移支付政策对于抑制首位城市规模增加,平衡区域发展缺乏效率;对于中央政府财政依赖度越高的省区,其首位城市规模规模越大;省级政府对于外围城市偏向性的转移支付政策无法有效阻止首位城市的扩张。另外,首位城市能够借助相对优惠的税收政策进一步扩大规模范围。在此基础上,本文提出了相应的财政政策以及城市发展建议。%A series of changes in provincial regional economic disparities have occurred due to adjustment in fiscal rights caused by China’ s fiscal decentralization. Under the background of fiscal decentralization, this article analyzes the impact of transfer payment and tax preferences on the scale of primary city through a spatial panel model, using the data of China’s 27 provinces from 2000 to 2012. Results show that government transfer payment policy is inefficient for the suppression of the pri-mary city’ s growth as well as the balance of regional development. The higher financial dependence on central government is, the larger primary city is, and provincial government’ s bias of transfer payments towards peripheral areas cannot prevent primary city’ s expansion. In addition, primary city is able to take the advantage of tax preferences policy to further enlarge its scale. On this basis, this paper presents appropriate proposals for fiscal policies and city development.

  2. 小学高年级学生艾滋病相关知识及性行为调查报告%AIDS Related Knowledge and Sexual Behavior of Students at High Grade in Primary School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓丽; 孙宏伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解山东省某小学高年级学生对艾滋病的基本知识以及性行为的发生情况,为学校开展性健康教育提供有效依据。方法采用自填式问卷,于2013年对山东某小学488名学生进行调查。结果被调查的小学生知道艾滋病病毒可以通过血液、母婴、注射器及性交传播的分别38.4%、28.8%、28.2%、10.2%。对非传播途径共餐以及蚊虫叮咬的正确作答率为16.1%和13%。4.7%的小学生有过性行为,12.8%的小学生接触过色情内容。结论小学高年级学生缺乏艾滋病基本知识,有一定比例的性行为发生,小学性健康教育工作刻不容缓。%Objective to explore the basic knowledge of AIDS and sexual behavior of the high grade students in primary school ,and to provide evidence for sexual health education .Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 488 students in a primary school in Shandong province .Results The rates of students that know HIV through blood ,mother to child ,syringes and sex-ually transmitted were respectively 38.4%,28.8%,28.2%,10.2%.On the non propagating way about dining and mosquito biting the correct rate was 16.1%and 13%.4.7%of the students had sexual behaviors ,12.8%of primary school children had exposed to porno-graphic content.Conclusion High grade primary school students lack basic knowledge of AIDS ,have the certain proportion of sexual behavior .The sexual health education breaks no delay in primary school .

  3. AIDS Related Knowledge and Sexual Behavior of Students at High Grade in Primary School%小学高年级学生艾滋病相关知识及性行为调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓丽; 孙宏伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解山东省某小学高年级学生对艾滋病的基本知识以及性行为的发生情况,为学校开展性健康教育提供有效依据。方法采用自填式问卷,于2013年对山东某小学488名学生进行调查。结果被调查的小学生知道艾滋病病毒可以通过血液、母婴、注射器及性交传播的分别38.4%、28.8%、28.2%、10.2%。对非传播途径共餐以及蚊虫叮咬的正确作答率为16.1%和13%。4.7%的小学生有过性行为,12.8%的小学生接触过色情内容。结论小学高年级学生缺乏艾滋病基本知识,有一定比例的性行为发生,小学性健康教育工作刻不容缓。%Objective to explore the basic knowledge of AIDS and sexual behavior of the high grade students in primary school ,and to provide evidence for sexual health education .Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 488 students in a primary school in Shandong province .Results The rates of students that know HIV through blood ,mother to child ,syringes and sex-ually transmitted were respectively 38.4%,28.8%,28.2%,10.2%.On the non propagating way about dining and mosquito biting the correct rate was 16.1%and 13%.4.7%of the students had sexual behaviors ,12.8%of primary school children had exposed to porno-graphic content.Conclusion High grade primary school students lack basic knowledge of AIDS ,have the certain proportion of sexual behavior .The sexual health education breaks no delay in primary school .

  4. Exploration of Rural Primary School Low-grade Chinese Literacy Teaching under the New Situation%新背景下农村小学低年级语文识字教学探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳红

    2014-01-01

    As a basic subject of Chinese instrumental,literacy teaching is the most important part,directly related to the cultivation of students’ future ability of reading and writing .In view of the rural primary school language literacy amount is large,the environment and economic conditions,the teacher attempts to innovation to the transformation of Chinese low grade primary school literacy teaching,in order to promote the rural primary school Chinese teaching with a new background of development,strengthening the students’ literacy.%语文作为工具性、基础性学科,识字教学是其重要组成部分,直接关系着学生未来的阅读、写作等能力的培养。鉴于农村小学语文识字量大、环境以及经济条件的限制,尝试以创新的方式来转化小学低年级语文识字教学,借以推动农村小学语文教学与新背景发展相吻合,强化学生的识字能力。

  5. 张家港市中小学校教室卫生监测结果%Analysis on monitoring results of hygiene situation of primary and junior high school classrooms in Zhangjiagang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯; 徐正龙; 张频

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] To know the hygiene situation of primary and junior high school classrooms in Zhangjiagang City, ensure students'healthy growth, as well as study the existing problems and solutions. [ Methods ] 360 classrooms were collected from 73 primary and junior high schools in Zhangjiagang City during 2009-2011, and the monitoring results of hygiene situation were analyzed. [Results]The qualified rate of desk lighting coefficient, average illumination of desk, average illumination of blackboard, ratio of window to floor area, and the per capita area of classrooms was 81. 33% , 93. 65% , 78. 51% , 100% and 76. 39% , respectively. [Conclusion]The hygiene situation of primary and junior high school classrooms in Zhangjiagang City is not optimistic, so schools and relevant departments should pay attention to the hygiene situation of classroom.%目的 了解张家港市中小学校教室卫生状况,保障学生健康成长,探讨存在的问题和解决办法.方法 2009-2011 年对张家港市的73所中小学校,共计360个教室进行卫生监测分析.结果 360个教室的课桌面采光系数、课桌面平均照度、黑板面的平均照度、窗地面积比、教室人均面积合格率分别为81.33%、93.65%、78.51%、100%、76.39%.结论 张家港市中小学校教室卫生状况不容乐观,应引起学校及有关部门的重视.

  6. Simultaneous Low- and High-Grade Primary Leiomyosarcomas in Two Separate Organs in a Thirty-Year Survivor of Hereditary Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Katherine; Tawfik, Ossama; Hays, Allyson; Opole, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Patients with hereditary retinoblastoma have a heightened risk of developing subsequent bone and soft tissue sarcomas, exacerbated by radiation and alkylating chemotherapy. Secondary leiomyosarcomas are rare. A 29-year-old patient with bilateral retinoblastoma history presented with concurrent, independent malignancies found to be Rb-suppressed uterine and Rb-positive bladder leiomyosarcomas. She had undergone both ifosfamide chemotherapy and radiation therapy but demonstrated rare simultaneous primary leiomyosarcomas not previously described in association with ifosfamide. This rare case underlines the protean genetic predisposition to malignancy in this patient population, heightening awareness of lifelong malignancy potential, and the necessity for continuous periodic screening. PMID:26843997

  7. 培养小学高年级学生作文修改能力的尝试%Attempts of Cultivating Primary School Higher -Graded Pupils' Ability of Composition Revising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In today's quality education, the cultivation of students' independent learning ability is particularly important. Primary school higher-graded pupils have already possessed the ability of composition revising. To teach them the methods of composition revising and cultivate their corresponding ability can make their writing strive for further improvement.%  在实施素质教育的今天,培养学生的自学能力非常重要。小学高年级的学生,已经具备修改作文的能力,教会学生修改作文的方法,培养学生修改作文的能力,会使学生的写作更上一层楼。

  8. The Flickering Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of counselling, graded-exercise and usual care for chronic fatigue: evidence from a randomised trial in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabes-Figuera Ramon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is common and has been shown to result in high economic costs to society. The aim of this study is to compare the cost-effectiveness of two active therapies, graded-exercise (GET and counselling (COUN with usual care plus a self-help booklet (BUC for people presenting with chronic fatigue. Methods A randomised controlled trial was conducted with participants consulting for fatigue of over three months’ duration recruited from 31 general practices in South East England and allocated to one of three arms. Outcomes and use of services were assessed at 6-month follow-up. The main outcome measure used in the economic evaluation was clinically significant improvements in fatigue, measured using the Chalder fatigue scale. Cost-effectiveness was assessed using the net-benefit approach and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Results Full economic and outcome data at six months were available for 163 participants; GET = 51, COUN = 58 and BUC = 54. Those receiving the active therapies (GET and COUN had more contacts with care professionals and therefore higher costs, these differences being statistically significant. COUN was more expensive and less effective than the other two therapies. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of GET compared to BUC was equal to £987 per unit of clinically significant improvement. However, there was much uncertainty around this result. Conclusion This study does not provide a clear recommendation about which therapeutic option to adopt, based on efficiency, for patients with chronic fatigue. It suggests that COUN is not cost-effective, but it is unclear whether GET represents value for money compared to BUC. Clinical Trial Registration number at ISRCTN register: 72136156

  10. Long-term outcome after first relapse for patients who received primary radiation therapy at Stanford University for stage I and II low grade follicular lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate outcome after first relapse for 79 patients with stage I (n=32) and II (n=47) follicular small cleaved-cell (FSC, n=48) and follicular mixed small cleaved-cell and large-cell (FMX, n=31) lymphoma treated with Radiation Therapy (RT) at Stanford University between 1961 and 1994. Patients and Methods: Most patients had received doses of 35 to 45 Gy to involved (n=30) or extended fields (n=39) or total/subtotal lymphoid irradiation (n=9). Details of history, examination, investigations at first relapse and long-term outcome were obtained by chart review. Results: Median time to relapse was 2 years. Most relapses were detected on history (30%) or physical examination (66%). Positive relapse investigations included lymphangiogram (n=19), chest radiograph (n=5) and bone marrow biopsy (n=6). Known extent of relapsed disease was: stage I, n=30; stage II, n=26; stage III, n=10; and stage IV, n=8. Patients were managed with 'watchful waiting' (37%), further RT (39%), chemotherapy [CT, (17%)], or RT+CT (5%). Actuarial survival rates after relapse at 5,10,15 and 20 years were 56%, 35%, 17% and 17% respectively. Median survival was 5.3 years after relapse. Median survival for relapse stage I,II,III, and IV was 10.2, 5.5, 3.0 and 1.1 years respectively. Progression-free survival rates at 5,10,15 and 20 years after relapse were 44%,22%, 22% and 22% respectively. Factors associated with reduced survival were increasing age, increasing relapse stage, symptoms, transformation to high or intermediate grade lymphoma and >/=3 relapse sites. Survival was the same for initial management with 'watchful waiting' or RT. Conclusion: Relapse following RT in early stage FSC and FMX lymphoma not necessarily fatal. Young, asymptomatic patients with limited disease on relapse have a relatively good prognosis

  11. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  12. Luoyang Dual Spatial Criterion Ecological City Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fazeng; Wang Shengnan

    2007-01-01

    The construction of an ecological city has two foundational platforms:the small platform,namely urban district or simply called as"city ecosystem";and the big platform,namely around city district in certain region scope or also referred to as"city-region ecosystem".The construction of an ecological city must be launched in the dual spatial criteria:in city(urban district)criterion-optimizing the city ecosystem;in city-region(city territory)criterion-optimizing the city-region ecosystem.Luoyang has the bright characteristic and the typical image within cities of China,and even in the world.The construction of anecological city in dual spatial criteria-the city and the city-region-has the vital significance to urbanization advancement and sustainable development in Luoyang.In city-region criterion,the primary mission of Luoyang's ecological city construction is to create a fine ecological environment platform in its city territory.In city criterion,the basic duty of Luoyang's ecologic city construction is to enhance the ecological capacity and benefit of the central city.

  13. 让诗意与理性和谐共舞--也谈低年级科普童话的教学%Let the Poetic Dance with Rational and Harmonious---also Talk about the Teaching of Primary School Lower Grades Science Fairy Tale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐武军

    2014-01-01

    Primary school lower grades science teaching of fairy tale, should be based on the scientific nature of the fairy tale, the teaching value and lower grade reading teaching objectives, consider the psychological and cognitive characteristic of lower grade students to determine the specific teaching strategies.%低年级科普童话的教学,应基于科学童话的性质、教学价值和低年级阅读教学的目标,考虑低年级学生的心理及认知特点来确定具体的教学策略。

  14. The training strategy of low-grade students in primary school to writing hobby%如何培养小学低年级学生写话的兴趣

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲玲

    2016-01-01

    《小学语文课程标准》在第二部分指出一二年级的写话目标是:"对写话有兴趣,写自己想说的话,写想象中的事物,写出对周围事物的认识和感想;在写话中乐于运用阅读和生活中学到的词语;根据表达需要,学习使用逗号、句号、问号、感叹号."看图写话是低年级学生进行写话训练的重要途径,这种训练对于降低起步作文的难度,引导学生放胆表达,培养学生的写作兴趣具有极为重要的意义.本文在对小学二年级写话能力现状调查的基础上,从教师和学生两方面分析写话中存在问题的原因,提出激发兴趣,观察有序,加强阅读,启发想象,评价激励的策略,从而培养低年级小学生的写话能力.%《Primary School Language Curriculum Standards》in the second part pointed of one or two grade writing goal is:"Enable the interest in writing, help them write about their own mind, help them write imaginary things, help them write their own understanding of things and feelings around;Enable them to be willing to use the words they have learned or something about their life;According to the need of expression, learning to use a comma, full stop, question mark, exclamation mark. "Look the pictures and write words are important ways to lower grade students for writing training, such training to reduce the initial composition of difficulty, guide students to boldly express, raise students writing interest has ex?tremely important meaning. Based on the second grade primary school writing ability present situation investigation, the problem in writing from the aspect of teacher and student, put forward to stimulate interest, observe the order, strengthen reading, inspire imagination, strategy evaluation and incentive, so as to cultivate writing ability of lower grade pupils."

  15. Exploration of Junior-Grade Chinese Homework in Primary School%小学低年级语文作业探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡萍

    2015-01-01

    The primary school Chinese homework should be started from teacher’s careful design. Teachers should enhance curriculum consciousness,exquisitely design homework of high value,improve the effectiveness of assignment,and attach importance to evaluation and correction of homework,so as to make students fall in love with homework.%小学语文作业应该从教师的用心设计开始,增强课程意识,精心设计具有较高训练价值的作业,提高作业布置的有效性,在评价与批改上下功夫,从而让学生爱上作业。

  16. 滁州市区小学课间操开展现状研究%Research on the current situation of Chuzhou City primary school setting-up exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2016-01-01

    Using the methods of documentary, observation, questionnaire, and logic analysis, research on the current situation of Chuzhou City primary school setting-up exercise is carried out, promotion measures are put forward to solve the problem, providing theoretical reference for the development of primary school setting-up exercise.%运用文献资料法、观察法、问卷调查法、专家访谈法和逻辑分析法对滁州市区小学的课间操的开展状况进行研究,针对不足提出促进性措施,为小学课间操的开展提供理论参考。

  17. Status quo of training demands of nursing staff in three grade class A general hospitals in Shenzhen city%深圳市三级甲等综合医院护理人员培训需求现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小梅; 丁小容; 李敏红; 曾杏珍; 余颖娟; 梁桂玲

    2014-01-01

    [目的]了解护理人员对院内培训的培训内容、培训方式、培训时间的需求现状,为制订针对性的培训提供依据。[方法]采用整群抽样的方法对深圳市3家三级甲等综合医院654名护理人员采用自行设计的问卷进行调查,并进行统计学分析。[结果]护理人员最希望培训的内容为专科知识,而不同的群体之间培训内容需求又存在一定的差异;对不同的培训内容希望有不同的培训特点并采取不同的培训方式;80.6%护理人员希望培训时间能够具有一定的灵活性和自主选择性。[结论]培训内容应因人而异,不同的培训内容应采取不同的培训方式,同时培训本身能有一定的灵活性以增强培训效果。%Obj ective:To know about the status quo of training demands of nursing staff for training content,training methods and training time,so as to provide the basis for formulating targeted training.Methods:A total of 654 nurses were surveyed by adopt cluster sampling method and self de-signed questionnaire in three grade class A general hospital in Shenzhen city.Related data were statistical analysed.Results:The most training con-tent nursing staff hope was specialized knowledge.And training content re-quirements existed certain differences between different groups.Nursing staff hope different characteristics for different training contents,and adopt different ways of training.80.6% of nursing staff hoped that the training time have a certain flexibility and independent selectivity.Conclusion:The training content should be different from person to person.Different ways of training should be adopted for different training contents.At the same time,training itself can have a certain flexibility in order to improve train-ing effect.

  18. 乳山市农村小学生心理健康状况调查%Study on psychological health state of rural primary school students in Rushan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂宏; 王丹; 丛晓娜; 段建国; 郑旗

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To understand the current situation of psychological health among rural primary school students in Rushan city, and provide a theoretical basis for solving psychological health problems of the pupils effectively. Methods: Three thousand students were selected from 10 schools by multistage cluster sampling method in rural areas of Rushan city. Results: The mean scores of behavioral problems, learning disabilities, emotional disturbance, character flaws were 4. 38, 3. 37, 3. 25 , and 3. 23, respectively; the detection rates of deviation from high to low were conduct disorder (16. 1% ) , learning disabilities (14. 8% ) , mood disorders ( 15. 7% ) , personality defects (13. 2% ) , and so on. The influencing factors of psychological health of the primary school students in rural area of Rushan city were sex, age, class, maternal occupation, and family monthly income, and so on. Conclusion: There are different psychological problems a-mong the primary school students in rural area of Rushan city, effective measures should be taken to improve their psychological health.%目的:了解乳山市农村小学生的心理健康状况,为有效解决小学生的心理健康问题提供理论依据.方法:采用随机整群抽样法随机抽取乳山市10所小学共3 000名.结果:行为障碍、学习障碍、情绪障碍、性格缺陷得分均值分别为4.38、3.37、3.25和3.23;从偏离检出率分析得偏离检出率较高的依次为行为障碍(16.1%)、学习障碍(14.8%)、性格缺陷(15.7%)、社会适应障碍(13.2%)等.小学生心理健康的影响因素包括性别、年龄、班级、母亲职业、家庭月收入等.结论:乳山市农村小学生均存在不同的心理健康问题,应采取有效措施改善其心理健康状况.

  19. Strategy on Combination with Reading and Writing of Poetry in Primary School High Grade%小学高年级诗歌读写结合策略简谈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宝江

    2014-01-01

    随着新课程改革的发展,有更多的学者关注到了儿童文学与小学语文的密切联系,并且在《义务教育语文课程标准》中对小学生学习诗歌的数量还提出了新要求。在对教学理论和诗歌理论等的研读基础上,对小学高年级诗歌读写结合策略做了简单的总结,同时也对儿童诗歌教学的特点和任务进行了归纳。%With the development of new curriculum reform, more attention to a close contact with children literature and primary school Chinese, and“Compulsory Education Chinese Curriculum Standards” also puts forward new requirements for the number of pupils’ poetry learning. From the study of teaching theory and poetry theory, simple summary is made on the strategy on combination with reading and writing of poetry in primary school high grade, and also features and tasks of pupils’ poetry teaching are summarized.

  20. 关于小学高年级语文读写教学方式的探析%Analysis on the High Grade of Primary School Chinese Reading and Writing Teaching Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊熠

    2014-01-01

    The current Chinese teaching in the primary school higer grades,the students’ ability of reading and writing is difficult to grasp the part of the teachers in the teaching,the teaching is more thorny problem. The teacher combines with years of teaching experience,in view of the Chinese teaching in reading and writes teaching are briefly analyzed,and puts forward several schemes to promote the development of primary school Chinese reading and writing teaching part.%当前小学高年级语文教学中,学生的阅读和写作能力是教师在教学中比较难把握的部分,这方面的教学是比较棘手的问题。结合多年的教学经验,针对语文教学中读写教学进行了简要分析,并提出了几个方案以促进小学语文读写教学部分的发展。

  1. Using the Orff Music Teaching in Primary School Grade Five or Six%奥尔夫音乐教学法在小学五、六年级的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范钰

    2014-01-01

    音乐是小学教学的重要组成部分,在音乐教学中,采用奥尔夫音乐教学法,其是奥尔夫和著名舞蹈家军特创设的动作、舞蹈、语言作为音乐集合体的教学形式,具有综合性、即兴性和实践性的特点,针对奥尔夫音乐教学法在小学五、六年级的运用进行了探讨。%Music is an important part of primary school teaching,in music teaching,the Orff music teaching method,which is Orff and the famous dancer Dororee Gunthen creating movement,dance,music language as collective teaching form,it is comprehensive,improvisation and practical features,this article is for the use in the primary school is grade five or six the Orff music teaching method discussion.

  2. Prevalence of prematurely lost primary teeth in 5–10-year-old children in Thamar city, Yemen: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Sakhr A.; Al-Labani, Mohammed A.; Aldhorae, Khalid A.; Rodis, Omar M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The premature loss of primary teeth is a potential risk factor for poor arch length development. Adequate arch length is important to the progression of the permanent teeth. Poor arch length can lead to crowding, ectopic eruption, or impaction of these teeth. This study is designed to assess the prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth in the 5-10-year-old age group. Materials and Methods: The study group included 185 children, that is, 91 boys and 94 girls. The dental examination was conducted by an experienced examiner under sufficient artificial light. Data including patient age and missing teeth were collected. Descriptive statistics were applied for data analysis, and from the results, Chi-square tests were used at a level of significance of 5% (P < 0.05). Results: We observed a 40.54% prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth with no statistically significant difference between genders. The lower left primary second molar was the most commonly absent tooth in the dental arch (13.5%). Conclusion: The status of premature loss of primary teeth was high in the study group. Implementation of efficient educational and preventive programs to promote oral health would help children maintain a healthy primary dentition and eventually prevent the disturbances in the future development of normal occlusion. Early detection and management of the space problems associated with the early loss of primary teeth would help in reducing malocclusion problems. PMID:27652244

  3. Family influencing factors of behavior problems among primary school students in Mudanjiang city%牡丹江市小学生行为问题及家庭影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙加司; 蔡景钰; 王烈

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解黑龙江省牡丹江市小学生行为问题发生情况及特点,探讨家庭因素对小学生行为问题的影响,为其预防和干预措施的制定提供依据.方法 采用随机抽样方法,应用家长用儿童行为量表(CBCL)及父母养育方式评价量表(EMBU)对牡丹江市4所小学4~6年级1 350名在校学生进行问卷调查.结果 牡丹江市小学生行为问题检出率为19.3%,男生为20.3%,女生为18.6%;躯体主诉、焦虑抑郁、社交问]题、攻击性行为、思维问题、内向性问题和行为总分分别为(2.50 ±2.89)、(3.73±3.96)、(2.54±2.81)、(4.31±4.73)、(2.17±3.00)、(8.34±8.15)和(22.03±20.07)分,与国内人群评价结果比较得分较高;相关分析结果表明,父、母温暖与小学生行为问题的发生呈负相关关系(P<0.01),而父亲惩罚、干涉、偏爱、拒绝、过保护和母亲过保护、拒绝、惩罚、偏爱与小学生行为问题的发生呈正相关关系(P<0.01);多元线性回归分析结果表明,小学生行为问题发生的主要影响因素为:母亲拒绝(β=0.206)、生活事件数(β=0.195)、与父母关系(β=0.133)、父亲过保护(β=0.124)、独生子女(β=0.083)与小学生行为问题关系密切,能影响小学生行为问题发生.结论 家庭环境因素对小学生儿童行为问题的发生具有重要影响,改善家庭环境对降低小学生行为问题发生率具有重要作用.%Objective To explore family influencing factors of the behavior problems among primary school students. Methods Questionaire research was conducted with Acbenbach' s Child Behavior Check List(CBCL) and Egma Minnen av Bardndosnauppforstran(EMBU) among 1 350 students at 4-6 grade in primary schools in Mudanjiang city. Results The prevalence of behavior problems in the students was 19.3% ( 20.3% in boys, 18. 6% in girls). The scores of somato-complaints. anxiety-depression, social intercourse problems, aggressive behavior, thinking problems

  4. Some Views on Effective English Reading of Higher Grades in Primary Schools%小学高年级英语有效阅读之我见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽岩

    2015-01-01

    It is self-evident that reading is an important part of language learning. Language learning mainly reflects in listening, speaking, reading and writing, while reading training not only comprehensively covers the four aspects of training, but also fully cultivates and improves students' participation and operation. Therefore, properly handling reading and making it a magic weapon to establish efficient English classroom teaching is un-doubtedly an important topic for primary English teachers.%阅读是语言学习的重要板块,其重要性不言而喻。语言学习主要体现在听说读写四个方面,而阅读训练中不但全面涵盖了这四个方面的训练活动,同时还能让学生在参与和操作的过程中得到更加充分的培养和提高。所以,善待阅读板块,让其成为打造高效英语课堂教学的法宝,这无疑是小学英语教师所要面向的重点课题。

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of primary open-angle glaucoma in a city of Eastern China: a population-based study in Pudong New District, Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jiangnan; Zou, Haidong; Lee, Richard K.; Tong, Xiaowei; Tang, Wenli; Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Rong; Ge, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of primary open-angle glaucoma among the urban population of Pudong New District, Shanghai. Methods Three residents’ committees were randomly selected from Pudong New District, and residents aged 50 and older were screened for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) from March to April 2011. In remote screening, the tests on visual acuity, refraction, intraocular pressure (IOP), and the photographs of ant...

  6. An evaluation on the relationship between the learning fields “musical perception and acquainting” and “musical creativity” based on teaching program of 2006 primary education music classes of sixth grade level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökalp Parasız

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was intended to focus on the success levels of “B. Musical Perception and Acquainting” learning field and of “C. Musical Creativity” learning field based on the teaching program of 2006 primary education music classes of sixth grade level and relationship between these two learning fields was evaluated. In this study the basic stages, the vision, the basic approach, and the structure of the teaching program of 2006 primary education music classes and the general aims, basic skills and valuation, teaching methods and techniques and learning-teaching period were examined. Source scanning related to these subjects was done. Outcomes and activities related to “B. Müziksel Algı ve Bilgilenme” and “C. Müziksel Yaratıcılık” learning fields in this study were analyzed by using observation method. Sample group of this study consisted of 6-A, 6-C, 6-E, 6-G classes in IMKB İnönü Primary School in Erzurum depended on Ministry of National Education. To analyze all data based on observation, frequency (f percent (% analysis method was used. Findings and comments part of the study included data that was acquired as a result of outcomes of two basic learning fields and in this part data were interpreted according to the findings. After collecting all data and evaluating the relationship between “B. Musical Perception and Acquainting” learning field and “C. Musical Creativity” learning field, to the results, it was acquired that these two learning fields had supportive and complementary to each other. According to the results of the study, when music class practices are structured considering the relationship between two basic learning fields, learning becomes easier and more comprehensible and by this way, learning continuity will be provided.

  7. Quality of sleep and related factors among junior middle school students of grade three in Gaomi city%高密市初三学生睡眠质量状况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜亚慧; 徐凌忠; 祁华金; 山珂; 曹秀玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the quality of sleep and its influencing factors among junior middle school students in Gaomi city.Methods A sampling survey was carried out among 1 063 students of grade three in 3 junior middle schools with a self-designed questionnaire and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).Logistic regression was used to analyze related factors of sleep quality.Results The mean PSQI score was 3.30 ± 2.38 and the mean score was 0.65 ±0.02 for subjective sleep quality,0.74 ±0.02 for the time to fall asleep,0.31 ±0.02 for sleep time,0.20 ±0.02 for sleep efficiency,0.65 ±0.02 for sleep disorders,0.02 ±0.01 for sleeping drug application,and 0.74 ±-0.26 for daytime dysfunction,respectively.Among the students,64 (8.0%)reported sleep quality problems.Multiple factor analysis results showed that being happy in school(P =0.000)was a protective factor for the students to have good sleep quality.Seldom or never chatting with families were risk factors for good sleep quality,with the odds ratio (OR) of 2.806 (95 % confidence interval [95 % CI]:1.129-6.974) and OR of 15.498 (95 % CI:2.125-113.018).Conclusion The general sleep quality is good among junior middle school students of grade three in Gaomi city and campus life and parent-child relationship are important influencing factors for sleep quality of the students.Comprehensive measures should be adopted to improve the sleep quality to promote physical and psychological health of the students.%目的 了解山东省高密市初三学生睡眠质量状况并分析其影响因素.方法 采用自制相关情况调查表并结合匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)对3所中学1 063名在校初三学生进行抽样调查,采用二分类logistic回归分析方法分析睡眠质量的影响因素.结果 高密市初三学生睡眠质量均分为(3.30±2.376)分,各因子均分分别为:主观睡眠质量(0.65±0.021)分、入睡时间(0.74±0.024)分、睡眠时间(0.31 ±0.09)分、睡眠效率(0.20±0

  8. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever......, any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...

  9. 巧用暗示,提高小学低年级语文课堂教学的效率%Clever Use of Hint,Improving the Efficiency of Chinese Classroom Teaching the Lower Grades of Primary School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾春霞

    2014-01-01

    低年级小学生自制力差,有意注意的时间很短,加上良好的语文学习习惯欠缺,导致他们总会在课堂上出现注意力不集中,甚至做小动作等情况。这时,如果教者能合理地、适当地运用一些语言、表情、目光、手势等暗示法,势必可以使师生情感之间产生默契的交融,让学生的大脑保持激活状态,并让学生于不知不觉中变“要我学”为“我要学”,从而提高低年级语文的课堂教学效率。%Low grade primary school students of poor self-control,attention for a short time,coupled with lack of good language learning habits,cause they always appeared distracted in class,even small movements,and so on. At this point,If the teacher can reasonably,propely use some language,facial expression,eyes,gestures suggestive method,certainly will makes the teachers and students emotion between the blend have a tacit understanding,let the students keep the brainactivation state,and let students imperceptibly become“want me to learn” to“I want to learn”,so as to improve the low grade language efficiency of classroom teaching.

  10. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  11. Prevalence of prematurely lost primary teeth in 5–10-year-old children in Thamar city, Yemen: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Sakhr A.; Al-Labani, Mohammed A.; Aldhorae, Khalid A.; Rodis, Omar M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The premature loss of primary teeth is a potential risk factor for poor arch length development. Adequate arch length is important to the progression of the permanent teeth. Poor arch length can lead to crowding, ectopic eruption, or impaction of these teeth. This study is designed to assess the prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth in the 5-10-year-old age group. Materials and Methods: The study group included 185 children, that is, 91 boys and 94 girls. The dental examination was conducted by an experienced examiner under sufficient artificial light. Data including patient age and missing teeth were collected. Descriptive statistics were applied for data analysis, and from the results, Chi-square tests were used at a level of significance of 5% (P space problems associated with the early loss of primary teeth would help in reducing malocclusion problems. PMID:27652244

  12. 登山锻炼对小学三年级学生身体素质影响的研究%Influence mountaineering exercise on physical quality of three-grade students at primary school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱小梅; 陈慧; 王珍妮; 蒋龙

    2012-01-01

    Mountaineering exercise, as a contemporary popular outdoor aerobic exercise aroused more and more attention. This research selects three -grade 113 students at primary school as research subjects, who are divided into the experimental group and the control group, the experimental group of 56 students, 57 students in the control group. The experimental group did the exercise for a year, two times a week, while the control group received conventional PE exercise. A year later, a comparative analysis of two groups of students were made in the physical changes and differences. Research shows that mountaineering exercise can obviously improve primary school grade three students' heart and lung function as well as body shape and speed quality.%登山锻炼作为当下较为流行的户外有氧健身运动,其健康价值越来越受到人们的重视。选取湖南省长沙市岳麓区岳南路小学三年级113名学生作为实验对象,分为实验组和对照组,实验组56名同学,对照组57名同学.对实验组进行为期一学年,每周两次的登山训练,对照组则进行常规体育课锻炼。一学年后比较分析两组学生各身体指标的变化及差异,探析登山锻炼对小学三年级学生身体素质的影响。研究表明,登山锻炼对于改善和提高小学三年级学生的心肺功能有明显作用,对小学三年级学生的身体形态、速度素质也能带来积极影响。

  13. Ideal Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Meitner, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Erika Meitner discusses her new book: Ideal Cities. This collection of autobiographical narrative and lyric poems explores the relationship between body and place—specifically the pleasures and dangers of women’s corporeal experiences. Ideal Cities is guided by an epigraph from Song of Songs, and the metaphorical idea of bodies as cities, and cities as bodies. How do women’s bodies become sites of inscription via sex, childbirth, and other highly physical acts? These poems also investigate ur...

  14. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  15. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    , the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing...

  16. Investigation on Hypertension Risk Factors among Primary and Secondary School Students in Baoding City%保定市中小学生高血压病危险因素的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉荣; 左志平; 黄华; 马继飞

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]To study the risk factors of hypertension among primary and secondary school students in Baoding City.[Methods]With stratified random cluster sampling survey, primary and secondary school students in 50 chronic non-communicable diseases prevention and treatment demonstration zones were investigated in our city.[Results]The proportion of overweight and obesity, alcohol-drinking, smoking, passive smoking was 22.5%, 6.4%, 1.3%, 29.8% respectively. The ratio of Boys often eating fruits and vegetables was lower than that of girls, the ratio comparison of eating meat between genders was on the contrary (Both P<0.01). Overweight and obesity, passive smoking, drinking were risk factors of hypertension (OR value, 95% CI, P values was 1.84,1.56~2.18,0.00;1.20,1.05~1.36,0.01;2.14,1.43~3.21,0.00 respectively).[Conclusion] Overweight and obesity, passive smoking, alcohol-drinking are main risk factors for hypertension of primary and secondary school students in Baoding City.%目的 了解保定市中小学生高血压病的危险因素.方法 对该市50个慢性非传染性疾病综合防治示范区的中小学生进行分层随机整群抽样调查.结果 超重肥胖、饮酒、吸烟、被动吸烟占调查人数的比率分别是22.5%、6.4%、1.3%、29.8%.男生经常吃蔬菜水果的比率低于女生,吃肉和饮酒的比率高于女生(均P<0.01).超重肥胖、被动吸烟、饮酒是高血压的危险因素(OR值、95%CI和P值分别是1.84,1.56~2.18,0.00;1.20,1.05~1.36,0.01;2.14,1.43~3.21,0.00).结论 超重肥胖、被动吸烟、饮酒是保定市中小学生高血压病的主要危险因素.

  17. Attending School and Learning or Repeating and Leaving. A Study about the Determinants of Grade Repetition and Dropout in Primary School in Honduras. Synthesis of the Study = Asistir y Aprender o Repetir y Desertar. Un Estudio sobre los Factores que Contribuyen a la Repitencia en la Escuela Primaria en Honduras. Sintesis del Informe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Noel F.; And Others

    This paper synthesizes a study designed to identify the factors that contribute to primary school repetition and dropout in Honduras. Data were collected by record reviews; teacher, student, and parent interviews; and a test of Spanish. The sample included 1,253 students in grades 1 and 3 in 40 schools in rural Honduras. The main findings of the…

  18. Tabla de Especificaciones e Instructivo sobre Elaboracion de Pruebas Objetivas en la Ensenanza Primaria, para las asignaturas de Estudios Sociales, Idioma Espanol, Matematicas y Ciencias Naturales (Specification Tables and Instructions for the Construction of Objective Tests in the Primary Grades in Social Studies, Spanish, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Educacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Direccion de Bienestar Estudiantil y Educacion Especial.

    This booklet presents specification tables illustrating the relative importance given to topics on tests within a particular subject area. The general subject areas are social studies, Spanish, mathematics, and natural sciences. Tables are provided for final exams in each of these areas for several primary grades, illustrating the importance of…

  19. Growth and development and its influencing factors of primary and secondary school students in Longhua Subdistrict of Baoan District of Shenzhen City%深圳市宝安区龙华街道中小学学生生长发育状况及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美施; 潘彩珠; 王琳

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过了解深圳市中小学生生长发育与营养状况,为开展学校卫生及中小学生保健工作提供依据.方法 2010年3-7月对龙华街道21 074名学生的身高、体重、视力、龋齿等情况进行检查,并选取深圳市宝安区龙华街道1所私立学校(龙丰学校)和2所公立学校(龙华中学、清湖小学)采用问卷调查的形式对学生家长进行调查.结果 公立中小学学生的视力不良的平均比例略高于私立中小学;私立小学学生身高上等、下等学生所占的比例较公立小学学生大;公立学校的学生肥胖比例远高于私立学校,营养不良的比例则明显低于私立学校;学生的生长发育状况与饮食搭配(P<0.01)、家长职业(P<0.01)、运动情况(P<0.01),父母文化程度(P<0.01)有显著的关系.结论 该区应加强父母的健康知识宣传教育,培养孩子良好的饮食,运动和起居生活习惯,采取有效措施加强学校的卫生保健工作.%[ Objective] To understand the growth and development and nutritional status of primary and secondary school students in Shenzhen City, and provide evidence for carrying out school health and health care of primary and middle school students. [Methods]A total of 21 074 students in Longhua Subdistrict were selected for height, weight , vision, dental caries checks from March-July 2010. Meanwhile, a private schools ( Longfeng School ) and 2public schools (Longhua Middle School , Qinghu Primary School) were selected for questionnaire survey on students' parents. [ Results] The average proportion of poor eyesight in public school was higher than that of private school. The proportion of students' height of high grade and low grade in private primary school was higher than that in public primary school. The obesity rate in public school was much higher than private school, while the malnutrition rate was on the contrary. The growth and development of students was significantly associated

  20. 谈农村小学高年级英语口语表达能力培养%Take about Rural Primary School High Grade English of Oral Expresson Ablities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金萍

    2014-01-01

    新颁布的英语课程标准对小学英语教学有了明显的提高,现代外语教育注重语言学习的过程,强调语言学习的实践性,主张学生在语境中接触、体验和理解这是语言,并在此基础上学习和运用语言。然而,在农村英语学习现状并不乐观,从口语教学的意义、现状、措施几个方面探讨农村小学高年级口语表达能力的培养。%English is the most widely in the world today use the international language,the use of his value is higher and higher.Train the ability of oral English must grab since childhood.The new English curriculum standard for primary school English teaching has obvious increase, modern foreign language education focus on the process of language learning,emphasizes the practicality of learning a foreign language,and claims that students in the context of the contact,experience and understand the language,and on the basis of the study and use the language.In rural English learning situation is not optimistic,however,I will from the significance of oral English teaching,the present situation,the measures from several aspects to discuss the rural primary school high grade oral English ability.

  1. Honest Grading, Grade Inflation and Reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Tim; Schwager, Robert

    2012-01-01

    When grades lose their informative value because the percentage of students receiving the best grade rises without any corresponding increase in ability, this is called grade inflation. Conventional wisdom says that such grade inflation is unavoidable since it is essentially costless to award good grades. In this paper, we point out an effect driving into the opposite direction: Grade inflation is not actually costless, since it has an impact on future cohorts of graduates, or, put differentl...

  2. Professores discriminados: um estudo sobre os docentes do sexo masculino nas séries do ensino fundamental Discriminated teachers: a study of male teachers in the early grades of primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Oliveira Rabelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar algumas representações de gênero que envolvem a docência nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental no Rio de Janeiro (Brasil e em Aveiro (Portugal, especialmente as representações geradoras de discriminações que afetam os homens atuantes na profissão. Socialmente definida como feminina, tal profissão carrega representações que podem diferenciar as práticas e as escolhas, sendo que muitas delas associam o magistério ao feminino e alegam que os professores homens estariam fora de lugar. A partir da análise qualitativa e quantitativa de questionários e entrevistas com professores desse segmento, examinamos, então, quais são as representações de gênero que circulam em relação à docência nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental, se existe discriminação em relação a eles, bem como se os homens que entram na profissão são desprovidos de preconceitos e ajudariam a diminuir as discriminações de gênero. Concluímos que o simples fato de existir um professor do sexo masculino nas salas de aula pode provocar várias representações de gênero; nesse sentido, os professores podem ou não tentar quebrar tais representações, o que aconteceu com alguns dos participantes desta investigação. Mesmo sofrendo preconceitos, porém, muitos se aproveitam das vantagens da masculinidade na sociedade. Apesar disso, demarcamos que a presença de professores do sexo masculino nas séries iniciais é uma forma de inserir as questões de gênero na educação, demonstrar às crianças na escola que o homem também pode escolher essa atividade com sucesso e evidenciar que a aptidão para o magistério não depende do sexo.This article aims to analyze some gender representations of teachers of the early grades of primary education in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil and Aveiro (Portugal, especially the representations that generate discrimination affecting male teachers. Socially defined as female, such

  3. 浅谈小学低年级音乐欣赏教学的情感体验%A Brief Discussion on the Emotional Experience of Music Appreciation Teaching for Lower Grades in Primary ;Schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怡; 赵誉千

    2015-01-01

    音乐是听觉的艺术,同时它又是情感的艺术。音乐教学活动在不脱离音乐听觉实践的基础上,不能忽视抓住学生音乐审美过程中最活跃的心理因素———情感因素。笔者从小学低年级音乐欣赏教学过程中的点滴体会谈起,阐述了如何通过形式多样的教学方法,丰富学生情感体验,以感受美、表现美、创造美为核心,不时点燃学生的情感火花。%Music is an audio art, as well as an emotional art. Based on music audio practice, the most active psychological factor, emotional factor, should be grasped in students' music aesthetics. Starting from the writer's experience in music appre-ciation teaching for lower grades in primary schools, this paper e-laborates how to use diversified teaching methods to enrich stu-dents' emotional experience with experiencing, expressing and creating beauty as the core, thus igniting the spark of students' e-motions.

  4. Reflections on the Current Situation of Gymnastics Course in Primary Schools of Guangzhou City%广州市小学体操课开展现状反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李顺文; 吴美华

    2013-01-01

      随着新课标的实施,体操项目在体育课中的开展也越来越少,体操项目的价值是不可置疑的,本文通过分析其中原因,为广州市小学体育课中顺利进行体操教学,提供一些参考建议。%With the implementation of new curriculum, gymnas-tics event is less and less in physical education, but the value of gymnastics event is not to be questioned. Through analyzing the causes, this paper provides some reference and suggestions for the smooth implementation of gymnastics teaching in primary school physical education in Guangzhou City.

  5. Bug City: Flies & Mosquitoes [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  6. The appropriateness to level of values cultural for humanities course in 3rd year of primary schools according to teachers' views (standart definition- Erzurum city sample)

    OpenAIRE

    Gürbüz OCAK

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the contextual standards of the social studies lesson in the third year primary school by analyzing the views of teachers. Thus, with the help of literature mien: the questionnaire for the contextual standards of social studies lesson a as developed depending on the views of teachers and standards were grouped according to the importance of factors. Whit this questionnaire some features of the contextual standards of the social studies lesson were anal, ...

  7. China: A Teaching Unit for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Janet; And Others

    Understanding the culture of other nations contributes to the development of responsible citizens in a democratic society. A classroom teaching team proved these activities to be successful. Five initial lessons introduce students to the study of China by teaching Chinese geography. To enhance cultural understanding, 10 additional lessons focus on…

  8. UFP and BC at a mid-sized city in Po valley, Italy: Size-resolved partitioning between primary and newly formed particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Cernuschi, S.; Ozgen, S.; Ripamonti, G.; Vecchi, R.; Valli, G.; Lonati, G.

    2016-10-01

    In Po valley (Northern Italy) concentrations of particulate matter (PM) often exceed air quality standards, and road traffic is reported as one of the main sources of pollution. This study investigates the size resolved particle number concentration and size distribution at one rural station, one urban station and one traffic station. The measured size-resolved particle number concentration has been reduced by means of cluster analysis to four particle size fractions (cluster 1: 7-29 nm, cluster 2: 29-95 nm, cluster 3: 95-264 nm, and cluster 4: 264-10,000 nm) based on their behavior in atmosphere according to common time patterns. The primary emissions from traffic are evaluated based on black carbon (BC) and size-resolved particle number concentration data, considering separately single size intervals and providing cluster-resolved information on primary and newly formed particle concentration. Particles directly emitted by vehicle exhaust exhibit similar numbers for the clusters 1 to 3 while newly formed particles mainly occurs in cluster 1. Furthermore, diurnal variation of directly emitted particles is found to closely follow the BC levels, while the trend of newly formed particles varies according to air temperature, solar radiation and particle pollution levels. The results release that in Po valley the variations of particle number levels do not always reflect the variation of road traffic emissions in urban areas as the large availability of anthropogenic precursors can favor summertime nucleation events with region-wide extension.

  9. An Investigation of Primary School Students' Perceptions of Violence Revealed Through Their Drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Saban

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, primary school students' perceptions of violence were investigated by means of pictures drawn by them. The participants included 80 students between the ages of 9 and 11 who attended three primary schools (3rd, 4th, and 5th grades in the city of Konya during the 2011-2012 academic year. According to the findings of the study, the students mostly drew pictures of general violence which occurred in a family environment in the form of physical violence. In addition, students drew “father” as a figure practicing violence most, and “male child” and “mother” as figures exposed to violence most.

  10. The Proficiency Level of Goals of Consistency and to Appropriatenes to The Level of Pupils For Humanities Course in 3rd Year of Primary Schools (Standart Definition- Erzurum City Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürbüz OCAK

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish the contextual standards of the social studies lesson in the third year primary school by analyzing the views of teachers.Thus, with the help of literature review, the questionnaire for the contextual standars of social studies lesson was developed depending on the views of teachers and standards were grouped according to the importance of factors. Whit this questionnaire some features of the contextual standars of the socialstudies lesson were analyzed. For example their level of consistency with goals, appropriatenes to the level of pupils and the existence in context (textbook were examined.In the study a survey method was used. Subjects were 533 teachers in 36 primary schools selected out of 70 with a random sampling technique in Erzurum city. The data from 374 received questionnaires were analyzed by using frequency, persentage, and q square techniques with SPSS at the α:0,05 significancelevel.As aresult of the statistical analyses, the developed standards were supported by teachers according to goals of consistency 86.5%, to appropriatenes to the level of pupils 89.6%, but to their existence in context(in the textbook 14.6%. 85.4% of the teachers decided that standards do not exist in the context.

  11. 重庆市城市中小学生忽视状况及其影响因素分析%Analysis of neglect condition and its influencing factors in primary and middle school students of Chongqing city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游欢; 钟朝晖; 张眉; 杨彬; 刁俊

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解重庆市城市中小学生忽视现状,分析中小学生忽视的主要影响因素,为制订干预措施提供科学依据.方法 采用随机抽样方法,从重庆市主城区随机抽取部分学生作为调查对象.应用我国中小学生忽视评价量表进行问卷调查.描述不同年龄、性别、忽视层面的忽视率与忽视度,并对影响因素进行分析.结果 各个年龄组不同性别平均忽视度分别为45.38、47.18、50.42和52.56,平均忽视率分别为34.32%、33.33%、36.90%、33.80%.各个年龄组男生忽视率均高于女生.在忽视层面上,15~17岁组的学生在教育、医疗、身体、情感层面受到的忽视程度高于其他年龄组,而6~8岁组学生在各个忽视层面受到的忽视均相对较低.结论 重庆市中小学生受忽视的程度和密度较大,平均忽视率和忽视度均高于全国调查水平,各个层面忽视的发生率也较高,应结合中小学生忽视现状及影响因素积极预防学生忽视的发生.%Objective To understand the neglect status of primary school students in Chongqing city and to analyze the main influencing factors of neglect to provide a scientific basis for the development of interventions. Methods Using the random sampling method, the partial students from the urban areas of Chongqing city were randomly selected for the survey subjects. The primary and middle school students neglect assessment scale was used for questionnaire survey. The rate and degree of neglect in different ages, genders and neglected layers were described and the influencing factors were analyzed. Results The average neglect degrees in different genders of all age groups were 45. 38, 47. 18, 50. 42 and 52. 56, respectively, and the average neglect rates were 34. 32% ,33. 33% , 36. 90% and 33. 80% respectively. The neglect rate in boys of all age groups was higher than that in girls. The neglect degrees in the aspects of education,health care,body,emotion for the

  12. 大连市2011年基层预防接种人员现状分析%Analysis primary prevention of vaccinators of the status in Dalian City in 2011, Dalian City in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林茜; 贾秀岩; 肖丹

    2013-01-01

    目的了解我市基层预防接种人员基本情况,为建设一支高素质、适应预防接种服务现状的免疫接种队伍提供参考依据。方法对全市范围内预防接种人员按照设计好的调查表进行调查。结果调查预防接种人员2869人,以女性为主(1191人),占66.61%,平均年龄43岁,文化程度以高中及中专学历为主(1803人),占62.84%,职称以初级为主(1785人),占62.22%。不同地区预防接种人员综合素质存在不同程度的差异。结论应及时调整预防接种人员结构,严格准入制度,强化业务培训和指导,形成激励机制,建立起一支高素质的、可持续发展的预防接种队伍。%Objective] To understand the status of the staff engaged in preventive vaccination,provide scientific basis for the establishment of the team with high quality.[Methods] Investigate citywide vaccination staff according to the design of the questionnaire.[Results]The average age of the 2869 people surveyed is 43-year-old.66.61%(1191) of the staff were female.62.84%(1803) of the staff were at the education level of the secondary and high school education.62.22%(1785) of the staff have the primary titles.The overall quality of the vaccinators is different in different regions.[Conclusion] We should pay attention to the adjustments of vaccination staff,set up the mechanism for staff of entering and incentive,strengthen vocational training and guidance.Establish a high quality and sustainable development of the vaccination team.

  13. On modern primary school design with Heima (Dark Horse)Art Bilingual Primary School of Linfen City%结合临汾市黑马艺术双语小学谈现代小学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴仁卓

    2015-01-01

    Based on design theory and design process in Heima( Dark horse)Art Bilingual Primary School in Linfen practical proiect,this paper systematically expounds the creation intention in distribution,function,modeling,indoor design and scenery design. We can provide an interest-ing environment to children by architectural symbol and technique.%基于设计理论,结合临汾市黑马艺术双语小学实际项目设计过程,对现代小学建筑的布局、功能、造型、室内、景观的创作意图进行了系统阐述,通过建筑的符号和手法,为孩子们创造了趣味空间。

  14. 湖南省怀化市中小学生近视现况调查及影响因素分析%Prevalence and associated factors of myopia in primary and secondary school students in Huaihua City, Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 李定梅; 于兰; 吴文洁; 谌绍林; 税永刚; 李妮; 段宣初

    2016-01-01

    目的 调查湖南省怀化市中小学生近视患病现状并分析其相关因素.设计横断面研究.研究对象湖南省怀化市鹤城区3~12年级学生2103名.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,2014年9~12月对怀化市鹤城区6所学校中小学生进行视力检查非睫状肌麻痹下自动验光和问卷调查.近视定义为等效球镜度(SE)≤-0.50 D.应用非条件Logistic回归模型对可能与近视发生相关的33项因素进行多因素分析.主要指标近视患病率.结果 在入选的2103名学生中,2064名(98.1%)(平均年龄12.5±2.8岁,范围7~18岁)参与了调查.近视患病率为46.3% (95%CI:44.1%~48.5%),小学生为22.1% (95%CI:19.3%~24.9%),初中生为53.8%(95%CI:50.0%~57.6%),高中生为74.4% (95%CI:70.8%~78.1%).近视患病率随着年级增高呈增长趋势(x2=425.626.P--0.000).女生近视患病率50.4%(95%可信区间:47.2%~53.6%)高于男生42.8%(95%可信区间:39.9%~45.7%)(x2=12.043,P=0.001).乡村小学和城区小学的近视患病率无显著性差异(x2=0.140,P=0.708).近视学生中69.2%(660/954)配戴眼镜.Logistic回归分析显示,近视的危险因素为父母近视、更长的近距离用眼时间、更短的近距离用眼距离、更少的睡眠时间、照明过暗.课桌高度合适、户外活动、几乎不看电视或玩电脑、无不良用眼行为和习惯是近视的保护因素.结论 怀化市中小学生近视患病率较高,乡村学校的近视防治工作亦刻不容缓,视力保护的关键年龄在9岁以前.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of myopia and to analyze associated factors in primary and secondary school students in Huaihua City,Hunan Province.Design Cross-sectional survey.Participants 2103 students from Grade 3 to 12 in Hecheng district of Huaihua City.Methods Stratified cluster random sampling approach was conducted to selected 2103 students from September to December in 2014.The students

  15. The negative impact of living environment on intelligence quotient of primary school children in Baghdad City, Iraq: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Hasanain

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental factors play a very important role in the child development process, especially in a situation like that of Iraq. Thirteen years of economic sanctions followed by the 2003 war and 8 years of unstable security have affected the daily life of Iraqi families and children. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between living environment domains and child intelligence quotient (IQ score. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 529 children aged 7–8 years from five primary schools in Baghdad during September–October, 2011. The five schools represent people living a range of conditions, and include of both high and low socio-economic groups. Living environment was assessed by 13 questionnaire items, consists of three domains: physical safety , mental stress and public services. While IQ was assessed by Raven Colored progressive matrices. Results Among the participants, 22% were of low intelligence versus 77% of high intelligence and 19% lived in a poor environment. There were significant associations between the mental stress and service living environment domains and child IQ (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001, respectively. Conclusion In Iraq, child IQ was found to be associated with the mental stress and service domains of the living environment. This study findings will help authorities in their efforts to improve living environment.

  16. Poetry in Third Grade: Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeres, Diane Carver; Gregg, Madeleine

    2007-01-01

    Poetry should be an integral part of children's learning in elementary school. This article explains the classroom structures and routines through which third-grade students in an inner-city school became familiar with poetic language and learned to appreciate the artistry of poetry. Most of the students were struggling readers. Reading poetry…

  17. Encouraging Recreational Reading in the Elementary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, Pat; De Young, Jennifer; Hutchinson, Sandy; Pedersen, Susan

    This report describes a program encouraging students to choose reading as a recreational activity. The targeted population consisted of first, second, third, and fourth grade students in a growing middle class community, near a large Midwestern city. The problem of students choosing recreational activities other than reading was documented through…

  18. Investigation on learning and living conditions of the students in private primary school of Shenzhen City%深圳市私立小学学生学习和生活条件的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林孟端; 陈美施

    2013-01-01

    [ Objective ] To understand the learning and living conditions of the students in private primary school of Shenzhen City. [Methods] One public and 1 private primary school (2 300 students in total ) were selected for investigation by questionnaire which included the general condition, the family situation, family situation, learning and living environment, daily activity, habits and customs, diet and nutrition. [Results] The educational background of private school students' parents was lower than that of the public school students, with significant difference (P < 0. 01). The main occupations of public and private school students' fathers were commercial and service business. The main occupations of their mothers were housewives, commercial and service business. The structure of family was the core family. Mode of growth was in common with the parents . The relationships of students and their parents (relatives) were good . The income of public school students family was better than that of the private school students. The living condition of public school students family was better than the private school students. The eating habits and dietary condition of public school students family was better than the private school students. [ Conclusion] The learning and living condition of the private primary school students is worse than that of the public primary school students in Shenzhen City. Related department should strengthen the support to private primary school students.%目的 了解深圳市私立小学学生学习和生活条件.方法 选择深圳市宝安区某街道公私立小学各1所,对2300名公私立小学学生进行问卷调查.调查内容包括小学学生一般情况、家庭情况、学习生活环境、日常活动和生活习惯及饮食营养.结果 私立小学学生父亲、母亲的总体文化程度低于公立小学,两者间的差别有统计学意义(P<0.01).公私立小学学生父亲的职业均以商业和服务业为主;

  19. 温州市小学生超重肥胖现状及其影响因素分析%Prevalence of overweight and obesity in primary school students from Wenzhou city and the analyses of the risk factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾俐挺; 王黎荔; 山若青; 林莺

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in primary school students from Wenzhou City in Zhejiang Province, and to explore their relative risk factors. Methods Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 9035 children from the primary schools in Wenzhou City for the anthropometric measurements. 369 obesity cases and their paired controls of 389 children were chosen based on the large sample investigation. Diet and lifestyle factors were investigated in the nested case-control study for following logistic regression analyses. Results The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 11.2% and 6.4% , respectively. Male group had higher prevalence than female (P < 0. 05 ) . High frequency of vegetable intake, milk and dairy products intake, more physical activity were the benefit factors for preventing obesity (multi-variable logistic regression analysis, OR =0.770, 0.821, 0.697 and 0. 567 , P = 0. 033 , 0. 037 , 0. 017 and 0. 008 , respectively) , whereas longer sedentary behavior was the risk factor of obesity (OR = 1. 583 , P = 0. 003 ) . Conclusions The prevalence of both overweight and obesity in students from the primary schools were high in Wenzhou city, and were highly related to the diet habit and physical activity.%目的 了解浙江省温州市小学生超重肥胖的流行现状,探讨肥胖的危险因素.方法 采用多阶段分层整群抽样的方法抽取9035例温州市小学生进行体格检查,选取其中369例肥胖儿童作为病例组,并配以同班级同性别的正常体重学生389例作为对照组,开展病例-对照研究,进行膳食、身体活动方式等相关因素的Logistic 回归分析.结果 温州市小学生总体超重率和肥胖率分别为11.2%和6.4%,男性高于女性(P<0.05).蔬菜摄入频率高、奶类及其制品摄入频率高、每日运动时间长和每日睡眠时间充足分别为肥胖的保护性因素(多因素Logistic回归分析,OR值分别为0

  20. Design of the Urban Land Grading Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the urban land grading system based on the selfdeveloped GIS software.The system establishes the system template,the relevant data structure and the empirical formulas of the affecting factor and economic data of land use.Besides,the system can calculate the service radius,sum and land grade automatically.Furthermore,it can do statistics and query on various land information and show the result of land grading with spatial and attribute data.This paper illustrates the result by giving an example of the commercial land grading of the urban area of Wuhan City by the urban land grading system.

  1. INVESTIGATION OF PRIMARY FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS’KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION LEVEL OF NASREDDIN HODJA AND KELOĞLAN İLKÖĞRETİM BEŞİNCİ SINIF ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN NASREDDİN HOCA VE KELOĞLAN’A İLİŞKİN BİLGİ VE ALGI DÜZEYLERİNİN İNCELENMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol DURAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how primary fifth grade students'levels of knowledge and perception about Nasreddin Hodja and Keloğlan. This study were tried to find answer of these question: “Which is the level of students' knowledge about Nasreddin Hodja and Keloğlan?”, “Which sources students learned Keloğlan tales?”, “Can Students detect correctly perceive the message to be given in jokes or tales”. In this study, the descriptive model; content and descriptive analysis technique was used. The study group is 172 primary fifth grade students chosen at random in Uşak city center. In this study, a data collection tool, Investigation of Primary Fifth Grade Students’ Knowledge and Perception Related toNasreddin Hodja and Keloğlan, developed by the researcher, was used. According to the survey, students define Nasreddin Hodja as “funny, reverse, donkey riding, witty and knowledgeable”. But some students define Nasreddin Hodja as "a liar and deceitful. This rate for the number of students cannot be underestimated. Students define Keloğlan as “bald, cartoon character and intelligent”. In addition, in the students responses, Keloğlan "lazy and disobedient" features stand out. More than half of the students have been failed or very failed to percept the message to be given in Nasreddin Hodja jokes. However, more than half of the students have been success or very success to percept the message to be given in Keloğlan tales. İlköğretim beşinci sınıf öğrencilerinin Nasreddin Hoca ve Keloğlan ile ilgili bilgi ve algı düzeylerini belirlemeyi amaçlayan bu araştırmada, “Öğrencilerin Nasreddin Hoca ve Keloğlan ile ilgili bilgi masallarını hangi kaynaklardan öğrendikleri” ve “Fıkralarda veya masallarda verilmek istenen mesajı doğru algılayıp algılayamadıkları” araştırılmaya çalışılmıştır. Araştırmada, betimsel tarama modeli; içerik ve betimsel analiz tekniği kullanılmıştır. Ara

  2. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  3. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  4. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social......This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...... experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...

  5. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  6. 4~6年级农村留守儿童心理健康状况及其影响因素研究%Mental Health Status of Left-behind Children at 4-6 Grades of Primary Schools in Rural Area and Its Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高修银; 赵华硕; 金英良; 严文君; 周萍; 王丽红; 戴洁; 陆召军

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨徐州市农村留守儿童的心理健康状况及其影响因素,为家庭、学校和社会对留守儿童的教育提供参考依据.方法 采用分层与整群相结合的随机抽样方法,对江苏省徐州市农村地区6所小学的1 115名留守儿童进行问卷调查.结果 不同性别的留守儿童在学习焦虑、对人焦虑、自责倾向、恐怖倾向和总焦虑倾向得分间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);父母是否在本地打工的留守儿童在对人焦虑和冲动倾向得分间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);与父母见面时间长短不同的留守儿童在自责倾向和身体症状得分间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).父亲的文化程度与学习焦虑、对人焦虑、孤独倾向、过敏倾向、身体症状、恐怖倾向和总焦虑倾向得分之间呈负相关;母亲的文化程度与身体症状、恐怖倾向和总焦虑倾向得分间呈负相关;照顾人的文化程度与身体症状、恐怖倾向、总焦虑倾向得分间呈负相关.结论 女性、父母和照顾人文化程度偏低及与父母见面时间间隔长的农村留守儿童心理健康状况偏差.%Objective To explore the mental health status of left - behind children who were at 4 ~ 6 grades of primary schools in rural areas of Xuzhou city and the influencing factors, in order to provide reference evidence for education of left - behind children. Methods The cluster stratified sampling was taken to choose 1 115 pupils, left - behind children, at 4 to 6 grades of 6 primary schools in rural areas of Xuzhou city, Jiangsu province. Questionnaire survey was conducted among the subjects. Results There were significant differences in scores of study anxiety, interpersonal anxiety, self - blame tendency, phobic symptom and total anxiety tendency between male and female left - behind children ( P < 0. 05 ). There were significant differences in scores of interpersonal anxiety and impulsion tendency between children whose parents

  7. A Profile of Journal Writing in First-Grade Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sharon R.; Benson, Susan N. Kushner

    2000-01-01

    Considers how journal writing is used in primary grades to support the emergent literacy skills of young children. Reviews the literature on journal writing. Compares first grade teachers' instructional practices and perceived benefits or disadvantages of journal writing. Provides evidence that first grade teachers in the school district are using…

  8. 近10年榆林市植被净初级生产力时空分异特征%Temporal and Spatial Change Feature of Net Primary Productivity in Yulin City from 2000 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周淑琴; 李娜; 荆耀栋; 张青峰; 田晓红

    2015-01-01

    The ecological environment is fragile in Yulin city.The distribution and change of the net primary productivity of vegetation has great influence on it.We analyzed spatial and temporal variation characteristics of NPP in Yulin city by markov transfer matrix and spatial overlay analysis based on the 2000,2005 and 2010 NPP data.The results show that:(1 )The distribution of NPP in Yulin city gradually increases from the northwest to the southeast.(2 )The annual NPP shows a significant upward trend from 2000 to 2010 in Yulin city.The NPP increased area is about 95%,which was 300gC/(m2 ·a) larger and accounting for 47.22%,mainly distributed in the north and south area from 2000 to 2005.Meanwhile,the NPP increased area is about 94%,which was 300gC/(m2 ·a)larger and accounting for 54.10%,mainly distributed in the southeast from 2005 to 2010.(3 )The main factors of Yulin NPP increase is the ecological immigration and vegetation restoration measures taken since 1999.%针对榆林市生态环境脆弱,植被净初级生产力分布及变化对其影响较大的问题,利用2000年、2005年和2010年的 NPP 数据,采用马尔科夫转移矩阵及 GIS 空间分析功能,揭示榆林市 NPP 的时空变化特征。结果表明:(1)榆林市 NPP 空间分布由西北向东南逐渐递增。(2)2000年~2010年 NPP 呈显著上升趋势:2000年~2005年 NPP 升高区域95.03%,增幅大于300gC/(m2·a)的占47.22%,主要分布在榆林市最北端和南部地区;2005年~2010年 NPP 升高区域面积93.96%,增幅大于300gC/(m2·a)的占54.10%,集中在东南大部分地区。(3)榆林市 NPP 增加的主要因素是1999年以来该区采取的多项植被恢复与重建工程等措施,植被覆盖度增加。

  9. Beautiful city

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino

    2009-01-01

    Proponents of the City Beautiful movement advocated for sizable public investments in monumental spaces, street beautification, and classical architecture. Today, economists and policymakers see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract people and jobs to cities. But past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisure amenities for urban growth and development. In this article, Jerry Carlino uses a new data set on the number of leisure tourist ...

  10. City Beautiful

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino; Saiz, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The City Beautiful movement, which in the early 20th century advocated city beautification as a way to improve the living conditions and civic virtues of the urban dweller, had languished by the Great Depression. Today, new urban economic theorists and policymakers are coming to see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract population, especially the highly skilled and their employers. However, past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisur...

  11. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    M Batty

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  12. Sustainable cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed

  13. Toronto smog report card 2002 : final grade D +

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    The Toronto Environmental Alliance has published an annual Smog Report Card for Toronto since 1997 to evaluate the progress that has been made by the city on reducing the environmental and health impacts of smog. The city's final grade for 2002 was a D +, an improvement over last year, partly due to the city's anti-smog actions and honoured commitments to clean air through the adoption of a new bike plan, the launching of a new public education campaign, and by endorsing the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol on climate change. This report card presented a grade for Smog Prevention and Reduction (D), Budget (F), Intergovernmental Relations (B), and Public Education (F). It was recommended that in order to receive a better grade next year, the city will have to purchase green electricity from renewable energy sources, reduce emissions in municipal fleet vehicles and improve public transit. 14 refs.

  14. Engineering graded tissue interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer E; Burns, Kellie L; Le Doux, Joseph M; Guldberg, Robert E; García, Andrés J

    2008-08-26

    Interfacial zones between tissues provide specialized, transitional junctions central to normal tissue function. Regenerative medicine strategies focused on multiple cell types and/or bi/tri-layered scaffolds do not provide continuously graded interfaces, severely limiting the integration and biological performance of engineered tissue substitutes. Inspired by the bone-soft tissue interface, we describe a biomaterial-mediated gene transfer strategy for spatially regulated genetic modification and differentiation of primary dermal fibroblasts within tissue-engineered constructs. We demonstrate that zonal organization of osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular phenotypes can be engineered by a simple, one-step seeding of fibroblasts onto scaffolds containing a spatial distribution of retrovirus encoding the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1. Gradients of immobilized retrovirus, achieved via deposition of controlled poly(L-lysine) densities, resulted in spatial patterns of transcription factor expression, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralized matrix deposition. Notably, this graded distribution of mineral deposition and mechanical properties was maintained when implanted in vivo in an ectopic site. Development of this facile and robust strategy is significant toward the regeneration of continuous interfacial zones that mimic the cellular and microstructural characteristics of native tissue.

  15. 北京市东城区中小学教室卫生学现状分析%Analysis of the classroom health's status for primary and secondary schools in Dongcheng District of Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉蓉; 黄剑辉; 秦媛

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解北京市东城区中小学校教学环境卫生现状,为不断改善学生学习、生活环境提供参考依据.方法 选取北京市东城区70所中小学校的210间教室,进行教室人均面积、课桌椅、采光、照明、微小气候及黑板等方面的卫生学检测,并对检测数据进行统计学分析.结果 中小学校教室人均面积、课桌面照度、课桌及课椅分配符合达标率分别为97.14%、91.43%、76.19%和87.62%;黑板照明、窗地比、采光系数、后墙反射系数、教室CO2浓度及教室温度达标率分别为20.00%、41.43%、16.67%、51.90%、42.86%和35.71%.结论 北京市东城区各中小学校教学环境现状以黑板照明低和教室采光不足为突出问题.%OBJECTIVE To study the teaching environment's health status of on primary and secondary schools in Dongcheng District of Beijing City so as to provide reference evidence for improving the studying and living environment of the students.METHODS The schools health were measured in 210 classrooms of 70 primary and secondary schools in the entire district and the classroom space per capita,desk and chair,classroom lighting and illumination,microclimate,and blackboard were collected and analyzed statistically by SPSS 11.5.RESULTS The qualified rates of classroom space per capita,table and chair illumination,desk allocation,and chair allocation were 97.14%,91.43%,76.19% and 87.62% respectively.The qualified rates of blackboard illumination,window land ratio,illumination coefficient,reflection coefficient of backboard,CO2 density and temperature in the classrooms were 20.00%,41.43%,16.67%,51.90%,42.86% and 35.71% respectively.CONCLUSION It is the biggest problem that the blackboard illumination and the classroom lighting of the teaching environment is not sufficient of primary and secondary schools in Dongcheng District of Beijing City.

  16. Amenorrhea - primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary amenorrhea; No periods - primary; Absent periods - primary; Absent menses - primary; Absence of periods - primary ... with an average of around 12 years old. Primary amenorrhea typically occurs when a girl is older ...

  17. Prediction of Annual Precipitation Grade in Baoji City Based on Weighted Markov Chain%基于权马尔可夫链的宝鸡市年降水量状态预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文彦君

    2012-01-01

    In order to make a comprehensive analysis on the temporal distribution regularity and variation trend, providing scientific basis for water resource prediction, prevention and mitigation of flood & drought disaster, water regulation, as well as water resource management, the annual precipitation grade of Baoji were analyzed by using weighted Markov chain. Considering the uncertainty and imprecision of precipitation process, the precipitation numbers of Baoji from 1956 to 2009 were classified into 5 grades: drought, partial drought, normal, partial abundance and abundance, by using mean-standard deviation classification method. Regarding standardized self-coefficients as weights, the precipitation grades of the future years in Baoji were predicted by using weighted Markov chain. Analysis on stationary distribution showed that, the probabilities of 5 grades above were respectively 0.1305, 0.2767, 0.2751, 0.2075, 0.1101. The partial drought and normal grades dominated in the long-term precipitation process, reflecting warming-drying trend of climate changing in Baoji.%为了全面分析宝鸡市自然降水的时间分布规律和变化趋势,为该区域水资源预测、旱涝灾害防治、水量调度和水资源管理提供依据,对宝鸡市年降水量状态进行了权马尔可夫链分析.针对降水过程中的不确定和不精确性,采用均值-标准差分级法,将宝鸡市1956-2009年降水量分为干旱、偏旱、正常、偏涝、雨涝5个状态.以规范化的各阶自相关系数为权重,采用权马尔可夫链模型对宝鸡市未来年份的降水量状态进行预测.平稳分析结果表明,宝鸡市多年降水过程中干旱、偏旱、正常、偏涝、雨涝等5种状态出现的概率分别为0.1305、0.2767、0.2751、0.2075、0.1101.宝鸡市未来多年降水过程中偏旱和正常状态占优势,而雨涝出现概率较低,反映了该区域气候暖干化的长期变化.

  18. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt;

    2000-01-01

    was moderately reproduced (kappa = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all...... patients (P analysis showed that vascular grading contributed with independent prognostic value in all patients (P

  19. Sleeping condition and correlated factors among students at primary school in Lanzhou City%兰州市小学生睡眠状况调查及相关因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶新华; 陈虹; 原新慧; 席莉华; 张晓宇; 张艳; 陈彩霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the sleeping condition of children and correlated factors among students at primary school in Lanzhou City. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among the parents of 3 283 students at primary school, stratified random sampling selected in four urban districts of Lanzhou. Results The sleeping time was getting shorter and shorter with the growth of students in primary school (f=25.32, P <0.01). The total sleeping time among students at primary school was less than 10 h a day in Lanzhou. The influence factors of children's total sleeping time were children's age, weight, gender, the time of homework, sleeping with their parent, amateur study, family accident, the education background and occupation of parents', and the time of going to bed of fosterer, etc. The prevalence of sleeping disorders was 16.24% in the students of primary school in Lanzhou with 18.22% in boys and 14.07% in girls (P <0.05). The main risk factors that affected the sleeping conditions were weight, irregular sleep, not enough sleeping time, adenoids, watching nervous TV and acute exercise before 30 min to sleep, the bedroom with TV, sleeping with their parent, anxiety of the father, the parents' bad marriage, etc. Conclusion The total sleeping time of the students from primary school in Lanzhou is below the standard requirements. There is a lower prevalence of sleeping disorders than that in developed city. The main influence factors of the sleeping were the family and social environment, schoolwork burden, habits of children and their parents' high education and anxiety.%目的 了解兰州市小学生睡眠状况及影响因素.方法 采用分层整群随机抽样的方法在兰州市4个区选取3 283名小学生,在严格质量控制下进行睡眠问卷调查.结果 兰州市小学生全天总睡眠时间小于10 h,随年龄增长而减少,各组间均数呈线形趋势,以10岁为界,有显著性差异(f=25.32,P<0.01);睡眠时间的影响因素有年龄

  20. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...... attention is put on a new research project called "Experience City - hybrid cultural projects and performative urban spaces". The thesis and research themes are presented and related to the general framework of present cultural planning and post industrial urban transformation.......This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...

  1. Selecting Reinforcers for Positive Classroom Projects in Inner City Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Donald

    1981-01-01

    Suggests several positive reinforcement methods that teachers may employ with inner-city students to improve student responsibility, organization, and motivation. These methods include offering incentives for grade improvement, tangible and nontangible reinforcers, token systems, and social reinforcement. (GC)

  2. Investigation and analysis on the production cost of primary agricultural products in Guigang City%贵港市大宗农产品生产成本调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈升民; 陈莉; 张敏; 朱丹青

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate agricultural production cost and farmers' income in Guigang City in order to provide references for policy making and to increase fanners' income. [Method]The kilometer network monitoring technology method and random sampling method were used to investigate the production status, external costs, and cost composition of plant farming and poultry breeding industries of 235 peasant households, ranging from 112 villages to 60 towns in Guiping County, Pingnan County, Gangbei District, Gangnan District, and Qintang District in Guigang City from 2008-2009. [Result]Primary agricultural products in Guigang were rice, sugar cane, corn, peanut, vegetable, sericulture, pig, poultry, and aquatic products. The expenses of fertilizers, seeds and seedlings, and pesticide accounted for 40- 60%, 5-30%, and 7-20% of the total expenditure cost respectively; the feeding cost accounted for more than 76% in the total industry cost. The average opportunity cost was 5,346 Yuan. [Suggestion]It was suggested that, in order to improve the efficiency of agricultural production and increase farmers' income in Guigang City, the rational arrangement of farming production depended on gaining resource advantage, supporting the community of poultry and livestock, strengthening government' s" support for agricultural production, decreasing agricultural production cost, reinforcing agricultural science and technology support, improving agricultural service system and land transfer mechanism, conducting large-scale operation, etc.%[目的]了解贵港市农户的农业生产成本及收益情况,为促进农民增收及政府决策提供参考.[方法]于2008~2009年通过农业资源公里网点监测体系,采用随机抽样方法调查贵港市辖的桂平市、平南县、港北区、港南区和覃塘区的60个乡(镇)112个行政村235户农户生产情况、种养业生产成本和构成现状.[结果]农业大宗农产品为水稻、甘蔗、

  3. OPINIONS OF PRIMARY EDUCATION SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS ABOUT TEACHING OF HISTORY TOPICS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES AND SIGNIFICANCE OF HISTORY İLKÖĞRETİM YEDİNCİ SINIF ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN SOSYAL BİLGİLER DERSLERİNDE TARİH KONULARININ İŞLENİŞİ VE TARİHİN DEĞERİ İLE İLGİLİ GÖRÜŞLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan KAYA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at determining primary education seventh grade students’ opinions on teaching of history topics in social science cources and significance of history in their lives. The population of the study comprises of 20 pieces seventh grade classes in 4 primary schools with medium socio-economic levels in the city center of Erzurum. As the sample of the study, a total of 200 students (10 students from each class were chosen via random sampling from seventh grade classes of these schools according to the appropriate sampling method. Required data for this qualitative research was acquired by a 4-item questionnaire comprising of open-ended questions. Content analysis method was adopted in analysis of the obtained data in this study. Findings shows that methods in line with constructivist approach remain limited in teaching of the topics; students like methods in which they are more active; such as drama and acting they like learning history, and, in general, they think that learning history makes a great contribution to their lives. Bu araştırmanın amacı, İlköğretim yedinci sınıf öğrencilerinin sosyal bilgiler dersinde tarih konularının işlenişi ve tarihin yaşamlarındaki değeri ile ilgili görüşlerini tespit edebilmektir.Araştırmanın evrenini, Erzurum merkezde sosyo-ekonomik bakımdan orta düzeyde 4 ilköğretim okulundaki toplam 20 tane yedinci sınıf şubesi oluşturmaktadır. Örneklem olarak uygun örnekleme yöntemine göre seçilen bu okulların yedinci sınıflarından tesadüfî örneklem yoluyla her sınıftan 10’ar öğrenci olmak üzere toplam 200 öğrenci seçilmiştir. Nitel araştırma yöntemi ile gerçekleştirilen bu araştırma için gerekli olan veriler, 4 adet açık uçlu sorudan oluşan bir anket vasıtasıyla edinilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda elde edilen verilerin çözümlenmesinde içerik analizi yöntemi benimsenmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre derslerin işlenişinde yap

  4. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trads, Søren Frimann; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services......, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of - or willingness...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  5. Survey of ADHD among primary and middle school students in urban area of Guiyang city%贵阳城区中小学生注意缺陷多动障碍调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张碧昌; 朱焱; 邓冰; 文秋生; 孙袁; 王秀荣

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨贵阳市城区儿童注意缺陷多动障碍的患病情况及影响因素,为防治该病提供依据.方法:采用整群随机抽样抽取贵阳城区中小学生3 016名为调查对象,用Conners量表(家长问卷)对儿童进行初筛,然后对可疑患儿及家长进行病史访谈、智力测试并按DSM -Ⅳ诊断标准进行诊断.结果:ADHD的患病率为0.73%,其中注意缺陷型占77.3%,多动-冲动型占9.1%,注意缺陷伴多动冲动型占13.6%.男孩的患病率为1.3%,女孩患病率为0.3%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).影响儿童ADHD的因素为:性别、母亲孕期情绪低落、父母婚姻关系、父母是否理解孩子的想法、孩子有困难是否愿意告诉父母、孩子性格及学习成绩、好朋友的多少、与同学的关系.结论:儿童ADHD的患病率处于较低水平,影响儿童ADHD的因素是多方面的,干预儿童ADHD应该关注儿童家庭养育环境和在学校的学习生活情况.%Objective: To explore the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the effect factors among the children in urban area of Guiyang city, provide a basis for prevention and treatment of the disease. Methods: A cluster random sampling method was used to choose 3 016 primary and middle school students from urban area of Guiyang city as investigation objects, Conners scale was used for primary screening, then the suspected children and their parents were interviewed, intelligence test was conducted, and all the children were diagnosed according to DSM - IV diagnostic criterion. Results: The prevalence of ADHD was 0. 73% , the proportions of inattentive type, hyperactive/impulsive type, inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive type were 77. 3% , 9. 1% and 13. 6% , respectively. The incidences of ADHD in boys and girls were 1. 3% and 0. 3% , respectively, there was significant difference (P <0. 05) . The effect factors of ADHD in children included gender, maternal depression during

  6. 北京市城乡限定学校一、四年级小学生近视眼患病率及相关危险因素%The prevalence and associated risk factors of myopia in grade 1 and grade 4 primary students of defined schools in urban and rural regions of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭寅; 刘丽娟; 徐亮; 吕燕云; 唐萍; 冯祎; 孟梦

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and associated factors of myopia among Grade-1 and Crade-4 primary students in urban and rural regions of Beijing. Design School-based, cross-sectional investigation. Participants Two schools were investigated. Three hundred eight-two Grade-1 and 299 Grade-4 primary students participated in the study. Methods Comprehensive eye examination including visual acuity, ocular motility evaluation, auto-refraction, slit lamp biomcroscopy, ocular biometry and non-mydriatic fundus photography were carried out on all paticipants. Parents and children were administered detailed questionnaires including general information, nearwork, social-economic parameters and outdoor activity. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence and associated factors of myopia. Results According to different definitions of myopia (Spherical Equivalent, SE≤0.50 D, ≤-1.00 D, ≤-1.50 D, ≤-2.00 D), the prevalence was 48.1%, 27.9%, 17.5% and 11.6%, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the prevalence of myopia (SE≤-1.00 D)was associated with age (P=0.003, Ort=1.45, 95% canfidence intervals, CI: 1.25,1.67), place (P=0.000, OR=0.20, 95% CI: 0.14,0.29), parental myopia(P=0.000, OR=2.99, 95%CI: 1.83,4.89), outdoor sports (P=0.013, OR=0.14, 95%CI: 0.03,0.65), outdoor leisure (P=0.001, OR=0.33, 95%CI: 0.22,0.49), outdoor activity (P=0.001, OR=0.35, 95%CI: 0.24,0.50), studying indoors (P=0.001, OR=1.37, 95%CI: 1.09,1.72), watching television indoors (P=0.008, Oft =0.66, 95%CI: 0.52,0.84). Correspondingly, axial length was significantly associated with higher age (P=0.000; standardized coefficient beta: 0.28), taller body height (P=0.001; beta: 0.18), parental myopia (P=0.03; beta: 0.09) and urban region of habitation (P=0.000; beta: -0.21), less time spent outdoors (P=0.001; beta: -0.16), outdoor leisure(P=0.001;beta:-0.15 )and more time spent indoors with studying (P=0.02; beta: 0.10). Children with higher age, urban region of habitation, less time

  7. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  8. Analysis of myopia and its influence factors of primary school students in Chongqing city%重庆市城区小学生近视及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐燕; 叶剑; 孙强; 孙敏; 高凡

    2014-01-01

    Objective To survey the visual situation of primary school students in Chongqing city,and to explore the influence factors of myopia.Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to select 1100 students in primary school in 3 districts of Chongqing with a multistage cluster randomized sampling method.The student was investigated by questionnaires and the myopia was examined.Results The myopia prevalence of the primary school students in Chongqing city was 32.91% (362/1100) (95% CI:30.13%-35.69%).This rate increased from 9.84% (18/183) in 7-year-old to 59.20% (74/125) in 12-year-old.With increasing age,the prevalence of myopia among males and females showed an increasing trend with age (male:x2=76.457,P=0.000; female:x2=43.815,P =0.000).The myopia rate of the female 33.01% (169/512) was higher than the male 32.82% (193/588) and this difference did not reach statistical significant (x2=0.004,P =0.948).Myopia was related to parents' myopia,parents' level of education,short range reading,reading in bed,playing small games and whether watching television.Conclusions There is a high prevalence of myopia in Chongqing city.It is necessary to take comprehensive measures to preserve eyesight,such as,focusing on the students whose parents are shortsighted and highly educated,and building the self-control to correct bad behavior of reading,strengthening the physical exercises,reducing the frequency of playing games,enriching their after school life and so on.%目的 通过对重庆市城区小学生视力状况调查,分析近视形成的影响因素.方法 横断面调查研究.采用分层整群抽样原则,于2012年5~7月抽取重庆市三个城区小学各一所,对1~6年级1100名小学生进行横断面调查,调查内容包括问卷调查和眼科检查.近视与影响因素的关系采用多因素非条件Logistic回归模型进行分析.结果 重庆市城区7~12岁小学生近视患病率为32.91% (362/1100)(95%可信区间:30.13%~35

  9. Will Primary Grade Title I Students Demonstrate Greater Achievement in Reading With the Use of Audio-Visual Aids Than Those Who Haven't Utilized the Same Media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skobo, Kathleen Ward

    Forty-two first, second, and third grade students participated in a 15-week study to determine the effects of audiovisual aids on reading achievement. The students were pretested and posttested using the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills. Each group received 40 minutes of small group and individual instruction each day. The experimental group…

  10. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  11. Vacant city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzot, N.

    2013-01-01

    Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if not recognized by any in

  12. Sin City?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, Pieter A.; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city

  13. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... on the block” that will potentially be a game-changer for urban governance, economics and everyday life. Here we are thinking of the unmanned aerial vehicle or drone as the popular term has it. Therefore, the paper asks how life in “drone city” may play out. Drones may alter the notion of surveillance by means...

  14. City Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  15. 中小学特级教师结构现状及其发展对策--基于广东省的实证研究%The Present Status and Development Countermeasures of the Special-grade Teachers in Primary and Secondary Schools---Based on an Empirical Research in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭上观; 林天伦; 何毅

    2014-01-01

    特级教师是师德的表率、育人的模范、教学的专家。特级教师是当地基础教育的宝贵财富。弘扬特级教师精神是时代的要求,社会的需求,教育的需求。为了充分发挥特级教师的示范辐射作用,本文以广东在职的中小学特级教师为例,结合特级教师基本现状调查的思考,从特级教师评选指标、评选方法、激励政策、成长平台等方面提出了相关的建议与对策。%Special-grade Teachers are moral models , education models ,and teaching experts . Special-grade Teachers are valuable assets to local basic education . Carrying forward the spirit of Special-grade Teachers is the requirements of the times and the needs of society and education . In order to give full play to the role of the Special-grade Teachers'demonstration , this thesis takes an empirical research on the present status of primary and secondary Special-grade Teachers in Guangdong . It puts forward relevant suggestions and countermeasures with regard to selection index , selection methods , incentive policiess ,and grow th platform .

  16. 普洱市初中一年级学生体质与膳食营养状况调查分析%Survey and analysis of physical fitness and dietary nutrition of first grade students in junior high school in Pu'er City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙竹花; 陈燕; 万婧; 张乾勇; 麻微微

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the physical fitness and dietary nutrition of first grade students in junior high school from urban and rural areas of Pu'er City in Yunnan Province.Methods A total of 498 first grade students aged 13-year-old from two junior high schools in urban and rural areas of Pu'er City in May 2011 were selected as participants with random cluster sampling method.Height, weight and chest circumference of the students were measured.And their recent sports results were accessed and 3-day dietary survey was performed with 24 h recall method.Results Height of male and female students in urban areas were significantly higher than that in the rural areas (P < 0.05).Low weight rate of female students in rural areas was significantly higher than that in urban areas, while the obesity rate was significantly lower in rural areas (P < 0.05).Energy and various nutrients intake of students in urban areas were significantly higher, while calcium intake was significantly insufficient both in urban and rural areas.Conclusion In Pu'er City, health status of first grade students in junior high school is not optimistic, with unreasonable dietary structure and unsatisfactory nutritional status.This indicates that effective measures should be taken to improve the students' dietary intake and nutritional status.%目的 了解云南省普洱市城市和农村初中一年级学生体质与膳食营养状况.方法 按照整群随机抽样的方法选取2011年5月普洱市城乡各两所学校初中一年级13岁学生共498名为调查对象,测量其身高、体重和胸围,查阅最近一次的运动成绩,用24 h回顾法进行3d膳食调查.结果 城镇男、女学生身高均显著高于乡村学生(P<0.05).乡村女生较低体重率显著高于城镇女生,而肥胖率显著低于城镇女生(P<0.05).城镇学生能量和各种营养素摄入量普遍高于乡村学生,城乡学生钙摄入量均不足.结论 普洱市初中一年级学生体质健康状况不

  17. Virtual Cities as a Collaborative Educational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Daniel Nehme; de Oliveira, Otto Lopes Braitback; Remião, Joelma Adriana Abrão; Silveira, Paloma Dias; Martins, Márcio André Rodrigues; Axt, Margarete

    The CIVITAS (Virtual Cities with Technologies for Learning and Simulating) project presents a research, teaching and extension approach directed to the construction of cities imagined by students in the first years of elementary school, with an emphasis to the fourth grade. The teacher ventures on a deviation from the official curriculum proposed to reflect upon the invention of cities along with the children. Within this context, the game Città is introduced as an environment that allows the creation of digital real/virtual/imagined cities, and enables different forms of interaction among the students through networked computers. The cooperative situations, made possible by the access to the game, are tools for teachers and students to think about the information that operate as general rules and words of order with the invention of the city/knowledge.

  18. Predicting Dyslexia in a Transparent Orthography from Grade 1 Literacy Skills: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective cohort study to explore the predictability of dyslexia from 1st-grade literacy skills in Italian students. We followed 407 Italian students in primary school from the 1st through the 3rd grades. Students were diagnosed with dyslexia in the 3rd grade. We retrospectively tested participants' 1st-grade performance in…

  19. 小学低年级班级中小组“捆绑”管理策略的探究%Inquiry Group“Lower Grades in Primary School in the Bundle”Management Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢桂明; 曾孝辉

    2014-01-01

    Traditional class management mainly includes the class teacher,class committee,group,students of grade four,management mode, the teacher with the highest authority,however,the enforcement of traditional class management modeand receive the teaching effect is not very good,this article is for the team“team low grade class bundling”management strategies are discussed.%传统的班级管理主要包括班主任、班委会、小组、学生四级管理模式,其中,班主任具有最高权威,但是,传统的班级管理模式的执行力度和收到的教学效果都不是很好,对小组低年级班级中小组“捆绑”管理策略进行探讨。

  20. Gleason grading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000920.htm Gleason grading system To use the sharing features on this page, ... score of between 5 and 7. Gleason Grading System Sometimes, it can be hard to predict how ...

  1. Root Graded Lie Superalgebras

    OpenAIRE

    Yousofzadeh, Malihe

    2015-01-01

    We define root graded Lie superalgebras and study their connection with centerless cores of extended affine Lie superalgebras; our definition generalizes the known notions of root graded Lie superalgebras.

  2. 大理市苍山森林火险等级区划研究%Study on the Division of Forest Fire Danger Grade in Cangshan Mountain of Dali City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国斌

    2015-01-01

    Take the data processing ,supplementary investigation ,statistical analysis and other methods ,according to the burning of the forest to forest fire ring theory ,three elements in the burning of the forest fire danger of online distribution ring value as the divi -sion standard of quantitative ,the woodlands of Cangshan divided into 3 grade of fire zone;the results show that:the combustion types in Cangshan forest land ,easy combustion type accounted for 87.9%;super fire area and the level of fire area up to 20731.9 hm2 ,ac-counting for 69.4%of the area of forest land.The results show that ,Dali Cangshan forest fire rank high ,large fire hazard ,is a nation-al risk fire area.%采取数据处理、补充调查、统计分析等方法,根据森林燃烧环网理论,以林火三要素在森林燃烧环网上分布的火险值作为定量划分标准,将苍山的林地划分为3个火险等级区;苍山林地燃烧类型中,易燃类占87.9%;特级火险区和一级火险区的面积达20731.9 hm2,占林地面积的69.4%。研究表明,大理苍山森林火险等级高,火灾危险性大,属全国高危火险区域。

  3. Evaluation on Soil Fertility Grade of Cultivated Land Based on GIS in Korla City of Xinjiang%基于GIS的新疆库尔勒市耕地地力等级评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婵; 朱磊; 盛建东

    2012-01-01

    以新疆库尔勒市为例,将利用测土配方施肥项目所取得的基础数据,筛选有机质、速效钾、有效磷、有效锌等可量化的指标作为评价指标。根据模糊数学理论和特尔斐法建立评价因子的隶属函数模型,利用层次分析法建立评价因子的层次分析模型。以ArcGIS统计分析模块和空间分析模块为平台,根据加法模型计算出耕地地力综合指数,划分耕地地力等级。评价结果基本符合当地实际。%Taking Korla county of Xinjiang as an example,some quantifiable indexes including organic matter,available potassium,effective phosphorus,effective zinc,conductivity and pH value have been screened as evaluating indicators.The data were obtained on the basis of fertilization project with soil detection.The membership function model concerning evaluation factors was constructed according to theory of fuzzy mathematics and Telphi Principle.The analytic hierarchy model of evaluation factors was formed by using analytic hierarchy process(AHP).Therefore,the soil fertility grade of cultivated land can be divided according to calculated integrative indexes of cultivated land productivity on the basis of addition model and constructed platform on the basis of ArcGIS statistical analysis module and special analysis module.The evaluation results was in accorded with the real circumstances.

  4. Primary intracerebral lymphoma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Eser

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of primary central nervous lymphoma (PCNSL that may be confused with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of high grade glioma. Primary central nervous lymphoma is a rare tumour and it account for 0.3-3% of intracranial tumours. A 61 year’s old woman was admitted to our clinic with a severe headache, vomiting, left hemiparesia and transient loss of consciousness. Primary central nervous lymphoma may show various biological and radiological characteristics. We herein emphasized being confused with MRI findings of PCNSL and high grade glioma. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3 (3: 409-411Key words: Primary central nervous lymphoma, high grade glioma, B-cell, diagnosis

  5. 苏州市区中小学生饮食健康调查及分析%Investigation and Analysis of Dietary Health Among Students of Primary School and Junior High School in Suzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏红; 马姣姣; 孔玉兰

    2012-01-01

    A dietary health-related questionnaire was designed and conducted in 511 students of 9 primary and junior high schools in Pingjiang, Jinchang, Canglang and the New District of Suzhou city. The result showed that 61.87% of students had dairy foods in their breakfast, but lacked of vegetables and fruits. A proportion of students had not good habit such as picking about food, preferring foreign fast foods, drinking soft drink instead of water. Their main sports activity was in school. They achieved information about good diet through fami- ly, reading and school. We suggested that the education about dietary health should be improved.%以问卷调查的方式,对苏州市平江区、沧浪区、金阊区、新区的9所学校511位五年级至初二的学生进行了调查。调查发现,学生的早餐规律性尚可,早餐含乳制品的学生比例达61.87%,但普遍缺少蔬菜或水果;休息日用餐规律性出现波动;学生的运动时间主要在学校体育课;大部分学生饮食习惯尚可,但也有一定比例的学生存在挑食、喜欢洋快餐、用饮料代替饮水等不良习惯;家庭教育、书刊阅读是学生获取饮食健康信息的主要渠道。针对这些情况学校和家庭都应该加强学生饮食健康教育方式方法的研究,提高教育效果,使学生终身受益。

  6. Investigation of Current Situation of Learning Motivation, Social Anxiety and Loneliness of the Left-behind Children in Rural Primary School

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Biyun; Xu Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC) and the Children’s Lonelin...

  7. Saúde mental na atenção primária à saúde: estudo avaliativo em uma grande cidade brasileira Mental health in primary care: an evaluative study in a large Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Onocko Campos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A Atenção Primária à Saúde é reconhecida mundialmente como a responsável pela solução dos principais problemas de saúde da comunidade, incluso a mental. O presente estudo buscou avaliar a articulação entre as redes de atenção primária e de saúde mental em regiões de alta vulnerabilidade social de uma grande cidade brasileira (Campinas - SP através dos parâmetros: pesquisa avaliativa, participativa e predominantemente qualitativa. Foram definidos dois grupos pela técnica de clusters: um de Unidades Básicas de Saúde com maior grau de implantação das ações inovadoras e outro com menor grau de implantação. Posteriormente foi realizada uma comparação. O apoio matricial se mostrou potente para definir fluxos, qualificar as equipes e promover uma assistência conjunta e compartilhada. Detectou-se um papel estratégico do agente comunitário de saúde para identificar ofertas em potencial e propiciar escuta de forma mais próxima à população. As práticas de promoção à saúde ainda não estão consolidadas. Quando os arranjos possibilitam inserções dos profissionais em atividades extramuros, os usuários reconhecem e se apropriam dos espaços, possibilitando ações que se distanciam da tradicional queixa-conduta.Primary Healthcare (PHC is internationally acknowledged to be responsible for dealing with most community health problems, including mental health issues. The scope of this work was to evaluate the links between primary care and mental health in areas of high social vulnerability in a large Brazilian city (Campinas, State of São Paulo using parameters defined in this study. Evaluative and participative - mainly qualitative - research, was conducted. Two groups were defined by cluster technique: one group of Basic Health Units with a higher degree of innovative strategies and another with a lower level of innovation, and the two were then compared. Matrix support was observed as a powerful tool to define

  8. Are grades really oppressive?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张心宇

    2015-01-01

    Are grades really oppressive? The broad question's answer is of course open: it varies in different condition and in prerequisites. Like in Daily Californian,"Why Grades are Oppressive", the title tells us it standing: yes, grades are oppressive. In the article, the authors (this article was written by 16 students of the class) pointed out that the grading system has had a violent and powerfully destructive effect on our lives. Because grading focuses our attention on class requirements that we have no say in determination. And this makes many students equate their self-worth with the grades they get in exams. Besides, grades are intimately connected with a larger system of control in community, which trains students to be submissive and not to question or challenge it. In the end, the authors conclude that they should take responsibility for evaluating their own learning process.

  9. Wandering Freely in the Paradise of Books and Enjoying the Charm of Reading:A Brief Discussion on Several Measures of Extracurricular Reading for Higher Grades of Primary School%畅游书海乐园享受翰墨文香--浅谈小学高年级课外阅读的几点做法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵明鸽

    2014-01-01

    A good book can make the whole life of a child, while higher grades of primary school are the golden period for chil-dren's reading, however, the present children are deeply attracted by the Internet and media which have reduced their interest in reading. As a teacher for higher grades of primary school, one should strive to create a paradise for children's extracurricular reading and make reading an internal need of children. Teachers should attempt to create an atmosphere for reading on campus and let children grow up in classics.%一本好书会成就孩子的一生,小学高年级又是孩子阅读的黄金期,然而现在的网络媒体深深地吸引住了孩子,他们对于读书更是不屑一顾。作为小学高年级语文教师要努力为孩子创造课外阅读的乐园,让阅读成为孩子一种内在的需要。让书香飘溢校园,让经典伴孩子成长。

  10. La Adquisición de Conocimiento Ortográfico en Niños de 1er a 3er Año de Educación Básica Orthographic Knowledge Acquisition in 1st to 3rd Grade Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Diuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se exploró la adquisición de conocimiento ortográfico en base al análisis de la escritura de palabras, en niños argentinos de 1er a 3er año de educación básica. Se analizó también la relación entre el conocimiento fonológico y el ortográfico. Se administraron dos pruebas de escritura: una prueba con palabras que variaban en su complejidad fonológica y otra con palabras de distinta complejidad ortográfica, que incluían correspondencias consistentes independientes del contexto, consistentes dependientes del contexto y correspondencias inconsistentes. Se observó que las correspondencias consistentes independientes del contexto fueron mejor escritas en todos los grados, seguidas de las inconsistentes dominantes, las dependientes del contexto y las inconsistentes no dominantes. Los niños de grados superiores se desempeñaron mejor que aquellos en grados inferiores.Orthographic knowledge acquisition in Argentine children from the 1st to 3rtl grade of primary school was explored. The relationship between phonological and orthographic knowledge was also analyzed. Two written test were administered: one presented stimuli with different phonological complexity, and in the other the children had to write words of different orthographic complexity, including context-independent consistent correspondences, consistent context dependent and inconsistent correspondences. The results showed that context-independent consistent correspondences were the best written in the three grades, followed by dominant inconsistent correspondences, context dependent, and no dominant inconsistent correspondences. Higher grade children performed better than lower grade children.

  11. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  12. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  13. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  14. Drinking in different periods of a day of primary and middle school students in four cities of China%中国四城市中小学生每天不同时间段的饮水量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 胡小琪; 杜松明; 潘慧; 王晓君; 张东; 朱珍妮; 罗圆; 鞠勇

    2013-01-01

    204)ml(Z =64.5,P < 0.01).Conclusion The amount of drinking water of primary and middle school students in different periods of a day was different in four cities of China.%目的 调查北京、上海、成都、广州中小学生每天不同时间段的饮水量.方法 采用多阶段随机抽样的方法,于2011年9-10月在北京、上海、广州、成都抽取了5914名中小学生,完成调查5868名.采用连续7d24h的饮水记录法,由调查对象利用定量用具详细记录每天8个时间段,上午、下午、晚上,以及就餐时与非就餐时饮水的种类及量,分析不同时间段的水和饮料的饮用量.结果 早餐前、早餐时、早餐后、午餐时、午餐后、晚餐时、晚餐后和夜间的饮水量分别为(99±101)、(130±106)、(191±155)、(96±107)、(246±172)、(90±101)、(188±135)、(50±81) ml(F=1679.77,P<0.01).按照3个时段划分时,上午的饮水量最高[(420±242)ml],依次是下午[(341±199)ml]和晚上[(327±195) ml](F=325.23,P<0.01);上午、下午、晚上白水饮用量分别是(270±209)、(250±179)和(224±177) ml(F=84.89,P<0.01);饮料的饮用量在上午[(151±133) ml]最高,其次是晚上[(103±122) ml],下午[(91±199) ml]最低(F=373.56,P<0.01).就餐时与非就餐时的饮水量分别为(316±247)、(773±445)ml(Z=65.2,P<0.01).非就餐时,白水饮用量[(579±408) ml]高于饮料[(194±204) ml](Z=64.5,P<0.01);就餐时,白水[(165±194)ml]和饮料[(151±152)ml]之间的差异无统计学意义(Z=0.59,P=0.56).结论 中国4个城市中小学生每天不同时段的饮水量差别较大.

  15. Research on Middle and Primary School Students' Cognition Level to Number- Grade Four and Grade Eight Students as Example%藏汉中小学生对数的认知水平研究——以四年级与八年级学生为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巴桑卓玛

    2012-01-01

    对692名藏汉学生对数的认知水平进行测试、问卷调查及访谈.比较同一地区同一年级的藏汉学生对数的认知表现的民族差异性.四年级藏汉学生数的总体认知有显著差异,八年级藏汉学生对数的总体认知有显著差异(P〈0.001).四年级藏汉学生对数的不同认知水平有显著差异(P〈0.05),八年级藏汉学生数的不同认知水平无显著差异.四年级汉族男女学生对数的总体认知没有显著差异,四年级藏族男女学生对数的总体认知无显著差异.八年级汉族男女学生对数的总体认知没有显著差异,八年级藏族男女学生对数的总体认知无显著差异.语言环境、社会家庭环境,教学环境,数学学习动机等因素影响藏族学生数的认知发展.%This paper reported findings from a comparative research of students, number cognition between Han and Tibetan students. In this research, 692 Han and Tibetan students were tested about number cognition .There were significant differences between Han and Tibetan fourth grade students on number test. There were significant differences between Han and Tibetan eighth grade students on knowing number test. In general, Han' number cognition was better than the Tibetan. There were significant differences between Han and Tibetan fourth grade students on the number of different cognitive level. There are no significant differences between Han and Tibetan eighth grade students on the number of different cognitive level. There are no significant differences between Han boys and Han girls; There are no significant differences between Tibetan boys and Tibetan girls. However, language environment, social and family environment, teaching environment, learning motivation, which influenced number cognitive development of Tibetan students.

  16. Graded cluster algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In the cluster algebra literature, the notion of a graded cluster algebra has been implicit since the origin of the subject. In this work, we wish to bring this aspect of cluster algebra theory to the foreground and promote its study. We transfer a definition of Gekhtman, Shapiro and Vainshtein to the algebraic setting, yielding the notion of a multi-graded cluster algebra. We then study gradings for finite type cluster algebras without coefficients, giving a full classification. Translating ...

  17. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......). But what is it that is driving these urban transformations? Clearly, there are many probable answers to this complex question and in what follows we will focus on one particular catalyst of change – urban design competitions. Considered as field changing events (Lampel and Meyer 2008, Anand and Jones 2008......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning...

  18. The Developmental Dynamics of Literacy Skills during the First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate prospective relationships between reading and writing performance during the first grade of primary school. The data was collected from 83 Finnish-speaking children who were examined four times on reading, spelling, and productive writing skills during the first grade. At the beginning of the school year,…

  19. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers,...

  20. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  1. Study on multiple influence factors of job satisfaction of nurses in three-grade Class A hospital in Tianjin City%天津市三级甲等医院护士工作满意度多元影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金花; 刘彦慧

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the status quo of nurse job satisfaction and its influencing factors. Methods: A total of 247 nurses from 3 three grade class A general hospitals in Tianjin city were taken for a questionnaire survey. Results; The scores of intrinsic satisfaction,extrinsic satisfaction and general satisfaction of nurses were respectively 3. 028 + 0. 684,2. 751 + 0. 791 and 3. 007 + 0. 788. Structural authorization and organizational commitment can respectively explain the total score of jobsatisfaction and the variation of dimensions 69. 5%, 63. 5%, 65. 9% and49. 6%. Conclusion;The job satisfaction of nurses in three grade class Ageneral hospitals in Tianjin still need to be improved. Power resources,support power, informal power, normative commitment and opportunitycommitment are the important factors to predict the job satisfaction ofnurses.%[目的]调查护士工作满意度现状及其影响因素.[方法]方便抽取天津市3所三级甲等综合医院247名护士进行问卷调查.[结果]护士内在满意度、外在满意度、一般满意度得分分别为(3.028±0.684)分、(2.751±0.791)分、(3.007±0.788)分.结构性授权和组织承诺可分别解释工作满意度总分及各维度69.5%、63.5%、65.9%、49.6%的变异.[结论]天津市三级甲等综合医院护士工作满意度还有待提高.资源权力、支持权力、非正式权力、规范承诺和机会承诺是预测护士工作满意度的重要因素.

  2. Related factors of mental health in primary and junior high students with single parent family in urban area of Tianjin city%天津市区单亲中小学生心理健康相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓菲; 梁瑞华; 毛富强; 冯秀娟; 刘霞; 刘宏伟; 侯筱菲; 柳雷

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解天津市区单亲中小学生心理健康状况及其影响因素.方法 采用多级分层随机整群抽样方法,抽取天津市1 625名中小学生,采用自编一般情况调查表、心理健康诊断测验(MHT)、父母教养方式评价量表(EMBU)进行调查.结果 天津市区中小学生单亲比率为10.8%,和平区最高,为12.85%,七年级学生单亲比率最高,为12.79%;父母文化程度为本科的学生在学习焦虑、对人焦虑、自责倾向、过敏倾向、恐怖倾向方面的得分低于父母为中专的学生,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);单亲中小学生心理健康问题(总分≥65分)检出率为20%;单亲学生的心理健康状况在总分及各个因子得分均高于双亲学生(P<0.05);父亲惩罚严厉、拒绝否认的教养方式与单亲学生MHT的8个因子均呈正相关(P<0.01);母亲过分干涉保护、拒绝否认、惩罚严厉的教养方式与学习焦虑、对人焦虑、孤独倾向、过敏倾向、身体症状、恐怖倾向等均呈正相关(P<0.05).结论 天津市单亲中小学生存在较多的心理健康问题.%Objective To study mental health condition and its influence factors among primary and junior high students in single parent family. Methods Totally 1 625 students from 36 classes were examined with a self-designed common status questionnaire, Mental Health of Test ( MHT) , and Egma Minnea av Bardndosnauppforstran ( EMBU). Results Among the students, 10. 8% were from single parent family. The percentage of students with single parent family was 12. 79% for the students in grade 7. The students with parents having college education showed significantly lower scores than the students with parents having technical secondary school education for anxiety,self-accusation,sensitivity,and fear( all P < 0. 05). The students with single parent family had a detection rate of 20% for mental health problems (total score ≥65). The score of mental health for students

  3. Primary Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Primary Syphilis Information for adults A A A This image ... ulcer with a red base, typical of primary syphilis. Overview Primary syphilis is a disease caused by ...

  4. Sister Cities Flourish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building sister city relation,also known as friendsh ip city,is a common channel for cities in different countries to keep a closer tie and communication.According to the statistics from China International Friendship Cities Association,up to the end of 2007,1087 provinces and states and 314 cities from 120 countries in the world have found their sister cities in China.Among them,Japan has the largest amount of Chinese sister cities,that is 200 provinces and 33 cities,and takes up almost 17 percent of the total number.

  5. Research and Reflection on the Implementation of"Expe-riential Teaching" in the Mathematics Classroom Teach-ing of Primary School Lower Grades%在小学低年级数学课堂中实施“体验式教学”的研究与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春雷

    2014-01-01

    Experiential teaching is a method of developing and cultivating students' self-learning ability, and it is greatly favored in primary school teaching. Starting from the definition, basic characteristics and meaning of experiential teaching, based on the primary school mathematics textbooks of Jiangsu Education Press version, this paper focuses on the application of experiential teaching in the mathematics classroom teaching of primary school lower grades, hoping to provide some help and references for the popularization and application of experiential teaching.%体验式教学是一种开发和培养学生自我学习能力的授课方式,在小学教学中颇受欢迎。本文以体验式学习的定义、基本特性及意义为切入点,基于苏教版小学数学教材,重点探究了小学低年级数学课堂中体验式教学的应用,期望能对体验式教学的推广和应用有一定的帮助和参考作用。

  6. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinquan; Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  7. [Grading of neuroendocrine tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeger, W; Schnabel, P A; Komminoth, P

    2016-07-01

    The current WHO classification of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) differentiates between typical carcinoids (low grade NET), atypical carcinoids (intermediate grade NET) and small cell and large cell carcinomas (high grade NET) according to the prognosis. Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas are graded in an identical way. Together with the TNM system this enables a preoperative estimation of the prognosis in biopsies and fine needle aspirates. Well-differentiated tumors are graded into G1 tumors by the number of mitoses, tumors (2-20 mitoses/10 HPF, Ki-67 3-20 %). Discrepancies between the number of mitoses and the Ki-67 index are not uncommon and in these cases the higher value of the two should be applied. The more differentiated tumors of the G3 type have to be differentiated from undifferentiated carcinomas of the small cell type and large cell type with a much poorer prognosis. Prognosis relevant grading of thyroid cancers is achieved by special subtyping so that the G1-G3 system is not applicable. The rare cancers of the parathyroid gland and of the pituitary gland are not graded. Adrenal tumors also have no grading system. The prognosis is dependent on the Ki-67 index and with some reservations on the established scoring systems. PMID:27379621

  8. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  9. Beef grading by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  10. Controlling Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanoyevitch, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In this article concerning grade inflation, the author restricts his attention to the college and university level, although many of the tools and ideas developed here should be useful for high schools as well. The author considers the relationships between grades instructors assign and scores they receive on end-of-the semester student…

  11. Grading Exceptional Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers often grapple with the challenge of giving report card grades to students with learning disabilities and English language learners. The authors offer a five-step model that "offers a fair, accurate, and legal way to adapt the grading process for exceptional learners." The model begins with a high-quality reporting system for all students…

  12. Making Grading Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Edward; Smith, Bruce

    Two teachers have developed a procedure for grading student compositions that seems fairer to both them and their students. The students are given a choice of which papers they wish to submit for grading, and when they do submit work, the papers are identified by a number only (chosen by the student and indexed in a class card file). Each teacher…

  13. CONDICTIONS FOR LEARNING HOW TO READING AND WRITING BY THE INFANT AND GREAT GRADE ONE AT THE PRIMARY SCHOOL / EL APRESTAMIENTO EN PREESCOLAR Y PRIMER GRADO: CONDICIONES PARA EL APRENDIZAJE DE LA LECTOESCRITURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Ramírez Ramos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this investigation the authors offered considerations related to the children´s preparation for the reading-writing learning process, from the elementary level conception and the preparation period in the first grade. In the same way the common and different elements that approach both levels with the purpose of setting what is needed for the written language learning process were analyzed, making emphasis on knowing the necessities and potentialities, and the importance of considering it on the process conception. RESUMEN El artículo refiere consideraciones de los autores en torno a la preparación de los niños para el aprendizaje de la lectoescritura, a partir de la concepción del grado preescolar y la etapa de aprestamiento en primer grado. En este sentido, se analizan los elementos comunes y diferentes que acercan a ambos niveles en el propósito de disponer para el aprendizaje de la lengua escrita, y se enfatiza el papel del diagnóstico de las necesidades y potencialidades, y la importancia de su consideración en la concepción del apresto.

  14. Discussion on Interesting Teaching Methods in Low-Grade Primary School Musical Classroom%浅谈小学低年级音乐课堂趣味性教学方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蒙蒙

    2014-01-01

    对于低年级的孩子们来说,趣味性教学方法的使用是提高课堂效率的核心手段。列举了几种常用的趣味性音乐教学方法,并结合实际教学案例来展示趣味性教学方法的应用。实践表明,趣味性教学方法可以有效地激发学生的“想象力”和“模仿力”,切实提高课堂效率。%For low grade children, the use of interesting teaching method is the key method to improve classroom efficiency. Application ex-amples of several interesting music teaching method combined with the practical teaching case to show interesting teaching method. Practice shows that the interest teaching method can stimulate students’effective“imagination”and“imitation”, improve the efficiency of the classroom.

  15. High grade primary adrenal intravascular large B-cell lymphoma manifesting as Addison disease Linfoma intravascular de alto grado de células B grandes y origen suprarrenal que se manifiesta en forma de enfermedad de Addison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Venizelos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of a 68 aged male who presented with adrenal failure and was diagnosed of high grade large B-cell lymphoma primarily arising in the adrenal glands. The patient was administrated with additional chemotherapy but he passed away 7 months later due to infection in the lungs. Intravascular lymphoma should be suspected in patients with bilateral adrenal masses who present with rapidly progressive adrenal insufficiency.Publicamos el caso poco frecuente de un varón de 68 años de edad que debutó con insuficiencia adrenal y fue diagnosticado de linfoma de alto grado de células B grandes ubicado principalmente en las glándulas suprarrenales. Al paciente le administraron quimioterapia adicional, pero falleció 7 meses después de infección pulmonar. El linfoma intravascular debe sospecharse en los pacientes con masas suprarrenales bilaterales que presenten insuficiencia adrenal rápidamente progresiva.

  16. 2006 Toronto smog report card : final grade C-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This annual report card evaluated the progress made by the City of Toronto toward reducing the environmental and health impacts of smog. The final grade for 2006 was a C-, the same as for 2005. The highest grade of B+ was issued in 2004. The report card evaluated City Council actions based on their clean air commitments. Although the summer of 2006 was one of the best on record, with only 11 smog days, the grade of C- was issued because the performance of the City's Air Quality Improvement record was poor. Toronto Environmental Alliance strongly recommended that important changes be made to improve air quality, transit and waste disposal. It recommended that the City should address the real causes of unclean air, which are motor vehicle exhaust and toxic pollution. This report card graded the performance on initiatives in the following six major areas: energy; transit; air quality plan; walking and biking; fleets and fuels; and, intergovernmental action. The report recommended that efforts should be made to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which cause global warming. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Advanced Placement Mathematics Calculus, Grade 12 Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, John; And Others

    This document is a guide to the advanced placement program in calculus for grade 12 in the city schools in Warren, Ohio. The program covers analytic geometry, differential and integral calculus of algebraic functions, elementary transcendental functions, and applications of differentiation and integration. The philosophy and aims of the program…

  18. Investigation on individual dose level and health status of radiation workers in 5 third-level grade-A hospitals of Shijiazhuang City in 2013%2013年石家庄市5家三甲医院放射工作人员个人剂量水平与健康状况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 陈岩; 师振祥; 张圆圆; 孟月杰

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] To analyze the individual dose level and occupational health examination results of radiation workers in third-level grade-A hospitals of Shijiazhuang City,provide a scientific basis for radiological protection and management in Hebei Province.[Methods] According to the methods of the Testing criteria of personnel dosimetry performance (GBZ 207-2008),the Basic standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources (GBZ 128-2002) and the Specifications of individual monitoring for occupational external exposure (GBZ 128-2002),the individual dose monitoring and occupational health examination were performed among radiation workers in 5 third-level grade-A hospitals of Shijiazhuang City.[Results] The average annual dose equivalents of radiation workers in different posts were between 0.83 mSv/a and 1.50 mSv/a,while the dose equivalent of general diagnostic X-ray radiology staff,interventional radiology staff,nuclear medicine radiology staff and radiation therapy staff was 0.96 mSv/a,1.50 mSy/a,1.06 mSv/a and 0.83 mSv/a,respectively.There was no statistically significant correlation between the rate of abnormal physical examination results and the annual per capita effective dose among radiation workers in different posts (P>0.05).[Conclusion] The radiological protection and health management in 5 third-level grade-A hospitals of Shijiazhuang City are satisfactory,and the effective protective measures can reduce the radiation dose of exposure workers.%目的 通过分析石家庄辖区内三甲医院放射工作人员个人剂量水平与职业健康检查结果,为河北省放射卫生防护与监督管理工作提供科学依据.方法 采用GBZ 207-2008《外照射个人剂量系统性能检验规范》、GB 18871-2002《电离辐射防护与辐射源安全基本标准》GBZ 128-2002《职业性外照射个人监测规范》中的方法,对石家庄市内5家三甲医院的放射工作人员进行个人剂量监

  19. Interest is the Beginning of Everything---the Cultivation of the Primary School Lower Grade students’ Interest in Writing Words%兴趣是一切的开始--浅谈小学低年级学生写话兴趣的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田敏

    2014-01-01

    One main content of primary school lower grade Chinese language teaching is to write words. Further study of students ’ interest in writing words, to enhance students write the words of enthusiasm,reduce the pressure of students’ writing,develop the students’ writing space, promote the students’ writing personality,has great realistic significance.%低年级语文教学中一项主要的内容就是写话。深入研究低年级学生的写话兴趣,对增强小学生的写话积极性、降低学生的写作压力、拓展学生的写作空间、弘扬学生的写作个性,具有很大的现实意义。

  20. The Effect of Empowerment Group Psychodrama on Anxiety and Terror of Primary School Students in the Grade 4 to 5%增能团体心理剧干预小学高年级学生焦虑恐怖心理效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉; 龚定宏; 徐奇

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of empowerment group psychodrama on anxiety and terror of high grade primary school students and its mechanism , and provide effective intervention methods to promote the mental health of higher grades students in primary school.Methods:Selecting students in 4 and 5 grade in a primary school in a community of Pudong New Area in Shanghai with stratified cluster sampling method ,and dividing them into intervention group and control group ,The intervention group was carried out 5-times empowerment group psychodrama ,while the control group was not carried out no in-terventions.Using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale(SAS)and Marks Scale for Compulsions Phobias ,Obses-sions and Rituals (MSCPOR) as evaluation tool.Results:Before intervention,there were not significant differences in each factor of MSCPOR and SAS between two groups;After intervention ,There were signifi-cant differences in the terror factor of MSCPOR ,coarse points and the standard score of SAS (F=4.40, 6.26,6.10;P<0.05).Conclusion:Empowerment group psychodrama has better intervention ,control effect on terror and anxiety for high grade primary school students ,and has certain positive effect on com-pulsive behavior and the overall terror compulsive behavior.%目的:探索增能团体心理剧干预小学高年级学生群体的焦虑、恐怖心理效果,并探讨其影响机制,为促进小学高年级学生心理健康提供有效干预方法. 方法:采用分层整群抽样方法,在上海市浦东新区某社区一所小学内抽取4、5年级各2个班级,随机将4、5年级各1个班级的所有学生作为干预组,另2个班级(4、5年级各1个班级)的学生即作为对照组,对干预组开展共计5次的增能团体心理剧活动,而对照组则不做任何干预. 采用焦虑自评量表和Marks恐怖强迫量表作为心理测评工具. 结果:增能团体心理剧干预前,干预组与对照组在MSCPOR和SAS的各个因子中均无显著统计学差异,

  1. INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION OF SHENYANG CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping-yu

    2003-01-01

    Industrial transformation represents a unique economic phenomenon in China's regional economy,and old industrial city reconstruction has long been a key problem that affects state security. As a typical old indus-trial city in China, Shenyang established its heavy industrial city position in the First Five-year Plan period (1953-1957), and this industrial structure has been consolidated for a long time. After 1978, Shenyang began its long last-ing industrial reconstruction in an all-round way by 3 main initiatives including restructuring economic system, up-grading traditional industrial technology and developing high-tech industry. In the end of the 1990s, it could be I-dentified that remarkable structural changes took place in city economy at large as well as individual industrial sec-tor. According to the GDP proportion change, Shenyang is on the way to a high level industrial structure. The sec-ondary industry also engendered significant shifting as smelting and textile industry declined sharply but IT industry increased largely. Although the ratio of the heavy industry to the light industry changed periodically, the heavy in-dustrial output value most time kept a high proportion over 60% of the gross industrial output value in the past five decades. Shenyang has favorable conditions for developing equipment manufacturing industry, but it should carry out the program by establishing its leading role in urban economy plan, building "Theme Industrial Parks", improv-ing Tiexi Industrial Zone, removing any kind of system barrier, enlarging private and other ownerships economy and improving technology, marketing and management by IT application. In response to economy globalization,Shenyang needs to expand the cooperation worldwide and improve the cohesion with surrounding cities.

  2. Five Obstacles to Grading Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators seeking to reform grading must combat five long-held traditions that stand as formidable obstacles to change: (1) Grades should provide the basis for differentiating students; (2) grade distributions should resemble a bell-shaped curve; (3) grades should be based on students' standing among classmates; (4) poor grades prompt students to…

  3. High-grade acute organ toxicity and p16{sup INK4A} expression as positive prognostic factors in primary radio(chemo)therapy for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehrany, Narges; Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Hess, Clemens F.; Wolff, Hendrik A. [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Goettingen (Germany); Kitz, Julia; Li, Li; Kueffer, Stefan [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Pathology, Goettingen (Germany); Lorenzen, Stephan; Beissbarth, Tim [University Medical Center, Department of Medical Statistics, Goettingen (Germany); Burfeind, Peter [University Medical Center, Institute for Human Genetics, Goettingen (Germany); Reichardt, Holger M. [University Medical Center, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Goettingen (Germany); Canis, Martin [Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Goettingen (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Superior treatment response and survival for patients with human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive head and neck cancer (HNSCC) are documented in clinical studies. However, the relevance of high-grade acute organ toxicity (HGAOT), which has also been correlated with improved prognosis, has attracted scant attention in HPV-positive HNSCC patients. Hence we tested the hypothesis that both parameters, HPV and HGAOT, are positive prognostic factors in patients with HNSCC treated with definite radiotherapy (RT) or radiochemotherapy (RCT). Pretreatment tumor tissue and clinical records were available from 233 patients receiving definite RT (62 patients) or RCT (171 patients). HPV infection was analysed by means of HPV DNA detection or p16{sup INK4A} expression; HGAOT was defined as the occurrence of acute organ toxicity >grade 2 according to the Common Toxicity Criteria. Both variables were correlated with overall survival (OS) using Cox proportional hazards regression. Positivity for HPV DNA (44 samples, 18.9 %) and p16{sup INK4A} expression (102 samples, 43.8 %) were significantly correlated (p < 0.01), and HGAOT occurred in 77 (33 %) patients. Overall, the 5-year OS was 23 %; stratified for p16{sup INK4A} expression and HGAOT, OS rates were 47 %, 42 %, 20 % and 10 % for patients with p16{sup INK4A} expression and HGAOT, patients with HGAOT only, patients with p16{sup INK4A} expression only, and patients without p16{sup INK4A} expression or HGAOT, respectively. After multivariate testing p16{sup INK4A} expression (p = 0.003) and HGAOT (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with OS. P16{sup INK4A} expression and HGAOT are independent prognostic factors for OS of patients with HNSCC, whereas p16{sup INK4A} expression is particularly important for patients without HGAOT. (orig.) [German] Ein besseres Therapieansprechen von humanen Papillomavirus (HPV)-positiven Kopf-Hals-Tumoren (HNSCC) ist durch Studien belegt. Weniger Beachtung hat bisher die Relevanz unerwuenschter

  4. 教育游戏在小学低年级课堂教学中的应用研究%Applied Research on Educational Games in the Lower Grade Classroom Teaching of Primary School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷婷; 张银; 杨传达

    2015-01-01

    This game is generally believed that education is an application to the education process in both the entertainment properties,but also has educational nature,and also to promote student learning games.Educational games can be divided in-to:role-playing,strategy and puzzle category and other categories.Currently,many children addicted to online games,if students are able to use this enthusiasm in learning,the quality of the education of students and the whole community will be greatly improved.Teachers can use educational games for teaching,it would be a great help for students in lower grades.%一般认为教育游戏是在教育教学过程中应用到的一项既具有娱乐性质,同时又具有教育性质的,并且还能够促进学生学习的游戏。教育游戏大致可分为:角色扮演类,策略类和益智类等。目前,许多儿童痴迷于网络游戏,如果学生能够把这种热情用在学习上,那么这个学生乃至全社会的教育质量将会大大提高。教师在小学课堂上能熟练运用教育游戏进行教学,将对低年级学生的教学将会有很大的帮助。

  5. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  6. 首位城市过大是否阻碍省域经济协调发展--基于中国省级面板数据的实证分析%Is the Primary City too Big to Prevent the Harmonious Development of Provincial Economy:Based on an Empirical Analysis of Chinese Provincial Panel Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田超

    2015-01-01

    由空间集聚引起的经济增长和地区差距是空间经济学关注的重要主题。在全球化、市场化以及分权化的背景下,中国各省对于各自区域的发展战略拥有了更大的自主权,同时,各省首位城市往往意味着更强大的政治资源,因而导致其发展过快,吸收外围城市的各种要素,从而拉大省域地区差距。基于中国各省份2000-2012年的面板数据,试图分析各省份首位城市规模对于省域经济协调发展的影响,即首位城市过大是否会在刺激区域经济增长的同时扩大地区差距。首先计算了各省份首位城市GDP 占所在省份比重,从宏观上得出中西部省份比重较高的结论,进一步通过生产函数构建经济增长和首位城市规模的模型,并运用OLS估计和IV估计,回归结果表明,首位城市规模与经济增长间呈现倒U型的关系,即存在最优的首位城市规模使得经济增长最快。同时,各省份的经济发展水平以及规模均会影响其最优数值,经济发展水平越高、建成区面积越小以及劳动人口越多的省份其最优首位城市规模越大。另一方面,对地区差距和首位城市规模的关系进行研究后发现,首位城市规模的增加会拉大省域内部地区差距。因此,政府在促进省域经济协调发展时,不应将重点放在平衡地区空间分布的政策上,而是构建完善的制度和规划以增强首位城市的承载力。%Economic growth and regional disparities caused by spatial agglomeration are the main themes of spatial economics. Under the background of globalization, marketization and decentralization, Chinese provinces enjoy greater autonomy in their own regional development strategy. Meantime, being the provincial primary cites means gaining more powerful political resources, which enables these cities to develop rapidly and absorb various elements from peripheral cities, and provincial

  7. Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

  8. The Role of Multimedia in Primary School Lower Grade Writing Teaching%“班班通”为小语低年级识字写字教学画龙点睛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘艳霞

    2014-01-01

    Primary school language teaching task is through listening, speaking, reading and writing training,and targeted use of multimedia in the teaching to undertake to the student training to enable students to increase interest in learning, to open field of vision,to improve the learning efficiency.%小学语文的教学任务是通过听、说、读、写训练学生的能力,在小学语文教学过程中有的放矢地运用多媒体,对学生进行听说读写的训练,能增添学生的学习兴趣,开阔视野,提高学习效率。

  9. Formative value of descriptive grades in mathematics instruction for beginners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đelić Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive grading has been implemented in the first grade of primary school in the Republic of Serbia from 2003. The monitoring of this system novelty has been absent since research community most often dealt with teachers’ attitudes and their self-evaluation of the competences for descriptive grading. This form of grading, which stems from the social constructivist paradigm, is observed as the trigger of development of the formative approach in assessment, which has been in the focus of theoreticians and practitioners in the past thirty years, especially in the United States of America and Great Britain. The method of content analysis was applied to 316 descriptive grades in mathematics given to first grade primary students. The quality of three key elements was assessed: the description of academic achievement, the description of students’ engagement and the recommendations to achieve further progress, as well as the balance of quality between the elements of the same descriptive grade. Research results have shown that descriptive grades mostly lack the necessary formative capacity. This means that the majority of students this sample of grades was prepared for did not receive quality and comprehensive feedback, which would be conducive for their further education. Formative assessment, as one of the implications of the constructivist theoretical grounding, demands a high level of development of teacher competences for monitoring the progress and assessing the students, which has not been confirmed in the present research.

  10. 长春市儿童和青少年原发性高血压与肥胖相关性分析%Relationship between primary hypertension and obesity in children and adolescents of Changchun City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦阳; 吴艳英; 金东辉; 闫小萍

    2014-01-01

    目的:总结长春市3~18岁儿童和青少年超重肥胖和原发性高血压的发生率,分析原发性高血压与超重肥胖的相关性,为儿童和青少年超重、肥胖、高血压的防治提供科学依据。方法2012-07至2012-09,采用整群随机抽样对长春市4860名3~18岁儿童和青少年进行高血压、肥胖流行特点的横断面调查。对资料进行统计学分析。结果(1)3~18岁儿童和青少年高血压发生率8.9%。超重肥胖总发生率20.9%,肥胖的高峰期出现于9~11岁。(2)超重组高血压发生率13.17%,肥胖组高血压发生率32.85%,显著高于体重正常组高血压发生率(5.3%),BMI值增加对收缩压升高产生的影响高于对舒张压升高产生的影响。(3)BMI、腰围、腰围身高比(waist to height ratio,WHtR)与收缩压和舒张压均呈正相关,腰围和BMI与血压的相关性优于WHtR,没有明显性别差异。(4)有家族史者超重肥胖发生率为56.3%,无家族史者超重肥胖发生率为18.7%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。(5)高血压更易出现糖、脂代谢紊乱,多元Logistic回归分析显示BMI、腰围、血脂水平是影响血压的主要因素, BMI对收缩压的影响显著,腰围对舒张压的影响差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 BMI能够敏感预测儿童及青少年高血压,目前我国儿童和青少年超重肥胖发生率明显升高,此类人群中高血压发病的危险性显著增强。%Objective To determine the relationship between primary hypertension and obesity in 3-18-years-old children and adolescents of Changchun City so as to provide scientific basis for early prevention of hypertension.Methods Children aged from 3 to 18 years were sampled by random-cluster.Height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured.Questionnaire survey, t-test, and Chi-squared test were conducted

  11. The relationship between social anxiety and self-esteem, self-awareness in grade 4-6 primary students%4~6年级小学生社交焦虑与自尊及自我意识的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志礼; 胡华; 陈品红; 蒙华庆; 王慧; 罗庆华; 傅一笑; 杜莲; 邱海棠; 邱田

    2012-01-01

    目的 探索4~6年级小学生社交焦虑情况及与自尊和自我意识的关系.方法 分层随机抽取重庆市主城区的3所小学校(重点、普通及农民工小学各l所)的568名在校4~6年级小学生,采用儿童社交焦虑量表(SASC)、Pies-Harris 儿童自我意识量表、自尊量表(SES)对小学生进行问卷调查.结果 ①小学生总社交焦虑及两大因子得分显著高于中国城市常模(P<0.01);②女生的社交焦虑总分及害怕否定评价[(4.84±4.26)分,(3.08±2.91)分)]高于男生[(4.12±3.95)分,(2.54±2.63)分,P<0.05];随年级的增高,六年级学生害怕否定评价的得分[(3.22±2.82)分]高于五年级[(2.53±2.76)分,P<0.01]和四年级[(2.54±2.68)分,P<0.05];农民工小学、单亲家庭和收入相对低的家庭者社交焦虑得分较高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);③小学生总社交焦虑及两大因子与其自尊水平呈显著正相关( r=0.305,0.282,0.270),与自我意识及各因子呈不同程度的负相关(r=-0.202~-0.511),相关均达到显著性(P<0.01);④小学生害怕否定评价能被自我意识中的焦虑和合群解释占25.5%;社交回避及苦恼能被自我意识中的焦虑、合群和智力与学校情况解释占20.4%;总的社交焦虑能被自我意识中的焦虑和合群解释占28.2%.结论 4~6年级小学生有较高的社交焦虑水平;不同性别、年级、学校、家庭结构、家庭月收入的小学生社交焦虑水平存在差异,其社交焦虑与自我意识和自尊水平密切相关.%Objective To explore the status of social anxiety and study the relationship between social anxiety and self-consciousness,self-esteem among primary students.Methods Using stratified randomization sampling method,568 primary students in grade 4 ~ 6 were investigated with social anxiety scale for children( SASC ),self-consciousness scale for children(PHCSS) and self-esteem scale(SES).Results ①The score of SASC in

  12. Grade inflation : fact or myth?

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, Amelia L.; Roger M. Valientes

    2008-01-01

    Real grade inflation is the upward shift in grades without a similar rise in achievement (Kohn [2002]; Rosovsky and Hartley [2002]). It implies a decline in standards and obscures the role of grades as a signal of academic ability. Guskey [2003] believes that resolving the debate on grade inflation depends on clarifying the purpose/meaning of grades. Grades may be used either to discriminate among students or to reflect the degree to which students have learned. The research attempts to valid...

  13. 中枢神经系统原发淋巴瘤和高级别星形细胞瘤MR灌注成像的对比研究%The comparative study of perfusion MR imaging in primary central nervous system lymphomas and high grade astrocytomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄飚; 梁长虹; 刘红军; 王广谊; 周正根

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of perfusion MR imaging in differential diagnosis between primary central nervous system lymphomas(PCNSL)and high grade astrocytomas.Methods Twelve patients with PCNSL and 23 patients with high grade astrocytomas were preoperatively examined using a 1.5T MR unit.Routine MR sequences were performed followed by dynamic susceptibility contrastenhanced MR perfusion imaging.The perfusion color images and the time-signal intensity curves of the two tumor groups were compared.The relative cerebral blood volume(rCBV)within the tumor parenchyma was measured and the data were analyzed with unpaired Student's t-test.Results The rCBVs within the tumor parenchyma of the PCNSL and high grade astrocytomas were 1.78±0.5 1 and 3.87±0.87 respectively.The rCBV in the PCNSL was significantly lower than that of the high grade astrocytoma(P<0.05).When the time-signal intensity curves were compared,the PCNSL showed a trend towards the baseline after the first pass and the curves even overshot above the baseline in 7 out of 12 cases,whereas the high grade astrocytoma showed a trend to be close to the baseline but couldn't return to the baseline completely.Conclusion The MR perfusion imaging can be very useful in distinguishing the PCNSL from high grade astrocytomas.%目的 探讨MR灌注成像鉴别中枢神经系统原发淋巴瘤(PCNSL)和高级别星形细胞瘤的价值.方法 PCNSL患者12例,高级别星形细胞肿瘤患者23例,手术前行常规MR检查及MR灌注检查,比较其MR灌注伪彩图像和灌注曲线,测量肿瘤实质部分最大相对脑血容量(rCBV),将所测量数值进行t检验.结果 PCNSL实质部分rCBV平均为1.8±0.5;高级别星形细胞瘤实质部分rCBV平均为3.9±0.9,二者之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).PCNSL实质区域时间-信号曲线对比剂首过后曲线逐渐接近基线,12例中有7例超过基线水平.高级别星形细胞瘤实质区域时间-信号曲线对比剂首过后曲线逐渐

  14. Economics across the Primary Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkle, Sarapage, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines lesson plans for teaching economics in the primary grades, designed to complement the video series, "Econ and Me." Suggests activities incorporate mathematics, language arts, geography, and science. Targets the following specific economic concepts in individual lesson plans: scarcity, choice, production, goods, opportunity cost,…

  15. The Analysis of Reading Skills and Visual Perception Levels of First Grade Turkish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Aysel; Sivri, Diler Ayvaz

    2016-01-01

    In this study, primary school first grade students' reading skills and visual perception levels were investigated. Sample of the study, which was designed with relational scanning model, consisted of 168 first grade students studying at three public primary schools in Kozlu, Zonguldak, in 2013-2014 education year. Students' reading level, reading…

  16. individual dose monitoring results of radiation workers in a first-class hospital at Grade 3 of Tianjin City from 2010-2011%2010-2011年天津市某三甲医院放射工作人员个人剂量监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪莹; 栾海; 阮水富

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解和掌握个人剂量监测工作情况,发现存在的问题,探索建立个人剂量监测的新模式,更好地对不同职业类型(放射诊断、放射治疗、核医学、介入治疗)的放射工作人员进行监督管理.方法 选取天津市某三甲医院作为调查对象,整理分析了某三甲医院2010-2011年387人次个人剂量监测结果.结果 某三甲医院的不同职业类型的放射工作人员中的介入治疗工作人员的人均年剂量当量最高,为0.58 mSv,为放射治疗的8倍之多.介入治疗工作人员个人剂量高于放射诊断、放射治疗以及核医学工作人员.结论 应针对放射工作人员,尤其是介入治疗工作人员提出可行的加强放射防护的对策,为做好该市的个人剂量监测工作提供借鉴和指导.%[Objective] To understand and grasp the situation of individual dose monitoring, to identify gaps, and explore and create a new model for individual dose monitoring, so as to carry out management and supervision on radiation workers with different occupations (diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine , interventional treatment ). [ Methods ] A first-class hospital at Grade 3 was selected as study object, the monitoring results of 387 person-times from 2010-2011 were analyzed. [Results] The survey found that individual dose of workers engaged in interventional treatment (0.58 mSv) is highest among all radiation occupations and 8 times of radiotherapy, higher than those in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine. [ Conclusion] For radiation workers, especially the workers engaged in interventional therapy, the feasible countermeasures for radiological protection enhancement should be raised as the reference and guidance of individual dose monitoring in this city.

  17. 乌鲁木齐市某三级甲等医院护士心理资本与离职意愿关系研究%Study on relationship between psychological capital and turnover intention of nurses in a three grade A hospital in Urumqi city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿依加马力·萨力; 汪惠才; 王梅新

    2014-01-01

    Obj ective:To investigate the status quo of nurses’psychological capital and turnover intention,and probe into the relationship between psy-chological capital and turnover intention of nurses.Methods:A total of 1 345 nurses in a three grade A hospital in Urumqi city were investigated by u-sing general information questionnaire,psychological capital scale and turn-over intention scale.Results:The nurses’psychological capital score was (3.61±0.38),and turnover intention score was(2.92±0.56),there was statistically significant difference in psychological capital score among nur-ses in different ages or different departments or different ethnics (P<0.01 or P<0.05);the psychological capital was significantly negatively correla-ted with turnover intention (P<0.05 ).Conclusion:Nursing managers should think highly of improving nurses’psychological capital level,avoid to generate turnover intention of nurses,and improve the stability of nurs-ing profession.%[目的]调查护士心理资本与离职意愿的现状,探讨两者之间的关系。[方法]采用一般资料调查表、心理资本量表以及离职意愿量表对乌鲁木齐市某三级甲等综合医院1345名护士进行问卷调查。[结果]护士心理资本为(3.61±0.38)分,离职意愿为(2.92±0.56)分;不同年龄段、不同科室、不同民族护士心理资本评分比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0.05);护士心理资本与离职意愿呈负相关(P<0.05)。[结论]护理管理者应该重视提高护士的心理资本水平,避免护士产生离职意愿,从而提高护理职业稳定性。

  18. Physical Properties of Normal Grade Biodiesel and Winter Grade Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Azmi Zakaria; W. Mahmood Mat Yunus; Monir Norozi; Harrison Lau Lik Nang; Mohd Maarof Moksin; Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini

    2011-01-01

    In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the the...

  19. Sedimentary features observed in the tsunami deposits at Rikuzentakata City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Hajime; Arai, Kazuno; Matsumoto, Dan; Takahashi, Hiroki; Yamashita, Shota; Tanaka, Gengo; Murayama, Masafumi

    2012-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami triggered by an earthquake off the east coast of northeastern Honshu Island (Tohoku region), Japan, deposited large amounts of sediment on land, including the Sendai Plain and Sanriku Coast. This study reports on the characteristics of the tsunami deposits in Rikuzentakata City, southeastern Iwate Prefecture, northeastern Japan. A field survey identified the inundation pattern of the tsunami in this region and the facies model of the tsunami deposits at the bay-head deltas of estuarine systems. The tsunami deposits in Rikuzentakata City generally consist of one to four units that represent a discrete runup or backwash flow. Each unit is characterized by initial inverse grading and successive normal grading that correspond to the accelerating and decelerating stages of the flow, respectively. An internal erosional surface often developed between the inverse-graded and normal-graded units. It corresponds to the maximum shear velocity of the flow and truncates the underlying inverse-graded unit. In the case of the runup unit, silty fine-grained drapes overlay the graded sandy interval. A correlation of the sedimentary structures and grain fabric analysis revealed that the Tohoku-Oki tsunami inundated Rikuzentakata City at least twice and that the flow velocity exceeded 2.4 m/s. Paleontological analysis of the sediment and kriging estimation of the total volume of the tsunami deposit implied that the sediments were sourced not only from eroded beach sands but also from the seafloor of Hirota Bay or more offshore regions.

  20. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...... size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect...

  1. For a Safer City. A Friendlier City. And a More Beautiful City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Busi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the safety of mobility in the urban environment has been emerging as a primary social topic for some time now due to the number of casualties and, more generally, due to the impact on living conditions in the city. If correctly formulated, in fact, this subject has implications primarily and fundamentally with regard to the quality of urban life, as the citizen, and the vulnerable road user in particular, is severely restricted in their use of urban public paces. Consequently, an increasingly greater focus is being placed on acquiring methods, techniques and strategies for addressing the issue of planning, constructing and managing roads, squares and urban green spaces (and above all, applying the logic of reclaiming the historic and consolidated city in order that the city can be used to its full potential by the citizen. The subject itself therefore presents an opportunity to re-establish urban planning regulations (and, more generally, city regulations in accordance with the renewed interest in public spaces. The article discusses this matter and includes supporting elements and examples, also referring to the implications on the urban landscape.

  2. 临湘市中小学饮用水水质现状及介水传染病发病情况分析%Current situation of drinking water and water-borne communicable infection in the primary and middle schools of Linxiang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅芳; 唐美秀; 刘娟; 彭喜春; 梁绍先; 唐明德

    2011-01-01

    Objective To research the condition of water quality and the incidence of water-bome infection of the primary and middle schools of Linxiang city, and to provide scientific basis for improving drinking water quality and protecting students' physical and mental health.Methods Selecting drinking water samples from 14 primary and middle schools of Linxiang city, the national standard method was used to analyze the quality of the water, and were surveyed by a self-designed questionnaire the incidence of water-bome infection diseases.Results The qualification rate of drinking water was 78.57%, the fecal coliform exceeded the standard in unqualified water.According to the research, in the recent one year, the incidence of enteritis, bacillary dysentery and hepatitis A were 1.80%, 0.19% and 0.06% in the 14 schools.Conclusion Drinking water of the primary and middle schools of Linxiang city is polluted by the fecal coliform.%目的 了解临湘市中小学校饮用水的水质质量及介水传染病的发病情况,为进一步改善饮水质量、保护学生的身心健康提供科学依据.方法 选取临湘市14所中小学校,对生活饮用水按照国家水质分析标准方法进行水质分析,并按照拟定的调查表对学生进行介水传染病的发病情况调查.结果 该市中小学校饮用水合格率仅为78.57%,其中水质不合格主要原因为粪大肠菌群超标;14所学校近1 a饮水学生的肠炎、细菌性痢疾、甲型肝炎的发病率分别为1.80%,O.19%.0.06%.结论 临湘市中小学校的生活饮用水存在粪大肠菌污染隐患.

  3. Learning to research in first grade: Bridging the transition from narrative to expository texts and tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Richard

    Decades of research indicate that students at all academic grade and performance levels perform poorly with informational texts and tasks and particularly with locating assignment-relevant information in expository texts. Students have little understanding of the individual tasks required, the arc of the activity, the hierarchical structure of the information they seek, or how to reconstitute and interpret the information they extract. Poor performance begins with the introduction of textbooks and research assignments in fourth grade and continues into adulthood. However, to date, neither educators nor researchers have substantially addressed this problem. In this quasi-experimental study, we ask if first-grade children can perform essential tasks in identifying, extracting, and integrating assignment-relevant information and if instruction improves their performance. To answer this question, we conducted a 15-week, teacher-led, intervention in two first-grade classrooms in an inner-city Nashville elementary school. We created a computer learning environment (NoteTaker) to facilitate children's creation of a mental model of the research process and a narrative/expository bridge curriculum to support the children's transition from all narrative to all expository texts and tasks. We also created a new scaffolding taxonomy and a reading-to-research model to focus our research. Teachers participated in weekly professional development workshops. The results of this quasi-experimental study indicate that at-risk, first-grade children are able to (a) identify relevant information in an expository text, (b) categorize the information they identify, and (c) justify their choice of category. Children's performance in the first and last tasks significantly improved with instruction, and low-performing readers showed the greatest benefits from instruction. We find that the children's performance in categorizing information depended upon content-specific knowledge that was not

  4. Graded-index magnonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  5. European Cities in the World City Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Taylor (Peter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis is primarily an empirical paper that brings together selected results from the GaWC research programme. The latter studies inter-city relations at a global scale. Empirical research is based upon a model of world city network network formation as a product of the location strategies

  6. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  7. The Uses of Big Data in Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Luís M A

    2014-03-01

    There is much enthusiasm currently about the possibilities created by new and more extensive sources of data to better understand and manage cities. Here, I explore how big data can be useful in urban planning by formalizing the planning process as a general computational problem. I show that, under general conditions, new sources of data coordinated with urban policy can be applied following fundamental principles of engineering to achieve new solutions to important age-old urban problems. I also show that comprehensive urban planning is computationally intractable (i.e., practically impossible) in large cities, regardless of the amounts of data available. This dilemma between the need for planning and coordination and its impossibility in detail is resolved by the recognition that cities are first and foremost self-organizing social networks embedded in space and enabled by urban infrastructure and services. As such, the primary role of big data in cities is to facilitate information flows and mechanisms of learning and coordination by heterogeneous individuals. However, processes of self-organization in cities, as well as of service improvement and expansion, must rely on general principles that enforce necessary conditions for cities to operate and evolve. Such ideas are the core of a developing scientific theory of cities, which is itself enabled by the growing availability of quantitative data on thousands of cities worldwide, across different geographies and levels of development. These three uses of data and information technologies in cities constitute then the necessary pillars for more successful urban policy and management that encourages, and does not stifle, the fundamental role of cities as engines of development and innovation in human societies.

  8. The gender difference on oral health knowledge in the students of Conghua City primary schools%从化市小学生口腔健康观念知晓率的性别差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯惠芬; 钟春仪; 巢枫榕

    2012-01-01

    采用随机整群抽样的方法,抽取某小学四年级学生331 名进行问卷调查,了解从化市小学生在接受口腔保健知识与观念的宣教中的性别差异.各项知识性题目回答的正确率女生高于男生.应注意男、女生之间的差异,更好地引导学生进行口腔保健.%Questionnaire survey on oral health knowledge was conducted in 331 elementary school students of the fourth grade. Female students replied the accuracy is higher than the male students. Attention should be paid for the gender difference in oral health education.

  9. A Crowded City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Over 4 million vehicles on road challenge Beijing’s city management Beijing, the city once known as the kingdom of bicycles, has become clogged with automobiles, the Beijing Municipal Government Publicity Office said on December 18.

  10. Bright Lights, Big Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Overabundant lighting has become another pollution source in the Chinese cities The glow of electric lights illuminating the nights of ever-brighter cities has been regarded as one of the signs of prosperity and modern civilization.

  11. MANPOWER FOR PRIMARY MEDICAL CARE IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Motameni

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available Iran is a large country with a total area of 1,645,000 square kilometers. The country’s population is estimated at about 31 millions. There is an uneven distribution of the population, varying from 2 to 50 per square kilometer. Sixty per cent of the total population (18 millions is living in nearly 66,000 small and large village’s scattered throughout the country. A total of 10,000 physicians provide the main source of medical manpower, however more than 40% of these physicians are located in the capital city of Teheran. The physician to population ratio for the country is about 1 per 3,000 and the figure reaches 100,000 in some rural areas. Each year a total of 600 graduates is added to the health manpower , but technical and socio-economic handicapping factors make the rural and low-income areas less attractive to the new graduates. In this paper the reconstruction of health services around the concept of Primary Medical Care has been reposed for the country’s health development. Taking into consideration the country’s special geographical and demographic features, two levels of primary care workers have been suggested; the first group with 4 year’s training in curative and preventive services, and the second group at grade 9 level in education. It is foreseen that the two afore-mentioned groups will form a network of auxiliaries to the physicians in extending health services to the remote areas of the country.

  12. Text Complexity: Primary Teachers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Relyea-Kim, E. Jackie; Kung, Melody; Elmore, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The research question was, "What text characteristics do primary teachers think are most important for early grades text complexity?" Teachers from across the United States accomplished a two-part task. First, to stimulate teachers' thinking about important text characteristics, primary teachers completed an online paired-text…

  13. The Power and Potential of Primary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Denise N.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2012-01-01

    Using primary sources with students has untapped potential for expanding and deepening the reading experiences of elementary and middle grade students. Primary sources expands teachers' palette of reading materials, allows students to connect more closely to topics for learning, and deepens their understanding of the past. This article argues for…

  14. Investigation of Current Situation of Learning Motivation, Social Anxiety and Loneliness of the Left-behind Children in Rural Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Biyun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC and the Children’s Loneliness Scale (CLS. Results: (1 The learning motivation of the left-behind children in rural primary school is in a slightly higher medium level. Social anxiety is significantly higher than normal level in Chinese city, and the level of loneliness of about 1/5 of the left-behind children is relatively high. (2 The score of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children in the level of knowledge learning has significant grade differences, without significant gender differences. (3 The level of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children is slightly higher than that of non-left-behind children, but both differences are not significant.

  15. Methods of graded rings

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasescu, Constantin

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this book, graded algebra, has developed in the past decade to a vast subject with new applications in noncommutative geometry and physics. Classical aspects relating to group actions and gradings have been complemented by new insights stemming from Hopf algebra theory. Old and new methods are presented in full detail and in a self-contained way. Graduate students as well as researchers in algebra, geometry, will find in this book a useful toolbox. Exercises, with hints for solution, provide a direct link to recent research publications. The book is suitable for courses on Master level or textbook for seminars.

  16. Discrimination in Grading

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Rema N.; Linden, Leigh L.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an experiment that was designed to test for discrimination in grading in India. We recruited teachers to grade exams. We randomly assigned child "characteristics" (age, gender, and caste) to the cover sheets of the exams to ensure that there is no relationship between these observed characteristics and the exam quality. We find that teachers give exams that are assigned to be lower caste scores that are about 0.03 to 0.08 standard deviations lower than those that are ...

  17. Imagineering the city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van den Berg

    2015-01-01

    Cities today are products. The urban experience is commodified into marketable items by urban entrepreneurs. Urban administrations, city marketers, politicians, local businesses and other actors all over the world are developing entrepreneurial strategies to sell their city. From "‘I ♥ New York"’ to

  18. The Creative Cities Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Creative Cities Network, started by UNESCO in 2004, is one of the world’s highest-level non-governmental organizations in creative industry. The network focuses on the excellence of its member cities as its main product, and finds ways to maintain relevance in city life, local economy

  19. 18F-脱氧葡萄糖正电子发射计算机断层扫描最大标准化摄取值与非小细胞肺癌临床病理特征的关系%Primary tumor SUVmax measured on 18F-FDG PET-CT correlates with histologic grade and pathologic stage in non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵世俊; 吴宁; 郑容; 刘瑛; 张雯杰; 梁颖; 张瀚; 李小萌

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨18F-脱氧葡萄糖(18F-FDG)正电子发射计算机断层扫描(PET-CT)最大标准化摄取值(SUVmax)与非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)组织学类型、分化程度及病理分期等的关系.方法 回顾性分析540例行18 F-FDG PET-CT检查后接受手术治疗的初治NSCLC患者的临床资料,根据患者不同的临床及病理参数进行分组,采用t检验或单因素方差分析比较不同组别间SUVmax的差异,采用Pearson相关或Spearman秩相关分析SUVmax与肿瘤大小、组织学类型、分化程度及病理分期的相关性.结果 细支气管肺泡癌组、腺癌组、腺鳞癌组、鳞癌组和其他类型组的SUVmax分别为1.3±1.1、5.1±3.4、8.5±2.8、9.9±4.6和10.9±5.1.组织学分级I级组、Ⅱ级组和Ⅲ级组的SUVmax分别为2.4±2.2、5.9±3.9和8.4±4.4,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05).SUVmax与肿瘤大小、组织学分级及TNM分期均呈中等度相关(均P<0.05),与T分期和N分期均呈低度相关(均P<0.05).结论 SUVmax在不同组织学类型非小细胞肺癌间存在明显差异.SUVmax与肿瘤大小、组织学分级及病理分期呈正相关关系.%Objective To assess the relationship between preoperative maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) measured on 18F-FDG PET-CT and clinicopathologic parameters in patients with surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Methods A total of 540 patients (348 men and 192 women,mean age 60 ± 10 years) with histologically proven non-small cell lung cancer,who had undergone both preoperative 18F-FDG PET-CT imaging and curative surgery in our institution from October 2006 to January 2013,were analyzed retrospectively in this study.Primary tumor 18F-FDG uptake,measured as SUVmax corrected for lean body mass,was compared among different variables and correlated with tumor size,histologic grade and postoperative pathologic TNM stage.Histologic grade was categorized into three degrees,where grade Ⅰ represents highly,grade

  20. Primary pulmonary Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of primary pulmonary Hodgkin's lymphoma (PPHL) are presented, a male aged 21, and a female aged 32 years. Symptoms included non-productive cough, shortness of breath, low grade fever, wheezing and weight loss. Duration of illness varied between 6 weeks in the male patient to female patient. Both patients were given an empirical trial of antibiotics and anti-cough measures with no response. Radiological studies carried out after failure to respond to medical treatment, revealed the presence of pulmonary parenchymal masses in both patients. Cytology, bronchoscopic and transbronchial biopsies were not diagnostic, which led to opened wedge resections. Finally, the diagnosis of primary pulmonary Hodgkin's disease was reached after supportive immunohistochemical staining (CD 30 and CD 15 both positive in Rs cells). Both patients were regarded as stage I extranodal (IE) after exhaustive measures failed to demonstrate involvement of other body cites. (author)

  1. Primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert; Pachman, Jiri [Pardubice Univ. (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemical Technology

    2013-06-01

    The first chapter provides background such as the basics of initiation and differences between requirements on primary explosives used in detonators and igniters. The authors then clarify the influence of physical characteristics on explosive properties, focusing on those properties required for primary explosives. Furthermore, the issue of sensitivity is discussed. All the chapters on particular groups of primary explosives are structured in the same way, including introduction, physical and chemical properties, explosive properties, preparation and documented use.

  2. The Proficiency Level of Goals of Consistency and to Appropriatenes to The Level of Pupils For Humanities Course in 3rd Year of Primary Schools (Standart Definition- Erzurum City Sample)

    OpenAIRE

    Gürbüz OCAK; H. Ömer BEYDOĞAN

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the contextual standards of the social studies lesson in the third year primary school by analyzing the views of teachers.Thus, with the help of literature review, the questionnaire for the contextual standars of social studies lesson was developed depending on the views of teachers and standards were grouped according to the importance of factors. Whit this questionnaire some features of the contextual standars of the socialstudies lesson were analyzed. ...

  3. The Resources 6th And 7th Grade Students Use While Preparing Projects And Performence Tasks For Socıal Studies Course, Use Of The Internet As A Resource, And The Difficulties That They Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan AKDAĞ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the resources benefited by the pupils and the difficulties that they experience while preparing performance and project tasks related to the classroom activities in Social Sciences Program initiated in 2005. The universe of the study is all the sixth and seventh grade students of primary schools in Konya city. In the study, open-ended question with the convenient sampling method, which is used in qualitative research methods, is used, and for analyzing the qualitative data, contents analysis method, which is formed with recessive theme in theoretical sense and sub themes, is applied. The study demonstrated that the sixth grade students use internet, libraries, reference books and the others respectively, and the seventh grade students use internet, reference books, libraries and the others respectively. However, both sixth and seventh grade experience such problems as time limitation, difficulty of assignment and inability to understand, failing to find proper resources, structural characteristics of internet and layout of the assignment. Sixth and seventh grade students experience these problems at different levels. In the light of findings some suggestions are made.

  4. The Maximal Graded Left Quotient Algebra of a Graded Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo ARANDA PINO; Mercedes SILES MOLINA

    2006-01-01

    We construct the maximal graded left quotient algebra of every graded algebra A without homogeneous total right zero divisors as the direct limit of graded homomorphisms (of left A-modules)from graded dense left ideals of A into a graded left quotient algebra of A. In the case of a superalgebra,and with some extra hypothesis, we prove that the component in the neutral element of the group of the maximal graded left quotient algebra coincides with the maximal left quotient algebra of the component in the neutral element of the group of the superalgebra.

  5. Primary fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Jensen, L T; Foldager, Marie Viftrup;

    1990-01-01

    Serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide have previously been reported to be low in some patients with primary fibromyalgia and the aim of this study was to determine if such patients differ clinically from primary fibromyalgia patients with normal levels of procollagen...... type III aminoterminal peptide. Subjective symptoms, tender points and dynamic muscle strength in 45 women with primary fibromyalgia were related to serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide. Patients with low serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide...... concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide of primary fibromyalgia patients are connected to the disease impact....

  6. Syphilis - primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary syphilis; Secondary syphilis; Late syphilis; Tertiary syphilis ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted, infectious disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum . This bacterium causes ...

  7. 扬中市中小学生疟疾防治知识知晓率调查分析%Investigation and analysis of awareness rate of malaria knowledge in primary and middle school stu-dents in Yangzhong City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴荣凤; 肖敏; 徐红梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the awareness rate of malaria knowledge in primary and middle school students in Yangzhong City. Methods By stratified random sampling, we conducted a sample question⁃naire survey in the primary and middle school students on their knowledge towards malaria. Results A total of 432 people were investigated, and 57.18%responded correctly to six or more questions in general. The aware⁃ness rate concerning malaria transmission , important symptoms, typical clinical manifestations, methods for di⁃agnosis of malaria, the classification and hazards of malaria, treatment of malaria, options for medication, pre⁃vention strategies, eradication of the mosquitoes and World Malaria Day was 54.17%, 58.8%, 85.65%, 59.03%, 54.4%, 96.76%, 45.83%, 25%, 62.5% and 37.96%, respectively. Conclusion Primary and middle school students in Yangzhong city needs improving on their knowledge towards awareness of malaria, especial⁃ly those from primary schools in rural areas.%目的:了解扬中市中小学生疟疾防治知识知晓水平。方法采用分层随机不等比例抽样调查方法,问卷调查中小学生一般情况、疟疾常识知晓情况等。结果共调查432人,6个及以上问题回答正确率57.18%。调查对象对“疟疾传播途径、主要症状、典型临床表现、诊断方法、疟疾的类别及危害、患病后如何处理、治疗药物、预防疟疾方法、灭蚊方法和疟疾宣传日”的知晓率分别是54.17%、58.8%、85.65%、59.03%、54.4%、96.76%、45.83%、25%、62.5%和37.96%。结论扬中市中小学生的疟疾防治知识知晓水平亟待提高,应该重点加强对农村地区小学生的疟防常识普及。

  8. [Ecological sensitivity of Shanghai City based on GIS spatial analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian-jun; Liu, Yong-juan

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, five sensitivity factors affecting the eco-environment of Shanghai City, i.e., rivers and lakes, historical relics and forest parks, geological disasters, soil pollution, and land use, were selected, and their weights were determined by analytic hierarchy process. Combining with GIS spatial analysis technique, the sensitivities of these factors were classified into four grades, i.e., highly sensitive, moderately sensitive, low sensitive, and insensitive, and the spatial distribution of the ecological sensitivity of Shanghai City was figured out. There existed a significant spatial differentiation in the ecological sensitivity of the City, and the insensitive, low sensitive, moderately sensitive, and highly sensitive areas occupied 37.07%, 5.94%, 38.16%, and 18.83%, respectively. Some suggestions on the City's zoning protection and construction were proposed. This study could provide scientific references for the City's environmental protection and economic development. PMID:20879541

  9. Purpose-Driven Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jane A. K.; Kimpton, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Allowing students to improve their grade by revising their written work may help students learn to revise, but it gives them no incentive to turn in quality work from the start. This article proposes a way to invert the process, thereby teaching students how to revise, while enforcing a more disciplined approach to good writing. (Contains 3…

  10. Social Studies: Grade 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This Manitoba (Canada) curriculum guide for eighth grade social studies students contains suggested teaching strategies and learning activities in four units covering: (1) life during prehistoric and early historic times; (2) ancient civilizations; (3) life in early modern Europe; and (4) life in the modern world. Each unit includes an overview,…

  11. Grades as Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior coursework,…

  12. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  13. 云浮市无偿献血初筛血型错误原因分析及预防%Cause analysis and prevention of primary screening blood type errors of donating blood in Yunfu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高炳谏; 区勇勤; 李惠玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:对无偿献血者ABO血型初筛错误进行原因分析,并采取相应的预防措施,以减少初筛血型的错误率。方法统计2010~2014年本站无偿献血标本94298人次中初筛血型与实验室正反定型检测结果血型进行比较分析。结果94298例无偿献血标本中,发现初筛血型错误368例,错误率0.39%,以B型误判为O型最高,占17.12%,其次为AB型误判为A型,占15.22%;各采血点分布差异明显,新兴、罗定采血点错误率最高,分别占0.58%和0.44%;各年份比较,初筛血型错误率逐年下降。结论初筛血型错误大多是由于人为因素导致,应增强工作人员的质量意识和责任心教育,加强理论知识和操作技能的培训,严格遵守操作规程,改善献血环境和试剂的管理,使献血前ABO血型筛查错误降到最低。%Objective To analyze the causes of primary screening errors of the ABO blood types of voluntary blood donors and take corresponding preventative measures to reduce the error rate of primary screening blood type. Methods The primary screening blood types and the laboratory positive and negative blood grouping test results of 94 298 donat-ing blood specimens of our station between 2010 and 2014 were analyzed comparatively. Results Of the 94 298 donat-ing blood specimens,368 cases of primary screening blood type errors were found,with the error rate of 0.39%,of which type B misjudged as type O was the commonest,accounting for 17.12%,followed by type AB misjudged as type A,ac-counting for 15.22%.The errors distributed significantly differently over each blood collection station and the error rates in Xinxing and Luoding blood collection stations were the highest,accounting for 0.58% and 0.44% respectively.As for the errors of different years,the primary screening blood type error rate decreased year by year. Conclusion As primary screening blood type errors are mainly caused by human factors,enhancement of

  14. Single-Sex Classes and Academic Achievement in Two Inner-City Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kusum; Vaught, Claire; Mitchell, Ethel W.

    1998-01-01

    Compared two single-sex and two coeducational fifth-grade classes (90 students) from inner-city schools for academic achievement. Class grades were consistently higher in the single-sex classes, although the difference was not always statistically significant. Standardized-test data showed no trend, although coeducational groups performed better…

  15. Physical activity during the school day in public primary schools in Mexico City La actividad física durante la jornada escolar en escuelas primarias públicas en la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Jennings-Aburto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the physical activity (PA of students and describe the school environment surrounding PA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between November 2005 and March 2006, in Mexico City, we conducted quantitative and qualitative observations to describe the PA and the school context. RESULTS: Recess and physical education class (PE were the only opportunities to participate in PA. PE occurred one time per week with a duration of 39.8±10.6 minutes which is less than national and international recommendations. Students participated in moderate-to-vigorous PA 29.2±17.8% of PE. The dynamics of PE did not promote the inclusion of all students or PA. During recess there was overcrowding of the school patio and no equipment for PA or organization of PA. DISCUSSION: The PA of students in public schools in Mexico City can be improved by increasing the quantity and quality of PE and increasing opportunities for activity during recess.OBJETIVO: Cuantificar la actividad física (AF en niños escolares y describir el entorno escolar relacionado con la AF. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre noviembre de 2005 y marzo de 2006 en la Ciudad de México, se realizó observación directa cuantitativa y cualitativa para describir el nivel de AF y el contexto escolar durante recreo y clases de educación física (CEF. RESULTADOS: El recreo y las CEF fueron los únicos espacios en los que se realizó AF. Las CEF se impartieron una vez a la semana y duraron 39.8±10.6 minutos, lo que está por debajo de las recomendaciones internacionales. Se participó en actividades moderadas-vigorosas 29.2±17.8% de las CEF. La dinámica de las CEF no favoreció la AF. Durante el recreo se observó saturación del patio y no se realizaron actividades organizadas ni se utilizaron materiales para promover la AF. DISCUSIÓN: Se recomienda incrementar la calidad y la cantidad de las CEF y el tiempo dedicado a jugar durante el recreo.

  16. The Mathematics Literacy Level of Eighth Grade Students

    OpenAIRE

    UYSAL, Esra; YENİLMEZ, Kürşat

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the eighth grade student’s Mathematics Literacy level based on the PISA 2003 Mathematics exam questions and evaluations. Also relationships between distribution of Mathematics Literacy levels and some variables as students’ gender, pre-school education, family’s income and parent’s education level are investigated. Survey method was used in this study. The work group of the study consists of 1047 eighth grade students chosen randomly from 12 primary s...

  17. Evaluation on the effect of brief group psychological counseling application in mental health program for students of high grade primary school%短程团体心理咨询在小学高年级学生心理健康促进中运用的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐奇; 龚定宏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of brief group psychological counseling in promoting students psychological health of high grade in primary school. Methods Two classes were randomly selected from a primary school in a community of Pudong New Area in Shanghai from October 2014 to November 2014, with stratified cluster sampling method in 4,5 grade ( the boy 30, the girl 24) as the research object, the other 2 classes (4,5 grade 1 classes;the boy 25,the girl 31) of students as control group, in the intervention group students brief group counseling was carried out, while the control group received the routine psychological health education course. Using the mental health diagnosis test (MHT) as a psychological assessment tool, MHT scores of two groups of students and factors were analyszed by the test analysis. Results Before intervention, the intervention group and the control group in the mental health diagnosis test (MHT) had no significant difference in each factor (P>0.05). After the intervention, significant were found differences between the intervention group and the control group in MHT learning anxiety, anxiety to people, self accusation tendency, allergic tendency, body symptom, terror tendency and the total score(6.46±3.01, 8.59±3.40; 3.04±1.91, 4.45±2.43; 3.56± 2.13, 5.30 ± 2.10; 4.37 ± 1.93, 5.84 ± 2.63; 3.76 ± 2.82, 5.46 ± 3.38; 2.15 ± 2.34, 3.91 ± 3.00; 32.44 ± 13.07, 44.52±17.59)(t=-3.47、-3.38、-4.30、-3.35、-2.87、-3.40、-4.10 ,P0.05),在干预结束时,干预组MHT的学习焦虑、对人焦虑、自责倾向、过敏倾向、身体症状、恐怖倾向因子分以及总分均低于对照组(6.46±3.01,8.59±3.40;3.04±1.91,4.45±2.43;3.56±2.13,5.30±2.10;4.37±1.93,5.84±2.63;3.76±2.82,5.46±3.38;2.15±2.34,3.91±3.00;32.44±13.07,44.52±17.59),差异具有统计学意义(t=-3.47、-3.38、-4.30、-3.35、-2.87、-3.40、-4.10,P均<0.05)。结论短程团体心理咨询对于小学高年级群

  18. Performance of a table vibration type coffee grading machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available One of important coffee beans quality is the size uniformity. To confirm with the standart requirement, coffee beans have to be graded before being traded. Until now, grading process is still carried out fully manual, so that the grading cost is very expensive about 40% of total processing cost. Meanwhile, shortage of skill workers is as a limiting factor of the process. Therefore, machine for grading coffee beans is good alternative for grading cost. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed a table vibration type coffee grading machine for grouping of coffee beans in order to consistent quality and reduce grading cost. The machine has dimension of 272 cm length, 126 cm height, and 144 cm width. The machine has three primary components, i.e. grader table, combustion engine, and beam. The machine has three kinds of grader table that each grader table has different holes size, i.e. 7 mm x 7 mm for top grader table, 5 mm x 5 mm for axle grader table, and 4 mm x 4 mm for bottom grader table. Each grader table has dimension of 206 cm length, 105.5 cm height, and 14 cm width. The grading mechanism is by vibration grader table with the power source 5.5 HP combustion engine. The results shown that the outlet are in farms of three grades of coffee beans with connected to each compartement. Assessment of the grading machine reveals that the optimum capacity of 1,406 kg/hour reached when the speed 2,600 rpm and the angle 10O. Economic analysis showed that operational cost for grading one kilogram Robusta coffee beans with moisture content 13—14% wet basis is Rp 7.17.Key words : grading, coffee, quality, vibration table.

  19. Me, the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for identity of cities looks rather urgent and attracts attention of many researchers. Addressing this issue, the article draws an analogy between a human person and a city. Like a city, a human being needs to comprehend his self-identity in order to resist depressive tendencies. It is shown that a person’s depressive symptoms are similar to those of cities. The city identity necessary to resist depression can be searched for both historically and geographically. The historical aspect consists of local myths and legends about the city and the citizens. The geographical aspect of identity comprises features of the terrain, climate, flora and fauna of the region where the city is located.

  20. The Design of Group Counseling Scheme for the Preven-tion of Sexual Assault on Grade Four Girl Students of Rural Primary Schools%农村小学四年级女生预防性侵害团体辅导方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揭康丽

    2015-01-01

    The group counseling scheme is mainly for Grade Four girl students of rural primary schools, playing the important role of schools in sexual education, especially the prevention of sexual assault. Based on child developmental psychology, group psy-chological counseling was implemented to help students correctly learn about the characteristics of boy and girl students, and the principles of relationship between boys and girls, and grasp the knowledge and skills of preventing sexual assault.%本团体辅导方案主要是针对农村四年级女生,发挥学校在性教育中特别是性侵害预防中的重要作用。以儿童发展心理学理论为根据,以团体心理辅导的形式展开,帮助学生正确认识男女生的特点,了解男女生交往的界限和原则,掌握儿童性侵害的防范知识和技巧。

  1. Hyperthyroidism (primary)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte

    2010-01-01

    . METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments for primary hyperthyroidism? What are the effects of surgical treatments for primary hyperthyroidism? What are the effects of treatments for subclinical...

  2. 苏州市中小学女教师体育健身活动现状调查与分析%Investigation and analysis on primary and middle school female teachers' physical activity condition in Suzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林辉; 陈瑞琴

    2011-01-01

    By utilizing the methods of literature, questionnaire survey and mathematical statistics, this paper made a survey of the physical exercise and body-building related to primary and middle female teachers of some schools in Suzhou. The author mainly analyzed the major factors influencing the current condition of primary and middle female teachers' physical exercise and body-building, and put forward some corresponding proposals in order to provide the theoretic foundation for their physical exercise and body-building.%该研究主要采用文献资料法、问卷调查法和数理统计法等研究方法,对苏州市部分中小学女教师的体育健身活动现状进行调查,分析影响这一教师群体体育健身活动的因素,并提出相应建议,以期为她们的体育健身提供理论依据.

  3. Write More, Grade Less: Five Practices for Effectively Grading Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    One of the dilemmas that teachers frequently face is grading student papers. As a teacher, the author regularly reads research regarding instructional practices, grading, and assessment, but struggled to translate theory into practice in her own classroom. The intent of this article is to share one method of instructing and grading writing that…

  4. ANALYSIS ON 676 CASES OF CONDUCTING HIV VCT IN COMPREHENSIVE THIRD-GRADE HOSPITAL IN 2010 IN URUMQI CITY OF XINJIANG%2010年新疆乌鲁木齐市综合三级医院676例艾滋病自愿咨询检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛秀梅; 高新; 阿玛古丽; 韩婷婷; 王婷; 潘巍; 张金凤

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] Through analyzing the information of cases of conducting HIV VCT in comprehensive third-grade hospital in 2010 in Urumqi city of Xinjiang, to know the infectious status of those cases and provide scientific bases for AIDS prevention and control strategies. [Methods] 676 cases of accepting voluntary counseling and testing in the clinic of Fifth Affiliated Hospital to Xinjiang Medical University in 2010 were investigated, their gender, age, marital status, education and other general information, exposure factors and HIV infection rate were analyzed. The database software was established with Epitade, the rate was tested with x2 test. [Results] In the 676 cases of VCT, HTV infection cases were 12 cases, with a total positive rate of 1.78%. Males 87, females 589; concentrated in the age of 21 to 49 years old, accounting for 92.60%; due to non-marital heterosexual sex counseling and testing, 87 people, 9 were positive, indicating positive detection of non-marital sexual behavior was with relatively high numbers, which became the most important people in AIDS dissemination; 471 people with educational level at middle school or above (excluding junior school), accounting for 69.67%. [Conclusion] AIDS voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), not only early detect, timely treat, prevent the infection and provide psychological support for the subjects (especially HIV), but also effectively reduce risk sexual behaviors, prevent the spread of AIDS.%[目的]通过分析2010年乌鲁木齐市综合三级医院艾滋病自愿咨询检测(VCT)结果的信息,了解艾滋病自愿咨询检测者HIV感染状况,为艾滋病防治策略提供科学依据. [方法]收集2010年在新疆医科大学第五附属医院艾滋病自愿咨询检测(VCT)门诊676例自愿咨询检测者的基本信息,分析其性别、年龄、婚姻、文化程度等一般资 料,暴露因素与HIV感染率的关系.数据库的建立用Epitade软件,率的显著性检验用x2检验. [

  5. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  6. Listening Comprehension in Primary Level Grades Two, Four and Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Juhani E.; Anttila, Minttu

    2003-01-01

    Studied aspects of listening comprehension skills in 107 second, fourth, and sixth graders in Finland using the Sentence Verification technique. Findings, comparable with previous research, show age-related improvement in listening comprehension for narrative, but not expository, passages. Cluster analysis produced four comprehension strategies.…

  7. An Empirical Study of the Problem of Primary School Tendency of Kindergarden Education---Taking Nanchang City as an Example%学前教育小学化问题的实证研究*--以南昌市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛淑娟

    2014-01-01

    in the recent years, the primary school tendency of kindergarden education is increasingly serious, and has become a social concern and hot issue. The paper, on the basis of the investigation of kindergarden education of Nanchang city, analyzes the present situation of primary school tendency of kindergarden education and discusses how to follow the law of physical and mental development of kindergarden kids and promote the healthy growth of the children.%近年来学前教育小学化问题日益严重,已经成为社会关注和亟待解决的热点问题。本文通过南昌市学前教育小学化问题的调查,分析了学前教育小学化问题的现状,并就学前教育如何遵循幼儿的身心发展规律,促进幼儿健康成长进行了思考。

  8. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  9. Investigation on infection status of tuberculosis and the awareness rate of prevention knowledge among primary and middle school students in Qufu city%曲阜市中小学生结核菌感染状况及其对防治知识的知晓率调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔凡苓

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解曲阜市中小学生结核菌的感染状况及对结核病防治知识的知晓情况,为结核病防治提供可靠的科学依据.方法 对曲阜市3238名中小学生进行纯蛋白衍生物(标准精制结核菌素)(PPD)试验,采用整群抽样的方法对1127名学生进行结核病防治知识进行调查.结果 调查学生3 238名,PPD阳性者423名,感染率为13.06%,学生对结核病防治知识知晓率较低,获得结核病防治知识的途径主要有电视、报纸、宣传画、书籍及杂志,学生对待结核病的行为正确率相对较低.结论 中小学生的结核菌感染不容忽视,对结核病防治知识知晓率较低,将结核病筛查和健康教育纳入学校的制度化管理.%[Objective]To understand the infection status of tuberculosis and awareness rate of knowledge about tuberculosis prevention among primary and middle school students in Qufu city, provide a reliable scientific basis for tuberculosis prevention and control. [Methods]PPD test was conducted in 3 238 primary and middle school students in Qufu city. By using cluster sampling, the awareness rate of knowledge about tuberculosis prevention was investigated in 1 127 students. [Results] Among 3 238 students were surveyed, there were 423 with positive PPD, and the infection rate was 13.06%. The awareness rate of knowledge about tuberculosis prevention was low in students. The main ways that the students obtained the knowledge about tuberculosis prevention included television, newspapers, posters, books and magazines. The correct rate of behaviors towards tuberculosis in students was relatively low. [Conclusion]The tuberculosis infection among primary and middle school students must not be ignored, and the awareness rate of knowledge about tuberculosis prevention is low. The tuberculosis screening and health education should be brought into the institutionalized management in schools.

  10. 廊坊市2006与2010年中小学生视力低下状况比较%Comparison of Poor Sights among Primary and Secondary School Students in Langfang City between 2006 and 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 刘翠霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较廊坊市2006和2010年中小学生视力低下状况,为有效控制学生视力低下、推进学生素质教育提供参考.方法 用SPSS软件对2006和2010年廊坊市城区监测点校学生的视力低下监测结果进行统计分析.结果 2006至2010年,5年中小学生视力低下率由42.79%上升至49.11%,初中生由44.75%上升到59.85%,高中生由72.79%上升至78.07%,重点小学视力低下率由51.73%上升至53.84%,重点高中视力低下率由87.12%上升至90.05%.2010年中小学生视力低下率明显高于2006年,差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01);同一年度内重点学校学生视力低下率明显高于非重点学校学生,差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01);2010与2006年同一类别学校学生视力低下率比较,非重点小学、重点高中、非重点高中学生视力低下率明显升高,差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01),重点小学学生视力低下率没有显著差别(P>0.05);女生视力低下率明显高于男生,差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01).结论 学习负担重、睡眠不足、户外锻炼少、重点学校的升学率效应导致学生的聚集性使学习环境不合理,读写姿势不正确是学生视力低下主要原因.建议全社会共同关注学生素质教育,保护学生视力,促进学生体质健康.%[ Objective] To compare the poor sights of primary and secondary school students of Langfang between 2006 and 2010,and provide reference for effectively preventing poor sights and promoting quality education. [ Methods ] The SPSS software was employed to make statistical analysis on the monitoring result of the poor sights of the students in the monitoring points of Langfang urban area in 2006 and 2010. [ Results] From 2006 to 2010, the rate of poor sight of the primary and secondary school students had risen from 42.79% to 49.11%; the rate of poor sight of the secondary school students had risen from 44.75% to 59.85%; that of the high school students had risen

  11. Four Steps in Grading Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    The field of education is moving rapidly toward a standards-based approach to grading. School leaders have become increasingly aware of the tremendous variation that exists in grading practices, even among teachers of the same courses in the same department in the same school. Consequently, students' grades often have little relation to their…

  12. Primary Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Izawa, K. -I.

    1997-01-01

    We consider an inflationary universe scenario with multiple stages of inflation. The primary inflation, which may start at the Planck epoch, is followed by secondary inflations, which include the cosmological inflation that causes the primordial density fluctuations of our universe. We point out that an initial condition for a secondary inflation is naturally realized if the e-fold number of the primary inflation is sufficiently large.

  13. Cities and human security

    OpenAIRE

    Szpak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Cities have been researched mostly in terms of their economic, technological, and social value and significance. Despite some changes in this respect there is still a need to research cities as a fascinating phenomenon, also in respect of its capabilities to increase human security on a local and global scale. The article examines the role of cities for human security in the selected and representative fields such as sustainable development, human rights and environmental protection which are...

  14. Assimilation in multilingual cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier; Verdugo, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    International audience We characterise how the assimilation patterns of minorities into the strong and the weak language differ in a situation of asymmetric bilingualism. Using large variations in language composition in Canadian cities from the 2001 and 2006 Censuses, we show that the differences in the knowledge of English by immigrant allophones (i.e. the immigrants with a mother tongue other than English and French) in English-majority cities are mainly due to sorting across cities. In...

  15. Assimilation in multilingual cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Using the Public Use Microdata Files of the 2001 and 2006 Canadian Censuses, we study the determinants of the assimilation of language minorities into the city majority language. We show that official minority members (i.e. francophones in English-speaking cities and anglophones in French-speaking cities) assimilate less than the "allophones" (the individuals with a mother tongue other than English or French), and that immigrants generally assimilate less than natives. In addition, the langua...

  16. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  17. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...

  18. Atenção básica e dinâmica urbana nos grandes municípios paulistas, Brasil Primary health care and urban dynamics in large cities in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza d'Ávila Viana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os Estudos de Linha de Base do Projeto de Expansão e Consolidação do Saúde da Família construíram indicadores e modelos de atenção básica para os 62 municípios paulistas com mais de 100 mil habitantes, e apontaram uma diversidade de comportamento destes indicadores e modelos em relação às diferentes dinâmicas urbanas do estado. Nesse sentido, houve a necessidade de realizar uma reflexão sobre saúde e uso urbano do território. O principal objetivo desta reflexão foi compreender melhor sobre como a dinâmica urbana tem influência no perfil, na organização e no funcionamento do sistema de saúde. A partir daí, foi possível extrair algumas hipóteses e discussões sobre como a urbanização paulista impõe desafios à expansão e consolidação da atenção básica e do Programa Saúde da Família nos municípios estudados.The Baseline Studies on the Project for Expansion and Consolidation of the Family Health Strategy created primary health care indicators and models for the 62 municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in São Paulo State, Brazil, and identified varying patterns for these indicators and models in relation to different urban dynamics in the State. The studies showed the need to reflect on health in relation to urban land use. The main objective was to gain a better understanding of how urban dynamics influence the health system's profile, organization, and operation, based on which it was possible to extract some hypotheses and discussions regarding how urbanization in São Paulo State creates challenges for the expansion and consolidation of primary health care and the Family Health Program in these municipalities.

  19. Factors influencing local recurrence after excision and radiotherapy for primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between November 1979 and December 1986, 262 patients were treated for primary breast cancer by local excision and radiotherapy at the City Hospital, Nottingham. Local recurrence within the treated breast occurred in 56 patients (21 per cent), in 18 (6.8 per cent) of whom it was gross and uncontrollable. Analysis of clinicopathological features shows patient age, nodal status, tumour size, presence of definitive vascular invasion, adjacent ductal carcinoma in situ and grade to be predictive of local recurrence. A Cox's multivariate analysis of these factors shows the first four to be independently significant. The factors can be combined as a prognostic index which allows identification of patients at high risk of local recurrence. On the basis of these findings the authors altered their selection policy for patients suitable for breast conservation. (author)

  20. A collaborative clinical and population-based curriculum for medical students to address primary care needs of the homeless in New York City shelters : Teaching homeless healthcare to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Naderi, Ramesh; Gaughran, Margaret; Sckell, Blanca

    2016-06-01

    Background Millions of Americans experience homelessness annually. Medical providers do not receive adequate training in primary care of the homeless.Methods Starting in 2012, a comprehensive curriculum was offered to medical students during their family medicine or ambulatory clerkship, covering clinical, social and advocacy, population-based, and policy aspects. Students were taught to: elicit specific social history, explore health expectations, and assess barriers to healthcare; evaluate clinical conditions specific to the homeless and develop plans for care tailored toward patients' medical and social needs; collaborate with shelter staff and community organizations to improve disease management and engage in advocacy efforts. A mixed methods design was used to evaluate students' knowledge, attitudes, and skills including pre- and post-curriculum surveys, debriefing sessions, and observed clinical skills.Results The mean age of the students (n = 30) was 26.5 years; 55 % were female. The overall scores improved significantly in knowledge, attitude, and self-efficacy domains using paired t‑test (p communication skills, the majority were rated as having 'outstanding rapport with patients.'Conclusions Comprehensive and ongoing clinical component in shelter clinics, complementary teaching, experienced faculty, and working relationship and collaboration with community organizations were key elements. PMID:27277430

  1. Investigation into Self-Medication of Drugs for Primary and Adjunct Therapy in Psychiatric Diseases Among Students in Chittagong City of Bangladesh: A Comparison Between Medical and Nonmedical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishat Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: All kinds of drugs are available over the counter in Bangladesh. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the over the counter use of self medicated drugs for primary and adjunct therapy in psychiatric diseases among medical and nonmedical students. Materials and Methods: 101 medical students and 186 nonmedical students were found, who used at least one of the nine drugs (believed as antipsychotics among nonmedical people under survey within 6 months prior to survey date. The nine drugs used for survey were domperidone, sertraline, amitriptyline, midazolam, diazepam, prochlorperazine bromazepam, flupentixol-melitracen, and clonazepam. Statistical Analysis: Snowball sampling method was used. The symptoms, diseases, etc. of the students and the length of therapies they had followed for the respective drugs were noted. Results: Among nonmedical students, several cases were found where drugs were being self medicated in wrong indications, for example, use of flupentixol melitracen and domperidone to treat headache. Conclusion: The nonmedical students chose the fast acting drugs having the strongest effects for self medication.

  2. Orientations and Motivation in the Acquisition of English as a Second Language Among High School Students in Quebec City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmechri, Faiza; Hummel, Kirsten

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the emergence of orientations and their relation to motivation in a predominantly monolingual context. Participants were 93 Quebec City francophone Grade 11 high school students learning English as a Second Language. (Author/JL)

  3. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum >grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  4. 2005 Toronto smog report card : final grade C-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    This annual Smog Report Card for Toronto evaluates the progress made by the City toward reducing the environmental and health impacts of smog. The final grade for the City in 2005 was a C-, a decrease over the B+ issued in 2004. The report card evaluates City Council actions based on their clean air commitments. In particular, the performance on initiatives in the following six major areas were graded: energy; transit; walking and biking; fleets and fuels; intergovernmental action; and new air quality strategies. Although Toronto had a record number of smog days due to high-temperatures and high pollution levels, it had a better record on smog and climate change than either the provincial or federal levels. Greenhouse gas emissions in Toronto are actually going down, but they are up 12 and 24 per cent at the federal and provincial levels respectively. In 2005, the City of Toronto developed a new Air Quality Management Strategy to replace the Smog Plan. Future evaluations will depend on whether the strategy is effective. The report recommends that efforts should be made to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which cause global warming, as well measures to reduce the urban heat island effect by planting trees, improving energy efficiency and using lighter-coloured materials for roads, parking lots and roofs. The report card criticized that there has been no green power purchased for the City and that the transit ridership growth strategy is behind schedule. It also noted that the City is not pedestrian or bike friendly. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Investigation on knowledge and behavior about walking traffic injury among primary school teachers in Shijiazhuang City%石家庄市小学教师步行交通伤害及相关知识行为情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马新颜; 姜彩肖

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the degree of knowledge and correct behaviors about walking traffic injury in primary school teachers of Shijiazhuang City, and provide evidence for effective intervention of traffic injury control of pupils. [ Methods] Stratified random sampling was adopted to investigate the primary school teachers about traffic injuries and related knowledge and behavior by questionnaire survey. The age and gender and other factors influencing the walking traffic injury and related knowledge and behavior of primary school teachers were analyzed. [ Results] During the past 1 year 34.0% teachers got injured in walking. The awareness rate of traffic safety knowledge was not significantly different between primary school teachers with different gender and age. There was significant difference in different genders of the teachers obeying the traffic rules of "using pedestrian bridge when encountering guardrail in the middle of road" ( P 0. 05). The difference of teaching students consciously abiding traffic rules was significantly between ages(P <0. 05). [ Conclusion] The awareness and behaviors rates of injury knowledge are high among primary school teachers in Shijiazhuang City and the incidence of walking traffic injury is relatively low.%目的 了解石家庄市小学教师的步行交通伤害及相关知识行为,为有效开展小学生交通伤害干预工作提供依据.方法 采用分层随机抽样的方法,对石家庄市小学教师步行交通伤害及相关知识行为情况进行问卷调查,分析年龄、性别等因素对小学教师的步行交通伤害及相关知识行为的影响.结果 过去1年中有34.0%的教师在步行时受到交通伤害.不同性别、不同年龄的小学教师交通安全知识知晓程度差异无统计学意义.不同性别教师对于遵守“遇到道路中间有护栏时走人行天桥”的交通规则差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);关于当有急事遇到红灯时仍等绿灯亮了再走,

  6. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  7. Analysis of a Solar Cooling System for Climatic Conditions of Five Different Cities of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mujahid Rafique

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air high in humidity leads to uncomfortable conditions and promotes the growth of different fungi and bacteria, which may cause health problems. The control of moisture content in the air using traditional air conditioning techniques is not a suitable option due to large consumption of primary energy and hence emission of greenhouse gases. The evaporative cooling technology is a cost effective and eco-friendly alternative but can provide thermal comfort conditions only under low humidity conditions. However, the evaporative cooling method can be used effectively in conjunction with desiccant dehumidifiers for better control of humidity. Such systems can control the temperature and humidity of the air independently and can effectively utilize the low-grade thermal energy resources. In this paper, the theoretical analysis of desiccant based evaporative cooling systems is carried out for five cities in Saudi Arabia (Jeddah, Jazan, Riyadh, Hail, and Dhahran. It has been observed that the coefficient of performance (COP of the system varies from 0.275 to 0.476 for different locations. The water removal capacity of the desiccant wheel is at its maximum for the climatic conditions of Jazan and at its minimum for Hail. The effect of climatic conditions of five cities on regeneration temperature, air mass flow rate, and potential of solar energy has been evaluated using RET Screen software.

  8. Integralidade e Atenção Primária à Saúde: avaliação na perspectiva dos usuários de unidades de saúde do município de São Paulo Integrality and Primary Health Care: assessment in the perspective of health services users in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Sala

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Na cidade de São Paulo, os serviços de Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS atuam nos modelos do Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF e da Programação em Saúde. Ambos envolvem a questão da integralidade. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar processos de integralidade em unidades de APS localizadas no Município de São Paulo, sob o ponto de vista dos usuários dos serviços. As categorias de avaliação consideradas foram acessibilidade, porta de entrada, vínculo, elenco de serviços, coordenação, enfoque familiar, e orientação comunitária. Foram comparados os dois modelos de organização dos serviços na APS presentes no Município. O Questionário adaptado do Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool foi aplicado a uma amostra de usuários dos dois modelos de APS. Os resultados principais apontaram para o bom desempenho nas categorias de porta de entrada, elenco de serviços e coordenação. Enfoque familiar, orientação comunitária e acessibilidade receberam as piores avaliações. Diferenças significantes entre os dois modelos envolvem melhor registro em prontuário, melhores atividades orientadas à comunidade, menor referenciamento ao especialista e horário de atendimento mais adequado no modelo do PSF. Questões mais imediatamente relacionadas à prestação direta de serviços foram mais bem avaliadas, enquanto as relacionadas com a organização e a cultura dos serviços receberam piores pontuações.In the city of São Paulo, the Primary Health Care (PHC outpatient clinics function based on the models of the Family Health Program (FHP and Health Program. Both models involve integrality issues. The aim of this study is to assess the integrality achievement in PHC outpatient clinics located in the city of São Paulo, based on users' opinion. The categories were: access to first contact, continuity, coordination, services catalogue, community orientation and family orientation. The two models of services organization at the PHC

  9. Effect Evaluation on the Intervention Measure for Overweight and Obese Children in Primary School in Xianmen City%学龄期儿童肥胖干预对身高发育水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友兰; 杨晓剑; 杜玉开; 管纪惠

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of group obesity intervention on body height development in overweight and obese children in primary schools in Xiamen. Methods Two primary schools with same basic conditions and located in the areas with high incidence rate of obesity in Xiamen were selected, one as the intervention group, and another as a control group. In the intervention school, a program of "focus on obesity control to create health-promoting school" and related health promotion were carried out, but no program and activities were did in the control school. The baseline survey was finished before April 2006 in two schools and then the 840 students were followed-up for 5 years, tracking and taken weight measurement once per month. Results After the intervention, the rates of overweight and obesity in the intervention school were decreased (x2=27.198, P0.05). Conclusion The intervention to obesity in children had no significant effect on their body development.%目的 对学龄期儿童进行群体性肥胖干预,探讨儿童肥胖干预对儿童身高发育水平的影响.方法 在厦门市肥胖发生率较高的地区选择条件基本相同的两所小学,1所为干预学校,1所为对照学校.干预学校开展“中国/WHO以肥胖控制为切入点发展健康促进项目”活动,对照学校不开展相关活动.2006年4月-2010年4月,对两所学校各840名学生进行每月一次的身高、体重监测,持续监测5年.结果 干预后,干预学校学生的超重率和肥胖率显著下降(x2=27.198,P<0.001),干预学校学生的体质指数(BMl)均值下降明显,与对照学校学生比较,差异有统计学意义(t=-93.814,P<0.01).干预学校学生干预后的BMI值与干预前BMI值相减求差值,对照学校学生也与自己干预前BMI值相减求差值,对两组差值进行独立样本t检验,差异有统计学意义(t=-89.785,P<0.01).干预学校学生干预后的身高值与干预前身高值相减求差值,对照学校学生也

  10. Escaping The Big Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    More white-collar workers consider leaving major metropolises to find opportunities in small and medium-sized cities The energy and excitement of first-tier cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen in Guangdong Province, have long served as magnets attracting enthusiastic young people. But recent surveys have overturned the perception of this urban draw.

  11. City Bug Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the wider contexts of digital policy, transparency, digitisation and how this changes city administration and the role of the (digital) publics, using City Bug Report as a design case. Employing a mix between design research and action research, the authors exemplify and analy...

  12. Visions of the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    in informing understandings and imaginings of the modern city. The author critically examines influential traditions in western Europe associated with such figures as Ebenezer Howard and Le Corbusier, uncovering the political interests, desires and anxieties that lay behind their ideal cities, and drawing out...

  13. Making Cities Better

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Livelihood programs change the lives of urban residents For decades Chinese cities have vied with each other to top national and international development rankings. However, the triennial national list of cities with an advanced living environment judges candidates according to less conventional

  14. Reflective cool cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidegger, V.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Our globe is heating, and cities are heating up much more. At the same time, cities are growing and green spaces are substituted by buildings and streets. These man-made surfaces are dark and tend to heat up

  15. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    is increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing...

  16. The City in Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. van der Wouden; Erica de Bruijne

    2001-01-01

    Original title: De Stad in de omtrek. The healthy economic growth in recent years has not passed the major Dutch cities by. There has been a veritable wave of construction of new commercial and office premises in and around the four largest cities Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht, and ho

  17. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...

  18. CHONGQING, the Hot City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chongqing is a well-known city with a history of more than 3,000 years. It is a famous historical and cultural city in China. Chongqing is the birthplace of the Bayu Culture. At present, Chongqing is a municipality directly under the Central Government with the largest area, the most administrative districts and the largest population.

  19. City profile: Paramaribo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.L.M. Verrest

    2010-01-01

    Paramaribo, the largest and only significant urban area in Suriname, is a typical primate city. The majority of the countries’ population resides here and the majority of political, social and economic functions is clustered in the urban zone. In the course of the 20th century, the city changed dram

  20. City Improves State Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EnjoyceZhu

    2003-01-01

    As China's new leadership drafts measures to help ailing Stateowned enterprises(SOEs),Changchun,a strategic city in the Rust Belt,is reaping benefits unseen in more than a decade of SOE reform.Home to a large number of SOEs,Changchun has had its share of bureaucracy and stagnation.The city initiated a program called,“Saving SOEs