WorldWideScience

Sample records for city plant annual

  1. 2003 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Kansas City Plant. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. Annual Plant Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , three dimensional structures and functions of each protein in a biological system. In plant science, the number of proteome studies is rapidly expanding after the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence, and proteome analyses of other important or emerging model systems and crop plants...... are in progress or are being initiated. Proteome analysis in plants is subject to the same obstacles and limitations as in other organisms, but the nature of plant tissues, with their rigid cell walls and complex variety of secondary metabolites, means that extra challenges are involved that may not be faced when...... analysing other organisms. This volume aims to highlight the ways in which proteome analysis has been used to probe the complexities of plant biochemistry and physiology. It is aimed at researchers in plant biochemistry, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics who wish to gain an up-to-date insight...

  3. Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Singer, M.

    2014-10-01

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

  4. Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-22

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2014 Annual Metrics Report.

  5. Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge. Each year DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

  6. Clean Cities 2015 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. Each year, DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Progress reports and information are submitted online as a function of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators report a range of information that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also document activities in their region related to the development of refueling/charging infrastructure, sales of alternative fuels; deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs); idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use and GHG emission reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

  7. Annual radiation background in Isfahan city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakoli, Mohammad B.

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of environmental exposure is very important from different points of view. It is especially important for human health. It has been measured accurately in many countries. In Iran, it is also measured in some cities especially in high background areas such as Ramsar, but there is not any measurement in Isfahan. Measurement of background radiation in this study is performed using TLD method. The TLDs used are made from CaSO 4 :Dy, which is very sensitive. The locations under investigations in this research were 52 health centers distributed all around Isfahan city. Each TLD badge was put in a special plastic bag and left over the roofs of the selected health center for a month. The procedure was repeated for all 12 months of the year 1379(21 st March 2000 to 20 th March 2001). The results were used to obtain mean and SD in each month and at different places. The maximum and the minimum of obtained results for dose equivalent in different months and locations were 15.9x10 -2 and 6.5x10 -2 mSv. Obtained maximum and minimum of the means between all the locations were 10.5x10 -2 and 8.6x10 2 mSv for the whole year. Monthly mean and SD for Isfahan city for the whole year were 9.7x10 -2 and 1.5x10 -2 respectively therefore mean annual dose equivalent in Isfahan city is 1.16mSv. The results do not show any high background radiation area

  8. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.; Putsche, V.

    2007-07-01

    Report summarizes Clean Cities coalition accomplishments, including membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  9. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  10. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  11. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-08-01

    Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

  12. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy's Clean Cities coalition accomplishments in 2008, including petroleum displacement data, membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  13. 76 FR 37646 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, City of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Sausalito... Guard will enforce the Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Sausalito annual safety zone. This action is... for the annual Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Sausalito, safety zone in 33 CFR 165.1191 on July 4...

  14. Rainfall effects on rare annual plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J.M.; McEachern, A.K.; Cowan, C.

    2008-01-01

    Variation in climate is predicted to increase over much of the planet this century. Forecasting species persistence with climate change thus requires understanding of how populations respond to climate variability, and the mechanisms underlying this response. Variable rainfall is well known to drive fluctuations in annual plant populations, yet the degree to which population response is driven by between-year variation in germination cueing, water limitation or competitive suppression is poorly understood.We used demographic monitoring and population models to examine how three seed banking, rare annual plants of the California Channel Islands respond to natural variation in precipitation and their competitive environments. Island plants are particularly threatened by climate change because their current ranges are unlikely to overlap regions that are climatically favourable in the future.Species showed 9 to 100-fold between-year variation in plant density over the 5–12 years of censusing, including a severe drought and a wet El Niño year. During the drought, population sizes were low for all species. However, even in non-drought years, population sizes and per capita growth rates showed considerable temporal variation, variation that was uncorrelated with total rainfall. These population fluctuations were instead correlated with the temperature after the first major storm event of the season, a germination cue for annual plants.Temporal variation in the density of the focal species was uncorrelated with the total vegetative cover in the surrounding community, suggesting that variation in competitive environments does not strongly determine population fluctuations. At the same time, the uncorrelated responses of the focal species and their competitors to environmental variation may favour persistence via the storage effect.Population growth rate analyses suggested differential endangerment of the focal annuals. Elasticity analyses and life table response

  15. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Kansas City Plant (KCP), conducted March 23 through April 3, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the KCP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations performed at the KCP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the KCP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the KCP Survey. 94 refs., 39 figs., 55 tabs

  16. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Kansas City Plant (KCP), conducted March 23 through April 3, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the KCP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations performed at the KCP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the KCP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the KCP Survey. 94 refs., 39 figs., 55 tabs.

  17. FBR Plant Engineering Center annual report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    This annual report shows the last year's R and D activities of currently-reorganized FBR Plant Engineering Center, which was established on April 1, 2009. FBR Safety Technology Center was founded on April 1, 2013 by the consolidation of both the activities of 'former FBR Plant Engineering Center' and a portion of 'FBR Safety Evaluation Unit, Advanced Nuclear System Research and Development Directorate', especially concentrating on safety evaluations and analyses for severe accidents. As for FBR safety technology, it is necessary to continuously make an effort for compliance with new safety regulations in preparation for 'Monju' to restart, for safety enhancement evaluation and for safety technology upgrading. In this context, the new organization was founded in order to reinforce the safety evaluation capability, which will surely and steadily promote FBR safety-technology related activities. As a result, FBR Plant Engineering Center was abolished. This report summarizes the R and D activities at the former FBR Plant Engineering Center, aiming at contributing to the commercialization by using operation experiences and technology development results derived from the actual reactor 'Monju'. The activities are divided into five areas of operation-and-maintenance engineering, sodium engineering, reactor-core-and-fuel engineering, plant engineering, and safety engineering. This annual report is intended for a report of the activities of individual researcher in the center rather than that of the progress of the center as a whole. This will clarify the individual themes, progresses and problems of each researcher, which will, hopefully, facilitate communication with the outside researchers. (author)

  18. Plant Research Department annual report 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kossmann, J.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Jakobsen, Iver

    2002-01-01

    of plants to resist fungal attack, and to optimise flowering time. Two programmes are devoted to improving the market value of plant products. Plants withenhanced nutritional value, or that contain novel renewable resources, are designed to add value to the European Agro-Industries. A sixth programme......The Plant Research Department integrates modern post-genomic tools to improve our understanding of plants. The aim is to develop crops with improved agronomic traits and to engineer high-value plants, which are able to meet the growth conditions of thefuture environment. The department is divided...... into six research programmes that are linked through their individual expertise delivered to the rest of the department. Three programmes are engaged in improving the agronomic performance of plants. Genetictools are being developed to enhance the nutrient efficiency of plants, to strengthen the ability...

  19. Historical plant cost and annual production expenses for selected electric plants, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a composite of the two prior publications, Hydroelectric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses and Thermal-Electric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses. Beginning in 1979, Thermal-Electric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses contained information on both steam-electric and gas-turbine electric plant construction cost and annual production expenses. The summarized historical plant cost described under Historical Plant Cost in this report is the net cumulative-to-date actual outlays or expenditures for land, structures, and equipment to the utility. Historical plant cost is the initial investment in plant (cumulative to the date of initial commercial operation) plus the costs of all additions to the plant, less the value of retirements. Thus, historical plant cost includes expenditures made over several years, as modifications are made to the plant. Power Production Expenses is the reporting year's plant operation and maintenance expenses, including fuel expenses. These expenses do not include annual fixed charges on plant cost (capital costs) such as interest on debt, depreciation or amortization expenses, and taxes. Consequently, total production expenses and the derived unit costs are not the total cost of producing electric power at the various plants. This publication contains data on installed generating capacity, net generation, net capability, historical plant cost, production expenses, fuel consumption, physical and operating plant characteristics, and other relevant statistical information for selected plants

  20. Nuclear power plant operating experience. Annual report, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, M.R.

    1979-12-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of reports issued annually that summarizes the operating experience of US nuclear power plants in commercial operation. Power generation statistics, plant outages, reportable occurrences, fuel element performance, occupational radiation exposure for each plant are presented. Summary highlights of these areas are discussed. The report includes 1978 data from 65 plants - 25 boiling water reactor plants and 40 pressurized water reactor plants. Discussion of radioactive effluents which has been a part of this report in previous years, has not been included in this issue because of late acquisition of data

  1. Environmental monitoring at the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, C.; Padezanin, P.C.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1984-06-01

    This annual report presents data for 1983 radioactivity and radioisotope concentrations in the air, water, plants, and animals of the Savannah River Plant. Additional monitoring was performed for chemical contaminants such as mercury and chlorocarbons. All concentrations were within applicable federal and state limits or not detectable with state-of-the-art monitoring equipment

  2. Plant Research Department annual report 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kossmann, J.; Jakobsen, Iver; Nielsen, K.K.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003 the Plant Research Department (PRD) at Risø National Laboratory was involved in establishing the consortium Plant Biotech Denmark, which is unifying most of the Danish Plant Biotechnology activities. Within the consortium, PRD has the uniqueopportunity to be the only life science department...... to genes, which are widely applicable in the life sciences, such as non-invasive and non-destructive technologies to determine metabolite concentrationswith high spatial and temporal resolution. The Plant Research Department applies these and state-of-the-art technologies to increase knowledge to develop...... located in an environment that is largely dominated by physicists. PRD is challenged to optimally interface Plant Biology with the different fields of expertise that are established at Risø NationalLaboratory. These activities are mainly related to develop novel post-genomic tools to assign function...

  3. Waste water treatment plant city of Kraljevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinović Dragan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In all countries, in the fight for the preservation of environmental protection, water pollution, waste water is one of the very serious and complex environmental problems. Waste waters pollute rivers, lakes, sea and ground water and promote the development of micro-organisms that consume oxygen, which leads to the death of fish and the occurrence of pathogenic microbes. Water pollution and determination of its numerous microbiological contamination, physical agents and various chemical substances, is becoming an increasing health and general social problem. Purification of industrial and municipal waste water before discharge into waterways is of great importance for the contamination of the water ecosystems and the protection of human health. To present the results of purification of industrial and municipal wastewater in the city center Kraljevo system for wastewater treatment. The investigated physical and chemical parameters were performed before and after the city's system for wastewater treatment. The results indicate that the effect of purification present the physical and chemical parameters in waste water ranges from 0 - 19%.

  4. Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Kansas City Plant is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility. AlliedSignal and its predecessors have been the operating contractors since 1949. The principal operation performed at the Kansas City Plant is the manufacture of non-nuclear components for nuclear weapons. This activity involves metals and plastics machining, plastics fabrication, plating, microelectronics, and electrical and mechanical assembly. No radioactive materials are machined or processed. This report presents information and data pertaining to the environmental monitoring program and compliance with environmental standards

  5. Belowground Water Dynamics Under Contrasting Annual and Perennial Plant Communities in an Agriculturally-Dominated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, G.; Asbjornsen, H.; Helmers, M. J.; Shepherd, G. W.

    2005-12-01

    The conversion from grasslands and forests to row-crops in the Midwest has affected soil water cycling because plant characteristics are one of the main parameters determining soil storage capacity, infiltration rates, and surface runoff. Little is known, however, about the extent of modification of soil water dynamics under different plant communities. To address this important issue, we are documenting soil water dynamics under contrasting perennial and annual plant communities in an agriculturally-dominated landscape. Measurements of soil moisture and depths of uptake of source water were obtained for six vegetative cover types (corn and soybean field, brome pasture, degraded savanna, restored savanna, and restored prairie) at the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in Prairie City, Iowa. The depths of uptake of soil water were determined on the basis of oxygen isotope composition of soil water and stem water. Measurements were performed once a month during an entire growing season. Preliminary results indicate that soil water present under the different vegetation types show similar profiles with depth during the dry months. Soil water in the upper 5 cm is enriched in oxygen-18 by about 5 per mil relative to soil water at 100 cm. Our preliminary results also indicate that the isotopic composition of stem water from annual plants is typically higher by about 2 per mil relative to that of stem water from perennial plants during the dry period. Whereas the oxygen isotopic composition for corn stem water is -5.49 per mil, that for elm and oak stem water is -7.62 and -7.51 per mil, respectively. The higher isotope values for corn suggest that annual crop plants are withdrawing water from shallower soil horizons relative to perennial plants. Moreover, our preliminary data suggest lower moisture content in soil under annual plant cover. We propose that the presence of deeper roots in the perennial vegetation allows these plants to tap into deeper water sources when

  6. Plant Research Department annual report 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    concentrations in the atmosphere. Finally, activities are increasing to establish systems thatoptimize the production of energy from biomass in order to promote sustainability in industrial societies. The department is divided into five research programmes that are linked through their individual expertise...... to the optimal use of crops. One programme is devoted to improve the market value of plant products. Plants with enhanced nutritional value or that contain novel renewable resources are designed to add value to the European Agro-Industries.A fifth programme ultimately is studying the effects of the future......The Plant Research Department at Risø National Laboratory has the unique opportunity to be the only life science department located in an environment that is largely dominated by physicists. In 2002 increasing numbers of projects have been initiated thatestablish interdisciplinary research in order...

  7. Ardennes nuclear power plant. Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    At the beginning of the year 1975 the nominal power of the nuclear plant of the Ardennes was brought from 950 up to 1040 MWth, after a positive decision of the official safety organizations. Net energy produced: 2016 GWh, number of coupled hours: 6832 h, coefficient of availability: 75%, total number of standstills: 25. The functioning of the installations is, on the whole, very satisfying. Liquid wastes are clearly inferior to admissible maximum limits. The cost per KWh of the plant amounts to 5.57 French centimes. For the last 5 years net production has reached 9375 GWh, which means an average coefficient of availability of 76.7%

  8. Haddam Neck Plant. Annual operating report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Gross electrical power generated was 2,464,308 MWh(e) with the reactor on line 4,417 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, primary coolant chemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, reportable occurrences, changes in plant, technical specifications, core vi start-up, containment leak testing, and core v and vi refueling

  9. Pinellas Plant annual site environmental report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Martin Marietta Specialty Components, Inc., and the US Department of Energy are committed to successfully administering a high quality Environmental Management Program at the Pinellas Plant in Pinellas County, Florida. Part of this commitment includes accurately documenting and communicating to the Pinellas Plant stakeholder the results of their environmental compliance and monitoring activities. The Annual Site Environmental Report presents a comprehensive summary of the results of the environmental monitoring, waste management, and environmental restoration programs at the Pinellas Plant for 1993. This report also includes the plant's performance in the areas of compliance with applicable regulatory requirements and standards and identifies major environmental management program initiatives and accomplishments for 1993

  10. Annual City Festivals as Tools for Sustainable Competitiveness: The World Port Days Rotterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin van Tuijl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many cities organize annual local festivals for the positive effects on urban development, although success is far from straightforward. This article reviews a case study of the World Port Days in Rotterdam in order to demonstrate how annual city festivals can contribute to sustainable competitiveness, despite limitations as well. We show how this maritime event—that is jointly organized by the business community, the Port Authority and the City Government—offers benefits for citizens as well as for firms. Our empirical results unveil that the business value of the event includes generation of societal support, image improvement, labor market development and networking, while the value for society refers to education, leisure and to a certain degree to social inclusion. The direct value of the event for business in terms of sales and recruitment is limited, while the long-term effects of educational function deserve further attention. Finally, we provide policy lessons that, when properly contextualized, other cities may help to use annual local festivals as tools for sustainable competitiveness.

  11. Tree Mortality Undercuts Ability of Tree-Planting Programs to Provide Benefits: Results of a Three-City Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Widney

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trees provide numerous benefits for urban residents, including reduced energy usage, improved air quality, stormwater management, carbon sequestration, and increased property values. Quantifying these benefits can help justify the costs of planting trees. In this paper, we use i-Tree Streets to quantify the benefits of street trees planted by nonprofits in three U.S. cities (Detroit, Michigan; Indianapolis, Indiana, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from 2009 to 2011. We also use both measured and modeled survival and growth rates to “grow” the tree populations 5 and 10 years into the future to project the future benefits of the trees under different survival and growth scenarios. The 4059 re-inventoried trees (2864 of which are living currently provide almost $40,000 (USD in estimated annual benefits ($9–$20/tree depending on the city, the majority (75% of which are increased property values. The trees can be expected to provide increasing annual benefits during the 10 years after planting if the annual survival rate is higher than the 93% annual survival measured during the establishment period. However, our projections show that with continued 93% or lower annual survival, the increase in annual benefits from tree growth will not be able to make up for the loss of benefits as trees die. This means that estimated total annual benefits from a cohort of planted trees will decrease between the 5-year projection and the 10-year projection. The results of this study indicate that without early intervention to ensure survival of planted street trees, tree mortality may be significantly undercutting the ability of tree-planting programs to provide benefits to neighborhood residents.

  12. Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Department annual project report 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Giese, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry is engaged in basic and applied research to improve the scientific knowledge of developing new methods and technology for the future, environmentally benign industrial and agricultural production, thusexerting less stress and strain...... of Biomass, 3. DLF-Risø Biotechnology, 4. Plant Genetics and Epidemiology, 5. Biogeochemistry and 6. Plant Ecosystems and Nutrient Cycling. This electronicversion of the annual report from the Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Department aims to provide information about the progress in our research. Each...... on the environment. This knowledge will lead to a greater prosperity and welfare for agriculture, industry and consumers in Denmark. The research approach in the Department is mainly experimental and the projects areorganized in six research programmes: 1. Plant-Microbe Symbioses, 2. Plant Products and Recycling...

  13. Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Department annual report 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Giese, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry is engaged in basic and applied research to improve the scientific knowledge of developing new methods and technology for the future environmentally benign industrial and agricultural production, thusexerting less stress and strain...... of Biomass, 3. DLF-Risø Biotechnology, 4. Plant Genetics and Epidemiology, 5. Biogeochemistry and 6. Plant Ecosystems and Nutrient Cycling. This version ofthe annual report from the Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Department aims to provide information about the progress in our research. Each programme...... on the environment. This knowledge will lead to a greater prosperity and welfare for agriculture, industry and consumers in Denmark. The research approach in the Department is mainly experimental and the projects areorganized in six research programmes: 1. Plant-Microbe Symbioses, 2. Plant Products and Recycling...

  14. Pinellas Plant annual site environmental report for calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    Lockheed Martin Specialty Components, Inc., and the US Department of Energy are committed to successfully administering a high-quality Environmental, Safety and Health Program at the Pinellas Plant in Pinellas County, Florida. Part of this commitment includes accurately documenting and communicating to the Pinellas Plant stakeholders the results of the Pinellas Plant's environmental compliance and monitoring activities. The Annual Site Environmental Report presents a comprehensive summary of the results of the Environmental Monitoring, Waste Management, and Environmental Restoration Programs at the Pinellas Plant for 1995. This report also includes the plant's performance in the areas of compliance with applicable regulatory requirements and standards and identifies major Environmental, Safety and Health Program initiatives and accomplishments for 1995. As a result of the end of the Department of Energy's Defense Programs mission (weapons production) on September 30, 1994, considerable changes at the Pinellas Plant are occurring. The Department of Energy's Environmental Management is now the landlord of the Pinellas Plant to facilitate the plant's new mission of transition to alternate use in support of economic development and safe shutdown. The Department of Energy sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council in March 1995, and it is leasing back a portion of the plant through September 1997, to complete the safe shutdown and transition activities

  15. Trends in Mean Annual Minimum and Maximum Near Surface Temperature in Nairobi City, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lukoye Makokha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the long-term urban modification of mean annual conditions of near surface temperature in Nairobi City. Data from four weather stations situated in Nairobi were collected from the Kenya Meteorological Department for the period from 1966 to 1999 inclusive. The data included mean annual maximum and minimum temperatures, and was first subjected to homogeneity test before analysis. Both linear regression and Mann-Kendall rank test were used to discern the mean annual trends. Results show that the change of temperature over the thirty-four years study period is higher for minimum temperature than maximum temperature. The warming trends began earlier and are more significant at the urban stations than is the case at the sub-urban stations, an indication of the spread of urbanisation from the built-up Central Business District (CBD to the suburbs. The established significant warming trends in minimum temperature, which are likely to reach higher proportions in future, pose serious challenges on climate and urban planning of the city. In particular the effect of increased minimum temperature on human physiological comfort, building and urban design, wind circulation and air pollution needs to be incorporated in future urban planning programmes of the city.

  16. 2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2007 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2008 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant annual site environmental report for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, C.M. [ed.

    1994-11-01

    This calendar year (CY) 1993 annual report on environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth) and its environs consists of three separate documents: a summary pamphlet for the general public; a more detail discussion and of compliance status, data, and environmental impacts (this document); and a volume of detailed data that is available on request. The objectives of this report are to report compliance status during 1993; provide information about the plant site and plant operations; report 1993 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site; document information on input and assumptions used in calculations; provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on quality assurance for the environmental monitoring program.

  1. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant annual site environmental report for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    This calendar year (CY) 1993 annual report on environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth) and its environs consists of three separate documents: a summary pamphlet for the general public; a more detail discussion and of compliance status, data, and environmental impacts (this document); and a volume of detailed data that is available on request. The objectives of this report are to report compliance status during 1993; provide information about the plant site and plant operations; report 1993 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site; document information on input and assumptions used in calculations; provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on quality assurance for the environmental monitoring program

  2. Model of annual plants dynamics with facilitation and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droz, Michel; Pękalski, Andrzej

    2013-10-21

    An individual-based model describing the dynamics of one type of annual plants is presented. We use Monte Carlo simulations where each plant has its own history and the interactions among plants are between nearest neighbours. The character of the interaction (positive or negative) depends on local conditions. The plants compete for two external resources-water and light. The amount of water and/or light a plant receives depends on the external factor but also on local arrangement. Survival, growth and seed production of plants are determined by how well their demands for the resources are met. The survival and seeds production tests have a probabilistic character, which makes the dynamics more realistic than by using a deterministic approach. There is a non-linear coupling between the external supplies. Water evaporates from the soil at a rate depending on constant evaporation rate, local conditions and the amount of light. We examine the dynamics of the plant population along two environmental gradients, allowing also for surplus of water and/or light. We show that the largest number of plants is when the demands for both resources are equal to the supplies. We estimate also the role of evaporation and we find that it depends on the situation. It could be negative, but sometimes it has a positive character. We show that the link between the type of interaction (positive or negative) and external conditions has a complex character. In general in favourable environment plants have a stronger tendency for competitive interactions, leading to mostly isolated plants. When the conditions are getting more difficult, cooperation becomes the dominant type of interactions and the plants grow in clusters. The type of plants-sun-loving or shade tolerating, plays also an important role. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 78 FR 77359 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Celebration/City of Mobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ...-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Celebration/City of Mobile; Mobile Channel; Mobile, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the City of Mobile New Year's Eve Celebration safety zone in the Mobile Channel, Mobile, AL from...

  4. Environmental monitoring at the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, C.C.; Lawrimore, I.B.; O'Rear, W.E.

    1985-06-01

    Ensuring the radiation safety of the public in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant was a foremost consideration in the design of the plant and has continued to be a primary objective during 31 years of SRP operations. An extensive surveillance program has been continuously maintained since 1951 (before SRP startup) to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in the environment of the plant. The results of this comprehensive monitoring program are reported annually in two publications. The first, ''Savannah River Plant Environmental Report for 1984'' [DPSPU85-30-1], contains radiation dose data, routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities, summaries of environmental protection programs that are in progress, summaries of sitewide environmental research and management programs, and a summary of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities. This report is the second and contains primarily radiation dose data and radiological and nonradiological monitoring data both onsite and offsite. It is placed in Department of Energy (DOE) reading rooms and is available to the public upon request. A listing of corresponding reports that have been issued since before plant startup is presented in Appendix A. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at SRP has increased significantly during the years since plant startup. The change is reflected in annual reports. Prior to the mid-1970's the reports contained primarily radiological monitoring data. Beginning in the mid-1970's the reports started including more and more nonradiological monitoring data as those programs increased. The nonradiological monitoring program now approaches the size and extensiveness of the radiological monitoring program

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  6. Environmental monitoring at the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, C.; Zeigler, C.C.; Culp, P.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1982-11-01

    An extensive surveillance program has been maintained since 1951 to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in a 1200 square mile area in the environs of the plant and the radiation exposure of the population resulting from SRP operations. This document summarizes the 1979 results. The radiation dose at the plant perimeter and the population dose in the region from SRP operations are very small relative to the dose recieved from naturally occurring radiation. The annual average dose in 1979 from atmospheric releases of radioactive materials was 0.71 mrem at the perimeter (1% of natural background). The maximum dose at the plant perimeter was 0.97 mrem. Air and water are the major dispersal media for radioactive emissions. Samples representing most segments of the environment were monitored. Releases of radioactivity from SRP had a very small effect on living plants and animals and were too minute to be detectable, and with a few exceptions, concentrations outside the plant boundary were too low to distinguish from the natural radioactive background and continuing worldwide fallout from nuclear weapons tests. 40 figures, 60 tables. (MF)

  7. Routine environment audit of the Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    This report documents the results of the routine environmental audit of the Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri. During this audit the activities the audit team conducted included reviews of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the audit was conducted October 24-November 4, 1994, by the DOE Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), located within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH). DOE 5482.1 B, {open_quotes}Environment, Safety, and Health Appraisal Program,{close_quotes} establishes the mission of EH-24, which is to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of Department-wide environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is enhancement of environmental protection and minimization of risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission by conducting systematic and periodic evaluations of the Department`s environmental programs within line organizations and by using supplemental activities that strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations. The audit evaluated the status of programs to ensure compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, guidance, and directives; and conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance. The audit also evaluated the status and adequacy of the management systems developed to address environmental requirements.

  8. Structural load inventory database for the Kansas City Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, P.S.; Johnson, M.W.; Nakaki, D.K.; Wilson, J.J.; Lynch, D.T.; Drury, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    A structural load inventory database (LID) has been developed to support configuration management at the DOE Kansas City Plant (KCP). The objective of the LID is to record loads supported by the plant structures and to provide rapid assessments of the impact of future facility modifications on structural adequacy. Development of the LID was initiated for the KCP's Main Manufacturing Building. Field walkdowns were performed to determine all significant loads supported by the structure, including the weight of piping, service equipment, etc. These loads were compiled in the LID. Structural analyses for natural phenomena hazards were performed in accordance with UCRL-15910. Software to calculate demands on the structural members due to gravity loads, total demands including both gravity and seismic loads, and structural member demand-to-capacity ratios were also developed and integrated into the LID. Operation of the LID is menu-driven. The LID user has options to review and print existing loads and corresponding demand-to-capacity ratios, and to update the supported loads and demand-to-capacity ratios for any future facility modifications

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Anderson [Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), NM (United States); Basabilvazo, George T. [Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2016 (ASER) is to provide the information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC) maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP facility. DOE Order 231.1B; DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability; and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1B, which requires DOE facilities to submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer.

  10. Contrasting natural regeneration and tree planting in fourteen North American cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    2012-01-01

    Field data from randomly located plots in 12 cities in the United States and Canada were used to estimate the proportion of the existing tree population that was planted or occurred via natural regeneration. In addition, two cities (Baltimore and Syracuse) were recently re-sampled to estimate the proportion of newly established trees that were planted. Results for the...

  11. JAEA FBR Plant Engineering Center annual report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-11-01

    The FBR Plant Engineering Center was established on April 1, 2009 located in a research building, of which care is taken by the International Nuclear Information Training Center, Tsuruga Head Office, at Shiraki in Tsuruga. The mission of the center is to perform R and D (research and development) works both for analysis of operational experiences at the prototype fast breeder reactor “Monju” and for technology development concerning design and operation of “Monju”. Moreover it is also required to apply the results to next generation fast breeder reactors, which is an important role of Advanced Nuclear System Research and Development Directorate. And in these R and D activities, it is expected to conduct the works in cooperation with domestic or foreign research organizations or universities by a joint-study or a collaborative-work manner. The R and D activities have been carried out specifically on the “demonstration of the reliability as a power generation plant” and “establishment of sodium handling technology”, which are originally intended missions of “Monju”. And the other R and Ds have been promoted both for the plant engineering, such as plant maintenance, to effectively use an existing reactor in order to apply the R and D results to a future demonstration reactor, and for the irradiation test study, such as advanced fuel irradiation, to use “Monju” as an irradiation test bed. In order to perform these R and D activities, five R and D groups have been set up in the center. They are operation-and-maintenance engineering, sodium engineering, reactor-core-and-fuel engineering, plant engineering, and safety engineering groups. However, the Japanese atomic energy policy is being reviewed after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station caused by a tsunami generated by the Tohoku-district-off-the-Pacific-Ocean Earthquake on March 11, 2011, and all the R and D activities using “Monju” have been suspended since late 2011

  12. Waset Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data that: (a) Characterize site environmental management performance; (b) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; (c) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; and (d) Highlight significant facility programs and efforts. The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP site. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A. This order requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) (No. NM4890139088-TSDF [treatment, storage, and disposal facility]) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  13. Waset Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-09-26

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data that: (a) Characterize site environmental management performance; (b) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; (c) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; and (d) Highlight significant facility programs and efforts. The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP site. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A. This order requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) (No. NM4890139088-TSDF [treatment, storage, and disposal facility]) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: (1) Characterize site environmental management performance. (2) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year. (3) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements. (4) Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number NM4890139088-TSDF (Permit) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: (1) Characterize site environmental management performance. (2) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year. (3) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements. (4) Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number NM4890139088-TSDF (Permit) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  16. Implementation of deep soil mixing at the Kansas City Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, F.G.; Korte, N.; Strong-Gunderson, J.; Siegrist, R.L.; West, O.R.; Cline, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    In July 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Kansas City Plant (KCP), AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), conducted field-scale tests of in situ soil mixing and treatment technologies within the Northeast Area (NEA) of the KCP at the Former Ponds site. This demonstration, testing, and evaluation effort was conducted as part of the implementation of a deep soil mixing (DSM) innovative remedial technology demonstration project designed to test DSM in the low-permeability clay soils at the KCP. The clay soils and groundwater beneath this area are contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily trichloroethene (TCE) and 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE). The demonstration project was originally designed to evaluate TCE and 1,2-DCE removal efficiency using soil mixing coupled with vapor stripping. Treatability study results, however, indicated that mixed region vapor stripping (MRVS) coupled with calcium oxide (dry lime powder) injection would improve TCE and 1,2-DCE removal efficiency in saturated soils. The scope of the KCP DSM demonstration evolved to implement DSM with the following in situ treatment methodologies for contaminant source reduction in soil and groundwater: DSM/MRVS coupled with calcium oxide injection; DSM/bioaugmentation; and DSM/chemical oxidation using potassium permanganate. Laboratory treatability studies were started in 1995 following collection of undisturbed soil cores from the KCP. These studies were conducted at ORNL, and the results provided information on optimum reagent concentrations and mixing ratios for the three in situ treatment agents to be implemented in the field demonstration

  17. 78 FR 70934 - Trespassing on DOE Property: Kansas City Plant Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... than $5,000.' By operation of law, the Criminal Fine Improvements Act of 1987, Public Law 100-185, 101 Stat. 1279 (1987), increased the fine amounts from $1000/$5000 to $5000/$100,000. See, e.g., U.S. v..., Director, Security & Information Technology Systems, NNSA Kansas City Plant, 14520 Botts Road, Kansas City...

  18. NPDES Draft Permit for City of New Town Water Treatment Plant in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System draft permit number ND0031151, The City of New Town Water Treatment Plant is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Mountrail County, North Dakota.

  19. B plant/WESF integrated annual safety appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.K.

    1990-12-01

    This report provides the results of the Fiscal Year 1990 Annual Integrated Safety Appraisal of the B Plant and Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The appraisal was conducted in August and September 1990, by the Defense Waste Disposal Safety group, in conjunction with Health Physics and Emergency Preparedness. Reports of these three organizations for their areas of responsibility are presented. The purpose of the appraisal was to determine if the areas being appraised meet US Department of Energy (DOE) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) requirements and current industry standards of good practice. A further purpose was to identify areas in which program effectiveness could be improved. In accordance with the guidance of WHC Management Requirements and Procedures 5.6, previously identified deficiencies which are being resolved by line management were not repeated as Findings or Observations unless progress or intended disposition was considered to be unsatisfactory. The overall assessment is that there are no major safety problems associated with current operations. Programs are in place to provide the necessary safety controls, evaluations, overviews, and support. In most respects these programs are being implemented effectively. However, there are a number of deficiencies in details of program design and implementation. The appraisal identified a total of 23 Findings and 27 Observations of deficiencies. All Observations are Seriousness Category 3. Fifteen Findings were Category 2 and 8 were Category 3. Most of the Category 2 Findings were so categorized on the basis of noncompliance with mandatory DOE Orders or WHC policies and procedures, rather than potential risk to personnel

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Enviromental Report for 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2008 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to characterize site environmental management performance; summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant facility programs and efforts; and describe how compliance and environmental improvement is accomplished through the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) Number NM4890139088-TSDF (treatment, storage, and disposal facility) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WIPP mission is to safely dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. In 2008, 5,265 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were disposed of at the WIPP facility, including 5,216 m3 of contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and 49 m3 of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. From the first

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Enviromental Report for 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Enviromnetal Services

    2009-09-21

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2008 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to characterize site environmental management performance; summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant facility programs and efforts; and describe how compliance and environmental improvement is accomplished through the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) Number NM4890139088-TSDF (treatment, storage, and disposal facility) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WIPP mission is to safely dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. In 2008, 5,265 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were disposed of at the WIPP facility, including 5,216 m3 of contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and 49 m3 of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. From the first

  2. Rare Plants - City of San Diego [ds455

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Biological Monitoring Plan (BMP; Ogden 1996) for the Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) was developed in 1996 and is a component of the City of San...

  3. 25th Annual Meeting of ESNA/IUR: Soil-Plant Relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M. H.

    1995-12-01

    The radioecological session of the 25 th annual meeting of ESNA (Piacenza/Italy) and some other proceedings are of interest for INIS. The main content of these proceedings is the soil-to-plant transfer of radioisotopes. (Botek)

  4. 26th Annual ESNA/IUR Meeting: Soil-Plant Relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M. H.

    1996-11-01

    The radioecological session of the 26 th annual meeting of ESNA (in Busteni/Romania) is for INIS interesting. The session was a joint session with the soil-to-plant transfer working group of the IUR. (Botek)

  5. 26{sup th} Annual ESNA/IUR Meeting: Soil-Plant Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerzabek, M H [ed.; Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1996-11-01

    The radioecological session of the 26{sup th} annual meeting of ESNA (in Busteni/Romania) is for INIS interesting. The session was a joint session with the soil-to-plant transfer working group of the IUR. (Botek)

  6. 25{sup th} Annual Meeting of ESNA/IUR: Soil-Plant Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerzabek, M H [ed.; Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1995-12-01

    The radioecological session of the 25{sup th} annual meeting of ESNA (Piacenza/Italy) and some other proceedings are of interest for INIS. The main content of these proceedings is the soil-to-plant transfer of radioisotopes. (Botek)

  7. Annual radiological environmental operating report: Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFN) in 1992. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas not influenced by plant operations. Station locations are selected after careful consideration of the weather patterns and projected radiation doses to the various areas around the plant. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. Results from stations near the plant are compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts of plant operations. Small amounts of Co-60 and Cs-134 were found in sediment samples downstream from the plant. This activity in stream sediment would result in no measurable increase over background in the dose to the general public

  8. Growing Greener Cities: A Tree-Planting Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Gary; Young, Stanley

    This step-by-step guide, developed by the Global ReLeaf organization, presents tree-planting advice and simple steps to organizing a successful community tree-planting and tree-care program. The text is divided into three parts. Part 1 introduces trees and discusses the role they play as components of the living urban environment. Distinctions are…

  9. An Annual Plant Growth Proxy in the Mojave Desert Using MODIS-EVI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A. Thomas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the arid Mojave Desert, the phenological response of vegetation is largely dependent upon the timing and amount of rainfall, and maps of annual plant cover at any one point in time can vary widely. Our study developed relative annual plant growth models as proxies for annual plant cover using metrics that captured phenological variability in Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI satellite images. We used landscape phenologies revealed in MODIS data together with ecological knowledge of annual plant seasonality to develop a suite of metrics to describe annual growth on a yearly basis. Each of these metrics was applied to temporally-composited MODIS-EVI images to develop a relative model of annual growth. Each model was evaluated by testing how well it predicted field estimates of annual cover collected during 2003 and 2005 at the Mojave National Preserve. The best performing metric was the spring difference metric, which compared the average of three spring MODIS-EVI composites of a given year to that of 2002, a year of record drought. The spring difference metric showed correlations with annual plant cover of R2 = 0.61 for 2005 and R2 = 0.47 for 2003. Although the correlation is moderate, we consider it supportive given the characteristics of the field data, which were collected for a different study in a localized area and are not ideal for calibration to MODIS pixels. A proxy for annual growth potential was developed from the spring difference metric of 2005 for use as an environmental data layer in desert tortoise habitat modeling. The application of the spring difference metric to other imagery years presents potential for other applications such as fuels, invasive species, and dust-emission monitoring in the Mojave Desert.

  10. An Annual Plant Growth Proxy in the Mojave Desert Using MODIS-EVI Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S A; Thomas, Kathryn A

    2008-12-03

    In the arid Mojave Desert, the phenological response of vegetation is largely dependent upon the timing and amount of rainfall, and maps of annual plant cover at any one point in time can vary widely. Our study developed relative annual plant growth models as proxies for annual plant cover using metrics that captured phenological variability in Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) satellite images. We used landscape phenologies revealed in MODIS data together with ecological knowledge of annual plant seasonality to develop a suite of metrics to describe annual growth on a yearly basis. Each of these metrics was applied to temporally-composited MODIS-EVI images to develop a relative model of annual growth. Each model was evaluated by testing how well it predicted field estimates of annual cover collected during 2003 and 2005 at the Mojave National Preserve. The best performing metric was the spring difference metric, which compared the average of three spring MODIS-EVI composites of a given year to that of 2002, a year of record drought. The spring difference metric showed correlations with annual plant cover of R² = 0.61 for 2005 and R² = 0.47 for 2003. Although the correlation is moderate, we consider it supportive given the characteristics of the field data, which were collected for a different study in a localized area and are not ideal for calibration to MODIS pixels. A proxy for annual growth potential was developed from the spring difference metric of 2005 for use as an environmental data layer in desert tortoise habitat modeling. The application of the spring difference metric to other imagery years presents potential for other applications such as fuels, invasive species, and dust-emission monitoring in the Mojave Desert.

  11. Annual radiological environmental operating report: Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant in 1987. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas not influenced by plant operations. Station locations are selected after careful consideration of the weather patterns and projected radiation doses to the various areas around the plant. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. Results from stations near the plant are compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts of plant operations. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Environmental monitoring at the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, C.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1975-08-01

    Results obtained from the environmental radioactivity monitoring program at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) during 1974 are summarized. A brief discussion of plant releases to the environment and radioactivity detected in the environment is presented in the following text, figures, and tables. The appendices contain tables of results from environmental samples analyses, sensitivities of laboratory analyses, and maps of sampling locations. (auth)

  13. Annual report. (Air quality criteria and plants as biological indicators)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-01-01

    Studies have been carried out to derive air quality criteria as the basis for establishing emission limits. Experiments have also been carried out on the resistance of plant species which are important to the economy and public health. Among the specific avenues of investigation have been: the determination of phytotoxic hydrogen fluoride concentrations; studies on the resistance behavior of cultivated plants; fluorine enrichment in plant organs as a function of exposure height and wind speed; development and use of biological methods for detecting atmospheric impurities; detection of sulfur dioxide effects on plants; the use of transplanted lichens as air pollution indicators; grass cultures as indicators of fluorine pollution; biological accumulation of fluorine as a function of HF concentration in air; and the determination of lead and zinc levels in plants. 5 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Atmospheric pollution and plants, especially trees in cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauly, T.; Lohou, C.

    1992-01-01

    Trees in down live in ecologically difficult conditions and suffer a great number of aggressions. Air pollution only increases their state of weakness. Studies in this field are only at their infancy. The part of responsibility of air pollution on the decay of trees is very difficult to determine. However the effect of some pollutants can be observed at present (sulfur dioxide, ozone, hydrocarburants, dust, PAN, lead...). New special equipment will determine, quantify and perhaps resolve some problems of pollution and vegetation in our cities in the future. 11 refs

  15. Annual radiological environmental monitoring report, Watts Bar Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the preoperational environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant (WBN) in 1988. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas that will not be influenced by plant operations. Station locations are selected after careful consideration of the weather patterns and projected radiation doses to the various areas around the plant. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. During plant operations, results from stations near the plant will be compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts to the public. The exposures calculated from environmental samples were contributed by naturally occurring radioactive materials, from materials commonly found in the environment as a result of atmospheric fallout, or from the operation of other nuclear facilities in the area. Since WBN has not operated, there has been no contribution of radioactivity from the plant to the environment. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Annual radiological environmental operating report, Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant in 1988. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas not influenced by plant operations. Station locations are selected after careful consideration of the weather patterns and projected radiation doses to the various areas around the plant. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. Results from stations near the plant are compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts of plant operations. The vast majority of the exposures calculated from environmental samples were contributed by naturally occurring radioactive materials or from materials commonly found in the environment as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons fallout. Small amounts of Co-60 were found in sediment samples downstream from the plant. This activity in stream sediment would result in no measurable increase over background in the dose to the general public. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1987-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1984 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1984 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  18. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, T.R.

    1978-11-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1977 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1977 release data are compared with previous years releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized

  19. Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Department annual report 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kossmann, J.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Nielsen, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry is engaged in basic and applied research to improve the scientific basis for developing new methods and technology for an environmentally benign industrial and agricultural production in the future. TheDepartment's expertise covers a wide range...... of areas needed to develop crops that meet the demands to increase agricultural production for a growing population, to produce plants with improved nutritional value, to develop crops that deliver renewableresources to the industry, and to generate plants that are adapted to the future climate...

  20. The effect of the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants on Niigata city based on tritium concentration in precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, N. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University 8050 Ikarashi 2-III ocho, Niigata-shi, Nishiku, Niigata Pref. 950-2181 (Japan); Environmental Analytical Center of Niigata Prefecture 53-1 Ojigouya, Kounan-ku, Niigata Pref. 950-1144 (Japan); Imaizumi, H.; Kano, N.; Ying, W. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University 8050 Ikarashi 2-III ocho, Niigata-shi, Nishiku, Niigata Pref. 950-2181 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The maximum value of tritium concentration in precipitation was 200 Bq/kg in Niigata city when atmospheric nuclear-bomb tests were performed in 1960s. After that, tritium concentration continuously decreased and reached to environmental revel (0.5~1.0 Bq/kg). However, after the accident of Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plants, the tritium concentration in precipitation increased in Niigata city. Therefore the observation of tritium concentration had to be carried out. In our laboratory, we have investigated the tritium concentration in precipitation and also investigated the relation between the tritium concentration and other ion (Na⁺, Mg⁺, K⁺, Ca⁺, Cl⁻, NO3⁺ or SO₄²⁻) concentration in precipitation in Niigata city. In this study, precipitation in Niigata city was gathered monthly and the evaluation of tritium concentration in precipitation was performed. In addition, we also collected the precipitation hourly (short precipitation). Each water sample thus obtained was distilled with sodium peroxide and potassium permanganate. Then the water sample thus distilled was enriched in SPE electronic enrichment apparatus, and the tritium concentration in the sample thus treated was measured in a liquid scintillation counter. On the other hand, each ion concentration in the sample was measured by ion chromatography or Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. From the above the mentioned, the following five matters can be found. (1) The tritium concentration in the samples in March and April 2011 were twice or three times higher than that in March and April in annual years. In other words, it is considered that the thus high level concentration of tritium leads to the evaluation of the effect of the accident of the Fukushima nuclear power plants on Niigata city. (2) As to the sample, the concentration of the non-sea salt Ca²⁺ (nssCa²⁺) is similar to that in March and April in annual years. (3) For each short precipitation sample collected on March 15, 2011

  1. A comparative study of AMF diversity in annual and perennial plant species from semiarid gypsum soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Roldán, A.; Díaz, G.; Torres, P.

    2012-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities composition regulate plant interactions and determine the structure of plant communities. In this study we analysed the diversity of AMF in the roots of two perennial gypsophyte plant species, Herniaria fruticosa and Senecio auricula, and an annual herbaceous species, Bromus rubens, growing in a gypsum soil from a semiarid area. The objective was to determine whether perennial and annual host plants support different AMF communities in their roots and whether there are AMF species that might be indicators of specific functional plant roles in these ecosystems. The roots were analysed by nested PCR, cloning, sequencing of the ribosomal DNA small subunit region and phylogenetic analysis. Twenty AMF sequence types, belonging to the Glomus group A, Glomus group B, Diversisporaceae, Acaulosporaceae, Archaeosporaceae and Paraglomeraceae, were identified. Both gypsophyte perennial species had differing compositions of the AMF community and higher diversity when compared with the annual species, showing preferential selection by specific AMF sequences types. B. rubens did not show host specificity, sharing the full composition of its AMF community with both perennial plant species. Seasonal variations in the competitiveness of AM fungi could explain the observed differences in AMF community composition, but this is still a working hypothesis that requires the analysis of further data obtained from a higher number of both annual and perennial plant species in order to be fully tested.

  2. Determination of lead levels in roadside soil and plants in Damascus city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Masri, M.S.

    1997-04-01

    Seasonal variations of lead concentration in roadside soils and plants in 12 sites in Damascus city have been investigated. Lead concentrations in soil were found to be varied from 78.4 ppm to 832 ppm; lower levels in the wet period than in the dry period were observed. While lead levels in roadside plants varied between 3.39 ppm to 13.28 ppm. The results have also shown that most of the vegetables grown on the roadside of Damascus city have high concentrations of lead and the normal washing does not decrease it to unacceptable level. (author). 15 refs., 9 tabs

  3. Annual radiological environmental monitoring report: Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This report describes the preoperational environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant (WBN) in 1991. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas that will not be influenced by plant operations. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. During plant operations, results from stations near the plant will be compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts to the public. Exposures calculated from environmental samples were contributed by naturally occurring radioactive materials, from materials commonly found in the environment a a result of atmospheric fallout, or from the operation of other nuclear facilities in the area. Since WBN has not operated, there has been no contribution of radioactivity from the plant to the environment

  4. Pinellas Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report presents a comprehensive summary of the results of the Environmental Monitoring, Waste Management, and Environmental Restoration Programs at the Pinellas Plant, in Pinellas County, Florida for 1994. This report also includes the plant's performance in the areas of compliance with applicable regulatory requirements and standards and identifies major Environmental, Safety and Health Program initiatives and accomplishments for 1994. As a result of the end of Department of Energy Defense Programs mission production on September 30, 1994, considerable changes at the Pinellas Plant occurred. These changes, which included transitioning the plant toward alternate use in support of economic development and safe shutdown, both increased and heightened Environmental, Safety and Health responsibilities. In December 1994, the Department of Energy announced it had reached an agreement to sell the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council in March 1995. The plant is being leased back by the Department of Energy through September 1997 to complete safe shutdown, reconfiguration, transfer of equipment to other Department of Energy production facilities, and transition to commercial ventures. Permit modifications and transfers will be completed during 1995 to reflect the new ownership by the Pinellas County Industry Council and to include new tenants as needed

  5. Annual radiological environmental monitoring report: Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report describes the preoperational environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant (WBN) in 1992. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas that will not be influenced by plant operations. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. During plant operations, results from stations near the plant will be compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts to the public. Exposures calculated from environmental samples were contributed by naturally occurring radioactive materials, from materials commonly found in the environment as a result of atmospheric fallout, or from the operation of other nuclear facilities in the area. Since WBN has not operated, there has been no contribution of radioactivity from the plant to the environment

  6. Plant resources in seven Jeonju City reservoirs: Osongjae, Gisijae, Sunggokjae, Gujujae, Seounjae, Hwanghakjae and Hacksojae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ok Lim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The vascular plants of the seven reservoirs of Jeonju City were identified as consisting of 309 taxa; 87 families, 231 genera, 270 species, 35 varieties, and four forms. Eight taxa of endemic Korean plants were identified, including Taxus cuspidata var. caepitosa and Aster koraiensis. Ten taxa of rare and endangered species were identified, including T. cuspidata and Penthorum chinense. A total of 26 taxa of floristic special plants were recorded: class V species (5 taxa included Magnolia kobus and Prunus yedoensis; class IV species (3 taxa included Prunus davidiana and Campanula takesimana; class III species (5 taxa included Acer palmatum and Alisma orientale. The hydrophytes of the seven reservoirs of Jeonju City were investigated and, of a total of 56 taxa, 46 taxa of emerged plants, two taxa of submerged plants, five taxa of floating-leaved plants, and three taxa of floating plants were identified. Thirty-two taxa of naturalized plants were identified. Among these, Sicyos angulatus, Lactuca scariola, Paspalum distichum var. indutum and P. distichum were identified, which are all wild plants that may disturb the ecosystem. The study suggests that these areas require management for the physical removal of these wild plants.

  7. Access to destinations : annual accessibility measure for the Twin Cities Metropolitan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes previous phases of the Access to Destinations project and applies the techniques developed : over the course of the project to conduct an evaluation of accessibility in the Twin Cities metropolitan region for : 2010. It describ...

  8. Δ14C level of annual plants and fossil fuel derived CO2 distribution across different regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, X.T.; Ding, X.F.; Fu, D.P.; Zhou, L.P.; Liu, K.X.

    2013-01-01

    The 14 C level in annual plants is a sensitive tracer for monitoring fossil fuel derived CO 2 in the atmosphere. Corn leave samples were selected from different regions of China, including high mountains in the Tibetan Plateau, grassland in Inner Mongolia, and inland and coastal cities during the summer of 2010. The 14 C/ 12 C ratio of the samples was measured with the NEC compact AMS system at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The fossil fuel derived CO 2 was estimated by comparing the measured Δ 14 C values of corn leave samples to background atmospheric Δ 14 C level. The influences of topography, meteorological conditions and carbon cycling processes on the fossil fuel derived CO 2 concentration are considered when interpreting the data. Our results show a clear association of the low Δ 14 C values with regions where human activities are intensive.

  9. [Carbon isotope fractionation in plants]: Annual technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Leary, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    Plants fractionate carbon isotopes during photosynthesis in ways which reflect photosynthetic pathway and environment. The fractionation is product of contributions from diffusion, carboxylation and other factors which can be understood using models which have been developed in our work. The object of our work is to use this fractionation to learn about the factors which control the efficiency of photosynthesis. Unlike previous studies, we do not rely principally on combustion methods, but instead develop more specific methods with substantially higher resolving power. We have recently developed a new short-term method for studying carbon isotope fractionation which promises to provide a level of detail about temperature, species, and light intensity effects on photosynthesis which has not been available until now. We are studying the isotopic compositions of metabolites (particularly aspartic acid) in C 3 plants in order to determine the role of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in C 3 photosynthesis. We are studying the relative roles of diffusion and carboxylation in nocturnal CO 2 fixation in CAM plants. We are studying the use of isotopic content as an index of water-use efficiency in C 3 plants. We are developing new methods for studying carbon metabolism in plants. 3 refs

  10. Gathering in the city: an annotated bibliography and review of the literature about human-plant interactions in urban ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. McLain; K. MacFarland; L. Brody; J. Hebert; P. Hurley; M. Poe; L.P. Buttolph; N. Gabriel; M. Dzuna; M.R. Emery; S. Charnley

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has seen resurgence in interest in gathering wild plants and fungi in cities. In addition to gathering by individuals, dozens of groups have emerged in U.S., Canadian, and European cities to facilitate access to nontimber forest products (NTFPs), particularly fruits and nuts, in public and private spaces. Recent efforts within cities to encourage public...

  11. Environmental monitoring at the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, C.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1978-03-01

    The environmental monitoring program at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) provides reliable measurement of radioactive materials released at the source (approximately 40 locations) and present in the environment (approximately 500 locations). In recent years, water-quality testing and analysis have become an essential part of the environmental monitoring program. Aqueous discharges to plant streams are monitored for nonradioactive materials by chemical analyses of water sampled in flowing streams (approximately 25 locations). A brief discussion of plant releases to the environment and radioactive and nonradioactive materials detected in the environment are presented. The appendices contain data analysis and quality control information, sensitivities of laboratory analyses, tables of environmental sample analyses, and maps of sampling locations

  12. Environmental monitoring at the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, C.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental monitoring program at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) provides reliable measurement of radioactive materials both released at the source (approximately 40 locations) and concentrated in the environment (approximately 500 locations). In recent years, water quality testing and analysis have become an essential part of the environmental monitoring program. Aqueous discharges to plant streams are monitored for nonradioactive materials by chemical analyses of water sampled in flowing streams (approximately 25 locations). A brief discussion of plant releases to the environment and radioactive and nonradioactive materials detected in the environment are presented in the following text, figures, and tables. The appendices contain an interpretation of data treatment, tables of results of environmental sample analyses, sensitivities of laboratory analyses, and maps of sampling locations

  13. Slovak power stations, Nuclear Power Plants Mochovce (Annual report 1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Mochovce in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Director's foreword; (2) Power plant management; (3) Highlights of 1997; (4) Capital construction; (5) Nuclear safety; (6) Radiation safety; (7) Work safety and health protection at work; (9) Fire protection; (10) Units upgrading - safety measures; (11) Maintenance; (12) Operation; (13) Environmental impacts of operations; (14) List of balances; (15) Human sources; (16) International co-operation; (17) Public relations

  14. Trojan Nuclear Plant. Annual operating report: January--December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojan generated 28,791,044 MW hours of electricity, an output greater than any other commercial U.S. plant. Availability factor was 92.6 percent and the capacity factor was 68.6 percent. Data are presented concerning operations, maintenance, changes, tests, experiments, specifications, and modifications. Also reported are effluents, waste disposal, meteorology data, radiation doses, chemical uses, and environmental surveillance

  15. Satellite-based annual evaporation estimates of invasive alien plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of densely-invaded riparian areas is likely more pronounced. We concluded that the clearing of IAPs by the WFW programme has a positive effect on the availability of water resources through a reduction in ET. Keywords: invasive alien plants; indigenous vegetation; remote sensing; water use; evapotranspiration; SEBAL; ...

  16. Environmental monitoring at the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, C.C.; Culp, P.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1983-11-01

    The results of the 1980 Savannah River Plant environmental monitoring program are presented. Appendices contain data analysis and quality control information, minimum detectable levels, tabes of environmental sample analyses, and maps of sampling locations. Radioactive releases are divided into four categories for comparison with previous releases. The categories are: tritium, noble gases, beta and gamma emitters, and total alpha emitters. 34 figures, 58 tables

  17. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  18. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  19. Occupational exposures at nuclear power plants. Fourteenth annual report of the ISOE programme, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The ISOE Programme was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. The programme provides experts in occupational radiation protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposure data from 478 operating and shutdown commercial nuclear power plants participating in the programme (representing some 90% of the world's total operating commercial reactors). The Fourteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises achievements made during 2004 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described. (author)

  20. Occupational exposures at nuclear power plants. Eleventh annual report of the Isoe programme, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The ISOE Programme was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. The programme provides experts in occupational radiation protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposure data from the 452 commercial nuclear power plants participating in the programme (representing some 90 per cent of the world's total operating commercial reactors). The Eleventh Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises achievements made during 2001 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described. (author)

  1. Using of biogas for combined cycle of heat and electricity in City Waste Water Treatment Plant in the city of Varna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankov, N.; Ovcharov, A.; Nikolov, Ch.; Petrov, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report contains a good practice example of energy production by means of biogas utilization in a Bulgarian city waste water treatment plant in Varna city (WWTP). Sewage gas production is included in the waste water and deposits treatment technological scheme of the plant before their further disposal or utilization. Sewer gas is used to fuel a combined heat and power production module which is based on reciprocating gas engines technology. This article contains data from a real site and its purpose is to present the stages of the examined process as well as the technical, economical and environmental benefits from introduction of such technology in a city WWTP. (authors)

  2. Demographic comparison of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant with plants situated near large cities and national borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walmod-Larsen, O.; Starcke, K.

    1984-06-01

    The Swedish-Danish Barsebaeck committee suggested in June 1983 that a demographic comparison of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant be made with plants situated near other large cities and national borders. Sixteen other nuclear power plants: 13 in Western Europe, 2 in USA and 1 in Canada were chosen for the comparison. For five discrete distances out to 50 km, the population distributions have been found and compared. In addition the positions, related to the plants, of institutions, administrative centres, communication centres and other plants of public importance within the country or in neughbouring countries are described. Finally, the details of special agreements are given together with negotiations between neighbouring countries or internationally about nuclear power related matters. These include alarm and emergency procedures and agreements about liability in case of an accident in a neighbouring country. (author)

  3. A simple tool for estimating city-wide annual electrical energy savings from cooler surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Rosado, Pablo J.; Levinson, Ronnen

    2015-12-01

    We present a simple method to estimate the maximum possible electrical energy saving that might be achieved by increasing the albedo of surfaces in a large city. We restrict this to the “indirect effect”, the cooling of outside air that lessens the demand for air conditioning (AC). Given the power demand of the electric utilities and data about the city, we can use a single linear equation to estimate the maximum savings. For example, the result for an albedo change of 0.2 of pavements in a typical warm city in California, such as Sacramento, is that the saving is less than about 2 kWh per m2 per year. This may help decision makers choose which heat island mitigation techniques are economical from an energy-saving perspective.

  4. Plant growth-promoting Burkholderia species isolated from annual ryegrass in Portuguese soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, N; Dourado, A C; Kruz, S; Alves, P I L; Delgado-Rodríguez, A I; Pais, I; Semedo, J; Scotti-Campos, P; Sánchez, C; Borges, N; Carvalho, G; Barreto Crespo, M T; Fareleira, P

    2016-03-01

    To search for culturable Burkholderia species associated with annual ryegrass in soils from natural pastures in Portugal, with plant growth-promoting effects. Annual ryegrass seedlings were used to trap Burkholderia from two different soils in laboratory conditions. A combined approach using genomic fingerprinting and sequencing of 16S rRNA and recA genes resulted in the identification of Burkholderia strains belonging to the species Burkholderia graminis, Burkholderia fungorum and the Burkholderia cepacia complex. Most strains were able to solubilize mineral phosphate and to synthesize indole acetic acid; some of them could produce siderophores and antagonize the phytopathogenic oomycete, Phytophthora cinnamomi. A strain (G2Bd5) of B. graminis was selected for gnotobiotic plant inoculation experiments. The main effects were the stimulation of root growth and enhancement of leaf lipid synthesis and turnover. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser microscopy evidenced that strain G2Bd5 is a rhizospheric and endophytic colonizer of annual ryegrass. This work revealed that annual ryegrass can naturally associate with members of the genus Burkholderia. A novel plant growth promoting strain of B. graminis was obtained. The novel strain belongs to the plant-associated Burkholderia cluster and is a promising candidate for exploitation as plant inoculant in field conditions. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Environmental radioactivity levels, Sequoyah Nuclear Plant. Annual report, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring of the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant (SQN) located in Hamilton County, Tennessee, conducted in 1983. Dose estimates were calculated from concentrations of radioactivity found in samples of air, milk, water, and fish. It was concluded there were no significant increases in the exposure to members of the general public attributable to the operation of SQN. 11 figures, 34 tables

  6. Savannah River Plant environmental report. Annual report for 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Ensuring the radiation safety of the public in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) was a foremost consideration in the design of the plant and has continued to be a primary objective during 31 years of SRP operations. An extensive surveillance program has been continuously maintained since 1951 (before SRP startup) to determine the conecntrations of radionuclides in the environment of the plant and the radiation exposure to the offsite population resulting from SRP operations. The results of this comprehensive monitoring program have been reported to the public since 1959. The scope of the environmental protection program at SRP has increased significantly since the first report was issued. Prior to the mid-1970's the reports contained primarily radiological monitoring data. Beginning in the mid-1970's the reports started including more and more nonradiological monitoring data as those programs increased. The nonradiological monitoring program now approaches the size and extensiveness of the radiological monitoring program. The report name was changed this year to more accurately reflect the many environmental programs that have become an intergral part of the operation of SRP

  7. Light water ultra-safe plant concept: First annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.

    1987-01-01

    Since the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) Penn State Nuclear Engineering Department Faculty and Staff have considered various methods to improve already safe reactor designs and public perception of the safety of Nuclear Power. During the last year, the Department of Energy funded the study of a plant reconfiguration originally proposed by M.A. Shultz. This report presents the status of the project at the end of the first year. A broad set of specifications to improve safety and public perception were set forth and the realization of these goals is achieved in a plant design named, ''The Light Water Ultra-Safe Plant Concept.'' The most significant goals of the concept address the station black-out problem and simplification of required operator actions during abnormal situations. These goals are achieved in the Ultra-Safe Concept by addition of an in-containment atmospheric tank containing a large quantity of cool water, replacement of the conventional PWR pressurizer system with a pressurizing pump, internal emergency power generation, and arrangement of components to utilize natural circulation at shut-down. The first year effort included an evaluation of the normal operation characteristics of the primary system pressurizing concept, evaluating parameters and modeling for analysis of the shutdown scenario, design of a low power density core, design of a low-pressure waste handling system, arrangement of a drainage system for pipe break considerations, and failure modes and effects analysis

  8. Invasive alien plants in protected areas within city borders, LODZ (poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anna, B.; Grzegorz, W.J.; Krason, K.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to present the occurrence of invasive alien plant species in two forest reserves: "Las Lagiewnicki"and "Polesie Konstantynowskie", located within the city of Lodz (Central Poland). Currently, five vascular plants (Impatiens parviflora, Juncus tenuis, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra, Robinia pseudoacacia) and one moss (Orthodontium lineare) considered as invasive were found in the studied reserves. Invasive plant species accounted for a small percentage of the flora in the studied reserves, and their sites were mainly concentrated in areas transformed by human activity. The most common species were Impatiens parviflora and Padus serotina. Due to the location of the reserves within city borders and the proven negative effect of the found species on ecological systems, their sites should be monitored. (author)

  9. 1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Pantex Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Pantex Plant from January 1, 1995 through December 31,1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at Pantex and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center,located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The data presented apply only to Pantex. The main sections of the report are the same as in previous years; the 1995 report provides additional information describing the work force by age and occupational groups

  10. 1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Pantex Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Pantex Plant from January 1, 1995 through December 31,1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at Pantex and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center,located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The data presented apply only to Pantex. The main sections of the report are the same as in previous years; the 1995 report provides additional information describing the work force by age and occupational groups.

  11. Using flowering and heat-loss models for improving greenhouse energy-use efficiency in annual bedding plant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    In temperate climates, annual bedding plants are typically produced in heated greenhouses from late winter through early summer. Temperature, photoperiod, light intensity, and transplant date are commonly manipulated during commercial production so that plants are in flower for predetermined market ...

  12. Water and Wastewater Annual Price Escalation Rates for Selected Cities across the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-10-27

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Federal Energy Management Program to identify trends in annual water and wastewater price escalation rates across the United States. This study can be used to inform the selection of an appropriate escalation rates for inclusion in LCCA.

  13. Annual report on the environmental radiation monitoring around Tokai Reprocessing Plant. FY 2001. Document on present state of affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Kunihiko; Takeishi, Minoru; Miyagawa, Naoto

    2002-06-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed since 1975, based on ''Safety Regulations for the Tokai Reprocessing Plant, Chapter IV - Environmental Monitoring''. This annual report presents the results of the environmental monitoring and the dose estimation to the hypothetical inhabitant due to the radioactivity discharged from the plant during April 2001 to March 2002. Appendices present comprehensive information, such as monitoring program, monitoring results, meteorological data and annual discharges from the plant. (author)

  14. 24{sup th} Annual ESNA/IUR Meeting: Soil-Plant Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerzabek, M H [ed.; Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1994-11-01

    The 24{sup th} annual meeting of ESNA was jointly organized with the IUR (International Union of Radioecologists), working group soil-to-plant transfer in Varna, Bulgaria. For INIS interesting is the session 'behaviour of radionuclides in the terrestrial foodchain'. (Botek)

  15. Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Annual report for 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An extensive surveillance program has been continuously maintained since 1951 (before SRP startup) to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in a 1200-square-mile area in the environs of the plant and the radiation exposure of the population resulting from SRP operations. The results of this monitoring program are reported annually to the public. This document summarizes the 1979 results

  16. 24th Annual ESNA/IUR Meeting: Soil-Plant Relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M. H.

    1994-11-01

    The 24 th annual meeting of ESNA was jointly organized with the IUR (International Union of Radioecologists), working group soil-to-plant transfer in Varna, Bulgaria. For INIS interesting is the session 'behaviour of radionuclides in the terrestrial foodchain'. (Botek)

  17. Statistical annual report 2003 of Furnas - Electrical Power plants and Co., RJ, Brazil. Calendar year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the statistical annual report of Furnas Power Plants and Co, reporting the results obtained during the calendar year of 2003 and the evolution in the last five years, allowing a general and comparative views of the company performance focusing the power generation and transmission, economic and financial results

  18. KWL Lingen nuclear plant. Technical annual report 2016; KWL Kernkraftwerk Lingen. Technischer Jahresbericht 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-07-01

    The technical annual report 2016 for KWL (Lingen nuclear plant) covers the following sections: dismantling project management and operation, monitoring and clearance; waste management, technical qualification, security and safety, central tasks; licensing and supervision procedures, operational data, radiation monitoring, radioactive materials, in-service inspections.

  19. Environmental radioactivity levels, Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant: Annual report, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The report presents data gathered during radiological monitoring program conducted in the environs of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant. Dose estimates were made from concentrations of radioactivity found in samples of media including air, milk, food products, drinking water, and fish. Inhalation and ingestion doses estimated for persons at the indicator locations were essentially identical to those determined for persons at control locations. Greater than 95% of those doses were contributed by the naturally occurring K-40 and by Sr-90 and Cs-137 which are long-lived radioisotopes found in fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Increased levels of I-131 were reported in air, milk, and rainwater following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. In addition, Ru-103, Cs-137, and Cs-134 were identified in air particulates, and traces of Ru-103 were found in rainwater

  20. Annual stability evaluation of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    A stability evaluation of the underground workings of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was completed by the US Bureau of Mines' WIPP evaluation committee. This work included a critical evaluation of the processes employed at WIPP to ensure stability, an extensive review of available deformation measurements, a 3-day site visit, and interviews with the Department of Energy (DOE) and Westinghouse staff. General ground control processes are in place at WIPP to minimize the likelihood that major stability problems will go undetected. To increase confidence in both short- and long-term stability throughout the site (underground openings and shafts), ground stability monitoring systems, mine layout design, support systems and data analyses must be continuously improved. Such processes appear to be in place at WIPP and are discussed in this paper

  1. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results and compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and orders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Environmental monitoring at PGDP consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment. Environmental surveillance is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media. Environmental monitoring is performed to characterize and quantify contaminants, assess radiation exposures of members of the public, demonstrate compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, and detect and assess the effects (if any) on the local environment. Multiple samples are collected throughout the year and are analyzed for radioactivity, chemical content, and various physical attributes

  2. Sulphur recovery and sulphur emissions at Alberta sour gas plants : annual report for 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The sulphur recovery of Alberta's grandfathered sour gas plants is monitored by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board. This report provides an annual summary of industry performance for sulphur recovery at large acid gas flaring sour gas plants, and sulphur recovery at all acid gas injection sour gas plants. It follows Interim Directive (ID) 2001-3 which stipulates guidelines for sulphur recovery for the province of Alberta. It includes a list of grandfathered and non grandfathered plants in Alberta. Grandfathered sulphur recovery plants that exceed expectations have the option to file a sulphur emission performance credit report and can use the credits to meet some of their sulphur requirement in the future. Acid gas flaring plants face more stringent requirements and cannot earn credits. Several plants have degrandfathered in the past 5 years. Eleven have made upgrades, 4 have been relicensed to meet the requirements for new plants, and 4 have shut down. Forty-one grandfathered plants remain. Sulphur emissions have decreased 39 per cent for grandfathered acid gas flaring plants, and 28 per cent for grandfathered sulphur recovery plants. 10 tabs., 3 figs

  3. Annual economic burden of hepatitis B virus-related diseases among hospitalized patients in twelve cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S; Ma, Q; Liang, S; Xiao, H; Zhuang, G; Zou, Y; Tan, H; Liu, J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, L; Feng, X; Xue, L; Hu, D; Cui, F; Liang, X

    2016-03-01

    A nationwide survey of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated economic burden has not previously been performed in China. The purpose of this study was to examine the direct, indirect, and intangible costs of HBV-related diseases within the span of one year. A random sample was taken from specialty and general hospitals across 12 cities in six provinces of China. Intangible costs were estimated based on willingness to pay or open-ended answers provided by patients. The results showed that 27 hospitals were enrolled, with a sample population of 4726 patients (77.7% response rate). The average annual costs were $4454.0 (direct), $924.3 (indirect), and $6611.10 (intangible), corresponding to 37.3%, 7.7%, and 55.1% of the total costs, respectively. The direct medical fees were substantially greater than the non-medical fees. Annual indirect costs were divided into outpatient ($112.9) and inpatient ($811.40) loss of income. The intangible costs of chronic HBV were notably higher than either the direct or indirect costs, consistent with the social stigma in China. The comparison amongst individual cities for the average ratio of direct to indirect costs revealed that the sizes of ratios were negatively correlated with the socioeconomic status of the regions. This study suggested that as a whole in China, the HBV-related diseases caused a heavy financial burden which was positively associated with disease severity. Although the intangible costs coincided with a high prevalence of discrimination against CHB patients in Chinese society, our study may serve as future reference for detailed exploration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Determination of toxic heavy metals in indigenous medicinal plants used in Rawalpindi and Islamabad cities, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Adeel; Rashid, Sadia; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2013-06-21

    History of medicinal plants used in local healthcare systems dates back centuries as the user considers them safe from toxic effects. Present study was aimed to document the commonly used indigenous medicinal plants and to investigate the metal toxicity and impact of pollution load in most frequently used medicinal plants from study area. Semi-structured interviews and rapid appraisal approach were employed to record the ethnomedicinal information and toxic metals were analyzed through flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A total of 21 wild medicinal plants was reported, and 7 were screened for toxic metal analysis. Oral mode of application (93%) was the chief route of herbal remedy administration, and leaves were found to be used as major plant part against different diseases. Main sources of remedies were wild herb (68%) followed by wild trees (18%), wild spiny shrubs (09%) and wild shrubs (5%). Trend of metal concentration was found as Fe>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cu>Zn>Mn>Cd. Indigenous medicinal plants of both cities posed the toxicity risk for Ni, Cu, Fe and crossed the safety limits set by WHO. Medicinal plants of Rawalpindi were more toxic compared to the medicinal plants of Islamabad. Prolonged intake or over dose of these medicinal plants may lead to chronic accumulation of various elements that may cause severe hazardous effect upon human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reproductive effort of some annual and perennial plant species: impact of successional sequence, habitat conditions and plant size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaukat, S.; Khan, M.A.; Zaidi, S.; Siddiqui, M.F.; Khan, N.; Zafar, H.

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive effort of some annual and perennial plant species was investigated with respect to successional sequence, habitat conditions and plant size. in the psammosere succession (dune succession), the reproductive effort (RE) of Cressa cretica and A triplex griffithii was significantly greater in the early stage compared to that in late succession. Likewise, in relation to lithosere succession, Sporobolus arabicus. Pluchea lanceolata and Vernonia cenerescens all showed high reproductive effort in early part of succession compared to that of late succession. The annuals (S. arabicus and P lance/ala) exhibited greater reproductive effort compared to the perennial species Vernonia cinerescens. Examination of the Impact of site differences on reproductive effort showed that four grasses including Selaria intermedia, Chioris harbata, Cenchrus hiflorus, and Eragroslis pilosa were found to have significantly (P<0.05) greater reproductive effort in site 1 (near cultivated field), compared to site 2 (a vacant lot), which had low nutrient level compared to site 1. The reproductive effort of Sonclius asper (a composite) did not exhibit significant difference between sites. The investigation of relationships between plant size (volume) and reproductive effort of Solanuin forskalii, Senna holosericea and Heliolropium ophioglossum showed positive correlations between plant size and reproductive effort. Solanum forskalii and Senna holosericca, in particular, exhibited a close association in this respect. It is concluded that: 1) RE is greater in early compared to late succession, 2) RE changes with the habitat and 3) there seems to be a direct relationship between RE and plant size. (author)

  6. Genome-wide investigation reveals high evolutionary rates in annual model plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jia-Xing; Li, Jinpeng; Wang, Dan; Araki, Hitoshi; Tian, Dacheng; Yang, Sihai

    2010-11-09

    Rates of molecular evolution vary widely among species. While significant deviations from molecular clock have been found in many taxa, effects of life histories on molecular evolution are not fully understood. In plants, annual/perennial life history traits have long been suspected to influence the evolutionary rates at the molecular level. To date, however, the number of genes investigated on this subject is limited and the conclusions are mixed. To evaluate the possible heterogeneity in evolutionary rates between annual and perennial plants at the genomic level, we investigated 85 nuclear housekeeping genes, 10 non-housekeeping families, and 34 chloroplast genes using the genomic data from model plants including Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula for annuals and grape (Vitis vinifera) and popular (Populus trichocarpa) for perennials. According to the cross-comparisons among the four species, 74-82% of the nuclear genes and 71-97% of the chloroplast genes suggested higher rates of molecular evolution in the two annuals than those in the two perennials. The significant heterogeneity in evolutionary rate between annuals and perennials was consistently found both in nonsynonymous sites and synonymous sites. While a linear correlation of evolutionary rates in orthologous genes between species was observed in nonsynonymous sites, the correlation was weak or invisible in synonymous sites. This tendency was clearer in nuclear genes than in chloroplast genes, in which the overall evolutionary rate was small. The slope of the regression line was consistently lower than unity, further confirming the higher evolutionary rate in annuals at the genomic level. The higher evolutionary rate in annuals than in perennials appears to be a universal phenomenon both in nuclear and chloroplast genomes in the four dicot model plants we investigated. Therefore, such heterogeneity in evolutionary rate should result from factors that have genome-wide influence, most likely those

  7. Traditional use of medicinal plants in a city at steppic character (M’sila, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madani Sarri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: M’sila city occupies a privileged position in the central part of northern Algeria. The climate of this area is continental, subject in part to the Saharan influences of which vegetation is steppic. Aims: Highlight traditional usage of plants despite environmental characteristics. Methods: An ethnobotanical survey in the city of M’sila was conducted during the period 2011-2012 in collaboration with traditional practitioners, herbalists and healers. A total of 85 adults were able to determine the species and answer questions about the traditional use of plants in artisanal processing, nutritional and medicinal domains. Results: Medicinal plants recorded in the city of M’sila were 36 divided into 16 families and 31 genera. Lamiaceae family predominates (27.8%, followed by Asteraceae (13.9%. Leaves are the most frequently used (27.4%, the aerial parts (18.5% and thus the seeds (16.3%. It appears that the population is highly dependent on these plants that allow them to treat different pathologies (digestive, stomach, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting with a percentage (18.6%, carminative (5.7% and antidiabetic (12.2%. In general, the remedies are administered orally. Indeed, therapeutic use forms are: the tisane or decoction (44.7%, infusion (27.1% and powder (12.2%. Conclusions: The ethnobotanical survey conducted among traditional healers, herbalists and healers in the M’sila city has created an inventory of 36 species and a database that collected all the information on local and traditional therapeutic applications as well as all the diseases treated.

  8. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 4th quarter, 1994 and annual summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1995-05-01

    The Loviisa NPP units were in power operation the whole last quarter, with the exception of a reactor scram at Loviisa 1. The load factor average of all Finnish plant units was 100.2 %. The annual average was 90.0 %. All events in the fourth annual quarter were assigned level 0 (no safety significance) on the international INES scale. Four events in 1994 were classified level 1 (an anomaly). The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety in December approved Imatran Voima Oy's application to extend the operation of the reactor pressure vessel of Loviisa 2 until the annual maintenance outage of 2010. During this quarter, a batch of spent fuel from Loviisa power plant was transported to Russia. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Only such quantities of plant-based radioactive materials were measurable in samples collected around the plants as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. The report includes a summary of all the items described in the Quarterly Reports of 1994. (8 figs., 4 tabs.)

  9. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 4th quarter, 1994 and annual summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K [ed.

    1995-05-01

    The Loviisa NPP units were in power operation the whole last quarter, with the exception of a reactor scram at Loviisa 1. The load factor average of all Finnish plant units was 100.2 %. The annual average was 90.0 %. All events in the fourth annual quarter were assigned level 0 (no safety significance) on the international INES scale. Four events in 1994 were classified level 1 (an anomaly). The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety in December approved Imatran Voima Oy`s application to extend the operation of the reactor pressure vessel of Loviisa 2 until the annual maintenance outage of 2010. During this quarter, a batch of spent fuel from Loviisa power plant was transported to Russia. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Only such quantities of plant-based radioactive materials were measurable in samples collected around the plants as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. The report includes a summary of all the items described in the Quarterly Reports of 1994. (8 figs., 4 tabs.).

  10. Annual glyphosate treatments alter growth of unaffected bentgrass (Agrostis weeds and plant community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin W Ahrens

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB and redtop (RT, where the glyphosate resistance (GR trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities.

  11. Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The concentration of radioactivity added by the Savannah River Plant operations to the environs during 1977 was, for the most part, too small to be distinguished from natural background radiation and fallout from worldwide nuclear weapon tests. Beta activity in particulate air filters was about two times the 1976 level and was due entirely to global fallout. Tritium oxide in air at the plant perimeter was greater than in air at more distant locations; the average concentration at the plant perimeter (65 pCi/m 3 ) was 0.03% of the Concentration Guide (CG). Tritium, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr were the only radionuclides of plant origin detectable in Savannah River water by routine analyses. None of these had an average concentration exceeding 0.2% of the CG in river water sampled 8 mi downstream from the plant. The tritium concentration in river water immediately downstream of the plant (4.8 pCi/ml, including 0.5 pCi/ml background river contribution) represented the highest CG percentage (0.16) of the three radionuclides measured in river water. Special research programs using ultra-low-level techniques may detect trace quantities of other radionuclides of plant origin. Radioactive materials in river fish also continued very low (0.2 pCi/g 137 Cs maximum). Annual analyses of plant perimeter soil samples 0-5 cm deep) showed deposition of 137 Cs (52 mCi/km 2 ) and 239 Pu (1.2 mCi/km 2 ) within the range normally found in global fallout. 238 Pu in all soil samples was near the sensitivity of the analysis (approximately 0.1 mCi/km 2 ). For 1977, the calculated annual average dose from atmospheric releases of radioactive materials from SRP was 0.8 millirem (mrem) at the plant perimeter

  12. Ethnobotanic study of medicinal plants in Urmia city: identification and traditional using of antiparasites plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the native medicinal plants used in parasitic diseases treatment in Urmia. Methods: This study was conducted among 35 Urmia herbalists to identify medicinal plants used in parasitic diseases treatment. We used direct observation and interviews with collected herbarium specimens by native herbs commonly in the treatment of parasitic diseases. Questionnaires were included apothecary personal information and native plants list with information includes plant local name, plant parts used, method of their use and traditional therapies. Herbarium samples listed in the questionnaire collected from the area and were sent to agricultural research centers and Urmia University Faculty of Agriculture for genus and species determination. Results: Thirteen medicinal plants from six families for treatment of diabetes in Urmia were obtained from interviews. Most families have anti diabetic effect was included Asteraceae (36%. The most used was boiling (65%. Conclusions: In view of the findings of this study indicate that plants have the potential to be a parasitic infection so it is necessary ingredients of native plants be studied to demonstrate therapeutic effects and provide field work to evaluate the clinical effects of these herbs and ingredients they claim on parasitic diseases.

  13. Sustainability study of domestic communal wastewater treatment plant in Surabaya City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, E.; Sudarno; Zaman, B.

    2017-06-01

    Sanitation is one of the critical infrastructure sectors in order to improve community health status. The Ministry of Public Works of the Republic of Indonesia to define that word sanitation include: domestic waste water management, solid waste management, rain water management (drainage management) as well as the provision of clean water. Surabaya city as the capital of East Java province and Indonesia’s second largest city with a population of 2,853,661 inhabitants in 2014 (the second largest after Jakarta), but the people who have been served by the sanitation infrastructure systems were expected at 176,105 families or about 26.95 % of the population of the city is already using sanitation facilities. In the White Book Sanitation of Surabaya City in 2010, Surabaya City sanitation development mission is to realize the wastewater management of settlements in a sustainable and affordable by the community. This study aims to assess the sustainability of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) domestic communal in the city of Surabaya. The method in this research is quantitative method through observation, structured interviews and laboratory testing of the variables analyzed. Analyses were performed using a technique Multidisciplinary rapid appraisal (Rap-fish) to determine the level of sustainability of the management of communal WWTP based on a number of attributes that easy scored. Attributes of each dimension includes the technical, environmental quality, institutional, economic, and social. The results of this study are sustainability index of environmental quality dimension at 84.32 with highly sustainable status, technical dimension at 62.61 with fairly sustainable status, social dimension at 57.98 with fairly sustainable status, economic dimension at 43.24 with less sustainable status, and institutional dimension at 39.67 with less sustainable status.

  14. Occupational exposures at nuclear power plants. Twelfth annual report of the Isoe programme, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. The ISOE Programme provides experts in occupational radiation protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposure data from the 465 commercial nuclear power plants participating in the Programme (representing some 90 per cent of the world's total operating commercial reactors). The Twelfth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises achievements made during 2002 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described. (author)

  15. Alstonia scholaris (l.) r.br. planted bioindicator along different road-sides of lahore city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, S.; Khan, Z.U.D.; Saddiqui, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    A research work was carried out during 2009-2011 to investigate the biomonitoring potential of a road avenue tree, Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. against the culminating pressure of aerial pollution in Lahore city. For this purpose seven busiest roads were selected on the basis of the flux of traffic and three leaf samples were taken for various biochemical and physiological attributes from each of the A. scholaris tree of respective road. The geographic coordinates on the map can be used for future reference. Various floral attributes of plant were selected i.e., amount of dust (g), percent (%) leaf moisture content, photosynthetic rate (meu Mm-2S-1), transpiration rate (meu Mm-2S-1), stomatal conductance (meu Mm-2S-1), chlorophyll contents (mg/g) and amount of carotenoids (mg/g) in the leaf samples. In case of % leaf moisture content, significant variation between the control (61.95) and road side plants (50.76) was observed. While minute differences between the control and road side plants were recorded in photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll contents and carotenoids, which is an indication that day by day increasing air pollution pressure in Lahore city is playing pivotal role, not only in the morphological features of the plant but also affecting the physiological and biochemical. (author)

  16. Annual report 2003 of Furnas - Electrical Power Plants and Co., RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the annual report of Furnas Power Plants and Co, highlighting the main enterprise achievements during the year of 2003, describing the company economic and financial important aspects and reporting the energy buying and sales, the infrastructure modernization, the activities of research and development, the social, cultural and environmental actions, the relationships with the company human resources. The report uses performance indexes for managerial description of the company activities

  17. 2003 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Pantex Plant. DOE is commited to assuring the health and safety of its workers. This includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. Solanaceae plant malformation in Chongqing City, China, reveals a pollution threat to the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Guanshan; Timko, Michael P; Li, Jiana; Wang, Wenjing; Ma, Haoran

    2014-10-21

    Water quality is under increasing threat from industrial and natural sources of pollutants. Here, we present our findings about a pollution incident involving the tap water of Chongqing City in China. In recent years, Solanaceae plants grown in greenhouses in this city have displayed symptoms of cupped, strappy leaves. These symptoms resembled those caused by chlorinated auxinic herbicides. We have determined that these symptoms were caused by the tap water used for irrigation. Using a bioactivity-guided fractionation method, we isolated a substance with corresponding auxinic activity from the tap water. The substance was named "solanicide" because of its strong bioactivity against Solanaceae plants. Further investigation revealed that the solanicide in the water system of Chongqing City is derived from the Jialing River, a major tributary of the Yangtze River. Therefore, it is also present in the Yangtze River downstream of Chongqing after the inflow of the Jialing River. Biological analyses indicated that solanicide is functionally similar to, but distinct from, other known chlorinated auxinic herbicides. Chemical assays further showed that solanicide structurally differs from those compounds. This study has highlighted a water pollution threat to the Yangtze River and its floodplain ecosystem.

  19. NOx lifetimes and emissions of cities and power plants in polluted background estimated by satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method to quantify NOx emissions and corresponding atmospheric lifetimes from OMI NO2 observations together with ECMWF wind fields without further model input for sources located in a polluted background. NO2 patterns under calm wind conditions are used as proxy for the spatial patterns of NOx emissions, and the effective atmospheric NOx lifetime is determined from the change of spatial patterns measured at larger wind speeds. Emissions are subsequently derived from the NO2 mass above the background, integrated around the source of interest. Lifetimes and emissions are estimated for 17 power plants and 53 cities located in non-mountainous regions across China and the USA. The derived lifetimes for the ozone season (May–September are 3.8 ± 1.0 h (mean ± standard deviation with a range of 1.8 to 7.5 h. The derived NOx emissions show generally good agreement with bottom-up inventories for power plants and cities. Regional inventory shows better agreement with top-down estimates for Chinese cities compared to global inventory, most likely due to different downscaling approaches adopted in the two inventories.

  20. 15 CFR 714.1 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of 30 metric tons. 714.1 Section 714.1 Commerce... SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.1 Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3... in the production of a chemical in any units within the same plant through chemical reaction...

  1. Public attitude in the city of Belgrade towards invasive alien plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomićević Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are seen as a major threat to biodiversity at a global level, while the number of new invasions is increasing at an alarming rate. Raising the awareness of the public, academic world and policy makers about the dangers caused by invasive species, is essential for the creation of the support needed to implement and coordinate the policies necessary to address this problem. The aim of this study is to determine the level of local public awareness of the existence of these plant species, examine the public attitude towards alien invasive plant species and willingness to get involved in the prevention of their spreading. The survey was conducted in four nurseries on the territory of the City of Belgrade and the investigation dealt only with alien invasive woody plant species. Thirty customers were questioned in each of the four nurseries. The results show that local public is uninformed on the issue of invasive plant species. It is necessary to constantly and intensively raise their awareness of this issue, as well as the awareness of harmful consequences that may occur due to the uncontrolled spreading of alien invasive species. This refers not only to the population that visits the nurseries and buys the plants there and to those employed in plant production and selling, but also to the whole local public and decision makers.

  2. EPR pilot study on the population of Stepnogorsk city living in the vicinity of a uranium processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, Kassym; Akilbekov, Abdirash; Morzabayev, Aidar [L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana (Kazakhstan); Ivannikov, Alexander; Stepanenko, Valeriy [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Abralina, Sholpan; Sadvokasova, Lyazzat; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay [Semey State Medical University, Semey (Kazakhstan); Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate possible doses in teeth received by workers of a uranium processing plant, in excess to the natural background dose. For this, the electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry method was applied. Absorbed doses in teeth from the workers were compared with those measured in teeth from the Stepnogorsk city population and a control pool population from Astana city. The measured tooth samples were extracted according to medical indications. In total, 32 tooth enamel samples were analyzed, 5 from Astana city, Kazakhstan (control population), 21 from the residents of Stepnogorsk city (180 km from Astana city), and 6 from the workers of a uranium processing plant. The estimated doses in tooth enamel from the uranium processing plant workers were not significantly different to those measured in enamel from the control population. In teeth from the workers, the maximum dose in excess to background dose was 33 mGy. In two teeth from residents of Stepnogorsk city, however, somewhat larger doses were measured. The results of this pilot study encourage further investigations in an effort to receiving a final conclusion on the exposure situation of the uranium processing plant workers and the residents of Stepnogorsk city. (orig.)

  3. A nuclear power plant for Lima city. Is it a real alternative?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romani A, J.

    1992-01-01

    At the present, Peru has an installed electricity capacity of 4112 MW from which the 80% comes from hydroelectric sources and other 20% from thermal sources. Lima city concentrates the larger industrial activities and uses 95% of the hydro-electric supply the 5% comes from thermal origin. This situation provokes an energetic vulnerability to Lima, a city with more them 10 million of inhabitants, because climatic changes and the electric towers destruction. In the 1989-1992 period lack of energy meant economic losses for about US$ 2 100 000. To solve this problem the government is building a 300 MW thermal station. This alternative means a low investment for Kw installed but high production costs. Additionally the installation of the plant in Lima will increase the environmental contamination due to emission of about 20000 TM/year of SOx and 7500 TM/year of NOx. The research study recommends as a solution the diversification of energy sources, avoiding dependence of the hydro-electrical ones. In the same form it suggests that the next 300 MW power station to be installed for about 1998 would be a nuclear power plant but not thermal one. It also makes a revision of the new designs for nuclear power plants called safe inherently which design and construction philosophy avoid the possibility of accidents like Chernobyl. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs

  4. Annual and diurnal variations of gaseous and particulate pollutants in 31 provincial capital cities based on in situ air quality monitoring data from China National Environmental Monitoring Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Yin, Daiying; He, Jianjun; Liu, Na; Qu, Jianjun; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term air quality data with high temporal and spatial resolutions are needed to understand some important processes affecting the air quality and corresponding environmental and health effects. The annual and diurnal variations of each criteria pollutant including PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively), CO (carbon monoxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), SO2 (sulfur dioxide) and O3 (ozone) in 31 provincial capital cities between April 2014 and March 2015 were investigated by cluster analysis to evaluate current air pollution situations in China, and the cities were classified as severely, moderately, and slightly polluted cities according to the variations. The concentrations of air pollutants in winter months were significantly higher than those in other months with the exception of O3, and the cities with the highest CO and SO2 concentrations were located in northern China. The annual variation of PM2.5 concentrations in northern cities was bimodal with comparable peaks in October 2014 and January 2015, while that in southern China was unobvious with slightly high PM2.5 concentrations in winter months. The concentrations of particulate matter and trace gases from primary emissions (SO2 and CO) and NO2 were low in the afternoon (~16:00), while diurnal variation of O3 concentrations was opposite to that of other pollutants with the highest values in the afternoon. The most polluted cities were mainly located in North China Plain, while slightly polluted cities mostly focus on southern China and the cities with high altitude such as Lasa. This study provides a basis for the formulation of future urban air pollution control measures in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Resource allocation in Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae): how supra-annual fruiting affects plant traits and herbivory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Fernanda Vieira; de Queiroz, Antônio César Medeiros; Maia, Maria Luiza Bicalho; Júnior, Ronaldo Reis; Fagundes, Marcilio

    2016-06-01

    Plants have limited resources to invest in reproduction, vegetative growth and defense against herbivorous. Trade-off in resources allocation promotes changes in plant traits that may affect higher trophic levels. In this study, we evaluated the trade-off effect between years of high and low fruiting on the investment of resources for growth and defense, and their indirect effects on herbivory in Copaifera langsdorffii. Our questions were: (i) does the resource investment on reproduction causes a depletion in vegetative growth as predicted by the Carbon/Nutrient Balance hypothesis (CNBH), resulting in more availability of resources to be allocated for defense?, (ii) does the variation in resource allocation for growth and defense between years of high and low fruiting leads to indirect changes in herbivory? Thirty-five trees located in a Cerrado area were monitored during 2008 (year of high fruiting) and 2009 (year of no fruiting) to evaluate the differential investment in vegetative traits (biomass, growth and number of ramifications), plant defense (tannin concentration and plant hypersensitivity) and herbivory (galling attack and folivory). According to our first question, we observed that in the fruiting year, woody biomass negatively affected tannin concentration, indicating that fruit production restricted the resources that could be invested both in growth as in defense. In the same way, we observed an inter-annual variation in herbivorous attack, and found that plants with higher leaf biomass and tannin concentration, experienced higher galling attack and hypersensitive reaction, regardless years. These findings suggested that plants’ resistance to herbivory is a good proxy of plant defense and an effective defense strategy for C. langsdorffii, besides the evidence of indirect responses of the third trophic level, as postulated by the second question. In summary, the supra-annual fruiting pattern promoted several changes on plant development

  6. Feasibility study on the St. Petersburg City heat and electric cogeneration plant No.2, etc. scrap and build project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions in line with the Joint Implementation, a survey was made of the scrap and build project for the superannuated Central Heat Power Station in St. Petersburg City. The survey team visited the relevant sites twice during 1999. The team drafted an improvement plan afterwards and presented it to the Russian counterpart, LENENEGRO. Based on the discussions with LENENEGRO, it was determined that the proposed combined cycle cogeneration plant would contain three 67MW-class gas turbines, three heat recovery steam generators and one back pressure turbine to achieve the generation capacity of approximately 200MW and heat supply capacity of 200G cal/hr. The total investment required for this project is about 140 million dollars. The term of the construction work is estimated at 36 months. It is estimated that the implementation of the project will reduce 1,481,979 tons of CO2 per year, or a total of 40,013,434 tons in 27 years after the commencement of operation. In addition, the terminal power generation efficiency will be improved from the current 18.68% to 41%, which leads to an annual fuel saving of 546,301 tons of crude oil or its equivalent. (NEDO)

  7. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 1: Investigation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations.

  8. Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An extensive surveillance program has been continuously maintained since 1951 to determine the concentrations of radonuclides in a 1200-square-mile area in the environs of the plant and the radiation exposure of the population resulting from SRP operations. The results of this monitoring program are reported annually to the public. This document summarizes the 1980 results. The radiation dose at the plant perimeter and the population dose in the region from SRP operations is very small relative to the dose received from naturally occurring radiation. The annual average dose in 1980 from atmospheric releases of radioactive materials from SRP was 0.7 millirem at the plant perimeter. The maximum dose at the plant perimeter was 1.01 mrem, which is 0.2% of the Department of Energy limit for offsite exposures. The population dose to people living within 80 km of the center of SRP was 99.7 man-rems. During 1980, this same population received a radiation dose of 54,400 man-rems from natural radiation and an additional dose of 47,000 man-rems from medical x-rays. An individual consuming river water downstream from SRP would receive a maximum calculated dose in 1980 of 0.22 mrem which includes dose contributions from consumer products produced using Savannah River water. Air and water are the major dispersal media for radioactive emissions. Samples representing most segments of the environment that may conceivably be affected by these emissions were monitored to ensure a safe environment. Releases of radioactivity from SRP had an inconsequential effect on living plants and animals. With a few exceptions, concentrations outside the plant boundary were too low to distinguish from the natural radioactive background and continuing worldwide fallout from nuclear weapons tests

  9. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants

  10. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants.

  11. AECB staff annual assessment of the Bruce Heavy Water Plant for the year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board's staff annual assessment of the operation of Bruce Heavy Water Plant (BHWP) during 1995. BHWP operation was acceptably safe in 1995. At BHWP, Ontario Hydro complied with the regulations issued under the authority of the Atomic Energy Control Act. AECB is satisfied that BHWP did not pose any undue risk to public health or safety or to the environment. Ontario Hydro met all safety system and safety related system availability targets at BHWP in 1995. The emergency response capability is satisfactory. 2 figs

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2014. Emended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2014 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year (CY); Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE environmental sustainability goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2014. Emended

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2014 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year (CY); Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE environmental sustainability goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  14. Comparison of signaling interactions determining annual and perennial plant growth in response to low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid eWingler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature inhibits plant growth despite the fact that considerable rates of photosynthetic activity can be maintained. Instead of lower rates of photosynthesis, active inhibition of cell division and expansion is primarily responsible for reduced growth. This results in sink limitation and enables plants to accumulate carbohydrates that act as compatible solutes or are stored throughout the winter to enable re-growth in spring. Regulation of growth in response to temperature therefore requires coordination with carbon metabolism, e.g. via the signaling metabolite trehalose-6-phosphate. The phytohormones gibberellins (GA and jasmonate (JA play an important role in regulating growth in response to temperature. Growth restriction at low temperature is mainly mediated by DELLA proteins, whose degradation is promoted by GA. For annual plants, it has been shown that the GA/DELLA pathway interacts with JA signaling and C-repeat binding factor (CBF dependent cold acclimation, but these interactions have not been explored in detail for perennials. Growth regulation in response to seasonal factors is, however, particularly important in perennials, especially at high latitudes. In autumn, growth cessation in trees is caused by shortening of the daylength in interaction with phytohormone signaling. In perennial grasses seasonal differences in the sensitivity to GA may enable enhanced growth in spring. This review provides an overview of the signaling interactions that determine plant growth at low temperature and highlights gaps in our knowledge, especially concerning the seasonality of signaling responses in perennial plants.

  15. Assessment of heavy metal pollution of topsoils and plants in the City of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejić Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess heavy metal pollution in the city of Belgrade (Serbia concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were measured on 18 topsoil samples collected in the proximity to central urban boulevards and in urban parks. In addition, concentrations of specified elements were determined in leaves of three evergreen plant species Buxus sempervirens L., Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh Nutt. and Prunus laurocerasus L. so as to estimate their sensitivity to heavy metal pollution. Even though various types of soils from different quarts of Belgrade were sampled, their heavy metal contents were very similar, with somewhat higher concentrations of almost all elements detected in the proximity to high traffic roads. Generally, concentrations of heavy metals in leaves of investigated plant species paralleled the heavy metal concentrations found in their respective soils and were higher in plants sampled from boulevards then from urban parks. Since investigated plant show no visible injuries induced by detected heavy metal pollution these species are suitable for the successful urban landscaping. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173030

  16. Estimation of annual effective dose from 226Ra and 228Ra due to consumption of foodstuffs by inhabitants of Ramsar city, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asefi, M.; Fathivand, A. A.; Amidi, J.

    2005-01-01

    226 Ra and 228 Ra contents in foodstuffs of Ramsar which is a coastal city in the northern part of lran were determined by gamma spectrometry. Measurement results together with food consumption rates were used to estimate annual effective dose from 226 Ra and 228 Ra, due to consumption of food stuffs by inhabitants of Ramsar city. Materials and methods: a total of 33 samples from 11 different foodstuffs including root vegetables (beetroot), leafy vegetables (lettuce, parsley and spinach) and tea, meat, chicken, pea, broad bean, rice, and cheese were purchased from markets of Ramsar city and were analyzed for their 226 Ra and 228 Ra concentration. 1-8 kg of fresh weight sample was placed in Marinnelli beaker and sealed. The measurement of natural radioactivity levels as performed by gamma-spectrometry system, using a high purity germanium detector with 40% relative efficiency. Results: The highest concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined in tea samples with 1570 and 1140 mBq/kg, respectively, and the lowest concentration of 226 Ra was in pea, cheese, chicken, broad bean, and beetroot. Conclusion:The maximum estimated annual effective dose from 226 Ra and 228 Ra due to consumption, foodstuffs were determined to be 19.22 and 0.71 mSv from rice and meat samples respectively, where as, minimum estimated annual effective dose for 226 Ra was 0.017, 0.018 and 0.019 mSv from beetroot, cheese and pea samples respectively

  17. Economic justification of building a power plant on gas from the city dump in Skopje (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihamarn, K.; Popovska, Sanja

    1995-01-01

    Municipal waste treatment is a big problem in almost all urban environments in the world. Its combustion, after previous material sorting and separation for which recycling is possible, is considered the best method. Unfortunately, this method is very expensive and it can be used only in developed countries. Methane production from the municipal waste and its further use in the electric power production is consider a more appropriate method for developing countries. In the Republic of Macedonia the municipal waste problem is foremost in Skopje, where the cumulative quantities of municipal waste enable the production of c-ca 2 million m3 methane annually, sufficing to propel of a thermal power plant capacitating 11 MW. Considering all possible risks of non systematic and incomplete waste retrieval, the estimate is that under the current conditions, the 5,5 MW need of the thermal power plant can completely be covered. According to the data processed from the 5,5 MW Greenmaunt power plant in New Zealand which is being exploited for the last 5 years, the attempt of a evaluating the economic justification of setting up an equivalent power plant in Skopje is currently underway. 2 tabs

  18. Taxonomic and Functional Responses of Soil Microbial Communities to Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xue; Zhou, Xishu; Hale, Lauren; Yuan, Mengting; Feng, Jiajie; Ning, Daliang; Shi, Zhou; Qin, Yujia; Liu, Feifei; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Liu, Xueduan; Luo, Yiqi; Tiedje, James M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2018-01-01

    Clipping, removal of aboveground plant biomass, is an important issue in grassland ecology. However, few studies have focused on the effect of clipping on belowground microbial communities. Using integrated metagenomic technologies, we examined the taxonomic and functional responses of soil microbial communities to annual clipping (2010–2014) in a grassland ecosystem of the Great Plains of North America. Our results indicated that clipping significantly (P microbial respiration rates. Annual temporal variation within the microbial communities was much greater than the significant changes introduced by clipping, but cumulative effects of clipping were still observed in the long-term scale. The abundances of some bacterial and fungal lineages including Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were significantly (P microbial communities were significantly correlated with soil respiration and plant productivity. Intriguingly, clipping effects on microbial function may be highly regulated by precipitation at the interannual scale. Altogether, our results illustrated the potential of soil microbial communities for increased soil organic matter decomposition under clipping land-use practices. PMID:29904372

  19. Model calculating annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for coastal site of nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an atmospheric dispersion field experiment performed on the coastal site of nuclear power plant in the east part of China during 1995 to 1996. The three-dimension joint frequency are obtained by hourly observation of wind and temperature on a 100m high tower; the frequency of the “event day of land and sea breezes” are given by observation of surface wind and land and sea breezes; the diffusion parameters are got from measurements of turbulent and wind tunnel simulation test.A new model calculating the annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for coastal site of nuclear power plant is developed and established.This model considers not only the effect from mixing release and mixed layer but also the effect from the internal boundary layer and variation of diffusion parameters due to the distance from coast.The comparison between results obtained by the new model and current model shows that the ratio of annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor gained by the new model and the current one is about 2.0.

  20. Feasibility study on replacement of power plant and desalination plant in Aktau City, Manghistau Region, Republic of Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of conserving energy and reducing greenhouse effect gas emission, feasibility study was conducted for improvement of efficiency of power generation/desalination facilities at MAEK Energy Center, Aktau City, Manghistau, Kazakhstan. Presently, the main facilities are the conventional natural gas fired power plant, evaporation type seawater desalination facility, hot water production facility, etc. In the project, introduction of the following was planned to be made: cogeneration facility composed of two units of 1,100-degree C class gas turbine and reverse osmosis (RO) type desalination facility for drinking water production with a capacity of 50,000 t/d. As a result of the study, the energy conservation amount in this project was 151,900-165,400 toe/y in power generation facility, and the greenhouse effect gas reduction amount was 355,000-387,000 t-CO2/y in power generation facility and 268,000 t-CO2/y in desalination facility. The construction cost and operational cost of the plant were 45.7 billion yen and 2.8 billion yen/y. In the economical estimation, ROI and ROE before tax were 7.4 and 34.8, respectively, which were considered to be appropriate values as social infrastructure related conditions. (NEDO)

  1. Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Annual report for 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The radiation dose at the plant perimeter or the population dose in the region from SRP operations is very small relative to the dose received from naturally occurring radiation. The annual average dose in 1978 from atmospheric releases of radioactive materials from SRP was 0.76 millirem (mrem) at the plant perimeter (approximately 1% of natural background). The maximum dose at the plant perimeter was 1.05 mrems, which is 0.2% of the Department of Energy limit for offsite exposures. The total radiation exposure at the plant perimeter from SRP releases and natural background radiation (98 mrems) was substantially less than the exposure of a person living in Columbia, SC (111 mrems), or Atlanta, GA (124 mrems). These differences are due to variation in natural radiation. The population dose to people living within 80 km (50 mi) of the center of SRP (population: 465,000) was 110 man-rems. During 1978, this same population received a radiation dose of 54,400 man-rems from natural radiation and an additional dose of 47,000 man-rems from medical x rays. An individual consuming river water downstream from SRP would receive a maximum calculated dose of 0.32 mrem. Air and water are the major dispersal media for radioactive emissions. Samples representing most segments of the environment that may conceivably be affected by these emissions were monitored to ensure a safe environment. Releases of radioactivity from SRP had very small effect on living plants and animals and were too minute to be detectable, and with a few exceptions, concentrations outside the plant boundary were too low to distinguish from the natural radioactive background and continuing worldwide fallout from nuclear weapons tests

  2. A feasibility study of perennial/annual plant species to restore soils contaminated with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarías, Montserrat; Beltrán, Margarita; Gilberto Torres, Luis; González, Abelardo

    A feasibility study was carried out to evaluate the application of perennial/annual plant species in a phytoextraction process of a previously washed industrial urban soil contaminated by nickel, arsenic and cupper. The plant species selected for this study were Ipomea (Ipomea variada); grass (Poa pratensis); grass mixture (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum sp.); Monks Cress (Tropaeolum majus); ficus (Ficus benajamina) and fern (Pteris cretica). Soil was characterized and it presented the following heavy metals concentrations (dry weight): 80 mg of Ni/kg, 456-656 mg of As/kg and 1684-3166 mg of Cu/kg. Germination and survival in contaminated soil tests were conducted, from these, P. pratensis was discarded and the rest of plant species tested were used for the phytoextraction selection test. After 4 months of growth, biomass production was determined, and content of Ni, As and Cu was analyzed in plant’s tissue. Metal biological absorption coefficient (BAC), bio-concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF), were calculated. Regarding to biomass generation it was observed, in every case, an inhibition of the plant growth compared with blanks sown in a non contaminated soil; inhibition ranged from 22.5% for the Monk cress to 98% for Ipomea. Even though the later presented high BAC, BCF and TF, its growth was severely inhibited, and therefore, due its low biomass generation, it is not recommended for phytoextraction under conditions for this study. Heavy metals concentrations in plant’s tissue (dry weight) were as high as 866 mg Cu/kg and 602 mg As/kg for grass mixture; and 825 mg As/kg was observed for Monks cress. Grass mixture and monks cress had high BAC, BCF and TF, also they had high metal concentrations in its plants tissues and the lowest growth inhibition rates; hence the application in phytoextraction processes of these plants is advisable.

  3. Plant allometry, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry, and interspecific trends in annual growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J

    2006-02-01

    Life forms as diverse as unicellular algae, zooplankton, vascular plants, and mammals appear to obey quarter-power scaling rules. Among the most famous of these rules is Kleiber's (i.e. basal metabolic rates scale as the three-quarters power of body mass), which has a botanical analogue (i.e. annual plant growth rates scale as the three-quarters power of total body mass). Numerous theories have tried to explain why these rules exist, but each has been heavily criticized either on conceptual or empirical grounds. N,P-STOICHIOMETRY: Recent models predicting growth rates on the basis of how total cell, tissue, or organism nitrogen and phosphorus are allocated, respectively, to protein and rRNA contents may provide the answer, particularly in light of the observation that annual plant growth rates scale linearly with respect to standing leaf mass and that total leaf mass scales isometrically with respect to nitrogen but as the three-quarters power of leaf phosphorus. For example, when these relationships are juxtaposed with other allometric trends, a simple N,P-stoichiometric model successfully predicts the relative growth rates of 131 diverse C3 and C4 species. The melding of allometric and N,P-stoichiometric theoretical insights provides a robust modelling approach that conceptually links the subcellular 'machinery' of protein/ribosomal metabolism to observed growth rates of uni- and multicellular organisms. Because the operation of this 'machinery' is basic to the biology of all life forms, its allometry may provide a mechanistic explanation for the apparent ubiquity of quarter-power scaling rules.

  4. Assessment of WQI and Microbial pollution for two water treatment plants in Baghdad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed AliAl-Hashimi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tigris River is the main water source for all water treatment plants in Baghdad city. In current study, Water Quality Index (WQI and microbial pollution was obtained for two water treatment plants and their networks in Baghdad city Al-Karama and Al-Wathba WTP for both raw and treated water, In order to assess water suitability as a source of domestic water supply. Physical, chemical, and Microbialparameters werestudied fora period of four months (March-June, 2014. The parameters which were taken into account for the present work are pH, turbidity (Nephelometric Turbidity Unit, Total Alkalinity (TA, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Calcium (Ca++, Magnesium (Mg++, Total Hardness (TH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS,Chloride (Cl-, and Most Probable Number (MPN method as microbial pollution indicator. The results indicate that WQI for untreated Tigris water was classified as "unfit for human consumption" at both WTPs intakes and along study period and after water passing through the sequence treatment units in WTPs its quality is gradually increased and finally, the treated water quality ranged from "Good" to " Moderately polluted" at both All-Karama and Al-Wathba WTPs. In networks the quality of water ranged between "Good" to "moderately polluted" in Al-Karama WTP network and between "Moderately polluted" to "severely polluted" in Al-Wathba WTP network. For Microbiological pollution, MPN throughout the period of study was between (0-150 cell/100ml at Al-Karama WTP and between (0- 240 cell/100ml at Al-Wathba WTP. The highest value obtained was (240 cell/100ml at raw water in Al- Wathba WTP intake in June, while the lowest value obtained was (0 cell/100ml at all chlorinated samples.

  5. SEASONALITY OF ANNUAL PLANT ESTABLISHMENT INFLUENCES THE INTERACTIONBETWEEN THE NON-NATIVE ANNUAL GRASS BROMUS MADRITENSIS SSP. RUBENS AND MOJAVE DESERT PERENNIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Competition between native and non-native species can change the composition and structure of plant communities, but in deserts the timing of non-native plant establishment can modulate their impacts to native species. In a field experiment, we varied densities of the non-native annual grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens around individuals of three native perennials--Larrea iridentata, Achnatherum hymenoides, and Pleuraphis rigida--in either winter or spring. Additional plots were prepared for the Same perennial species and seasons, but with a mixture of native annual species. Relative growth rates of perennial shoots (RGRs) declined with increasing Bromus biomass when Bromus that was established in winter had 2-3 mo of growth and high water use before perennial growth began. However, this high water use did not significantly reduce water potentials for the perennials, suggesting Bromus that established earlier depleted other soil resources, such as N, otherwise used by perennial plants. Spring-established Bromus had low biomass even at higher densities and did not effectively reduce RGRs, resulting in an overall lower impact to perennials than when Bromus was established in winter. Similarly, growth and reproduction of perennials with mixed annuals as neighbors did not differ from those with Bromus neighbors of equivalent biomass, but densities of these annuals did not support the high biomass necessary to reduce perennial growth. Thus, impacts of native Mojave Desert annuals to perennials are expected to be lower than those of Bromus because seed dormancy and narrow requirements for seedling survivorship produce densities and biomass lower than those achieved by Bromus. In comparing the effects of Bromus among perennial species, the impact of increased Bromus biomass on RGR was lower for Larrea than for the two perennial grasses, probably because Lurrea maintains low growth rates throughout the year, even after Bromus has completed its life cycle. This contrasts

  6. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...

  7. Public health impact assessment of a proposed cogeneration plant in the Quebec city metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, P; Bolduc, D; Gauvin, D; Guerrier, P; Gauthier, R [Quebec Public Health Center, Ste-Foy (Canada); Laflamme, P [Laval Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1996-12-31

    In 1994, public hearings were held in Quebec city concerning a 120 megawatt (MW) gas cogeneration project that was to be coupled with an already existing pulp and paper mill in the downtown area. Cogeneration plants are often described as highly beneficial from the point of view of local environment. It is well known that the burning of natural gas emits far less sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate matters (PM) than the combustion of oil or coal. The proposed plant would use high pressure vapour from a nearby incinerator plant and natural gas to produce low pressure vapor for the paper mill industry as well as electricity. The cogeneration plant would allow the paper mill to stop burning heavy oil. By using natural gas instead of heavy oil, the new cogeneration-paper mill complex (CPC) is expected to reinforce the recent trend and willingness towards improving downtown air quality. On the other hand, the CPC would emit more CO{sub 2}, due to the production of additional electricity. According to the Rio de Janeiro Agreement ratified in 1988, Canada is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. Nevertheless, the cogeneration file is a new option considered by the Quebec Provincial Governement in its last energy triennal plan. However, it must be specified that the Province of Quebec contributes to less than 15 % of the total Canadian CO{sub 2} production although it represents more than 25 % of its population. Furthermore the maximum production of electricity by this file has been set to 250 MW. It is a very small fraction of the total production of electricity in Quebec, which is 200 TW

  8. Public health impact assessment of a proposed cogeneration plant in the Quebec city metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, P.; Bolduc, D.; Gauvin, D.; Guerrier, P.; Gauthier, R. [Quebec Public Health Center, Ste-Foy (Canada); Laflamme, P. [Laval Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, public hearings were held in Quebec city concerning a 120 megawatt (MW) gas cogeneration project that was to be coupled with an already existing pulp and paper mill in the downtown area. Cogeneration plants are often described as highly beneficial from the point of view of local environment. It is well known that the burning of natural gas emits far less sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate matters (PM) than the combustion of oil or coal. The proposed plant would use high pressure vapour from a nearby incinerator plant and natural gas to produce low pressure vapor for the paper mill industry as well as electricity. The cogeneration plant would allow the paper mill to stop burning heavy oil. By using natural gas instead of heavy oil, the new cogeneration-paper mill complex (CPC) is expected to reinforce the recent trend and willingness towards improving downtown air quality. On the other hand, the CPC would emit more CO{sub 2}, due to the production of additional electricity. According to the Rio de Janeiro Agreement ratified in 1988, Canada is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. Nevertheless, the cogeneration file is a new option considered by the Quebec Provincial Governement in its last energy triennal plan. However, it must be specified that the Province of Quebec contributes to less than 15 % of the total Canadian CO{sub 2} production although it represents more than 25 % of its population. Furthermore the maximum production of electricity by this file has been set to 250 MW. It is a very small fraction of the total production of electricity in Quebec, which is 200 TW

  9. CO2 and temperature effects on leaf area production in two annual plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerly, D.D.; Coleman, J.S.; Morse, S.R.; Bazzaz, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    The authors studied leaf area production in two annual plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf area during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf area, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO 2 influenced leaf area production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf area and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38 degree, but area of individual leaves was greatest at 28 degree. Total leaf area was greatly reduced at 18 degree due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO 2 concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28 degree, resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf area. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO 2 at 28 degree. Individual leaf area was greatest at 28 degree, and was increased by elevated CO 2 at 28 degree but decreased at 38 degree. Branch leaf area displayed a similar response to CO 2 , butt was greater at 38 degree. Overall, wholeplant leaf area was slightly increased at 38 degree relative to 28 degree, and elevated CO 2 levels resulted in increased leaf area at 28 degree but decreased leaf area at 38 degree

  10. Review of annual radioecological studies carried out since 1991 in the French nuclear power plants environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffa, C.; Gontier, G.; Renaud, P.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1991, the IRSN carries out annual radioecological studies in the environment of the French Nuclear Power Plants. More than 5,000 samples, collected in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems around the 20 studied plants, have been analysed by low-level gamma spectrometry. This paper presents the main goals and methods for such studies, and the lessons learnt from 11 years results. The French NPP routine atmospheric releases do not lead to detectable radioactive inputs into their surroundings. For this reason, IRSN decided to reduce the number of analysis concerning terrestrial samples since 2000. On the other hand, NPP liquid discharges into rivers are responsible for the presence of low 60 Co, 58 Co, 110m Ag and 54 Mn activities and significant difference in 137 Cs/ 134 Cs activity ratios measured in aquatic compartments. Radioactive discharges of artificial gamma emitters are also detectable in the Channel marine environment around NPP. Nevertheless, this influence is often concealed by radionuclides released by COGEMA-La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant. Beyond important evaluations concerning the presence of artificial radionuclides in NPP's environment, studies conducted since 1991 give us an important database that can be used for a better knowledge of transfers and distribution of radioactivity through the environment. (author)

  11. Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Annual report for 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The environmental surveillance activities at and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) comprise the most comprehensive environmental monitoring program at any site in the United States. The results of this program have been reported to the public since 1959. In 1982, as in previous years, the impact of SRP operations on public health was insignificant. The highest radiation dose to a hypothetical individual on the SRP boundary from 1982 releases of radioactive materials was 1.4 millirems. The average radiation dose that a person at the SRP boundary received from atmospheric releases was 0.4 millirem per year. For persons living within 50 miles of SRP, the average dose was 0.12 millirem per year. The maximum radiation dose to people downstream of SRP who consumed water from the Port Wentworth water treatment plant near Savannah, GA, was 0.27 millirem in 1982. The maximum dose from consuming water from the Beaufort-Jasper, SC, water treatment plant was 0.19 millirem. These radiation doses from SRP operations are small compared to the dose from natural radiation, which averages 93 millirems per year near SRP. Additionally, doses from SRP are small compared to the geographical differences in natural radiation. The annual natural radiation dose to Georgia and South Carolina residents within 100 miles of SRP varies from place to place by as much as 60 millirems. The concentrations of nonradioactive materials of SRP origin in offsite air and water continued to be well within federal and state limits

  12. Modeling and optimization of energy consumption in multipurpose batch plants - 2006 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szijjarto, A.

    2006-12-15

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the work done in 2006 on the development of a model that is able to make prognoses concerning the energy consumption of chemical batch processes and thus enable these to be optimised. In the year under review, reliable models and software modelling tools were developed. The tools are based on commercially available simulation software. The authors note that the bottom-up model presented in the previous reports is powerful and robust enough to treat a significant amount of the process data in reasonable time. The model was tested for the modelling of energy consumption in the case-study plant during a period of two months. Up to 30 batches of 9 different products were produced in this period. The resolution of the model is discussed, which is very useful for identification of the process steps with the highest energy consumption. Energy-saving potential is noted. Based on these results, one product was chosen which is to be investigated in the final stage of the project in order to optimise the energy consumption of the case-study plant. The authors note that the methodology and software tools developed can be later applied for other products or chemical batch plants.

  13. Naturally occurring arsenic in the groundwater at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes an investigation concerning the presence of arsenic in concentrations exceeding 0.4 mg/L in the groundwater under the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The study consisted of four distinct phases: a thorough review of the technical literature, a historical survey of arsenic use at the facility, a laboratory study of existing techniques for determining arsenic speciation, and a field program including water, soil, and sediment sampling. The historical survey and literature review demonstrated that plant activities had not released significant quantities of arsenic to the environment but that similar occurrences of arsenic in alluvial groundwater are widespread in the midwestern United States. Laboratory studies showed that a chromatographic separation technique was necessary to accurately determine arsenic speciation for the KCP groundwater samples. Field studies revealed that naturally occurring reducing conditions prevalent in the subsurface are responsible for dissolving arsenic previously sorbed by iron oxides. Indeed, the data demonstrated that the bulk arsenic concentration of site subsoils and sediments is {approximately}7 mg/kg, whereas the arsenic content of iron oxide subsamples is as high as 84 mg/kg. Literature showed that similar concentrations of arsenic in sediments occur naturally and are capable of producing the levels of arsenic found in groundwater monitoring wells at the KCP. The study concludes, therefore, that the arsenic present in the KCP groundwater is the result of natural phenomena. 44 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. 77 FR 19718 - Ford Motor Company Twin Cities Assembly Plant Vehicle Operations Division Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,038] Ford Motor Company Twin... February 9, 2012, applicable to workers of Ford Motor Company, Twin Cities Assembly Plant, Vehicle..., and Pacer International were employed on-site at the St. Paul, Minnesota location of Ford Motor...

  15. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study. Volume 1. Summary of environmental effects, Savannah River Plant. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    This volume summarizes the technical content of Volumes II through XI of the annual report. Volume II provides a description of the SRP environment, facilities, and operation, and presents the objectives and design for the CCWS. Volume III presents information on water quality of SRP surface waters. Results of radionuclide and heavy metal transport studies are presented in Volume IV. Volume V contains findings from studies of wetland plant communities. Volume VI presents findings from studies of the lower food chain components of SRP aquatic habitats. The results of fisheries studies are reported in Volume VII. Studies of semi-aquatic vertebrate populations are reported in Volume VIII. Water-fowl utilization of SRP habitats is discussed in Volume IX. The status of endangered species that utilize SRP aquatic habitats is presented in Volume X. The findings from studies of Parr Pond ecosystem are presented in Volume XI

  16. US Department of Energy, Savannah River Plant environmental report. Annual report, 1985. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, C.C.; Lawrimore, I.B.; Heath, E.M.; Till, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    In 1985, as in previous years, the radiological impact of SRP operations on public health was insignificant. The radiation dose commitment to a hypothetical individual on the SRP boundary from 1985 SRP atmospheric releases of radioactive materials was 0.9 millirem (mrem) (0.009 mSv) maximum and 0.35 mrem (0.0035 mSv) average. To obtain the maximum dose commitment, this individual would have had to reside on the SRP boundary at the location of highest dose commitment for 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. The average dose commitment from SRP atmospheric releases to persons living within 50 miles (80 km) of SRP was 0.08 mrem (0.0008 mSv) per year. The maximum radiation dose commitment to an individual downriver of SRP who consumed Savannah River water was 0.14 mrem (0.0014 mSv) at the Cherokee Hill water treatment plant at Port Wentworth, GA (near Savannah), and at the Beaufort-Jasper County water treatment plant near Beaufort, SC. These radiation dose commitments from SRP operations are small compared with the annual dose from natural radiation, which averages 93 mrem (0.93 mSv) per year near SRP. Additionally, dose commitments from SRP operations are small compared to the geographical differences in natural radiation. The annual natural radiation dose to Georgia and South Carolina residents within 100 miles of SRP varies from place to place by as much as 55 mrem (0.55 mSv). This expanded report provides a broader discussion of environmental protection programs at SRP and includes both onsite and offsite data. This 1985 report contians monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities, summaries of environmental research and management programs, a summary of national Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities, and a listing and status of environmental permits, orders, and notices issued by regulatory sgencies

  17. Ecosystem-scale fluxes in seminatural Pyrenean grasslands: role of annual dynamics of plant functional types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altimir, Nuria; Ibañez, Mercedes; Elbers, Jan; Rota, Cristina; Arias, Claudia; Carrara, Arnaud; Nogues, Salvador; Sebastia, Maria-Teresa

    2013-04-01

    The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and the annual C balance of a site are in general modulated by light, temperature and availability of water and other resources to the plants. In grasslands, NEE is expected to depend strongly on the vegetation with a relationship that can be summarized by the above-ground biomass, its amount and dynamics. Any factor controlling the amount of green biomass is expected to have a strong impact on the short-term NEE, such as amount of solar radiation, water availability and grazing pressure. These controls are modulated differently depending on the plant functional type enduring them. Furthermore, as different guilds follow different functional strategies for optimization of the resources, they also present different patterns of change in their capacities such as photosynthetic fixation, belowground C allocation, and C loss via respiration. We examined these relationships at several semi-natural pastures to determine how the seasonal distribution of plant functional types is detected in the short-term ecosystem exchange and what role it plays. We have looked into these patterns to determine the general variation of key processes and whether different temporal patterns arise between different guilds. The study sites are in the Pyrenees, on the mountain pastures of La Bertolina, Alinyà, and Castellar at 1300, 1700, 1900 m a.s.l. respectively. We performed ecosystem-scale flux measurements by means of micrometeorologial stations combined with a thorough description of the vegetation including below- and above-ground biomass and leaf area as well as monitoring of natural abundance of C isotopes, discriminated by plant functional types. We present here the results of the study.

  18. Radioactive caesium contamination due to Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants accident in Osaka city. Evaluation of accumulation and decontamination of radioactive materials via reverse logistics function of a city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Takayuki; Kitano, Masaaki; Sakai, Mamoru; Takakura, Akito; Katahira, Kenshi; Nishitani, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed background level of radioactive contamination in city area of Osaka before combusting the wide area disposal of disastrous debris at a municipal waste incineration plant of Osaka city. The debris was caused by Tohoku district great earthquake disaster and suspected to be contaminated with radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants. We also investigated radioactivity in incineration ash of municipal waste incineration plants and of sewage treatment plants, as well as in water clarifier sludge of potable water treatment plants, and evaluated the accumulation and cleansing of radioactive materials via the reverse logistic function of the city. Radioactive caesium deposited in Osaka city area was estimated to be approximately 4.3 GBq from the concentrations observed in the monthly fallout, whereas that collected as municipal wastes and sewage was estimated to be approximately 0.9 GBq a year in 2011. Even two years after the accident, "1"3"4Cs, which is the evidence of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, had been detected in the municipal wastes at a level comparable to the activities found just after the accident, however, the radioactive caesium concentration in fallout measured in the Osaka city area had decreased below a detection limit after May 2012. Introduction of materials contaminated with radioactive caesium from outside the city area was suspected because the observed contamination level was inexplicable by that of observed in the environmental wastes such as pruned branches which are contaminated by with the fallout in city area of Osaka. (author)

  19. Flowering plants of Hedera helix L. in the Grunwald district of the city of Poznań

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Korszun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the period from September 2008 to July 2009 in the Grunwald district in the city of Poznań, Poland, a total of 609 localities of flowering English ivy were recorded, for which 769 plants were described. These plants were found in different localities, most of them euhemerobic. The biggest number of flowering specimens was recorded in home gardens. Support for climbing plants was mainly provided by trees and shrubs, including fruit trees – pear and apple trees. Among the other tree species, the biggest group comprises Scots pine, common birch, European larch and common locust. Other types of supports included fences, buildings and elements of small architecture. A very high number of specimens in the generative stage in the Grunwald district indicates considerable popularity and at the same time very good adaptation of ivy not only to the climatic conditions of the city of Poznań, but also to anthropogenic changes in the habitat.

  20. Causes and consequences of complex population dynamics in an annual plant, Cardamine pensylvanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crone, E.E.

    1995-11-08

    The relative importance of density-dependent and density-independent factors in determining the population dynamics of plants has been widely debated with little resolution. In this thesis, the author explores the effects of density-dependent population regulation on population dynamics in Cardamine pensylvanica, an annual plant. In the first chapter, she shows that experimental populations of C. pensylvanica cycled from high to low density in controlled constant-environment conditions. These cycles could not be explained by external environmental changes or simple models of direct density dependence (N{sub t+1} = f[N{sub t}]), but they could be explained by delayed density dependence (N{sub t+1} = f[N{sub t}, N{sub t+1}]). In the second chapter, she shows that the difference in the stability properties of population growth models with and without delayed density dependence is due to the presence of Hopf as well as slip bifurcations from stable to chaotic population dynamics. She also measures delayed density dependence due to effects of parental density on offspring quality in C. pensylvanica and shows that this is large enough to be the cause of the population dynamics observed in C. pensylvanica. In the third chapter, the author extends her analyses of density-dependent population growth models to include interactions between competing species. In the final chapter, she compares the effects of fixed spatial environmental variation and variation in population size on the evolutionary response of C. pensylvanica populations.

  1. Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Annual report for 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In 1983, the impact of SRP operations on public health was insignificant. The highest radiation dose to a hypothetical adult individual on the SRP boundary from 1983 atmospheric releases of radioactive materials was 1.3 millirem (mrem). Doses to some age groups were slightly higher than the adult dose (maximum 1.9 mrem to a child.) The average radiation dose that a hypothetical adult at the SRP boundary received from atmospheric releases was 0.54 mrem during 1983. For persons living within 50 miles of SRP, the average dose was 0.15 mrem per year. The maximum radiation dose to adults downriver of SRP who consumed water from the Port Wentworth water treatment plant near Savannah, GA, was 0.22 mrem in 1983. The maximum adult dose from consuming water from the Beaufort-Jasper, SC, water treatment plant was 0.16 mrem. These radiation doses from SRP operations are small compared to the dose from natural radiation, which averages 93 mrem per year near SRP. Additionally, doses from SRP operations are small compared to the geographical differences in natural radiation. The annual natural radiation dose to Georgia and South Carolina residents within 100 miles of SRP varies from place to place by as much as 60 mrem. The concentrations of nonradioactive materials of SRP origin in offsite air and water continued to be well within federal and state limits. 58 figures, 110 tables

  2. Status of annual plant species in the Baneberry fallout pattern first and sixth years after initial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    At Project Baneberry on December 18, 1970, there was an accidental venting of radioactive debris into the environment which resulted in the irradiation of vegetation about 1.5 km to the north with doses estimated to reach a maximum of 6.2 K rads, beta plus gamma. At the highest doses, 35 percent of the dominant shrub in the area, Coleogyne (black brush), were killed and 65% severely damaged; and at lesser doses there was correspondingly less damage. Other species of shrubs were also affected. Grayia spinosa showed a low frequency of stem fasciation at the higher doses as well as other manifestations of radiation damage. In June 1971, the annual plant species which were probably small seedlings at fallout time were more frequently absent from the higher radiation areas than in the lower. At the same time, there was a greater frequency of higher dry weights produced by annuals at the higher radiation exposures. The frequency of occurrence of annuals varied from means of 8.5/m 2 at the higher doses to 24.3/m 2 at the lower doses. In June 1976, five years after irradiation, there were 300 to 400 plants/m 2 . By extrapolating the plants/m 2 against dose back to zero plants/m 2 , some indication of radiation doses which might destroy all annuals was derived

  3. Abstracts from the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society Quebec City, April 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Auais, M.; Morin, S.; Finch, L.; Sara, A.; Mayo, N.; Charise, A.; Islam, A.; Muir, Susan; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Kennedy, C.C.; Papaioannou, A.; Ioannidis, G.; Giangregorio, L.M.; Adachi, J.D.; Thabane, L.

    2012-01-01

    The opinions expressed in the abstracts are those of the authors and are not to be construed as the opinion of the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) or the organizers of the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society. Although the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) has made every effort to accurately reproduce the abstracts, the Canadian Geriatrics Society and the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society assumes no responsibility and/...

  4. Seasonal and annual plant production of a southern Manitoba old-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, B.N.; Iverson, S.L.

    1980-06-01

    The amount of natural variation in vegetation production during Project ZEUS (an investigation of long-term gamma radiation on meadow voles) will constitute an important habitat variable for the meadow vole population. To quantify this variation, annual and seasonal plant production of a nearby old-field was estimated by monthly harvests of aboveground vegetation between April and October for five consecutive years. The amount of dry green vegetation varied significantly both among years and months, peaking at a mean of nearly 300 G. M -2 in late July and late August. Mean rates of production were maximum in late May to late June, reaching 4.45 g.m -2 .d -1 . Dead vegetation varied significantly among months, but not among years, with peak amounts of nearly 800 G. M -2 in May and October. Moss quantities varied among years, but not among months, and showed a general trend to increase as the field aged. Monthly production of green vegetation showed some relationships to precipitation and temperature, and particularly indicated that hot dry springs impeded growth. Both amount and rate of green production were greater than that on most similar old-fields reported in the literature, and generally exceeded levels on all native grasslands except tallgrass prairie. Annual variability in peak green production was similar to that on other grasslands and old-fields. Variability in green production was greatest in April, and least in June, at the time when production was greatest. Greatest variation in green production occurred at the same time as greatest variation in temperature. Low precipitation may limit production, but the amount of precipitation does not appear to have an effect above a certain minimum level. (auth)

  5. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Locke, D.A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy`s Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended.

  6. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Locke, D.A. (Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States))

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended.

  7. Stabilization/solidification of battery debris ampersand lead impacted material at Schuylkill Metals, Plant City, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguiano, T.; Floyd, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Schuylkill Metals facility in Plant City Florida (SMPCI) operated as a battery recycling facility for approximately 13 years. During its operation, the facility disposed of battery components in surrounding wetland areas. In March of 1991 the U.S. EPA and SMPCI entered into a Consent Decree for the remediation of the SMPCI site using stabilization/solidification and on-site disposal. In November of 1994, ENTACT began remediation at the facility and to date has successfully stabilized/solidified over 228,000 tons of lead impacted battery components and lead impacted material. The ENTACT process reduces the size of the material to be treated to ensure that complete mixing of the phosphate/cement additive is achieved thereby promoting the chemical reactions of stabilization and solidification. ENTACT has met the following performance criteria for treated material at the SMPCI site: (1) Hydraulic Conductivity less than 1x10 -6 cm/s, (2) Unconfined Compressive Strength greater than 50 psi, (3) Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium TCLP Leachability below hazardous levels

  8. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D.; Locke, D.A.

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended

  9. Kansas City plant ultraviolet/ozone/hydrogen peroxide groundwater treatment system overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stites, M.E.; Hughes, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Kansas City Plant (KCP) has committed to the utilization of a groundwater treatment system, for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), that discharges a minimal amount of pollutants to the environment. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) system utilizing ozone, ultraviolet radiation, and hydrogen peroxide serves in this capacity. Packed tower aeration and activated carbon filtration are listed as best available technologies (BATs) by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the removal of VOCs in water. The disadvantage to these BATs is that they transfer the VOCs from the water medium to the air or carbon media respectively. Operation of the system began in May 1988 at a flow rate of 22.7 liters per minute (lpm) (6 gallons per minute (gpm)). An additional 102.2 lpm (27 gpm) of flow were added in October 1990. Various efforts to optimize and track the treatment unites efficiency have been carried out. A maximum influent reading of 26,590 parts per billion (ppb) of total VOCs has been recorded. Following the addition of flows, removal efficiency has averaged approximately 95%. Both air and water effluents are factored into this calculation. (author)

  10. Biological recipient control at the Ringhals nuclear power plant. Annual report for 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Maria; Gustavsson, Frida; Fagerholm, Bjoern

    2012-01-01

    The cooling system of the Ringhals nuclear power plant affects the fish community in two steps. In the first step, seawater is used to cool the system in the nuclear power plant. Fish eggs, larvae and small juveniles are carried by the incoming water and are exposed to risk of damage or mortality. In the second step the heated water is released back into the sea, where the fish is affected by the increase in temperature. Reactor 1 and reactor 3 at Ringhals nuclear power plant produced electricity during the major part of the year 2011, with exceptions for the annual audits, and shorter stops in production. Reactor 2 only operated between January and April, due to a fire which led to a shutdown and a thorough remediation work during the rest of the year. Reactor 4 was producing electricity from January to June, but was later shutdown due to a prolonged annual audit until November. Fish eggs and fish larvae are sampled in the incoming cooling water using a modified Bongo net to monitor losses of eggs and larvae in the nuclear power plant. The abundance of shorthorn sculpin larvae (Myoxocephalus scorpius) has decreased since the sampling period started, although it is still the most abundant larvae. Also the abundance of rock gunnel larvae (Pholis gunnellus) has decreased over the years. To sample juvenile fish a modified Isaacs-Kidd midwater-trawl is used. This sampling is mainly focused on glass eels (Anguilla anguilla). The abundance of glass eels have declined strongly since the beginning of the 1980's, but a minor increase was observed in 2011. The decline of the glass eel abundance is most probably due to a general decrease in recruitment and not to a local effect caused by the nuclear power plant. The effects of the heated water released into the sea are monitored by fykenet surveys in the recipient as well as in a reference area. These two areas are monitored in two seasons to compare differences between the two areas in naturally cold and warm water of the

  11. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Efficiency improvement project for district heat supplying plants in Dailian City in China; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Chugoku/Dailian shi chiiki netsu kyokyu plant kokoritsu kaizen project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations and discussions have been given on energy saving possibilities at two medium-sized heat and power supplying plants in the city of Dailian in China. The project will improve the operation methods of the heat and power plants so that the energy cost can be minimized, and attempt to improve the boiler heat efficiency and save the energy by means of heat recovery and utilization. The draft modification plan for energy conservation has planned operation optimization for energy conservation, control of boiler operation under variable pressure, modification of the external boiler heat converter, use of inverters for the large capacity motors for boilers, and recovery of heat from the boiler blow-down water. In the analysis, models were structured from the operation data, and the effects of applying the energy saving measures were derived from simulation. As a result, the energy saving effect was found to be about 13,000 tons at the Chunhai plant and about 7,000 tons at the Pulandian plant annually (converted to oil). The reduction in greenhouse gas emission was found to be about 40,000 tons at the Chunhai plant and about 20,000 tons at the Pulandian plant annually. The number of years for investment payback is about 4.1 years at the Chunhai plant, and about 4.9 years at the Pulandian plant, wherein good profitability can be estimated. (NEDO)

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant annual site environmental report for calendar year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) defined a comprehensive set of parameters which are monitored to detect potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future environmental evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, air, soil, and biotics are monitored for radioactivity levels. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include air, water quality, soil properties, meteorological measurements and determination of the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the WIPP site with emphasis on the salt storage pile. The baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in its preoperational phase (i.e., no waste has been received) certain operational requirements of DOE Orders 5400.1, 5400.5, and the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T) are not relevant. Therefore, this report does not discuss items such as radionuclide emissions and effluents and subsequent doses to the public

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant annual site environmental report for calendar year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) defined a comprehensive set of parameters which are monitored to detect potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future environmental evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, air, soil, and biotics are monitored for radioactivity levels. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include air, water quality, soil properties, meteorological measurements and determination of the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the WIPP site with emphasis on the salt storage pile. The baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in its preoperational phase (i.e., no waste has been received) certain operational requirements of DOE Orders 5400.1, 5400.5, and the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T) are not relevant. Therefore, this report does not discuss items such as radionuclide emissions and effluents and subsequent doses to the public.

  14. Inter-annual changes in detritus-based food chains can enhance plant growth response to elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jes; Eisenhauer, Nico; Drake, Bert G

    2015-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 generally enhances plant growth, but the magnitude of the effects depend, in part, on nutrient availability and plant photosynthetic pathway. Due to their pivotal role in nutrient cycling, changes in abundance of detritivores could influence the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on essential ecosystem processes, such as decomposition and primary production. We conducted a field survey and a microcosm experiment to test the influence of changes in detritus-based food chains on litter mass loss and plant growth response to elevated atmospheric CO2 using two wetland plants: a C3 sedge (Scirpus olneyi) and a C4 grass (Spartina patens). Our field study revealed that organism's sensitivity to climate increased with trophic level resulting in strong inter-annual variation in detritus-based food chain length. Our microcosm experiment demonstrated that increased detritivore abundance could not only enhance decomposition rates, but also enhance plant growth of S. olneyi in elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions. In contrast, we found no evidence that changes in the detritus-based food chains influenced the growth of S. patens. Considered together, these results emphasize the importance of approaches that unite traditionally subdivided food web compartments and plant physiological processes to understand inter-annual variation in plant production response to elevated atmospheric CO2. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Design and assessment of solar PV plant for girls hostel (GARGI of MNIT University, Jaipur city: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Khatri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper designing and assessment of a solar PV plant for meeting the energy demand of girl’s hostel at MNIT University Jaipur city was analyzed. A solar PV plant was designed with its financial and environmental assessment considering recent market prices. All the aspects related to a solar PV plant were considered for financial feasibility of PV plant near this location. The different financial parameters which affect the financial feasibility of PV plant were considered i.e. discount rate, effective discount rate, rate of escalation of electricity cost, salvage value of the plant etc. The environmental aspect related with the energy generated with PV plant i.e. reduction in carbon emission and carbon credits earned was also considered. Result obtained with the assessment of the proposed plant with different discount rate and current rate of inflation shows that the max IRR 6.85% and NPV of $1,430,834 was obtained with a discount rate of 8% and an inflation rate of 7.23% when no land cost considered and if land cost was considered the maximum IRR was 1.96% and NPV of $630,833. Minimum discounted payback of the plant will be 13.4 years if inflation was considered.

  16. Annual site environmental monitoring report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Calendar year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, C.; Prince, K.; Fischer, T.; Rodriguez, A.; Uhland, D.; Winstanley, D.

    1986-04-01

    This is the first Annual Site Environmental Monitoring Report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP project is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of providing a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes generated by the defense activities of the U.S. Government. The report provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP during Calendar Year 1985, including: a description of the WIPP project and its mission; a description of the local environment, including demographics; a summary of environmental program information, including an update on the status of environmental permits and compliance activities; a presentation of the findings of the Radiological Baseline Program (RBP), which is a program to characterize radionuclide activities in the environment around the WIPP site; and a summary of findings of the Ecological Monitoring Program (EMP), which examines non-radiological impacts of WIPP construction on the surrounding ecosystem. The WIPP facility is under construction, and will not receive radioactive wastes before October 1988. Therefore, this report describes the status of preoperational (as opposed to operational) environmental activities. 29 refs., 17 figs., 22 tabs

  17. Population genetics and the evolution of geographic range limits in an annual plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, David A; Geber, Monica A; Tiffin, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Abstract Theoretical models of species' geographic range limits have identified both demographic and evolutionary mechanisms that prevent range expansion. Stable range limits have been paradoxical for evolutionary biologists because they represent locations where populations chronically fail to respond to selection. Distinguishing among the proposed causes of species' range limits requires insight into both current and historical population dynamics. The tools of molecular population genetics provide a window into the stability of range limits, historical demography, and rates of gene flow. Here we evaluate alternative range limit models using a multilocus data set based on DNA sequences and microsatellites along with field demographic data from the annual plant Clarkia xantiana ssp. xantiana. Our data suggest that central and peripheral populations have very large historical and current effective population sizes and that there is little evidence for population size changes or bottlenecks associated with colonization in peripheral populations. Whereas range limit populations appear to have been stable, central populations exhibit a signature of population expansion and have contributed asymmetrically to the genetic diversity of peripheral populations via migration. Overall, our results discount strictly demographic models of range limits and more strongly support evolutionary genetic models of range limits, where adaptation is prevented by a lack of genetic variation or maladaptive gene flow.

  18. Radiation protection and environmental monitoring in the area of the Asse shaft plant. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Lyda, I.; Meyer, H.

    1988-07-01

    Personnel monitoring has been carried through in compliance with the Radiation Protection Ordinance. Environmental monitoring including measurement of local doses, local dose rates, and airborne radioactivity in the shaft has been made according to the provisions for radiation protection at the place of work. Maximum permissible personal doses or activity levels for occupationally exposed persons have not been exceeded in the reporting period. Exhaust air monitoring detected the nuclides H-3, C-14, Pb-210, and the short-lived daughter products of Rn-222 and Rn-220. The activity concentrations in the environment, determined from the measured annual release values, for some part have been lower than the average of natural concentrations of said nuclides. The radiation exposure due to emissions, measured at the least favourable point in the environment, has been far below the limits set by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In conclusion: The radiation exposure of the personnel and of the population in the area of the Asse shaft plant due to the storage of radioactive is low, compared to the natural radiation exposure. (orig.) [de

  19. Assessment of annual effective dose from 238U and 226Ra due to consumption of foodstuffs by inhabitants of Tehran city (IR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, T.; Fathivand, A. A.; Abbasisiar, F.; Karimi, M.; Barati, H.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of 238 U and 226 Ra were determined in different foodstuffs purchased from markets in Tehran. Determinations of the radionuclides have been carried out using alpha spectrometry technique, on samples of egg, lentil, potato, rice, soya, spinach, tea and wheat. Average concentrations of natural radionuclides and foodstuff consumption rate were used to assess annual intake and based on intake values, the annual effective ingestion dose has been estimated for Tehran city residents. The measurement results show that soya has the maximum concentration of 238 U equal to 15.6 ± 2.6 mBq kg -1 and tea has the maximum concentration of 226 Ra equal to 1153.3 ± 265.3 mBq kg -1 . Besides, the maximum annual effective dose from 238 U and 226 Ra were assessed to be 2.88 x 10 -2 ±7.20 x 10 -3 and 2.15 ± 0.54 μSv, respectively, from wheat samples. (authors)

  20. The Species Richness of Vascular Plants and Amphibia in Major Plant Communities in Temperate to Tropical Australia: Relationship with Annual Biomass Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, R. L.; Tyler, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aerodynamic fluxes (frictional, thermal, evaporative) in the atmosphere as it flows over and through a plant community determine the Foliage Projective Covers and eco-morphological attributes of new leaves developed annually in overstorey and understorey strata. The number of leaves produced on vertical foliage shoots depends on available soil water and nutrients, also ambient temperature, during this short growth season. Stem density (number of stems per hectare) and species richness (number of species per hectare) in the overstorey of major Floristic Groups are correlated with annual shoot growth (ASG, t ha-1) in that stratum. Species richness in the overstorey increases in the climatic gradient from the arid to the humid zone as well as with increasing air temperatures (about 10 degree C) from temperate to tropical Australia. Species richness in the understorey is highest in plant communities in temperate Australia, decreasing in the temperature gradient towards the tropics. As with other major plant and animal groups within an ecosystem, the species richness of Amphibia is correlated with the amount of solar energy fixed (per annum) by the major plant formation in the regional photosynthetic potential determined by the foliage shoots (ASG, t ha-1) produced annually in the overstorey.

  1. The Species Richness of Vascular Plants and Amphibia in Major Plant Communities in Temperate to Tropical Australia: Relationship with Annual Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Specht

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic fluxes (frictional, thermal, evaporative in the atmosphere as it flows over and through a plant community determine the Foliage Projective Covers and eco-morphological attributes of new leaves developed annually in overstorey and understorey strata. The number of leaves produced on vertical foliage shoots depends on available soil water and nutrients, also ambient temperature, during this short growth season. Stem density (number of stems per hectare and species richness (number of species per hectare in the overstorey of major Floristic Groups are correlated with annual shoot growth (ASG, t ha−1 in that stratum. Species richness in the overstorey increases in the climatic gradient from the arid to the humid zone as well as with increasing air temperatures (about 10oC from temperate to tropical Australia. Species richness in the understorey is highest in plant communities in temperate Australia, decreasing in the temperature gradient towards the tropics. As with other major plant and animal groups within an ecosystem, the species richness of Amphibia is correlated with the amount of solar energy fixed (per annum by the major plant formation in the region—a photosynthetic potential determined by the foliage shoots (ASG, t ha−1 produced annually in the overstorey.

  2. Long-Term Annual Mapping of Four Cities on Different Continents by Applying a Deep Information Learning Method to Landsat Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobo Lyu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a substantial contributor to anthropogenic environmental change, and often occurs at a rapid pace that demands frequent and accurate monitoring. Time series of satellite imagery collected at fine spatial resolution using stable spectral bands over decades are most desirable for this purpose. In practice, however, temporal spectral variance arising from variations in atmospheric conditions, sensor calibration, cloud cover, and other factors complicates extraction of consistent information on changes in urban land cover. Moreover, the construction and application of effective training samples is time-consuming, especially at continental and global scales. Here, we propose a new framework for satellite-based mapping of urban areas based on transfer learning and deep learning techniques. We apply this method to Landsat observations collected during 1984–2016 and extract annual records of urban areas in four cities in the temperate zone (Beijing, New York, Melbourne, and Munich. The method is trained using observations of Beijing collected in 1999, and then used to map urban areas in all target cities for the entire 1984–2016 period. The method addresses two central challenges in long term detection of urban change: temporal spectral variance and a scarcity of training samples. First, we use a recurrent neural network to minimize seasonal urban spectral variance. Second, we introduce an automated transfer strategy to maximize information gain from limited training samples when applied to new target cities in similar climate zones. Compared with other state-of-the-art methods, our method achieved comparable or even better accuracy: the average change detection accuracy during 1984–2016 is 89% for Beijing, 94% for New York, 93% for Melbourne, and 89% for Munich, and the overall accuracy of single-year urban maps is approximately 96 ± 3% among the four target cities. The results demonstrate the practical potential and suitability

  3. An overview of acceptance and knowledge of Angra dos Reis city about the operation of the nuclear power plants considering the associated risks and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges; Delcourt, Jules H.

    2015-01-01

    The use of nuclear power plants for electricity supply is presently considered as an important factor to be considered in any energy matrix to ensure the diversification and availability criteria. Currently several countries resumed or started programs for the construction of nuclear power plants of new projects, with extremely improved security levels. Additionally, events and accidents in nuclear power plants have contributed substantially to the occurrence of design modifications and/or update the regulatory requirements to further enhance operational safety of these plants. Nowadays, one of the regulatory requirements necessary for the selection of a site for construction and operation of nuclear installations is the public hearing and discussion. The city of Angra dos Reis has two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction. There are also, plans for the construction of more nuclear power plants in the country, to meet the growing demand for electricity. The first nuclear power plant in Brazil went into operation in 1983 and the second in 2000. The selection of the site for construction of these plants was due to political, economic and strategic factors, present in Brazil, in the decade of 70. The licensing process in de 70's decade did not involve an extensive participation of the society as a whole and of the local population, such as the occurrence of public hearings and the wide possibility for discussion and debate about the acceptance of the location of the plant. In the initial years of operation of the Angra 1 nuclear power plant, the level of knowledge of the local population was practically null, occurring mainly in local clarifications, made through seminars and lectures on special occasions, such as at the time of the annual exercises of the external emergency plan, specific information Programs or technical visits of educational institutions and the Government to Angra dos Reis Nuclear power plant. Since the

  4. An overview of acceptance and knowledge of Angra dos Reis city about the operation of the nuclear power plants considering the associated risks and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges, E-mail: jeferson@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/CGRC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Reatores e do Ciclo Combustivel; Ribeiro, Katia Maria Bruno; Medice Junior, Fabio, E-mail: Katiapsi.67@gmail.com [Universidade Estacio de Sa (UNESA), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil); Delcourt, Jules H., E-mail: juleshd@gmail.com [Colegio Naval, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of nuclear power plants for electricity supply is presently considered as an important factor to be considered in any energy matrix to ensure the diversification and availability criteria. Currently several countries resumed or started programs for the construction of nuclear power plants of new projects, with extremely improved security levels. Additionally, events and accidents in nuclear power plants have contributed substantially to the occurrence of design modifications and/or update the regulatory requirements to further enhance operational safety of these plants. Nowadays, one of the regulatory requirements necessary for the selection of a site for construction and operation of nuclear installations is the public hearing and discussion. The city of Angra dos Reis has two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction. There are also, plans for the construction of more nuclear power plants in the country, to meet the growing demand for electricity. The first nuclear power plant in Brazil went into operation in 1983 and the second in 2000. The selection of the site for construction of these plants was due to political, economic and strategic factors, present in Brazil, in the decade of 70. The licensing process in de 70's decade did not involve an extensive participation of the society as a whole and of the local population, such as the occurrence of public hearings and the wide possibility for discussion and debate about the acceptance of the location of the plant. In the initial years of operation of the Angra 1 nuclear power plant, the level of knowledge of the local population was practically null, occurring mainly in local clarifications, made through seminars and lectures on special occasions, such as at the time of the annual exercises of the external emergency plan, specific information Programs or technical visits of educational institutions and the Government to Angra dos Reis Nuclear power plant. Since the

  5. Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Impact of Nuchik, Inc. Poultry Processing Plant on the City of Artesia and the Artesia Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brian

    The city of Artesia (New Mexico) was considering the issuance of $210 million in industrial revenue bonds (IRB) for construction of a new poultry processing plant 5 miles west of Artesia in Eddy County. Since property financed with IRB is exempt from all state and local property taxes for the life of the bonds, the city of Artesia requested an…

  6. 1997 annual ground control operating plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This plan presents background information and a working guide to assist Mine Operations and Engineering in developing strategies for addressing ground control issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). With the anticipated receipt of waste in late 1997, this document provides additional detail to Panel 1 activities and options. The plan also serves as a foundation document for development and revision of the annual long-term ground control plan. Section 2.0 documents the current status of all underground excavations with respect to location, geology, geometry, age, ground support, operational use, projected life, and physical conditions. Section 3.0 presents the methods used to evaluate ground conditions, including visual observations of the roof, ribs, and floor, inspection of observation holes, and review of instrumentation data. Section 4.0 lists several ground support options and specific applications of each. Section 5.0 discusses remedial ground control measures that have been implemented to date. Section 6.0 presents projections and recommendations for ground control actions based on the information in Sections 2.0 through 5.0 of this plan and on a rating of the critical nature of each specific area. Section 7.0 presents a summary statement, and Section 8.0 includes references. Appendix A provides an overview and critique of ground control systems that have been, or may be, used at the site. Because of the dynamic nature of the underground openings and associated geotechnical activities, this plan will be revised as additional data are incorporated

  7. Water supply and disposal in the City of Kiev following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzarik, N.

    1990-01-01

    Kiev is the capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and is the USSR's third largest city, with a population of 2.7 million people. The city water supply is dependent on three sources; two surface ones, i.e. the rivers Dniepr and Desna, and one underground one. The average total water consumption of the city amounts to 1.5 x 10 6 m 3 /day. The Chernobyl Power Plant accident posed a threat to the normal operation of the Kiev water supply system. In the circumstances, it became necessary to adopt the most urgent measures aimed at ensuring a continuous delivery of potable water to the city under conditions of the potential radioactive contamination of water supply sources. Round-the-clock monitoring of the radioactivity of the water source has taken place, including the control of water quality at various treatment stages, the variation of radioactivity of different filter loading materials and the radioactivity of waste waters, sludge and silt. The main concern was the threat of contamination of the Kiev reservoir. However the concentration of radionuclides in the drinking water supply has not exceeded the permissible limits. Various requirements for the water supply in the face of radioactive contamination are mentioned such as several water supplies, one of which is preferably an underground source, flexible conditions of water treatment and continuous radiation monitoring of the water supply (UK)

  8. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in plant leaves from Yan׳an city of the Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Youning; Wang, Dexiang; Wei, Lijing; Zhang, Xinping; Song, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Urban plants are capable of reducing environmental pollutions through bioaccumulation contaminants in their tissues. The accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Zn) in leaves of nine tree species and five shrub species from Yan׳an city of China were investigated, and total metal accumulation capacities of different plants were evaluated using the metal accumulation index (MAI). The results indicated that plants in polluted environments are enriched in heavy metals relative to those in pristine environments, this is mainly caused by traffic emissions and coal combustion. Species with the highest accumulation of a single metal did not have the highest total metal accumulation capacity, the MAI should be an important indicator for tree species selection in phytoextraction and urban greening. Considering total accumulation capacities, Sabina chinensis, Juniperus formosana, Ailanthus altissima and Salix matsudana var. matsudana could be widely used in the Loess Plateau. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The environmental risk prediction for Odessa city in the case of ammonia emissions from Odessa Port Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy V. Melnik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the environmental risk prediction for Odessa's citizens in the case of ammonia emissions from Odessa Port Plant. The potential risk of ammonia emission can be calculated by multiplying the probability of an accident and the probability of human health damage. One of the steps in the quantitative risk assessment is the analysis of weather conditions such as wind direction. From 1899 wind-rose analysis shows an increasing the frequency of winds direction which is dangerous for the city. The ammonia concentration in the city can be calculated by the TOXI ver.2.2 method, based on the Gaussian dispersion model for pollutants in the atmosphere. The magnitude of risk was assessed by two methods: the US EPA method, and Integrated Hygienic Method, based on normal probability distribution. The results of the risk assessment for the two methods showed an acceptable risk for Odessa's citizens in the case of ammonia emissions into the atmosphere.

  10. Proceedings of the 29. Annual ESNA/UIR Meeting: Soil-Plant Relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.

    1999-10-01

    The annual meeting were presented in 42 papers by scientists originating from 15 countries. The first part of the sessions dealt with recent developments in terrestrial radioecology, addressing both agricultural and semi-natural environments (12 oral presentations, 2 posters). Mitchell (U.K.) reported on the present status of the flux database of UIR, which, due to its 17000 entries provides an excellent basis for applying or testing new model approaches. One paper was presented on the upward movement of mobile (Na, CI) and less mobile (Cs) radionuclides in soil columns (Wadey/UK). Skarlou/Greece and Goncharova/Byelorussia highlighted important impact factors on soil-plant transfer of Cs and Sr as soil pH and ageing of contaminants/hot particles. Two presentations (Kirchner/Germany, Konopleva/Russia) focused on successful soil scientific approaches to describe plant uptake of Cs and Sr taking into account ion competition in soil. Klemt/Germany presented an interesting model to estimate Cs-transfer to roe leer and highlighted the importance of mushroom in this respect. The important role of fungi for Cs-dynamics in forest soil was confirmed by the data of Nikolova/Bulgaria. Spiridonov/Russia presented a radioecological model describing Cs-dynamics in forest ecosystems. The forestland/fortree model is parameterized for both deciduous and coniferous forests. A set of three papers (Tkachenko/Ukraine, Goncharova/Byelorussia, Oncsik/Hungary) focused on countermeasures. lt became quite evident that the effect of applications of macro- and micronutrients, clay minerals and zeolithes on radionuclide soil-plant transfer is highly site specific and needs consideration of soil properties. Two papers described the long-term impact of radionuclide contamination on the collective dose of the population (Kravets/Ukraine, Goncharova/Byelorussia). The contribution in the field of soil and plant sciences covered a broad range of topics. Influencing soil physical properties by

  11. Determination of 210Po in leafy vegetables and annual effective dose assessment to the inhabitants of Mumbai city, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, J.S.; Sahoo, S.K.; Mohapatra, S.; Patra, A.C.; Lenka, P.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.; Nair, A.

    2014-01-01

    Present study deals with the measurement of activity concentration of 210 Po in leafy vegetable of Mumbai city and corresponding ingestion dose assessment to the population. 210 Po activity levels ranged from 44.5-183.3 with an average value of 81.8 mBq/kg. Minimum activity of 210 Po was found in shepu and maximum in methi. The concentration reported here is slightly more than the UNSCEAR value. The estimated total effective dose was found to vary from 0.3 - 1.4 with an average value of 0.6 μSv/y, which is about 1% of global average total ingestion dose due to 210 Po. (author)

  12. New Approaches and Technologies to Sequence de novo Plant reference Genomes (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutz, Jeremy

    2013-03-01

    Jeremy Schmutz of the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology on New approaches and technologies to sequence de novo plant reference genomes at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, CA.

  13. Statistical annual report 2008 - Furnas Electric Power Plants Inc. - Calendar year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This 30th edition of the statistical annual report of Furnas reports the performance of the company in 2007 and recent years allowing a general view on: Furnas system; production and supply; financial and economic data, personnel and indicators

  14. Environmental impact of heavy metals on the soils and plants around a coke-making factory of Jiyuan city, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun Leung, Kwun

    2010-05-01

    The combustion of coal usually leads to many different kinds of pollution around coke-making factories. Among these pollutions, the heavy metal contamination in the soil and plants is one of the major concerns by people living around. Heavy metals are highly attracted to the biological tissue, and can stay in bodies of organisms for long period of time, causing a lot of hazardous diseases to human beings, animal and plants. In the developing regions of China, developing of industries has been based on the sacrifices of environments and human health. In order to evaluate the danger of heavy metal contamination from a coke factory to citizens of close inhabitants, a survey on soil and plants was conducted in the region around a coke-making factory in Jiyuan city, which is a major electricity supplying city for the Henan Province in China. In this study, 8 surface soil samples and 11 plant samples were collected from 8 different places around the coke-making factory in Jiyuan city. The collected samples are then treated in the laboratory, and 8 types of heavy metals, which include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and zinc, are analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The concentration data of heavy metals that collected from the analysis are then used to evaluate their toxicity towards living organisms and ecology by applying several biological effect standards, such as effect-range low (ERL), effect-range median (ERM) and several maximum allowances standards of heavy metal concentrations in soils and plants that established by different countries. Moreover, the relationship between the distance from the factory and the concentration of heavy metals in soils and plants are also evaluated in order to find out the contamination ranges of those heavy metals from the source. The result shows that the concentration of these 8 types of heavy metals in the

  15. {Delta}{sup 14}C level of annual plants and fossil fuel derived CO{sub 2} distribution across different regions of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, X.T.; Ding, X.F.; Fu, D.P. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhou, L.P. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, Department of Geography, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, K.X., E-mail: kxliu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-01-15

    The {sup 14}C level in annual plants is a sensitive tracer for monitoring fossil fuel derived CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. Corn leave samples were selected from different regions of China, including high mountains in the Tibetan Plateau, grassland in Inner Mongolia, and inland and coastal cities during the summer of 2010. The {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratio of the samples was measured with the NEC compact AMS system at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The fossil fuel derived CO{sub 2} was estimated by comparing the measured {Delta}{sup 14}C values of corn leave samples to background atmospheric {Delta}{sup 14}C level. The influences of topography, meteorological conditions and carbon cycling processes on the fossil fuel derived CO{sub 2} concentration are considered when interpreting the data. Our results show a clear association of the low {Delta}{sup 14}C values with regions where human activities are intensive.

  16. An eight pushbutton control system for the PSU ultra-safe nuclear plant: Addendum to annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, M.A.

    1988-10-01

    The control system described in this report was developed for a ''Light Water Ultra-Safe Plant Concept'' studied at Penn State during a 2 year program funded by the Department of Energy. A reconfigured pressurized water reactor was designed which eliminated the conventional PWR pressurizer and added an active pumping system with a large dedicated water storage tank to control pressure. The thermal hydraulics aspects of the design were studied and reported in several master's theses and other addendum reports and first annual report. In addition to improving the inherent safety of an advanced plant by changes in the thermal hydraulic aspects of the design, a new approach to control system organization and design should also be included in an advanced plant. The study presented in this report modifies a conventional PWR plant control system to the needs of the Ultra-Safe Plant Concept and then describes implementation of the control system in a distributed network of control computers. The end result is a control system that is much simpler at the operator level. This simplicity should eliminate the possibility of operator error in the Ultra-Safe plant

  17. Environmental radioactivity levels, Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant. Annual report, 1985 (TVA/NUC SVS/RH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The preoperational environmental radiological monitoring program established a baseline of data on the distribution of natural and manmade radioactivity in the environment near the plant site. However, seasonal, yearly, and random variations in the data were observed. In order to determine the potential increases in environmental radioactivity levels caused by the plant, comparisons were made between data for indicator stations (those near the plant) and control stations (those remote from the plant) in conjunction with comparisons with preoperational data

  18. Dust pollution of the atmosphere in the vicinity of coal-fired power plant (Omsk City, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talovskaya, Anna V.; Raputa, Vladimir F.; Litay, Victoriya V.; Yazikov, Egor G.; Yaroslavtseva, Tatyana V.; Mikhailova, Kseniya Y.; Parygina, Irina A.; Lonchakova, Anna D.; Tretykova, Mariya I.

    2015-11-01

    The article shows the results of dust pollution level of air in the vicinity of coal-fired power plant of Omsk city on the base of study snow cover pollution. The samples were collected west-, east- and northeastwards at a distance of 0,75-6 km from the chimney for range-finding of dust emission transfer. The research findings have shown the dust load changes from 53 till 343 mg•(m2·day)-1 in the vicinity of power plant. The ultimate dust load was detected at a distance of 3-3,5 km. On the basis of asymptotics of equation solution for impurity transfer, we have made numerical analysis of dust load rate. With the usage of ground-based facilities and satellites we have determined the wind shifts in the atmospheric boundary layer have a significant impact on the field forming of long-term dustfall.

  19. Evaluation of Air Pollution Tolerance Index of Plants and Ornamental Shrubs in Enugu City: Implications for Urban Heat Island Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study compared the air pollution tolerance indices (APTI of five plant species and five ornamental shrubs in Enugu Urban Center. Laboratory analysis was performed on the four physiological and biological parameters including leaf relative water content (RWC, ascorbic acid (AA content, total leaf chlorophyll (TCH and leaf extract pH. These parameters were used to develop an air pollution tolerance index. Factor analysis and descriptive statistics were utilized in the analysis to examine the interactions between these parameters. Vegetation monitoring in terms of its APTI acts as a \\'Bioindicator\\' of air pollution. The study also showed the possibility of utilizing APTI as a tool for selecting plants or ornamental shrubs for urban heat Island mitigation in Enugu City. The result of APTI showed order of tolerance for plants as Anacarduim occidentale (23.20, Pinus spp (22.35, Catalpa burgei (22.57, Magifera indica (23.37, and Psidum guajava (24.15.The result of APTI showed increasing order of sensitivity for ornamental shrubs from ixora red (14.32, yellow ficus(12.63, masquerade pine(12.26, Tuja pine(11.000,to Yellow bush(10.60. The APTI of all the plants examined were higher than those of ornamental shrubs. Thus suggesting that plants in general were more tolerant to air pollution than ornamental shrubs. The ornamental shrubs with lower APTI values (sensitive were recommended as bioindicator of poor urban air quality while plants with high APTI values (tolerant are planted around areas anticipated to have high air pollution load. The result of this current study is therefore handy for future planning and as well provides tolerant species for streetscape and urban heat island mitigation.

  20. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Plant Uptake During Periods with no Photosynthesis Accounts for About Half of Global Annual Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, W. J.; Zhu, Q.; Tang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Uncertainties in current Earth System Model (ESM) predictions of terrestrial carbon-climate feedbacks over the 21st century are as large as, or larger than, any other reported natural system uncertainties. Soil Organic Matter (SOM) decomposition and photosynthesis, the dominant fluxes in this regard, are tightly linked through nutrient availability, and the recent Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5 (CMIP5) used for climate change assessment had no credible representations of these constraints. In response, many ESM land models (ESMLMs) have developed dynamic and coupled soil and plant nutrient cycles. Here we quantify terrestrial carbon cycle impacts from well-known observed plant nutrient uptake mechanisms ignored in most current ESMLMs. In particular, we estimate the global role of plant root nutrient competition with microbes and abiotic process at night and during the non-growing season using the ACME land model (ALMv1-ECA-CNP) that explicitly represents these dynamics. We first demonstrate that short-term nutrient uptake dynamics and competition between plants and microbes are accurately predicted by the model compared to 15N and 33P isotopic tracer measurements from more than 20 sites. We then show that global nighttime and non-growing season nitrogen and phosphorus uptake accounts for 46 and 45%, respectively, of annual uptake, with large latitudinal variation. Model experiments show that ignoring these plant uptake periods leads to large positive biases in annual N leaching (globally 58%) and N2O emissions (globally 68%). Biases these large will affect modeled carbon cycle dynamics over time, and lead to predictions of ecosystems that have overly open nutrient cycles and therefore lower capacity to sequester carbon.

  1. A plant taxonomic survey of the Uranium City region, Lake Athabasca north shore, emphasizing the naturally colonizing plants on uranium mine and mill wastes and other human-disturbed sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, V.L.

    1982-07-01

    A goal of this study was to acquire more complete baseline data on the existing flora of the Uranium City region, both in natural and human-disturbed sites. Emphasis was given to determining which plant species were naturally revegetating various abandoned uranium mine and mill waste disposal areas, other human-disturbed sites, and ecologically analogous sites. Another goal was to document the occurrence and distribution in the study region of rare and possibly endangered species. A further objective was to suggest regionally-occurring species with potential value for revegetating uranium mine and mill waste sites. Field investigations were carried out in the Uranium City region during August, 1981. During this time 1412 plant collections were made; a total of 366 plant species - trees, shrubs, forbs, graminoids, lichens, and bryophytes were recorded. The report includes an annotated checklist of plant species of the Uranium City region and a reference index of plant taxa indicating species that have high revegetation potential

  2. Determining Suitable Places for Saffron Planting Using Fuzzy Hierarchical Analysis Process in the City of Torbat Heydarieh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Rashid Sorkhabadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of Torbat Heydarieh located in the central Khorasan is the largest producer of saffron in the world. According to the influence of various environmental factors on the growth and yield of saffron, the process of assessing land ratio for its cultivation requires the use of various detailed spatial and descriptive pieces of information. In this study, first the conditions of cultivating saffron have been studied in detail and suitable regions for planting saffron have been identified using maps of elevation, slope, soil characteristics, water and some climatic factors influencing the cultivation of saffron including effective threshold temperature, rainfall and sunshine hours. For this purpose, Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP method was applied and modeling and spatial analysis were carried out using Arc GIS software environment based on the lands of the city of Torbat Heydarieh which were evaluated for their suitability for cultivation of saffron. It is worth noting that the final map showed that 43 percent of the central parts of Torbat Heydarieh have the highest potential for saffron cultivation. To evaluate the results and ensure the accuracy of the final map data, plant functions and crop qualities were compared with obtained data from final maps and the accuracy of the results was confirmed that shows the effectiveness of Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP method  in assessing the potential of lands for saffron cultivation.

  3. Effect on the annual atmospheric dispersion factor of different diffusion parameters and meteorological data at nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Yan Jiangyu; Wang Han; Xin Cuntian

    2003-01-01

    Based on the hourly metrological observing data of 100 m high tower during 1997-1999 at Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site and 1995-1997 in Fujian Huian NPP site, the effect on the annual atmospheric dispersion factor (AADF) of four different diffusion parameters (on-site measuring values, IAEA's, Briggs's and Pasquill's) are estimated. The analysis shows that the deviation between the results from IAEA's, Briggs's and on-site measured diffusion parameters is less than 20%. The effect on the AADF from different years' meteorological data also is estimated. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of soil-plant transfer factors of iodine. Estimation of annual ingestion for iodine from the diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, Arsene.

    1980-11-01

    The author presents the iodine middle contents of the soils and vegetables. A synthesis on the iodine evolution in the soils and vegetables allows to conclude that the vegetable absorption of this isotope is correlated with the isotopiquely exchangeable iodine of the soil. The soil-plant transfer-factors are calculated for the vegetables, cereals, fruits from the stable iodine quantitative analysis. The annual iodine ingestion has been estimated from the dietary of the European Communites areas. This one is a little different of the quantity estimated by CRESTA-LACOURLY-R 2979, yet the contribution by consummation unity is different [fr

  5. The influence of the annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on the sediment dynamics of inland watercourses in temperate regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvi, Shrutika; Greenwood, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Impatiens glandulifera (Common English Name - Himalayan Balsam) is a non native annual and highly invasive plant that was introduced into parts of Europe from the Himalaya during the nineteenth century as a colourful adornment to parks and gardens. This Plant colonises areas along the river banks, preferably wet, depositional sites, and displaces natural vegetation. The plant is killed by cold weather. The leaves area of riverbank previously occupied by the plant extremely vulnerable to soil erosion until new plant germinates in the following spring. Research work undertaken in the northwest Switzerland and the soutwestern United Kingdom established s link between accelerated soil erosion caused by Impatiens glandulifera and its detrimental impact on native biodiversity of riparian zone of river catchment area. This study focueses on the potential impact of such erosion on sediment quality. A priory reasoning suggests that the preference of Impatiens glandulifera on young depsotional sites near watercourses affects sediment quality. In this study, the results of a soil quality analysis along Impatiens glandulifera-contaminated river banks is presented. Soil physical and chemical properties are compared to non-affected sites to assess the potential impact of preferential erosion on water quality. In addtiion, soil surface profile (SSP) measuring based on by erosion pins, a micro profile bridge and a digital calliper at different selected locations along the riparian zone of river catchment area is used to determine erosion rates and determine sediment transfer from the riparian zone into the rivers.

  6. The marginal cost of carbon abatement from planting street trees in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent F. Kovacs; Robert G. Haight; Suhyun Jung; Dexter H. Locke; Jarlath. O' Neil-Dunne

    2013-01-01

    Urban trees can store carbon through the growth process and reduce fossil fuel use by lowering cooling and heating energy consumption of buildings through the process of transpiration, shading, and the blocking of wind. However, the planting and maintenance of urban trees come at a cost. We estimate the discounted cost of net carbon reductions associated with planting...

  7. Field report-Iidate village and Minamisoma city in Fukushima prefecture and Onagawa Nuclear Power Plants of Tohoku Electric Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Etsuji

    2011-01-01

    Although the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. was foreseen to be an end with bringing the reactor a stable cooling condition and mitigating the release of radioactive materials, there would be various uncertainties and risks. The public was turned to 'nuclear power phase-out ' or 'nuclear power reduced' and Fukushima prefecture launched a restoration vision not dependent on nuclear power. In July editors joined the visit on Iidate village and Minamisoma city in Fukushima prefecture and Onagawa Nuclear Power Plants of Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., which was organized by Energy and Environmental Email Forum. This feature consisted of six articles based on interviews with respective mayor and discussion meeting of participants. Nuclear world would be responsible for the cooperation and support of Fukushima moving toward restoration with the same stance. Development of renewable energy utilizing damaged fields might be promoted. Respective district was tried to restore based on the trademark of 'Iidate-village in the world' or introduction of central facilities of decommission technology or medical care against radiation hazards. Onagawa Nuclear Power Plants of Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., which was 14.8 m above sea level, was not damaged so much by the tsunami of 13 m high and after the disaster many residents in a neighboring area came to the nuclear power plant office for the refuge. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Plant litter effects on soil nutrient availability and vegetation dynamics: changes that occur when annual grasses invade shrub-steppe communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel Bansal; Roger L. Sheley; Bob Blank; Edward A. Vasquez

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the quantity and quality of plant litter occur in many ecosystems as they are invaded by exotic species, which impact soil nutrient cycling and plant community composition. Such changes in sagebrush-steppe communities are occurring with invasion of annual grasses (AG) into a perennial grass (PG) dominated system. We conducted a 5-year litter manipulation...

  9. Assessment of operators' mental workload using physiological and subjective measures in cement, city traffic and power plant control centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Majid; Motamedzade, Majid; Heidarimoghadam, Rashid; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Miyake, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the operators' mental workload (MW) of cement, city traffic control and power plant control centers using subjective and objective measures during system vital parameters monitoring. This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2014 to February 2015 at the cement, city traffic control and power plant control centers. Electrocardiography and electroencephalography data were recorded from forty males during performing their daily working in resting, low mental workload (LMW), high mental workload (HMW) and recovery conditions (each block 5 minutes). The NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) was used to evaluate the subjective workload of the operators. The results showed that increasing MW had a significant effect on the operators subjective responses in two conditions ([1,53] = 216.303, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.803). Also,the Task-MW interaction effect on operators subjective responses was significant (F [3, 53] = 12.628,P < 0.001, η2 = 0.417). Analysis of repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that increasing mental demands had a significant effect on heart rate, low frequency/high frequency ratio, theta and alpha band activity. The results suggested that when operators' mental demands especially in traffic control and power plant tasks increased, their mental fatigue and stress level increased and their mental health deteriorated. Therefore, it may be necessary to implement an ergonomic program or administrative control to manage mental probably health in these control centers. Furthermore, by evaluating MW, the control center director can organize the human resources for each MW condition to sustain the appropriate performance as well as improve system functions.

  10. Assessment of operators’ mental workload using physiological and subjective measures in cement, city traffic and power plant control centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Majid; Motamedzade, Majid; Heidarimoghadam, Rashid; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Miyake, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the operators’ mental workload (MW) of cement, city traffic control and power plant control centers using subjective and objective measures during system vital parameters monitoring. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2014 to February 2015 at the cement, city traffic control and power plant control centers. Electrocardiography and electroencephalography data were recorded from forty males during performing their daily working in resting, low mental workload (LMW), high mental workload (HMW) and recovery conditions (each block 5 minutes). The NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) was used to evaluate the subjective workload of the operators. Results: The results showed that increasing MW had a significant effect on the operators subjective responses in two conditions ([1,53] = 216.303, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.803). Also,the Task-MW interaction effect on operators subjective responses was significant (F [3, 53] = 12.628,P < 0.001, η2 = 0.417). Analysis of repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that increasing mental demands had a significant effect on heart rate, low frequency/high frequency ratio, theta and alpha band activity. Conclusion: The results suggested that when operators’ mental demands especially in traffic control and power plant tasks increased, their mental fatigue and stress level increased and their mental health deteriorated. Therefore, it may be necessary to implement an ergonomic program or administrative control to manage mental probably health in these control centers. Furthermore, by evaluating MW, the control center director can organize the human resources for each MW condition to sustain the appropriate performance as well as improve system functions. PMID:27386425

  11. Psychosocial work strain of maintenance personnel during annual outage and normal operation in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, L.; Svensson, O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a study which evaluates psychosocial work demands during the annual outage for a maintenance work group in a nuclear power plant. The study is based on a stress paradigm and it has been asserted that increased work strain would have a negative effect on performance. Nineteen workers, aged 20-55 years, participated in the study. The subjects filled out a questionnaire comparing work strain during annual outage and normal operation. During the outage period a 3-shift 24-hour work schedule, including nightwork, was used (working hours during normal operation was 7-16). Increased demands on concentration and vigilance, increased time pressure and strain on social relations within the group were found to characterize work during annual outage. Interestingly, for specific work tasks an association was found between the risk of making errors and high psychological workload. Increased work strain, shiftwork including nightwork and reduced social support are important psychosocial risk factors that might contribute to human error during the outage period

  12. Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The results obtained from the environmental monitoring program at the Savannah River Plant during 1974 are presented. An inventory of radioactive materials released to the environment, and data on radioactivity in samples of surface air, surface waters, soil, plants, and food are included. Data are also included on pesticides in Savannah River sediment. (U.S.)

  13. Intra-annual variation of arthropod–plant interactions and arthropod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arthropods are valuable biological indicators owing to strong relationships with primary producers. The supposition that arthropod–plant interactions are constant over seasons was tested using Mantel tests on correlations between these groups. A total of 78 plant species and 108 arthropod families were sampled monthly ...

  14. Fitness consequences of indirect plant defence in the annual weed, Sinapis arvensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Wagenaar, R.; Poelman, E.H.; Kruidhof, H.M.; van Loon, J.J.A.; Harvey, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant traits that enhance the attraction of the natural enemies of their herbivores have been postulated to function as an 'indirect defence'. An important underlying assumption is that this enhanced attraction results in increased plant fitness due to reduced herbivory. This assumption has been

  15. Fitness consequences of indirect plant defence in the annual weed, Sinapis arvensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, Rieta; Wagenaar, Roel; Poelman, Erik H.; Kruidhof, H. Marjolein; van Loon, Joop J.A.; Harvey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    * Plant traits that enhance the attraction of the natural enemies of their herbivores have been postulated to function as an ‘indirect defence’. An important underlying assumption is that this enhanced attraction results in increased plant fitness due to reduced herbivory. This assumption has been

  16. Fitness consequences of indirect plant defence in the annual weed, Sinapis arvensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Wagenaar, R.; Poelman, E.H.; Kruidhof, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Harvey, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    1. Plant traits that enhance the attraction of the natural enemies of their herbivores have been postulated to function as an ‘indirect defence’. An important underlying assumption is that this enhanced attraction results in increased plant fitness due to reduced herbivory. This assumption has been

  17. Correlation between Screening estimation and noise measurement in Small Plants in Varamin city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. R. Negahban

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: No correlation was shown between the results of the two methods used. Thus, it is recommended to change the parameters used in the noise screening form for small plants, with less than 5 workers.

  18. Microbiological quality assessment of commercially available medicinal plants in Peshawar city, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, K.F.

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants naturally harbor a variety of microorganisms. Besides, representing a direct health hazard to the consumer, these contaminated materials can cause the spoilage of pharmaceuticals and traditional preparations to which they are added. Assessment of microbiological loads of plants to assure safety and quality is therefore worth investigation. In the present study, 45 commercially available medicinal plants were evaluated for aerobic bacteria, fungi, coliforms, E. coli and Salmonella. All investigations were carried out in triplicate using standard methods. The results of the study revealed very high microbial loads and the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the plant samples. The aerobic bacterial count ranged from 1.3 x 102 to 5.6 x 10/sup 9/ cfu/g. The highest load was detected in the rhizomes of Curcuma longa. The coliform counts varied from 1.5 x 10/sup 2/ to 1.6 x 10/sup 4/ cfu/g. Among the selected herbs, 23 showed the presence of E. coli, while Salmonella spp. was detected in 13 samples. The fungal counts were above the international permissible level in the tested samples. It was concluded that commercially available plants may be high-risk substances and therefore quality of the plants may be regularly checked to ensure safety and make them fit for human consumption. (author)

  19. Industrial wastes of the cities of Baku and Sumgait and their effect on green plantings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirov, R O; Ismaylov, A R

    1969-01-01

    Baku and Sumgait had large oil production and chemical industries. Investigations showed that injury in green planting depended essentially on the nature of the waste products. Air polluted with SO/sub 2/, chlorine, and fluorine compounds produced dark brown bumps on the leaves. As the distance from the industries increased, the frequency and the intensity of the injuries decreased. Some of the ornamental species were beter adjusted and had a greater resistance. The establishment and development of green plantings were important for combating air pollution and for the sanitary well-being of the industrial area. Plans of landscaping of industrial enterprises included green plantings directly on the territory of the enterprises as well as in areas surrounding them in a radius of 150-500 m. Green shelter belts were needed for protection of the strong northern winds. The selection of plants was made considering their gas resistance, their drought resistance, as well as the plants' ability to grow in solonchak-solonets, clayey, and clayey loam soils characteristic for the Apsheron Peninsula. Trees and bushes were planted by the trench method. Irrigation with waste water was avoided.

  20. Reproductive allocation strategies in desert and Mediterranean populations of annual plants grown with and without water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J; Kigel, J; Shmida, A

    1993-03-01

    Reproductive effort (relative allocation of biomass to diaspore production) was compared in matched pairs of Mediterranean and desert populations of three unrelated annual species, Erucaria hispanica (L.) Druce, Bromus fasciculatus C. Presl. and Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv., grown under high and low levels of water availability in a common-environment experiment. Desert populations in all three species showed higher reproductive effort than corresponding Mediterranean populations, as expressed by both a reproductive index (RI= reproductive biomass/vegetative biomass), and a reproductive efficiency index (REI=number of diaspores/total plant biomass). Moreover, in E. hispanica and Brachypodium distachyon, inter-populational differences in reproductive effort were greater under water stress, the main limiting factor for plant growth in the desert. These results indicate that variability in reproductive effort in response to drought is a critical and dynamic component of life history strategies in annual species in heterogeneous, unpredictable xeric environments. When subjected to water stress the Mediterranean populations of E. hispanica and B. distachyon showed greater plasticity (e.g. had a greater reduction) in reproductive effort than the desert populations, while in Bromus fasciculatus both populations showed similar amounts of plasticity.

  1. Study on post-earthquake plant evaluation and communication (Annual safety research report, JFY 2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Toru; Taoka, Hideto; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Sano, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study are to establish a post-earthquake plant evaluation method and to develop a communication system for the improving seismic safety regulations as well as encouraging public communication. The Miyagiken-oki earthquake in 2005, Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant shut down automatically. Subsequently, JNES started development of post-earthquake plant evaluation and communication system based on the experience of the cross-check analysis for Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant. The Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007, the plant situation was not transmitted promptly. The loss of information sharing between local community and related organizations caused the public anxiety. The importance of plant information transmission as well as seismic information gathering were recognized. The proposal for the solution of the information issues were performed by government committee. In this study, the evaluation method for soundness of the main structure and equipment after earthquake event were updated. Moreover, procedure of the post-earthquake plant soundness evaluation and multi-functional seismic information system were developed. In addition, the implementation strategy of the easy-to -understand information dissemination to the public and transparent communication methodology was examined by the Industry-Academia-Government cooperation in the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa region. (author)

  2. Linking root hydraulic properties to carbon allocation patterns in annual plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, A.; Ewers, B. E.; Adjesiwor, A. T.; Kniss, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Incorporation of root structure and function into biophysical models is an important tool to predict plant water and nutrient uptake from the soil, plant carbon (C) assimilation, partitioning and release to the soils. Most of the models describing root water uptake (RWU) are based on semi-empirical (i.e. built on physiological hypotheses, but still combined with empirical functions) approaches and hydraulic parameters involved are hardly available. Root conductance is essential to define the interaction between soil-to-root and canopy-to-atmosphere. Also root hydraulic limitations to water flow can impact gas exchange rates and plant biomass partitioning. In this study, sugar beet (B. vulgaris) seeds under two treatments, grass (Kentucky bluegrass) and no grass (control), were planted in 19 L plastic buckets in June 2016. Photosynthetic characteristics (e.g. gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence), leaf morphology and anatomy, root morphology and above and below ground biomass of the plants was monitored at 15, 30, 50, 70 and 90 days after planting (DAP). Further emphasis was placed on the limits to water flow by coupling of hydraulic conductance (k) whole root-system with water relation parameters and gas exchange rates in fully established plants.

  3. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report, 1982. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.

    1986-02-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1982 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1982 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized

  4. HyPEP-FY 07 Annual Report: A Hydrogen Production Plant Efficiency Calculation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh

    2007-09-01

    The Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) coupled to the High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) process is one of two reference integrated systems being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy and Idaho National Laboratory for the production of hydrogen. In this concept the VHTR outlet temperature of 900 °C provides thermal energy and high efficiency electricity for the electrolysis of steam in the HTSE process. In the second reference system the Sulfur Iodine (SI) process is coupled to the VHTR to produce hydrogen thermochemically. In the HyPEP project we are investigating and characterizing these two reference systems with respect to production, operability, and safety performance criteria. Under production, plant configuration and working fluids are being studied for their effect on efficiency. Under operability, control strategies are being developed with the goal of maintaining equipment within operating limits while meeting changes in demand. Safety studies are to investigate plant response for equipment failures. Specific objectives in FY07 were (1) to develop HyPEP Beta and verification and validation (V&V) plan, (2) to perform steady state system integration, (3) to perform parametric studies with various working fluids and power conversion unit (PCU) configurations, (4) the study of design options such as pressure, temperature, etc. (5) to develop a control strategy and (6) to perform transient analyses for plant upsets, control strategy, etc for hydrogen plant with PCU. This report describes the progress made in FY07 in each of the above areas. (1) The HyPEP code numeric scheme and Graphic User Interface have been tested and refined since the release of the alpha version a year ago. (2) The optimal size and design condition for the intermediate heat exchanger, one of the most important components for integration of the VHTR and HTSE plants, was estimated. (3) Efficiency calculations were performed for a variety of working fluids for

  5. The traditional knowledge about melitophile plants in rural communities in the city of Sigefredo Pacheco, Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ederson de Sousa Martins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about plants with melitophile potential is highlighted in the research field, this way; these pieces of information are collected in the rural areas. Thus, ethnobotany, which studies the relation between human groups and plants, is fundamental, because it brings information about the species visited by bees as well as beekeepers and meliponiculturers, helping with environmental protection, especially native tree species and different bee groups. The objective of this study was to conduct an ethnobotanical survey about the knowledge the residents of two rural communities in the city of  Sigrefredo Pacheco, state of Piauí, about melitophile plants. The study was conducted through interviews in every house (41 of the two communities, totalizing 69 interviewees. 31 species were cited, and the family Leguminosae was highlighted.the most cited species were: Croton blanchetianus Baill. (25 and Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit. (25, in which the native species stood out (77,4%. It is possible to observe that the younger portion had the smaller participation and about gender, it is noticeable that men presented a major number of citation addressing plants than women. The study concludes that the knowledge of melitophile plants is present among the residents of the communities, that they know the profitable practices to the conservation of the melitophile flora, though; they are not overspread in the community. It is necessary to know more and more the knowledge about apicultural flora in rural communities, in order to rescue and value this knowledge, as well as local conservation measures.

  6. Test the Efficiency of some Plants in the Tolerant of Air Pollution within the City of Baghdad. Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa M. Jasim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to monitor the ambient air pollution in several sites within Baghdad City of Iraq. The readings started from May 2016 to April 2017. The highest concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2 was 2.28 ppmm-3 while nitrogen dioxide (NO2 was 3.68 ppmm-3 and suspended particulate matter was 585.1 μgm-3. This study also included estimating the value of the air pollution tolerance index (APTI for four plant's species Olea europaea L., Ziziphus spina-Christi (L. Desf, Albizia lebbeck(L. Benth. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Were cultivated on the road sides. The study includes four biochemical parameters, total chlorophyll content, ascorbic acid content, pH and relative water content of plant leaves. The results show that combining variety of these parameters give more certain results than those of single parameter. These four estimated parameters have positive correlation with each other and with the values of the air pollution tolerance index in all plants studied.

  7. Zinc Regime in the Sewage Sludge-Soil-Plant System of a City Waste Water Treatment Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacatusu Radu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of Iasi, a city with 300,000 inhabitants, for domestic and industrial origin, was stored in a mud pond arranged on an area of 18,920 m2. Chemical analyzes of the sludge showed that, of all the chemical elements determined, only Zn is found at pollutant level (5739 mg∙kg-1, i.e. almost 30 times more than the maximum allowable limit for Zn in soil and 45 times more than the Zn content of the soil on which the mud pond has been set. Over time, the content of Zn in the mud pond, but also from soil to which it has been placed, has become upper the normal content of the surrounding soil up to a depth of 260 cm. On the other hand, the vegetation installed on sewage sludge in the process of mineralization, composed predominantly of Phragmites, Rumex, Chenopodium, and Aster species had accumulated in roots, stems and leaves Zn quantities equivalent to 1463 mg Kg-1, 3988 mg Kg-1, 1463 mg Kg-1, respectively, 1120 mg∙Kg-1. The plants in question represents the natural means of phytoremediation, and sewage sludge as such may constitute a fertilizer material for soils in the area, on which Zn deficiency in maize has been recorded. In addition, the ash resulted from the incineration of plants loaded with zinc may constitute, in its turn, a good material for fertilizing of the soils that are deficient in zinc.

  8. Annual monitoring reveals rapid upward movement of exotic plants in a montane ecosystem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalwij, Jesse; Robertson, M. P.; van Rensburg, B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 12 (2015), s. 3517-3529 ISSN 1387-3547 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : alpine alien plants * established range * Sani Pass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.855, year: 2015

  9. Block survey of wall covered with plant in the city of Tokyo [Japan] and evaluation of thermal environment of wall greening system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, K.; Soh, Y.; Satoh, S.

    2007-01-01

    There were 384 (8877 square m) walls which covered with plant on 10 square km in the city of Tokyo, and the green wall rate in the city of Tokyo was 0.88%. Vines, for example Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix, were widely used. The factor of thinking better of the landscape in urban area was one of the easily management of plants. The three wall greening systems, a wall covered with hanging climbers and two types of self-contained living wall, mitigated the thermal environment. However its degree can be depended on the greening method and the greenery occupancy rate of wall

  10. Start. Slovak power stations, Nuclear Power Plants Mochovce (Annual report 1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Mochovce in 1998 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Director's foreword; (2) Power plant management; (3) Highlights of 1998; (4) Quality system; (5) Electricity and heat generation; Maintenance; Capital construction; (6) Radiation safety; Environmental impacts of operations; (7) List of balances; Human resources; (8) International co-operation; Public relations

  11. Study on post-earthquake plant evaluation and communication (Annual safety research report, JFY 2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study are to establish a post-earthquake plant evaluation method and to develop a communication system for the improving seismic safety regulations as well as encouraging public communication. The Miyagiken-oki earthquake in 2005, Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant shut down automatically. Subsequently, JNES started development of post-earthquake plant evaluation and communication system based on the experience of the cross-check analysis for Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant. The Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007, the plant situation was not transmitted promptly. The loss of information sharing between local community and related organizations caused the public anxiety. The importance of plant information transmission as well as seismic information gathering were recognized. The proposal for the solution of the information issues were performed by government committee, In this study the evaluation method for soundness of the main structure and equipment after earthquake event were updated. Moreover, information dissemination to the public and transparent communication methodology was examined by the Industry-Academia-Government cooperation in the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa region. (author)

  12. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 3: Appendices F-Q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations. This volume consists of appendices F-Q, which contain the analytical data from the site characterization.

  13. 2015 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  14. 2016 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  15. Determination of cesium-137 soil-to-plant concentration ratios for vegetables in Goiania City, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, D.C.; Sachett, I.A.; Pereira, J.C.; Zenaro, R.

    1994-01-01

    The radiological accident that occurred in Goiania City, Brazil, in September 1987, led to the spreading of 137 Cs in the urban area. Even after the decontamination procedure, there was a reminiscence of 137 Cs activity in the soil of residential gardens. This activity was enough to conduct preliminary experiments for determination of soil to vegetable concentration ratios. Experiments were conducted for carrots, lettuce and radishes. Two types of experimental patterns were used to determine the concentration ratios: lysimeters cultivation under greenhouse condition and soil cultivation in open field plot. The concentration ratios measured for cultivation under greenhouse and field plot conditions are considerably higher than those mentioned in the International Union of Radioecologist (IUR) data bank for the same vegetables and cultivation condition. (author) 5 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. Patterns of plant traits in annual vegetation of man-made habitats in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lososová, Z.; Chytrý, M.; Kühn, I.; Hájek, O.; Horáková, V.; Pyšek, Petr; Tichý, L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2006), s. 69-81 ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0020 Grant - others:ALARM(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-506675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : species traits * annual vegetation * man-made habitats Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.905, year: 2006

  17. AECB staff annual report of Bruce Heavy Water Plant operation for the year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    Bruce Heavy Water Plant operation was acceptably safe in 1991. There were no breaches of any of the regulations issued under the authority of the Atomic Energy Control Act. There was one violation of the operating licence. For one hour on October 30, 1991, water leaving the plant contained more hydrogen sulphide than Ontario regulations allow. There was no threat to public health or safety or harm to the environment as a result of this violation. One worker was overcome by hydrogen sulphide. The worker did not lose consciousness, but had the symptoms of H 2 S poisoning. Ontario Hydro took actions to increase awareness of the Operating Policy and Principles at Bruce Heavy Water Plant during 1991. All personnel attended a training course, and Ontario Hydro is reviewing all Bruce Heavy Water Plant documentation to ensure it is consistent with the Operating Policies and Principles. Ontario Hydro met 13 of 15 safety-related system availability targets. The AECB is satisfied appropriate action is being taken to improve the performance of the other two systems. Ontario Hydro continued to put heavy emphasis on safety training; however, they did not meet some of their other training targets. Ontario Hydro completed all of the planned emergency exercises at Bruce Heavy Water Plant in 1991. (Author)

  18. Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A continuous monitoring program has been maintained since 1951 (before plant start-up) to determine concentrations of radioactive materials in a 1200-square-mile area outside SRP. Although some gaseous and liquid radioactive materials are discharged from SRP operations, concentrations and doses to the surrounding population continued to be far below levels considered significant from a public health viewpoint. The concentration of radioactivity added by SRP to its environs during 1976 was too small to be distinguished from natural background radiation and fallout from worldwide nuclear weapons tests. Beta activity in particulate air filters was about 1.5 times the 1975 level and was due entirely to global fallout. This concentration, both at the plant perimeter and 25 miles away (0.07 pCi/m 3 ), represents 0.07% of the Concentration Guide (CG) (defined in the Applicable Standards section which follows). Tritium oxide in air at the plant perimeter was greater than in air at more distant locations; the average concentration at the plant perimeter (50 pCi/m 3 ) was less than 0.1 of the Concentration Guide. Tritium, cesium-137, and strontium-90 were the only radionuclides of plant origin detectable in river water by routine analyses.Special research programs using ultra-low-level techniques have detected trace quantities of other radionuclides of plant origin. Radioactive materials in river fish also continued very low. Monitoring in a five-square-mile swamp bordering the Savannah River immediately below the SRP boundary has shown radioactivity (primarily cesium-137) above the natural background level in soil and vegetation

  19. Environmental monitoring at the Savannah River Plant. Annual report for 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, C.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    The environmental monitoring program at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) provides reliable measurement of radioactive materials released at the source (approximately 40 locations) and present in the environment (approximately 500 locations). In recent years, the environmental monitoring program has been expanded to include measurements of nonradioactive materials released by SRP. A brief discussion of plant releases to the environment and radioactive and nonradioactive materials detected in the environment are presented. The appendices contain data analysis and quality control information, sensitivities of laboratory analyses, tables of environmental sample analyses, and maps of sampling locations

  20. Comprehensive cooling water study annual report. Volume II: introduction and site description, Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effecs of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. This report presents the results from the first year of the two year study and also summarizes results from previous studies on aquatic ecosystems of the Savannah River Plant. Five major program elements are addressed: water quality, radionuclide and heavy metal transport, wetlands ecology, aquatic ecology, and endangered species. 63 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Slovak power stations, Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice. (Annual report 1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Foreword by the director of Bohunice NPPs; (2) Management of Bohunice NPPs Subsidiary Plant; (3) The most significant events of the year 1997; (4) Electricity and heat production; (5) Safety; (6) Bohunice NPPs operation impact on environment; (7) The V-1 NPP and V-2 NPP upgrading; (8) Maintenance; (9) Capital construction; (10) Economic balance; (11) International co-operation; (12) Human sources; (12) Public relations

  2. Fertilizer nitrogen fixation in plants and its transmutation in soils in case of annual application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilova, E.I.; Smirnov, P.M.; Khon, N.I.

    1974-01-01

    Using certain combinations of 15 N labeled and unlabeled nitrogen-containing fertilizers data were obtained for direct determination of nitrogen balance in the year of fertilization and subsequently. Annual and total (for 3 years) increment in utilization of soil nitrogen resulting from repeated fertilization was also determined. Coefficient of nitrogen utilization by barley decreased over the 3-year period after additional application of ammonium sulfate while biological immobilization of nitrogen tended to increase. Application of straw during the first year of the experiment did not significantly affect the nitrogen balance in the following years. The total coefficient of nitrogen utilization for the 2 to 3-year period was higher than that of the first year while biological immobilization was relatively lower. Additional utilization of soil nitrogen as compared to the control was the same over the whole 3-year period; additional mobilization (annual and total) was relatively higher due to lower removal of soil nitrogen in the subsequent years. Utilization of previously immobilized nitrogen was higher in the case of repeated fertilization than without application of nitrogen fertilizers. The content of newly immobilized nitrogen during 3 years in the hydrolyzable undistilable fraction (nitrogen of bounded amino acids) was relatively lower and this was accompanied by the growth of hydrolyzable distilable and unhydrolyzable nitrogen

  3. Environmental radiation status in Nagareyama city (Chiba prefecture) after the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iiizumi, Sadao; Fujii, Hirofumi; Iimoto, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Nagareyama city is located in the northwestern part of Chiba prefecture in the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan. The city is located ∼200 km south of the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. As of April 1, 2012, the population of the city was 166,493 and its area was 35.28 km"2. Responding to many requests from the citizens, the local government has performed official surveys of environmental radiation status after the disaster. The radiation surveillance in this area has been conducted by the radiation protection specialists. The two primary measured quantities were (1) the ambient radiation dose (microsieverts per hour) at all school yards, public parks and at representative locations as selected by the local government, and (2) the specific radioactivity (becquerels per kilogram) of the drinking water and of local food items. These data have been reported on the city's website, in addition to being reported three times per month in the public relations magazine of the local government. This presentation provides the background status and technical information on the related activities. In addition, this presentation documents the measured environmental radiation data. The ambient radiation dose in the city has been surveyed since June of 2011. In the 1st period of the surveillance (from May to September of 2011), data were collected from 40 locations. The highest value of the measured ambient radiation dose was 0.58 μSv h"-"1, obtained at the elevation of 1 m above the ground, and the lowest value was 0.17 μSv h"-"1. The average level of ambient radiation was ∼0.32 μSv h"-"1, and those measured values included the natural background dose rate that was detected by the energy compensation type survey-meters. In the latest period of surveillance, the ambient radiation levels were measured around school yards. The peak value of ambient radiation level was 0.36 μSv h"-"1, the minimal value was 0.08 μSv h"-"1, and the average over all locations was

  4. Environmental radiation status in Nagareyama city (Chiba prefecture) after the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iiizumi, Sadao; Fujii, Hirofumi; Iimoto, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Nagareyama city is located in the northwestern part of Chiba prefecture in the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan. The city is located ∼200 km south of the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. As of April 1, 2012, the population of the city was 166,493 and its area was 35.28 km"2. Responding to many requests from the citizens, the local government has performed official surveys of environmental radiation status after the disaster. The radiation surveillance in this area has been conducted by the radiation protection specialists. The two primary measured quantities were (1) the ambient radiation dose (microsieverts per hour) at all school yards, public parks and at representative locations as selected by the local government, and (2) the specific radioactivity (becquerels per kilogram) of the drinking water and of local food items. These data have been reported on the city's website, in addition to being reported three times per month in the public relations magazine of the local government. This presentation provides the background status and technical information on the related activities. In addition, this presentation documents the measured environmental radiation data. The ambient radiation dose in the city has been surveyed since June of 2011. In the 1st period of the surveillance (from May to September of 2011), data were collected from 40 locations. The highest value of the measured ambient radiation dose was 0.58 μSv h"-"1, obtained at the elevation of 1 m above the ground, and the lowest value was 0.17 μSv h"-"1. The average level of ambient radiation was ∼0.32 μSv h"-"1, and those measured values included the natural background dose rate that was detected by the energy compensation type surveymeters. In the latest period of surveillance, the ambient radiation levels were measured around school yards. The peak value of ambient radiation level was 0.36 μSv h"-"1, the minimal value was 0.08 μSv h"-"1, and the average over all locations was 0

  5. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. With less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened.

  6. Presence of Aeromonas spp in water from drinking-water- and wastewater-treatment plants in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarruel-López, Angélica; Fernández-Rendón, Elizabeth; Mota-de-la-Garza, Lydia; Ortigoza-Ferado, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    The frequency of Aeromonas spp in three wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) and two drinking-water plants (DWPs) in México City was determined. Samples were taken throughout a year by the Moore's swab technique. A total of 144 samples were obtained from WWTPs and 96 from DWPs of both incoming and outflowing water. Aeromonas spp was isolated in 31% of the samples, from both kinds of sources. The technique used for the isolation of the pathogen was suitable for samples with high associate microbiota content and for those with a scarce microbial content. The presence of mesophilic-aerobic, coliform, and fecal-coliform organisms was investigated to determine whether there was any correlation with the presence of Aeromonas spp. Most samples from WWTP, which did not comply with the Mexican standards, had the pathogen, and some of the samples from the outflow of the DWP, which were within the limits set by the Mexican standards, also had Aeromonas spp. Most samples containing Aeromonas spp. had concentrations below 0.1 ppm residual chlorine, and the strains were resistant to 0.3 ppm, which supports the recommendation to increase the residual chlorine concentration to 0.5 to 1.0 ppm, as recommended by the Mexican standards.

  7. Fifth annual report Occupational exposures at nuclear power plants 1969-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In order to facilitate the exchange of techniques and experiences in occupational exposure reduction, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) launched the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) on 1 January 1992, after a one year pilot programme. In 1993, an arrangement was agreed between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the NEA by which the IAEA co-sponsors ISOE inviting those IAEA Member States which are not members of the NEA to participate cost-free in the programme. This three-level database joins utilities and regulatory agencies throughout the world, providing occupational data for trending, cost-benefit analyses, technique comparison, information exchange, and other analyses following the ALARA principle. In creating the network for the collection of this data, a forum for direct information and experience exchange was also created, thus allowing operational radiation protection professionals, from both utilities and authorities, to freely exchange ideas, views and experience. This is the Fifth Annual Report produced by the ISOE Programme, and covers the period up to the end of 1995. The analyses presented in this Report focus on the radiological indicators supplied to the NEA 1 database by Participating Utilities. Such reports will be produced annually, the next being expected to be issued in late 1997 and covering the period to the end of 1996. This report was prepared by the ISOE European Regional Technical Centre (ERTC), with the assistance of the NEA ISOE Secretariat, and was reviewed and approved by the Members of the ISOE Steering Group, who also provided valuable comments. The NEA Secretariats is very grateful to the ERTC for its excellent contribution. This report is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed are those only, and do not necessarily reflect the point of view of any OECD Member country or of

  8. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report summary for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This report contains summaries of the environmental programs at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, environmental monitoring and the results, and the impact of operations on the environment and the public for 1993. The environmental monitoring program at Paducah includes effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is measurement of releases as they occur. Contaminants are released through either airborne emissions or liquids discharged from the plant. These releases occur as part of normal site operations, such as cooling water discharged from the uranium enrichment cascade operations or airborne releases from ventilation systems. In the event of system failure, this monitoring provides timely warning so that corrective action can be taken before releases reach an unsafe level. Environmental surveillance tracks the dispersion of materials into the environment after they have been released. This involves the collection of samples from various media, such as water, soil, vegetation, and food crops, and the analysis of these samples for certain radionuclides, chemicals, and metals

  9. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report summary for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This report contains summaries of the environmental programs at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, environmental monitoring and the results, and the impact of operations on the environment and the public for 1993. The environmental monitoring program at Paducah includes effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is measurement of releases as they occur. Contaminants are released through either airborne emissions or liquids discharged from the plant. These releases occur as part of normal site operations, such as cooling water discharged from the uranium enrichment cascade operations or airborne releases from ventilation systems. In the event of system failure, this monitoring provides timely warning so that corrective action can be taken before releases reach an unsafe level. Environmental surveillance tracks the dispersion of materials into the environment after they have been released. This involves the collection of samples from various media, such as water, soil, vegetation, and food crops, and the analysis of these samples for certain radionuclides, chemicals, and metals

  10. Palisades Nuclear Plant. Radioactive effluents and environmental monitoring sections to second annual operating report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A total of 0.435 Ci of radioactive liquid effluent less tritium was released with 19.63 Ci of tritium. Both liquid and gaseous releases were within permissible limits. There were 8 Ci of solid wastes stored on the site as of 12/31/76. Data clearly shows there was no detectable increase in radioactivity levels in the environmental media that can be attributed to plant effluents. Monitoring reports are presented concerning fish, meteorology, noise, and cooling tower drift

  11. Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Annual report for 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of radioactivity added by the Savannah River Plant to its environs during 1975 was, for the most part, too small to be distinguished from natural background radiation and fallout from worldwide nuclear weapons tests. Beta activity in particulate air filters was about one-half of the 1974 level and was due entirely to global fallout. An accidental release of tritium to the atmosphere occurred in a production facility on December 31, 1975. Monitoring teams were deployed along the estimated puff trajectory immediately following the release. Monitoring extended from the production facility to the Atlantic Ocean north of Charleston, SC. Environmental sample concentrations of tritium oxide were all within normal ranges. The low concentrations of tritium measured in environmental samples around the plantsite were of no health significance. Tritium, cesium-137, and strontium-90 were the only radionuclides of plant origin detectable in river water by routine analyses. None of these had an average concentration exceeding 0.2 percent of the Concentration Guide in river water samples 8 miles downstream from the plant. Monitoring in an offsite swamp immediately below the SRP boundary has shown radioactivity (primarily cesium-137) above the natural background level in soil and vegetation. Only one-third of a five-square-mile swamp, which is largely uninhabited and inaccessible, bordering the Savannah River and downstream from SRP is affected. No restrictions on use of the swamp are considered warranted nor are remedial actions needed. Concentrations of radioactivity in vegetation and soil were, in most instances, lower than those reported in 1974. During 1975 the average dose from atmospheric releases of radioactive materials from SRP was calculated to be 0.66 millirem (mrem) at the plant perimeter

  12. Reduced pollinator service and elevated pollen limitation at the geographic range limit of an annual plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, David A; Geber, Monica A; Eckhart, Vincent M; Tiffin, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Mutualisms are well known to influence individual fitness and the population dynamics of partner species, but little is known about whether they influence species distributions and the location of geographic range limits. Here, we examine the contribution of plant-pollinator interactions to the geographic range limit of the California endemic plant Clarkia xantiana ssp. xantiana. We show that pollinator availability declined from the center to the margin of the geographic range consistently across four years of study. This decline in pollinator availability was caused to a greater extent by variation in the abundance of generalist rather than specialist bee pollinators. Climate data suggest that patterns of precipitation in the current and previous year drove variation in bee abundance because of its effects on cues for bee emergence in the current year and the abundance of floral resources in the previous year. Experimental floral manipulations showed that marginal populations had greater outcross pollen limitation of reproduction, in parallel with the decline in pollinator abundance. Although plants are self-compatible, we found no evidence that autonomous selfing contributes to reproduction, and thus no evidence that it alleviates outcross pollen limitation in marginal populations. Furthermore, we found no association between the distance to the range edge and selfing rate, as estimated from sequence and microsatellite variation, indicating that the mating system has not evolved in response to the pollination environment at the range periphery. Overall, our results suggest that dependence on pollinators for reproduction may be an important constraint limiting range expansion in this system.

  13. A lignite-geothermal hybrid power and hydrogen production plant for green cities and sustainable buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilkis, B. [Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Turkey is rich in both geothermal energy and lignite reserves, which in many cases, are co-located. This condition makes it feasible to utilize both lignite and geothermal energy in a hybrid form for combined power heat, and cold generation, which may lead to optimally energy and exergy efficient, environmentally benign, and economically sound applications. This paper presents a novel concept of hybrid lignite-geothermal plant for a district energy system and hydrogen production facility in Aydin with special emphasis on high performance, green buildings and green districts. In this concept, lignite is first introduced to a partially fluidized-bed gasifier and then to a fluidized-bed gas cleaning unit, which produces synthetic gas and finally hydrogen. The by-products, namely char and ash are used in a fluidized-bed combustor to produce power. Waste heat from all these steps are utilized in a district heating system along with heat received from geothermal production wells after power is generated there. H{sub 2}S gas obtained from the separator system is coupled with hydrogen production process at the lignite plant. Absorption cooling systems and thermal storage tanks complement the hybrid system for the tri-generation district energy system. On the demand side, the new, green OSTIM OSB administration building in Ankara is exemplified for greener, low-exergy buildings that will compound the environmental benefits.

  14. Environmental radiation status in Kashiwa city (Chiba prefecture) after the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someya, Seiichi; Fujii, Hirofumi; Iimoto, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Kashiwa city is located in the northwest part of Chiba prefecture in the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan. It is about 200 km to the south of the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The population of the city was 404,252 as of April 1, 2012, and its area is 114.9 km 2 . The local government has officially surveyed the environmental radiation status after the disaster in response to numerous requests from its citizens. The radiation surveillance in this area has been conducted by the radiation protection specialists. The two main goals of the surveillance are (1) to measure the ambient radiation dose (microsieverts per hour) at all the school yards, public parks, and representative measuring points selected by the local government, and (2) to measure the specific radioactivity (becquerels per kilogram) of drinking water and local food items. These data have been reported on the city website as well as in a bi-monthly report in the public relations magazine of the local government. This report presents the background status and technical information on the related activities, and the measured environmental radiation data. The ambient radiation dose in the city has been surveyed since June, 2011. In the 1st period of the surveillance (from May to August, 2011) at a total of 210 survey points, the highest value of the ambient radiation dose was 0.65 μSv h -1 at the height of 1 m from the ground, the lowest was 0.08 μSv h -1 , and the average was 0.25 μSv h -1 . These values include the natural background dose rate detected by the survey-meters. In the 4th period, the latest data around school yards were 0.30 at maximum, 0.04 at minimum, and 0.12 μSv h -1 on average. The ambient dose at 41 of 61 school yards and 47 of 635 parks has been reduced under the decontamination project by the local government, so far. The net dose reduction rate, without the natural background dose, was from 30%-80% in the school yards and the parks. Decontamination activity

  15. Environmental radiation status in Kashiwa city (Chiba prefecture) after the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someya, Seiichi; Fujii, Hirofumi; Iimoto, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Kashiwa city is located in the northwest part of Chiba prefecture in the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan. It is about 200 km to the south of the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The population of the city was 404,252 as of April 1, 2012, and its area is 114.9 km"2. The local government has officially surveyed the environmental radiation status after the disaster in response to numerous requests from its citizens. The radiation surveillance in this area has been conducted by the radiation protection specialists. The two main goals of the surveillance are (1) to measure the ambient radiation dose (microsieverts per hour) at all the school yards, public parks, and representative measuring points selected by the local government, and (2) to measure the specific radioactivity (becquerels per kilogram) of drinking water and local food items. These data have been reported on the city website as well as in a bi-monthly report in the public relations magazine of the local government. This report presents the background status and technical information on the related activities, and the measured environmental radiation data. The ambient radiation dose in the city has been surveyed since June, 2011. In the 1st period of the surveillance (from May to August, 2011) at a total of 210 survey points, the highest value of the ambient radiation dose was 0.65 μSv h"-"1 at the height of 1 m from the ground, the lowest was 0.08 μSv h"-"1, and the average was 0.25 μSv h"-"1. These values include the natural background dose rate detected by the survey meters. In the 4th period, the latest data around school yards were 0.30 at maximum, 0.04 at minimum, and 0.12 μSv h"-"1 on average. The ambient dose at 41 of 61 school yards and 47 of 635 parks has been reduced under the decontamination project by the local government, so far. The net dose reduction rate, without the natural background dose, was from 30%-80% in the school yards and the parks. Decontamination activity

  16. A FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PLANT FOR COMPOSTING ORGANIC WASTE IN THE CITY OF KRAGUJEVAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Jovičić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing of waste quantity, its harmful influence on natural environments and world experiences has had so far impose the necessity for the analyses of techno-economic possibilities of the processes for treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste stream, in our region. In this paper, problematic of treatment solid waste and composting process, which represents one of the most acceptable options for the processing of solid waste, are given. Composting involves the aerobic biological decomposition of organic materials to produce a stable humus-like product. Base of composting process, review of composting feedstock, use of compost, benefits of composting process and concrete proposal for composting process realization, with techno-economic analysis for the construction of composting plant on territory community Kragujevac, are given in this paper, too.

  17. Air pollution and damages to tress planted along route four in Fukushima City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, F; Mori, H

    1973-10-01

    The effects of automotive exhausts gases on trees were observed along highway no. 4 in Fukushima. The observed trees were 319 Sophora Japonica (dog pagoda trees) planted on both sides of the highway covering about 4.5 km. The period of observation was between April 1973 through the end of this fall. The young leaves began to bud about April 10, opened about April 17th, and damage began to appear from about May 10; by July and August, damages such as discoloration, shrinking, tearing, and drying up progressed considerably. Some leaves were covered by dusts, as much as 10 wt% of the total weight of the leaves. The trees in the control areas in the suburbs showed almost no damage, except for some slight chlorosis. The chlorophyll measurements increased up to early July and decreased thereafter in the polluted area; the measurements were much higher in the control areas.

  18. AECB staff annual assessment of the Bruce Heavy Water Plant for the year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report is the Atomic Energy Control Board staff assessment of the operation of Bruce Heavy Water Plant (BHWP) during 1994. BHWP operation was acceptably safe in 1994. At BHWP, Ontario Hydro did not breach any of the regulations issued under the authority of the Atomic Energy Control Act. There were four minor violations of the BHWP Operating Licence. In all cases, Ontario Hydro exceeded Ontario Hydro government limits for releases to the environment. None of the events threatened public health or the environment. 2 figs

  19. The level of air pollution in the impact zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using the data of geochemical snow survey (Republic of Kazakhstan)

    OpenAIRE

    Adil'bayeva, Т. E.; Talovskaya, Anna Valerievna; Yazikov, Yegor (Egor) Grigoryevich; Matveenko, Irina Alekseevna

    2016-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants emissions impact the air quality and human health. Of great significance is assessment of solid airborne particles emissions from those plants and distance of their transportation. The article presents the results of air pollution assessment in the zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using snow survey. Based on the mass of solid airborne particles deposited in snow, time of their deposition on snow at the distance from 0.5 to 4.5 km a value of dust load has...

  20. Genetic variation of eggplant mottled dwarf virus from annual and perennial plant hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappi, Polyxeni G; Maliogka, Varvara I; Amoutzias, Gregory D; Katis, Nikolaos I

    2016-03-01

    The genetic diversity of eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV), a member of the family Rhabdoviridae, was studied using isolates collected from different herbaceous and woody plant species and remote geographic areas. Sequences corresponding to the N, X, P, Y, M and G ORFs as well as the untranslated regions (UTRs) between ORFs were determined from all isolates. Low genetic diversity was found in almost all genomic regions studied except for the X ORF and the UTRs, which were more variable, while interestingly, an EMDV isolate from caper possessed a truncated G gene sequence. Furthermore, low d N /d S ratios, indicative of purifying selection, were calculated for all genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the EMDV isolates clustered in three distinct subgroups based on their geographical origin, with the exception of one subgroup that consisted of isolates from northern Greece and Cyprus. Overall, the level of genetic diversity of EMDV differed between seed- and asexually propagated plants in our collection, and this could be related to the mode of transmission.

  1. Biological recipient control at the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. Annual report for 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jan; Franzen, Fredrik; Lingman, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Potential ecosystem effects caused by the effluent cooling water from the Simpevarp nuclear power plant, close to Oskarshamn on the Swedish coast of the Baltic Proper, are monitored in yearly surveys using gillnets and fyke nets. Fishing is undertaken at several sites in a coastal gradient starting at the location of the emitted cooling water, and in a reference area 100 km north of the recipient. Soft bottom macro fauna and macro vegetation are monitored both in the gradient and in the reference area. Fish mortality due to entrapment in the cooling water system and commercial landings are monitored to assess the effects on the local fishery. The water used for cooling is normally heated by 10-12 deg C when passing through the power plant. In sheltered parts of the recipient bay of Hamnefjaerden, the surface water was 4-6 deg C warmer in April-November 2011 than in the reference area comparable reference areas and the emitted water occasionally exceeded 30 deg C in the summer. Fish losses in the cooling water rinsing system were dominated by Baltic herring. Effects on abundances at the population level are estimated to be small, but local effects cannot be ruled out. Perch (Perca fluviatilis), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) dominated the catches in the surveys with gillnets in Hamnefjaerden, as well as in the archipelago surrounding the power plant. Perch abundances increased in these areas. Catches of roach decreased close to the power plant, but also in the reference area. Perch in the gillnet catches were younger and grew faster close to the power plant than in the reference area. Abnormal gonads, previously observed at high frequencies in perch and roach in Hamnefjaerden, were rare in the 2011 sampling. The abundance of young of the year perch in the recipient did not change over time. The size of the perch fry however, increased in Hamnefjaerden, as well as in the local reference area. The catch and size structure of yellow eel

  2. Proceedings, 15th Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Planning and Operations Review, held 17-20 November 1980, Savannah, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Overview by Howard E. Westerdahl ... ............ . 240 Development of Controlled-Release Herbicide Technology Using Polymers by Frank W. Harris and... Westerdahl ...... ................... ... 496 𔃾 - .,e-7 -,- . .. .o. *’ ATTENDEES 35th ANNUAL MEETING U. S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS AQUATIC PLANT...West USAE Waterways Experiment Station P. 0. Box 631 Vicksburg, MS 39180 Howard Westerdahl USAE Waterways Experiment Station P. O. Box 631 Vicksburg

  3. Middlesex Sampling Plant: Annual environmental report for calendar year 1990, Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and surrounding area began in 1980. MSP is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental monitoring program at MSP includes sampling networks for radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, thorium-232, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters were measured in groundwater, surface water, and sediment. 14 refs., 17 figs., 29 tabs

  4. [Plant growth with limited water]. [Annual report, December 15, 1992--December 14, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    We used a soybean seedling system to explore the mechanism of growth limitation by water deficiency (low {Psi}{sub W}). Our prior work had show that (low {Psi}{sub W} inhibited plant growth initially because of a physical limitation to water uptake that appeared to result from a decrease in the {Psi}{sub W} gradient feeding water to the enlarging cells. The gradient was shown to originate from cell wall yielding and was altered primarily at the vascular tissue. In the present grant, we reported the detailed shape of the gradient. We also found that growth could mobilize water from mature tissues in the complete absence of external water using the gradient in {Psi}{sub W}. Growth was maintained by this mobilization. After growth has been inhibited a few hours, metabolic changes occur and a 28kD protein accumulates in the wall fraction of the growth-affected cells. In the present grant, we showed that the mRNA for the protein accumulated in a tissue-specific manner similar to that of the protein, and the accumulation was correlated with the growth response. Other investigators working independently with an acid phosphatase found a deduced amino acid sequence similar to that for the 28kD protein we had published. Biochemical tests showed that the 28kD protein and a related 3lkD protein expressed acid phosphatase activity. We found that the acid phosphatase Of the 28kD protein was in the cell walls of intact plants (in addition to being in the cytoplasm). Current work focuses on the role of this protein. Efforts were made to reverse the growth inhibition at low {Phi}{sub W} by treating growing tissues with low pH buffer, but the protons apparently failed to penetrate the cuticle.

  5. Middlesex Sampling Plant annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the environmental monitoring program at the-Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring of MSP began in 1980 when Congress added the site to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental monitoring program at MSP includes sampling networks for radon and thoron concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, thorium-232, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment,, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater, surface water, and sediment. Results of environmental monitoring during 1991 indicate that most concentrations were well below applicable guidelines. The potential radiation dose calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual, based on a conservative but realistic exposure scenario, is 2.3 mrem (milliroentgen equivalent man) per year, which is less than an individual would receive while traveling in an airplane at 12,000 meters for five hours. During 1991, there were no nonroutine releases from the site; MSP was in compliance with applicable regulations for releases from the site. Site activities included environmental monitoring, site maintenance, onsite characterization for the MSP remedial investigation, and additional sediment sampling at the plant outfall to determine the source of the elevated levels of radium-226 and thorium-232

  6. ANNUAL AND DIURNAL CYCLES OF THE INVERSE RELATION BETWEEN PLANT TRANSPIRATION AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Alonso Moreno

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding biogeochemical cycles and especially carbon budgets is clue to validate global change models in the present and near future. As a consequence, sinks and sources of carbon in the world are being studied. One of those sinks is the non-well known behavior of the planet vegetation which involves the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Carbon sequestration rates are highly related to the transpiration through a molecular diffusion process occurring at the stomatal level which can be recorded by an eddy covariance micrometeorological station. This paper explores annual and diurnal cycles of latent heat (LE and CO2 net (FC fluxes over 6 different ecosystems. Based on the physics of the transpiration process, different time-scale analysis are performed, finding a near-linear relation between LE and CO2 net fluxes, which is stronger at the more vegetated areas. The North American monsoon season increases carbon up taking and LE-CO2 flux relation preserves at different time scales analysis (hours to days to months.El conocimiento de los ciclos biogeoquímicos y, en especial, de los balances de carbono es clave para la validación de los modelos de cambio global para el presente y el futuro cercano. Como consecuencia, en el mundo se estudian las fuentes y los sumideros de carbono. Uno de esos sumideros es la vegetación del planeta, que involucra los procesos de respiración y fotosíntesis y cuyo comportamiento se empieza a estudiar. Las tasas de captura del carbono están muy ligadas a la transpiración mediante un proceso de difusión molecular en los estomas, que puede registrarse por un sistema micrometeorológico de eddy covarianza. Este artículo explora los ciclos anuales y diurnos de los flujos netos de CO2 y calor latente de seis ecosistemas diferentes. Se desarrollan diversos análisis de escala temporal, basados en la física de la transpiración, y se halla una relación cuasilineal entre los flujos netos de calor

  7. Middlesex Sampling Plant and Middlesex Municipal Landfill annual site environmental report, Middlesex, New Jersey: Calendar year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    During 1986, the environmental monitoring program was continued at the former Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and former Middlesex Municipal Landfill (MML) sites, located in the Borough of Middlesex, New Jersey. The MSP and MML sites are part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residential radioactive materials remain from either the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has mandated DOE to remedy. The monitoring program at the MSP and MML measures radon gas concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that sites are in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and to assess their potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenarios described in the report, this individual, at the MSP, would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 10 percent of the DOE radiation protection standard. By comparison, the incremental dose received from living in a brick house versus a wooden house is about the same. At the MML, the annual external exposure to the maximally exposed individual would be less than 1% of the standard. The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of the sites that would result from radioactive materials present at the MSP and MML would be indistinguishable from the dose that the same population would receive from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1986 monitoring show that the MSP and MML are in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 14 refs., 13 figs., 23 tabs

  8. Implementation of passive samplers for monitoring volatile organic compounds in ground water at the Kansas City Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, F.G.; Korte, N.E.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.; Baker, J.L.; Ramm, S.G.

    1998-06-01

    Passive sampling for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been suggested as a possible replacement to the traditional bailer method used at the Department of Energy Kansas City Plant (KCP) for routine groundwater monitoring. To compare methods, groundwater samples were collected from 19 KCP wells with VOC concentrations ranging from non-detectable to > 100,000 microg/L. Analysis of the data was conducted using means and medians of multiple measurements of TCE, 1,2-DCE, 1,1-DCE and VC. All 95% confidence intervals of these VOCs overlap, providing evidence that the two methods are similar. The study also suggests that elimination of purging and decontamination of sampling equipment reduces the labor required to sample by approximately 32%. Also, because the passive method generates no waste water, there are no associated disposal costs. The results suggest evidence to continue studies and efforts to replace traditional bailer methods with passive sampling at KCP based on cost and the similarity of the methods

  9. Middlesex Sampling Plant [MSP] annual site environmental report, calendar year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The environmental monitoring program, which began in 1980, was continued in 1988 at the former Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) site, located in the Borough of Middlesex, New Jersey. The MSP site is part of the Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a Department of Energy (DOE) program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain either from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has mandated DOE to remedy. The environmental monitoring program is carried out by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), project management contractor for FUSRAP. The monitoring program at the MSP measures radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and to assess its potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual. Results of the 1988 monitoring show that the MSP is in compliance with applicable DOE radiation protection standards and with applicable requirements specified by New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection groundwater permits. 17 refs., 15 figs., 21 tabs

  10. Plant rhizosphere effects on metal mobilization and transport. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, D.E.; Fan, T.W.M.; Higashi, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    'During the funding period of 1996--1997, the authors explored the utility of multi-nuclear, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for a comprehensive analysis of barley root exudates collected under Fe sufficient and deficient conditions. As both structural and quantitative information was obtained directly from crude root exudates using this approach, no tedious sample fractionation was necessary, which will greatly facilitate future chemical characterization of root exudates in general. They found that the phytosiderophore mugineic acids (including 2'-deoxymugineic acid, mugineic acid, and 3-epi-hydroxymugineic acid) were readily identified and quantified in crude exudate samples along with a number of amino and organic acids. The amount of mugineic acids excreted was correlated positively with the extent of Fe deficiency with 3-epi-hydroxymugineic acid being the most prominent component. The total Fe chelating capacity was also measured using the ferrozine assay and compared with the production of the mugineic acids. They were surprised to find that the mugineic acids may account for a part of the Fe chelating capacity, especially under mild and moderatley Fe deficient conditions. Lactate, alanine, y-aminobutyrate, malate, and glycinebetaine collectively may contribute to a significant fraction of the Fe chelating capacity. In light of the known stimulatory effect of alanine and citrate on metal availability to algae (Campell, 1995), the function of these low molecular weight metabolites as vehicles for Fe or metal uptake in general warrant further investigation. This work is now published in Analytical Biochemistry 251, 57-68 ( 1997). They then proceeded to apply the above approach to investigate the interaction of elevated cadmium (Cd) with Fe deficiency in gramineous plants. They have completed one each series of cadmium (Cd) treatments of barley and wheat seedlings under Fe sufficient

  11. Comprehensive cooling water study annual report. Volume IV: radionuclide and heavy metal transport, Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    The principal sources of tritium, radiocesium, and radiocobalt in the environment at the Savannah River Plant have been reactor area effluent discharges to onsite streams. Radioactive releases began in 1955, with the period of major reactor releases occurring between 1955 and 1968. Since the early 1970s, releases, except for tritium releases, have been substantially reduced. Radioisotope liquid releases resulted specifically from leaching of reactor fuel elements with cladding failures which exposed the underlying fuel to water. The direct sources of these releases were heat exchanger cooling water, spent fuel storage and disassembly basin effluents, and process water from each of the reactor areas. Offsite radiochemical monitoring of water and sediment at upriver and downriver water treatment facilities indicates that SRP contributions of gamma-emitting radionuclide levels present at these facilities are minute. Tritium in water attributable to SRP operations is routinely detected at the downriver facilities; however, total alpha and nonvolatile beta concentrations attributable to SRP liquid releases are not detected at the downriver facilities. The historic material balance calculated for onsite releases of tritium transported to the Savannah River exhibits a high accounting of tritium released. Other radionuclides released to onsite streams have primarily remained in onsite floodplains. Radionuclide releases associated with reactor operations are derived primarily from disassembly basin water releases in the reactor areas and historically have been the major source of radioactivity released to onsite streams. The movement and interaction of these releases have been governed by cooling water discharges. Liquid releases continue to meet DOE concentration guides for the various radioisotopes in onsite streams and in the Savannah River

  12. Nitrogen soil emissions and belowground plant processes in Mediterranean annual pastures are altered by ozone exposure and N-inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, L.; Bermejo-Bermejo, V.; García-Torres, L.; Alonso, R.; de la Cruz, A.; Calvete-Sogo, H.; Vallejo, A.

    2017-09-01

    Increasing tropospheric ozone (O3) and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition alter the structure and composition of pastures. These changes could affect N and C compounds in the soil that in turn can influence soil microbial activity and processes involved in the emission of N oxides, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), but these effects have been scarcely studied. Through an open top chamber (OTC) field experiment, the combined effects of both pollutants on soil gas emissions from an annual experimental Mediterranean community were assessed. Four O3 treatments and three different N input levels were considered. Fluxes of nitric (NO) and nitrous (N2O) oxide, CH4 and CO2 were analysed as well as soil mineral N and dissolved organic carbon. Belowground plant parameters like root biomass and root C and N content were also sampled. Ozone strongly increased soil N2O emissions, doubling the cumulative emission through the growing cycle in the highest O3 treatment, while N-inputs enhanced more slightly NO; CH4 and CO2 where not affected. Both N-gases had a clear seasonality, peaking at the start and at the end of the season when pasture physiological activity is minimal; thus, higher microorganism activity occurred when pasture had a low nutrient demand. The O3-induced peak of N2O under low N availability at the end of the growing season was counterbalanced by the high N inputs. These effects were related to the O3 x N significant interaction found for the root-N content in the grass and the enhanced senescence of the community. Results indicate the importance of the belowground processes, where competition between plants and microorganisms for the available soil N is a key factor, for understanding the ecosystem responses to O3 and N.

  13. Global Megacities Differing Adaptation Responses to Climate Change: an Analysis of Annual Spend of Ten Major cities on the adaptation economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, M. A.; Georgeson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas are increasingly at risk from climate change with negative impacts predicted for human health, the economy and ecosystems. These risks require responses from cities, to improve the resilience of their infrastructure, economy and environment to climate change. Policymakers need to understand what is already being spent on adaptation so that they can make more effective and comprehensive adaptation plans. Through the measurement of spend in the newly defined 'Adaptation Economy' we analysis the current efforts of 10 global megacities in adapting to climate change. These cities were chosen based on their size, geographical location and their developmental status. The cities are London, Paris, New York, Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Beijing, Mumbai, Jakarta, Lagos and Addis Ababa. It is important to study a range of cities in different regions of the world, with different climates and at different states of socio-economic development. While in economic terms, disaster losses from weather, climate and geophysical events are greater in developed countries, fatalities and economic losses as a proportion of GDP are higher in developing countries. In all cities examined the Adaptation Economy is still a small part of the overall economy accounting for a maximum of 0.3% of the Cities total GDP (GDPc). The differences in total spend are significant between cities in developed and rapidly emerging countries, compared to those in developing countries with a spend ranging from £16 million to £1,500 million. Comparing key sub sectors, we demonstrate that there are distinctive adaptation profiles with developing cities having a higher relative spend on health, while developed cities have a higher spend on disaster preparedness, ICT and professional services. Comparing spend per capita and as a percentage of GDPc demonstrates even more clearly disparities between the cities in the study; developing country cities spend half as much as a proportion of GPCc in some cases, and

  14. Variation in moisture duration as a driver of coexistence by the storage effect in desert annual plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Galen; Chesson, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Temporal environmental variation is a leading hypothesis for the coexistence of desert annual plants. Environmental variation is hypothesized to cause species-specific patterns of variation in germination, which then generates the storage effect coexistence mechanism. However, it has never been shown how sufficient species differences in germination patterns for multispecies coexistence can arise from a shared fluctuating environment. Here we show that nonlinear germination responses to a single fluctuating physical environmental factor can lead to sufficient differences between species in germination pattern for the storage effect to yield coexistence of multiple species. We derive these nonlinear germination responses from experimental data on the effects of varying soil moisture duration. Although these nonlinearities lead to strong species asymmetries in germination patterns, the relative nonlinearity coexistence mechanism is minor compared with the storage effect. However, these asymmetries mean that the storage effect can be negative for some species, which then only persist in the face of interspecific competition through average fitness advantages. This work shows how a low dimensional physical environment can nevertheless stabilize multispecies coexistence when the species have different nonlinear responses to common conditions, as supported by our experimental data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  16. Assessment of Air Pollution Tolerance Index of some plants to develop vertical gardens near street canyons of a polluted tropical city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pandey, Mayank; Tripathi, B D

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of some climber plant species to develop vertical gardens in Varanasi city which has characteristics of tall building and narrow roads. This condition results in street canyon like structure and hinders the vertical dispersal of air pollutants. We have selected 24 climber plant species which are commonly found in of Varanasi city. Chosen plants can be easily grown either in planter boxes or directly in the ground, with a vertical support they can climb on walls to form green walls or vertical garden. Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of the selected plant species was calculated and plants with higher APTI are recommended for the development of Vertical garden. Highest APTI was noted for Ipomoea palmata (25.39) followed by Aristolochia elegans (23.28), Thunbergia grandiflora (23.14), Quisqualis indica (22.42), and Clerodendrum splendens (22.36). However, lowest APTI value (8.75) was recorded for the species Hemidesmus indicus. Moreover, the linear regression analysis has revealed a high positive correlation between APTI and ascorbic acid content (R 2 =0.8837) and positive correlation between APTI and Chlorophyll content (R 2 =0.6687). On the basis of higher APTI values (greater than 17), nine species of climber plants viz. I. palmata, T. grandiflora, C. splendens, A. elegans, Q. indica, Petria volubilis, Antigonon leptopus, Cryptolepis buchuanni and Tinospora cordifolia have been recommended to develop vertical greenery systems in a compact tropical city. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dust loadings on some common plants near Lucknow city. [Acacia melanoxylon, Bauhinia malabarica, Bougain-villea glabra, Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus, Ipomoea fistulosa and Peltophorum pterocarpum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, M.; Dwivedi, A.K.; Kulshreshtha, K.; Ahmad, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    Eight plant species - Acacia melanoxylon, Bauhinia malabarica, Bougain-villea glabra, Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus, Ipomoea fistulosa and Peltophorum pterocarpum - were collected from a newly established suburb colony of Lucknow city, where the major pollutant is dust, to study the dust cleansing efficiency of the plant canopy and also to establish the correlation between the leaf morphological characteristics and their dust trapping potential. The dust load, in milligrams per square centimeter of leaf surface, was measured and related to foliar epidermal and cuticular characteristics, and morphological features.

  18. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry

  19. Quantification of potentially toxic elements in sewage and sludge from treatment plants in the cities of Campinas and Jaguariuna using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luciana Carla Ferreira de; Canteras, Felippe Benavente; Moreira, Silvana, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br, E-mail: felippe.canteras@gmail.com, E-mail: lucarla24@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico. Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The rapid urban and industrial development in last decades has brought as one of the consequences, changes in the environment. The lack of planning of city growth is, today, one of the major causes of water pollution including residential, industrial, agricultural, and hospital waste. The metals contamination is a major problem, causing serious changes to the environment, causing harm to human health. The sludge generated at sewage treatment plants, is an important source of nutrients and organic matter, and therefore it can also be reused mainly for agricultural use, since contaminants are removed. The cities of Campinas and Jaguariuna are inserted in the Campinas Metropolitan Region (CMR), one of the most dynamic regions in the Brazilian economy. Therefore, to study the anthropogenic influences of the cities, evaluated the quality of raw and treated effluent and the sludge generated in sewage treatment plants, especially with regard to heavy metals. Measurements of metals were performed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence. For treated effluent data were compared to CONAMA 357 law and Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb showed concentrations in according with the law. To reuse in agriculture the contents were compared to the limits defined by CETESB and some elements had concentrations above to the permitted preventing its reuse. For sludge, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb, in the two treatment plants studied, the concentrations were lower than the maximum permissible values established by CONAMA 375 law allowing the sludge application sludge on agricultural land. (author)

  20. Quantification of potentially toxic elements in sewage and sludge from treatment plants in the cities of Campinas and Jaguariuna using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Luciana Carla Ferreira de; Canteras, Felippe Benavente; Moreira, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The rapid urban and industrial development in last decades has brought as one of the consequences, changes in the environment. The lack of planning of city growth is, today, one of the major causes of water pollution including residential, industrial, agricultural, and hospital waste. The metals contamination is a major problem, causing serious changes to the environment, causing harm to human health. The sludge generated at sewage treatment plants, is an important source of nutrients and organic matter, and therefore it can also be reused mainly for agricultural use, since contaminants are removed. The cities of Campinas and Jaguariuna are inserted in the Campinas Metropolitan Region (CMR), one of the most dynamic regions in the Brazilian economy. Therefore, to study the anthropogenic influences of the cities, evaluated the quality of raw and treated effluent and the sludge generated in sewage treatment plants, especially with regard to heavy metals. Measurements of metals were performed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence. For treated effluent data were compared to CONAMA 357 law and Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb showed concentrations in according with the law. To reuse in agriculture the contents were compared to the limits defined by CETESB and some elements had concentrations above to the permitted preventing its reuse. For sludge, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb, in the two treatment plants studied, the concentrations were lower than the maximum permissible values established by CONAMA 375 law allowing the sludge application sludge on agricultural land. (author)

  1. Refinement of the Kansas City Plant site conceptual model with respect to dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.E.; Hall, S.C.; Baker, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents a refinement of the site conceptual model with respect to dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) at the US Department of Energy Kansas City Plant (KCP). This refinement was prompted by a review of the literature and the results of a limited study that was conducted to evaluate whether pools of DNAPL were present in contaminated locations at the KCP. The field study relied on the micropurge method of sample collection. This method has been demonstrated as a successful approach for obtaining discrete samples within a limited aquifer zone. Samples were collected at five locations across 5-ft well screens located at the base of the alluvial aquifer at the KCP. The hypothesis was that if pools of DNAPL were present, the dissolved concentration would increase with depth. Four wells with highly contaminated groundwater were selected for the test. Three of the wells were located in areas where DNAPL was suspected, and one where no DNAPL was believed to be present. The results demonstrated no discernible pattern with depth for the four wells tested. A review of the data in light of the available technical literature suggests that the fine-grained nature of the aquifer materials precludes the formation of pools. Instead, DNAPL is trapped as discontinuous ganglia that are probably widespread throughout the aquifer. The discontinuous nature of the DNAPL distribution prevents the collection of groundwater samples with concentrations approaching saturation. Furthermore, the results indicate that attempts to remediate the aquifer with conventional approaches will not result in restoration to pristine conditions because the tortuous groundwater flow paths will inhibit the efficiency of fluid-flow-based treatments

  2. 1. Biologic monitoring at Barsebaeck nuclear power plant 1985-1997. 2. Biological monitoring at Swedish nuclear power plants in 1998. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jan; Mo, K.; Thoernqvist, S.

    1999-06-01

    This report gives an account for two studies on the ecological effects of effluents to the aquatic environment from the Swedish nuclear power plants: 1. The results of biological monitoring at the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant during the period 1985-1997 are summarised. Comparisons are made with a previous report from 1969-1983. The fish community was studied by fyke net test fishing in the cooling water effluent area along a gradient out to unaffected sites. The loss of young eels in the cooling water intake was estimated annually. Damage on female grey mullet oocyte development was analysed on samples of cooling water exposed fish. 2. The biological monitoring at the Swedish nuclear power plants during 1998 was with minor exceptions performed according to the established programmes. The monitoring at Forsmark is running in the enclosed Biotest basin at the cooling water outlet and in the surrounding archipelago. Reference data are collected at Finbo, NW Aaland, and in the nearby Graesoe archipelago. In 1998 as in previous years the benthic macro fauna abundance within the Biotest basin showed strong variations. In the beginning of the year abundance and biomass were low, in the autumn though, higher than average. Oskarshamn: The monitoring is performed in the small effluent bay, Hamnefjaerden bay, in the waters surrounding the cooling water plume and in a reference area, Kvaedoe-fjaerden, 100 km north of the power plant. Perch and roach catches have been high in the Hamnefjaerden bay since the late 1980's. In 1998 catches of perch were on a higher level than in 1997, both in spring and in summer. The changes for roach were small. A moderate decrease in eel catches took place in 1997 and 1998, indicating a reduced effect of stockings in the late 1980's. Ringhals: The monitoring is performed in the area close to the cooling water outlet, which is located at an open coast, and in a reference area. An attraction of yellow eel to the effluent area has been

  3. Water-use efficiency and relative growth rate mediate competitive interactions in Sonoran Desert winter annual plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremer, Jennifer R; Kimball, Sarah; Keck, Katie R; Huxman, Travis E; Angert, Amy L; Venable, D Lawrence

    2013-10-01

    A functional approach to investigating competitive interactions can provide a mechanistic understanding of processes driving population dynamics, community assembly, and the maintenance of biodiversity. In Sonoran Desert annual plants, a trade-off between relative growth rate (RGR) and water-use efficiency (WUE) contributes to species differences in population dynamics that promote long-term coexistence. Traits underlying this trade-off explain variation in demographic responses to precipitation as well as life history and phenological patterns. Here, we ask how these traits mediate competitive interactions. • We conducted competition trials for three species occupying different positions along the RGR-WUE trade-off axis and compared the effects of competition at high and low soil moisture. We compared competitive effect (ability to suppress neighbors) and competitive response (ability to withstand competition from neighbors) among species. • The RGR-WUE trade-off predicted shifts in competitive responses at different soil moistures. The high-RGR species was more resistant to competition in high water conditions, while the opposite was true for the high-WUE species. The intermediate RGR species tended to have the strongest impact on all neighbors, so competitive effects did not scale directly with differences in RGR and WUE among competitors. • Our results reveal mechanisms underlying long-term variation in fitness: high-RGR species perform better in years with large, frequent rain events and can better withstand competition under wetter conditions. The opposite is true for high-WUE species. Such resource-dependent responses strongly influence community dynamics and can promote coexistence in variable environments.

  4. Annual and seasonal variation of turbidity, total dissolved solids, nitrate and nitrite in the Parsabad water treatment plant, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the annual and seasonal variation of turbidity; total dissolved solid (TDS, nitrate and nitrite in Parsabad water treatment plant (WTP, Iran. Materials and Methods: The water samples were obtained from the inlet and outlet of Parsabad WTP from February 2002 to June 2009. The samples′ turbidity, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, pH, and temperature were measured according to standard methods once a month and the average of these parameters were calculated for each season of year. Results: The maximum concentration of inlet turbidity, TDS, nitrate and nitrite were 691, 700.5, 25, and 0.17 mg/l, respectively. These parameters for outlet samples in the study period were 3.0, 696.7, 18, and 0.06 mg/l, respectively. While these concentrations in outlet zone were lower than World Health Organization (WHO or United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA water quality guidelines, WTP could not reduce the TDS, nitrate, nitrite and pH value and these parameters were not different in the inlet and outlet samples. However, the WTP reduced the turbidity significantly with an efficiency of up to 85%. Conclusion: This study showed that a common WTP with rapid sand filtration can treat a maximum river turbidity of 700 NTU in several years. As no differences were observed between inlet and outlet TDS, nitrate, nitrite and pH in the studied WTP. It can be concluded that compensatory schemes should be predicted for modification of these parameters when they exceed the standards in the emergency situations.

  5. Long-term benthic monitoring programs near the Morgantown and Calvert Cliffs power plants - third annual report. Volume 1. Text. Annual report, July 1982-June 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, A.F.; Hiegel, M.H.; Shaughnessy, A.T.; Stroup, C.F.; Ross, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Macrobenthos and physical/chemical factors known to affect their abundance were monitored near the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant on the mainstem of the Chesapeake Bay between 1971 and 1982. These data, along with data collected near the Morgantown power plant on the Potomac between 1980 and 1983, were used to quantify the variation in macrobenthos due to natural spatial patterns, seasonal dynamics, year-to-year fluctuations in abundance, and power plant operations, as well as to determine if long-term trends in populations or communities occurred. Macrobenthic community structure was persistent over the 11 years within bounds determined chiefly by year-to-year variation in salinity and dissolved oxygen concentration. Most of the species responded to changes in salinity by predictable increases or decreases in abundance

  6. Long-term benthic monitoring programs near the Morgantown and Calvert Cliffs power plants - third annual report. Volume 2. Appendices. Annual report, July 1982-June 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, A.F.; Hiegel, M.H.; Shaughnessy, A.T.; Stroup, C.F.; Ross, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Macrobenthos and physical/chemical factors known to affect their abundance were monitored near the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant on the mainstem of the Chesapeake Bay between 1971 and 1982. These data, along with data collected near the Morgantown power plant on the Potomac between 1980 and 1983, were used to quantify the variation in macrobenthos due to natural spatial patterns, seasonal dynamics, year-to-year fluctuations in abundance, and power plant operations, as well as to determine if long-term trends in populations or communities occurred. Macrobenthic community structure was persistent over the 11 years within bounds determined chiefly by year-to-year variation in salinity and dissolved oxygen concentration. Most of the species responded to changes in salinity by predictable increases or decreases in abundance

  7. Summary report of bioassays for the city of Hollywood water plant membrane reject water as it mixed with WWTP effluent in an ocean outfall environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergen, R.E.; Vinci, P.; Bloetscher, F.

    1999-07-01

    A special bioassay study was conducted to review the impact of the City of Hollywood's Membrane Softening Water Treatment Plant (WRP) reject water as it mixes with the City's Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent. Three sampling periods occurred during 1997. The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxicity of the WTP reject water, pre-chlorinated effluent, and combined effluent, and to demonstrate if the combined effluent was acceptable for ocean discharge on the basis of no potential toxicity. Effluent was acceptable for ocean discharge on the basis of no potential toxicity. Effluent samples were collected at six sampling points; three were in the plant, while the other three were along the outfall pipeline. Definitive, static renewal bioassay tests were performed using Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina as indicators of potential toxicity. The bioassay tests at 30% effluent concentration indicate that there is not potential toxicity for the pre-chlorinated WTP effluent, WTP reject water, dechlorinate combined effluent at the plant, and chlorinated combined effluent at Holland Park, the riser, and the terminus. The results indicate that the WTP reject water (100%) is not toxic to Menidia beryllina but was toxic to Mysidopsis bahia. When combined with the WWRP effluent, the reject water's impact on the potential toxicity of the commingled effluent was insignificant. All of the tests indicate the combined effluents are not toxic to the species tested at the 30% effluent level. Therefore, potential toxicity concerns were not demonstrated for this outfall discharge and did not prevent FDEP from issuing a permit to the City of Hollywood for the disposal of the combined effluent. Furthermore, these results, in combination with the previous results, indicated that individual bioassay testing for the reject water for regulatory compliance is not required.

  8. A new NDVI measure that overcomes data sparsity in cloud-covered regions predicts annual variation in ground-based estimates of high arctic plant productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rune Karlsen, Stein; Anderson, Helen B.; van der Wal, René; Bremset Hansen, Brage

    2018-02-01

    Efforts to estimate plant productivity using satellite data can be frustrated by the presence of cloud cover. We developed a new method to overcome this problem, focussing on the high-arctic archipelago of Svalbard where extensive cloud cover during the growing season can prevent plant productivity from being estimated over large areas. We used a field-based time-series (2000-2009) of live aboveground vascular plant biomass data and a recently processed cloud-free MODIS-Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data set (2000-2014) to estimate, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, the onset of plant growth. We then summed NDVI values from onset of spring to the average time of peak NDVI to give an estimate of annual plant productivity. This remotely sensed productivity measure was then compared, at two different spatial scales, with the peak plant biomass field data. At both the local scale, surrounding the field data site, and the larger regional scale, our NDVI measure was found to predict plant biomass (adjusted R 2 = 0.51 and 0.44, respectively). The commonly used ‘maximum NDVI’ plant productivity index showed no relationship with plant biomass, likely due to some years having very few cloud-free images available during the peak plant growing season. Thus, we propose this new summed NDVI from onset of spring to time of peak NDVI as a proxy of large-scale plant productivity for regions such as the Arctic where climatic conditions restrict the availability of cloud-free images.

  9. EDUCATING THE TEEN-AGER IN HUMAN RELATIONS AND MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES, PAPERS FROM THE ANNUAL MEETING (56TH, ATLANTIC CITY, 1965).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    THE GROWING NUMBERS OF TEENAGERS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE ECONOMY BOTH AS EARNERS AND SPENDERS FORCE EDUCATORS AND OTHER PROFESSIONALS TO EXAMINE THEIR RESPONSIBILITIES TO THIS GROUP. HOME ECONOMISTS' CONCERN FOR PROBLEMS OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN MANAGING RESOURCES AND IN HUMAN RELATIONS LED TO PLANNING PROGRAMS IN THESE AREAS AT THEIR ANNUAL MEETING.…

  10. The level of air pollution in the impact zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using the data of geochemical snow survey (Republic of Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil'bayeva, T. E.; Talovskaya, A. V.; Yazikov, Ye G.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Coal-fired power plants emissions impact the air quality and human health. Of great significance is assessment of solid airborne particles emissions from those plants and distance of their transportation. The article presents the results of air pollution assessment in the zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using snow survey. Based on the mass of solid airborne particles deposited in snow, time of their deposition on snow at the distance from 0.5 to 4.5 km a value of dust load has been determined. It is stated that very high level of pollution is observed at the distance from 0.5 to 1 km. there is a trend in decrease of dust burden value with the distance from the stacks of coal-fired power plant that may be conditioned by the particle size and washing out smaller ash particles by ice pellets forming at freezing water vapour in stacks of the coal-fired power plant. Study in composition of solid airborne particles deposited in snow has shown that they mainly contain particulates of underburnt coal, Al-Si- rich spheres, Fe-rich spheres, and coal dust. The content of the particles in samples decreases with the distance from the stacks of the coal-fired power plant.

  11. Calandar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a portion of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid) that contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in the Bear Creek Regime is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). This report contains the information and monitoring data required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (post-closure permit), as modified and issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in September 1995 (permit no. TNHW-087). In addition to the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, permit condition II.C.6 requires the annual monitoring report to address groundwater monitoring activities at the three RCRA Hazardous Waste Disposal Units (HWDUs) in the Bear Creek Regime that are in post-closure corrective action status (the S-3 Site, the Oil Landfarm, and the Bear Creek Burial Grounds/Walk-In Pits).

  12. Marginal cost pricing for coal fired electricity in coastal cities of China: the case of Mawan Electricity Plant in Shenzhen City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Qiu; Duan, Yan-Xin

    2003-05-01

    By developing a GDMOD model to estimate the environmental externalities associated with electricity generation, this project provides a detailed analysis of the damages and costs caused by different pollutants at varying distances from the Mawan Electricity Plant in Shenzhen, China. The major findings of this study can be summarized that (1) environmental damages caused by electricity production are large and are mainly imposed on regions far away from the electricity plant; (2) air pollution is the most significant contributor to the total damages, and SO2, NO(x), and particulate matter are the three major pollutants with highest damages; (3) the damages caused per unit of particulate,NO(x), and SO2 emissions are much higher than pollution treatment and prevention costs. The research results of this project showed that China needs to have a more effective levy system on SO2, and a more manageable electricity tariff mechanism to internalize the environmental externalities. The results have also implications for pollution control strategies, compensation schemes as well an emission trading arrangements.

  13. Adaptive transgenerational plasticity in an annual plant: grandparental and parental drought stress enhance performance of seedlings in dry soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jacob J; Sultan, Sonia E; Horgan-Kobelski, Tim; Riggs, Charlotte

    2012-07-01

    Stressful parental (usually maternal) environments can dramatically influence expression of traits in offspring, in some cases resulting in phenotypes that are adaptive to the inducing stress. The ecological and evolutionary impact of such transgenerational plasticity depends on both its persistence across generations and its adaptive value. Few studies have examined both aspects of transgenerational plasticity within a given system. Here we report the results of a growth-chamber study of adaptive transgenerational plasticity across two generations, using the widespread annual plant Polygonum persicaria as a naturally evolved model system. We grew five inbred Polygonum genetic lines in controlled dry vs. moist soil environments for two generations in a fully factorial design, producing replicate individuals of each genetic line with all permutations of grandparental and parental environment. We then measured the effects of these two-generational stress histories on traits critical for functioning in dry soil, in a third (grandchild) generation of seedling offspring raised in the dry treatment. Both grandparental and parental moisture environment significantly influenced seedling development: seedlings of drought-stressed grandparents or parents produced longer root systems that extended deeper and faster into dry soil compared with seedlings of the same genetic lines whose grandparents and/or parents had been amply watered. Offspring of stressed individuals also grew to a greater biomass than offspring of nonstressed parents and grandparents. Importantly, the effects of drought were cumulative over the course of two generations: when both grandparents and parents were drought-stressed, offspring had the greatest provisioning, germinated earliest, and developed into the largest seedlings with the most extensive root systems. Along with these functionally appropriate developmental effects, seedlings produced after two previous drought-stressed generations had

  14. Disentangling Seasonality and Mean Annual Precipitation in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool: Insights from Coupled Plant Wax C and H Isotope Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, V.; Oppo, D.; Dubois, N.; Arbuszewski, J. A.; Mohtadi, M.; Schefuss, E.; Rosenthal, Y.; Linsley, B. K.

    2016-12-01

    There is ample evidence suggesting that rainfall distribution across the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) - a key component of the global climate system - has substantially varied over the last deglaciation. Yet, the precise nature of these hydroclimate changes remains to be elucidated. In particular, the relative importance of variations in precipitation seasonality versus annual precipitation amount is essentially unknown. Here we use a set of surface sediments from the IPWP covering a wide range of modern hydroclimate conditions to evaluate how plant wax stable isotope composition records rainfall distribution in the area. We focus on long chain fatty acids, which are exclusively produced by vascular plants living on nearby land and delivered to the ocean by rivers. We relate the C (δ13C) and H (δD) isotope composition of long chain fatty acids preserved in surface sediments to modern precipitation distribution and stable isotope composition in their respective source area. We show that: 1) δ13C values reflect vegetation distribution (in particular the relative abundance of C3 and C4 plants) and are primarily recording precipitation seasonality (Dubois et al., 2014) and, 2) once corrected for plant fractionation effects, δD values reflect the amount-weighted average stable isotope composition of precipitation and are primarily recording annual precipitation amounts. We propose that combining the C and H isotope composition of long chain fatty acids thus allows independent reconstructions of precipitation seasonality and annual amounts in the IPWP. The practical implications for reconstructing past hydroclimate in the IPWP will be discussed.

  15. Implementation of an integrated real-time control system of sewer system and waste water treatment plant in the city of Wilhelmshaven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seggelke, Katja; Löwe, Roland; Beeneken, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A case study for integrated real-time control (RTC) of an urban drainage system in the city of Wilhelmshaven (Germany) is explained. The fuzzy based RTC strategy combines control of the sewer system and inflow to the waste water treatment plant. The main objective in controlling the sewer system...... is to reduce the number of overflows and the volume at a combined sewer overflow (CSO), located close to a bathing beach. Based on online measurements, the operation mode of two pumping stations is modified. This approach allows the safe activation of free storage volume in the sewer system without...... RTC system has been operational for approximately one year....

  16. C4 plant isotopic composition ((delta)13C) evidence for urban CO2 pollution in the city of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelome, Nelly C.; Leveque, Jean; Andreux, Francis; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Oyede, Lucien-Marc

    2006-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition ((delta) 13 C) of plants can reveal the isotopic carbon content of the atmosphere in which they develop. The (delta) 13 C values of air and plants depend on the amount of atmospheric fossil fuel CO 2 , which is chiefly emitted in urban areas. A new indicator of CO 2 pollution is tested using the (delta) 13 C variation in a C 4 grass: Eleusine indica. A range of about 4%% delta units was observed at different sites in Cotonou, the largest city in the Republic of Benin. The highest (delta) 13 C values, from -12%% to -14%%, were found in low traffic zones; low (delta) 13 C values, from -14%% to -16%%, were found in high traffic zones. The amount of fossil fuel carbon assimilated by plants represented about 20% of the total plant carbon content. An overall decrease in plant (delta) 13 C values was observed over a four-year monitoring period. This decrease was correlated with increasing vehicle traffic. The (delta) 13 C dataset and the corresponding geographical database were used to map and define zones of high and low 13 C-depleted CO 2 emissions in urban and sub-urban areas. The spatial distribution follows dominant wind directions, with the lowest emission zones found in the southwest of Cotonou. High CO 2 emissions occurred in the north, the east and the center, providing evidence of intense anthropogenic activity related to industry and transportation. (author)

  17. C4 plant isotopic composition (delta13C) evidence for urban CO2 pollution in the city of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kèlomé, Nelly C; Lévêque, Jean; Andreux, Francis; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Oyédé, Lucien-Marc

    2006-08-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (delta13C) of plants can reveal the isotopic carbon content of the atmosphere in which they develop. The delta13C values of air and plants depend on the amount of atmospheric fossil fuel CO2, which is chiefly emitted in urban areas. A new indicator of CO2 pollution is tested using the delta13C variation in a C4 grass: Eleusine indica. A range of about 4 per thousand delta units was observed at different sites in Cotonou, the largest city in the Republic of Benin. The highest delta13C values, from -12 per thousand to -14 per thousand, were found in low traffic zones; low delta13C values, from -14 per thousand to -16 per thousand, were found in high traffic zones. The amount of fossil fuel carbon assimilated by plants represented about 20% of the total plant carbon content. An overall decrease in plant delta13C values was observed over a four-year monitoring period. This decrease was correlated with increasing vehicle traffic. The delta13C dataset and the corresponding geographical database were used to map and define zones of high and low 13C-depleted CO2 emissions in urban and sub-urban areas. The spatial distribution follows dominant wind directions, with the lowest emission zones found in the southwest of Cotonou. High CO2 emissions occurred in the north, the east and the center, providing evidence of intense anthropogenic activity related to industry and transportation.

  18. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-06-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. - Highlights: ► Traffic-related pollutant deposition as important pathway for crop contamination. ► Heavy metal content often over EU standards for lead concentration in food crops. ► ‘Grow your own’ food in inner cities not always ‘healthier’ than supermarket products. ► No support for generalisations of crops as ‘risky high’ or ‘safe low’ accumulators. - Higher overall traffic burden increased, while the presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced heavy metal content in crop biomass.

  20. Ethnobotanical, micrographic and pharmacological features of plant-based weight-loss products sold in naturist stores in Mexico City: the need for better quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Marta Arenas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of dietary supplements and herbal mixtures to promote weight loss is a common practice in the West. This study was undertaken in Mexico City, surveying stores selling "natural products" at subway stations. The aims of this paper were as follows: to compile a record of plant products marketed as slimming aids and of retailer perceptions of these products; to review the pharmacological and ethnobotanical literature on the species declared; and to create an optical micrograph of a subset of products to verify the accuracy of the list of component plant species shown on the labels. We applied the techniques of observation, semi-structured interviews and free-listing at the retail stores. Results are presented for the 75 species recorded in the 41 weight-loss products surveyed, showing which plant parts are used, the geographical distribution of the species, pharmacological effects, dosage, route of administration and method of preparation, as well as ethnobotanical information derived from fieldwork. We discuss the values assigned to the species used. Microscopic analyses revealed that many of the plant ingredients declared were absent, highlighting the need for greater quality control and safety of these herbal remedies.

  1. Federal Administrative Court dismisses appeal of the city of Schweinfurt in the matter of Grafenrheinfeld nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    With its decision of April 30, 1980, - BVerwG 7 C 91.79 - the Federal Administrative Court has dismissed the appeal of the city of Schweinfurt against the interim decision of the Bavarian Administrative Court of April 9, 1979. The cost will have to be paid by the plaintiff. The value of the appeal suit is set at DM 100.000. The main grounds for the decision are given in full wording. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Diversity in plant hydraulic traits explains seasonal and inter-annual variations of vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangtao; Medvigy, David; Powers, Jennifer S; Becknell, Justin M; Guan, Kaiyu

    2016-10-01

    We assessed whether diversity in plant hydraulic traits can explain the observed diversity in plant responses to water stress in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). The Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2) was updated with a trait-driven mechanistic plant hydraulic module, as well as novel drought-phenology and plant water stress schemes. Four plant functional types were parameterized on the basis of meta-analysis of plant hydraulic traits. Simulations from both the original and the updated ED2 were evaluated against 5 yr of field data from a Costa Rican SDTF site and remote-sensing data over Central America. The updated model generated realistic plant hydraulic dynamics, such as leaf water potential and stem sap flow. Compared with the original ED2, predictions from our novel trait-driven model matched better with observed growth, phenology and their variations among functional groups. Most notably, the original ED2 produced unrealistically small leaf area index (LAI) and underestimated cumulative leaf litter. Both of these biases were corrected by the updated model. The updated model was also better able to simulate spatial patterns of LAI dynamics in Central America. Plant hydraulic traits are intercorrelated in SDTFs. Mechanistic incorporation of plant hydraulic traits is necessary for the simulation of spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation dynamics in SDTFs in vegetation models. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. 15 CFR 713.2 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce, process or consume Schedule 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an earlier year (i.e., during the course of any other calendar year within the past three calendar... calendar years. For example, for the 2004 annual declaration on past activities period, if you determine... (question 2-3.1), production data for calendar year 2004. You would declare “0” production because you did...

  4. Ecologic air-conditioning. A pilot plant for the geothermal and sorption supported air-conditioning in the HafenCity Hamburg; Oekologische Klimatisierung. Pilotanlage zur geothermisch- und sorptionsgestuetzten Klimatisierung in der HafenCity Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaolong; Grabe, Juergen [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geotechnik und Baubetrieb

    2011-10-24

    The relatively constant temperatures of the underground at a depth of 100 meters provide the opportunity to air-condition buildings with geothermal energy and economically. Currently, building air conditioning systems in Central Europe exhibit high growth rates. In summer, the task of an air conditioner is to cool and dehumidify air. Especially the dehumidification usually causes a high cooling demand, as the air is cooled below the dew point temperature of 12 C in order to condense out the water. The dew point is well below the demand for a comfortable room temperature of about 19 C. With this in mind, the authors of this contribution report on a principle of alternative dehumidification by means of a so-called sorption wheel. Sorption wheels use the hygroscopic properties of certain substances such as lithium chloride or silica gel in order to dehumidify the air. Thereby, the cooling demand significantly is reduced by the previous dehumidification. The regeneration of the sorption wheel requires heat. This heat can be provided by solar thermal plants and district heating. Since the air can no longer be dehumidified, rich supply temperatures between 16 and 19 C from. These temperatures can be achieved by means of near-surface temperature. Ground registers, geothermal energy probes or geothermal structures such as power poles are used as ground heat exchanger. The authors present the concept and the measurement results of the pilot plant in Hamburg's HafenCity.

  5. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Monthly, quarterly and annual progress report, December 1978 and Calender Year 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    A new pilot plant program developed by DOE and the team members, was started on September 20, 1978. Pilot plant success was achieved in obtaining an ash balanced condition for several days with ash agglomeration with a pure coal feed. This was the objective of the first three months of the approved program.

  6. Seasonal phenology of interactions involving short-lived annual plants, a multivoltine herbivore and its endoparasitoid wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fei, Minghui; Gols, R.; Harvey, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial-temporal realism is often missing in many studies of multitrophic interactions, which are conducted at a single time frame and/or involving interactions between insects with a single species of plant. In this scenario, an underlying assumption is that the host-plant species is ubiquitous

  7. Assessment of the Annual Additional Effective Doses amongst Minamisoma Children during the Second Year after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Morita, Tomohiro; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Sakaihara, Kikugoro; Hanai, Tatsuo; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of the external and internal radiation exposure levels, which includes calculation of effective doses from chronic radiation exposure and assessment of long-term radiation-related health risks, has become mandatory for residents living near the nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan. Data for all primary and secondary children in Minamisoma who participated in both external and internal screening programs were employed to assess the annual additional effective dose acquired due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster. In total, 881 children took part in both internal and external radiation exposure screening programs between 1st April 2012 to 31st March 2013. The level of additional effective doses ranged from 0.025 to 3.49 mSv/year with the median of 0.70 mSv/year. While 99.7% of the children (n = 878) were not detected with internal contamination, 90.3% of the additional effective doses was the result of external radiation exposure. This finding is relatively consistent with the doses estimated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The present study showed that the level of annual additional effective doses among children in Minamisoma has been low, even after the inter-individual differences were taken into account. The dose from internal radiation exposure was negligible presumably due to the success of contaminated food control.

  8. Seasonal phenology of interactions involving short-lived annual plants, a multivoltine herbivore and its endoparasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Minghui; Gols, Rieta; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Spatial-temporal realism is often missing in many studies of multitrophic interactions, which are conducted at a single time frame and/or involving interactions between insects with a single species of plant. In this scenario, an underlying assumption is that the host-plant species is ubiquitous throughout the season and that the insects always interact with it. We studied interactions involving three naturally occurring wild species of cruciferous plants, Brassica rapa, Sinapis arvensis and Brassica nigra, that exhibit different seasonal phenologies, and a multivoltine herbivore, the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae, and its gregarious endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia glomerata. The three plants have very short life cycles. In central Europe, B. rapa grows in early spring, S. arvensis in late spring and early summer, and B. nigra in mid to late summer. P. brassicae generally has three generations per year, and C. glomerata at least two. This means that different generations of the insects must find and exploit different plant species that may differ in quality and which may be found some distance from one another. Insects were either reared on each of the three plant species for three successive generations or shifted between generations from B. rapa to S. arvensis to B. nigra. Development time from neonate to pupation and pupal fresh mass were determined in P. brassicae and egg-to-adult development time and body mass in C. glomerata. Overall, herbivores performed marginally better on S. arvensis and B. nigra plants than on B. rapa plants. Parasitoids performance was closely tailored with that of the host. Irrespective as to whether the insects were shifted to a new plant in successive generations or not, development time of P. brassicae and C. glomerata decreased dramatically over time. Our results show that there were some differences in insect development on different plant species and when transferred from one species to another. However, all three

  9. C{sub 4} plant isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 13}C) evidence for urban CO{sub 2} pollution in the city of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelome, Nelly C.; Leveque, Jean; Andreux, Francis; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne [UMR Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols INRA, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Oyede, Lucien-Marc [Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Universite d' Abomey-Calavi, 01 B.P. 526, Cotonou (Benin)

    2006-08-01

    The carbon isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 13}C) of plants can reveal the isotopic carbon content of the atmosphere in which they develop. The {delta}{sup 13}C values of air and plants depend on the amount of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2}, which is chiefly emitted in urban areas. A new indicator of CO{sub 2} pollution is tested using the {delta}{sup 13}C variation in a C{sub 4} grass: Eleusine indica. A range of about 4%% delta units was observed at different sites in Cotonou, the largest city in the Republic of Benin. The highest {delta}{sup 13}C values, from -12%% to -14%%, were found in low traffic zones; low {delta}{sup 13}C values, from -14%% to -16%%, were found in high traffic zones. The amount of fossil fuel carbon assimilated by plants represented about 20% of the total plant carbon content. An overall decrease in plant {delta}{sup 13}C values was observed over a four-year monitoring period. This decrease was correlated with increasing vehicle traffic. The {delta}{sup 13}C dataset and the corresponding geographical database were used to map and define zones of high and low {sup 13}C-depleted CO{sub 2} emissions in urban and sub-urban areas. The spatial distribution follows dominant wind directions, with the lowest emission zones found in the southwest of Cotonou. High CO{sub 2} emissions occurred in the north, the east and the center, providing evidence of intense anthropogenic activity related to industry and transportation. (author)

  10. C{sub 4} plant isotopic composition ((delta){sup 13}C) evidence for urban CO{sub 2} pollution in the city of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelome, Nelly C.; Leveque, Jean; Andreux, Francis; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne [UMR Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols INRA, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Oyede, Lucien-Marc [Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Universite d' Abomey-Calavi, 01 B.P. 526, Cotonou (Benin)

    2006-08-01

    The carbon isotopic composition ((delta){sup 13}C) of plants can reveal the isotopic carbon content of the atmosphere in which they develop. The (delta){sup 13}C values of air and plants depend on the amount of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2}, which is chiefly emitted in urban areas. A new indicator of CO{sub 2} pollution is tested using the (delta){sup 13}C variation in a C{sub 4} grass: Eleusine indica. A range of about 4%% delta units was observed at different sites in Cotonou, the largest city in the Republic of Benin. The highest (delta){sup 13}C values, from -12%% to -14%%, were found in low traffic zones; low (delta){sup 13}C values, from -14%% to -16%%, were found in high traffic zones. The amount of fossil fuel carbon assimilated by plants represented about 20% of the total plant carbon content. An overall decrease in plant (delta){sup 13}C values was observed over a four-year monitoring period. This decrease was correlated with increasing vehicle traffic. The (delta){sup 13}C dataset and the corresponding geographical database were used to map and define zones of high and low {sup 13}C-depleted CO{sub 2} emissions in urban and sub-urban areas. The spatial distribution follows dominant wind directions, with the lowest emission zones found in the southwest of Cotonou. High CO{sub 2} emissions occurred in the north, the east and the center, providing evidence of intense anthropogenic activity related to industry and transportation. (author)

  11. C{sub 4} plant isotopic composition ({delta} {sup 13}C) evidence for urban CO{sub 2} pollution in the city of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelome, Nelly C. [UMR Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols INRA, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Universite d' Abomey-Calavi, 01 B.P. 526, Cotonou (Benin); Leveque, Jean [UMR Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols INRA, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France)]. E-mail: jleveque@ubourgogne.fr; Andreux, Francis [UMR Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols INRA, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Milloux, Marie-Jeanne [UMR Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols INRA, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Oyede, Lucien-Marc [Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Universite d' Abomey-Calavi, 01 B.P. 526, Cotonou (Benin)

    2006-08-01

    The carbon isotopic composition ({delta} {sup 13}C) of plants can reveal the isotopic carbon content of the atmosphere in which they develop. The {delta} {sup 13}C values of air and plants depend on the amount of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2}, which is chiefly emitted in urban areas. A new indicator of CO{sub 2} pollution is tested using the {delta} {sup 13}C variation in a C{sub 4} grass: Eleusine indica. A range of about 4 per mille delta units was observed at different sites in Cotonou, the largest city in the Republic of Benin. The highest {delta} {sup 13}C values, from - 12 per mille to - 14 per mille , were found in low traffic zones; low {delta} {sup 13}C values, from - 14 per mille to - 16 per mille , were found in high traffic zones. The amount of fossil fuel carbon assimilated by plants represented about 20% of the total plant carbon content. An overall decrease in plant {delta} {sup 13}C values was observed over a four-year monitoring period. This decrease was correlated with increasing vehicle traffic. The {delta} {sup 13}C dataset and the corresponding geographical database were used to map and define zones of high and low {sup 13}C-depleted CO{sub 2} emissions in urban and sub-urban areas. The spatial distribution follows dominant wind directions, with the lowest emission zones found in the southwest of Cotonou. High CO{sub 2} emissions occurred in the north, the east and the center, providing evidence of intense anthropogenic activity related to industry and transportation.

  12. Measurements of traffic emissions over a medium-sized city using long-path measurements and comparison against bottom-up city estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, E.; Cossel, K.; Truong, G. W.; Giorgetta, F.; Swann, W.; Coddington, I.; Newbury, N.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding emissions from cities is increasingly important as a growing fraction of the world's population moves to cities. Here we use a novel technology, dual frequency comb spectroscopy, to measure city emissions using a long outdoor open path. We simultaneously measured CO2, CH4, and H2O over the city of Boulder, Colorado and over a clean-air reference path for two months in the fall of 2016. Because of the spatial coverage of our measurements, the layout of the city and power plant locations, and the predominant wind direction, our measurements primarily pick up vehicle emissions. We choose two days with consistent CO2 enhancements over the city relative to the reference path and use a simple 0-D box model to calculate city emissions for these days. We scale these up to annual emissions and compare our measurements with the City of Boulder bottom-up vehicle emissions inventory based on total vehicle miles traveled, fuel efficiency, and vehicle type distribution. We find good agreement (within about a factor of two) between our top-down measurements and the city's bottom-up inventory value.

  13. The Community's research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Fourth annual progress report (year 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    This is the fourth progress report of the European Community's program. (1979-83) of research on decommissioning of nuclear power plants. It covers the year 1983 and follows the 1980, 1981 and 1982 reports (EUR 7440, EUR 8343, EUR 8962). The present report describes the further progress of research and contains a large amount of results. For a majority of the 51 research contracts composing the 1979-83 programme, work was completed by the end of 1983; the conclusions drawn from this work are in this report. The European Community's program deals with the following fields: long-term integrity of buildings and systems; decontamination for decommissioning purposes; dismantling techniques; treatment of specific wastes materials (steel, concrete and graphite); large transport containers for radioactive waste produced in the dismantling of nuclear power plants; estimation of the quantities of radioactive waste arising from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants in the Community; influence of nuclear power plant design features on decommissioning

  14. Monitoring of Lead (Pb) Pollution in Soils and Plants Irrigated with Untreated Sewage Water in Some Industrialized Cities of Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, R; Nayyar, V K

    2016-04-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from sewage and tubewell irrigated sites from three industrially different cities of Punjab (India) viz. Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla. The extent of lead (Pb) pollution was assessed with respect to background concentration of tubewell irrigation. In sewage irrigated surface soil layer (0-15 cm), the extent of Pb accumulation was 4.61, 4.20 and 2.26 times higher than those receiving tubewell irrigation sites in Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that soil pH, organic carbon, calcium carbonate and clay were significant soil parameters explaining the variation in available soil Pb. The mean Pb content in plants receiving sewage irrigation was 4.56, 5.48 and 2.72 times higher than tubewell irrigation in Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla, respectively. The content of Pb in plants receiving sewage irrigation revealed that, assuming a weekly consumption of 500-1000 g of vegetables grown on sewage irrigated soils by an adult of 70 kg body weight, the Pb intake may far exceed the World Health Organization proposed tolerable weekly intake of Pb.

  15. Sewage sludge disposal at the city of Duesseldorf - Conception of co-combustion in a coal power plant; Klaerschlammentsorgung der Stadt Duesseldorf - Konzeption der Mitverbrennung im Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindert, M. [Umweltamt der Landeshauptstadt Duesseldorf (Germany); Hansmann, G. [Stadtwerke Duesseldorf AG (Germany); Mittmann, H. [Kanal- und Wasserbauamt der Landeshauptstadt Duesseldorf (Germany); Goertz, W. [Umweltamt der Landeshauptstadt Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    Simultaneously to the enlargement of the biological wastewater treatment plants in Germany the amount of sludges increased. For the reuse or disposal of these sludges different methods - from agricultural use to incineration - are applied. For the city of Duesseldorf it became necessary to outline a new conception for the sludge disposal. A number of methods has been considered, showing that co-incineration in a coal-power-plant appears to be practicable under the circumstances found in Duesseldorf. Hence the effects of such a co-incineration on the emissions and the composition of solid waste materials of the power plant have been investigated in the course of an experimental operation. These experiments show that coincineration of the sludge also has advantages from the ecological point of view. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit dem Ausbau der biologischen Klaeranlagen in Deutschland stieg in den letzten Jahren auch die Menge des anfallenden Klaerschlamms. Zur Verwertung bzw. Entsorgung dieses Schlammes werden unterschiedliche Verfahren - von der landwirtschaftlichen Verwertung bis zur Verbrennung - herangezogen. Fuer die Stadt Duesseldorf ergab sich die Notwendigkeit, die Klaerschlammentsorgung neu zu konzipieren. Verschiedene Varianten wurden geprueft, wobei die Mitverbrennung in der Schmelzkammerfeuerung eines Steinkohlekraftwerkes unter den in Duesseldorf herrschenden Randbedingungen praktikabel erschien. Daher wurden die Auswirkungen einer solchen Mitverbrennung auf das Emissionsverhalten und die Zusammensetzung der festen Reststoffe des Kraftwerks waehrend eines Probebetriebes untersucht. Die Versuche zeigen, dass die Mitverbrennung auch aus oekologischer Sicht Vorteile aufweist. (orig.)

  16. Proceedings, Annual Meeting (27th), Aquatic Plant Control Research Program Held in Bellevue, Washington on 16-19 November 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    both site conditions and Overview of HERBICIDE the properties of the aquatic herbicide formu- lation (Reinert and Rodgers 1987; Westerdahl Structure... Westerdahl , H. E., and Getsinger, K. D., ed. ment Station, Vicksburg, MS, 279-282. (1988). "Aquatic plant identification and herbicide use guide; Volume 1...plants remain exposed to given concentrations of the Materials and Methods herbicide (Green and Westerdahl 1990; Van and Conant 1988; Netherland, Green

  17. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: Proceedings Annual Meeting (28th) Held in Baltimore, Maryland on November 15-18, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    the effects of water exchange in properties of the active ingredient, and the site order to obtain proper plant exposure in the conditions ( Westerdahl ...Station, Vicksburg, MS, Stewart, R. M. (1993). "Field studies for exist- 165-175. ing control technology simulations." Pro- Westerdahl , H. E., and Getsinger...applications, (Getsinger, Green, and Westerdahl 1990). managers must be knowledgeable of the rate of water movements within targeted plant Methods of flow rate

  18. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '85. Technical session on nuclear power plant simulators. Jahrestagung Kerntechnik '85. Fachsitzung Simulatoren bei Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The ten lectures read at this Technical Session deal with nuclear power plant simulators and their functions for the training of control room personnel, with test facilities for analysis and simulation of incidents and the relevant plant behaviour, and with the computer codes for fast simulation of reactor processes. The papers explain in particular the HAMMLAB project, the COSIMA fast core simulator, and the OPAL simulator for the KWU convoy process information system named PRINS.

  19. Critical modeling parameters identified for 3D CFD modeling of rectangular final settling tanks for New York City wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, K; Xanthos, S; Gong, M; Fillos, J; Beckmann, K; Deur, A; McCorquodale, J A

    2012-01-01

    New York City Environmental Protection is in the process of incorporating biological nitrogen removal (BNR) in its wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which entails operating the aeration tanks with higher levels of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) than a conventional activated sludge process. The objective of this paper is to discuss two of the important parameters introduced in the 3D CFD model that has been developed by the City College of New York (CCNY) group: (a) the development of the 'discrete particle' measurement technique to carry out the fractionation of the solids in the final settling tank (FST) which has critical implications in the prediction of the effluent quality; and (b) the modification of the floc aggregation (K(A)) and floc break-up (K(B)) coefficients that are found in Parker's flocculation equation (Parker et al. 1970, 1971) used in the CFD model. The dependence of these parameters on the predictions of the CFD model will be illustrated with simulation results on one of the FSTs at the 26th Ward WWTP in Brooklyn, NY.

  20. Feasibility study on rehabilitation and improvement of thermal power plants, district heating and heat supply system in Botosani City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Discussions have been given on the improvement and modification project intended of saving energies and reducing greenhouse gas emission in the Botosani district heating and heat supplying facilities in Romania. Thirty years have elapsed since the building of the Botosani district heating and heat supplying facilities, whereas noticeable energy loss has occurred due to aged deterioration, such as thermal efficiency decrease, performance decrease, and hot water leakage due to piping corrosion. The present project is intended to improve the heat production and power generation facility efficiencies, and reduce the heat loss in heat transportation and distribution to less than 5%. The improvements will be implemented by replacing and rehabilitating the existing boilers, replacing the turbine generators, and replacing the transportation and distribution pipelines and heat exchangers. As a result of the discussions, the present project is estimated to result in annual fuel conservation of 35,820 tons of crude oil equivalent, and annual reduction of the greenhouse gas emission of 110,835 t-CO2. The total amount of the initial investment for the project would be 11.369 billion yen, and the payback period would be 12 years. The project will produce profit of 31.358 billion yen in 20 years, thus the project is financially feasible. (NEDO)

  1. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants

  2. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants.

  3. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  4. [Models for biomass estimation of four shrub species planted in urban area of Xi'an city, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zheng-Yang; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Four common greening shrub species (i. e. Ligustrum quihoui, Buxus bodinieri, Berberis xinganensis and Buxus megistophylla) in Xi'an City were selected to develop the highest correlation and best-fit estimation models for the organ (branch, leaf and root) and total biomass against different independent variables. The results indicated that the organ and total biomass optimal models of the four shrubs were power functional model (CAR model) except for the leaf biomass model of B. megistophylla which was logarithmic functional model (VAR model). The independent variables included basal diameter, crown diameter, crown diameter multiplied by height, canopy area and canopy volume. B. megistophylla significantly differed from the other three shrub species in the independent variable selection, which were basal diameter and crown-related factors, respectively.

  5. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  6. 2010 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 2.2 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  7. Doubs Electricity. Hydroelectric use of water from the sewage treatment plant and the street drains of the city of La Chaux-de-Fonds. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueetschi, M.

    2008-01-01

    The exploitation of municipal purified sewage and drain waters of the city of La Chaux-de-Fonds for energy production requires complex and varied developments, in the domains of both civil engineering, and hydraulic equipment; this explains why, beyond some generic investigations, this source of energy has not been exploited so far. In fact, the purified water must first be pumped uphill over a little summit, before its hydraulic energy can be exploited downhill to the Doubs River. A number of engineering works in sequence must be achieved, beyond installing the electro-mechanic turbine device. The key data in this project are the following: (i) nominal electric power: 1532 kW (excluding pumping power requirement of about 400 kW); (ii) net hydraulic head: 380 m (excluding preliminary pumping height of 65 m); (iii) annual production: 4,178,830 kWh/yr (net of energy requirement for pumping); (iv) cost price: 0.13 CHF/kWh. The planned exploitation mode gives priority to the exploitation at the times of peak electricity demand, by the construction of a retention basin. This cost price is significantly lower in comparison to the other renewable energy technologies available in Switzerland. Chances of achievement are excellent; one electric utility has already expressed its interest in project buyback, in view of a short-term execution.

  8. 2015 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2014, through October 31, 2015.

  9. 2015 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Michael George

    2016-01-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2014, through October 31, 2015.

  10. Assessment of operators’ mental workload using physiological and subjective measures in cement, city traffic and power plant controlcenters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Fallahi

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The results suggested that when operators’ mental demands especially in traffic control and power plant tasks increased, their mental fatigue and stress level increased and their mental health deteriorated. Therefore, it may be necessary to implement an ergonomic program or administrative control to manage mental probably health in these control centers.Furthermore, by evaluating MW, the control center director can organize the human resources for each MW condition to sustain the appropriate performance as well as improve system functions.

  11. British plants as aliens in New Zealand cities: residence time moderates their impact on the beta diversity of urban floras

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ricotta, C.; Rapson, G. L.; Asmus, U.; Pyšek, Petr; Kühn, I.; La Sorte, F. A.; Thompson, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2017), s. 3589-3599 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasions * urban sites * beta diversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016

  12. Experimental study of a model and parameters calculating annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for a nuclear power plant to be build in coastal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Chen Jiayi; Zhang Maoshuan; Gao Zhanrong; Yao Rentai; Jia Peirong; Qiao Qingdang

    1999-01-01

    The author tries to develop a new model calculating annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for a nuclear power plant to be build in coastal site based on field experiments. This model considers not only the difference between shore ward and off-shore but also the comprehensive effect of following factors: mixed layer and thermal internal boundary layer, mixing release and variation of diffusion parameters due to the distance from coast and so on. The various parameters needed in the model are obtained from the field atmospheric experiments done on the NPP site during 1995∼1996. There dimension joint frequency is got from wind and temperature measurements at 4 heights of a tower of 100 m; diffusion parameters shore ward and off-shore from turbulent measurement and wind tunnel simulation test; the parameters relative to sea and land breeze and thermal internal boundary layer are obtained from tests with low altitude radiosonde and lost balloon at 3 sites during two periods of Summer and Winter. Finally a comparison of the results given by this model and commonly used model provided by relative guides is done. The comparison shows that about 1 times under estimation is found for the maximum of annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor in common model because the effect from thermal internal boundary layer and other factors are neglected

  13. Middlesex Sampling Plant and Middlesex Municipal Landfill, annual site environmental report, Middlesex, New Jersey, calendar year 1987: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The monitoring program at the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and Middlesex Municipal Landfill (MML) measures radon gas concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the sites are in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and to assess their potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenarios described in the report, this individual, at the MSP, would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 10 percent of the DOE radiation protection standard. By comparison, the incremental dose received from living in a brick house as opposed to a wooden house is about the same. At the MML, the annual external exposure to the maximally exposed individual would be less than 1 percent of the standard. The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of the sites that would result from radioactive materials present at the MSP and MML would be indistinguishable from the dose that the same population would receive from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1987 monitoring show that the MSP and MML are in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 14 refs., 11 figs., 22 tabs

  14. Characterization of Escherichia coli Isolates from an Urban Lake Receiving Water from a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Mexico City: Fecal Pollution and Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Irma; Salinas, Eva; Martínez, Leticia; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Espinosa, Norma; Amábile-Cuevas, Carlos F

    2015-10-01

    The presence of enteric bacteria in water bodies is a cause of public health concerns, either by directly causing water- and food-borne diseases, or acting as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance determinants. Water is used for crop irrigation; and sediments and aquatic plants are used as fertilizing supplements and soil conditioners. In this work, the bacterial load of several micro-environments of the urban lake of Xochimilco, in Mexico City, was characterized. We found a differential distribution of enteric bacteria between the water column, sediment, and the rhizoplane of aquatic plants, with human fecal bacteria concentrating in the sediment, pointing to the need to assess such bacterial load for each micro-environment, for regulatory agricultural purposes, instead of only the one of the water, as is currently done. Resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was common among Escherichia coli isolates, but was also differentially distributed, being again higher in sediment isolates. A distinct distribution of chloramphenicol minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) among these isolates suggests the presence of a local selective pressure favoring lower MICs than those of isolates from treated water. Fecal bacteria of human origin, living in water bodies along with their antibiotic resistance genes, could be much more common than typically considered, and pose a higher health risk, if assessments are only made on the water column of such bodies.

  15. Solar total energy-large scale experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia site. Annual report, June 1977--June 1978. [For Bleyle Knitwear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1978-06-01

    The site was described in terms of location, suitably, accessibility, and other factors. Detailed descriptions of the Solar Total Energy-Large Scale Experiment Application (STE-LSE) (Bleyle of America, Inc., Knitwear Plant), the DOE owned Meteorology Station operating at the site, and the instrumentation provided by the Georgia Power Company to measure energy usage within the knitwear plant are included. A detailed report of progress is given at the Shenandoah Site, introduced by the STE-LSE schedule and the Cooperative Agreement work tasks. Progress is described in terms of the following major task areas: site/application; instrumentation/data acquisition; meteorology station; site to STES interface; information dissemination. A brief overview of milestones to be accomplished is given, followed by these appendices: solar easement agreement, interface drawing set, and additional site background data. (MHR)

  16. 2013 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013. The report contains, as applicable, the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. However, soil samples were collected in October from soil monitoring unit SU-014101.

  17. The community's research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Third annual progress report (year 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This is the third progress report of the European Community's programme (1979-83) of research on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. It covers the year 1982 and follows the 1980 and 1981 reports (EUR 7440, EUR 8343). Since 1982 was a very active year of research under the programme, this report contains a large amount of results. Besides, the work programmes of some additional research contracts, awarded through 1982, are described

  18. Germination of dimorphic seeds of the desert annual halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica (Chenopodiaceae), a C4 plant without Kranz anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Zhenying; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Dong, Ming

    2008-11-01

    Suaeda aralocaspica is a C4 summer annual halophyte without Kranz anatomy that is restricted to the deserts of central Asia. It produces two distinct types of seeds that differ in colour, shape and size. The primary aims of the present study were to compare the dormancy and germination characteristics of dimorphic seeds of S. aralocaspica and to develop a conceptual model of their dynamics. Temperatures simulating those in the natural habitat of S. aralocaspica were used to test for primary dormancy and germination behaviour of fresh brown and black seeds. The effects of cold stratification, gibberellic acid, seed coat scarification, seed coat removal and dry storage on dormancy breaking were tested in black seeds. Germination percentage and recovery responses of brown seeds, non-treated black seeds and 8-week cold-stratified black seeds to salt stress were tested. Brown seeds were non-dormant, whereas black seeds had non-deep Type 2 physiological dormancy (PD). Germination percentage and rate of germination of brown seeds and of variously pretreated black seeds were significantly higher than those of non-pretreated black seeds. Exposure of seeds to various salinities had significant effects on germination, germination recovery and induction into secondary dormancy. A conceptual model is presented that ties these results together and puts them into an ecological context. The two seed morphs of S. aralocaspica exhibit distinct differences in dormancy and germination characteristics. Suaeda aralocaspica is the first cold desert halophyte for which non-deep Type 2 PD has been documented.

  19. Relationships between annual plant productivity, nitrogen deposition and fire size in low-elevation California desert scrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Leela E.; Matchett, John R.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Johns, Robert; Minnich, Richard A.; Allen, Edith B.

    2014-01-01

    Although precipitation is correlated with fire size in desert ecosystems and is typically used as an indirect surrogate for fine fuel load, a direct link between fine fuel biomass and fire size has not been established. In addition, nitrogen (N) deposition can affect fire risk through its fertilisation effect on fine fuel production. In this study, we examine the relationships between fire size and precipitation, N deposition and biomass with emphasis on identifying biomass and N deposition thresholds associated with fire spreading across the landscape. We used a 28-year fire record of 582 burns from low-elevation desert scrub to evaluate the relationship of precipitation, N deposition and biomass with the distribution of fire sizes using quantile regression. We found that models using annual biomass have similar predictive ability to those using precipitation and N deposition at the lower to intermediate portions of the fire size distribution. No distinct biomass threshold was found, although within the 99th percentile of the distribution fire size increased with greater than 125 g m–2 of winter fine fuel production. The study did not produce an N deposition threshold, but did validate the value of 125 g m–2 of fine fuel for spread of fires.

  20. Analyses of heavy metals in sewage and sludge from treatment plants in the cities of Campinas and Jaguariúna, using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-rayfluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, L.C.F.; Canteras, F.B.; Moreira, S.

    2014-01-01

    A major consequence of accelerated urban and industrial development in the last decades is water pollution. In particular, metal contamination is a significant problem, causing serious changes to the environment and adversely affecting human health. The cities of Campinas and Jaguariúna are inserted in the Campinas Metropolitan Region (CMR), one of the most dynamic regions in the Brazilian economy, accounting for 2.7% of Gross National Product (GNP) and 7.83% of São Paulo State Product—or approximately $ 70.7 billion per year. Besides having a strong economy, the region also presents an infrastructure that provides the development of the entire metropolitan area. Therefore, to study the anthropogenic influences of the cities, the evaluation of the quality of raw and treated effluent and, the sludge generated in sewage treatment plants (STP), especially with regard to heavy metals was performed by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation technique. The results were compared with the allowed values established by Brazilian Legislation. For raw and treated effluents collected in Jaguariúna and Campinas city in the Stations of Treatment of Sewage (Camanducaia and Anhumas), Cr presented higher concentrations than the maximum allowed values established by CONAMA 357. However, it is necessary to do other studies to define the fraction of Cr +3 and Cr +6 to compare to the new legislation. The other elements were in agreement with established regulations. For sludge sampled in the same locations, the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared with the CONAMA 375 and showed values smaller than the maximum allowed values, indicating the possibility to re-use the sludge. - Highlights: ► Analysis of sewage and sludge composition using SR-TXRF. ► Determination of the potentially toxic elements like Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. ► Concentrations determined were compared with Brazilian quality standards. ► It was discovered possible illegal

  1. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils and plant material in the post-industrial city of Katowice, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindor, Karolina A; Franiel, Izabella J; Bierza, Wojciech M; Pawlak, Beata; Palowski, Bernard F

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environment pollution by biological monitoring. The leaves and bark of popular ornamental trees Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L. and soil from the sampling sites were used to perform heavy metals pollution monitoring in urban areas with different pollution sources, as well to investigate the suitability of the leaves and bark as bioindicators of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu pollution. Plant samples were collected at nine locations classified into three pollution groups based on metal content in the soils. The chosen pollution indices were used to assess the level of contamination according to background values. Soils in the Katowice area are found to be relatively heavily contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cd. Both of the maple tree species did not statistically differ in terms of the investigated elements' concentration in leaves or bark. Only bark samples reflected the pollution level, showing differences between the sampling points, and therefore are recommended for biomonitoring purposes.

  2. Compatibility of Different Eucalyptus Species and Provenances Under Sewage Irrigation Using Yazd City Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadhadi Rad

    2014-04-01

    92.4% and 98.6%, 95.1%, 94.4%, respectively. The species E. camaldulensis (41-zh had the best performance after the first and the second years of planting, although there was not significant difference between some of the eucalypt characteristics. Overall, the species E. camaldulensis (41-zh can be recommended for forest plantation and wood production at sites similar to the trial condition, ecologically. The species E. rubida, E. saligna and E. viminalis are also recommended for plantation and wood production, using sewage irrigation, due to their fast growing performance, although they might have high mortality at their first stage of establishment. E. sargentii is a suitable species for desertification control due to its high resistance to soil and water salinity and somewhat coldness and its fast diameter and crown growth.

  3. Mum, why do you keep on growing? Impacts of environmental variability on optimal growth and reproduction allocation strategies of annual plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lara, Michel

    2006-05-01

    In their 1990 paper Optimal reproductive efforts and the timing of reproduction of annual plants in randomly varying environments, Amir and Cohen considered stochastic environments consisting of i.i.d. sequences in an optimal allocation discrete-time model. We suppose here that the sequence of environmental factors is more generally described by a Markov chain. Moreover, we discuss the connection between the time interval of the discrete-time dynamic model and the ability of the plant to rebuild completely its vegetative body (from reserves). We formulate a stochastic optimization problem covering the so-called linear and logarithmic fitness (corresponding to variation within and between years), which yields optimal strategies. For "linear maximizers'', we analyse how optimal strategies depend upon the environmental variability type: constant, random stationary, random i.i.d., random monotonous. We provide general patterns in terms of targets and thresholds, including both determinate and indeterminate growth. We also provide a partial result on the comparison between ;"linear maximizers'' and "log maximizers''. Numerical simulations are provided, allowing to give a hint at the effect of different mathematical assumptions.

  4. Advanced light water reactor plants System 80+trademark design certification program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1994 - September 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+trademark during the US government's 1995 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design covers an essentially complete plant. It is based on EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) improvements to the Standardized System 80 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2, and 3. The NSSS is a traditional two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs, each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard design houses the NSSS in a spherical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual barrier to radioactivity release. Other major features include an all-digital, human-factors-engineered control room, an alternate electrical AC power source, an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST), and plant arrangements providing complete separation of redundant trains in safety systems

  5. Advanced light water reactor plants System 80+{trademark} design certification program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+{trademark} during the US government`s 1995 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design covers an essentially complete plant. It is based on EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) improvements to the Standardized System 80 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2, and 3. The NSSS is a traditional two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs, each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard design houses the NSSS in a spherical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual barrier to radioactivity release. Other major features include an all-digital, human-factors-engineered control room, an alternate electrical AC power source, an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST), and plant arrangements providing complete separation of redundant trains in safety systems.

  6. Advanced light water reactor plants System 80+trademark design certification program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1995 - September 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+trademark during the US government's 1996 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design covers an essentially complete plant. It is based on EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) improvements to the Standardized System 80 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2 and 3. The NSSS is a traditional two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs, each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard design houses the NSSS in a spherical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual barrier to radioactivity release. Other major features include an all-digital, human-factors-engineered control room, an alternate electrical AC power source, an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST), and plant arrangements providing complete separation of redundant trains in safety systems

  7. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography....

  8. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2003 provides, in seven chapters, information on persons responsible for the annual report and for auditing the financial statements, general information on the company and share capital (statute, capital, share trading, dividends), information on company operations, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position and financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  9. Estimation of annual dose equivalent (internal and external) for new thorium plant workers of IRE OSCOM, Orissa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidya Sagar, D.; Tripathy, S.K.; Khan, A.H.; Maharana, L.N.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to thoron, thoron daughters and gamma radiation, the New Thorium Plant workers are exposed to long lived alpha emitters due to inhalation of thorium fine dust present in the working environment. Air samplers were used for measurement of thoron daughters and long lived alpha concentration. Each sample was counted for 3-4 hours for alpha activity and the long lived alpha concentration was calculated after taking the self absorption effect of the deposit on the filter paper into account. Internal dose of individual workers due to thoron daughter concentration and long lived alpha concentration was determined using time weighted factors. Based on the results, it is observed that contribution of thoron daughters, long lived alpha and external gamma is about 2 mSv /y, 1 mSv /y and 5 mSv/y, respectively, to total dose to the workers. (author)

  10. Fuel reprocessing plant environmental impact in the arid regions of the western United States. Annual report, October 1976--September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The first year of the fuel reprocessing plant environmental impact study has been completed. During this time, emphasis has been placed on the description of a reference plant and on the characterization of arid lands located sites. In addition, it was recognized early that the development of a rational methodology for comparing various siting proposals, both in terms of the extent of the facilities to be constructed at any given site and in terms of the selection of the best site among a range of alternatives, would be necessary. Indeed, this decision has already been confirmed in that its appropriateness has survived the rather severe changes in the nuclear fuel cycle policy that have occurred in the past year. Indeed, the very fact that these changes have occurred and comparable alterations in basic policy may be expected in the future, tend to emphasize the necessity for developing logical and rational methods of system evaluation which have the inherent flexibility necessary to reflect these various policy options. In carrying out the study the full scope of technical expertise available has been brought to bear on the various appropriate parts of the overall study. Coordination between these various investigators throughout this period has been open, productive, and, in some cases, spirited. The resolution of many of the questions raised in this initial phase of the study has contributed significantly to the development of the siting methodology. An assessment of the existing regulatory climate as it reflects throughout the appropriate position in the federal establishment has been completed. Identification of comparable material at the state level is certainly a more diffuse and uncertain process. Demonstration of the workability of the siting methodology is currently one of the major objectives of the next year of study. That objective should be met within the presently defined program schedule and budget

  11. Ecotoxicological bioassays of sediment leachates in a river bed flanked by decommissioned pesticide plants in Nantong City, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Wang, Fenghe; Wan, Jinzhong; He, Jian; Li, Qun; Qiang Chen; Gao, Jay; Lin, Yusuo; Zhang, Shengtian

    2017-03-01

    Traditionally, the toxicity of river contaminants is analyzed chemically or physically through river bed sediments. The biotoxicity of polluted sediment leachates has not caught our attention. This study aims to overcome this deficiency through a battery of biotests which were conducted to monitor comprehensive toxicity of sediment leachates for the Yaogang River in East Jiangsu Province of China, which is in close proximity to former pesticide plants. The general physical and chemical parameters of major pollutants were analyzed from river bed sediments collected at five strategic locations. The ecotoxicity analyses undertaken include overall fish (adult zebrafish) acute toxicity, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) bioassay, and zebrafish embryo toxicity assay. Compared with the control group, sediment leachates increased the lethality, inhibited the embryos hatching and induced development abnormalities of zebrafish embryos, and inhibited the luminescence of V. fischeri. The results show that sediment leachates may assume various toxic effects, depending on the test organism. This diverse toxicity to aquatic organisms reflects their different sensitivity to sediment leachates. It is found clearly that V. fischeri was the organism which was characterized by the highest sensitivity to the sediment leachates. The complicated toxicity of leachates was not caused by one single factor but by multiple pollutants together. This indicates the need of estimations of sediment leachate not only taking into account chemical detection but also of applying the biotests to the problem. Thus, multigroup bioassays are necessary to realistically evaluate river ecological risks imposed by leachates.

  12. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais na cidade de Ipameri - GO Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Ipameri City - Goiás State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Zucchi

    2013-01-01

    of these plants; and to diagnose the gender profile and the age and wage ranges of users. Thus, structured interviews were conducted with 200 families in the city and plants were collected for their correct identification. The material was herborized, identified and deposited in the Herbarium of "Universidade Estadual de Goiás" (HUEG. Of the 200 families interviewed, 75 said they did not make use of plants for medicinal purposes (37.5%, while 125 said they do use them (62.5%. The latter group reported the 35 most used species: "hortelã-rasteira" (Mentha x villosa L., "boldo-sete-dores" (Plectranthus barbatus Andrews., lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf., "quebra-pedra" (Phyllanthus niruri L., chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert., pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L., guaco (Mikania glomerata Spreng., mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L., clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L., wormwood (Artemisia canphorata Vill., balm (Eysenhardtia platycarpa Mich., broom (Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., aloe (Aloe vera L. and mallow (Althaea officinalis L.. All consumer families (100% stated to prefer plants grown organically, to select the plants based on their good appearance (68% families and to eat them in natura (unprocessed, 100%. The use of medicinal plants in Ipameri is independent of gender (54% womem and 46% men and extends to several age and socioeconomic ranges, configuring thus a good consumer market.

  13. Biological recipient control at the Ringhals nuclear power plant. Annual report for 2011; Biologisk recipientkontroll vid Ringhals kaernkraftverk. Aarsrapport foer 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Maria; Gustavsson, Frida; Fagerholm, Bjoern

    2012-07-01

    The cooling system of the Ringhals nuclear power plant affects the fish community in two steps. In the first step, seawater is used to cool the system in the nuclear power plant. Fish eggs, larvae and small juveniles are carried by the incoming water and are exposed to risk of damage or mortality. In the second step the heated water is released back into the sea, where the fish is affected by the increase in temperature. Reactor 1 and reactor 3 at Ringhals nuclear power plant produced electricity during the major part of the year 2011, with exceptions for the annual audits, and shorter stops in production. Reactor 2 only operated between January and April, due to a fire which led to a shutdown and a thorough remediation work during the rest of the year. Reactor 4 was producing electricity from January to June, but was later shutdown due to a prolonged annual audit until November. Fish eggs and fish larvae are sampled in the incoming cooling water using a modified Bongo net to monitor losses of eggs and larvae in the nuclear power plant. The abundance of shorthorn sculpin larvae (Myoxocephalus scorpius) has decreased since the sampling period started, although it is still the most abundant larvae. Also the abundance of rock gunnel larvae (Pholis gunnellus) has decreased over the years. To sample juvenile fish a modified Isaacs-Kidd midwater-trawl is used. This sampling is mainly focused on glass eels (Anguilla anguilla). The abundance of glass eels have declined strongly since the beginning of the 1980's, but a minor increase was observed in 2011. The decline of the glass eel abundance is most probably due to a general decrease in recruitment and not to a local effect caused by the nuclear power plant. The effects of the heated water released into the sea are monitored by fykenet surveys in the recipient as well as in a reference area. These two areas are monitored in two seasons to compare differences between the two areas in naturally cold and warm water of

  14. Health physics aspects of incineration of low level radioactive solvent at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    This document contains the lecture notes and illustrations used in a presentation at the 1987 Health Physics Society Annual Meeting in Salt Lake City, Utah. Included is a description of the radioactive waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina, and of the current use of this facility in incinerating thousands of gallons of radioactive waste. 12 figs

  15. Application of Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Iron Concentration in the Location of Al-Wahda Water Treatment Plant in Baghdad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawar Omran Ali Al-Musawi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron is one of the abundant elements on earth that is an essential element for humans and may be a troublesome element in water supplies. In this research an AAN model was developed to predict iron concentrations in the location of Al- Wahda water treatment plant in Baghdad city by water quality assessment of iron concentrations at seven WTPs up stream Tigris River. SPSS software was used to build the ANN model. The input data were iron concentrations in the raw water for the period 2004-2011. The results indicated the best model predicted Iron concentrations at Al-Wahda WTP with a coefficient of determination 0.9142. The model used one hidden layer with two nodes and the testing error was 0.834. The ANN model could be used to predict future iron concentrations as the results from the verification of the ANN model for years 2012 and 2013 indicated good accuracy with a coefficient of determination R2 = 0.8965.

  16. Aquatic Communities and Selected Water Chemistry in St. Vrain Creek near the City of Longmont, Colorado, Wastewater-Treatment Plant, 2005 and 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Sprague, Lori A.; Collins, Jim A.; Cox, Oliver N.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey and the City of Longmont, Colo., began a study to document chemical characteristics of St. Vrain Creek that had previously been unavailable either due to high cost of analysis or lack of analytical capability. Stream samples were collected at seven sites on St. Vrain Creek during the spring of 2005 and 2006 for analysis of wastewater compounds. A Lagrangian-sampling design was followed during each sampling event, and time-of-travel studies were conducted just prior to each sampling event to determine appropriate sampling times for the synoptic. In addition, semipermeable membrane devices, passive samplers that concentrate hydrophobic organic chemicals, were installed at six sites during the spring of 2005 and 2006 for approximately 4 weeks. After retrieval, contaminant residues concentrated in the semipermeable membrane devices were recovered and used in a toxicity assay that provided a screen for aryl hydrocarbon receptor type compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, and furans. In addition, the U.S. Geological Survey summarized information on macroinvertebrate and fish communities known from St. Vrain Creek dating back to the early 1900s in order to assess their utility in evaluating wastewater-treatment plant upgrades and habitat improvement projects. Unfortunately, because of inconsistencies in data collection these data cannot be used as intended; however, they are useful for understanding to some degree gross patterns in fish species distribution, but less so for macroinvertebrates.

  17. Occurrence and removal of antibiotics, hormones and several other pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plants of the largest industrial city of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Shishir Kumar; Kim, Hyeong Woo; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Park, Hung-Suck

    2011-09-15

    Occurrence and removal efficiencies of 20 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) including antibiotics, hormones, and several other miscellaneous pharmaceuticals (analgesics, antiepileptics, antilipidemics, antihypertensives, antiseptics, and stimulants) were investigated in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Ulsan, the largest industrial city of Korea. The compounds were extracted from wastewater samples by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that acetaminophen, atenolol and lincomycin were the main individual pollutants usually found in concentrations over 10 μg/L in the sewage influent. In the WWTPs, the concentrations of analgesic acetaminophen, stimulant caffeine, hormones estriol and estradiol decreased by over 99%. On the contrary, the antibiotic sulfamethazine, the antihypertensive metoprolol, and the antiepileptic carbamazepine exhibited removal efficiencies below 30%. Particularly, removal of antibiotics was observed to vary between -11.2 and 69%. In the primary treatment (physico-chemical processes), the removal of pharmaceuticals was insignificant (up to 28%) and removal of majority of the pharmaceuticals occurred during the secondary treatment (biological processes). The compounds lincomycin, carbamazepine, atenolol, metoprolol, and triclosan showed better removal in WWTPs employing modified activated sludge process with co-existence of anoxic-oxic condition. Further investigation into the design and operational aspects of the biological processes is warranted for the efficient removal of PPCPs, particularly antibiotics, to secure healthy water resource in the receiving downstream, thereby ensuring a sustainable water cycle management. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Nuclear waste form risk assessment for US defense waste at Savannah River Plant. Annual report fiscal year 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, H.; Jackson, D.D.; Revelli, M.A.

    1981-07-01

    Waste form dissolution studies and preliminary performance analyses were carried out to contribute a part of the data needed for the selection of a waste form for the disposal of Savannah River Plant defense waste in a deep geologic repository. The first portion of this work provides descriptions of the chemical interactions between the waste form and the geologic environment. We reviewed critically the dissolution/leaching data for borosilicate glass and SYNROC. Both chemical kinetic and thermodynamic models were developed to describe the dissolution process of these candidate waste forms so as to establish a fundamental basis for interpretation of experimental data and to provide directions for future experiments. The complementary second portion of this work is an assessment of the impacts of alternate waste forms upon the consequences of disposal in various proposed geological media. Employing systems analysis methodology, we began to evaluate the performance of a generic waste form for the case of a high risk scenario for a bedded salt repository. Results of sensitivity analysis, uncertainty analyses, and sensitivity to uncertainty analysis are presented

  19. Energy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2000-03-01

    In 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'', to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective to investigate the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City. This paper summarizes our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance and annual C02 reduction of HIR strategies in the three initial cities. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer most savings potential: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by old or new construction and with a gas furnace or an electric heat pump. We defined prototypical building characteristics for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.IE model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on building [direct effect], (3) combined strategies I and 2 [direct effect], (4) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (5) combined strategies 1, 2 and 4 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each city using readily obtainable data to calculate the metropolitan-wide impact of HIR strategies. The results show, that in Baton Rouge, potential annual energy savings of $15M could be realized by

  20. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  1. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-18

    Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  2. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  3. The Copenhagen City and Port Development Corporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Bruce; Noring, Luise

    Thirty years ago, the city of Copenhagen was experiencing 17.5 percent unemployment, an outmigration of population, the loss of manufacturing, the decline of taxing capacity, and an annual budget deficit of $750 million. Today, the city has been transformed into one of the wealthiest (and happies......) in the world....

  4. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-30

    The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  5. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  6. Eco2 Cities : Ecological Cities as Economic Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Dastur, Arish; Moffatt, Sebastian; Yabuki, Nanae; Maruyama, Hinako

    2010-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the World Bank's Eco2 cities : ecological cities as economic cities initiative. The objective of the Eco2 cities initiative is to help cities in developing countries achieve a greater degree of ecological and economic sustainability. The book is divided into three parts. Part one describes the Eco2 cities initiative framework. It describes the approach, be...

  7. Gross and net land cover changes in the main plant functional types derived from the annual ESA CCI land cover maps (1992-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; MacBean, Natasha; Ciais, Philippe; Defourny, Pierre; Lamarche, Céline; Bontemps, Sophie; Houghton, Richard A.; Peng, Shushi

    2018-01-01

    Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) impacts local energy and water balance and contributes on global scale to a net carbon emission to the atmosphere. The newly released annual ESA CCI (climate change initiative) land cover maps provide continuous land cover changes at 300 m resolution from 1992 to 2015, and can be used in land surface models (LSMs) to simulate LULCC effects on carbon stocks and on surface energy budgets. Here we investigate the absolute areas and gross and net changes in different plant functional types (PFTs) derived from ESA CCI products. The results are compared with other datasets. Global areas of forest, cropland and grassland PFTs from ESA are 30.4, 19.3 and 35.7 million km2 in the year 2000. The global forest area is lower than that from LUH2v2h (Hurtt et al., 2011), Hansen et al. (2013) or Houghton and Nassikas (2017) while cropland area is higher than LUH2v2h (Hurtt et al., 2011), in which cropland area is from HYDE 3.2 (Klein Goldewijk et al., 2016). Gross forest loss and gain during 1992-2015 are 1.5 and 0.9 million km2 respectively, resulting in a net forest loss of 0.6 million km2, mainly occurring in South and Central America. The magnitudes of gross changes in forest, cropland and grassland PFTs in the ESA CCI are smaller than those in other datasets. The magnitude of global net cropland gain for the whole period is consistent with HYDE 3.2 (Klein Goldewijk et al., 2016), but most of the increases happened before 2004 in ESA and after 2007 in HYDE 3.2. Brazil, Bolivia and Indonesia are the countries with the largest net forest loss from 1992 to 2015, and the decreased areas are generally consistent with those from Hansen et al. (2013) based on Landsat 30 m resolution images. Despite discrepancies compared to other datasets, and uncertainties in converting into PFTs, the new ESA CCI products provide the first detailed long-term time series of land-cover change and can be implemented in LSMs to characterize recent carbon dynamics

  8. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  9. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  10. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  11. An Assessment of the Bioaccumulation of PCBs and Chloridane Near the U.S. Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.

    2003-12-30

    Studies conducted by the Missouri Department of Conservation in the late 1980s found high levels of PCBs and chlordane in fish from the Blue River near the Kansas City Plant (KCP). Follow-on biomonitoring studies by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff from 1991-1993 (Southworth et al. 1992, Ashwood et al. 1993, Ashwood and Peterson 1994), and again on a more limited basis in 1998 (Ashwood 1998), were conducted for the KCP. The studies in the early 1990s characterized concentrations of PCBs and chlordane in fish from Indian Creek, Boone Creek, and the Blue River. These studies concluded that the KCP appears to be one of multiple sources of PCBs to both Indian Creek and the Blue River. There continues to be interest in the potential role of KCP discharges on PCB concentrations in local fish. Elevated PCB concentrations in Indian Creek fish have consistently been found at the location downstream of the NPDES-permitted 002 discharge, which drains a section of the KCP complex. A risk evaluation conducted during 2001 found that some local fish exceeded risk-based guidelines for PCBs. It has been nearly a decade since intensive sampling of fish was conducted within all waters near the KCP (the 1998 study included Indian Creek only); therefore, an update study was warranted. The purpose of the present study is to provide PCB and chlordane concentrations in fish useful in determining the potential human health risks associated with fish in waters near the KCP, to evaluate the relative significance of KCP discharges relative to other inputs on fish levels, and to determine if levels have changed in the years since fish were last analyzed. Fish were collected near the KCP for PCB and chlordane analyses in October and November of 2002. Although chlordane does not appear to be associated with the KCP (it was most commonly used to treat household termite infestations until 1988), it is of interest from an overall risk standpoint. Because monitoring change over time is an

  12. Environmental monitoring and ecological studies program. 1974 annual report for the Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant near Red Wing, Minnesota. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    Data are presented from studies on the effects of thermal effluents from the Prairie Island nuclear power plant on fish and invertebrate populations in the Mississippi River in the vicinity of the plant. Populations of aquatic and terrestrial plants and birds in the immediate vicinity of the plant were also characterized. (U.S.)

  13. Subsurface urban heat islands in German cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menberg, Kathrin; Bayer, Peter; Zosseder, Kai; Rumohr, Sven; Blum, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the intensity and extension of subsurface urban heat islands (UHI), and the individual role of the driving factors has not been revealed either. In this study, we compare groundwater temperatures in shallow aquifers beneath six German cities of different size (Berlin, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Karlsruhe and Darmstadt). It is revealed that hotspots of up to +20K often exist, which stem from very local heat sources, such as insufficiently insulated power plants, landfills or open geothermal systems. When visualizing the regional conditions in isotherm maps, mostly a concentric picture is found with the highest temperatures in the city centers. This reflects the long-term accumulation of thermal energy over several centuries and the interplay of various factors, particularly in heat loss from basements, elevated ground surface temperatures (GST) and subsurface infrastructure. As a primary indicator to quantify and compare large-scale UHI intensity the 10-90%-quantile range UHII(10-90) of the temperature distribution is introduced. The latter reveals, in comparison to annual atmospheric UHI intensities, an even more pronounced heating of the shallow subsurface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid......This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...

  15. Statistical annual report 2008 - Furnas Electric Power Plants Inc. - Calendar year 2007; Anuario estatistico 2008 - Furnas Centrais Eletricas S.A. - Ano base 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This 30th edition of the statistical annual report of Furnas reports the performance of the company in 2007 and recent years allowing a general view on: Furnas system; production and supply; financial and economic data, personnel and indicators.

  16. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... to both central and new peripheral areas. This paper reports on studies carried out in Accra and Dar es Salaam to address and link 1) mobility practices of residents, 2) local strategies for ‘post-settlement’ network extension, and 3) the city-wide performance of the transport system. The studies draw...... in advance. However, such solutions are often impeded by costly and cumbersome land-acquisition processes, and because of the reactive and often piecemeal approach to infrastructure extensions, the development will often be more costly. Moreover, the lack of compliance to a city-wide development plan...

  17. Vatican City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Vatican City, the administrative and spiritual capital of the Roman catholic Church, has a population of 1000. Citizenship is generally accorded only to those who reside in Vatican City for reasons of office of employment. Supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power is currentily exercised by Pope John Paul II, the 1st non-italian pope in 5 centuries. The State of Vatican City is recognized by many nations as an independent sovereign state under the temporal jurisdiction of the Pope. By 1984, 108 countries had established diplomatic relations with the Holy See, most of which are not Roman Catholic. Third World countries comprise a large proportion of countries that have recently established relations with the Holy See. The US re-established relations with the Vatican in 1984 and there is frequent contact and consultation between the 2 states on key international issues.

  18. 76 FR 37649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... annual July 4th Fireworks Display (Tahoe City 4th of July Fireworks Display). This action is necessary to... INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce the safety zone for the annual Tahoe City 4th of July Fireworks in...

  19. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  20. 28th annual meeting of the European Society for New Methods in Agricultural Research and International Union of Radioecology (IUR) Working Group Soil-to-Plant Transfer annual meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Forty-three contributions presented at the Meeting were input to INIS; these fall largely in the working groups Radiation Technology, Advanced Methods in Animal Sciences, and Soil-Plant Relationships. (P.A.)

  1. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  2. Testing simulations of intra- and inter-annual variation in the plant production response to elevated CO(2) against measurements from an 11-year FACE experiment on grazed pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Frank Yonghong; Newton, Paul C D; Lieffering, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem models play a crucial role in understanding and evaluating the combined impacts of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and changing climate on terrestrial ecosystems. However, we are not aware of any studies where the capacity of models to simulate intra- and inter-annual variation in responses to elevated CO2 has been tested against long-term experimental data. Here we tested how well the ecosystem model APSIM/AgPasture was able to simulate the results from a free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experiment on grazed pasture. At this FACE site, during 11 years of CO2 enrichment, a wide range in annual plant production response to CO2 (-6 to +28%) was observed. As well as running the full model, which includes three plant CO2 response functions (plant photosynthesis, nitrogen (N) demand and stomatal conductance), we also tested the influence of these three functions on model predictions. Model/data comparisons showed that: (i) overall the model over-predicted the mean annual plant production response to CO2 (18.5% cf 13.1%) largely because years with small or negative responses to CO2 were not well simulated; (ii) in general seasonal and inter-annual variation in plant production responses to elevated CO2 were well represented by the model; (iii) the observed CO2 enhancement in overall mean legume content was well simulated but year-to-year variation in legume content was poorly captured by the model; (iv) the best fit of the model to the data required all three CO2 response functions to be invoked; (v) using actual legume content and reduced N fixation rate under elevated CO2 in the model provided the best fit to the experimental data. We conclude that in temperate grasslands the N dynamics (particularly the legume content and N fixation activity) play a critical role in pasture production responses to elevated CO2 , and are processes for model improvement. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Prediction of municipal water production in touristic Mecca City in Saudi Arabia using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdelHamid Ajbar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecast of municipal water production is critically important for arid and oil rich countries such as Saudi Arabia which depend on costly desalination plants to satisfy the growing water demand. Achieving the desired prediction accuracy is a challenging task since the forecast model should take into consideration a variety of factors such as economic development, climate conditions and population growth. The task is further complicated given that Mecca city is visited regularly by large numbers during specific months in the year due to religious reasons. This study develops a neural network model for forecasting the monthly and annual water demand for Mecca city, Saudi Arabia. The proposed model used historic records of water production and estimated visitors’ distribution to calibrate a neural network model for water demand forecast. The explanatory variables included annually-varying variables such as household income, persons per household, and city population, along with monthly-varying variables such as expected number of visitors each month and maximum monthly temperature. The NN prediction outperforms that of a regular econometric model. The latter is adjusted such that it can provide monthly and annual predictions.

  4. CSIR Annual report 2003

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available ACHIEVEMENTS OF OUR PEOPLE 14 THE STATE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE CSIR 15 ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 20 CORPORATE GOVERNANCE 20 CSIR BOARD MEMBERS 24 REPORT OF THE AUDIT COMMITTEE 26 REPORT OF THE AUDITOR GENERAL 27 EXECUTIVE REPORT 28 FIVE..., which followed research and development of new technology related to the Hoodia plant, dubbed P57. Clinical trials relating to the product continue internationally. World-class genomics research > The African Centre for Gene Technologies, established...

  5. 2002 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2002 provides information on financial highlights, corporate governance, organization of the Group, share, sustainable development policy (integration into the management practices, financial and environmental responsibility, responsibility to the employees and to the society), nuclear power (front end division, reactors and services division, back end division), connectors division, equity interests and financial report. (A.L.B.)

  6. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  7. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  8. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  9. FUN CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  10. Sustainable Cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The case study by Ejigu reveals a tension inherent in urban development in the ... In fact, the price of viable land in the Global South cities is sometimes as high as the ... He discusses the 'piecemeal' construction practice typical of the informal ...

  11. Whose city?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Die Stadt als Beute. But where most of these films follow the money and dissect the power relations in today’s urban planning, Whose city? instead moves back in time to the almost forgotten, but defining architectural disputes of the 1990s. With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the rest of the Iron...

  12. Fuel cell electric vehicle as a power plant : Fully renewable integrated transport and energy system design and analysis for smart city areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, V.D.W.M.; Verhoef, L.A.; van Wijk, A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable and affordable future zero emission power, heat and transport systems require efficient and versatile energy storage and distribution systems. This paper answers the question whether for city areas, solar and wind electricity together with fuel cell electric vehicles as energy generators

  13. New energy vision in Kitakata City area; Kitakatashi chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    A new energy vision was established in Kitakata City in Fukushima Prefecture. The population of Kitakata City in 2000 was 37,490, not having experienced extreme increase or decrease. Population employed in the tertiary industry occupies the largest ratio at 36.9%, followed by the secondary industry. The energy demand of the entire city is about 3300 trillion Joule, and carbon dioxide emitted therefrom is estimated about 77,000 t-C annually. Calculation of new energy amount in existence reveals about 4190 trillion Joule annually, which corresponds to about 1.3 times the energy demand quantity of the city. The new energy introducing project includes introduction of photovoltaic power generation into the public hall and schools, utilization of solar heat for greenhouses, introduction of solar heat and wind power hybrid power generation into the Green Tourism experiencing facilities, parks, street lights, and evacuation places, introduction of small to medium hydropower generation plants into Kitanogo, Kuranoyu and Happo-Ike, utilization of cold heat of snow, introduction of clean energy fueled automobiles into the public organizations, utilization of bio-mass energy, wastes burning power generation and heat utilization. (NEDO)

  14. Kauffman Teen Survey. An Annual Report on Teen Health Behaviors: Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs among 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-Grade Students in Greater Kansas City, 1991-92 to 2000-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation began surveying Kansas City area teens during the 1984-85 school year. The Kauffman Teen Survey now addresses two sets of issues for teens. Teen Health Behaviors, addressed in this report, have been a focus of the survey since its inception. The report focuses on teen use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in…

  15. Searches for dead birds in Smoela wind-power plant area 2011: annual report; Soek etter doede fugler i Smoela vindpark 2011: aarsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitan, Ole

    2012-07-01

    This report describes the searches for dead birds in the Smoela wind-power plant area (SWPPA) in 2011, and compares the results of the dead birds found with 2006-2010.The search effort in 2006-2010 was systematic, as the same method and procedures were followed, with the same effort each week throughout each year. The results of dead birds found could thus be compared between years, seasons, months, and the different parts of the wind-power plant and single turbines. The data could be used to calculate averages found each year, and also now making it possible to estimate total numbers annually colliding with turbines for several species. These data are therefore a good basis for comparing result for later years. To search for dead birds, localize and recording wind turbine victims are the first steps towards estimating real collision numbers in a wind-power plant area. In addition, there are several bi-ases affecting the proportion of dead birds available for searches. Several methods may be used, among them different approaches using dogs. In the SWPPA a feather search dog was used, to search, find and indicate feathers and other remains from dead birds. In 2006-2010 two dogs were used in SWPPA, both with god search qualities. In 2011 the best of these dogs, the giant schnauzer Luna, was used on all turbine searches. The search motivation of Luna has been very good in nearly all searches in 2011. The search results from SWPPA therefore are as reliable as possible today. In 2011 searches were carried out at all turbines five times, three in spring (5-7 April, 29 April to 1 May, 26-28 May) and two in autumn (12-15 September, 21-22 November). In April to May a total of 203 turbine searches were performed. In each of the previous years, the total numbers of turbine searches in the spring (March - 15 June) varied between 359 and 473. In autumn 2011 a total of 136 turbine searches were performed, about 60 % of each of the previous years in the months September

  16. Environmental monitoring and ecological studies program. 1974 annual report for the Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant near Red Wing, Minnesota. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    Data are presented from studies on the effects of thermal effluents from the Prairie Island nuclear power plant on water temperature and primary productivity of phytoplankton in the Mississippi River downstream from the site. Results of measurements showed that plant-heated waters had dropped to near normal temperatures at the end of the discharge canal. The size and shape of the thermal plume at Prairie Island were determined. The chemical composition of water samples collected upstream was compared to that of samples collected downstream from the plant. Plankton species and seasonal succession patterns were characterized both at the plant site and downstream from the plant for any evidence of changes resulting from plant operations. The effects of entrainment of plankton in the cooling water system was also studied. Data are included on invertebrates in water samples collected at various locations. (U.S.)

  17. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Volumes 1 and 2 (18th, Panama City, Florida, October 12-15, 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Elizabeth, Ed.; And Others

    This proceedings contains 75 research reports, 8 discussion groups, 32 oral reports, and 28 poster presentation entries from the 1996 Annual Meeting of the American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. A one-page synopsis is included for discussion groups, oral reports, and poster presentations. Topic…

  18. Incorporation of limestone residue from marble processing plant in the city of Cachoeiro do Itapemirim, Espirito Santo, Brazil, in the production of mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, G.P.; Alexandre, J.; Dias, D.P.; Dias Junior, N.S.; Anderson, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Cachoeiro do Itapemirim city (ES), located 136 km from Vitoria, the state's capital, is the largest ornamental stones producer in Brazil, whose beneficiation produces a large amount of waste that, even today, is responsible for major damages done to the environment. This article aims the experimental study of hydrated lime use (product marketed to be used in mortar) by a residue from marble beneficiation from an industry located in that city. Two mixes were made with cement:sand:hydrated lime and cement:sand:residue. The mortars were evaluated by their properties comparisons in fresh and hardened states, namely: consistency index, mass density and incorporated air content, compressive strength, tensile and bending grip for traction. Chemical and mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction were also made. The obtained results met the requirements prescribed by ABNT NBR 13 281 (2005). (author)

  19. Solar cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roaf, S.; Fuentes, M.; Gupta, R.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade, climate change has moved from being the concern of few to a widely recognized threat to humanity itself and the natural environment. The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, and ever-increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), could, if left unchecked lead to serious consequences globally, including increased risks of droughts, floods and storms, disruption to agriculture, rising sea levels and the spread of disease. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has been recognized as the principal cause of the atmospheric changes that drive these climate trends. Globally, buildings are the largest source of indirect carbon emissions. In 2000, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution estimated that in order to stabilise carbon emissions at levels, which avoid catastrophic alterations in the climate, we would have to reduce emissions from the built environment by at least 60% by 2050 and 80% by 2100 relative to 1997 levels. Studies of the Oxford Ecohouse have demonstrated that it is not difficult to reduce carbon emissions from houses by 60% or more through energy efficiency measures, but it is only possible to reach the 90% level of reductions required by using renewable energy technologies. Solar energy technologies have been the most successfully applied of all renewable to date largely because they are the only systems that can be incorporated easily into the urban fabric. In addition, the short fossil fuel horizons that are predicted (c. 40 years left for oil and 65 years for gas) will drive the markets for solar technologies. For these reasons, the cities of the future will be powered by solar energy, to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the city form and location. In recognition of the need to move rapidly towards a renewable energy future, a group of international cities, including Oxford, have started the Solar City Network. In this paper we outline the

  20. The green city guidelines : techniques for a healthy liveable city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, M.; Kuypers, V.H.M.; Lenzholzer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Green City Guidelines is an international book that provides information on the social and economic advantages of green spaces in urban environments. The book focuses on decision-makers and people practically involved in the field concerned. It provides tips and advice on ways of using plants,

  1. City Marketing : Case: Moscow

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzina, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays cities compete with each other for attracting investments and people, which make them implement new city marketing and city branding strategies. There are many factors that can influence city image and its perception in customers’ minds. The purpose of this thesis is to realize how a well-selected city marketing strategy benefits the city and gain a deeper understanding of city marketing possibilities. The final goal is to offer suggestions for the city of Moscow, which can help to i...

  2. Comparative Analysis of the Possibility to Use Urban Organic Waste for Compost or Biogas Productions. Application to Rosario City, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Rubén D.; Vega, Marcelo

    2017-10-01

    The city waste is one of the main urban problems to be solved, since they generate large impacts on the environment, like use of land, contamination of the soil, water and air, and human diseases, among others. In Rosario city, placed in the Argentina Humid Pampa and having about 1 million inhabitants, the Municipality is developing different strategies in order to reduce the waste impact (295 000 Tons in 2016). One of the most important actions was the construction of the Bella Vista compost plant in 2012 (within the largest in South America). In the present work we analysed the possibility to use urban organic waste (that for Rosario city represents about 58% of the total waste in the last years) for: a) compost production and b) biogas production, with compost as a by-product. We determined the produced compost and biogas and the corresponding greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, considering three possible scenarios: A reference scenario (Sr ) where 24 100 Tons of urban solid waste per year is transported from the city houses and buildings to a transfer landfill and then to the a final disposal landfill; a scenario number one (S1 ) in which the same fraction of waste is transported to the Compost plant and transformed to compost and a scenario number two (S2 ) where the same quantity of waste is used for the production of biogas (and compost). Applying the IPCC 2006 Model, we compare the results of the annual GHG emissions, in order to select the best alternative: to expand the Compost plant or to build a Biogas (plus compost) plant. We also discussed the extension of the present analysis to the situation in which all the capability of the Compost plant (25% of the 2016 waste production of the city) is used and the impact these plants are having for a better quality of life of persons involved in the informal waste activity.

  3. Annual report of 1991 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin at the Y-12 Plant: Reporting and statistical evaluation of the subsequent year (sixth) data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, L.W.; Mercier, T.M.

    1992-02-01

    This annual report has historically been prepared to meet the annual reporting requirements of the Tennessee Department of and Environment and Conservation (TDEC), Hazardous Waste Management Regulation 1200-1-11-.05 (6)(e), for detection monitoring data collected on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) wells in place around facilities which are accorded interim status. The regulatory authority for these units at the Y-12 Plant is currently in transition. A Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) with an effective date of January 1, 1992, has been negotiated with the Department of Energy (DOE) for the Oak Ridge Reservation. This agreement provides a framework for remediation of the Oak Ridge Reservation so that both RCRA and CERCLA requirements are integrated into the remediation process and provides for State, EPA, and DOE to proceed with CERCLA as the lead regulatory requirement and RCRA as an applicable or relevant and appropriate requirement. This report is presented for the RCRA certified wells for two interim status units at the Y-12 Plant. These units are Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin. Kerr Hollow is currently undergoing clean closure under RCRA. The Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) was closed in 1989 under a TDEC approved RCRA closure plan. The relevance of a RCRA Post-Closure Permit to either of these units is a matter of contention between DOE and TDEC since the FFA does not contemplate post-closure permits

  4. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  5. Evapotranspiration Within the Groundwater Model Domain of the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    The revised groundwater model includes estimates of evapotranspiration (ET). The types of vegetation and the influences of ET on groundwater hydrology vary within the model domain. Some plant species within the model domain, classified as phreatophytes, survive by extracting groundwater. ET within these plant communities can result in a net discharge of groundwater if ET exceeds precipitation. Other upland desert plants within the model domain survive on meteoric water, potentially limiting groundwater recharge if ET is equivalent to precipitation. For all plant communities within the model domain, excessive livestock grazing or other disturbances can tip the balance to a net groundwater recharge. This task characterized and mapped vegetation within the groundwater model domain at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site, and then applied a remote sensing algorithm to estimate ET for each vegetation type. The task was designed to address five objectives: 1. Characterize and delineate different vegetation or ET zones within the groundwater model domain, focusing on the separation of plant communities with phreatophytes that survive by tapping groundwater and upland plant communities that are dependent on precipitation. 2. Refine a remote sensing method, developed to estimate ET at the Monument Valley site, for application at the Tuba City site. 3. Estimate recent seasonal and annual ET for all vegetation zones, separating phreatophytic and upland plant communities within the Tuba City groundwater model domain. 4. For selected vegetation zones, estimate ET that might be achieved given a scenario of limited livestock grazing. 5. Analyze uncertainty of ET estimates for each vegetation zone and for the entire groundwater model domain.

  6. The Vermont transportation energy report : Vermont Clean Cities Coalition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The mission of the Vermont Clean Cities Coalition (VCCC) is to reduce the states reliance on : fossil fuels for transportation. This annual report provides policy makers with relevant and : timely data on the status of fuel consumption, vehicle pu...

  7. Estimation of unregulated monthly, annual, and peak streamflows in Forest City Stream and lake levels in East Grand Lake, United States-Canada border between Maine and New Brunswick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2018-04-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the International Joint Commission, compiled historical data on regulated streamflows and lake levels and estimated unregulated streamflows and lake levels on Forest City Stream at Forest City, Maine, and East Grand Lake on the United States-Canada border between Maine and New Brunswick to study the effects on streamflows and lake levels if two or all three dam gates are left open. Historical regulated monthly mean streamflows in Forest City Stream at the outlet of East Grand Lake (referred to as Grand Lake by Environment Canada) fluctuated between 114 cubic feet per second (ft3 /s) (3.23 cubic meters per second [m3 /s]) in November and 318 ft3 /s (9.01 m3 /s) in September from 1975 to 2015 according to Environment Canada streamgaging data. Unregulated monthly mean streamflows at this location estimated from regression equations for unregulated sites range from 59.2 ft3 /s (1.68 m3 /s) in September to 653 ft3 /s (18.5 m3 /s) in April. Historical lake levels in East Grand Lake fluctuated between 431.3 feet (ft) (131.5 meters [m]) in October and 434.0 ft (132.3 m) in May from 1969 to 2016 according to Environment Canada lake level data for East Grand Lake. Average monthly lake levels modeled by using the estimated hydrology for unregulated flows, and an outflow rating built from a hydraulic model with all gates at the dam open, range from 427.7 ft (130.4 m) in September to 431.1 ft (131.4 m) in April. Average monthly lake levels would likely be from 1.8 to 5.4 ft (0.55 to 1.6 m) lower with the gates at the dam opened than they have been historically. The greatest lake level changes would be from June through September.

  8. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammons, Tom B. [Energy Conservation Specialist, Port Ewen, NY (United States)

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and

  9. The Copper Balance of Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available. PMID:25866460

  10. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities Part II. Ozone-induced plant injury and its relationship with descriptors of ozone pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    within local networks were relatively small, but seasonal and inter-annual differences were strong due to the variability of meteorological conditions and related ozone concentrations. The 2001 data revealed a significant relationship between foliar injury degree and various descriptors of ozone...... pollution such as mean value, AOT20 and AOT40. Examining individual sites of the local monitoring networks separately, however, yielded noticeable differences. Some sites showed no association between ozone pollution and ozone-induced effects, whereas others featured almost linear relationships...

  11. The Bioelectromagnetic Society Thirteenth Annual Meeting 1991: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains author abstracts representing oral and poster presentations made at the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of The Bioelectromagnetic Society held in Salt Lake City, Utah June 23--27, 1991.

  12. Radiocesium contamination measurement and prospect for future use of Pinus thunbergii pinecones and leaves collected in Fukushima City as children's play and craft materials after the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Hiroyuki; Kawano, Keisuke; Kayama, Yukihiko

    2013-01-01

    Pollutant on the leaves and pinecones of Pinus thunbergii contaminated by radiocesium in Fukushima City were measured, the safe use of the leaves and pinecones as children's toys and craft materials was prospected after the accident at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The radiocesium concentration on Pinus thunbergii leaves on February 22, 2013 was 1/5.7 of the concentration on May 2, 2012. The radiocesium concentration on pinecones was high (16,300 Bq/kg). Radiocesium attached to the latex glove worn when collecting polluted pinecones, and this level fell by 1/5.2 when the polluted glove was washed. Negligible amount of radiocesium was detected in the used glove for collecting of dirty pinecones after painting. It is reasonable to assume that the use of pinecones as craft materials will be possible in the near future because the radiocesium concentration levels are expected to decrease after 2014. (author)

  13. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  14. FY 1998 annual report on the conversion of fuel at Igumnovskaya thermal power plant; Igumnovskaya hatsudensho nenryo tenkan 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As part of the industrially advanced countries' joint action on the basis of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), a thermal power plant in Igumnovskaya (I-plant), Russia was selected as the candidate for rationalization by conversion of fuel from coal to natural gas and introduction of combined-cycle generation, for investigation of the effect on reduction of greenhouse gas generation. The I-plant is located in one of the Russia's largest chemical industry regions, supplying power and steam to the factories in the region. The draft rationalization plan adopts a combination of a coal-fired 300,000 kWh plant that has not been completed and obsolete facilities in the I-plant as the reference case. The plan is drafted to construct a 450,000 kWh combined cycle unit and 3-200 t/h boilers, while effectively utilizing the existing facilities. It requires an investment of US$340 million. The construction works are scheduled to start in 2002 for the initial start-up in 2004. It is expected to reduce CO2 emissions by 1.8 million tons a year and cumulatively 52.7 million tons in the 30-year period from 2005. (NEDO)

  15. FY 1998 annual report on the conversion of fuel at Igumnovskaya thermal power plant; Igumnovskaya hatsudensho nenryo tenkan 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As part of the industrially advanced countries' joint action on the basis of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), a thermal power plant in Igumnovskaya (I-plant), Russia was selected as the candidate for rationalization by conversion of fuel from coal to natural gas and introduction of combined-cycle generation, for investigation of the effect on reduction of greenhouse gas generation. The I-plant is located in one of the Russia's largest chemical industry regions, supplying power and steam to the factories in the region. The draft rationalization plan adopts a combination of a coal-fired 300,000 kWh plant that has not been completed and obsolete facilities in the I-plant as the reference case. The plan is drafted to construct a 450,000 kWh combined cycle unit and 3-200 t/h boilers, while effectively utilizing the existing facilities. It requires an investment of US$340 million. The construction works are scheduled to start in 2002 for the initial start-up in 2004. It is expected to reduce CO2 emissions by 1.8 million tons a year and cumulatively 52.7 million tons in the 30-year period from 2005. (NEDO)

  16. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  17. 2000 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report presents information of the main activities on the scope of radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000. The following activities and developed topic in this report describe: the Argentine regulatory system; the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activities in the Argentina since the beginnings in the National Atomic Energy Commission (NAEC) of Argentina; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the safeguards and inspection of the nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants; the radiological emergency systems; the environmental monitoring; the institutional relations with national and international organizations; the biological and physics dosimetry; the training courses and meetings; the economic and human recourses

  18. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI): On-Line Intelligent Self-Diagnostic Monitoring for Next Generation Nuclear Plants - Phase I Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. J. Bond; S. R. Doctor; R. W. Gilbert; D. B. Jarrell; F. L. Greitzer; R. J. Meador

    2000-09-01

    OAK-B135 This OSTI ID belongs to an IWO and is being released out of the system. The Program Manager Rebecca Richardson has confirmed that all reports have been received. The objective of this project is to design and demonstrate the operation of the real-time intelligent self-diagnostic and prognostic system for next generation nuclear power plant systems. This new self-diagnostic technology is titled, ''On-Line Intelligent Self-Diagnostic Monitoring System'' (SDMS). This project provides a proof-of-principle technology demonstration for SDMS on a pilot plant scale service water system, where a distributed array of sensors is integrated with active components and passive structures typical of next generation nuclear power reactor and plant systems. This project employs state-of-the-art sensors, instrumentation, and computer processing to improve the monitoring and assessment of the power reactor system and to provide diagnostic and automated prognostics capabilities.

  19. Annual measured and simulated thermal performance analysis of a hybrid solar district heating plant with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Flat plate collectors have relatively low efficiency at the typical supply temperatures of district heating networks (70–95 °C). Parabolic trough collectors retain their high efficiency at these temperatures. To maximize the advantages of flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in l...... for this type of hybrid solar district heating plants with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in the Nordic region, but also introduce a novel design concept of solar district heating plants to other high solar radiation areas....... in large solar heating plants for a district heating network, a hybrid solar collector field with 5960 m2 flat plate collectors and 4039 m2 parabolic trough collectors in series was constructed in Taars, Denmark. The design principle is that the flat plate collectors preheat the return water from...

  20. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI): On-Line Intelligent Self-Diagnostic Monitoring for Next Generation Nuclear Plants - Phase I Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, L.G.; Doctor, S.R.; Gilbert, R.W.; Jarrell, D.B.; Greitzer, F.L.; Meador, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 This OSTI ID belongs to an IWO and is being released out of the system. The Program Manager Rebecca Richardson has confirmed that all reports have been received. The objective of this project is to design and demonstrate the operation of the real-time intelligent self-diagnostic and prognostic system for next generation nuclear power plant systems. This new self-diagnostic technology is titled, ''On-Line Intelligent Self-Diagnostic Monitoring System'' (SDMS). This project provides a proof-of-principle technology demonstration for SDMS on a pilot plant scale service water system, where a distributed array of sensors is integrated with active components and passive structures typical of next generation nuclear power reactor and plant systems. This project employs state-of-the-art sensors, instrumentation, and computer processing to improve the monitoring and assessment of the power reactor system and to provide diagnostic and automated prognostics capabilities

  1. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  2. City-Level Energy Decision Making: Data Use in Energy Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation in U.S. Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, Alexandra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Day, Megan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mathur, Shivani [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The report analyzes and presents information learned from a sample of 20 cities across the United States, from New York City to Park City, Utah, including a diverse sample of population size, utility type, region, annual greenhouse gas reduction targets, vehicle use, and median household income. The report compares climate, sustainability, and energy plans to better understand where cities are taking energy-related actions and how they are measuring impacts. Some common energy-related goals focus on reducing city-wide carbon emissions, improving energy efficiency across sectors, increasing renewable energy, and increasing biking and walking.

  3. Box City Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Understanding the Built Environment, Prairie Village, KS.

    This curriculum packet contains two lesson plans about cities and architecture intended for use with students in upper elementary grades and middle schools. The first lesson plan, "City People, City Stories" (Jan Ham), states that understanding architecture and cities must begin with an understanding of the people of the city. The children create…

  4. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-24

    A \\'smart city\\' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. Yanbu Industrial City- Smart City Project - First large scale smart city in The kingdom.

  5. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-24

    Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  6. Developing Engineered Fuel (Briquettes) Using Fly Ash from the Aquila Coal-Fired Power Plant in Canon City and Locally Available Biomass Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Carrasco; H. Sarper

    2006-06-30

    The objective of this research is to explore the feasibility of producing engineered fuels from a combination of renewable and non renewable energy sources. The components are flyash (containing coal fines) and locally available biomass waste. The constraints were such that no other binder additives were to be added. Listed below are the main accomplishments of the project: (1) Determination of the carbon content of the flyash sample from the Aquila plant. It was found to be around 43%. (2) Experiments were carried out using a model which simulates the press process of a wood pellet machine, i.e. a bench press machine with a close chamber, to find out the ideal ratio of wood and fly ash to be mixed to get the desired briquette. The ideal ratio was found to have 60% wood and 40% flyash. (3) The moisture content required to produce the briquettes was found to be anything below 5.8%. (4) The most suitable pressure required to extract the lignin form the wood and cause the binding of the mixture was determined to be 3000psi. At this pressure, the briquettes withstood an average of 150psi on its lateral side. (5) An energy content analysis was performed and the BTU content was determined to be approximately 8912 BTU/lb. (6) The environmental analysis was carried out and no abnormalities were noted. (7) Industrial visits were made to pellet manufacturing plants to investigate the most suitable manufacturing process for the briquettes. (8) A simulation model of extrusion process was developed to explore the possibility of using a cattle feed plant operating on extrusion process to produce briquettes. (9) Attempt to produce 2 tons of briquettes was not successful. The research team conducted a trial production run at a Feed Mill in La Junta, CO to produce two (2) tons of briquettes using the extrusion process in place. The goal was to, immediately after producing the briquettes; send them through Aquila's current system to test the ability of the briquettes to flow

  7. Annual summary report on the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the period ending September 30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The Y-12 Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program provides for the ultimate disposition of plant process buildings and their supporting facilities. The overall objective is to enable the Y-12 Plant to meet applicable environmental regulations and Department of Energy (DOE) orders to protect human health and the environment from contaminated facilities through decommissioning activities. This objective is met by providing for the surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) of accepted standby or shutdown facilities awaiting decommissioning; planning for decommissioning of these facilities; and implementing a program to accomplish the safe, cost-effective, and orderly disposition of contaminated facilities. The Y-12 D ampersand D Program was organized during FY 1992 to encompass the needs of surplus facilities at the Y-12 Plant. The need existed for a program which would include Weapons Program facilities as well as other facilities used by several programs within the Y-12 Plant. Building 9201-4 (Alpha 4) is the only facility that is formally in the D ampersand D Program. Funding for the work completed in FY 1992 was shared by the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program (EW-20) and Weapons Operations (GB-92). This report summarizes the FY 1992 D ampersand D activities associated with Building 9201-4. A section is provided for each task; the tasks include surveillance, routine and special maintenance, safety, and D ampersand D planning

  8. The relative controls of temperature, soil moisture, and plant functional group on soil CO2 efflux at diel, seasonal, and annual scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil respiration (Rsoil) is a dominant, but variable, contributor to ecosystem CO2 efflux. Understanding how variations in major environmental drivers, like temperature and available moisture, might regulate Rsoil has become extremely relevant. Plant functional-type diversity makes such assessments ...

  9. KWO annual report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, C.

    1987-01-01

    The Obrigheim nuclear power station was operated at full load during the year 1986; 7869 operating hours procuded electrical energy of 2795 GWh. This is the best annual result during Obrigheim's operating period. Since commissioning in October 1968, 131595 hours of operation have generated 44074 GWh (gross) and from test operation in March 1969 until the end of 1986, 131179 hours of operation have generated 43,962 GWh. This is an availability of power of 81.5% in this period and a time availability of 83.9%. In 1986, the plant was shut down for 807 hours for the 17th refueling including refurbishing, inspection and repair work. Apart from refueling, the plant had a good time availability and therefore contributed 5% to the safe, economical and environmentally acceptable electricity supply of the Land Baden-Wuerttemberg. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Anaerobic biogasification of domestic wastes and direct solar energy use to produce biogas, biofertilizer and distilled water in a city - a pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    kumar, R.A.; Pandya, N.H.; Patil, A.M.; Annamalai, M.; Iyer, M.V.; Nirmala, K.A.; Venkatesh, P.; Prasad, C.R.; Subramani, C.

    1982-01-01

    Domestic wastes are a source of gas of high calorific value as well as biofertilizer and distilled water. A pilot project undertaken by the Tata Electric Cos., Bombay on recycling sewage, garbage and garden wastes of a community by converting them into biogas, organic fertilizer and distilled water is described. Techniques used are anaerobic fermentation and Solar drying using Solar stills. A fish pond also can be fed the output slurry as feed material. In this pilot plant, 1 to 2 m/sup 3/ raw sewage and one to two tons of processed garden wastes and garbage would be input daily into the digester. The production is expected to be about 100 m/sup 3/ of gas per day, along with about 1500 litres of slurry from which organic fertilizer of 100 200 Kgs can be bagged and transported as well as distilled water of about 500 to 1000 litres Laboratory studies and studies on an approximate scale model of the plant are described. Scaling up to a pilot plant by about 2000 times would increase the efficiency of the rate of gas production as has been found by other workers. These tests and studies have shown that the project is technically and eonomically viable. Applications of the process on a mass scale would result in increasing replacement of fossil energy intensive processes with negentropic methods of economic and social activities.

  11. Women in Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Liz

    1982-01-01

    Suggesting that women are at a disadvantage in cities and towns, discusses experiences of women at home, working women, women traveling, shopping, and growing old in cities. Includes suggestions for studying women in cities. (JN)

  12. City Revenues and Expenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — City Revenues and Expenses from the Operating Budget from 2012 to Present, updated every night from the City's JD Edwards ledger.

  13. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers, Pool...

  14. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  15. Butterfly Larval Host Plant use in a Tropical Urban Context: Life History Associations, Herbivory, and Landscape Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiple, Ashish D.; Khurad, Arun M.; Dennis, Roger L. H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines butterfly larval host plants, herbivory and related life history attributes within Nagpur City, India. The larval host plants of 120 butterfly species are identified and their host specificity, life form, biotope, abundance and perennation recorded; of the 126 larval host plants, most are trees (49), with fewer herbs (43), shrubs (22), climbers (7) and stem parasites (2). They include 89 wild, 23 cultivated, 11 wild/cultivated and 3 exotic plant species; 78 are perennials, 43 annuals and 5 biannuals. Plants belonging to Poaceae and Fabaceae are most widely used by butterfly larvae. In addition to distinctions in host plant family affiliation, a number of significant differences between butterfly families have been identified in host use patterns: for life forms, biotopes, landforms, perennation, host specificity, egg batch size and ant associations. These differences arising from the development of a butterfly resource database have important implications for conserving butterfly species within the city area. Differences in overall butterfly population sizes within the city relate mainly to the number of host plants used, but other influences, including egg batch size and host specificity are identified. Much of the variation in population size is unaccounted for and points to the need to investigate larval host plant life history and strategies as population size is not simply dependent on host plant abundance. PMID:21864159

  16. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  17. Long-term performance of grid-connected photovoltaic plant - Appendix 1: normalised annual statistics; Langzeitverhalten von netzgekoppelten Photovoltaikanlagen 2 (LZPV2). Anhang 1: Normierte Jahresstatistiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renken, C.; Haeberlin, H.

    2003-07-01

    This is second part of a four-part final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the University of Applied Sciences in Burgdorf, Switzerland. This report presents the findings of a project begun in 1992 that monitored the performance of around 40 photovoltaic (PV) installations in Switzerland, including the demonstration installation on Mont Soleil and three test installations using modern thin-film technologies. The specific performance of the plant and reductions in yield caused mostly by increasing soiling of the modules over the years were monitored. This extensive first appendix to the report describes the plant monitored in detail, presents the results of various performance measurements made and discusses the two monitoring concepts used. The specific yields over the years are presented in graphical form. Also, the meteorological equipment installed at the University of Applied Science in Burgdorf that was used to provide reference values is described.

  18. Proceedings of Annual Meeting (26th) Aquatic Plant Control Research Program, Held in Dallas, Texas on 18-22 November, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Reinert and Rodgers 1987, Transformation Westerdahl and Getsinger 1988). Failure to Processes Input Requirements consider the effects i -at major transfer...Miscel- Westerdahl , H. E., and Getsinger, K. D., eds. laneous Paper A-88-5. 176-183. Vicks- 1988. Aquatic plant identification and burg. MS: US Army...billion Results and Discussion (g/L) instead of parts per million (mg/L). Hall, Westerdahl , and Stewart (1984) re- Triclopyr is auxin-type systemic

  19. Benefits to rare plants and highway safety from annual population reductions of a "native invader," white-tailed deer, in a Chicago-area woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeman, Richard M; Guerrant, Travis; Dunn, Glen; Beckerman, Scott F; Anchor, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Overabundant white-tailed deer are one of the most serious threats to woodland plant communities in the Chicago area. Moreover, the abundant deer in a highly populated area causes economic harm and poses hazards to human safety through collisions with vehicles. The artificial conditions causing the overabundance and resulting consequences qualify the white-tailed deer in the Chicago area to be considered as "native invaders". We examined the benefits of culling deer at a Chicago-area woodland preserve by comparing browse rates on four endangered plant species from years before culling began with years with culling. We also examined deer-vehicle collision and traffic flow rates on area roads from years before culling began and years with culling to assess whether population reductions may have benefited road safety in the area. All four endangered plant species (three orchid species and sweet fern) had lower browse rates in years with culls, although the decreased browsing rates were statistically distinguishable for only two of the species (grass pink orchid and sweet fern). After first verifying that traffic flow rates did not decrease from pre-cull years to years with culls, we analyzed the Illinois Department of Transportation data from area roads based on deer-vehicle collisions causing >US$500 in damage and showed a one-third reduction in deer-vehicle collisions. An economic analysis showed a cost savings during the cull years of US$0.6 million for reducing browsing to just these four monitored plant species and the reduction in deer-vehicle collisions.

  20. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Experimental research for detailed designs of tower light-collection type solar thermal power plant; 1977 nendo taiyonetsu hatsuden plant (tower shuko hoshiki) no shosai sekkei no tame no shiken kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    This project is aimed at pursuing technical and economic possibilities of solar thermal power plant by development of devices for a tower light-collecting type solar thermal power plant (in particular, heliostat, heat absorber and heat storage device) and materials therefor through the basic tests, and tests using a 10 kW heat collector and construction, on a trial basis, of a large-scale model plant with a commercial heliostat, and by planning to construct a 1,000 kW-class pilot plant for generating peak-shaving power using these devices. The major achievements in the FY1977 are summarized. The system analysis estimates annual power production possibly reaching 547,600 kWH. The heat-collecting test plant records a heat-collecting efficiency of 50 to 70% for collected heat quantity of 50 kW or more. The heliostat test confirms that the GL type is more favorable than the XY type. The heat absorber, which is a 1/3 model of the commercial device, is tested for its heat releasing performance, producing the quantitative released heat data. The heat transfer characteristics are investigated for the regenerative heat exchanger when the phase changes occur simultaneously on both molten salt and water sides. The mirror is exposure-tested in the field test for 1 year, to collect the data. (NEDO)

  1. A reconstruction of the environment of Rettig in the city of Turku, Finland on the basis of diatom, pollen, plant macrofossil and phytolith analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuorela, I.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Palynological and palaeobotanical results from three representative cores investigated in 1994—1995 in connection with the archaeological excavations in the Rettig "Palace", Turku, Finland, are discussed. The cultural layer consisted of a heterogeneous urban upper stratum and a more humid and more homogeneous lower stratum, all resting on a clay sequence several metres thick. A chronological series of marine clay, partly river-washed and redeposited clay, and clayey soil characterized by aerophilous diatoms was determined. Diatom analysis was used to reconstruct sedimentation environment and the development of the natural landscape in relation to land uplift. Pollen analysis was used to trace the transformation of the natural landscape into a cultural landscape and finally into an urban settlement area. The pollen results were complemented by those on plant macrofossils, which consisted of the remnants of 124 species of many different groups, such as natural, cultivated, imported, medical and collected plants. Phytoliths were investigated from the surface material of a grindstone found on the site, and typical morphotypes were described although no typical cereal phytoliths could be identified.

  2. Analysis of Urban Forest Needs as Anthropogenic (CO2) Gas Absorbent in Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriani, Anisa Putri; Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, Tri; Maryono

    2018-02-01

    Green open space in cities in significant needs to maintenance environment quality. On of the critical function is to absorb increasing number of gas CO2. Therefore, developing urban forest in cities is very importance. The objective of the study is to determine the area of urban forest as CO2 gas anthropogenic absorb which is formed from fuel, diesel fuel, liquid petroleum gas. The study consists of (1) Analyzing the number of CO2 gas emission by calculating the needs of petroleum and gas based on the number of population, (2) Analyzing the power of gas absorption, (3) Measuring the air concentration of CO2 gas ambient based on daily traffic activities. This study shown that from year 2013 to year 2017, the increasing of urban forest is not so significant. For year 2013 the green open space in Semarang City are 373.67 hectares (7.5 percent from Semarang City area), consists of 239 parks, 11 public cemeteries, production forests, community forests, and urban forests, however the area of urban forest is not increase. The study assess that Antidesmabunius is one of the green species which high absorb capacity planted for Semarang. This trees produce 31,31 ton annually. This study proposed to fostering Antidesmabunius as one principle threes in Semarang urban forest.

  3. Spatial distribution and risk assessment of radionuclides in soils around a coal-fired power plant: A case study from the city of Baoji, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Lijun; Wei Haiyan; Wang Lingqing

    2007-01-01

    Coal burning may enhance human exposure to the natural radionuclides that occur around coal-fired power plants (CFPP). In this study, the spatial distribution and hazard assessment of radionuclides found in soils around a CFPP were investigated using statistics, geostatistics, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K in soils range from 12.54 to 40.18, 38.02 to 72.55, and 498.02 to 1126.98 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Ordinary kriging was carried out to map the spatial patterns of radionuclides, and disjunctive kriging was used to quantify the probability of radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ) higher than the threshold. The maps show that the spatial variability of the natural radionuclide concentrations in soils was apparent. The results of this study could provide valuable information for risk assessment of environmental pollution and decision support

  4. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  5. Biological recipient control at the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. Annual report for 2011; Biologisk recipientkontroll vid Oskarshamns kaernkraftverk. Aarsrapport foer 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jan; Franzen, Fredrik; Lingman, Anna

    2012-07-01

    Potential ecosystem effects caused by the effluent cooling water from the Simpevarp nuclear power plant, close to Oskarshamn on the Swedish coast of the Baltic Proper, are monitored in yearly surveys using gillnets and fyke nets. Fishing is undertaken at several sites in a coastal gradient starting at the location of the emitted cooling water, and in a reference area 100 km north of the recipient. Soft bottom macro fauna and macro vegetation are monitored both in the gradient and in the reference area. Fish mortality due to entrapment in the cooling water system and commercial landings are monitored to assess the effects on the local fishery. The water used for cooling is normally heated by 10-12 deg C when passing through the power plant. In sheltered parts of the recipient bay of Hamnefjaerden, the surface water was 4-6 deg C warmer in April-November 2011 than in the reference area comparable reference areas and the emitted water occasionally exceeded 30 deg C in the summer. Fish losses in the cooling water rinsing system were dominated by Baltic herring. Effects on abundances at the population level are estimated to be small, but local effects cannot be ruled out. Perch (Perca fluviatilis), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) dominated the catches in the surveys with gillnets in Hamnefjaerden, as well as in the archipelago surrounding the power plant. Perch abundances increased in these areas. Catches of roach decreased close to the power plant, but also in the reference area. Perch in the gillnet catches were younger and grew faster close to the power plant than in the reference area. Abnormal gonads, previously observed at high frequencies in perch and roach in Hamnefjaerden, were rare in the 2011 sampling. The abundance of young of the year perch in the recipient did not change over time. The size of the perch fry however, increased in Hamnefjaerden, as well as in the local reference area. The catch and size structure of yellow eel

  6. Germination phenology of some Great Basin native annual forb species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara A. Forbis

    2010-01-01

    Great Basin native plant communities are being replaced by the annual invasive cheatgrass Bromus tectorum. Cheatgrass exhibits a germination syndrome that is characteristic of facultative winter annuals. Although perennials dominate these communities, native annuals are present at many sites. Germination timing is often an important predictor of competitive...

  7. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  8. Annual report of 1991 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin at the Y-12 Plant: Ground water surface elevations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevenell, L.; Switek, J.

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a summary and interpretation of hydraulic head measurements obtained from wells surrounding the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin sites at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Periodic water level observations are presented using hydrographs and water table contour maps based on data obtained from quarterly sampling during calendar year 1991. Generalized, preliminary interpretation of results are presented. The two sites covered by this report have interim status under the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A subset of the wells at each rate are used for groundwater monitoring purposes under the requirements of RCRA. A discussion of the up-gradient and down-gradient directions for each of the sites is included

  9. A study of the annual doses to man from routine gaseous effluent releases of the Philippine Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 (PNPP-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriel, M.C.J.

    1983-01-01

    Individual and population integrated doses from radioactive gaseous releases of the Philippine Nuclear Power Plant 1 (PNPP-1) were calculated using a modified GASPAR Code. Input data consisted of meteorological and site data gathered from the PNPP-1 Final Analysis Report (FASR) population and agricultural data from the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) and the National Census and Statistics Office (NCSO). Usage factors were calculated based on Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) recommended dietary allowances for Filipinos. Results of population integrated dose calculations were used in identifying the critical nuclides, the critical body organs, and the critical pathway. Results from individual dose calculation were used in determining compliance with the dose limits set forth in Appendix D of Part 7 Code of Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) regulations. (Author). 23 tabs.; 5 figs

  10. Program of low emissions elimination and power recovery by the Krakow heat and power plant for the city of Krakow and its residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drezewski, J.; Kasprzyk, T. [Krakow Heat and Power Plant, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    For over three years the Krakow Heat and Power Plant S.A. (ECK SA) has been implementing its strategy of adapting to operation and growth in the market economy. The accomplishment and results of these efforts are presented. The social and economic conditions prevailing during the transformation from a centrally controlled economy to a market economy have changed the realities and regulations that restricted the availability of energy carriers. The continual shortages and restrictions on supplies of gas, electricity, heat and even solids fuels (coke) that occurred in previous years have been replaced by a surplus. That is why many investment planning decisions have had to be revised. A sharp increase in energy carrier prices has required detailed analyses and viability studies to be made before final investment decisions are made. The choice of fuel and heating methods has begun to be dictated by the market and the economy, and not by rationing and administrative decisions. Clearly, a free market in energy generation and distribution has come into existence in the Krakow urban area. In general, these trends will produce a situation in which the fixed cost (depreciation, repairs, payroll) incurred by manufacturers and distributors will be apportioned among a smaller number of power units (MW), thus increasing the capacity price (fixed payment).

  11. Annual report/1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    Primary energy demand in Ontario in 1979 was up by 2.9 percent, compared to 2.7 percent in the previous year. Revised forecasts issued in January 1980 indicate Ontario's need for electricity is expected to grow by an average of 3.4 percent annually to the year 2000. Nuclear generation provided 29 percent of the total energy made available by Hydro, and Hydro's eight reactors at Pickering and Bruce continued to rank in the top 36 - four in the top 10 - when compared to the permance of 104 of the world's largest reactors. The provinical legislature's Select Committee on Hydro Affairs examined the safety of the CANDU system and concluded that is is 'acceptably safe'. Faced with reduced forecasts of electrical demands to the year 2000 the Board of Directors decided to stretch out the construction schedule of the Darlington station, to halt construction of the second half of the Bruce Heavy Water Plant D, and to complete but mothball the first half. Construction of Bruce Heavy Water Plant B was completed early in 1979. The A plant produced 599.8 megagrams of reactor-grade heavy water. A control room simulator for Bruce A nuclear generating station was ordered. Agreement was reached on rebuilding faulty boilers at Pickering B. A total of 757.6 megagrams of uranium was used to produce electrical energy and steam. Ontario Hydro continued involvement in uranium exploration. Studies on radioactive waste disposal are being carried out, with emphasis on interim storage and transportation. (LL)

  12. Perfil dos consumidores de plantas medicinais e condimentares do município de Pato Branco (PR The profile of consumers medicinal plants and spices of Pato Branco city, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Abramo Marchese

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosticou-se o perfil dos consumidores de supermercados em Pato Branco (PR, com relação às suas preferências pelas plantas medicinais e condimentares, como subsídio à produção por pequenos produtores rurais. Os consumidores preferem produtos orgânicos, observam a aparência e o preço do produto, e vão ao mercado uma vez por semana, preferencialmente aos sábados. As dez plantas medicinais preferidas, em ordem decrescente, são camomila, anis, boldo, carqueja, guaco, malva, poejo, espinheira-santa, menta e sálvia. As dez plantas condimentares preferidas, em ordem decrescente, são cebola, cravo, canela, orégano, alho, nóz-moscada, pimentão, cebolinha, endro e salsinha.The profile of supermarket users in Pato Branco city, Paraná State, Brazil, was obtained, related to their preference for medicinal and spice plants, as a subsidy to production by small farmers. The consumers prefer organic products observing the appearance and price of the product, and they go once a week to the market, preferably on Saturdays. The ten favorite medicinal plants are Chamomilla recutita, Pimpinella anisum, Vernonia condensata, Baccharis sp., Mikania sp., Malva sp., Cunilla sp., Maytenus sp., Mentha sp. and Salvia officinalis. The ten favorite spices are: Allium cepa, Eugenia caryophyllata, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Origanum vulgaris, Allium sativum, Myristicia fragans, Capsicum annuum, Allium schoenoprasum, Anethum graveolens and Petroselinum crispum.

  13. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-02-28

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building [direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air

  14. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings[direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building[direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces[indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3[direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each

  15. Annual Conference SAEE 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Financing new nuclear power plants in a deregulated market was the issue addressed by the 2010 conference of the Swiss Association for Energy Economics. Stefan Hirschberg of the Paul Scherrer Institute first gave an overview of the internal and external costs of nuclear and other electricity supply technologies. Vincent Rits of the Prognos company presented a worldwide review of the current status of nuclear energy for power production and its prospects, showing that despite the construction of plants at new locations the total installed power will not be significantly different from today's figure, i.e. of the order of 400 GW. This even if the plants built in the 70es and 80es are systematically replaced at the end of their life time by new ones in the next decades. Boris Zuercher of the Avenir Suisse 'think tank' raised the question: 'Are nuclear power plants too big to fail?'. Using arguments from the lessons recently learned from the worldwide financial crisis, he concluded his analysis by pointing out the fact that electricity utilities in Switzerland have already been bailed out by the state, because they are owned by the regional governments and the big cities, even though they are operating as private companies in a (soon completely) deregulated market. Risk management is missing, so Zuercher, and the risks are covered by the state. Benoit Gaillochet of Axa Private Equity presented an appraisal of investments in nuclear power projects by a global financial player. For him, a number of key issues need to be addressed in order to make nuclear projects eligible for infrastructure investors; in particular, the long-term economic viability of these projects is critical. Kaspar Mueller from the Ellipson company critically evaluated future investments in nuclear energy from the financial point of view. The currently available data on the real financial balance of the electric utilities do not provide confidence for future investors. There are serious doubts about

  16. 33 CFR 273.17 - Annual budget request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual budget request. 273.17... DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL § 273.17 Annual budget request. The Aquatic Plant Control Program is a... to utilize within the budget year taking into account the foreseeable availability of local funds to...

  17. Annual report of 1995 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) and the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) are inactive waste management sites located at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The KHQ and CRSDB are regulated as treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facilities were granted interim status in calendar year (CY) 1986 under Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Hazardous Waste Management Rule 1200-1-11-.05. Historical environmental monitoring data and baseline characterization under interim status indicated that releases of contaminants to groundwater had not occurred; thus, the detection monitoring was implemented at the sites until either clean closure was completed or post-closure permits were issued. The CRSDB was closed in Cy 1989 under a TDEC-approved RCRA closure plan. A revised RCRA PCPA for the CRSDB was submitted by DOE personnel to TDEC staff in September 1994. A final post-closure permit was issued by the TDEC on September 18, 1995. Closure activities at KHQ under RCRA were completed in October 1993. The Record of Decision will also incorporate requirements of the RCRA post-closure permit once it is issued by the TDEC

  18. SURVEY OF DEOXYNIVALENOL, DIACETOXYSCIRPENOL, AND T2 TOXIN IN POPCORN HYBRIDS PLANTED IN THE STATE OF SÃO PAULO AND IN POPCORN COMMERCIALIZED IN THE CITY OF CAMPINAS, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA Adriana de Queiroz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of the trichothecenes deoxynivalenol (DON, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS, and T2 toxin (T2 in popcorn was investigated in 90 samples, belonging to 2 commercial and 28 experimental hybrids planted at experimental stations of the Agronomic Institute of Campinas at the locations of Campinas, Mococa, and Capão Bonito, and in 15 samples of popcorn, 9 branded and 6 unbranded, acquired from commercial outlets in the city of Campinas, SP. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector combined with an alumina:carbon cleanup column. The detection limits were 30ng/g for DON, 50ng/g for DAS, and 40ng/g for T2. Five samples were contaminated with DON, four of them commercial and one from an experimental cultivar. The level of contamination in the commercial samples ranged from 30 to 40ng/g. The sample from the experimental cultivar contained 770ng/g DON. DAS and T2 were not detected in any of the popcorn samples analyzed.

  19. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Associated to the CEA, the CEA-Industry subsidiaries and the whole Group submit a very satisfying financial, economic and technological accounting which able to play a major role in international cooperations and to satisfy the shareholders. To illustrate these results, this annual report presents the activities of the CEA-Industry group during the year 1998. It is divided in eight chapters. The first six chapters gives general information and main financial data on respectively the CEA-Industry Group profile, economics, the fuel cycle, the nuclear power plants, the nuclear medicine and the semiconductors. The chapter 7 deals with the financial results of the fiscal year 1998 and the last chapter is devoted to the management report of the administration council. (A.L.B.)

  20. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 1999 annual report of the Authorities of Nuclear Safety presents the main technical topics of the year: time evolution of nuclear installations, crisis and particular plan of intervention, impacts of the nuclear activities on the human and the environment, the criticality risk, EdF, the EPR project, the ANDRA, transportation events and the nuclear safety at the East. It provides also information on nuclear safety, organization of nuclear safety supervision, BIN regulatory provisions, plant supervision, information of the public, international relations, emergency response, radiation protection, radioactive material transportation, radioactive waste, PWR reactors, research reactors and other installations, nuclear fuel cycle installations and final shutdown and dismantling of nuclear installations. (A.L.B.)

  1. Annual report, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In 1982 Eldorado Nuclear Ltd. acquired important new sources of uranium in the Wollaston Lake area of northern Saskatchewan by purchasing the shares of Gulf Minerals Canada Ltd. and Uranerz Canada Ltd. Eldorado Nuclear Ltd. is now sole owner of the Rabbit Lake properties, consisting of more than 30 million kg of U 3 O 8 and a mill with a capacity of 2.5 million kg annually. Production records were set at the Port Hope, Ontario, uranium processing plant, and processing capacity continued to expand there and at the new Blind River, Ontario, refinery. The uneconomic Beaverlodge mine in northern Saskatchewan was closed as scheduled. The company participated in the development of the Key Lake project in northern Saskatchewan. This high-grade, open pit mine has reserves containing more than 80 million kg of U 3 O 8 , and will have a production capacity of 5.4 million kg annually when production begins in 1983. Company assets were increased from $618.4 million in 1981 to $875.6 million in 1982; and corporate structure was re-organized to integrate newly-acquired operations. Earnings for 1982 were $4 million

  2. 2016 annual electricity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Generation: Declines in generation were primarily seen with oil-fired, nuclear and coal-fired capacity in 2016. Nuclear power generation decreased due to the closure of several plants to conduct tests requested by French nuclear safety authority ASN starting in November. Nearly 20% of demand was met with generation from renewable sources. In 2016, total electricity generation capacity increased by 1,700 MW (+1.3%), to 130,818 MW, on the back of renewable energy development (+2,200 MW), which more than offset the contraction in thermal generation capacity. Consumption: Annual power consumption stabilised in France for the sixth consecutive year. Increasingly efficient appliances once again contributed to this trend. Markets: France's exchange balance decreased due to the drop in domestic nuclear power generation. Flexibility: RTE made further progress in 2016 toward implementing the capacity mechanism, the first delivery year of which started on 1 January 2017. This mechanism requires that suppliers obtain generation or demand response capacity certificates to show that they are covering their customers' annual consumption during peak demand periods. Network: RTE's investments are a reflection of the significant effort that will be required to meet the challenges of the energy transition over the coming years

  3. AnalysisThe Availability of Using Concentrated Solar Power (CSP as Electricity Source in Al-Hilla City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisam Shamkhi Jaber

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The needing of using clean energy increases every year because of the negative impact of emissions from electricity power plant and to reduce the costs of generating power by using natural energies like solar, wind, and other sources. The availability of using solar energy as source of producing electricity in Al-Hilla city by using Concentrating Solar Power (CSP was investigated in this research. The major parameters in this study were the city position, and the annually amount of solar received, also, number of charts related to solar parameters for the management of CSP were derived and showed in this research. The using of CSP as electricity power can be important solution to force the problem of high cost of electricity power fuel needed and the lack of power produced because of increasing of power consumed specially in summer season.

  4. An analysis of the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, M.A.; Sargent, T.J.

    1995-11-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) previously analyzed the probability of a catastrophic accident in the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and published the results in Greenfield (1990; EEG-44) and Greenfield and Sargent (1993; EEG-53). The most significant safety element in the waste hoist is the hydraulic brake system, whose possible failure was identified in these studies as the most important contributor in accident scenarios. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division has calculated the probability of an accident involving the brake system based on studies utilizing extensive fault tree analyses. This analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used point estimates to describe the probability of failure and includes failure rates for the various components comprising the brake system. An additional controlling factor in the DOE calculations is the mode of operation of the brake system. This factor enters for the following reason. The basic failure rate per annum of any individual element is called the Event Probability (EP), and is expressed as the probability of failure per annum. The EP in turn is the product of two factors. One is the open-quotes reportedclose quotes failure rate, usually expressed as the probability of failure per hour and the other is the expected number of hours that the element is in use, called the open-quotes mission timeclose quotes. In many instances the open-quotes mission timeclose quotes will be the number of operating hours of the brake system per annum. However since the operation of the waste hoist system includes regular open-quotes reoperational checkclose quotes tests, the open-quotes mission timeclose quotes for standby components is reduced in accordance with the specifics of the operational time table

  5. An analysis of the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sargent, T.J.

    1995-11-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) previously analyzed the probability of a catastrophic accident in the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and published the results in Greenfield (1990; EEG-44) and Greenfield and Sargent (1993; EEG-53). The most significant safety element in the waste hoist is the hydraulic brake system, whose possible failure was identified in these studies as the most important contributor in accident scenarios. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division has calculated the probability of an accident involving the brake system based on studies utilizing extensive fault tree analyses. This analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used point estimates to describe the probability of failure and includes failure rates for the various components comprising the brake system. An additional controlling factor in the DOE calculations is the mode of operation of the brake system. This factor enters for the following reason. The basic failure rate per annum of any individual element is called the Event Probability (EP), and is expressed as the probability of failure per annum. The EP in turn is the product of two factors. One is the {open_quotes}reported{close_quotes} failure rate, usually expressed as the probability of failure per hour and the other is the expected number of hours that the element is in use, called the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes}. In many instances the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes} will be the number of operating hours of the brake system per annum. However since the operation of the waste hoist system includes regular {open_quotes}reoperational check{close_quotes} tests, the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes} for standby components is reduced in accordance with the specifics of the operational time table.

  6. Annual report 1990-91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The annual report of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), India, for the fiscal year 1990-91 describes: (1) the research and development work carried out by DAE's various research establishments and by fully funded research institutes, (2) performance of nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel complex, fuel reprocessing plants and heavy water plants, (3) exploration work for atomic minerals, (5) regulatory and safety functions, (6) performance of public sector undertakings, namely Indian Rare Earths Ltd., Electronics Corporation of India Ltd., and (6) other activities like international relations, emergency planning, financial assistance to research projects, etc. During the year, 6182 MUs electricity was generated, Unit-1 of Narora Atomic Power Station commenced commercial operation, Hazira Heavy Water Plant was commissioned, Sewage Hygienisation Research Irradiator at Baroda and Heavy Rare Earths Oxide Plant at Udyogmandal were also commissioned, promising geologic deposits of uranium were found at Domiasat (Meghalaya), and PURNIMA-III attained criticality. (M.G.B.)

  7. Annual report 2003-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The annual report for the year 2003-2004 has been compiled, which offers concise description of tasks achieved and status of on going efforts pertaining to PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Commission) programme. The tasks description are as: highlights of various projects, nuclear power plants, physical sciences and engineering, biosciences, nuclear minerals, human resource development, projects, international relations. At the end of this report financial position of PAEC and list of publication list is also available. (A.B.)

  8. Annual Report 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The annual report for the year 2000-2001 has been compiled, which offers concise description of tasks achieved and status of on going efforts pertaining to PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Commission) programme. The tasks description are as: highlights of various projects, nuclear power plants, physical sciences and engineering, biosciences, nuclear minerals, human resource development, projects, international relations. At the end of this report financial position of PAEC and list of publication is also available. (A.B.)

  9. Annual Report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The annual report for the year 2000-2001 has been compiled, which offers concise description of tasks achieved and status of on going efforts pertaining to PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Commission) programme. The tasks description are as: highlights of various projects, nuclear power plants, physical sciences and engineering, biosciences, nuclear minerals, human resource development, projects, international relations. At the end of this report financial position of PAEC and list of publication is also available. (A.B.)

  10. Annual report 2008-09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) annual report for the year 2008-09 has been compiled. The salient features of the activities of various Centers, Power Plants and different project have been explained. The activities are described under the topics as: highlights of various projects, nuclear power, engineering, physical sciences, biological sciences, nuclear materials, safety, human resource development, PAEC health services projects and publications. (A.B).

  11. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  12. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  13. Establishing a Water Resources Resilience Baseline for Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, F.; Ray, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    There is a growing concern for the vulnerability of the Mexico City water system to shocks, and the capacity of the system to accommodate climate and demographic change. This study presents a coarse-resolution, lumped model of the water system of Mexico City as a whole, designed to identify system-wide imbalances, and opportunities for large-scale improvements in city-wide resilience through investments in water imports, exports, and storage. In order to investigate the impact of climate change in Mexico City, the annual and monthly trends of precipitation and temperature at 46 stations near or inside the Mexico City were analyzed. The statistical significance of the trends in rainfall and temperature, both over the entire period of record, and the more recent "climate-change-impacted period" (1970-2015), were determined using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. Results show a statistically significant increasing trend in the annual mean precipitation, mean temperature, and annual maximum daily temperature. However, minimum daily temperature does not appear to be increasing, and might be decreasing. Water management in Mexico City faces particular challenges, where the winter dry season is warming more quickly than the wet summer season. A stress test of Mexico City water system is conducted to identify vulnerabilities to changes in exogenous factors (esp., climate, demographics, land use). Following on the stress test, the relative merits of adaptation options that might improve the system's resilience and sustainability will be assessed.

  14. Monitoring the Change in Urban Vegetation in 13 Chilean Cities Located in a Rainfall Gradient. What is the Contribution of the Widespread Creation of New Urban Parks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Barrera, Francisco; Henríquez, Cristian

    2017-10-01

    The well-being of people living in cities is strongly dependent on the existence of urban vegetation because of the ecosystem services or benefits it provides. This is why governments develop plans to create green spaces, plant trees, promote the maintenance of vegetation in private spaces and also monitor their status over time. In Latin America, and particularly in Chile, the increase of urban vegetation has been stimulated through different initiatives and regulations. However, development of monitoring programs at the national level is scarce, so it is yet unknown if these initiatives and regulations have had positive effects. In this article, we monitor the change in urban vegetation in 13 Chilean cities located in a latitudinal gradient of practically zero to almost 1800 mm of annual rainfall. We calculated the trends in NDVI (2000-2016) as an indicator of change in urban greenery using data from the MODIS Subsets platform. Likewise, to assess whether the initiatives have had an effect we quantified the number of urban parks existing at the beginning of the period and how many were created during the study period. For this, we analysed official databases and high spatial resolution satellite images. Armed with said data, we assessed whether these new parks had impacted the tendency toward change in urban greenery. The results indicate that, in general, Chilean cities vary greatly inter-annually in urban greenery and have lost urban vegetation in the last 16 years, with significant losses in four of those cities. Two cities located in desert ecosystems represent an exception and showed positive trends in their urban vegetation. The rainfall in cities has an impact on the amount of vegetation, but not on their tendency to change, i.e. there are cities with loss of vegetation at all levels of precipitation. The creation of parks has not been able to reverse negative trends, which indicates the prevalence of other drivers of change that are not sufficiently

  15. Multi-Objective Analysis of a CHP Plant Integrated Microgrid in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Waqar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like Pakistan, the capacity shortage (CS of electricity is a critical problem. The frequent natural gas (NG outages compel consumers to use electricity to fulfill the thermal loads, which ends up as an increase in electrical load. In this scenario, the authors have proposed the concept of a combined heat & power (CHP plant to be a better option for supplying both electrical and thermal loads simultaneously. A CHP plant-based microgrid comprising a PV array, diesel generators and batteries (operating in grid-connected as well as islanded modes has been simulated using the HOMER Pro software. Different configurations of distributed generators (DGs with/without batteries have been evaluated considering multiple objectives. The multiple objectives include the minimization of the total net present cost (TNPC, cost of generated energy (COE and the annual greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, as well as the maximization of annual waste heat recovery (WHR of thermal units and annual grid sales (GS. These objectives are subject to the constraints of power balance, battery operation within state of charge (SOC limits, generator operation within capacity limits and zero capacity shortage. The simulations have been performed on six cities including Islamabad, Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar, Quetta and Gilgit. The simulation results have been analyzed to find the most optimal city for the CHP plant integrated microgrid.

  16. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-01

    A 'smart city' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis

  17. Smart Sustainable Cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    important part of city planning is also learning from other cities, e.g., through the bench-learning, defining ..... Integrated semantics service platform ...... order to provide the best services to customers, their different needs and preferences ...

  18. City of Pittsburgh Trees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...

  19. Cities spearhead climate action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Following President Trump's withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, cities worldwide have pledged support to combat climate change. Along with a growing coalition of businesses and institutions, cities represent a beacon of hope for carbon reduction in politically tumultuous times.

  20. Technical feasibility and economics of retrofitting an existing nuclear power plant to cogeneration for hot water district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, J.O.; Bauman, H.F.; Jones, P.D.

    1984-04-01

    This report gives the results of a study of the hypothetical conversion of the Prairie Island Nuclear Plant of the Northern States Power Company to cogeneration operation to supply a future hot water district heating system load in the Twin Cities of Minneapolis-St. Paul. The conceptual design of the nuclear turbine retrofitted for cogeneration and of a hot water transmission system has been performed, and the capital investment and annual owning and operating costs have been estimated for thermal energy capacities of 600 and 1200 MW(t). Unit costs of thermal energy (in mid-1982 dollars/million Btu) have been estimated for cogenerated hot water at the plant gate and also for the most economic transmission system from Prairie Island to the Twin Cities. The economic results from the analysis of the Prairie Island plant and transmission route have been generalized for other transmission distances in other locations