WorldWideScience

Sample records for city pairs

  1. Stereo Pair, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This image pair provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  2. Gateways, Corridors and Strategic City Pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, Barry E.

    2006-01-01

    Advances in transportation technology may mean that topography matters less, but trade routes will continue to favour the paths of least resistance. The location of gateway cities and distribution hubs exhibit patterns of hierarchical systems. A change in technology that alters location advantage heightens corridor competition and in the longer term, it may modify the relative positions of cities in the regional hierarchy. Changes in transportation technology during the 1850s and the 1950s...

  3. U.S.-Mexico Integration and Regional Economies: Evidence from Border- City Pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon H. Hanson

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether U.S.-Mexico economic integration is causing economic activity in the United States to relocate to the U.S.-Mexico border region. The approach I take is to study U.S.- Mexico border-city pairs. Border cities are natural laboratories in which to study the effects of trade policy. To the extent transport costs are the main non-trade policy barriers to trade, we expect regional economic integration to cause economic activity in border cities to expand. I exploit t...

  4. Paired Border Towns or TwinCities from Finland and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riitta Kosonen; Xu Feng; Erja Kettunen

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses cross-border cooperation at the level of urban socio-economic systems.Worldwide,cross-border urban cooperation has in several cases produced socio-economic and political coherence supported by various joint programs and efforts.However,the degree of coherence varies and seldom creates socio-economically and politically tightly integrated "TwinCities" where the state border becomes highly transparent or obscure.Focusing on Finland and China,our aim is to identify whether the selected border towns represent coherent TwinCities or a more loose type of "paired border towns".The study uses an empirical examination of three Finnish towns (Helsinki,Tomio,Imatra) and their neighboring towns in Estonia,Sweden,and Russia as a benchmark.Then,a comparative study is made regarding three Chinese eross-border cities facing Russia,Vietnam and Kazakhstan.We highlight the differences in cross-border integration from the viewpoint of shared public sector programs,cross-border enterprise relocation and networking,and integrated social sector in terms of labor market,education and shopping area.

  5. Defense Travel System use of restricted airfare in conjunction with the GSA City Pair Program to effectively reduce TDY travel costs within DoD

    OpenAIRE

    Feehan, Ashton F.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis discusses the Naval Postgraduate School's use of the Defense Travel System (DTS) and examines a process of using the GSA City Pair Program in conjunction with restricted airfare as a means to effectively reduce travel costs and conserve Department of Defense dollars. The thesis starts off with a brief introduction of travel at NPS, and is followed by a section on the Defense Travel System to include NPS's history with electronic travel systems. The third chapter highlights NPS's c...

  6. Pair Frames

    OpenAIRE

    Fereydooni, Abolhassan; Safapour, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a new concept related to the frame theory is introduced; the notion of pair frame. By investigating some properties of such frames, it is shown that pair frames are a generalization of ordinary frames. Some classes of of them are introduced such as (p, q)-pair frames and near identity pair frames.

  7. Application of Set Pair Analysis Method Based on Entropy Weight in Groundwater Quality Assessment -A Case Study in Dongsheng City, Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Li Pei-Yue; Qian Hui; Wu Jian-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality assessment is an essential study which plays important roles in the rational development and utilization of groundwater. Groundwater quality greatly influences the health of local people. However, most traditional water quality comprehensive assessment methods which have complicated formulas are difficult to apply in water quality assessment. In this paper, a novel method for groundwater quality assessment called set pair analysis was introduced and entropy weight was assi...

  8. Research on Vulnerability Assessment of Human-land System of Anshan City Based on Set Pair Analysis%基于集对分析的鞍山市人地系统脆弱性评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩瑞玲; 佟连军; 佟伟铭; 于建辉

    2012-01-01

    脆弱性评估是当前脆弱性研究的一项重要内容,其已成为分析人地系统相互作用的过程与机理的有效工具之一。应用集对分析方法和熵权法,根据鞍山市经济发展的资源依赖特征、社会就业的不稳定特征、资源型城市生态环境破坏相对严重的特征,评估了1990-2009年鞍山市经济系统、社会就业系统、生态环境系统3个系统各自的敏感性、应对能力和脆弱性,进而对鞍山市人地关系的脆弱性程度进行了评估。文章发现,鞍山市人地系统作用关系属于低敏感型、高应对能力型,其相对于其他东北地区资源型城市具有较好的可持续发展基础,未来发展应注重降低经济系统的敏感性,并积极提高其应对能力。%Vulnerability assessment framework in sustainability science has properties of multi-scale,multi-element,multi-flow and multi-cycle,so vulnerability assessment is a new research paradigm in the realms of global environmental change and sustainable development,and provides an effective tool for the study of interaction mechanisms and processes of coupled human-land system.Based on the dependence of economic development on resources,and the instability in employment,and the ecology being relatively disrupted,the vulnerability assessment indexes of Anshan city are established.By using the set pair analysis and the entropy method,the essay analyzed the sensitivity,response capacity and vulnerability level of the economic system,as well as the employment system and the ecosystem.Then the vulnerability of human-land system of Anshan city are tested and the evolution of vulnerability characteristics during 1990 to 2009 has been revealed.The relationship of human-land system of Anshan city belongs to the lower sensitivity and higher response capacity type.In comparison with other resource-based cities in Northeast China,the human-land stability of Anshan city is stronger,and the vulnerability is relatively

  9. Stereo Pair, Pasadena, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This stereoscopic image pair is a perspective view that shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north toward the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada Flintridge are also shown. The cluster of large buildings left of center, at the base of the mountains, is the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Data shown in this image can be used to predict both how wildfires spread over the terrain and how mudflows are channeled down the canyons.The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation, U. S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provided the image detail, and the Landsat Thematic Mapper provided the color. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data and the aerial photography. The image can be viewed in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the image pair, and viewing them with a stereoscope.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA

  10. Education Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  11. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  12. Exchanges Between Jinan And Its Friendship Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu; Mingming

    2014-01-01

    <正>Since the twinning of first pair of international friendship cities between Jinan and Wakayama City of Japan in1983,the Chinese side has established such relationships with 21 cities in 20 countries and friendly cooperation relations with 24 cities in 18 countries.Cultivating partnerships of distinctive features.In its exchanges,Jinan pays great attention to bringing into full play respective advantages to cultivate special partnerships for pragmatic cooperation.In its exploration to construct an

  13. Adjoint of Pair Frames

    OpenAIRE

    Fereydooni, Abolhassan; Safapour, Ahmad; Rahimi , Asghar

    2012-01-01

    The concept of (p,q)-pair frames is generalized to (l,l^*)-pair frames. Adjoint (conjugate) of a pair frames for dual space of a Banach space is introduced and some conditions for the existence of adjoint (conjugate) of pair frames are presented.

  14. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  15. Ideal Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Meitner, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Erika Meitner discusses her new book: Ideal Cities. This collection of autobiographical narrative and lyric poems explores the relationship between body and place—specifically the pleasures and dangers of women’s corporeal experiences. Ideal Cities is guided by an epigraph from Song of Songs, and the metaphorical idea of bodies as cities, and cities as bodies. How do women’s bodies become sites of inscription via sex, childbirth, and other highly physical acts? These poems also investigate ur...

  16. Sin City?

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Pieter A; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? Weinvestigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners bymoving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danishcouples. We find that of the couples who married in the city, the ones who stay inthe city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who marriedoutside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. Thiscorrelation ...

  17. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...... urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  18. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...... emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban...

  19. Evaluation on Cultivated Land Ecological Security of Leshan City Based on Improved Set Pair Analysis%基于改进 SPA 的乐山市耕地生态安全评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小波; 秦天彬; 周宝同; 涂建军

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of cultivated land ecological security is comprehensive diagnosis for complex system of farmland ecosystem ,and it is an important content to measure regional sustainable development .T his pa‐per takes Leshan City of Sichuan province for example ,on the basis of defining the connotation of cultivat‐ed land ecological security ,constructing an evaluation index system base on the Pressure‐State‐Response (PSR)model .With the improved SPA the cultivated land ecological security in Leshan City and its districts in 2007 ,2009 ,and 2012 has been evaluated . T hen the change factors are discussed and conclusions are summarized as follow s :1) T he level of cultivated land ecological security in Leshan City is increasing on the w hole ,safe level is gradually improved from “critically safe”to“safe” ,the level of cultivated land eco‐logical security in each district is improved in varying degree .2) The quality and quantity of cultivated land resources ,the good points and bad points of ecological environment ,and the level of economy are the main factors which lead to the differences of cultivated land ecological security between the south and the north . 3) The improved SPA method can reveal the degree of differentiation of evaluation index system for culti‐vated land ecological security ,and extract the intermediate information of comprehensive evaluation re‐sults ,w hich has some practical value in the evaluation of cultivated land ecological security .%耕地生态安全评价是对农田生态复合系统的全面诊断,也是测度区域可持续发展的重要内容。本文以四川省乐山市为例,在界定耕地生态安全内涵的基础上,构建基于PSR模型的评价指标体系,并采用改进的SPA法分别对乐山市及各区县2007,2009,2012年耕地生态安全进行评价,并对其变化因素进行了分析。结果表明:1)乐山市耕地生态安全水平整体上呈上升趋势,

  20. Limerick City

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Postcard. Colour photograph of River Shannon with Limerick City in background. Number 2/LK-018. Printed on reverse "Limerick city, where the Shannon river meets the sea is one of the most progressive of Irish cities, where the past and present mingle pleasantly. That part of the city called Newtown Pery was designed and planned in 1767, and is the Limerick of wide streets crossing at right angles, and the pleasantly tree-sprinkled People's Park. The tall column in the park commemorates Thomas...

  1. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge...

  2. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... on the block” that will potentially be a game-changer for urban governance, economics and everyday life. Here we are thinking of the unmanned aerial vehicle or drone as the popular term has it. Therefore, the paper asks how life in “drone city” may play out. Drones may alter the notion of surveillance by means...

  3. Secure pairing with biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhan, I.R.; Boom, B.J.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, P.H.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Secure pairing enables two devices that share no prior context with each other to agree upon a security association, which they can use to protect their subsequent communication. Secure pairing offers guarantees of the association partner identity and it should be resistant to eavesdropping and to a

  4. Critical Schwinger Pair Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Holger; Torgrimsson, Greger

    2016-03-01

    We investigate Schwinger pair production in spatially inhomogeneous electric backgrounds. A critical point for the onset of pair production can be approached by fields that marginally provide sufficient electrostatic energy for an off-shell long-range electron-positron fluctuation to become a real pair. Close to this critical point, we observe features of universality which are analogous to continuous phase transitions in critical phenomena with the pair-production rate serving as an order parameter: electric backgrounds can be subdivided into universality classes and the onset of pair production exhibits characteristic scaling laws. An appropriate design of the electric background field can interpolate between power-law scaling, essential Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type scaling, and a power-law scaling with log corrections. The corresponding critical exponents only depend on the large-scale features of the electric background, whereas the microscopic details of the background play the role of irrelevant perturbations not affecting criticality. PMID:26991162

  5. Supernovae in paired galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Nazaryan, T A; Hakobyan, A A; Adibekyan, V Zh; Kunth, D; Mamon, G A; Turatto, M; Aramyan, L S

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the influence of close neighbor galaxies on the properties of supernovae (SNe) and their host galaxies using 56 SNe located in pairs of galaxies with different levels of star formation (SF) and nuclear activity. The mean distance of type II SNe from nuclei of hosts is greater by about a factor of 2 than that of type Ibc SNe. For the first time it is shown that SNe Ibc are located in pairs with significantly smaller difference of radial velocities between components than pairs containing SNe Ia and II. We consider this as a result of higher star formation rate (SFR) of these closer systems of galaxies. SN types are not correlated with the luminosity ratio of host and neighbor galaxies in pairs. The orientation of SNe with respect to the preferred direction toward neighbor galaxy is found to be isotropic and independent of kinematical properties of the galaxy pair.

  6. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  7. Potential Cities_

    OpenAIRE

    Budzynski, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Buildings and urban construction are understood in this paper as representations of the city. Their meanings, however, are often invisible, positing unrealized urban visions, which are both imbedded in and which call up chains of associations expressing desires and fears. Narratives of what the city should be often contain the rejection of the existing urban situation. Understanding architectural objects as potential underscores their imaginary nature. Freud, for example, uses the Roman ruins...

  8. Beautiful city

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino

    2009-01-01

    Proponents of the City Beautiful movement advocated for sizable public investments in monumental spaces, street beautification, and classical architecture. Today, economists and policymakers see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract people and jobs to cities. But past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisure amenities for urban growth and development. In this article, Jerry Carlino uses a new data set on the number of leisure tourist ...

  9. City Beautiful

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino; Saiz, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The City Beautiful movement, which in the early 20th century advocated city beautification as a way to improve the living conditions and civic virtues of the urban dweller, had languished by the Great Depression. Today, new urban economic theorists and policymakers are coming to see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract population, especially the highly skilled and their employers. However, past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisur...

  10. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    M Batty

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  11. Sustainable cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed

  12. Electron pairing without superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jeremy

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) is the first and best known superconducting semiconductor. It exhibits an extremely low carrier density threshold for superconductivity, and possesses a phase diagram similar to that of high-temperature superconductors--two factors that suggest an unconventional pairing mechanism. Despite sustained interest for 50 years, direct experimental insight into the nature of electron pairing in SrTiO3 has remained elusive. Here we perform transport experiments with nanowire-based single-electron transistors at the interface between SrTiO3 and a thin layer of lanthanum aluminate, LaAlO3. Electrostatic gating reveals a series of two-electron conductance resonances--paired electron states--that bifurcate above a critical pairing field Bp of about 1-4 tesla, an order of magnitude larger than the superconducting critical magnetic field. For magnetic fields below Bp, these resonances are insensitive to the applied magnetic field; for fields in excess of Bp, the resonances exhibit a linear Zeeman-like energy splitting. Electron pairing is stable at temperatures as high as 900 millikelvin, well above the superconducting transition temperature (about 300 millikelvin). These experiments demonstrate the existence of a robust electronic phase in which electrons pair without forming a superconducting state. Key experimental signatures are captured by a model involving an attractive Hubbard interaction that describes real-space electron pairing as a precursor to superconductivity. Support from AFOSR, ONR, ARO, NSF, DOE and NSSEFF is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Less Smart More City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart is an expression used in recent years in science, and it refers to someone or something that shows a lively intelligence, with a quick learning curve and a fast response to external stimuli. The present scenario is dominated by the accelerated technological development that involves every aspect of life, enhancing the everyday tools through the use of information and digital processing: everything is smart, even cities. But when you pair the term smart to a complex organism such as the city the significance of the two together is open to a variety of interpretations, as shown by the vast and varied landscape of definitions that have occurred in recent years. Our contribution presents the results of research aimed at analyzing and interpreting this fragmented scene mainly, but not exclusively, through lexical analysis, applied to a textual corpus of 156 definitions of smart city. In particular, the study identified the main groups of stakeholders that have taken part in the debate, and investigated the differences and convergences that can be detected: Academic, Institutional, and Business worlds. It is undeniable that the term smart has been a veritable media vehicle that, on the one hand brought to the center of the discussion the issue of the city, of increasing strategic importance for the major challenges that humanity is going to face,  and on the other has been a fertile ground on which to pour the interests of different groups and individuals. In a nutshell we can say that from the analysis the different approaches that each group has used and supported emerge clearly and another, alarming, consideration occurs: of the smart part of “Smart City” we clearly grasp the tools useful to the each group of stakeholders, and of the city part, as a collective aspiration, there is often little or nothing.

  14. Subradiant split Cooper pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Cottet, Audrey; Kontos, Takis; Yeyati, Alfredo Levy

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a way to characterize the coherence of the split Cooper pairs emitted by a double-quantum-dot based Cooper pair splitter (CPS), by studying the radiative response of such a CPS inside a microwave cavity. The coherence of the split pairs manifests in a strongly nonmonotonic variation of the emitted radiation as a function of the parameters controlling the coupling of the CPS to the cavity. The idea to probe the coherence of the electronic states using the tools of Cavity Quantum Ele...

  15. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trads, Søren Frimann; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services with...... potential visitors, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of...... - or willingness to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  16. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project exploring sustainable ways of urban living. The project renders a scenario comprised of an array of simple conversions of existing urban spaces and buildings, in the attempt to tie strategies ranging from urban planning to interior design into a coherent vision of a...... sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  17. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  18. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  19. City Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  20. Au pair trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    workers from the global South, the first article demonstrates how Facebook can be a fruitful methodological tool in the aspiration to open up the research to new themes of inquiry. However, rather than disregarding the au pairs’ economic problems, the dissertation shows how their family participation and......Since 2000, thousands of young Filipino migrants have come to Denmark as au pairs. Officially, they are there to “broaden their cultural horizons” by living temporarily with a Danish host family, but they also conduct domestic labor in exchange for food and money, which allows them to send...... pair-sending families in the Philippines, this dissertation examines the long-term trajectories of these young Filipinas. It shows how the au pairs’ local and transnational family relations develop over time and greatly influence their life trajectories. A focal point of the study is how au pairs...

  1. Supernovae in paired galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Nazaryan, T A; Hakobyan, A A; Adibekyan, V Zh; Kunth, D; Mamon, G A; Turatto, M; Aramyan, L S

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the influence of close neighbor galaxies on the properties of supernovae (SNe) and their host galaxies using 56 SNe located in pairs of galaxies with different levels of star formation (SF) and nuclear activity. The mean distance of type II SNe from nuclei of hosts is greater by about a factor of 2 than that of type Ibc SNe. The distributions and mean distances of SNe are consistent with previous results compiled with the larger sample. For the first time it is shown that SNe Ibc are located in pairs with significantly smaller difference of radial velocities between components than pairs containing SNe Ia and II. We consider this as a result of higher star formation rate (SFR) of these closer systems of galaxies.

  2. Hadronic lepton pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes a beam dump experiment at the CERN SPS for the study of μ pair production by π+-, K+-, and p(anti p) beams on a copper target at 39.5 GeV/c. The dependence of the cross sections from various parameters is discussed. (HSI)

  3. Paired fuzzy sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we want to stress the relevance of paired fuzzy sets, as already proposed in previous works of the authors, as a family of fuzzy sets that offers a unifying view for different models based upon the opposition of two fuzzy sets, simply allowing the existence of different types of...

  4. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003). But......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  5. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal...... performance. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  6. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  7. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  8. Coulomb pair-creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron-positron pair production in strong Coulomb fields is outlined. It is shown that the singular behaviour of the adiabatic basis can be removed if solutions of the time dependent external field Dirac equation are used as a basis to expand the fermion field operator. This latter 'asymptotic basis' makes it possible to introduce Feynman-propagator. Applying the reduction technique, the computation of all of the basic quantities can be reduced to the solution of an integral equation. The positron spectrum for separable potential model with Lorentzian time dependence and for potential jump is analyzed in the pole approximation. (author)

  9. Physiological aspects of paired stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Durrer, D.

    1965-01-01

    In this paper some physiological and clinical aspects of paired stimulation are discussed. I) The augmenting effect of paired stimulation on rnyocardial contractility is due to potentiation (increase in speed of restitution) and fusion of two contractions. 2) While using paired stimulation the oxyg

  10. Parallel computation of cryptographic pairings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of multiprocessor systems for pairing computation has been estimated. Various schemes of efficient implementation of Miller's algorithm for computations of Weyl and Tate pairings in a multiprocessor computing system have been considered. The complexity of pairing computation in uniprocessor and multiprocessor computing systems has been theoretically estimated

  11. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers,...

  12. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  13. Cotorsion Pair Extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De Xu ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    Assume that S is an almost excellent extension of R. Using functors Hom R(S,-) and -(×)R S, we establish some connections between classes of modules (L)R and (L)S, cotorsion pairs ((A)R, (A)R)and ((A)S, (B)S). If (L)S is a T-extension or (and) H-extension of (L)R, we show that (L)S is a (resp., monomorphic, epimorphic, special) preenveloping class if and only if so is (L)R. If (S, S) is a TH-extension of ((A)R,(B)R), we obtain that ((A)S,(B)S) is complete (resp., of finite type, of cofinite type, hereditary, perfect, n-tilting) if and only if so is ((A)R,(B)R).

  14. Pairing in hadron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A many-body approach to hadron structure is presented, in which we consider two parton species: spin-0 (b-partons), and spin-1/2 (f-partons). We extend a boson and a fermion pairing scheme for the b-, and f-partons respectively, into a Yang-Mills gauge theory. The main feature of this theory is that the gauge field is not identified with the usual gluon field variable in QCD. We study the confinement problem of the hadron constituents, and obtain, for low temperatures, partons that are confined by energy gaps. As the critical temperatures for the corresponding phase transitions are approached, the energy gap gradually disappears, and confinement is lost. The theory goes beyond the non-relativistic harmonic oscillator quark model, in the sense of giving physical reasons why a non-relativistic approximation is adequate in describing the internal dynamics of hadron structure. (author)

  15. Multiprocessor switch with selective pairing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gara, Alan; Gschwind, Michael K; Salapura, Valentina

    2014-03-11

    System, method and computer program product for a multiprocessing system to offer selective pairing of processor cores for increased processing reliability. A selective pairing facility is provided that selectively connects, i.e., pairs, multiple microprocessor or processor cores to provide one highly reliable thread (or thread group). Each paired microprocessor or processor cores that provide one highly reliable thread for high-reliability connect with a system components such as a memory "nest" (or memory hierarchy), an optional system controller, and optional interrupt controller, optional I/O or peripheral devices, etc. The memory nest is attached to a selective pairing facility via a switch or a bus

  16. Sister Cities Flourish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building sister city relation,also known as friendsh ip city,is a common channel for cities in different countries to keep a closer tie and communication.According to the statistics from China International Friendship Cities Association,up to the end of 2007,1087 provinces and states and 314 cities from 120 countries in the world have found their sister cities in China.Among them,Japan has the largest amount of Chinese sister cities,that is 200 provinces and 33 cities,and takes up almost 17 percent of the total number.

  17. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinquan; Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  18. Multiple origins of asteroid pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Seth A.

    2016-01-01

    Rotationally fissioned asteroids produce unbound asteroid pairs that have very similar heliocentric orbits. Backward integration of their current heliocentric orbits provides an age of closest proximity that can be used to date the rotational fission event. Most asteroid pairs follow a predicted theoretical relationship between the primary spin period and the mass ratio of the two pair members that is a direct consequence of the YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis. If the progenitor asteroid has strength, asteroid pairs may have higher mass ratios or faster rotating primaries. However, the process of secondary fission leaves the originally predicted trend unaltered. We also describe the characteristics of pair members produced by four alternative routes from a rotational fission event to an asteroid pair. Unlike direct formation from the event itself, the age of closest proximity of these pairs cannot generally be used to date the rotational fission event since considerable time may have passed.

  19. Stereo Pair, Honolulu, Oahu

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Honolulu, on the island of Oahu, is a large and growing urban area. This stereoscopic image pair, combining a Landsat image with topography measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows how topography controls the urban pattern. This color image can be viewed in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the image pair, and viewing them with a stereoscope.Features of interest in this scene include Diamond Head (an extinct volcano near the bottom of the image), Waikiki Beach (just above Diamond Head), the Punchbowl National Cemetary (another extinct volcano, near the image center), downtown Honolulu and Honolulu harbor (image left-center), and offshore reef patterns. The slopes of the Koolau mountain range are seen in the right half of the image. Clouds commonly hang above ridges and peaks of the Hawaiian Islands, but in this synthesized stereo rendition appear draped directly on the mountains. The clouds are actually about 1000 meters (3300 feet) above sea level.This stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image collected at the same time as the SRTM flight. The topography data were used to create two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth

  20. Pairing the Volcano

    CERN Document Server

    Ionica, Sorina

    2011-01-01

    Isogeny volcanoes are graphs whose vertices are elliptic curves and whose edges are $\\ell$-isogenies. Algorithms allowing to travel on these graphs were developed by Kohel in his thesis (1996) and later on, by Fouquet and Morain (2001). However, up to now, no method was known, to predict, before taking a step on the volcano, the direction of this step. Hence, in Kohel's and Fouquet-Morain algorithms, many steps are taken before choosing the right direction. In particular, ascending or horizontal isogenies are usually found using a trial-and-error approach. In this paper, we propose an alternative method that efficiently finds all points $P$ of order $\\ell$ such that the subgroup generated by $P$ is the kernel of an horizontal or an ascending isogeny. In many cases, our method is faster than previous methods. This is an extended version of a paper published in the proceedings of ANTS 2010. In addition, we treat the case of 2-isogeny volcanoes and we derive from the group structure of the curve and the pairing ...

  1. A Regular City

    OpenAIRE

    Arina Sharavina

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the first plans of Chita, which served as the basis for the city development. It presents contribution to the city history made by the Decembrist Dmiry Zavalishin’s, who was the first author of the city development plan. Peculiarities of the quarter development of the realized city plan are also presented.

  2. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  3. Multiple origins of asteroid pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    Rotationally fissioned asteroids produce unbound daughter asteroids that have very similar heliocentric orbits. Backward integration of their current heliocentric orbits provides an age of closest proximity that can be used to date the rotational fission event. Most asteroid pairs follow a predicted theoretical relationship between the primary spin period and the mass ratio of the two pair members that is a direct consequence of the YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis. If the progenitor asteroid has strength, asteroid pairs may have high mass ratios with possibly fast rotating primaries. However, secondary fission leaves the originally predicted trend unaltered. We also describe the characteristics of pair members produced by four alternative routes from a rotational fission event to an asteroid pair. Unlike direct formation from the event itself, the age of closest proximity of these pairs cannot generally be used to date the rotational fission event since considerable time may have passed.

  4. Cooper pairs in atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe recent efforts to study Cooper pairs in atomic nuclei. We consider a self-consistent Hartree Fock mean field for the even Sm isotopes and compare results based on three treatments of pairing correlations: a BCS treatment, a number-projected BCS treatment and an exact treatment using the Richardson Ansatz. Significant differences are seen in the pairing correlation energies. Furthermore, because it does not average over the properties of the fermion pairs, the Richardson solution permits a more meaningful definition of the Cooper wave function and of the fraction of pairs that are collective. Our results confirm that only a few pairs near the Fermi surface in realistic atomic nuclei are collective. (Author)

  5. Cooper pairs in atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittel, S. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, 19716 Delaware (United States); Dussel, G. G. [Departamento de Fisica J.J. Giambiagi, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dukelsky, J.; Sarriguren, P. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    We describe recent efforts to study Cooper pairs in atomic nuclei. We consider a self-consistent Hartree Fock mean field for the even Sm isotopes and compare results based on three treatments of pairing correlations: a BCS treatment, a number-projected BCS treatment and an exact treatment using the Richardson Ansatz. Significant differences are seen in the pairing correlation energies. Furthermore, because it does not average over the properties of the fermion pairs, the Richardson solution permits a more meaningful definition of the Cooper wave function and of the fraction of pairs that are collective. Our results confirm that only a few pairs near the Fermi surface in realistic atomic nuclei are collective. (Author)

  6. Nanoampere pumping of Cooper pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Vartiainen, Juha J.; Möttönen, Mikko; Pekola, Jukka P.; Kemppinen, Antti

    2007-01-01

    The authors have employed a tunable Cooper-pair transistor, the sluice, with radio frequency control to pump current over a resistive circuit. They find that the charge transferred per pumping cycle can be controlled with the resolution of a single Cooper pair up to hundreds of pairs. The achieved nanoampere current features more than an order of magnitude improvement over the previously reported results and it is close to the theoretical maximum value for the measured sample.

  7. Nanoampere pumping of Cooper pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Vartiainen, Juha J.; Mottonen, Mikko; Pekola, Jukka; Kemppinen, Antti

    2006-01-01

    We have employed a tunable Cooper-pair transistor, the sluice, with radio frequency control to pump current over a resistive circuit. We find that the charge transferred per pumping cycle can be controlled with the resolution of a single Cooper-pair up to hundreds of pairs. The achieved nanoampere current features more than an order of magnitude improvement over the previously reported results and it is close to the theoretical maximum value for the measured sample.

  8. Controversies in kidney paired donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Sommer E; Montgomery, Robert A; Segev, Dorry L

    2012-07-01

    Kidney paired donation represented 10% of living kidney donation in the United States in 2011. National registries around the world and several separate registries in the United States arrange paired donations, although with significant variations in their practices. Concerns about ethical considerations, clinical advisability, and the quantitative effectiveness of these approaches in paired donation result in these variations. For instance, although donor travel can be burdensome and might discourage paired donation, it was nearly universal until convincing analysis showed that living donor kidneys can sustain many hours of cold ischemia time without adverse consequences. Opinions also differ about whether the last donor in a chain of paired donation transplants initiated by a nondirected donor should donate immediately to someone on the deceased donor wait-list (a domino or closed chain) or should be asked to wait some length of time and donate to start another sequence of paired donations later (an open chain); some argue that asking the donor to donate later may be coercive, and others focus on balancing the probability that the waiting donor withdraws versus the number of additional transplants if the chain can be continued. Other controversies in paired donation include simultaneous versus nonsimultaneous donor operations, whether to enroll compatible pairs, and interactions with desensitization protocols. Efforts to expand public awareness of and participation in paired donation are needed to generate more transplant opportunities. PMID:22732046

  9. Pair Production by Ultraintense Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the production of electron-positron pairs by the interaction of relativistic superthermal electrons, generated by ultraintense laser pulses, with high-Z material. We discuss the laser and target parameters required in order to optimize the pair-production rate. We explore the regime when the pairs, if sufficiently confined, can start to exponentiate in number and explore the feasibility of achieving a pair density approaching 1021cm-3 , (1) /(50) th that of solid-ion density. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  10. Cooper pairs in atomic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Dussel, G G; Dukelsky, J; Sarriguren, P

    2007-01-01

    We consider the development of Cooper pairs in a self-consistent Hartree Fock mean field for the even Sm isotopes. Results are presented at the level of a BCS treatment, a number-projected BCS treatment and an exact treatment using the Richardson ansatz. While projected BCS captures much of the pairing correlation energy that is absent from BCS, it still misses a sizable correlation energy, typically of order $1 MeV$. Furthermore, because it does not average over the properties of the fermion pairs, the exact Richardson solution permits a more meaningful definition of the Cooper wave function and of the fraction of pairs that are collective.

  11. The Simplex in Pair Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxom, Bruce

    1972-01-01

    Paper develops a model which expresses pair comparisons as a function of (a) affective values which form a perfect simplex, (b) systematic (constant over replications) deviations from the simplex-structured affective values, and (c) errors of measurement for the pair comparisons. (Author)

  12. Kramers Pairs in Configuration Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John Scales; Avery, James Emil

    2003-01-01

    The theory of symmetry-preserving Kramers pair creation operators is reviewed and formulas for applying these operators to configuration interaction calculations are derived. A new and more general type of symmetry-preserving pair creation operator is proposed and shown to commute with the total...

  13. Pairing anti-halo effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss pairing correlations in weakly bound neutron rich nuclei, by using the coordinate-space Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov approach which allows to take properly into account the coupling to particle continuum. We show that the additional pairing binding energy acts against a development of an infinite rms radius, even in situations when an l=0 single-particle orbital becomes unbound. (author)

  14. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuChengqian; ZhaoXiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP)is proposed .A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP)is also proposed .The relationship between PCSP and DFP,the properties and exising conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  15. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chengqian; Zhao Xiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP) is proposed. A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP) is also proposed.The relationship between PCSP and DFP, the properties and existing conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  16. Assessment Strategies for Pair Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jan Hendrik; Mentz, Elsa; Meyer, Lukas

    2009-01-01

    Although pair programming has proved its usefulness in teaching and learning programming skills, it is difficult to assess the individual roles and abilities of students whilst programming in pairs. (Note that within this manuscript, the term assessment refers to evaluating individual student performance.) Assessing only the outcomes of a pair…

  17. Property (RD) for Hecke Pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirbisheh, Vahid, E-mail: shirbisheh@gmail.com

    2012-06-15

    As the first step towards developing noncommutative geometry over Hecke C{sup Asterisk-Operator }-algebras, we study property (RD) (Rapid Decay) for Hecke pairs. When the subgroup H in a Hecke pair (G, H) is finite, we show that the Hecke pair (G, H) has (RD) if and only if G has (RD). This provides us with a family of examples of Hecke pairs with property (RD). We also adapt Paul Jolissant's works in Jolissaint (J K-Theory 2:723-735, 1989; Trans Amer Math Soc 317(1):167-196, 1990) to the setting of Hecke C{sup Asterisk-Operator }-algebras and show that when a Hecke pair (G, H) has property (RD), the algebra of rapidly decreasing functions on the set of double cosets is closed under holomorphic functional calculus of the associated (reduced) Hecke C{sup Asterisk-Operator }-algebra. Hence they have the same K{sub 0}-groups.

  18. Property (RD) for Hecke Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirbisheh, Vahid

    2012-06-01

    As the first step towards developing noncommutative geometry over Hecke C ∗-algebras, we study property (RD) (Rapid Decay) for Hecke pairs. When the subgroup H in a Hecke pair ( G, H) is finite, we show that the Hecke pair ( G, H) has (RD) if and only if G has (RD). This provides us with a family of examples of Hecke pairs with property (RD). We also adapt Paul Jolissant's works in Jolissaint (J K-Theory 2:723-735, 1989; Trans Amer Math Soc 317(1):167-196, 1990) to the setting of Hecke C ∗-algebras and show that when a Hecke pair ( G, H) has property (RD), the algebra of rapidly decreasing functions on the set of double cosets is closed under holomorphic functional calculus of the associated (reduced) Hecke C ∗-algebra. Hence they have the same K 0-groups.

  19. Cities and Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew K. Rose

    2005-01-01

    If one ranks cities by population, the rank of a city is inversely related to its size, a well-documented phenomenon known as Zipf's Law. Further, the growth rate of a city's population is uncorrelated with its size, another well-known characteristic known as Gibrat's Law. In this paper, I show that both characteristics are true of countries as well as cities; the size distributions of cities and countries are similar. But theories that explain the size-distribution of cities do not obviously...

  20. Pairing correlations in exotic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Sagawa, H

    2012-01-01

    The BCS and HFB theories which can accommodate the pairing correlations in the ground states of atomic nuclei are presented. As an application of the pairing theories, we investigate the spatial extension of weakly bound Ne and C isotopes by taking into account the pairing correlation with the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) method and a 3-body model, respectively. We show that the odd-even staggering in the reaction cross sections of $^{30,31,32}$Ne and $^{14,15,16}$C are successfully reproduced, and thus the staggering can be attributed to the unique role of pairing correlations in nuclei far from the stability line. A correlation between a one-neutron separation energy and the anti-halo effect is demonstrated for $s$- and p-waves using the HFB wave functions. We also propose effective density-dependent pairing interactions which reproduce both the neutron-neutron ($nn$) scattering length at zero density and the neutron pairing gap in uniform matter. Then, we apply these interactions to study pairing gaps in ...

  1. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  2. SRTM Stereo Pair: Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This stereoscopic view was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Also, colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to pink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters (4300 feet) of total relief. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shading and colors back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. The 3-D perception is achieved by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the

  3. Viscosity coefficient with pairing interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study of dynamic process (for example, deep-inelastic scattering of heavy ion, nuclear fission), viscosity, which describes the coupling between the intrinsic degrees of freedom and the collective one, is a basic quantity. In this paper, under BCS approximation, we derive a microscopic expression of viscosity coefficient with pairing interaction by means of a linear response theory. Taking the fission process of 236U as an example, we discuss the effect of pairing interaction on the viscosity coefficient. The results show that pairing interaction must be taken into account at lower temperature and can be neglected at a high-temperature region

  4. Bright Lights, Big Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Overabundant lighting has become another pollution source in the Chinese cities The glow of electric lights illuminating the nights of ever-brighter cities has been regarded as one of the signs of prosperity and modern civilization.

  5. A Crowded City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Over 4 million vehicles on road challenge Beijing’s city management Beijing, the city once known as the kingdom of bicycles, has become clogged with automobiles, the Beijing Municipal Government Publicity Office said on December 18.

  6. Globalization and cities

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Mina

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the basic concepts on cities within contemporary globalisation. First, it briefly reviews the city perspective within the world system theory (concepts of over-urbanisation, under-urbanisation, and dependent urbanisation), new international division of labour, theory of the second circuit of capital and informational society. The second part of the paper is dedicated to the concepts of global and world cities and their implications for the cities in developed and develop...

  7. Cities as Spatial Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinand Rauch

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that Zipf's Law for cities can emerge as a property of a clustering process. If initially uniformly distributed people chose their location based on a specific gravity equation as found in trade studies, they will form cities that follow Zipf's Law in expected value. This view of cities as spatial agglomerations is supported empirically by the observation that larger cities are surrounded by larger hinterland areas and larger countryside populations.

  8. The Creative Cities Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Creative Cities Network, started by UNESCO in 2004, is one of the world’s highest-level non-governmental organizations in creative industry. The network focuses on the excellence of its member cities as its main product, and finds ways to maintain relevance in city life, local economy

  9. Imagineering the city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van den Berg

    2015-01-01

    Cities today are products. The urban experience is commodified into marketable items by urban entrepreneurs. Urban administrations, city marketers, politicians, local businesses and other actors all over the world are developing entrepreneurial strategies to sell their city. From "‘I ♥ New York"’ to

  10. Pairing mechanisms for binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; Goodwin, S P; Zwart, S F Portegies; Kaper, L; 10.1002/asna.200811061

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the binary population in stellar groupings provides important information about the outcome of the star forming process in different environments. Binarity is also a key ingredient in stellar population studies and is a prerequisite to calibrate the binary evolution channels. In these proceedings we present an overview of several commonly used methods to pair individual stars into binary systems, which we refer to as the pairing function. Many pairing functions are frequently used by observers and computational astronomers, either for the mathematical convenience, or because they roughly describe the expected outcome of the star forming process. We discuss the consequences of each pairing function for the interpretation of observations and numerical simulations. The binary fraction and mass ratio distribution generally depend strongly on the selection of the range in primary spectral type in a sample. These quantities, when derived from a binary survey with a mass-limited sample of target stars, ...

  11. Pairing effects in Sn isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive study of pairing effects in the Sn isotopes is carried out. The pairing Hamiltonian is treated by the chain-calculation method which provides practically exact solutions while involving less computational work than a complete-basis diagonalization. The coupling strength is fixed by reproducing the energy of the 9- state in 116Sn, while the single-particle energies have been determined by an analysis of the experimental low-energy spectra of the odd-A isotopes. A detailed comparison of the calculated results with experimental data evidences the importance of neutron pairing correlations in the 50-82 shell. The results of this paper complement those of our previous study of the N=82 isotones. It turns out that the role of pairing correlations is similar to a large extent in both cases. (orig.)

  12. Pairing effects in Sn isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, F. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Coraggio, L. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Covello, A. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Gargano, A. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Porrino, A. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy)

    1996-04-01

    An extensive study of pairing effects in the Sn isotopes is carried out. The pairing Hamiltonian is treated by the chain-calculation method which provides practically exact solutions while involving less computational work than a complete-basis diagonalization. The coupling strength is fixed by reproducing the energy of the 9{sup -} state in {sup 116}Sn, while the single-particle energies have been determined by an analysis of the experimental low-energy spectra of the odd-A isotopes. A detailed comparison of the calculated results with experimental data evidences the importance of neutron pairing correlations in the 50-82 shell. The results of this paper complement those of our previous study of the N=82 isotones. It turns out that the role of pairing correlations is similar to a large extent in both cases. (orig.)

  13. Pseudogap associated with precursor pairing

    OpenAIRE

    De Cao, Tian

    2009-01-01

    This work argues that the off-diagonal long range order (ODLRO) is not necessary for showing superconductivity while the electron pairing around Fermi surface is sufficient for superconductivity. It is shown that there exists the pseudogap state associated with the electron pairing in real space and the high temperature superconductivity could be only found in the metallic region near the Mott metal insulator transition (MIT).

  14. Pair programming: more than just working together in pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Mentz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pair programming originated in the industry where focus is placed on the development of a programme at the most costand time-effective manner, and within the parameters of quality. In this context, a specific programming code is not developed individually; rather, two people work together in order to ensure a higher quality programming code and to motivate each other to work at a faster pace. The problem with this approach was that novice programmers lacked the social skills to work in pairs as they had not been exposed to this sufficiently at tertiary level. The demand of the industry, especially in terms of programmers needing to be able to programme together, led to the incorporation of pair programming at tertiary level in the late nineties. The pedagogical principles on which any teaching-learning strategy should be built were, however, largely overlooked during this process. This article firstly looks into the semantic and ontological differences between co-operative and collaborative learning and secondly argues that pair programming, within the context of a social constructivist approach to teaching and learning, can be seen as a co-operative teaching-learning strategy. Pair programming is more than just allowing two students to work together on a programming task. The more structured way, in which pair programming needs to be implemented, concur with the principles of co-operative learning. The article concludes that the correct pedagogical application of pair programming as a co-operative teaching-learning strategy in tertiary education will result in improved learning capital.

  15. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage;

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth...... can be serious threats to the realization of the socio-economic contributions that cities can make. However, as a result of considerable diversity of competences combined with interactive learning and innovation, cities may also solve these problems. The ‘urban order’ may form a platform for...... innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden. It...

  16. Me, the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for identity of cities looks rather urgent and attracts attention of many researchers. Addressing this issue, the article draws an analogy between a human person and a city. Like a city, a human being needs to comprehend his self-identity in order to resist depressive tendencies. It is shown that a person’s depressive symptoms are similar to those of cities. The city identity necessary to resist depression can be searched for both historically and geographically. The historical aspect consists of local myths and legends about the city and the citizens. The geographical aspect of identity comprises features of the terrain, climate, flora and fauna of the region where the city is located.

  17. Pair extended coupled cluster doubles

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Thomas M; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2015-01-01

    The accurate and efficient description of strongly correlated systems remains an important challenge for computational methods. Doubly occupied configuration interaction (DOCI), in which all electrons are paired and no correlations which break these pairs are permitted, can in many cases provide an accurate account of strong correlations, albeit at combinatorial computational cost. Recently, there has been significant interest in a method we refer to as pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD), a variant of coupled cluster doubles in which the electrons are paired. This is simply because pCCD provides energies nearly identical to those of DOCI, but at mean-field computational cost (disregarding the cost of the two-electron integral transformation). Here, we introduce the more complete pair extended coupled cluster doubles (pECCD) approach which, like pCCD, has mean-field cost and reproduces DOCI energetically. We show that unlike pCCD, pECCD also reproduces the DOCI wave function with high accuracy. Moreoever, pEC...

  18. Biophilic Cities Are Sustainable, Resilient Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Newman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition of the need for daily contact with nature, to live happy, productive, meaningful lives. Recent attention to biophilic design among architects and designers acknowledges this power of nature. However, in an increasingly urban planet, more attention needs to be aimed at the urban scales, at planning for and moving towards what the authors call “biophilic cities”. Biophilic cities are cities that provide close and daily contact with nature, nearby nature, but also seek to foster an awareness of and caring for this nature. Biophilic cities, it is argued here, are also sustainable and resilient cities. Achieving the conditions of a biophilic city will go far in helping to foster social and landscape resilience, in the face of climate change, natural disasters and economic uncertainty and various other shocks that cities will face in the future. The paper identifies key pathways by which biophilic urbanism enhances resilience, and while some are well-established relationships, others are more tentative and suggest future research and testing.

  19. Pollution and city size: can cities be too small?

    OpenAIRE

    Borck, Rainald; TABUCHI Takatoshi

    2015-01-01

    We study the optimal and equilibrium size of cities in a monocentric city model with environmental pollution. Pollution is related to city size through the effect of population on production, commuting, and housing consumption. If pollution is local, we find that equilibrium cities are too large, mirroring standard results in the theory of city systems. When pollution is global and per capita pollution declines with city size, however, equilibrium cities may be too small.

  20. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  1. Pairing effects in nuclear dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Denis; Scamps, Guillaume; Tanimura, Yusuke

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, efforts have been made to account for super-fluidity in time-dependent mean-field description of nuclear dynamic [1-5]. Inclusion of pairing is important to achieve a realistic description of static properties of nuclei. Here,we show that pairing can also affect the nuclear motion. State of the art TDHF approach can describe from small to large amplitude collective motion as well as the collision between nuclei. Very recently, this microscopic approach has been improved to include pairing either in the BCS or HFB framework. Recent applications of the 3D TDHF + BCS (TDHF+BCS) model introduced in [4] will be presented. The role of super-fluidity on collective motion [6, 7], on one- and two-particle transfer [8] and on fission [9, 10] will be illustrated.

  2. Paired structures in knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, J.; Bustince, H.; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo;

    2016-01-01

    In this position paper we propose a consistent and unifying view to all those basic knowledge representation models that are based on the existence of two somehow opposite fuzzy concepts. A number of these basic models can be found in fuzzy logic and multi-valued logic literature. Here it is...... paired structures, generated from two paired concepts together with their associated neutrality, all of them to be modeled as fuzzy sets. In this way, paired structures can be viewed as a standard basic model from which different models arise. This unifying view should therefore allow a deeper analysis...... of the relationships between several existing knowledge representation formalisms, providing a basis from which more expressive models can be later developed....

  3. Nuclear Scissors Mode with Pairing

    CERN Document Server

    Balbutsev, E B; Urban, M; Vinyes, X

    2007-01-01

    The coupled dynamics of the scissors mode and isovector giant quadrupole resonance are studied using a generalized Wigner function moments method taking into account the pair correlations. Equations of motion for angular momentum, quadrupole moment and other relevant collective variables are derived on the basis of the time dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations. Analytical expressions for energy centroids and transitions probabilities are found for the harmonic oscillator model with the quadrupole-quadrupole residual interaction and monopole pairing force. Deformation dependences of energies and $B(M1)$ values are correctly reproduced. The inclusion of pair correlations leads to a drastic improvement in the description of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the scissors mode.

  4. Orbiting pairs of walking droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Emmanuel; Bush, John W. M.; Oza, Anand

    2015-11-01

    Droplets may self-propel on the surface of a vibrating fluid bath, pushed forward by their own Faraday pilot-wave field. We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the interaction of pairs of such droplets. Particular attention is given to characterizing the system's dependence on the vibrational forcing of the bath and the impact parameter of the walking droplets. Observed criteria for the capture and stability of orbital pairs are rationalized by accompanying theoretical developments. Thanks to the NSF.

  5. Instantons in lepton pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider QCD instanton-induced contributions to lepton pair production in hadron-hadron collisions. We relate these contributions to those known from deep inelastic scattering and demonstrate that they can be calculated reliably for sufficiently large momentum transfer. We observe that the instanton contribution to the angular distribution of the lepton pairs at finite momentum transfer strongly violates the Lam-Tung relation - a relation between coefficient functions of the angular distribution which is valid within the framework of ordinary perturbation theory. The drastic violation of this relation, as seen in experimental data, might be related to such instanton-induced effects. (Orig.)

  6. Cities and human security

    OpenAIRE

    Szpak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Cities have been researched mostly in terms of their economic, technological, and social value and significance. Despite some changes in this respect there is still a need to research cities as a fascinating phenomenon, also in respect of its capabilities to increase human security on a local and global scale. The article examines the role of cities for human security in the selected and representative fields such as sustainable development, human rights and environmental protection which are...

  7. Assimilation in multilingual cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier; Verdugo, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    International audience We characterise how the assimilation patterns of minorities into the strong and the weak language differ in a situation of asymmetric bilingualism. Using large variations in language composition in Canadian cities from the 2001 and 2006 Censuses, we show that the differences in the knowledge of English by immigrant allophones (i.e. the immigrants with a mother tongue other than English and French) in English-majority cities are mainly due to sorting across cities. In...

  8. Learning cities 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of historic work in the field of Learning City development. It then proceeds to highlight two contemporary strands of work. The first is the initiative of UNESCO’s Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) in establishing the International Platform of Learning Cities. The second is the work of the PASCAL Observatory, currently manifested in the Learning Cities 2020 programme.

  9. Sound and the City

    OpenAIRE

    Bulley, James; Sahin, Ozden; Spinelli, Emmanuel; Tanaka, Atau; Hosang, Georgina M.; Cubitt, Sean; Drever, John L.; Kanngieser, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Imagining the future soundscape of the city. Researchers from across disciplines explore the rapidly changing urban soundscape — how do the sounds around us affect our daily life? What might a futuristic city sound like? An interactive listening experience exploring the impact that the sounds around us can have on our health, wellbeing and sense of place. Sound and the City installation was exhibited as part of the Universities Week at the Natural History Museum between June 9 — 11, 2...

  10. Assimilation in multilingual cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Using the Public Use Microdata Files of the 2001 and 2006 Canadian Censuses, we study the determinants of the assimilation of language minorities into the city majority language. We show that official minority members (i.e. francophones in English-speaking cities and anglophones in French-speaking cities) assimilate less than the "allophones" (the individuals with a mother tongue other than English or French), and that immigrants generally assimilate less than natives. In addition, the langua...

  11. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  12. Suburbs and Cities

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Matthew I. Spiegel; Susan M. Wachter

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how closely the fortunes of suburbs are tied to the fortunes of the central city. We use similarities in residential housing price dynamics as a measure of how closely the economies of cities and suburbs are related. We develop housing price indices for most of the zip codes in California, and use these in a clustering procedure to see whether cities and suburbs naturally aggregate together, or whether they move separately. We find that central cities tend to...

  13. Paired Reading: Psycholinguistics in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, James Martin

    1987-01-01

    Contends that children need to learn phonic skills, not necessarily through early direct teaching, but through reading experience. Suggests using Paired Reading, which is validated by psycholinguistic reading theory and provides opportunities to learn to read from context and use innate syntactic and semantic knowledge. (SKC)

  14. Direct-photon pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper recalls some general aspects of direct-photon pair production at large Psub(T) in hadron collisions: The basic process qantiq→γγ; contributions from gg→γγ (via the quark box); possible resonant contributions; background problems due to indirect photons. A recent experiment performed at the ISR is finally described

  15. Calculation of two Belyi pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Dremov, V. A.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate two Belyi pairs using the properties of Mulase-Penkava differential. Details are provided including accurate construction of coordinates, variables and equations. The calculation is a part of the work which results in a catalogue arXiv:0710.2658

  16. Pairs of dual periodic frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2012-01-01

    needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide constructions of dual pairs of frames in the setting of the Hilbert space of periodic functions L2(0,2π). The frames constructed are given explicitly as trigonometric polynomials, which allows for an efficient calculation of the coefficients in the...

  17. 1993 Waterfowl Breeding Pair Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Refuge breeding pair survey was conducted on the evening of April 29 from 5:40 pm until sunset at 7:40 pm. Weather consisted of clear skies, cool temperatures,...

  18. Pairing Linguistic and Music Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiEdwardo, MaryAnn Pasda

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how music in the language classroom setting can be a catalyst for developing reading, writing, and understanding skills. Studies suggest that pairing music and linguistic intelligences in the college classroom improves students' grades and abilities to compose theses statements for research papers in courses that emphasize…

  19. Guanidinium Pairing Facilitates Membrane Translocation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Allolio, Christoph; Baxová, Katarína; Vazdar, M.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2016), s. 143-153. ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06181S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ab initio molecular dynamics * guanidinium * like charge pairing * membrane Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014

  20. Pairing interaction and Galilei invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relation between Galilei invariance and the energy weighted sum rule for a mass dipole operator is discussed using a monopole pairing interaction. It is found that the energy weighted sum rule for the mass dipole operator changes as much as 18% in medium and heavy nuclei. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  2. Examination of pairs in neutrino mixing matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Dianjing

    2015-01-01

    We exam the pairs of neutrino mixing matrix and suggest pairs that can be used in the construction of new mixing patterns, with "pair" denoting the equality of the modulus of a pair of matrix elements. The results show that the tri-maximal mixing in $\

  3. Deer City Legend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUHUANZHI; LILIKUN

    2003-01-01

    MORE and more commodities,such as clothes,shoes,millinery,lighters and shavers,now bear the “Made in Wenzhou”mark.It woule appear that Wenzhou grooms the whole nation.Lucheng(deer city)District in central Wenzhou is the nucleus of the city's thriving light industry sector.

  4. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

    development are discussed in the paper, as well as the problems and the new opportunities with which the ‘Experience city' is faced. The article focus on the design of the Danish Experience City with special emphasis on hybrid cultural projects and on performative urban spaces. It present the first findings...... as we engage with the discussion about the trajectory of future research....

  5. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing on...

  6. CHONGQING, the Hot City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chongqing is a well-known city with a history of more than 3,000 years. It is a famous historical and cultural city in China. Chongqing is the birthplace of the Bayu Culture. At present, Chongqing is a municipality directly under the Central Government with the largest area, the most administrative districts and the largest population.

  7. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...

  8. Escaping The Big Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    More white-collar workers consider leaving major metropolises to find opportunities in small and medium-sized cities The energy and excitement of first-tier cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen in Guangdong Province, have long served as magnets attracting enthusiastic young people. But recent surveys have overturned the perception of this urban draw.

  9. Smart cities: event everywhere

    OpenAIRE

    Reboredo Penedo, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The research attempts to provide a big picture from the literature through a Systematic Literature Review about the smart city and the existing standards topics for interchanging data through Smart City Apps. Additionally a prototype was created to analyze one of the standards found in the SLR

  10. Making Cities Better

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Livelihood programs change the lives of urban residents For decades Chinese cities have vied with each other to top national and international development rankings. However, the triennial national list of cities with an advanced living environment judges candidates according to less conventional

  11. Walkout in Crystal City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  12. Reflective cool cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidegger, V.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Our globe is heating, and cities are heating up much more. At the same time, cities are growing and green spaces are substituted by buildings and streets. These man-made surfaces are dark and tend to heat up

  13. How to motivate developers to pair program?

    OpenAIRE

    Haara, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Many developers are needed to develop large software. Successful development demands communication and teamwork and pair programming improves them. One practice of Extreme Programming is pair programming, which means that developers work together a task. This case study studied how to motivate developers to pair program. The benefits, cost and ways to pair program were studied. In addition, affect of general motivation and Belbin’s team roles to pair programming were studied. The study w...

  14. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  15. Universities Scale Like Cities

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the gross university income in terms of total number of citations over size in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its ...

  16. Pairing theory of striped superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striped high-Tc superconductors such as La7/8Ba1/8CuO4 show a fascinating competition between spin and charge order on the one hand and superconductivity on the other. A theory for these systems therefore has to capture both the spin correlations in an antiferromagnet and the pair-correlation of a superconductor. For this purpose we have developed an effective Hartree-Fock theory by merging electron pairing with finite center-of-mass momentum and antiferromagnetism. We show that this theory reproduces the key experimental features such as the formation of the antiferromagnetic stripe patterns at 7/8 band filling or the quasi one-dimensional electronic structure observed by photoemission spectroscopy.

  17. Klt singularities of horospherical pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquier, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Let $X$ be a horospherical $G$-variety and let $D$ be an effective $\\mathbb{Q}$-divisor of $X$ that is stable under the action of a Borel subgroup $B$ of $G$ and such that $D+K\\_X$ is $\\mathbb{Q}$-Cartier. We prove, using Bott-Samelson resolutions, that the pair $(X,D)$ is klt if and only if $\\lfloor D\\rfloor=0$

  18. Differential Bloch Oscillating Transistor Pair

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Jayanta; Puska, Antti; Hassel, Juha; Hakonen, Pertti J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine a Bloch Oscillating Transistor pair as a differential stage for cryogenic low-noise measurements. Using two oppositely biased, nearly symmetric Bloch Oscillating Transistors, we measured the sum and difference signals in the current gain and transconductance modes while changing the common mode signal, either voltage or current. From the common mode rejection ratio we find values $\\sim 20$ dB even under non-optimal conditions. We also characterize the noise properties and obtain ex...

  19. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  20. One-dimensional Cooper pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exact solutions for electron pairing in a 1D Fermi gas under different separable interactions. Energy dispersion relations for arbitrary values of center-of-mass momenta and interaction strengths. Results reveal linear and roton-like modes. Effects due to finite range parameters in the interaction. We study electron pairing in a one-dimensional (1D) fermion gas at zero temperature under zero- and finite-range, attractive, two-body interactions. The binding energy of Cooper pairs (CPs) with zero total or center-of-mass momentum (CMM) increases with attraction strength and decreases with interaction range for fixed strength. The excitation energy of 1D CPs with nonzero CMM display novel, unique properties. It satisfies a dispersion relation with two branches: a phonon-like linear excitation for small CP CMM; this is followed by roton-like quadratic excitation minimum for CMM greater than twice the Fermi wavenumber, but only above a minimum threshold attraction strength. The expected quadratic-in-CMM dispersion in vacuo when the Fermi wavenumber is set to zero is recovered for any coupling. This paper completes a three-part exploration initiated in 2D and continued in 3D.

  1. Compton Scattering, Pair Annihilation and Pair Production in a Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Krishan, Vinod

    1999-01-01

    The square of the four momentum of a photon in vacuum is zero. However, in an unmagnetized plasma it is equal to the square of the plasma frequency. Further, the electron-photon coupling vertex is modified in a plasma to include the effect of the plasma medium. I calculate the cross sections of the three processes - the Compton scattering, electron-positron pair annihilation and production in a plasma. At high plasma densities, the cross sections are found to change significantly. Such high p...

  2. Great cities look small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  3. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  4. The post-European city in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Venturi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Established tools for forecasting urban development are evidently insufficient. Even most hypotheses seen as axiomatic in urbanisation processes are confronted by new phenomena on a daily basis. In the European tradition there is however a method, which allows definition of common methods and answers: the analysis of ties in urbanisation processes. By analysis of quantitative observation, re-evaluation of the essence of public investments, identification of signs of urbanity and transformation of hierarchies the author offers a possibility for urban futures of European cities, which stems from relationships of contradicting pairs.

  5. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Arkitektskole. Bogen  har 3 dele. Principles: Copenhagen Agenda for Sustainable Living, 10 principper udviklet af Ugebrevet Mandag Morgen illustreret af arkitektstuderende. Congress: Futures of Cities, Emerging Urbanisms- Emerging Practices, oplæg fra unge tegnestuer til temaet fremlagt på Student Congress......Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets...

  6. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It thus...... makes an investigation into the complex relationship between the words and policies of the ‘Experience Economy' and the actual urban transformations made in cities with reference to these changes. The paper discusses the cases researched in relation to the state, market, civil society framework as well...

  7. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  8. Green Cities : Cities and Climate Change in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Urban sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Brazilian cities are growing. At the national level, the dominance of greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in Brazil masks the fact that emissions from other sectors, like Energy, Transport and Waste, are growing quite rapidly in cities. Compared to other cities around the world, Brazilian cities have low per capita GHG emissions be...

  9. Neutron-Proton pairing revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, W. A.; Bertsch, G. F.

    2007-01-01

    We reexamine neutron-proton pairing as a phenomenon that should be explanable in a microscopic theory of nuclear binding energies. Empirically, there is an increased separation energy when both neutron and proton numbers are even or if they are both odd. The enhancement is present at some level in nearly all nuclei: the separation energy difference has the opposite sign in less than 1% of the cases in which sufficient data exist. We discuss the possible origin of the effect in the context of ...

  10. Working pairs for resorption refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performances of three chemisorption working pairs operating under the resorption cycle were studied gravimetrically by comparing the desorbed and adsorbed mass of refrigerant in different operation conditions. All pairs used NH3 as refrigerant and MnCl2 in the main reactor, but each one used a different salt for the cooling effect production in the secondary reactor. These salts were NH4Cl or NaBr or BaCl2. The experimental results indicated that the degree of conversion in reaction between the NH3 and BaCl2 was inferior to 25% during cooling production at 0 oC or below, whereas the reactions with the other salts had conversions of at least 80%. When the systems operated with heat source temperature for the main reactor at 155 oC, heat sink temperature for both reactors at 30 oC, and cooling effect production temperature at 0 oC the coefficient of performance (COP) of the system using NH4Cl and the system using NaBr were similar and around 0.30; however, the former system had a specific cooling power (SCP) 5% higher than that of the latter system. Because the reaction in the system with NH4Cl was practically halted in a period much shorter than that used in the experiments, it is possible to expect that if the period of the cooling period was shortened, the difference between the SCP of those systems would be much higher. - Highlights: → The comparison of three different working pairs operating under resorption cycle was conducted. → The three working pairs were NH4Cl/MnCl2, NaBr/MnCl2, BaCl2/MnCl2, respectively. → The mass of refrigerant reacted in different situations were measured and compared. → Among the LTS studied, NH4Cl is the most suitable to be used in a resorption machine at 0 or below 0 oC.

  11. Cities within Cities: An Urbanization Approach in the Gulf Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bamakhrama, Salim Salah

    2015-01-01

    Within Dubai, nineteen out of the original 112 mega-projects carried the word city in their names, a phenomenon that is common in Gulf cities such as Dubai, Riyadh and Abu Dhabi. To further explore this phenomenon, this thesis focuses on three aspects that affect the dynamic relationship between the primary city and the cities within cities (sub-cities) in the Gulf region with special emphasis on Dubai. First, the naming problem of the sub-city illustrates why the tension between competing id...

  12. Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

  13. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This article uses a mixed-method study of Denmark to investigate whether and how Richard Florida's creative class theory should be adapted to small welfare economies. First, we carry out an econometric analyses showing that like in North America, the Danish creative class propels economic growth...... and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...

  14. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  15. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    WE LOVE THE CITY Byen i bygningen, bygningen i byen Lasse Andersson, Ph.d., arkitekt maa, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY vil vi formidle mødet mellem urban design oog arkitektur. Disciplinen ’at bygge by’ har de seneste 20 år ikke tændt hjerterne hos...... fjern og ’usexet’ for unge arkitekter in spe. Det kan fremtidens by ikke være tjent med, og WE LOVE THE CITY vil derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at her er et potentiale. Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY ønsker Utzon Centeret, LasseVegas Kontoret ApS og ADEPT...

  16. Should Cities Regulate Graffiti?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Graffiti, while still a new phenomenon to most Chinese, is becoming more familiar among teenagers in big cities like Beijing and Shanghai. A recent report by Xinhua News Agency discusses the trend. The report said a small

  17. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  18. Other city symphonies

    OpenAIRE

    Hielscher, Eva; Jacobs, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Catalogue description of the film program curated by Eva Hielscher and Steven Jacobs on 'Other City Symphonies' during the 2015 Pordenone Silent Film Festival, including paragraphs on individual films.

  19. Simulacrum City / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2000-01-01

    Veneetsia 7. arhitektuuribiennaali Eesti ekspositsiooni kataloogist Simulacrum City. Tallinn : Eesti Arhitektide Liit, 2000. Teksti autorid Anders Härm, Tarmo Maiste, Andres Kurg, Harry Charrington, kujundaja Jaanus Tamme, fotod Arne Maasik

  20. Earthquakes in cities revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wirgin, Armand

    2016-01-01

    During the last twenty years, a number of publications of theoretical-numerical nature have appeared which come to the apparently-reassuring conclusion that seismic motion on the ground in cities is smaller than what this motion would be in the absence of the buildings (but for the same underground and seismic load). Other than the fact that this finding tells nothing about the motion within the buildings, it must be confronted with the overwhelming empirical evidence (e.g, earthquakes in Sendai (2011), Kathmandu (2015), Tainan City (2016), etc.) that shaking within buildings of a city is often large enough to damage or even destroy these structures. I show, on several examples, that theory can be reconciled with empirical evidence, and suggest that the crucial subject of seismic response in cities is in need of more thorough research.

  1. City, ICT and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Galit Cohen; Peter Nijkamp

    2004-01-01

    New technologies tend to exert a profound influence on modern city life. This paper addresses the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the city. After a broad overview of the potential of ICT in a geographical setting and its possible impact on urban policy in regard to the ICT sector, the paper focusses attention on urban public policy in regard to the ICT sector. This study offers the proposition that urban ICT policy is driven by the stakeholders attitudinal and perc...

  2. Feeding the City

    OpenAIRE

    Roncaglia, Sara; Giorgio Solinas, Pier

    2015-01-01

    Every day in Mumbai 6,000 dabbawalas (literally translated as "those who carry boxes") distribute a staggering 200,000 home-cooked lunchboxes to the city's workers and students. Giving employment and status to thousands of largely illiterate villagers from Mumbai's hinterland, this co-operative has been in operation since the late nineteenth century. It provides one of the most efficient delivery networks in the world: only one lunch in six million goes astray. Feeding the City is an ethnogr...

  3. Aging City Leads Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The northern city of Dalian has become a model of care for the elderly that other Chinese cities are following Chinese Minister of Civil Affairs Li Xueju has called upon civil affairs agencies in the nation to learn from Dalian’s diversified models for elderly care,ranging from running collectively owned and foreign-designed nursing homes to offering tax incentives to private households and companies serving the elderly

  4. Improving the City environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All around the world cities are under severe environmental pressure. Water supplies, traffic congestion, air pollution, noise and waste disposal cause very similar problems in cities that are otherwise quite diverse. And attempts to improve conditions usually run into a range of difficulties. Indeed, environmental problems often persist for years before governments -national, regional and local- make any major effort to address them. 6 refs

  5. Cities in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Shepotylo Oleksandr

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the urban development of transition countries in 1991–2010, primarily focusing on the last decade. Cities in transition face a unique set of challenges that came forth due to interplay of the legacy of socialist urban policies and the transition to the market economy. The socialist urban policies restrained growth of the largest cities and distorted the spatial equilibrium towards more uniform distribution of urban population. The transition to the market economy reduces d...

  6. The Happiness of Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Florida, Richard; Mellander, Charlotta; Rentfrow, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Research on subjective well-being has focused on cross-national differences, while research on cities and regions has shown that human capital is a key factor in metropolitan income and related outcomes. This investigation tests the hypothesis that human capital will have a significant effect on well-being at the metropolitan scale. Using metropolitan level data from the 2009 Gallup-Healthways Survey, we examine the effects of human capital on city happiness alongside many...

  7. Towards smart city education

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Annika; Kortuem, Gerd; Cavero, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability has been an important topic in UK schools for some time, most notably since the Sustainable School Strategy was proposed by the UK Department for Education (DFES) in 2006. However, as smart city technologies emerge and show real promise in contributing to a more sustainable future, it is becoming apparent that new skills for working with the big urban data sets that drive these innovations must be taught to upcoming generations to ensure that they can be active smart city citiz...

  8. Innovation across cities

    OpenAIRE

    Soo, Kwok Tong

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of patenting activity across cities in the OECD, using a sample of 218 cities from 2000 to 2008. We obtain three main results. First, patenting activity is more concentrated than population and GDP. Second, patenting activity is less persistent than population and GDP. Third, patenting exhibits mean-reversion, and is positively associated with GDP, the fragmentation of local government, and population density. Our results suggest that policymakers can infl...

  9. Small Cell City

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan, S.; Steele, R.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, mobile operators have planned their networks to accommodate mobile terminals at ground level. Increasingly, mobile users communicate while stationary from within high-rise buildings. With mobiles operating at a variety of different heights and mobilities, plus the requirement to accommodate increasing teletraffic and multimedia services, there is a need to compact small cells into the three-dimensional city space. This article is concerned with using city buildings to act as el...

  10. Active City Administration

    OpenAIRE

    M .R. Sindhu; Viraj M. Jamle; Pramod M. Shelke; Shrikant G. Baheti

    2012-01-01

    The basic and universal corner stone of good governance are quality of service, quick response mechanisms and above all accountable and transparent process mechanism. The active city administration initiatives resulted in computerization of the legacy systems in government with limited ability to internalize the advances in information and communication technologies.By using active city administration services we able to know real time, quantitative and basic approach of the government servic...

  11. Cities and Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Mare, David C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the productivity (and wage) gains from locating in dense, urban environments. We distinguish between three potential explanations of why firms are willing to pay urban workers more: (1) the urban wage premium is spurious and is the result of omitted ability measures, (2) the urban wage premium works because cities enhance productivity and (3) the urban wage premium is the result of faster skill accumulation in cities. Using a combination of standard regressions, individual...

  12. Nowitna NWR breeding pair survey, 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a waterfowl breeding pair survey taken on Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge in 1988. The breeding pair survey was conducted 31...

  13. Hackable Cities : From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change

    OpenAIRE

    de Lange, M.L.; de Waal, Martijn; Foth, Marcus; Verhoeff, Nanna; Martin, Brynskov

    2015-01-01

    The DC9 workshop takes place on June 27, 2015 in Limerick, Ireland and is titled "Hackable Cities: From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change". The notion of "hacking" originates from the world of media technologies but is increasingly often being used for creative ideals and practices of city making. "City hacking" evokes more participatory, inclusive, decentralized, playful and subversive alternatives to often top-down ICT implementations in smart city making. However, these discourses ...

  14. City marketing: online communication plan for the city of Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    Altrichter, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing City Marketing represents marketing efforts of cities in order to attract more visitors. Today, we are confronted everyday with marketing campaigns in all different communication media promoting countries, cities or events. Cities are competing for visitors on a global scale, forcing them to adapt successful marketing strategies for gaining and retaining costumers. Yet, City Marketing still remains an unknown chapter for a big part of the general public an...

  15. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  16. Stability theorems for symplectic and contact pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Bande, G.; Ghiggini, P.; Kotschick, D.

    2004-01-01

    We prove Gray--Moser stability theorems for complementary pairs of forms of constant class defining symplectic pairs, contact-symplectic pairs and contact pairs. We also consider the case of contact-symplectic and contact-contact structures, in which the constant class condition on a one-form is replaced by the condition that its kernel hyperplane distribution have constant class in the sense of E. Cartan.

  17. Pair bonds: arrival synchrony in migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, T G; Gill, J A; Sigurbjörnsson, T; Sutherland, W J

    2004-10-01

    Synchronous arrival of pairs of migratory birds at their breeding grounds is important for maintaining pair bonds and is achieved by pairs that remain together all year round. Here we show that arrival is also synchronized in paired individuals of a migratory shorebird, the black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa islandica), even though they winter hundreds of kilometres apart and do not migrate together. The mechanisms required to achieve this synchrony and prevent 'divorce' illustrate the complexity of migratory systems. PMID:15470417

  18. Properties of isocalar-pair condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Van Isacker, P; Fallon, P; Zerguine, S

    2016-01-01

    It is pointed out that the ground state of n neutrons and n protons in a single-j shell, interacting through an isoscalar (T=0) pairing force, is not paired, J=0, but rather spin-aligned, J=n. This observation is explained in the context of a model of isoscalar P (J=1) pairs, which is mapped onto a system of p bosons, leading to an approximate analytic solution of the isoscalar-pairing limit in jj coupling.

  19. Drift wave in pair-ion plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samiran Ghosh; Nikhil Chakrabarti; Manoranjan Khan; M R Gupta

    2013-02-01

    The conditions for the existence of low-frequency electrostatic drift wave in pair-ion plasma are discussed. It is shown that the temperature and/or mass difference of both species could produce drift wave in a pair-ion plasma. The results are discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiment.

  20. On one-sided torsion pair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the concept of a torsion pair in a pre-triangulated category induced by Beligiannis and Reiten, the notion of a left (right) torsion pair in the left (right) triangulated category is introduced and investigated. We provide new connections between different aspects of torsion pairs in one-sided triangulated categories, pre-triangulated categories, stable categories and derived categories.

  1. Angular momentum decomposition of Richardson's pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular momentum decomposition of pairs obtained using Richardson's exact solution of the pairing Hamiltonian for the deformed 174Yb nucleus are displayed. The probabilities for low angular momenta of the collective pairs are strikingly different from the ones obtained in the BCS ground state

  2. The Joint Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The new connections, which high speed train allows to activate among the metropolitan systems, seem to be able to give life to new urban macro-structures for which the transfer time, among the main poles of the railway segment, becomes comparable to an inside moving into the city and therefore considered as an inter-functional mobility. The tunnel effect generated by the high speed connection seems to be able to allow a new temporal and functional joint among the metropolitan systems consequently supporting the possibility, for the users, to move themselves among the different urban functions belonging to the different cities. The birth of these urban aggregations seems to drive towards new megalopolis, which we can define for the first time with the term: joint-city. For this new metropolitan settlement it seems to be very interesting to investigate the constitutive peculiarities, the systemic articulation, its relational structures, the evolutionary scenarios, and so on. The urban functions (activities can be considered as structures of relationships between people that allows to define "organizational links" inside the community; the urban functions are located in specific places inside urban container or in open spaces. The urban functions represent the urban engines and the functional system can be thought as the “soul of the city", abstract but essential to its survival. In the definition set out here the analysis is carried out for many interconnected urban functional system points (specifically those in Rome and Naples. The new high speed railway has to be considered not only as a new channel of mobility between cities, but as a real possibility of joint between the functional systems of the two centres. A final consideration can be carried out in relation to the possibility of implementing new measures of governance of urban transformations considering the new macro-city: the "Joint City".

  3. Direct-photon pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct-photon pair production in high-energy hadron collisions is considered. After discussing general aspects of such reactions and giving a brief historical survey of that subject, we present some calculations on the contributions from q anti-q and g g collisions (the latter via the quark box) to the γγ continuum, and on possible resonant contributions. Finally, an estimation of the indirect-photon background (mainly due to π0 and eta decay, and to quark bremsstrahlung) is given for colliding-beam conditions at high energy; assuming both photons to be measured at 900 with equal and opposite momenta, and (within experimental limits) unaccompanied by any hadrons or additional photons, it is shown that this background can be sharply reduced

  4. Perturbations of vortex ring pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Gubser, Steven S; Parikh, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    We study pairs of co-axial vortex rings starting from the action for a classical bosonic string in a three-form background. We complete earlier work on the phase diagram of classical orbits by explicitly considering the case where the circulations of the two vortex rings are equal and opposite. We then go on to study perturbations, focusing on cases where the relevant four-dimensional transfer matrix splits into two-dimensional blocks. When the circulations of the rings have the same sign, instabilities are mostly limited to wavelengths smaller than a dynamically generated length scale at which single-ring instabilities occur. When the circulations have the opposite sign, larger wavelength instabilities can occur.

  5. Perturbations of vortex ring pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, Steven S.; Horn, Bart; Parikh, Sarthak

    2016-02-01

    We study pairs of coaxial vortex rings starting from the action for a classical bosonic string in a three-form background. We complete earlier work on the phase diagram of classical orbits by explicitly considering the case where the circulations of the two vortex rings are equal and opposite. We then go on to study perturbations, focusing on cases where the relevant four-dimensional transfer matrix splits into two-dimensional blocks. When the circulations of the rings have the same sign, instabilities are mostly limited to wavelengths smaller than a dynamically generated length scale at which single-ring instabilities occur. When the circulations have the opposite sign, larger wavelength instabilities can occur.

  6. QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY WITH PHOTON PAIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Sharma,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantum cryptographic systems use quantum mechanical concepts that are based on qubit superposition of states, and on the no cloning or no copying theorem to establish unbreakable cipher keys. The basic idea of quantum cryptography is to send the key in the form of photons over a public channel, encoding the zeros and one on quantum states in such a way that any eavesdropping attempt can be detected. Using optical communications the most commonly quantum mechanical property used is the polarization state of photon. However, in most quantum cryptographic algorithms a random polarization state is required. The photons are ideal for low loss transport, either in free space or in optical fibers, i.e. we have the full arsenal of fiber optic technology at our disposal. In this paper we are describing the process of quantum cryptography with photon pairs.

  7. Factors affecting home range of mallard pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechmann, J.H.

    1976-06-01

    Certain habitat and social factors were investigated for their effect on home range size of mallard (Anas platyhynchos) pairs breeding in a forested region of north-central Minnesota during the spring of 1971--72. Data from 31 radio-marked hens and drakes were used, but primary emphasis was placed on 8 pairs (5 with both members of the pair marked). Pairs were radio-tracked on river marsh areas, river channels, and large sand lakes to provide comparative data for evaluating home range size differences. Home ranges varied from an average of 53 ha for pairs using primarily river habitat to 871 ha for pairs using only large sand lakes. River and lake shorelines varied considerably in species and density of vegetation. Interaction between pairs as well as density of flocked males appeared to be influenced by these habitat differences with resultant effects on home range sizes.

  8. On Minus Paired-Domination in Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢化明; 孙良

    2003-01-01

    The study of minus paired-domination of a graph G=(V,E) is initiated. Let SV be any paired-dominating set of G, a minus paired-dominating function is a function of the form f∶V→{-1,0,1} such that f(v)=1 for v∈S, f(v)≤0 for v∈V-S, and f(N[v])≥1 for all v∈V. The weight of a minus paired-dominating function f is w(f)=∑f(v), over all vertices v∈V. The minus paired-domination number of a graph G is γ-p(G)=min{w(f)|f is a minus paired-dominating function of G}. On the basis of the minus paired-domination number of a graph G defined, some of its properties are discussed.

  9. Hamilton : the electric city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs

  10. Earth's City Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  11. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  12. Ultrafine particles in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts. PMID:24503484

  13. Reproducing in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth

    2008-02-01

    Reproducing in cities has always been costly, leading to lower fertility (that is, lower birth rates) in urban than in rural areas. Historically, although cities provided job opportunities, initially residents incurred the penalty of higher infant mortality, but as mortality rates fell at the end of the 19th century, European birth rates began to plummet. Fertility decline in Africa only started recently and has been dramatic in some cities. Here it is argued that both historical and evolutionary demographers are interpreting fertility declines across the globe in terms of the relative costs of child rearing, which increase to allow children to outcompete their peers. Now largely free from the fear of early death, postindustrial societies may create an environment that generates runaway parental investment, which will continue to drive fertility ever lower. PMID:18258904

  14. The egocentric city

    OpenAIRE

    Tzinis, A.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is going to discus the advantages of the use of a GPS as a tool for surveying the pedestrian movements of individuals in an urban environment. An experiment is going to take place that will try to evolve City designs specifically for the pedestrian movements of particular individuals whose tracks have been recorded with a GPS for this specific purpose. The aim is to see if the rest of participants’ movement habits have been affected by this mutation in the city g...

  15. City Bug Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the wider contexts of digital policy, transparency, digitisation and how this changes city administration and the role of the (digital) publics, using City Bug Report as a design case. Employing a mix between design research and action research, the authors exemplify and analyse...... elements of both the design process, the organisational, the political and technological contexts. They point to the role of researchers and designers in exploring and understanding digital elements of public space as not merely registering structures but also actively engaging in public discourse...

  16. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city....

  17. Report on Pairing-based Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Dustin; Peralta, Rene; Perlner, Ray; Regenscheid, Andrew; Roginsky, Allen; Chen, Lily

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes study results on pairing-based cryptography. The main purpose of the study is to form NIST's position on standardizing and recommending pairing-based cryptography schemes currently published in research literature and standardized in other standard bodies. The report reviews the mathematical background of pairings. This includes topics such as pairing-friendly elliptic curves and how to compute various pairings. It includes a brief introduction to existing identity-based encryption (IBE) schemes and other cryptographic schemes using pairing technology. The report provides a complete study of the current status of standard activities on pairing-based cryptographic schemes. It explores different application scenarios for pairing-based cryptography schemes. As an important aspect of adopting pairing-based schemes, the report also considers the challenges inherent in validation testing of cryptographic algorithms and modules. Based on the study, the report suggests an approach for including pairing-based cryptography schemes in the NIST cryptographic toolkit. The report also outlines several questions that will require further study if this approach is followed. PMID:26958435

  18. Cities, Towns and Villages, city, Published in 2003, Daggett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'city'. Data by this publisher are often...

  19. Pulsational-Pair Instability Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Woosley, S E

    2016-01-01

    The final evolution of stars in the mass range 60 - 150 solar masses is explored. Depending upon their mass loss and rotation rates, many of these stars will end their lives as pulsational pair-instability supernovae. Even a non-rotating 70 solar mass star is pulsationally unstable during oxygen shell burning and can power a sub-luminous supernova. Rotation decreases the limit further. For more massive stars, the pulsations are less frequent, span a longer time, and are more powerful. Violent pulsations eject not only any residual low density envelope, but also that fraction of the helium core mass outside about 35 - 50 solar masses. The remaining core of helium and heavy elements continues to evolve, ultimately forming an iron core of about 2.5 solar masses that probably collapses to a black hole. A variety of observational transients result with total durations ranging from days to 10,000 years, and luminosities from 10$^{41}$ to 10$^{44}$ erg s$^{-1}$. Many transients resemble ordinary Type IIp supernovae,...

  20. Healthy Cities: a guide to the literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenzer, M

    2000-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on attempts by city governments, international agencies, and nongovernmental and community organizations to improve city life around the world through Healthy Cities projects.

  1. Cultural diversity, cities and innovation: firm effects or city effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Growing cultural diversity is seen as important for innovation. Research has focused on two potential mechanisms: a firm effect, with diversity at the firm level improving knowledge sourcing or ideas generation, and a city effect, where diverse cities helping firms innovate. This paper uses a dataset of over 2,000 UK SMEs to test between these two. Controlling for firm characteristics, city characteristics and firm and city diversity, there is strong evidence for the firm effect. Firms with a...

  2. Evaluation of users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities using pair-wise comparison approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, R.; Ahmad, F.; Nordin, N. A.; Aripin, A. W. M.

    2014-02-01

    Global climate change issues demand people of the world to change the way they live today. Thus, current cities need to be redeveloped towards less use of carbon in their day to day operations. Pedestrianized environment is one of the approaches used in reducing carbon foot print in cities. Heritage cities are the first to be looked into since they were built in the era in which motorized vehicles were minimal. Therefore, the research explores users' satisfaction on assessment of physical attributes of pedestrianization in Melaka Historical City, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It aims to examine users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities provided within the study area using pair wise questionnaire comparison approach. A survey of 200 respondents using random sampling was conducted in six different sites namely Jonker Street, Church Street, Kota Street, Goldsmith Street, Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower and Merdeka Street to River Cruise terminal. The survey consists of an assessment tool based on a nine-point scale of users' satisfaction level of pathway properties, zebra pedestrian crossing, street furniture, personal safety, adjacent to traffic flow, aesthetic and amenities. Analytical hierarchical process (AHP) was used to avoid any biasness in analyzing the data collected. Findings show that Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower as the street that scores the highest satisfaction level that fulfils all the required needs of a pedestrianized environment. Similar assessment elements can be used to evaluate existing streets in other cities and these criteria should also be used in planning for future cities.

  3. The Study About the Analysis of Responsiveness Pair Clustering Tosocial Network Bipartite Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Akira Otsuki,; Masayoshi Kawamura

    2013-01-01

    In this study, regional (cities, towns and villages) data and tweet data are obtained from Twitter, andextract information of "purchase information (Whereand what bought)" from the tweet data bymorphological analysis and rule-based dependency analysis. Then, the "The regional information" and the"Theinformation of purchase history (Where and what bought information)" are captured as bipartitegraph, and Responsiveness Pair Clustering analysis(a clustering using correspondence analysis assimila...

  4. The Study about the Analysis of Responsiveness Pair Clustering to Social Network Bipartite Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Otsuki, Akira; Kawamura, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, regional (cities, towns and villages) data and tweet data are obtained from Twitter, and extract information of purchase information (Where and what bought) from the tweet data by morphological analysis and rule-based dependency analysis. Then, the "The regional information" and "The information of purchase history (Where and what bought information)" are captured as bipartite graph, and Responsiveness Pair Clustering analysis (a clustering using correspondence analysis as simi...

  5. Hackable Cities : From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, M.L.; de Waal, Martijn; Foth, Marcus; Verhoeff, Nanna; Martin, Brynskov

    2015-01-01

    The DC9 workshop takes place on June 27, 2015 in Limerick, Ireland and is titled "Hackable Cities: From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change". The notion of "hacking" originates from the world of media technologies but is increasingly often being used for creative ideals and practices of city m

  6. City of layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    mobility practices are played out in a relational space where the potential for movement is shifted in favour of the elite and the tourists. The Sky Train reconfigures the mobility patterns of the inner city of Bangkok in ways that are more than planning policies to overcome congestion and traffic jams...

  7. Nature in the City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferbert, Mary Lou

    1981-01-01

    Describes a science program developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, "Nature in the City," in which students and teachers learn together about the natural community surrounding their school. Includes program's rationale, list of "adventures," and methods. Discusses strategies of Sherlock Holmes'"adventure" focusing on animal tracks…

  8. Governing the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Strategy frames the contemporary epistemological space of urbanism: major cities across the globe such as New York, London and Sydney invest time, energy and resources to craft urban strategies. Extensive empirical research projects have proposed a shift towards a strategic framework to manage ci...

  9. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    With a point of departure in amongst others the Danish office of ADEPT’s approach, ‘The city in the building and the building in the city’ (ADEPT 2012), it is consequently the aim of this article to show how workshops can help shape and develop a spatial and architectural approach to form finding...

  10. Scarcity Makes the City

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The first talk in the series, Scarcity Makes the City, features Vancouver-based economic geographer Geoff Mann. Looking at how modern political economy affects social relations and our experience of everyday life, Mann will discuss how contemporary capitalist dynamics shape Vancouver’s urban context, and the pasts, presents, and futures that weave it together.

  11. Bug City: Bees [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  12. City Kids Go Green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tricia

    1993-01-01

    Describes Outward Bound Urban Resources Initiative, a six-week summer course whose goal is to work with urban youth to develop solutions for local environmental problems. Among the activities described include converting city lots into parks, neighborhood cleanup, and tree planting. (MDH)

  13. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  14. A Vibrant Ancient City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGTONG

    2004-01-01

    LIJIANG is a small city onthe Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in southern Chinawith an 800-year history.Word of its ancient language and music, and unique natural scenery has spread over the decades, and Lijiang is now known throughout the world. It was added

  15. Transport for smart cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    ’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. Traffic accidents and emissions of air pollutants and noise take heavy tolls in terms of people killed...

  16. Practicing the Generic (City)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2010-01-01

    Flanagan proposes that most locative media artworks neglect the particularities of spaces, their historical and political layers. Koolhaas, on the other hand, states that all urban areas are alike, that we are facing a global Generic City. The paper analyses digital media artist Esther Polak’s No...

  17. City fiiling / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Arhitektide Andres Alveri ja Tiit Trummali tähtsamatest töödest. Pikemalt Tallinna kesklinnas asuvatest majadest City Plaza ja Rävala Neli. Kommentaarid Rein Veidemannilt, Veljo Kaasikult, Hardo Aasmäelt, Toomas Tammiselt, Jaak Aaviksoolt ja Karin Pauluselt

  18. City model enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Philip D.; Quinn, Jonathan A.; Jones, Christopher B.

    The combination of mobile communication technology with location and orientation aware digital cameras has introduced increasing interest in the exploitation of 3D city models for applications such as augmented reality and automated image captioning. The effectiveness of such applications is, at present, severely limited by the often poor quality of semantic annotation of the 3D models. In this paper, we show how freely available sources of georeferenced Web 2.0 information can be used for automated enrichment of 3D city models. Point referenced names of prominent buildings and landmarks mined from Wikipedia articles and from the OpenStreetMaps digital map and Geonames gazetteer have been matched to the 2D ground plan geometry of a 3D city model. In order to address the ambiguities that arise in the associations between these sources and the city model, we present procedures to merge potentially related buildings and implement fuzzy matching between reference points and building polygons. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented methods.

  19. Atlantic City memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Franklin H

    2008-04-01

    Fifty years ago, the Atlantic City meetings, held the first week in May of every year, were attended by all the elite of American academic medicine and all who wanted to join that group. Part of the magic of those meetings was that professors and neophytes took each other seriously and talked to each other. PMID:18382726

  20. Pairing and specific heat in hot nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Gambacurta, Danilo; Lacroix, Denis; Sandulescu, Nicu

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamics of pairing phase-transition in nuclei is studied in the canonical ensemble and treating the pairing correlations in a finite-temperature variation after projection BCS approach (FT-VAP). Due to the restoration of particle number conservation, the pairing gap and the specific heat calculated in the FT-VAP approach vary smoothly with the temperature, indicating a gradual transition from the superfluid to the normal phase, as expected in finite systems. We have checked that th...

  1. Pair Creation of Black Holes During Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Bousso, Raphael; Hawking, Stephen W.

    1996-01-01

    Black holes came into existence together with the universe through the quantum process of pair creation in the inflationary era. We present the instantons responsible for this process and calculate the pair creation rate from the no boundary proposal for the wave function of the universe. We find that this proposal leads to physically sensible results, which fit in with other descriptions of pair creation, while the tunnelling proposal makes unphysical predictions. We then describe how the pa...

  2. Dispersion Compensation using a Prism-pair

    OpenAIRE

    Shaked, Yaakov; Yefet, Shai; Pe'er, Avi

    2014-01-01

    A simple and intuitive formulation is reviewed for the Brewster prism-pair - A most common component in spectroscopy-oriented experiments using ultrashort pulses. This review aims to provide students and beginners in the field of spectroscopy with a unified description of a major experimental component. The total spectral phase experienced by a broadband light field is calculated after passing through a pair of Brewster-cut prisms, demonstrating the flexibility of the prism pair to provide tu...

  3. Top pair production distributions at the Tevatron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeuchi Yuji

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available At the Tevatron, the top quark is mainly produced in pairs through the strong interaction and decays before forming hadrons. Thus the kinematical distributions at top pair production possess rich information on the tt¯$tar t$ production vertex including polarizations of top and anti-top quarks. In this article, recent measurements on top quark pair production distributions at Tevatron (CDF and DO are presented.

  4. A New Secure Pairing Protocol using Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Buhan, I.R.

    2008-01-01

    Secure Pairing enables two devices, which share no prior context with each other, to agree upon a security association that they can use to protect their subsequent communication. Secure pairing offers guarantees of the association partner identity and it should be resistant to eavesdropping or to a man-in-the-middle attack. We propose a user friendly solution to this problem. Keys extracted from biometric data of the participants are used for authentication. Details of the pairing protocol a...

  5. Density dependence of the pairing interaction and pairing correlation in unstable nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Changizi, S A

    2015-01-01

    This work aims at a global assessment of the effect of the density dependence of the zero-range pairing interaction. Systematic Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations with the volume, surface and mixed pairing forces are carried out to study the pairing gaps in even-even nuclei over the whole nuclear chart. Calculations are also done in coordinate representation for unstable semi-magic even-even nuclei. The calculated pairing gaps are compared with empirical values from four different odd-even staggering formulae. Calculations with the three pairing interactions are comparable for most nuclei close to $\\beta$-stability line. However, the surface interaction calculations predict neutron pairing gaps in neutron-rich nuclei that are significantly stronger than those given by the mixed and volume pairing. On the other hand, calculations with volume and mixed pairing forces show noticeable reduction of neutron pairing gaps in nuclei far from the stability.

  6. A pair of solar spike emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Yuying(刘玉英); FU; Qijun(傅其骏); QIN; Zhihai(秦志海); HUANG; Guangli(黄光力); WANG; Ming(汪敏)

    2002-01-01

    Using the 2.6-3.8 GHz solar radio spectrometer of the National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC), a pair of microwave millisecond spike (MMS) emissions were observed, and their frequency drift rate was measured. The separatrix frequency of the MMS pair was at 2900 MHz. Its emission layer was about 2×104km above the photosphere. The polarization degree was wave-like variation with an average value of about 25% in LCP. An MMS pair differs greatly from the type III bursts pair. For the latter, in a certain frequency range, there is no emission around separatrix frequency. This phenomenon may help better understand the mechanism of MMS.

  7. Lax pairs for deformed Minkowski spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Kyono, Hideki; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2015-01-01

    We proceed to study Yang-Baxter deformations of 4D Minkowski spacetime based on a conformal embedding. We first revisit a Melvin background and argue a Lax pair by adopting a simple replacement law invented in 1509.00173. This argument enables us to deduce a general expression of Lax pair. Then the anticipated Lax pair is shown to work for arbitrary classical $r$-matrices with Poinca\\'e generators. As other examples, we present Lax pairs for pp-wave backgrounds, the Hashimoto-Sethi background, the Spradlin-Takayanagi-Volovich background.

  8. Lax pairs for deformed Minkowski spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyono, Hideki; Sakamoto, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2016-01-01

    We proceed to study Yang-Baxter deformations of 4D Minkowski spacetime based on a conformal embedding. We first revisit a Melvin background and argue a Lax pair by adopting a simple replacement law invented in 1509.00173. This argument enables us to deduce a general expression of Lax pair. Then the anticipated Lax pair is shown to work for arbitrary classical r-matrices with Poincaré generators. As other examples, we present Lax pairs for pp-wave backgrounds, the Hashimoto-Sethi background, the Spradlin-Takayanagi-Volovich background.

  9. Transrelativistic pair plasmas in AGN jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottcher, M.; Pohl, M.; Schlickeiser, R.

    1999-01-01

    Models of relativistic jets filled with ultrarelativistic pair plasma are very successful in explaining the broadband radiation of gamma-ray blazars. Assuming that the initial injection and cooling of ultrarelativistic pair plasma in an AGN jet has occurred, producing the observed high-energy gamma......-ray radiation, we investigate the further evolution of the pair plasma as it continues to move out from the central engine. The effects of thermalization and reacceleration, the emission of pair bremsstrahlung and annihilation radiation and the bulk Compton process, and the possible application to MeV blazars...

  10. An allometric scaling relation based on logistic growth of cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between urban area and population size have been empirically demonstrated to follow the scaling law of allometric growth. This allometric scaling is based on exponential growth of city size and can be termed "exponential allometry", which is associated with the concepts of fractals. However, both city population and urban area comply with the course of logistic growth rather than exponential growth. In this paper, I will present a new allometric scaling based on logistic growth to solve the abovementioned problem. The logistic growth is a process of replacement dynamics. Defining a pair of replacement quotients as new measurements, which are functions of urban area and population, we can derive an allometric scaling relation from the logistic processes of urban growth, which can be termed "logistic allometry". The exponential allometric relation between urban area and population is the approximate expression of the logistic allometric equation when the city size is not large enough. The prop...

  11. Rethinking Cities: Toward Shared Prosperity

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward; Joshi-Ghani, Abha

    2013-01-01

    The great transition from farm to city is filled with economic, social, and political promise. Cities are the product of a triad of forces. This Economic Premise explores how the three forces of spatial transformation—physical infrastructure, human interactions, and public policy—come together and shape cities. But too many cities in Sub-Saharan Africa continue to suffer from the oldest urban scourge—unclean water. Crime and murder turn many Latin American neighborhoods into places of terror ...

  12. City of One Thousand Temples

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Emma Natalya

    2015-01-01

    A Network of Hearsay in South India Although the South Indian city of Kanchipuram is popularly known as the City of One Thousand Temples, there is no existing prescribed circuit, and no comprehensive temple listing or map to guide visitors.* Rather, the thousands of pilgrims who flood the city daily usually only know about the five most famous temples. Scattered street signs throughout the busy city point the way to these sprawling monuments, which are always crowded and especially ...

  13. Cities with Children: Child friendly cities in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre

    2006-01-01

    Child Friendly Cities in Italy describes the evolution of childhood in Italy and the emergence of a new culture of the city. It analyses the consideration given to the Child Friendly Cities initiative and in particular the attention provided to the child as an active citizen and the role of the city in promoting the participation of young people in decision-making processes at the local level. The study looks at the specific experience of 12 of the more than 100 Italian cities that have adopt...

  14. The Carbon City Index (CCI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Straatman, Bas; Mangalagiu, Diana;

    This paper presents a consumption-based Carbon City Index for CO2 emissions in a city. The index is derived from regional consumption and not from regional production. It includes imports and exports of emissions, factual emission developments, green investments as well as low carbon city...

  15. Pair plasma in pulsar magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main features of radiation received from pulsars imply that they are neutron stars which contain an extremely intense magnetic field and emit coherently in the radio domain. Most recent studies attribute the origin of the coherence to plasma instabilities arising in pulsar magnetospheres; they mainly concern the linear, or the nonlinear, character of the involved unstable waves. We briefly introduce radio pulsars and specify physical conditions in pulsar emission regions: geometrical properties, magnetic field, pair creation processes and repartition of relativistic charged particles. We point to the main ingredients of the linear theory, extensively explored since the 1970s: (i) a dispersion relation specific to the pulsar case; (ii) the characteristics of the waves able to propagate in relativistic pulsar plasmas; (iii) the different ways in which a two-humped distribution of particles may arise in a pulsar magnetosphere and favour the development of a two-stream instability. We sum up recent improvements of the linear theory: (i) the determination of a 'coupling function' responsible for high values of the wave field components and electromagnetic energy available; (ii) the obtention of new dispersion relations for actually anisotropic pulsar plasmas with relativistic motions and temperatures; (iii) the interaction between a plasma and a beam, both with relativistic motions and temperatures; (iv) the interpretation of observed 'coral' and 'conal' features, associated with the presence of boundaries and curved magnetic field lines in the emission region; (v) the detailed topology of the magnetic field in the different parts of the emission region and its relation to models recently proposed to interpret drifting subpulses observed from PSR 0943+10, showing 20 sub-beams of emission. We relate the nonlinear evolution of the two-stream instability and development of strong turbulence in relativistic pulsar plasmas to the emergence of relativistic solitons, able

  16. A Review of Pair-wise Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Jimi

    2016-01-01

    In software testing, the large size of the input domain makes exhaustively testing the inputs a daunting and often impossible task. Pair-wise testing is a popular approach to combinatorial testing problems. This paper reviews Pair-wise testing and its history, strengths, weaknesses, and tools for generating test cases.

  17. Pair Programming in Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Brian; Fitzgerald, Sue; McCauley, Renee; Murphy, Laurie; Zander, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a review of educational research literature focused on pair programming in the undergraduate computer science curriculum. Research suggests that the benefits of pair programming include increased success rates in introductory courses, increased retention in the major, higher quality software, higher student confidence in…

  18. Bonnet Pairs of Surfaces in Minkowski Space

    OpenAIRE

    Grantcharov, G.; Salom, R.

    2012-01-01

    We review some results about Bonnet pairs in Minkowski space obtained using split quaternions and split complex numbers. We present also an example of Bonnet pairs of minimal immersed timelike tori with umbilical points. Such examples do not exists in the Euclidean space.

  19. Superfluid characteristics of induced-pairing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study electromagnetic and thermodynamic properties of a model coexisting local electron pairs and itinerant carriers coupled via the intersubsystem charge exchange. The calculations of the London penetration depth, energy gap, the magnetic critical fields and the coherence length in the superconducting phase are performed. The effects of reducing binding energy of local pairs are discussed. (author)

  20. Optimal working pairs for solar adsorption cooling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article suggests a detailed comparison of 7 working pairs intended for use in solar adsorption cooling systems. The performance analysis was based on two indicators: adsorption capacity and solar coefficient of performance. Based on a reformed form of the Dubinin–Astakhov equation, a 3D graph was constructed to show the adsorbate concentration in the appropriate adsorbent as a first step to determine the adsorption capacity. A MATLAB program was developed to solve the system equation to predict the solar coefficient of performance for a typical summer day in a Moroccan city Fez. It was found that maximal adsorption capacity is obtained by activated carbon fibre/methanol (0.3406 kg kg−1) followed by activated carbon/methanol (0.2565 kg kg−1) and activated carbon/ethanol (0.2008 kg kg−1). At a condenser temperature of 25 °C, with an adsorbent mass of 20 kg, and an integrated collector-reactor configuration, the couple silica gel/water for air conditioning purpose can reach an SCOP of 0.3843. Activated carbon fibre/methanol is the following more efficient couple and can be used in the different cooling applications with an SCOP ranging from 0.1726 to 0.3287. Furthermore, adequate indicators are evaluated addressing the economic, environmental and safe aspects associated with each working pair. - Highlights: • 7 working pairs intended for use in solar adsorption cooling systems are compared. • A MATLAB program is used to predict the solar coefficient of performance. • Maximal adsorption capacity is obtained by activated carbon fibre/methanol

  1. A Separable Pairing Force in Nuclear Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yuan; MA Zhong-Yu

    2006-01-01

    The method introduced by Duguet is adopted to derive a separable form of the pairing interaction in the 1 S0channel from a bare or an effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in nuclear matter. With this approach the separable pairing interaction reproduces the pairing properties provided by its corresponding NN interaction. In this work, separable forms of pairing interactions in the 1 S0 channel for the bare NN interaction, Bonn potential and the Gogny effective interaction are obtained. It is found that the separable force of the Gogny effective interaction in the 1 S0 channel has a clear link with the bare NN interaction. With such a simple separable form pairing properties provided by the Gogny force in nuclear matter can be reproduced.

  2. The Emerging City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    ” – urban furniture that was originally part of an election campaign for the cultural minister of Denmark, will illustrate how both political and artistic signatures become deterritorialized through urban space, time and every day social use. The second example is taken from corporate city development at...... the urban milieu and how other meanings emerge. In the last example, Relocation of beer drinkers on Enghave Square, Copenhagen, I will highlight how a heterogeneous assemblages of architecture, urban design, artistic intervention and every day social life has constructed continuums of intensities over...... a period of time thus establishing an emergent urban space divergent from both the intentions of the planner, architect, artist and user. Through the examples, I suggest that each urban body or design deterritorialize connecting with the city. Broadening up the perspective, I ask whether...

  3. Visions of the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    Visions of the City is a dramatic account of utopian urbanism in the twentieth century. It explores radical demands for new spaces and ways of living, and considers their effects on planning, architecture and struggles to shape urban landscapes. Such visions, it shows, have played a crucial role in...... to transform urban space and everyday life. He addresses in particular Constant's vision of New Babylon, finding within his proposals for future spaces produced through nomadic life, creativity and play a still powerful challenge to imagine cities otherwise. The book not only recovers vital moments...... from past hopes and dreams of modern urbanism. It also contests current claims about the 'end of utopia', arguing that reconsidering earlier projects can play a critical role in developing utopian perspectives today. Through the study of utopian visions, it aims to rekindle elements of utopianism...

  4. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRAKTISTAN 2011 og udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY på Utzon Centeret i Aalborg vil vi derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at der i Urban design fagligheden er et potentiale. Både for de der bruger byen og for dem der udøver arkitekturen med en stærk urban intention i det skala...

  5. City Gods projektet

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Jakob Find

    2005-01-01

    Title: Copenhagen Urban Freight project – potentials and barriers – a case study approach Keywords: Urban freight transport, urban sustainability, Copenhagen Urban Freight Or-dinance, City logistics, mobility, supply chain approach Introduction The Copenhagen Urban Freight project was launched in 1995, where representatives from two competing transport companies, working for the first time in cooperation on behalf on the Danish Minster for Transport, presented their ideas towa...

  6. City Gods projektet

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Jakob Find

    2006-01-01

    Title: Copenhagen Urban Freight project – potentials and barriers – a case study approach Keywords: Urban freight transport, urban sustainability, Copenhagen Urban Freight Or-dinance, City logistics, mobility, supply chain approach Introduction The Copenhagen Urban Freight project was launched in 1995, where representatives from two competing transport companies, working for the first time in cooperation on behalf on the Danish Minster for Transport, presented their ideas toward a more effici...

  7. Cities, connections and cronyism

    OpenAIRE

    John Quiggin

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in the global system of cities present a curious paradox. With the cost of communications declining almost to zero and substantial, though less dramatic reductions in transport costs, there is now little technical requirement for most kinds of production to be undertaken in any particular location, or for elements of production chains to be located close to each other. This fact has had dramatic consequences for the organisation of manufacturing industry. Simple production...

  8. Businessplan Smart Sustainable cities

    OpenAIRE

    Verdeyen, Nadia; Opstelten, Ivo; Eweg, Erlijn; Rietbergen, Marieke; Martinovic, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Uit voorwoord Anton Franken, lid CvB `Smart Sustainable Cities is een platform voor het bedrijfsleven, kennisinstellingen en Hogeschool Utrecht waar gezamenlijk vernieuwende producten en diensten worden ontwikkeld die de realisatie van slimme, duurzame en gezonde steden dichterbij brengt. Startende en ervaren professionals hebben hiermee de mogelijkheid om via het onderwijs of via bij- en nascholing de nieuwste toepasbare kennis en inzichten op dit gebied op te doen. Tevens verricht het platf...

  9. Transport for smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    The global megatrend of the last century’s migration from rural to ever-larger conurbations has created immense gains to society through economies of scale and benefits from agglomeration. These include – other things remaining equal – a lesser need for transport because a bigger share of peoples’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. T...

  10. The Temporary City Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Niamh; McCarthy, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The Temporary City Workshop was hosted by Dr Niamh Moore-Cherry on Tuesday 21 October in Nova UCD. The workshop is part of the Greening as Spatial Politics project funded by the IRC New Foundations scheme 2013 and is a collaboration between geographers at University College Dublin and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. The goal of the workshop was to facilitate networking across a diversity of stakeholders and initiate discussion on temporary urban interventions in Dublin. The workshop wa...

  11. Towards what kind of city?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Coletta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The virtual city exists in “time” whereas the real city exists in “space”. The first one is an expression of our imagination, the second one of our ability to create. Time has articulated the images of cities as artisan philosophers, historians, artists, dreamers and even poets have given it to us. Space has generated cities which have been worked upon by geographers, geologists, surveyors, and finally urban planners. Space and time however live together in both cities, even if with alternating states of subordination. The culture of thinking, of decision making and of working is the unifying center of both the cities; it is the generating element both of the crises and the prosperity of the cities and it works towards an overcoming of the first and for the pursuit of the second (prosperity using the experience of the past for the making of a better future.

  12. CityVille For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Orland, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Learn to build and play CityVille to its full potential! You don't have to move to the city?just build one! Free to play, CityVille is a real-time simulation game that is available on Facebook and is the latest online game craze. As the only how-to beginner guide for new and current players, this helpful book walks you through the process of building a city from the ground up while acting as the city leader. You'll learn how to clear land, assemble roads, construct buildings, ship and import goods, trade with others, interact with the city's residents, and visit neighboring cities. Vibrant ful

  13. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, S.; Rabinovici, E.; Tallarita, G.

    2016-04-01

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  14. Finding Maximal Pairs with Bounded Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lyngsø, Rune B.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.;

    1999-01-01

    A pair in a string is the occurrence of the same substring twice. A pair is maximal if the two occurrences of the substring cannot be extended to the left and right without making them different. The gap of a pair is the number of characters between the two occurrences of the substring. In this...... paper we present methods for finding all maximal pairs under various constraints on the gap. In a string of length n we can find all maximal pairs with gap in an upper and lower bounded interval in time O(n log n+z) where z is the number of reported pairs. If the upper bound is removed the time reduces...... to O(n+z). Since a tandem repeat is a pair where the gap is zero, our methods can be seen as a generalization of finding tandem repeats. The running time of our methods equals the running time of well known methods for finding tandem repeats....

  15. P-wave Cooper pair splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Soller

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Splitting of Cooper pairs has recently been realized experimentally for s-wave Cooper pairs. A split Cooper pair represents an entangled two-electron pair state, which has possible application in on-chip quantum computation. Likewise the spin-activity of interfaces in nanoscale tunnel junctions has been investigated theoretically and experimentally in recent years. However, the possible implications of spin-active interfaces in Cooper pair splitters so far have not been investigated.Results: We analyze the current and the cross correlation of currents in a superconductor–ferromagnet beam splitter, including spin-active scattering. Using the Hamiltonian formalism, we calculate the cumulant-generating function of charge transfer. As a first step, we discuss characteristics of the conductance for crossed Andreev reflection in superconductor–ferromagnet beam splitters with s-wave and p-wave superconductors and no spin-active scattering. In a second step, we consider spin-active scattering and show how to realize p-wave splitting using only an s-wave superconductor, through the process of spin-flipped crossed Andreev reflection. We present results for the conductance and cross correlations.Conclusion: Spin-activity of interfaces in Cooper pair splitters allows for new features in ordinary s-wave Cooper pair splitters, that can otherwise only be realized by using p-wave superconductors. In particular, it provides access to Bell states that are different from the typical spin singlet state.

  16. Opening up Smart Cities: Citizen-Centric Challenges and Opportunities from GIScience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auriol Degbelo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The holy grail of smart cities is an integrated, sustainable approach to improve the efficiency of the city’s operations and the quality of life of citizens. At the heart of this vision is the citizen, who is the primary beneficiary of smart city initiatives, either directly or indirectly. Despite the recent surge of research and smart cities initiatives in practice, there are still a number of challenges to overcome in realizing this vision. This position paper points out six citizen-related challenges: the engagement of citizens, the improvement of citizens’ data literacy, the pairing of quantitative and qualitative data, the need for open standards, the development of personal services, and the development of persuasive interfaces. The article furthermore advocates the use of methods and techniques from GIScience to tackle these challenges, and presents the concept of an Open City Toolkit as a way of transferring insights and solutions from GIScience to smart cities.

  17. English for au pairs the au pair's guide to learning English

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    English for Au Pairs has interlinked stories about a group of au pairs new to England. Marta, an 18-year-old from Poland arrives in the UK to work as an au pair. Throughout her year-long stay she has many different experiences - some bad, some good - but with the support of her host family she finds new friends and improves her English. English for Au Pairs offers insight into the joys and difficulties of being an au pair while at the same time reinforcing English language learning through grammar explanations and exercises.

  18. A Curious Pair of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope has taken the best image ever of a strange and chaotic duo of interwoven galaxies. The images also contain some surprises -- interlopers both far and near. ESO PR Photo 11a/09 A Curious Pair of Galaxies ESO PR Video 11a/09 Arp 261 zoom in ESO PR Video 11b/09 Pan over Arp 261 Sometimes objects in the sky that appear strange, or different from normal, have a story to tell and prove scientifically very rewarding. This was the idea behind Halton Arp's catalogue of Peculiar Galaxies that appeared in the 1960s. One of the oddballs listed there is Arp 261, which has now been imaged in more detail than ever before using the FORS2 instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope. The image proves to contain several surprises. Arp 261 lies about 70 million light-years distant in the constellation of Libra, the Scales. Its chaotic and very unusual structure is created by the interaction of two galaxies that are engaged in a slow motion, but highly disruptive close encounter. Although individual stars are very unlikely to collide in such an event, the huge clouds of gas and dust certainly do crash into each other at high speed, leading to the formation of bright new clusters of very hot stars that are clearly seen in the picture. The paths of the existing stars in the galaxies are also dramatically disrupted, creating the faint swirls extending to the upper left and lower right of the image. Both interacting galaxies were probably dwarfs not unlike the Magellanic Clouds orbiting our own galaxy. The images used to create this picture were not actually taken to study the interacting galaxies at all, but to investigate the properties of the inconspicuous object just to the right of the brightest part of Arp 261 and close to the centre of the image. This is an unusual exploding star, called SN 1995N, that is thought to be the result of the final collapse of a massive star at the end of its life, a so-called core collapse supernova. SN 1995N is unusual because

  19. SRTM Stereo Pair: Northwest of Bhuj, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001, the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. Shortly thereafter, geologists traversed the region looking for ground surface disruptions, such as fault breaks, that could provide clues to the tectonic processes here. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) scientists provided stereoscopic images to the geologists, similar to this 3-D view of the terrain northwest of the city of Bhuj. The geologists reported back that the images were essential in optimizing their field activities. Tectonic landforms are created by ground displacements that are repetitious over geologic time, so these landforms are good places to look for co-seismic faulting and warping. The stereoscopic images showed the geologists where the structures are located and their overall pattern, which could not be seen while standing on anyone hill or in any one gully. In general, the field studies found that surface disruptions by the recent earthquake were minimal and that the major landforms are quite old and probably not directly related to ongoing tectonic processes.Features of interest in the view shown here include the largest hill (upper left-center), which is a dome or anticline, upwardly convex layered rocks. Also visible are a possible volcanic plug (lower left-center) and an incised meandering stream (center). Agriculture in this arid region is concentrated on the alluvial fan of the major stream (green pattern, upper right).This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over a preliminary SRTM elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view

  20. On the average pairing energy in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The macroscopic-microscopic method is applied to calculate the nuclear energies, especially the microscopic shell and pairing corrections. The single-particle levels are obtained with the Yukawa folded mean-field potential. The macroscopic energy is evaluated using the Lublin-Strasbourg Drop model. The shell corrections are obtained using the Strutinsky method with smoothing in nucleon number space. The average nuclear pairing energy is also determined by folding the BCS sums in nucleon number space. The average pairing energy dependence on the nuclear elongation is investigated. (author)

  1. Becoming independent through au pair migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    article argues that, despite this critique, au pairing does play an important formative role for young Filipinas because it opens up for experiences abroad that enable them to be recognised as independent adults in Philippine society. Rather than autonomy, however, au pairs define their independence in...... terms of their capacity to assume responsibility for others, thereby achieving a position of social respect. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark and the Philippines, this article explores how young Filipinas use the social, economic, and cultural resources they gain from their au pair stay abroad...

  2. Categorical Pairs and the Indicative Shift

    OpenAIRE

    Kauffman, Louis H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of a categorical pair, a pair of categories (C,C') such that every morphism in C is an object in C'. Categorical pairs are precursors to 2-categories. Arrows in C' can express relationships among the morphisms of C. In particular we show that by using a model of the linguistic process of naming, we can ensure that every morphism in C has an indirect self-reference of the form a -----> Fa where this arrow occurs in the category C'. This result is shown to gener...

  3. Securing water for the cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, D

    1993-01-01

    Many cities in developing countries have grown so much that they can no longer provide adequate, sustainable water. Over pumping in Dakar and Mexico City has forced those cities to obtain water from ever more distant sources. In Dakar, the result has been saltwater intrusion. Overpumping has caused Mexico City to sink, in some areas by as much as 9 m, resulting in serious damage to buildings and sewage and drainage pipes. Other cities facing similar water problems are coastal cities in Peru (e.g., Lima), La Rioja and Catamarca in Argentina, cities in Northern Mexico, and cities in dry areas of Africa. For some cities, the problem is not so much ever more distant water supplies but insufficient funds to expand supplies. Bangkok and Jakarta both face saltwater intrusion into their overdrawn aquifers. Even through agriculture is the dominant user of water in most countries, demand concentrated in a small area exhausts local and regional sources and pollutes rivers, lakes, and coasts with untreated human and industrial waste. Most cities in Africa and Asia do not have a sewerage system. Further, most cities do not have the drains to deal with storm water and external floodwater, causing frequent, seasonal flooding. The resulting stagnant water provides breeding grounds for insect vectors of diseases (e.g., malaria). The problems in most cities are a result of poor management, not lack of water. Reducing leaks in existing piped distribution systems from the usual 60% loss of water to leaks to 12% would increase the available water 2-fold. Another way to address water shortages would be commercial, industrial, and recreational use of minimally treated waste water, such as is the case in Madras and Mexico City. Political solutions are needed to resolve inadequate water supply and waste management. PMID:12287008

  4. Implementation of New Pairing Technique for Studying the Effectiveness of Pairs on Persona and Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARSIMARJEET KHURANA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study in which persona for the category of paired and solo students were compared on the parameter like program clarity, presentation, satisfaction level and confidence level, also the effectiveness of pairs in a JAVA programming language and the impact of pairs on each other. In this study same programs were given to all the category of paired and solo students. Finding reported in this paper are that pairing students were more likely to turn in working programs, and these programs were correctly implemented with more required features as compared to solo students. It has been observed that pairing of intelligent, average and poor with themselves has not shown significant differences but we have seen significant differences with combination of pairs.

  5. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its

  6. Water for cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Africa has entered the new Millennium with a sense of hope and renewed confidence. With widening and deepening of political reforms, economic liberalization and a strengthened civil society, an increasing number of African countries are striving towards economic recovery and sustainable development. But also Africa is a continent of paradox. Home to the world's longest river, the Nile, and the second largest freshwater lake, Lake Victoria. Africa has abundant water resources contributed by large rivers, vast stretches of wetlands and limited, but widely spread, groundwater. Yet only a limited number of countries are beneficiaries of this abundance. Fourteen African countries account for 80% of the total water available on the continent, while 12 of the countries together account for only 1% of water availability. Some 400 million people are estimated to be living in water-scarce condition today. Indeed my home country, Tanzania, claims over 40% of Africa's water resources from Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganaika and other major water bodies. Water in Africa is not only unfairly distributed by nature but, due to backward technology and underdevelopment, it remains also inadequately allocated by man. At the turn of the new Millennium, over 300 million people in Africa still do not have access to safe water. But perhaps nowhere is the challenge more complex and demanding than in the rapidly growing African cities. With an average growth rate of 5% per annum, Africa is the fastest urbanizing region in the world today. Between 1990 and 2020, in many of our life times, urban populations in Africa will rise fourfold from 138 to 500 million. The 'Water for African Cities Programme' is demonstrating, in seven African countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, South Africa and Zambia), how to put in place an integrated urban water resource management strategy that could bring three key sectors -- urban, environment and water -- to work together. Tanzania is the

  7. Isovectorial pairing in solvable and algebraic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schematic interactions are useful to gain some insight in the behavior of very complicated systems such as the atomic nuclei. Prototypical examples are, in this context, the pairing interaction and the quadrupole interaction of the Elliot model. In this contribution the interplay between isovectorial pairing, spin-orbit, and quadrupole terms in a harmonic oscillator shell (the so-called pairing-plus-quadrupole model) is studied by algebraic methods. The ability of this model to provide a realistic description of N = Z even-even nuclei in the fp-shell is illustrated with 44Ti. Our calculations which derive from schematic and simple terms confirm earlier conclusions obtained by using realistic interactions: the SU(3) symmetry of the quadrupole term is broken mainly by the spin-orbit term, but the energies depends strongly on pairing.

  8. Robustness of quantum critical pairing against disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Fernandes, Rafael M.

    2016-06-01

    The remarkable robustness of high-temperature superconductors against disorder remains a controversial obstacle towards the elucidation of their pairing state. Indeed, experiments report a weak suppression rate of the transition temperature Tc with disorder, significantly smaller than the universal value predicted by extensions of the conventional theory of dirty superconductors. However, in many high-Tc compounds, superconductivity appears near a putative magnetic quantum critical point, suggesting that quantum fluctuations, which suppress coherent electronic spectral weight, may also promote unconventional pairing. Here we investigate theoretically the impact of disorder on such a quantum critical pairing state, considering the coupling of impurities both to the low-energy electronic states and to the pairing interaction itself. We find a significant reduction in the suppression rate of Tc with disorder near the magnetic quantum critical point, shedding new light on the nature of unconventional superconductivity in correlated materials.

  9. Large amplitude pairing fluctuations in atomic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Vaquero, Nuria López; Rodríguez, Tomás R

    2013-01-01

    Pairing fluctuations are self-consistently incorporated on the same footing as the quadrupole deformations in present state of the art calculations including particle number and angular momentum conservation as well as configuration mixing. The approach is complemented by the use of the finite range density dependent Gogny force which, with a unique source for the particle-hole and particle-particle interactions, guarantees a self-consistent interplay in both channels. We have applied our formalism to study the role of the pairing degree of freedom in the description of the most relevant observables like spectra, transition probabilities, separation energies, etc. We find that the inclusion of pairing fluctuations mostly affects the description of excited states, depending on the excitation energy and the angular momentum. $E0$ transition probabilities experiment rather big changes while $E2$'s are less affected. Genuine pairing vibrations are thoroughly studied with the conclusion that deformations strongly ...

  10. A Pair Polarimeter for High Energy Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, David; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Abbott, D.; Vlahovic, B.; Hotta, T.; Kohri, H.; Matsumura, T.; Mibe, T.; Nakano, T.; Yurita, T.; Zegers, R.; Khandaker, M.; Feldman, G.; O'Rielly, G. V.; Wood, M.; Asai, G.; Rudge, A.; Weilhammer, P.

    2001-10-01

    The physics program at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility includes fundamental experiments with polarized photon beams in the GeV energy range. To measure the degree of photon polarization, a photon polarimeter based on the detection of e^+e^- pairs has been developed for use in Hall B and was recently tested at the LEPS facility at SPring-8 in Japan. The use of silicon micro-strip detectors allows for the first time the measurement of the angle correlation in electron-positron pair production by high energy photons incident on an amorphous converter. Theoretical calculations of the pair production process show an asymmetry σ_allel/σ_⊥ ~ 1.7 in a wide range of photon energies. Experimental results from the measurement of the pair asymmetry using 2 GeV photons from the SPring-8 facility will be presented.

  11. Four square mile survey pair count instructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This standard operating procedure (SOP) provides guidance for conducting bird pair count measurements on wetlands for the HAPETs Four-Square-Mile survey. This set...

  12. Z-related pairs in microtonal systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althuis, T.A.; Göbel, F.

    2000-01-01

    Various infinite families of Z-related pairs in microtonal systems are presented. Soderberg's dual inversion is compared to a more special transformation, the one-pitch shift. The material is illustrated by several examples.

  13. Pairing properties of realistic effective interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargano A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the pairing properties of an effective shell-model interaction defined within a model space outside 132Sn and derived by means of perturbation theory from the CD-Bonn free nucleon-nucleon potential. It turns out that the neutron pairing component of the effective interaction is significantly weaker than the proton one, which accounts for the large pairing gap difference observed in the two-valence identical particle nuclei 134Sn and 134Te. The role of the contribution arising from one particle-one hole excitations in determining the pairing force is discussed and its microscopic structure is also analyzed in terms of the multipole decomposition.

  14. Engineering a factorable photon pair source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielnicki, Kevin; Kwiat, Paul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-12-04

    Spontaneous parametric downconversion is an important process for producing pairs of photons for quantum optics. We discuss a scheme for eliminating undesired inter-photon correlations inherent in this process, and an efficient characterization of spectral correlations.

  15. Pairing vibrations in semimagic even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shifts in the energies of pairing vibrations due to the presence of valence nucleons are described in simple terms. Calculations are reported for the Z = 50 isotopes and N = 82 isotones and compared with experiment

  16. Comments on Coulomb pairing in aromatic hydrocarbons

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, D L

    2013-01-01

    Recently reported anomalies in the double-photonionization spectra of aromatic molecules such as benzene, naphthalene, anthracene and coronene are attributed to Coulomb-pair resonances of pi electrons.

  17. Colors of Dynamically Associated Asteroid Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Moskovitz, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Recent dynamical studies have identified pairs of asteroids that reside in nearly identical heliocentric orbits. Possible formation scenarios for these systems include dissociation of binary asteroids, collisional disruption of a single parent body, or spin-up and rotational fission of a rubble-pile. Aside from detailed dynamical analyses and measurement of rotational light curves, little work has been done to investigate the colors or spectra of these unusual objects. A photometric and spectroscopic survey was conducted to determine the reflectance properties of asteroid pairs. New observations were obtained for a total of 34 individual asteroids. Additional photometric measurements were retrieved from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Moving Object Catalog. Colors or spectra for a total of 42 pair components are presented here. The main findings of this work are: (1) the components in the observed pair systems have the same colors within the uncertainties of this survey, and (2) the color distribution of asteroi...

  18. New city spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan; Gemzøe, Lars

    2001-01-01

    2. rev. udg. engelsk udgave af 'Nye byrum'. This book presents an overview of the developments in the use and planning of public spaces, and offers a detailed description of 9 cities with interesting public space strategies: Barcelona, Lyon, Strasbourg, Freiburg and Copenhagen in Europe, Portland...... in North America, Curitiba and Cordoba in South America and Melbourne in Australia. It also portrays 39 selected public space projects from all parts of the World. The strategies and projects are extensively illustrated by drawings, plans and photographs....

  19. Towards Smart City Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Stan, Catalin; Wøldike, Niels Peter;

    2015-01-01

    We present an approach to geometry learning that is based on a didactic theory, which builds on play in order to discover and learn about geometry. Inspired by this theory, a mobile and location-aware game has been developed that aims at embodying geometric concepts in the real world. To this end......, the concept of smart city learning is exploited to situate learning about geometric shapes in concrete buildings and thus make them more accessible for younger children. In close collaboration with a local school a game for 3rd graders was developed and tested on a field trip and in class. A mixed measures...

  20. Smart Cities need architects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Architects and urban planners have always been at the forefront of technical and social innovation processes, researching and proposing new urban models and buildings based on cognitive materials from both their own and other fields of knowledge. In fact, current society, including our ways of life and habits, could not be comprehended without the open, curious minds and progressive even defiant attitudes of architects such as Brunelleschi, Violletle- Duc, Perret, Le Corbusier and Fuller, who defied the threshold of conceptual and vital convention and staked everything on exploring and applying the characteristic technological breakthroughs of their day to architecture and the design of cities. (Author)

  1. City under the Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    military conflicts are taking place. Studying the wealth of public representations of Camp Century, established 1959-60 by the US Army 128 miles east of the Thule Air Base and often referred to as the “City under the Ice”, we find a sharp contrast between the domesticated interior and the superpower...... public image of Camp Century was one of technological comfort and military-scientific control. Amidst the raging Cold War and up against the harsh environment, the construction of the camp would prove to the public that the combined forces of the US military-technology-science complex would prevail...

  2. Building the Bicycle City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    was supplemented by an informative magazine and a map of the ward for pupils. At first you could think that it was just another gimmick to inform inhabitants about their municipality, but it was actually an intelligent way to make children and young people know their neighbourhood through physical activity......, the bike reduces distances, is a stress reducing tool, makes the cyclists experience the differences of the seasons - smells, sounds, wind, temperatures - see parts of the city that they never would normally not experience in the underground subway and gives you the opportunity to talk with your companion...

  3. Responsive City Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper presents and discusses perspectives extracted from two interviews conducted during the experiments Urban Responsive Lighting. The two experts embody two different fields related to city lighting: architecture & public lighting industry. The representatives were invited to the test......-site, where 15 LED RGB Park lamps, controlled driven by a wind sensor, mobile phone applications or by thermal camera tracking. According to the specialists are the social and aesthetical dimensions more interesting than the energy use cases and efficiency. This motivates an interdisciplinary discussion on...

  4. City of Epitaphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Hicks

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The pavement lies like a ledger-stone on a tomb. Buried underneath are the remains of fertile landscapes and the life they once supported. Inscribed on its upper side are epitaphic writings. Whatever their ostensible purpose, memorial plaques and public artworks embedded in the pavement are ultimately expressions of civic bereavement and guilt. The pavement's role as both witness and accomplice to fatality is confirmed by private individuals who publicize their grief with death notices graffitied on the asphalt. To walk the city is to engage in a dialogue about death.

  5. Beyond the City Limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hairong

    2012-01-01

    While most fresh university graduates in China aim to find jobs in the cities,more and more welleducated young people are starting to look for career opportunities in rural areas.Cheng Guangjing is one of those who have chosen to work as a village official.In 2009 he began working in Dongzhuang Village,Lankao County in central China's Henan Province.On November 24,2011,the villagers unanimously elected him secretary of the Dongzhuang Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC).

  6. The City Street

    OpenAIRE

    H.C. van der Wouden

    1999-01-01

    Original title: De stad op straat. The city street; the public space in perspective (De stad op straat; de openbare ruimte in perspectief) by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP is intended to contribute to the formation of new ideas about the public space and the future of urban societies. It presents a collection of essays on the urban public space from a large number of scientific disciplines. The following authors contributed to the collection: Prof. R.W. Boomkens (cult...

  7. Smart Cities: esperienze europee

    OpenAIRE

    Gasca, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    «Il tema chiave che ruota intorno concetto di Smat City è la necessità e il desiderio di trasformare le città e le comunità in luoghi con una migliore qualità della vita» (Van Beurden, 2011). Proprio questo deve essere uno degli obiettivi principali delle strategie smart che, valorizzando le potenzialità dei territori nei quali si sviluppano, devono essere orientate ad un miglioramento delle condizioni di vita della cittadinanza e allo sviluppo della capacità attrattiva delle città. La smart ...

  8. Magical Landscapes and Designed Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    “something special,” a feel-good, (almost spiritual) healing power (just moments away from the bustling city). In Melanesia, such a spiritual force goes by the name of “mana”. Århus’ mana landscapes are only invested with this huge, floating quality because they are near the city. Furthermore, they are seen...... from the point of view of the city, where order, design, planning and commerce are important cityscape qualities. The article deals with the way in which these two parts of the city, landscape and brandscape are complementary parts of the city-web. Analytical points made by Mauss, Lévi-Strauss and...... Greimas are discussed in connection with the empirical setting of the city of Århus...

  9. City project and public space

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The book aims at nurturing theoretic reflection on the city and the territory and working out and applying methods and techniques for improving our physical and social landscapes. The main issue is developed around the projectual dimension, with the objective of visualising both the city and the territory from a particular viewpoint, which singles out the territorial dimension as the city’s space of communication and negotiation. Issues that characterise the dynamics of city development will be faced, such as the new, fresh relations between urban societies and physical space, the right to the city, urban equity, the project for the physical city as a means to reveal civitas, signs of new social cohesiveness, the sense of contemporary public space and the sustainability of urban development. Authors have been invited to explore topics that feature a pluralism of disciplinary contributions studying formal and informal practices on the project for the city and seeking conceptual and operative categories capab...

  10. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: – Many city logistics projects in Europe have failed. A better understanding of the complex organizational change processes in city logistics projects with many stakeholders may expand city logistics capabilities and thereby help prevent future failures. The purpose of this paper is...... therefore to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge, and secondarily, to investigate whether such processes can be managed at all. Design/methodology/approach: – A paradigm shift in urban planning creates new ways of involving stakeholders in new sustainability measures such as city logistics....... Organizational change theory is applied to capture the social processes leading to emergence of city logistics. The methodology is a qualitative processual analysis of a single longitudinal case. Findings: – The change process took different forms over time. At the time of concluding the analysis, positive...

  11. Exactly solvable pairing Hamiltonian for heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new exactly solvable Hamiltonian with a separable pairing interaction and nondegenerate single-particle energies. It is derived from the hyperbolic family of Richardson-Gaudin models and possesses two free parameters, one related to an interaction cutoff and the other to the pairing strength. These two parameters can be adjusted to give an excellent reproduction of Gogny self-consistent mean-field calculations in the Hartree-Fock basis.

  12. A Cubic Micron of Equilibrium Pair Plasma?

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, J. I.

    1998-01-01

    Is it possible to create a small volume of equilibrium pair plasma in the laboratory with an intense laser pulse? No. The required power would exceed 10^{18} W. The number of seed particles required to absorb the laser energy would approach the number of pairs in the desired plasma, and their radiation in a visible laser field would occur at extremely high frequencies.

  13. Influence of quadrupole pairing on backbending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The backbending phenomenon is attributed to the Coriolis antipairing and the rotational alignment effects. We can consider both effects simultaneously by applying the cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory to the description of the rotational motion of nuclei. In usual treatments of the backbending, however, only the monopole pairing force is considered and pairing forces of other types are neglected. This may be the main reason for starting of the backbending at too small total angular momentum in theoretical results. (orig.)

  14. Arithmetic Operators for Pairing-Based Cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    Beuchat, Jean-Luc; Brisebarre, Nicolas; Detrey, Jérémie; Okamoto, Eiji

    2007-01-01

    Since their introduction in constructive cryptographic applications, pairings over (hyper)elliptic curves are at the heart of an ever increasing number of protocols. Software implementations being rather slow, the study of hardware architectures became an active research area. In this paper, we first study an accelerator for the eta_T pairing over F_3[x]/(x^97 + x^12 + 2). Our architecture is based on a unified arithmetic operator which performs addition, multiplication, and cubing over F_3^9...

  15. On the analysis of phylogenetically paired designs

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, Jennifer L.; Rakovski, Cyril S; Macpherson, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    As phylogenetically controlled experimental designs become increasingly common in ecology, the need arises for a standardized statistical treatment of these datasets. Phylogenetically paired designs circumvent the need for resolved phylogenies and have been used to compare species groups, particularly in the areas of invasion biology and adaptation. Despite the widespread use of this approach, the statistical analysis of paired designs has not been critically evaluated. We propose a mixed mod...

  16. Implementing cryptographic pairings at standard security levels

    OpenAIRE

    Enge, Andreas; Milan, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on an implementation of cryptographic pairings in a general purpose computer algebra system. For security levels equivalent to the different AES flavours, we exhibit suitable curves in parametric families and show that optimal ate and twisted ate pairings exist and can be efficiently evaluated. We provide a correct description of Miller's algorithm for signed binary expansions such as the NAF and extend a recent variant due to Boxall et al. to addition-subtraction chains. W...

  17. Pairs trading profitability and style investing

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Sara das Neves

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation studies the performance of the pairs trading strategy in the US stock market between 1962 and 2013. We find that this strategy remains profitable up to the current days, though these profits have been gradually falling. We show that investors are able to outperform the pure statistical arbitrage strategy, if they restrict the pairs matching to same-industry stocks, as they benefit from permanent links. Foremost, we find that industry, size, momentum and volatility style inve...

  18. Turbulent pair dispersion of inertial particles

    OpenAIRE

    Bec, J; Biferale, L.; Lanotte, A.S.; Scagliarini, A; Toschi, F.

    2009-01-01

    The relative dispersion of pairs of inertial particles in incompressible, homogeneous, and isotropic turbulence is studied by means of direct numerical simulations at two values of the Taylor-scale Reynolds number $Re_{\\lambda} \\sim 200$ and 400. The evolution of both heavy and light particle pairs is analysed at varying the particle Stokes number and the fluid-to-particle density ratio. For heavy particles, it is found that turbulent dispersion is schematically governed by two temporal regim...

  19. Rootless pairs of $EE_8$-lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Griess, Jr., Robert L.; lam, Ching Hung

    2008-01-01

    We describe a classification of pairs $M, N$ of lattices isometric to $EE_8:=\\sqrt 2 E_8$ such that the lattice $M + N$ is integral and rootless and such that the dihedral group associated to them has order at most 12. It turns out that most of these pairs may be embedded in the Leech lattice. Complete proofs will appear in another article. This theory of integral lattices has connections to vertex operator algebra theory and moonshine.

  20. Pairing dynamics and the origin of species

    OpenAIRE

    Puebla, Oscar; Bermingham, Eldredge; Guichard, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Whether sexual selection alone can drive the evolution of assortative mating in the presence of gene flow is a long-standing question in evolutionary biology. Here, we report a role for pairing dynamics of individuals when mate choice is mutual, which is sufficient for the evolution of assortative mating by sexual selection alone in the presence of gene flow. Through behavioural observation, individual-based simulation and population genetic analysis, we evaluate the pairing dynamics of coral...

  1. Host City Contract operational requirements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Host City Contract - Operational Requirements (the “HCC Operational Requirements”) are an important part of the Host City Contract, detailing a set of core elements for the project, which provide Olympic quality conditions for the athletes and all participants, while at the same time allowing potential host cities to responsibly match their Games concepts to their own sport, economic, social, and environmental long-term planning needs.

  2. Participatory prototyping for future cities

    OpenAIRE

    Van Waart, P.; Mulder, I.J.; de Bont, C.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging pervasive technologies such as the Internet of Things and Open Data will have severe impact on the experience, interactions and wellbeing of citizens in future smart cities. Local governments are concerned how to engage and embed citizens in the process of smart city development because without them it is difficult for governments and industrial technology providers to understand what future city is desired. We explore how prototyping methods can be used in a multi-helix approach tow...

  3. Large cities are less green

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Erneson A.; José S. Andrade; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-01-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on $\\rm{CO}_2$ emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine...

  4. Migration of helium-pair in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, J. L.; Geng, W. T.

    2016-09-01

    We have carried out a first-principles density functional theory investigation into the migration of both a single interstitial He and an interstitial He-pair in Fe, Mo, W, Cu, Pd, and Pt. We find the migration trajectories and barriers are determined predominantly by low-energy He-pair configurations which depend mainly on the energy state of a single He in different interstices. The migration barrier for a He-pair in bcc metals is always slightly higher than for a single He. Configurations of a He-pair in fcc metals are very complicated, due to the existence of interstitial sites with nearly identical energy for a single He. The migration barrier for a He-pair is slightly lower than (in Cu), or similar to (in Pd and Pt) a single He. The collective migrations of a He-pair are ensured by strong Hesbnd He interactions with strength-versus-distance forms resembling chemical bonds and can be described with Morse potentials.

  5. Large cities are less green

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, E A; Makse, H A

    2014-01-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on $\\rm{CO}_2$ emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between $\\rm{CO}_2$ emissions and city population with average allometric exponent $\\beta = 1.46$ across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropol...

  6. Smart Cities and Sustainability Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In our age cities are complex systems and we can say systems of systems. Today locality is the result of using information and communication technologies in all departments of our life, but in future all cities must to use smart systems for improve quality of life and on the other hand for sustainable development. The smart systems make daily activities more easily, efficiently and represent a real support for sustainable city development. This paper analysis the sus-tainable development and identified the key elements of future smart cities.

  7. in Beirut City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. El Khoury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of nutritional supplements among exercisers in gyms has been never investigated in the Middle East. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence intake of nutritional supplements and the potential influencing factors among people exercising in gyms in Beirut city. In this cross-sectional study, 512 exercisers, aged between 20 and 50 years, were randomly selected from gyms. The intake of nutritional supplements was reported among 36.3% (95% confidence interval 32.2–40.5 of participants, with a weak presence of medical supervision. Patterns of supplement use differed by gender and age. Men and younger exercisers were found to focus on supplements associated with performance enhancement and muscle building, while women and older exercisers were more concerned with health-promoting products such as vitamins, minerals, and herbal supplements. An appropriate dissemination of accurate and scientifically sound information regarding the benefits and side effects of nutritional supplements is highly recommended in the sports environment in Beirut city.

  8. Hydrogen atomic pair-ion production on catalyst surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To generate a hydrogen pair-ion plasma consisting of only hydrogen atomic pair ions, i.e., H+ and H- ions, the efficient production of pair ions is required. When discharged hydrogen plasma is irradiated to a Ni catalyst, pair ions are produced on the catalyst surface. It is clarified that hydrogen chemisorption on the catalyst affects pair-ion production.

  9. Smart cities of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  10. Cities and Climate Change : An Urgent Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The report discusses the link between climate change and cities, why cities should be concerned about climate change and adopt early preventative policies, and how the World Bank and other organizations can provide further support to cities on climate change issues. The report is one in a series of activities that explore the nexus of cities and climate change. This report, cities and clim...

  11. Tourism and City. Reflections about Tourist Dimension of Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of the future seems to be necessarily “intelligent” both in its physical and in functional features.This paper starts from the consideration that the diffusion of new communication technologies (ICTs is significantly changing the urban supply system of tourist services giving rise to new ways of enjoying the city.As tourism can be assumed as an urban activity, by a town planning point of view, the study of tourism is meaningful to identify development trajectories of the present cities targeted to sustainable and smarter models.As a matter of fact, almost all the projects to get a “smart city” are based on the idea of joining the potentialities of ICTs and the needs of urban management through people living or using the city.In such a vision, “tourist dimension” of the city becomes fundamental in promoting urban image as well as in improving efficiency of the city. This efficiency also depends on the capability of each city to share historical and cultural heritage as “common good”.As tourist demand has deeply changed also driven by technological development, this paper tries to investigate how the urban supply will change in order to meet the rising demand of quality and efficiency. The transition to smart tourist destination currently seems to be strongly connected with the number and the variety of apps to improve the “experiential component”. A lack of interest there seems to be in finding strategies and policies oriented to plan the urban supply of services tourist or not.This consideration, if shared, opens up new perspectives for research and experimentation in which city planning could have a key-role also in proposing an holistic approach to city development towards smart city.

  12. The hybrid outcome of urban change: global city, polarized city?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayat Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of studies supports the assumption that levels of socio-spatial polarization, segregation, and exclusion are rising in global cities over the past decades as a direct outcome of certain global processes, such as the deindustrialization process, its associated changes in division of labor, and declined redistributive power of the welfare state. However, that assumption – known as the polarization thesis – is criticized based on several contentions, including the oversimplification of the global/local interplay by overlooking the role of local contingent factors that may modify, intensify, or reverse the expected socio-spatial outcome in individual cities. This study aims to capture the hybrid nature of the socio-spatial outcomes of global cities by proving that the complex process of restructuring of cities is a form of structural and chronological hybridity. Through providing a solid empirical ground for investigating the general applicability of the socio-spatial polarization thesis, as well as evaluating the influence of local contexts of cities on the outcomes of urban change. The research offers a theoretical review of the multifaceted restructuring of global cities. Then, the macro trends of global economy are linked to their micro outcomes (segregation patterns within cities, through understanding the implications of cities’ economic functions on local urban policies and housing markets. Finally, the changes in socioeconomic segregation over the past decades are calculated for a large dataset of 66 global cities. The collective result of the analysis shows the downfalls of the generalized hypothesis. While the discussion of individual cities highlights certain contextual particularities, that are contributing to the production of unique socio-spatial configurations in different global cities.

  13. CHED Events: Salt Lake City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2009-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Education (CHED) Committee meetings planned for the Spring 2009 ACS Meeting in Salt Lake City will be in the Marriott City Center Hotel. Check the location of other CHED events, the CHED Social Event, the Undergraduate Program, Sci-Mix, etc. because many will be in the Salt Palace Convention Center.

  14. Malmo: A city in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Tessa Kate

    2014-01-01

    . From 1840 to the mid-1970s, Malmo’s growth continued to flourish. Like many Swedish cities, the manufacturing recession of the mid-1970s bought unemployment and population decline. Malmo transitioned from a manufacturing hub into a knowledge city with a strong focus on sustainable planning. Malmo has...

  15. Tuned City: The Space Acoustic

    OpenAIRE

    Niessen, BM

    2008-01-01

    The article is an in-depth interview with Derek Holzer, performance director of the Berlinese sound art festival Tuned City. The interview focuses on the transformations of sound art and on the role of media festivals in the contemporary city.

  16. Cities as nuclei of sustainability?

    CERN Document Server

    Rybski, Diego; Reusser, Dominik E; Fichtner, Christina; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing CO2 emission inventories of 256 cities from 33 countries we find power-law correlations between the emissions and city size, measured in population. The results suggest that in developing countries more CO2 per capita is emitted in large cities, i.e. they tend to exhibit super-linear correlations and doubling the population of any city implies up to 110% increase of emissions. For developed countries the results suggest the opposite, i.e. linear or sub-linear correlations, implying better efficiency of large cities, doubling the population of any city implies only 80% increase of emissions. The transition occurs at approx. 10,000GDP/cap. We derive how the total emissions of an entire country relate with the power-law correlations and find that the size of the most populated city is dominating in the case of linear and super-linear correlations. The size of the largest city has no influence in the case of sub-linear correlations. We conclude that from the climate change mitigation point of view, urba...

  17. Dubai: a City of Hope?

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Abirafeh

    2007-01-01

    The City of Hope is an organisation offering refuge for abused women in Dubai, the largest city of the United Arab Emirates. Dubai has started to acknowledge the social problems accompanying its phenomenal economic growth but is it doing enough to tackle the scourge of human trafficking?

  18. Dubai: a City of Hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Abirafeh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The City of Hope is an organisation offering refuge for abused women in Dubai, the largest city of the United Arab Emirates. Dubai has started to acknowledge the social problems accompanying its phenomenal economic growth but is it doing enough to tackle the scourge of human trafficking?

  19. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates t

  20. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Aastrup, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    as a change process where the city is working to change paradigm from a conventional top down regulation to a sustainable mobility paradigm. This long lasting and complex process towards improved organization of goods deliveries in the Copenhagen city center can further be understood as a teleological process...

  1. Educating Cities in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of…

  2. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Bolognesi, Stefano; Tallarita, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is les...

  3. Pair creation of black holes during inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Bousso, R; Bousso, Raphael; Hawking, Stephen W

    1996-01-01

    Black holes came into existence together with the universe through the quantum process of pair creation in the inflationary era. We present the instantons responsible for this process and calculate the pair creation rate from the no boundary proposal for the wave function of the universe. We find that this proposal leads to physically sensible results, which fit in with other descriptions of pair creation, while the tunnelling proposal makes unphysical predictions. We then describe how the pair created black holes evolve during inflation. In the classical solution, they grow with the horizon scale during the slow roll-down of the inflaton field; this is shown to correspond to the flux of field energy across the horizon according to the First Law of black hole mechanics. When quantum effects are taken into account, however, it is found that most black holes evaporate before the end of inflation. Finally, we consider the pair creation of magnetically charged black holes, which cannot evaporate. In standard Eins...

  4. Pair creation of black holes during inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, Raphael; Hawking, Stephen W.

    1996-11-01

    Black holes came into existence together with the universe through the quantum process of pair creation in the inflationary era. We present the instantons responsible for this process and calculate the pair creation rate from the no boundary proposal for the wave function of the universe. We find that this proposal leads to physically sensible results, which fit in with other descriptions of pair creation, while the tunneling proposal makes unphysical predictions. We then describe how the pair-created black holes evolve during inflation. In the classical solution, they grow with the horizon scale during the slow roll down of the inflaton field; this is shown to correspond to the flux of field energy across the horizon according to the first law of black hole mechanics. When quantum effects are taken into account, however, it is found that most black holes evaporate before the end of inflation. Finally, we consider the pair creation of magnetically charged black holes, which cannot evaporate. In standard Einstein-Maxwell theory we find that their number in the presently observable universe is exponentially small. We speculate how this conclusion may change if dilatonic theories are applied.

  5. Pairing and specific heat in hot nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Gambacurta, Danilo; Sandulescu, Nicu

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamics of pairing phase-transition in nuclei is studied in the canonical ensemble and treating the pairing correlations in a finite-temperature variation after projection BCS approach (FT-VAP). Due to the restoration of particle number conservation, the pairing gap and the specific heat calculated in the FT-VAP approach vary smoothly with the temperature, indicating a gradual transition from the superfluid to the normal phase, as expected in finite systems. We have checked that the predictions of the FT-VAP approach are very accurate when compared to the results obtained by an exact diagonalization of the pairing Hamiltonian. The influence of pairing correlations on specific heat is analysed for the isotopes $^{161,162}$Dy and $^{171,172}$Yb. It is shown that the FT-VAP approach, applied with a level density provided by mean field calculations and supplemented, at high energies, by the level density of the back-shifted Fermi gas model, can approximate reasonably well the main properties of specifi...

  6. Archaeoastronomy and Calendar Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    The use of astronomy for collective purposes, both religious and political, is apparent in the earliest astronomical records, from the evidence for Palaeolithic lunar calendars to megalithic monuments and Mesopotamian celestial-omen reports. This paper will consider the application of the heavens to the organisation of the ‘Cosmic State’, the human polity modelled on the assumption of a close relationship between society on the one hand and planetary and stellar patterns on the other. I will also examine the foundation of Baghdad within the tradition of celestial town planning and argue that the city may be seen as a ‘talisman’, designed to connect heaven to Earth and ensure peace, stability and political success by harmonising time and space.

  7. Distance weighted city growth

    CERN Document Server

    Rybski, Diego; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2012-01-01

    Urban agglomerations exhibit complex emergent features of which Zipf's law, i.e. a power-law size distribution, and fractality may be regarded as the most prominent ones. We propose a simplistic model for the generation of city-like structures which is solely based on the assumption that growth is more likely to take place close to inhabited space. The model involves one parameter which is an exponent determining how strongly the attraction decays with the distance. In addition, the model is run iteratively so that existing clusters can grow and new ones can emerge. The model is capable of reproducing the size distribution and the fractality of the hull of the largest cluster. While the power-law distribution depends on both, the imposed exponent and the iteration, the fractality seems to be independent of the former and only depends on the latter.

  8. Human diffusion and city influence

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J

    2015-01-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and hierarchy in terms of influence at local, regional or global scales naturally emerges. Traditionally, there have been important efforts to describe this hierarchy by indirect measures such the sharing of company headquarters, traffic by air, train or boats or economical exchanges. In this work, we take a different approach and introduce a method that uses geolocated Twitter information to quantify the impact of cities on rural or other urban areas. Since geolocated tweets are becoming a global phenomenon, the method can be applied at a world-wide scale. We focus on $58$ cities and analyze the mobility patterns of people after visiting them for the first time. Cities such as Rome and Paris appear consistently as those with largest area covered by Twitter users after their visit and as those attracting visitors most diverse in origin. The study is also performed discerning users mobility b...

  9. Cooper-pair splitter: towards an efficient source of spin-entangled EPR pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonenberger, Christian

    2011-03-01

    In quantum mechanics the properties of two and more particles can be entangled. In basic science pairs of entangled particles, so called Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs, play a special role as toy objects for fundamental studies. They provide such things as ``spooky interaction at distance,'' but they also enable secure encoding and teleportation and are thus important for applications in quantum information technology. Whereas EPR pairs of photons can be generated by parametric down conversion (PDC) in a crystal, a similar source for EPR pairs of electrons does not exists yet. In several theory papers, it has been suggested to use a superconductor for this purpose. The superconducting ground state is formed by a condensate of Cooper-pairs which are electron pairs in a spin-singlet state. Since there are many Cooper pairs in a metallic superconductor like Al, the main tasks are to extract Cooper pairs one by one and to split them into different arms. A controlled and efficient splitting is possible if one makes use of Coulomb interaction. This has recently be demonstrated by two groups [2-4] using hybrid quantum-dot devices with both superconducting and normal metal contacts. In the present talk, I will discuss the Cooper-pair splitter results from the Basel-Budapest-Copenhagen team and compare with the other experiments. As an outlook we discuss approaches that aim at entanglement detection. The Cooper pair splitter holds great promises because very large splitting efficiencies approaching 100% and large pair current rates appear feasible. This work has been done by L. Hofstetter, S. Csonka, A. Geresdi, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard and C. Schönenberger

  10. Sustainability in South Asian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City brings about the most complex interplay of social, cultural, and political dimensions of space. It will have to accommodate around one billion humans only in South Asia by the year 2030. Therefore it needs to be prepared to absorb huge increases in urban population and resulting pressure on basic infrastructure and livelihood opportunities. In order to secure a better future and to improve the quality of life of all the citizens, city needs to be reinvented, by incorporating creativity and innovation with the approaches, we use in its planning. Here we present an overview of the progress, challenges and some key interventions to reinvent the city in South Asian region as well as in the developing world, with the examples of the most populous countries in the region: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Planning transforms geometric space in city into lived space. City planning in South Asia is as old as the human settlement itself, but the current situation is well below the level to be admired. Most of the city plans have been faulty with poor economic base and implementability, and fostered unintended city within the city, whose growth rate shadows the growth rate of the city itself. City in the developing world desperately needs to follow a sustainable development pattern which satisfies the requirement for equity; meets basic human needs; allows social and ethnic self-determination; promotes environmental awareness, integrity and inter-linkages between various living beings across time and space. It requires a combination of strategic policy making, supported by a system that combines personal opinion with scientific knowledge. It needs to reset the basis for the articulation of the initiatives of all relevant stakeholders to seek synergies for its development.

  11. Sister Cities along US/Mexico Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Locations of 29 cities referred to as US and Mexico "Sister Cities." The locations of the cities were pulled from the Digital Chart of the World database, 1994. The...

  12. Pair Creation in the Pulsar Magnetosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Eilek, J A

    2002-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of the electron-positron plasma creation process in a simple neutron star magnetosphere. We have developed a set of cascade `kernels', which represent the endpoint of the pair cascades resulting from monoenergetic photon seeds. We explore two popular models by convolving these kernels with the seed photon distributions produced by curvature radiation and by inverse Compton scattering. We find that the pair plasma in either case is well-described in its rest frame by a relativistic Maxwellian distribution with temperature near mc^2/k_B. We present cascade multiplicities and efficiencies for a range of seed particle energies and stellar magnetic fields. We find that the efficiencies and multiplicities of pair creation are often lower than has been assumed in previous work.

  13. Thermodynamics of pairing transition in hot nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Lang; Zhao, Peng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The pairing correlations in hot nuclei $^{162}$Dy are investigated in terms of the thermodynamical properties by covariant density functional theory. The heat capacities $C_V$ are evaluated in the canonical ensemble theory and the paring correlations are treated by a shell-model-like approach, in which the particle number is conserved exactly. A S-shaped heat capacity curve, which agrees qualitatively with the experimental data, has been obtained and analyzed in details. It is found that the one-pair-broken states play crucial roles in the appearance of the S shape of the heat capacity curve. Moreover, due to the effect of the particle-number conservation, the pairing gap varies smoothly with the temperature, which indicates a gradual transition from the superfluid to the normal state.

  14. Complex conjugate pairs in stationary Sturmians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturmian expansions enable a simply accurate separable specification of two nucleon t matrices based upon realistic two nucleon interactions. Sturmian eigenstates specified by stationary scattering boundary conditions are particularly useful in that context, and they can be calculated by solving a generalised eigenvalue equation using real and symmetric matrices. In general, the spectrum of such an equation may contain complex eigenvalues. But to each complex eigenvalues there is a corresponding conjugate partner. In studies using realistic two nucleon potentials, and in certain positive energy intervals, these complex conjugated pairs indeed appear in the Sturmian spectrum. However, it is demonstrated that it is possible to recombine the complex conjugate pairs and corresponding states into a new, (and useful) pair of real eigenvalues and eigenstates with which of effect separable expansions of the (real) two nucleon reactance matrices. 8 refs

  15. Complex conjugate pairs in stationary Sturmian eigenstates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturmian eigenstates specified by stationary scattering boundary conditions are particularly useful in contexts such as forming simple separable two nucleon t matrices, and are determined via solution of generalized eigenvalue equation using real and symmetric matrices. In general, the spectrum of such an equation may contain complex eigenvalues. But to each complex eigenvalue there is a corresponding conjugate partner. In studies using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, and in certain positive energy intervals, these complex conjugated pairs indeed appear in the Sturmian spectrum. However, as we demonstrate herein, it is possible to recombine the complex conjugate pairs and corresponding states into a new, sign-definite pair of real quantities with which to effect separable expansions of the (real) nucleon-nucleon reactance matrices

  16. Entropy, area, and black hole pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen William; Ross, S F; Hawking, S W; Horowitz, Gary T; Ross, Simon F

    1995-01-01

    We clarify the relation between gravitational entropy and the area of horizons. We first show that the entropy of an extreme Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is zero, despite the fact that its horizon has nonzero area. Next, we consider the pair creation of extremal and nonextremal black holes. It is shown that the action which governs the rate of this pair creation is directly related to the area of the acceleration horizon and (in the nonextremal case) the area of the black hole event horizon. This provides a simple explanation of the result that the rate of pair creation of non-extreme black holes is enhanced by precisely the black hole entropy. Finally, we discuss black hole annihilation, and argue that Planck scale remnants are not sufficient to preserve unitarity in quantum gravity.

  17. Entropy, area, and black hole pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, S. W.; Horowitz, Gary T.; Ross, Simon F.

    1995-04-01

    We clarify the relation between gravitational entropy and the area of horizons. We first show that the entropy of an extreme Reissner-Nordström black hole is zero, despite the fact that its horizon has nonzero area. Next, we consider the pair creation of extremal and nonextremal black holes. It is shown that the action which governs the rate of this pair creation is directly related to the area of the acceleration horizon and (in the nonextremal case) the area of the black hole event horizon. This provides a simple explanation of the result that the rate of pair creation of nonextreme black holes is enhanced by precisely the black hole entropy. Finally, we discuss black hole annihilation, and argue that Planck scale remnants are not sufficient to preserve unitarity in quantum gravity.

  18. Theoretical analysis of novel fiber grating pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liao; Jia, Hongzhi; Fang, Liang; You, Bei

    2016-06-01

    A novel fiber grating pair that consists of a conventional long-period fiber grating and a fiber Bragg cladding grating (FBCG) is proposed. The FBCG is a new type of fiber grating in which refractive index modulation is formed in the cladding. Through the coupled-mode theory, we accurately calculate the coupling coefficients between modes supported in the fibers. And some other mode coupling features in the fiber cladding gratings are analyzed in detail. The calculation of the modes involved in this paper is based on a model of three-layer step-index fiber geometry. Then, we have investigated the sensitivity characteristics for variation of the modulation strengths of the fiber Bragg cladding gratings' resonance peaks and the long-period cladding gratings' (LPCGs) dual resonant peaks. Finally, the modulation strength sensitivity of the grating pair's three resonant peaks is demonstrated, and the results indicate that these grating pairs may find potential applications in optical fiber sensing.

  19. Complex Conjugate Pairs in Stationary Sturmians

    CERN Document Server

    Dortmans, P J; Pisent, G; Amos, K A

    1993-01-01

    Sturmian eigenstates specified by stationary scattering boundary conditions are particularly useful in contexts such as forming simple separable two nucleon t matrices, and are determined via solution of generalised eigenvalue equation using real and symmetric matrices. In general, the spectrum of such an equation may contain complex eigenvalues. But to each complex eigenvalue there is a corresponding conjugate partner. In studies using realistic nucleon--nucleon potentials, and in certain positive energy intervals, these complex conjugated pairs indeed appear in the Sturmian spectrum. However, as we demonstrate herein, it is possible to recombine the complex conjugate pairs and corresponding states into a new, sign--definite pair of real quantities with which to effect separable expansions of the (real) nucleon--nucleon reactance matrices.

  20. The inverse problem for Schwinger pair production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hebenstreit

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of electron–positron pairs in time-dependent electric fields (Schwinger mechanism depends non-linearly on the applied field profile. Accordingly, the resulting momentum spectrum is extremely sensitive to small variations of the field parameters. Owing to this non-linear dependence it is so far unpredictable how to choose a field configuration such that a predetermined momentum distribution is generated. We show that quantum kinetic theory along with optimal control theory can be used to approximately solve this inverse problem for Schwinger pair production. We exemplify this by studying the superposition of a small number of harmonic components resulting in predetermined signatures in the asymptotic momentum spectrum. In the long run, our results could facilitate the observation of this yet unobserved pair production mechanism in quantum electrodynamics by providing suggestions for tailored field configurations.

  1. Hard Photodisintegration of a Proton Pair

    CERN Document Server

    Pomerantz, I; Allada, K; Beck, A; Beck, S; Berman, B L; Boeglin, W; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Chirapatpimol, K; Cisbani, E; Cusanno, F; De Jager, C W; Dutta, C; Garibaldi, F; Geagla, O; Gilman, R; Glister, J; Higinbotham, D W; Jiang, X; Katramatou, A T; Khrosinkova, E; Lee, B; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; McCullough, E; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Petratos, G G; Piasetzky, E; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Rodriguez, I; Ron, G; Saha, A; Sarty, A J; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shneor, R; Sparveris, N; Subedi, R; Strauch, S; Sulkosky, V; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Zhan, X; Zheng, X

    2009-01-01

    We present the first study of high energy photodisintegration of proton-pairs through the gamma + 3He -> p+p+n channel. Photon energies from 0.8 to 4.7 GeV were used in kinematics corresponding to a proton pair with high relative momentum and a neutron nearly at rest. An s^{-11} scaling of the cross section was observed, as predicted by the constituent counting rule. The onset of the scaling is at a higher energy and the cross section is significantly lower then for pn pair photodisintegration. For photon energies below the scaling region, the scaled cross section was found to present a strong energy-dependent structure not observed in deuteron photodisintegration.

  2. Pairing effects in N =82 isotones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, F.; Covello, A.; Gargano, A.; Porrino, A. (Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli, Napoli (Italy) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 80125 Napoli (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    The importance of pairing effects in the {ital N}=82 isotones is extensively investigated by studying the string of nuclei with {ital A} ranging from 135 to 151. The pairing Hamiltonian is treated by an equations-of-motion method which is strictly number conserving. The coupling strength is determined by an analysis of the properties of the even-mass isotones. The single-particle energies are extracted from the experimental spectra of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 145}Eu through use of the equations which give the energies of the seniority-one states in a way which is analogous to the inverse gap equation method. A detailed comparison of the calculated results with experimental data in even and odd nuclei provides firm evidence of the prominent role of proton pairing correlations in the 50--82 shell. It is found that non-negligible correlations are present in {sup 146}Gd.

  3. Re-Pair Compression of Inverted Lists

    CERN Document Server

    Claude, Francisco; Navarro, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Compression of inverted lists with methods that support fast intersection operations is an active research topic. Most compression schemes rely on encoding differences between consecutive positions with techniques that favor small numbers. In this paper we explore a completely different alternative: We use Re-Pair compression of those differences. While Re-Pair by itself offers fast decompression at arbitrary positions in main and secondary memory, we introduce variants that in addition speed up the operations required for inverted list intersection. We compare the resulting data structures with several recent proposals under various list intersection algorithms, to conclude that our Re-Pair variants offer an interesting time/space tradeoff for this problem, yet further improvements are required for it to improve upon the state of the art.

  4. Induced Pairing Interaction in Neutron Star Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, U.; Schulze, H.-J.; Zuo, W.

    2013-01-01

    The three superfluid phases supposed to occur in neutron stars are reviewed in the framework of the generalized BCS theory with the induced interaction. The structure of neutron stars characterized by beta-stable asymmetric nuclear matter in equilibrium with the gravitational force discloses new aspects of the pairing mechanism. Some of them are discussed in this report, in particular the formation in dense matter of Cooper pairs in the presence of three-body forces and the interplay between repulsive and attractive polarization effects on isospin T = 1 Cooper pairs embedded into the neutron and proton environment. Quantitative estimates of the energy gaps are reported and their sensitivity to the medium effects, i.e., interaction and polarization, is explored.

  5. Holographic EPR Pairs, Wormholes and Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Pedraza, Juan F

    2013-01-01

    As evidence for the ER=EPR conjecture, it has recently been observed that the string that is holographically dual to an entangled quark-antiquark pair separating with (asymptotically) uniform acceleration has a wormhole on its worldsheet. We point out that a two-sided horizon and a wormhole actually appear for much more generic quark-antiquark trajectories, which is consistent with the fact that the members of an EPR pair need not be permanently out of causal contact. The feature that determines whether the causal structure of the string worldsheet is trivial or not turns out to be the emission of gluonic radiation by the dual quark and antiquark. In the strongly-coupled gauge theory, it is only when radiation is emitted that one obtains an unambiguous separation of the pair into entangled subsystems, and this is what is reflected on the gravity side by the existence of the worldsheet horizon.

  6. Narrowband Photon Pair Source for Quantum Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Monteiro, F; Sanguinetti, B; Zbinden, H; Thew, R T

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact photon pair source based on a periodically poled lithium niobate nonlinear crystal in a cavity. The cavity parameters are chosen such that the emitted photon pair modes can be matched in the region of telecom ultra dense wavelength division multiplexing (U-DWDM) channel spacings. This approach provides efficient, low-loss, mode selection that is compatible with standard telecommunication networks. Photons with a coherence time of 8.6 ns (116 MHz) are produced and their purity is demonstrated. A source brightness of 134 pairs(s.mW.MHz)$^{-1}$ is reported. The high level of purity and compatibility with standard telecom networks is of great importance for complex quantum communication networks.

  7. Toric CFTs, Permutation Triples and Belyi Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Jejjala, Vishnu; Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Four-dimensional CFTs dual to branes transverse to toric Calabi--Yau threefolds have been described by bipartite graphs on a torus (dimer models). We use the theory of dessins d'enfants to describe these in terms of triples of permutations which multiply to one. These permutations yield an elegant description of zig-zag paths, which have appeared in characterizing the toroidal dimers that lead to consistent SCFTs. The dessins are also related to Belyi pairs, consisting of a curve equipped with a map to P^1, branched over three points on the P^1. We construct explicit examples of Belyi pairs associated to some CFTs, including C^3 and the conifold. Permutation symmetries of the superpotential are related to the geometry of the Belyi pair. The Artin braid group action and a variation thereof play an interesting role. We make a conjecture relating the complex structure of the Belyi curve to R-charges in the conformal field theory.

  8. Categorical Pairs and the Indicative Shift

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, Louis H

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of a categorical pair, a pair of categories (C,C') such that every morphism in C is an object in C'. Categorical pairs are precursors to 2-categories. Arrows in C' can express relationships among the morphisms of C. In particular we show that by using a model of the linguistic process of naming, we can ensure that every morphism in C has an indirect self-reference of the form a -----> Fa where this arrow occurs in the category C'. This result is shown to generalize and clarify known fixed point theorems in logic and categories, and is applied to Goedel's Incompleteness Theorem, the Cantor Diagonal Process and the Lawvere Fixed Point Theorem. In particular we show that the indirect self-reference that is central to Goedel's Theorem is an instance of a general pattern here called the indicative shift.

  9. An inverse problem for Schwinger pair production

    CERN Document Server

    Hebenstreit, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The production of electron-positron pairs in time-dependent electric fields (Schwinger mechanism) depends non-linearly on the applied field profile. Accordingly, the resulting momentum spectrum is extremely sensitive to small variations of the field parameters. Owing to this non-linear dependence it is so far unpredictable how to choose a field configuration such that a predetermined momentum distribution is generated. We show that quantum kinetic theory along with optimal control theory can be used to approximately solve this inverse problem for Schwinger pair production. We exemplify this by studying the superposition of a small number of harmonic components resulting in predetermined signatures in the asymptotic momentum spectrum. In the long run, our results could facilitate the observation of this yet unobserved pair production mechanism in quantum electrodynamics by providing suggestions for tailored field configurations.

  10. Pair production from an external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We solve numerically the problem of pair production from an external electric field in 1 + 1 dimensions including the quantum back-reaction from the produced pairs. We find that in the linear regime our numerical results agree perfectly with analytic calculations. In the strong field regime where tunnelling is uninhibited we determine the time it takes for the electric field to degrade due to energy transfer to the large number of pion field degrees of freedom. The problem has three time scales--the oscillation frequency of the charged quanta, the induced plasma oscillation frequency due to the production of pairs and finally the time scale for energy to be transferred from the electromagnetic field to the pion field. 4 refs., 5 figs

  11. Evaluation of users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities using pair-wise comparison approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change issues demand people of the world to change the way they live today. Thus, current cities need to be redeveloped towards less use of carbon in their day to day operations. Pedestrianized environment is one of the approaches used in reducing carbon foot print in cities. Heritage cities are the first to be looked into since they were built in the era in which motorized vehicles were minimal. Therefore, the research explores users' satisfaction on assessment of physical attributes of pedestrianization in Melaka Historical City, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It aims to examine users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities provided within the study area using pair wise questionnaire comparison approach. A survey of 200 respondents using random sampling was conducted in six different sites namely Jonker Street, Church Street, Kota Street, Goldsmith Street, Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower and Merdeka Street to River Cruise terminal. The survey consists of an assessment tool based on a nine-point scale of users' satisfaction level of pathway properties, zebra pedestrian crossing, street furniture, personal safety, adjacent to traffic flow, aesthetic and amenities. Analytical hierarchical process (AHP) was used to avoid any biasness in analyzing the data collected. Findings show that Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower as the street that scores the highest satisfaction level that fulfils all the required needs of a pedestrianized environment. Similar assessment elements can be used to evaluate existing streets in other cities and these criteria should also be used in planning for future cities

  12. Pairing and the Cooling of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Dany

    2012-01-01

    In this review, I present a brief summary of the impact of nucleon pairing at supra-nuclear densities on the cooling of neutron stars. I also describe how the recent observation of the cooling of the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A may provide us with the first direct evidence for the occurrence of such pairing. It also implies a size of the neutron 3P-F2 energy gap of the order of 0.1 MeV.

  13. On Thermal Comptonization in e+- Pair Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Ghisellini, Gabriele; Haardt, Francesco

    1994-01-01

    We study $e^{\\pm}$ pair plasmas in pair equilibrium, which emit high energy radiation by thermal Comptonization of soft photons. We find that the maximum luminosity to size ratio of the source (i.e. the compactness) depends not only on the hot plasma temperature, but also on the spectral index of the resulting Comptonized spectrum. In the observationally interesting range, sources of same compactness can be hotter if their spectrum is steeper. Instruments observing in the 50--500 keV energy r...

  14. The BCS Model for General Pair Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hainzl, Christian; Hamza, Eman; Seiringer, Robert;

    2008-01-01

    The Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) functional has recently received renewed attention as a description of fermionic gases interacting with local pairwise interactions. We present here a rigorous analysis of the BCS functional for general pair interaction potentials. For both zero and positive...... temperature, we show that the existence of a non-trivial solution of the nonlinear BCS gap equation is equivalent to the existence of a negative eigenvalue of a certain linear operator. From this we conclude the existence of a critical temperature below which the BCS pairing wave function does not vanish...

  15. Pairing Phase Transitions of Matter under Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yin

    2016-01-01

    The phases and properties of matter under global rotation have attracted much interest recently. In this paper we investigate the pairing phenomena in a system of fermions under the presence of rotation. We find that there is a generic suppression effect on pairing states with zero angular momentum. We demonstrate this effect with the chiral condensation and the color superconductivity in hot dense QCD matter as explicit examples. In the case of chiral condensation, a new phase diagram in the temperature-rotation parameter space is found, with a nontrivial critical point.

  16. Non-locality of experimental qutrit pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The insight due to John Bell that the joint behavior of individually measured entangled quantum systems cannot be explained by shared information remains a mystery to this day. We describe an experiment, and its analysis, displaying non-locality of entangled qutrit pairs. The non-locality of such systems, as compared to qubit pairs, is of particular interest since it potentially opens the door for tests of bipartite non-local behavior independent of probabilistic Bell inequalities, but of deterministic nature. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)

  17. Pracovní spokojenost au-pair

    OpenAIRE

    Tomíšková, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    The topic of the following diploma thesis is the explanation of the concept of job satisfaction while holding an au-pair position. The aim of this thesis is to analyze the job satisfaction young women (or men), who go abroad to work as au-pair, can feel. The first part of the analysis consists in a theoretical assessment of the mentioned topic, that is to say provide the reader with basic terminology and information about this area of domestic work; we will also sketch out the main factors in...

  18. Pairing and realistic shell-model interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Covello, A; Gargano, A.; Kuo, T. T. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper starts with a brief historical overview of pairing in nuclei, which fulfills the purpose of properly framing the main subject. This concerns the pairing properties of a realistic shell-model effective interaction which has proved very successful in describing nuclei around doubly magic 132Sn. We focus attention on the two nuclei 134Te and 134Sn with two valence protons and neutrons, respectively. Our study brings out the key role of one particle-one hole excitations in producing a ...

  19. Strategies for electron pair reconstruction in CBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepton pairs emitted out of the hot and dense stage of relativistic heavy ion collisions are established probes to study the electromagnetic structure of hadrons under extreme conditions. The reconstruction of low-mass vector mesons by means of their electromagnetic decay is one of the experimental goals of the planned compressed baryonic matter (CBM) experiment at the future facility FAIR. We present our strategies to reduce the combinatorial background in electron pair measurements in central Au+Au collisions at 25 AGeV with the CBM experimental setup. A special challenge of the current concept is the fact that electron identification is not provided in front of the magnetic field. (orig.)

  20. Pairing schemes for HFB calculations of nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Duguet, T; Bonche, P

    2005-01-01

    Several pairing schemes currently used to describe superfluid nuclei through Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (HFB) calculations are briefly reviewed. We put a particular emphasis on the regularization recipes used in connection with zero-range forces and on the density dependence which usually complement their definition. Regarding the chosen regularization process, the goal is not only to identify the impact it may or may not have on pairing properties of nuclei through spherical 1D HFB calculations but also to assess its tractability for systematic axial 2D and 3D mean-field and beyond-mean-field calculations.

  1. Nilpotent orbits in real symmetric pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Heiko; Ruggeri, Daniele; Trigiante, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In the classification of stationary solutions in extended supergravities with symmetric scalar manifolds, the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair play an important role. In this paper we discuss two approaches to determining the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair. We apply our methods to an explicit example, and thereby classify the nilpotent orbits of SL_2(R)^4 acting on the fourth tensor power of the natural 2-dimensional SL_2(R)-module. This makes it possible to classify all stationary solutions of the so-called STU-supergravity model.

  2. Comment on ``Pairing interaction and Galilei invariance''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, J. M.; Gallardo, M.; Gómez-Camacho, J.

    1999-05-01

    A recent article by Dussel, Sofia, and Tonina studies the relation between Galilei invariance and dipole energy weighted sum rule (EWSR). The authors find that the pairing interaction, which is neither Galilei nor Lorentz invariant, produces big changes in the EWSR and in effective masses of the nucleons. They argue that these effects of the pairing force could be realistic. In this Comment we stress the validity of Galilei invariance to a very good approximation in this context of low-energy nuclear physics and show that the effective masses and the observed change in the EWSR for the electric dipole operator relative to its classical value are compatible with this symmetry.

  3. Komas uit 'n Bamboesstok en Invisible Cities van Italo Calvino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. van Vuuren

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available The prose work by Italo Calvino, Invisible cities is of special interest in the study of D.J. Opperman’s Komas uil 'n bamboesstok.Calvino’s novel also has a character, the fictionalised Marco Polo, who plays such an important role in Komas uil 'n bamboesstok. When the traces of Italo Calvino’s work are sought in Komas, the coherence between poems in the volume emerges more clearly. The importance of Calvino’s “novel” as intertext does not primarily reside in the clarifying reciprocity which it has with single poems or pairs of poems. It is the central intertcxt in the volume, seeing that it is of determining importance for its structure. Opperman’s poetic technique in this volume reiterates the structure of Invisible cities: multiplicity which in the end can be reduced to unity.

  4. CUA-IUAES: Dreamed/Planned Cities and Experienced Cities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beranská, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 4 (2014), s. 487-488. ISSN 0009-0794 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : city * urban space * urban anthropology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology , Ethnology Impact factor: 0.094, year: 2012

  5. Chemical Nonlinearities and Radical Pair Lifetime Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gregory

    2013-03-01

    Much attention has recently developed around chemical reactions that depend on applied static magnetic fields as weak as earth's. This interest is largely motivated by experiments that implicate the role of spin-selective radical pair recombination in biological magnetic sensing. Existing literature uses a straightforward calculation to approximate the expected lifetime of coherent radical pairs as a function of the minimum RF amplitude that is observed to disrupt magnetic navigation, apparently by decohering the radical pair via electronic Zeeman excitations. But we show that chemical nonlinearities can preclude direct computation of coherent pair lifetime without considering the cellular signalling mechanisms involved, and discuss whether it can explain the surprising fragility of some animals' compass sense. In particular, we demonstrate that an autocatalytic cycle can introduce threshold effects on the disruption sensitivity to applied oscillatory magnetic fields. We will show examples in the mean-field limit and consider the consequences of noise and fluctuations in the Freidlin-Wentzell picture of perturbed dynamical systems.

  6. Pair Production in the Quantum Boltzmann Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Rau, Jochen

    1994-01-01

    A source term in the quantum Boltzmann equation, which accounts for the spontaneous creation of $e^+e^-$-pairs in external electric fields, is derived from first principles and evaluated numerically. Careful analysis of time scales reveals that this source term is generally non-Markovian. This implies in particular that there may be temporary violations of the $H$-theorem.

  7. Effective pair potentials for spherical nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective description for rigid spherical nanoparticles in a fluid of point particles is presented. The points inside the nanoparticles and the point particles are assumed to interact via spherically symmetric additive pair potentials, while the distribution of points inside the nanoparticles is taken to be spherically symmetric and smooth. The resulting effective pair interactions between a nanoparticle and a point particle, as well as between two nanoparticles, are then given by spherically symmetric potentials. If overlap between particles is allowed, as can occur for some forms of the pair potentials, the effective potential generally has non-analytic points. It is shown that for each effective potential the expressions for different overlapping cases can be written in terms of one analytic auxiliary potential. Even when only non-overlapping situations are possible, the auxiliary potentials facilitate the formulation of the effective potentials. Effective potentials for hollow nanoparticles (appropriate e.g. for buckyballs) are also considered and shown to be related to those for solid nanoparticles. For hollow nanoparticles overlap is more physical, since this covers the case of a smaller particle embedded in a larger, hollow nanoparticle. Finally, explicit expressions are given for the effective potentials derived from basic pair potentials of power law and exponential form, as well as from the commonly used London–van der Waals, Morse, Buckingham, and Lennard-Jones potentials. The applicability of the latter is demonstrated by comparison with an atomic description of nanoparticles with an internal face centered cubic structure

  8. Pair reversal in homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the separation of particle pairs in the inertial subrange of homogeneous isotropic turbulence is strongly influenced by the pairs that separate quasi-diffusively. We quantify the influence of the diffusive separators by considering the probability that a pair will 'reverse' direction across a given separation i.e. its separation will decrease (before eventually increasing) and derive an analytical expression for the expected number of reversals across this separation for a quasi-one-dimensional model of relative dispersion in the inertial subrange with Gaussian turbulence. We compare this theoretical result with three different Lagrangian stochastic models in which the influence of the diffusive and ballistic separators (the latter dominated by velocity memory) can be varied by means of the value of C0, the constant of proportionality in the Lagrangian velocity structure function, which appears explicitly in Lagrangian stochastic models. We also compare these results with data from a direct numerical simulation of turbulence. The results indicate the importance of the transverse relative velocity component (i.e. the ability of pairs to rotate), which is absent in Q1D models, in determining the correct quantitative relative dispersion statistics.

  9. On a direct superconducting pairing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We suggest that superconductivity can be traced back to a first-order interaction between the charge carriers which does not necessarily involve second-order electron-phonon coupling. For small molecular model systems it is demonstrated that the formation of Cooper pairs can lead to an attenuation of the destabilizing influence of the Pauli antisymmetry principle (PAP). We suggest that this attenuation of a fermionic quantum constraint is the driving force for the superconducting transition. Whenever the PAP is activated in single-particle hoppings of electrons, the corresponding moves reduce the electronic delocalization; they raise the ensemble energy. The stability of a fermionic system is enhanced with decreasing influence of the PAP. Moves of Cooper pairs are not influenced by any quantum constraint of the intersite type. This behaviour differs from the well-known fermionic constraints. The quantum statistics of Cooper pairs is of a mixed type combining a fermionic on-site and a bosonic intersite behaviour. It coincides with the quantum statistics of so-called hard core bosonic ensembles. In the present work Cooper pair formation has been studied for smaller molecular models. The electronic Hamiltonian employed is of the two-parameter Hubbard-type. The solid state phenomenon superconductivity is correlated with the molecular concepts of ''antiaromaticity'' and ''aromaticity''. Arguments are given which support the present interpretation. (orig.)

  10. Abstract polymer models with general pair interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Procacci, Aldo

    2007-01-01

    A convergence criterion of cluster expansion is presented in the case of an abstract polymer system with general pair interactions (i.e. not necessarily hard core or repulsive). As a concrete example, the low temperature disordered phase of the BEG model with infinite range interactions, decaying polynomially as $1/r^{d+\\lambda}$ with $\\lambda>0$, is studied.

  11. A Novel Approach for Collaborative Pair Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sanjay; Kathuria, Vanshi

    2010-01-01

    The majority of an engineer's time in the software industry is spent working with other programmers. Agile methods of software development like eXtreme Programming strongly rely upon practices like daily meetings and pair programming. Hence, the need to learn the skill of working collaboratively is of primary importance for software developers.…

  12. The mother of all pair potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.; Bacher, Andreas Kvist

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a computer simulation study of the exponentially repulsive pair potential system. The simulations show that the system has strong virial potential energy correlations in a large part of its thermodynamic phase diagram. Consequences of this are briefly discussed; these include ...

  13. Building a control sample for galaxy pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Josefa; Blaizot, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Several observational works have attempted to isolate the effects of galaxy interactions by comparing galaxies in pairs with isolated galaxies. However, different authors have proposed different ways to build these so-called control samples (CS). By using mock galaxy catalogues of the SDSS-DR4 built up from the Millennium Simulation, we explore how the way of building a CS might introduce biases which could affect the interpretation of results. We make use of the fact that the physics of interactions is not included in the semianalytic model, to infer that any difference between the mock control and pair samples can be ascribed to selection biases. Thus, we find that galaxies in pairs artificially tend to be older and more bulge-dominated, and to have less cold gas and different metallicities than their isolated counterparts. Also because of a biased selection, galaxies in pairs tend to live in higher density environments, and in haloes of larger masses. We find that imposing constraints on redshift, stellar ...

  14. Sfermion Pair Production at $\\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Bartl, Alfred; Kraml, Sabine; Majerotto, Walter; Porod, Werner

    1998-01-01

    We discuss pair production of stops, sbottoms, staus and tau--sneutrinos at a sections and perform a detailed numerical analysis within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. In particular, we consider sfermion production near $\\sqrt{s} = m_{H^0}$ and $\\sqrt{s} = m_{A^0}$.

  15. Dispersion Compensation with a Prism-pair

    CERN Document Server

    Shaked, Yaakov; Pe'er, Avi

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed calculation of the total dispersion (spectral phase) from a pair of Brewster-cut prisms. This paper aims to aid advanced students in tracking the operation of this major configuration for dispersion-compensation and phase-control of ultra-short pulses.

  16. Virtual pair creation in nuclear Dirac phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the importance of virtual nucleon-antinucleon pair (VP) creation in the scalar-vector model of nucleon-nucleus scattering. In a model based upon the Hartree approximation to nuclear matter, we find such VP terms to be crucial in order to reproduce the 'wine-bottle-bottom' shape of the real component of the optical potential. (orig.)

  17. Plasma analog of particle-pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the plasma axial shear flow instability satisfies the Klein-Gordon equation. The plasma instability is then shown to be analogous to spontaneous particle-pair production when a potential energy is present that is greater than twice the particle rest mass energy. Stability criteria can be inferred based on field theoretical conservation laws. (UK)

  18. Evacuation dynamics of asymmetrically coupled pedestrian pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyze extended floor field cellular automaton models for evacuation dynamics of inhomogeneous pedestrian pairs which are coupled by asymmetric group interactions. Such pairs consist of a leader, who mainly determines the couple's motion and a follower, who has a defined tendency to follow the leader. Examples for such pairs are mother and child or two siblings of different age. We examine the system properties and compare them to the case of a homogeneous crowd. We find a strong impact on evacuation times for the regime of strong pair coupling due to the occurrence of a clogging phenomenon. In addition we obtain a non-trivial dependence of evacuation times on the followers' coupling to the static floor field, which carries the information of the shortest way to the exit location. In particular we find that systems with fully passive followers, who are solely coupled to their leaders, show lower evacuation times than homogeneous systems where all pedestrians have an equal tendency to move towa...

  19. Retardation in the atomic pair polarizability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.J. Michels; L.G. Suttorp

    1977-01-01

    The atomic pair polarizability for hydrogen atoms is calculated within the framework of covariant quantum electrodynamics. Retardation effects are shown to change the dependence on the interatomic separation R from R/sup -6/ to R/sup -7/ for R large compared with a characteristic wavelength of the a

  20. The Lax pairs for the Holt system

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiganov, A. V.

    1998-01-01

    By using non-canonical transformation between the Holt system and the Henon-Heiles system the Lax pairs for all the integrable cases of the Holt system are constructed from the known Lax representations for the Henon-Heiles system.

  1. Near-Ring Radicals and Class Pairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Godloza; N.J.Groenewald; W.A.Olivier

    2005-01-01

    For near-ring ideal mappings p1 and p2, we investigate radical theoretical properties of and the relationship among the class pairs (p1: p2), (Sp2: Sp1) and (Rp2:Rp1). Conditions on p1 and p2 are given for a general class pair to form a radical class of various types. These types include the Plotkin and KA-radical varieties. A number of examples are shown to motivate the suitability of the theory of Hoehnke-radicals over KA-radicals when radical pairs of near-rings are studied. In particular, it is shown that (pc: P3) forms a KA-radical class, where Pc denotes the class of completely prime nearrings and P3 the class of 3-prime near-rings. This gives another near-ring generalization of the 2-primal ring concept. The theory of radical pairs are also used to show that in general the class of 3-semiprime near-rings is not the semisimple class of the 3-prime radical.

  2. Distinguishing Z' models with polarised top pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Basso, L.; Mimasu, K.; Moretti, S.

    2012-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of top pair production at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to the nature of an underlying Z' boson, including full tree level standard model background effects and interferences. We demonstrate that exploiting combinations of asymmetry observables will enable one to distinguish between a selection of `benchmark' Z' models while assuming realistic final state reconstruction efficiencies and error estimates.

  3. Spectral Similarity of Unbound Asteroid Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Wolters, Stephen D; Christou, Apostolis; Duddy, Samuel R; Lowry, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy between 0.8 and 2.5 microns has been obtained for both components of three unbound asteroid pairs, using the NASA-IRTF with the SpeX instrument. Pair primary (2110) Moore-Sitterly is classified as an S-type following the Bus-DeMeo taxonomy; the classification for secondary (44612) 1999 RP27 is ambiguous: S/Sq/Q/K/L-type. Primary (10484) Hecht and secondary (44645) 1999 RC118 are classified as V-types. IR spectra for Moore-Sitterly and Hecht are each linked with available visual photometry. The classifications for primary (88604) 2001 QH293 and (60546) 2000 EE85 are ambiguous: S/Sq/Q/K/L-type. Subtle spectral differences between them suggest the primary may have more weathered material on its surface. Dynamical integrations have constrained the ages of formation: 2110-44612 > 782 kyr; 10484-44645 = 348 (+823,-225) kyr; 88604-60546 = 925 (+842,-754) kyr. The spectral similarity of seven complete pairs is ranked in comparison with nearby background asteroids. Two pairs, 17198-229056 and 192...

  4. The city of the merchant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    2003-01-01

    The City of the Merchant deals with cities, towns and villages in the European medieval period - i.e. in post-antique and pre-industrial Europe. In actual fact, the book mainly deals with Denmark and Northern Italy (the City States), with digressions to other "feudal" localities in France on Sici......, in the middle East, the Crusades, in Germany (the Hansatic League) and, finally, as far a field as the Danish West Indies. The book is part of a larger project that comprises other historical environments....

  5. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Moura Jr., Newton J.; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2005-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results w...

  6. The ecological future of cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Mark J; MacGregor-Fors, Ian

    2016-05-20

    The discipline of urban ecology arose in the 1990s, primarily motivated by a widespread interest in documenting the distribution and abundance of animals and plants in cities. Today, urban ecologists have greatly expanded their scope of study to include ecological and socioeconomic processes, urban management, planning, and design, with the goal of addressing issues of sustainability, environmental quality, and human well-being within cities and towns. As the global pace of urbanization continues to intensify, urban ecology provides the ecological and social data, as well as the principles, concepts and tools, to create livable cities. PMID:27199416

  7. Flood Insurance Study, City of Park City, Utah, Summit County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1987-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Park City, Summit County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain man...

  8. DENSER Cities: A System for Dense Efficient Reconstructions of Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, Michael; Pinies, Pedro; Paz, Lina Maria; Newman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about the efficient generation of dense, colored models of city-scale environments from range data and in particular, stereo cameras. Better maps make for better understanding; better understanding leads to better robots, but this comes at a cost. The computational and memory requirements of large dense models can be prohibitive. We provide the theory and the system needed to create city-scale dense reconstructions. To do so, we apply a regularizer over a compressed 3D data stru...

  9. ConnectiCity, augmented perception of the city

    OpenAIRE

    Iaconesi, Salvatore; Persico, Oriana

    2012-01-01

    As we move through cities in our daily lives, we are in a constant state of transformation of the spaces around us. The form and essence of urban space directly affects people's behavior, describing in their perception what is possible or impossible, allowed or prohibited, suggested or advised against. We are now able to fill and stratify space/time with digital information layers, completely wrapping cities in a membrane of information and of opportunities for interaction and communication. ...

  10. Thornton's Restaurant : Tasting Menu with Prestige Pairings

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton's Restaurant

    2015-01-01

    1st Floor, The Fitzwilliam Hotel, 128 St Stephen's Green, Dublin 2 Thornton's Restaurant, located in Dublin City Centre overlooking St Stephen's Green is an award winning Michelin starred restaurant. Kevin Thornton was the first Irish chef to achieve two Michelin stars. His cooking, while contemporary, is informed by the distinctive flavours of local produce, and by his vivid memories of the food of his childhood.

  11. 1985 Mexico City, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 square km area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter....

  12. Qinadao:An Oceanic City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    BLUE sky and white clouds, an azure sea patterned with colorful sails, this view of Qingdao is little different from a seascape of either the Mediterranean or the Pacific Ocean. The exotic facade of this small city on the

  13. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammons, Tom B. [Energy Conservation Specialist, Port Ewen, NY (United States)

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and

  14. Foreign Funds for City Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2005-01-01

    The rather straightforward restructuring of the Bank of Beijing became more arresting in January after Deutsche Bank was reported to be competing with its Dutch rival ING to purchase a stake in the local city commercial bank.

  15. Global cities and cultural experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Gaviria, Pilar; Emontspool, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Studying the cultural dynamics of expatriate amateur theater in Brussels, this paper investigates multicultural marketplace development in contemporary global cities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper performs an interpretive analysis of the expatriate amateur scene in Brussels from...... marketing research, providing original insights into market dynamics and cultural experimentation in multicultural environments....... an ethnographic perspective, combining observations of rehearsals and performances, in-depth interviews with actors, directors and audience, and secondary data. Findings: The fluidity of global cities allows their inhabitants to engage in collective creative processes of cultural experimentation...... to the important role of global cities for cultural experimentation. Such cities are not only an interesting market for culturally diverse products, but also learning hubs. Managers willing to address multicultural marketplaces might target these markets with dynamic cultural offers that ensure a...

  16. City Governments Need Deliberative Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot; Lewis, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Innovation in the public sector has become an important focus for governments, which are facing a growing inability to address difficult policy challenges. In the context of city governments, innovation capacity is boosted by the involvement of ‘outsiders’...

  17. City Walks and Tactile Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Diaconu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to develop categories of the pedestrian’s tactile and kinaesthetic experience of the city. The beginning emphasizes the haptic qualities of surfaces and textures, which can be “palpated” visually or experienced by walking. Also the lived city is three-dimensional; its corporeal depth is discussed here in relation to the invisible sewers, protuberant profiles, and the formal diversity of roofscapes. A central role is ascribed in the present analysis to the formal similarities between the representation of the city by walking through it and the representation of the tactile form of objects. Additional aspects of the “tactile” experience of the city in a broad sense concern the feeling of their rhythms and the exposure to weather conditions. Finally, several aspects of contingency converge in the visible age of architectural works, which record traces of individual and collective histories.

  18. Modelling of top quark pairs production in association with Standard Model bosons or heavy quark pairs.

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno Llacer, Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Production of top quark pairs in association with heavy Standard Model bosons or with heavy flavour quark-pairs is important both as a signal and a background in several ATLAS analyses. Strong constraints on such processes cannot at present be obtained from data, and therefore their modeling by Monte Carlo simulation as well as the associated uncertainties are important. This poster documents the Monte Carlo samples currently being used in ATLAS for the ttH and ttV (V=W,Z vector bosons) and tt+bottom and charm quark pairs processes for sqrt(s)=13 TeV proton-proton collisions.

  19. Neutron pair and proton pair transfer reactions between identical cores in the sulfur region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical model and exact finite range distorted-wave Born approximation analyses were performed on neutron pair exchange between identical cores for 32S and 34S nuclei and on proton pair exchange between identical cores for 30Si and 32S. The extracted spectroscopic factors were compared with theoretical ones deduced from Hartree-Fock calculations on these pair of nuclei. The enhancement of the experimental cross sections with respect to the theoretical ones strongly suggests evidence for a nuclear Josephson effect. (author). 15 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Smart cities and sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    GORI, Paula; Parcu, Pier Luigi; STASI, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of smart city and sharing economy are at the centre of a number of current debates, which touch upon, among others, issues like the current urbanisation trends, the particular economic situation we are facing in the last years, the spread of connectivity and of new technologies and the innovation process in general. This working paper looks at the different and common characteristics of both smart cities and sharing economy models, in order to explore their interaction and comple...

  1. Feicheng City of Peach Blossom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    IN Feicheng City, central Shandong Province, can be found the world’s largest peach orchard, recorded in the Guinness Book of World Records as covering 6,667 hectares. In spring, the city is permeated with the fragrance of peach blossom.Home of the "Buddha Peach"Peach growing in Feicheng has a history of 1,100 years. The Feicheng peach is distinctive for

  2. Deer Tracks in the City?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie Fay; Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole; Riggs, Morgan; Rodriguez, Antonia; Buck, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    "Why would a deer print be in the city?" wondered a student. She had noticed the track near a grocery store that morning with her mother. She was familiar with deer and had noticed their prints on a trip to a local museum; however, she had never seen a deer in the city before this experience. As she retold the story to her classmates, her question…

  3. KUNMING: The City of Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Kunming is the political, economic and cultural center of Yunnan province and the most popular center for tourism in Southwest China. Kunming enjoys a pleasant climate and does its best to live up to its title of "the City of Spring". Whenever you are planning to go, the temperature is always pleasant. With its convenient transport links in and out of the city, Kunming welcomes tens of thousands of tourists every day.

  4. Constructing a modern city machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Hanne; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    1998-01-01

    Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures.......Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures....

  5. FUSION CITIES - consolidation of movement

    OpenAIRE

    Sieber, Jula-Kim

    2009-01-01

    Urban, social, cultural analysis of fusion cities, two bordering cities growing together, with different types of borders: natural, artificial, political, and social. The work is displayed in maps and visual language. BRAKIN_natural : Brazzaville and Kinshasa by Humerto Sarabio and Marion Bouchard SAN JUANA_artificial : San Diego and Tijuana by Julio Obregon Zepeda and Anne Touchet JERUSALEM_political : East and West Jerusalem by Slobodan Subotić and Petko Gogov FAVEMINIO_social : Favela and ...

  6. Housing Booms and City Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Edward L. Glaeser; Joshua D. Gottlieb; Kristina Tobio

    2012-01-01

    Popular discussions often treat the great housing boom of the 1996-2006 period as if it were a national phenomenon with similar impacts across locales, but across metropolitan areas, price growth was dramatically higher in warmer, less educated cities with less initial density and higher initial housing values. Within metropolitan areas, price growth was faster in neighborhoods closer to the city center. The centralization of price growth during the boom was particularly dramatic in those met...

  7. INCREASING RETURN TO SMART CITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Lööf, Hans; Nabavi, Pardis

    2012-01-01

    Increased urbanization, global warming and sustainable growth belong to the major contemporary policy challenges. Today cities are home to more than 50% of the world population, the largest 600 urban centers generate about 60% of global GDP, and the agglomerated areas are responsible for 75% of world carbon emissions. The UN estimates that 70% of the world's growing population will live in cities by 2050. At the same time the world population is expected to increase from 7 billion people to 9...

  8. European Strategies for Smarter Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Barresi; Gabriella Pultrone

    2013-01-01

    On a worldwide scale, cities and regions must tackle the challenges set by the radical change in our society and in our economy, aiming to develop effective public policies and boost their managerial, evaluation and planning skills. Anyway, it is essential to put a new idea of city at the centre of the smart strategies in order to bring policies back to their former central position, since technologies alone cannot generate welfare and prosperity. Local leadership, integrated planning and a r...

  9. Beijing: Beyond the Olympic city

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y

    2012-01-01

    Mega-event strategies have become part of a deliberate urban policy for cities around the world. There is a particular concern on how to combine the preparation of a mega-event with urban development processes that meet long-term demands. This paper examines how Beijing tried to use the Summer Olympic Games 2008 to fight its spatial and environmental problems, and create a new image for the city.

  10. SRTM Stereo Pair: Bhuj, India, Two Weeks After earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001, the city of Bhuj suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. About 20,000 people were killed, and more than one million homes were damaged or destroyed. Shortly after the quake, geologists conducted field investigations to inventory and analyze the natural effects of the event. Stereoscopic views, similar to this image, aided the geologists in locating landforms indicative of long-term (and possibly ongoing) deformation. Soon, elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) will be used in the study of a wide variety of natural hazards worldwide.In this image, the city of Bhuj appears as a gray area at the scene center, and the city airport is toward the north (top). Vegetation appears green. Rugged but low relief hills of previously folded and faulted bedrock appear south (bottom) and northwest (upper-left) of the city.This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over a preliminary SRTM elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing) or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space

  11. Analysis Matrix for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo E. Branchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current digital revolution has ignited the evolution of communications grids and the development of new schemes for productive systems. Traditional technologic scenarios have been challenged, and Smart Cities have become the basis for urban competitiveness. The citizen is the one who has the power to set new scenarios, and that is why a definition of the way people interact with their cities is needed, as is commented in the first part of the article. At the same time, a lack of clarity has been detected in the way of describing what Smart Cities are, and the second part will try to set the basis for that. For all before, the information and communication technologies that manage and transform 21st century cities must be reviewed, analyzing their impact on new social behaviors that shape the spaces and means of communication, as is posed in the experimental section, setting the basis for an analysis matrix to score the different elements that affect a Smart City environment. So, as the better way to evaluate what a Smart City is, there is a need for a tool to score the different technologies on the basis of their usefulness and consequences, considering the impact of each application. For all of that, the final section describes the main objective of this article in practical scenarios, considering how the technologies are used by citizens, who must be the main concern of all urban development.

  12. Life in The Country And The City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仕富; 伍章华

    2002-01-01

    City born and city bred, some people consider city life to be the life of the heaven, comparing it with the poverty, in their opinion, of the country. On the contrary, others are very tired of the city life and they are admiring to live in the peaceful country very much.

  13. City Marketing: Towards an Integrated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Braun (Erik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD thesis deals with city marketing: cities making use of marketing ideas, concepts and tools. Marketing has proved its value in the business environment, but what about applying marketing in the context of cities? How can cities make effective use of the potential of marketing? T

  14. How To Save Our Shrinking Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybcznski, Witold; Linneman, Peter D.

    1999-01-01

    Explores solutions to the problem of shrinking cities, population declines in urban areas. Consolidation and de-annexation are not desirable alternatives, but for many shrinking cities no other workable alternative can be seen. The reality is that many cities will continue to shrink. Radical redesign can make cities better and smaller. (SLD)

  15. Venture capital in New England secondary cities

    OpenAIRE

    Carole Carlson; Prabal Chakrabarti

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, venture capital has been one of the major drivers of the U.S. economy. This article examines venture capital investment in secondary cities, cities outside of the 40 largest U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), including New England secondary cities, and identifies factors that may explain how certain smaller cities attract venture capital.

  16. Dynamics of diversity, distribution patterns and interspecific associations of understory herbs in the city-suburb-exurb context of Wuhan city, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiao-Jing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of herb diversity, distribution patterns and interspecific associations of dominant herbs in natural forests at three growing stages in a city-suburb-exurb context in Wuhan City were studied using a fixed plot. The results show that the composition, diversity indices, mean and total richness gradually increased with the city-suburb-exurb gradient. Codominant species across temporal dynamics in Qinglong Mountain were stable, however, there were remarkable changes in the city-suburb context. Qinglong Mountain (exurb context had the densest codominant herbs, Woodwardia japonica, Spider brake and Parathelypteris glanduligera, throughout the growing season. However, Shizi Mountain (suburb context and Hongshan Mountain (urban context had low-density and monodominant herbs at three stages. The overall strength of associations among herbs increased with the city-suburb-exurb context, and pairs of positive associations and significant associations (r>0.5 or r<-0.5 were more frequent on Qinglong Mountain. Therefore, the exurb-suburb-city landscape context in response to urbanization had a notable effect on the features of the understory herb layer.

  17. Estimation of the Conditional Variance in Paired Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Abadie, Alberto; Guido W. IMBENS

    2008-01-01

    In paired randomized experiments units are grouped in pairs, often based on covariate information, with random assignment within the pairs. Average treatment effects are then estimated by averaging the within-pair differences in outcomes. Typically the variance of the average treatment effect estimator is estimated using the sample variance of the within-pair differences. However, conditional on the covariates the variance of the average treatment effect estimator may be substantially smaller...

  18. Developing living cities from analysis to action

    CERN Document Server

    Scientific, World

    2010-01-01

    With more and more of the world's population projected to live in urban areas, the life and death of cities has become a key factor in urban development considerations. This book attempts to bring an original contribution on the analysis of creating living cities. It advances the concept and framework of a ""living city"" and also explicates the key attributes of a ""living city"" that are increasingly critical to the reinvigoration and sustainable growth of cities.The book also seeks to document and compare Singapore's development as a ""living city"" with other cities around the world. Contr

  19. Architecture and Stages of the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents more than 41 articles on ‘Architecture and Stages of the Experience City'. The aim of the book is to investigate current challenges related to architecture, art and city life in the ‘Experience City' and it is presenting cutting edge knowledge and experiences within the following...... themes: Experience City Making Digital Architecture Stages in the Experience City The City as a Learning Lab Experience City Architecture Performative Architecture Art and Performance Urban Catalyst and Temporary Use...

  20. Smartmentality: The Smart City as Disciplinary Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Vanolo

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses the concept of the smart city in critical perspective, focusing on the power/knowledge implications for the contemporary city. On the one hand, smart city policies support new ways of imagining, organising and managing the city and its flows; on the other, they impress a new moral order on the city by introducing specific technical parameters in order to distinguish between the ‘good’ and ‘bad’ city. The smart city discourse may therefore be a powerful tool for the ...

  1. Na+ Cl- ion pair association in water-DMSO mixtures: Effect of ion pair model potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ATANU SARKAR; ANUPAM CHATTERJEE; S C TIWARI; B L TEMBE

    2016-06-01

    Potentials of Mean Force (PMF) for the Na+ Cl- ion pair in water–dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)mixtures for three DMSO mole fractions have been computed using constrained Molecular Dynamics (MD)simulations and confirmed by dynamical trajectories and residence times of the ion pair at various inter-ionicseparations. The three ion-ion direct potentials used are 12-6-1, exp-6-1 and exp-8-6-1. The physical picturethat emerges is that there is a strong contact ion pair (CIP) and strong to moderate solvent separated ion pair(SSIP) in these solutions. Analysis of local ion clusters shows that ions are dominantly solvated by watermolecules. The 12-6-1 potential model predicts running coordination numbers closest to experimental data.

  2. Pairing and anti-pairing: a balancing act in the diploid genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Eric F.; Erceg, Jelena; Wu, C.-ting

    2016-01-01

    The presence of maternal and paternal homologs appears to be much more than just a doubling of genetic material. We know this because genomes have evolved elaborate mechanisms that permit homologous regions to sense and then respond to each other. One way in which homologs communicate is to come into contact and, in fact, Dipteran insects such as Drosophila excel at this task, aligning all pairs of maternal and paternal chromosomes, end-to-end, in essentially all somatic tissues throughout development. Here, we reexamine the widely held tenet that extensive somatic pairing of homologous sequences cannot occur in mammals and suggest, instead, that pairing may be a widespread and significant potential that has gone unnoticed in mammals because they expend considerable effort to prevent it. We then extend this discussion to interchromosomal interactions, in general, and speculate about the potential of nuclear organization and pairing to impact inheritance. PMID:27065367

  3. General pairing interactions and pair truncation approximations for fermions in a single-j shell

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Y M; Ginocchio, J N; Yoshinaga, N

    2003-01-01

    We investigate Hamiltonians with attractive interactions between pairs of fermions coupled to angular momentum J. We show that pairs with spin J are reasonable building blocks for the low-lying states. For systems with only a J = Jmax pairing interaction, eigenvalues are found to be approximately integers for a large array of states, in particular for those with total angular momenta I le 2j. For I=0 eigenstates of four fermions in a single-j shell we show that there is only one non-zero eigenvalue. We address these observations using the nucleon pair approximation of the shell model and relate our results with a number of currently interesting problems.

  4. Cross ranking of cities and regions: population versus income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueti, Roy; Ausloos, Marcel

    2015-07-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the inner economical structure of communities and their population distribution through a rank-rank analysis of official data, along statistical physics ideas within two techniques. The data is taken on Italian cities. The analysis is performed both at a global (national) and at a more local (regional) level in order to distinguish ‘macro’ and ‘micro’ aspects. First, the rank-size rule is found not to be a standard power law, as in many other studies, but a doubly decreasing power law. Next, the Kendall τ and the Spearman ρ rank correlation coefficients which measure pair concordance and the correlation between fluctuations in two rankings, respectively,—as a correlation function does in thermodynamics, are calculated for finding rank correlation (if any) between demography and wealth. Results show non only global disparities for the whole (country) set, but also (regional) disparities, when comparing the number of cities in regions, the number of inhabitants in cities and that in regions, as well as when comparing the aggregated tax income of the cities and that of regions. Different outliers are pointed out and justified. Interestingly, two classes of cities in the country and two classes of regions in the country are found. ‘Common sense’ social, political, and economic considerations sustain the findings. More importantly, the methods show that they allow to distinguish communities, very clearly, when specific criteria are numerically sound. A specific modeling for the findings is presented, i.e. for the doubly decreasing power law and the two phase system, based on statistics theory, e.g. urn filling. The model ideas can be expected to hold when similar rank relationship features are observed in fields. It is emphasized that the analysis makes more sense than one through a Pearson Π value-value correlation analysis

  5. Resonant Repulsion of Kepler Planet Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Lithwick, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    Planetary systems discovered by the Kepler space telescope exhibit an intriguing feature. While the period ratios of adjacent low-mass planets appear largely random, there is a significant excess of pairs that lie just wide of resonances and a deficit on the near side. We demonstrate that this feature naturally arises when two near-resonant planets interact in the presence of weak dissipation that damps eccentricities. The two planets repel each other as orbital energy is lost to heat. This moves near-resonant pairs just beyond resonance, by a distance that reflects the integrated dissipation they experienced over their lifetimes. We find that the observed distances may be explained by tidal dissipation if tides are efficient (tidal quality factor ~10). Once the effect of resonant repulsion is accounted for, the initial orbits of these low mass planets show little preference for resonances. This is a strong constraint on their origin.

  6. Schwinger pair production with ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, V.; Hebenstreit, F.; Oberthaler, M. K.; Berges, J.

    2016-09-01

    We consider a system of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice as a quantum simulator for electron-positron pair production in quantum electrodynamics (QED). For a setup in one spatial dimension, we investigate the nonequilibrium phenomenon of pair production including the backreaction leading to plasma oscillations. Unlike previous investigations on quantum link models, we focus on the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of QED and show that it may be well approximated by experiments employing Bose-Einstein condensates interacting with fermionic atoms. Numerical calculations based on functional integral techniques give a unique access to the physical parameters required to realize QED phenomena in a cold atom experiment. In particular, we use our approach to consider quantum link models in a yet unexplored parameter regime and give bounds for their ability to capture essential features of the physics. The results suggest a paradigmatic change towards realizations using coherent many-body states for quantum simulations of high-energy particle physics phenomena.

  7. Top pair production measurements at ATLAS.

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Federica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential top-quark pair cross sections in proton-proton collisions at both 8 TeV and 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. Differential measurements of the kinematic properties of the top quark production are also discussed. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top pair production in the TeV regime. The results, extrapolated to particle and parton level, are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NNLO QCD calculations.

  8. Dual Resolution Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST Dual Resolution Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 30 is being distributed for use in development and testing of fingerprint compression and fingerprint matching systems. The database allows the user to develop and evaluate data compression algorithms for fingerprint images scanned at both 19.7 ppmm (500 dpi) and 39.4 ppmm (1000 dpi). The data consist of 36 ten-print paired cards with both the rolled and plain images scanned at 19.7 and 39.4 pixels per mm. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  9. Instantons For Black Hole Pair Production

    CERN Document Server

    Branoff, P M; Branoff, Paul M.; Brill, Dieter R.

    1998-01-01

    We address the issue of constructing continuous instantons representing the pair creation of black holes in a cosmological context. The recent attempt at constructing such solutions using virtual domain walls is reviewed first. We then explore the existence of continuous instantons in higher curvature gravity theories where the Lagrangian is polynomial in the Ricci scalar. Lastly, we study continuous instanton solutions of ordinary gravity coupled to the Narlikar C-field. For each theory, we first consider the case of finding continuous instanton solutions which represent the "near-annihilation" of a de Sitter universe and its subsequent recreation. In situations where these solutions exist, we then ask whether solutions can be found that represent the "near-annihilation" of a de Sitter spacetime and the subsequent creation of a pair of Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes.

  10. A search for resonant Z pair production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boveia, Antonio; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2008-12-01

    I describe a search for anomalous production of Z pairs through a new massive resonance X in 2.5-2.9 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using the CDFII Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. I reconstruct Z pairs through their decays to electrons, muons, and quarks. To achieve perhaps the most efficient lepton reconstruction ever used at CDF, I apply a thorough understanding of the detector and new reconstruction software heavily revised for this purpose. In particular, I have designed and employ new general-purpose algorithms for tracking at large {eta} in order to increase muon acceptance. Upon analyzing the unblinded signal samples, I observe no X {yields} ZZ candidates and set upper limits on the production cross section using a Kaluza-Klein graviton-like acceptance.

  11. Top Quark Pair Production beyond NNLO

    CERN Document Server

    Muselli, Claudio; Forte, Stefano; Marzani, Simone; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We construct an approximate expression for the total cross section for the production of a heavy quark-antiquark pair in hadronic collisions at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N$^3$LO) in $\\alpha_s$. We use a technique which exploits the analyticity of the Mellin space cross section, and the information on its singularity structure coming from large N (soft gluon, Sudakov) and small N (high energy, BFKL) all order resummations, previously introduced and used in the case of Higgs production. We validate our method by comparing to available exact results up to NNLO. We find that N$^3$LO corrections increase the predicted top pair cross section at the LHC by about 4% over the NNLO.

  12. Extra-pair paternity in waved albatrosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyvaert, K P; Anderson, D J; Jones, T C; Duan, W; Parker, P G

    2000-09-01

    We estimated the rate of extra-pair fertilizations (EPFs) in waved albatrosses (Phoebastria irrorata) on Isla Española, Galápagos, Ecuador, using multilocus minisatellite DNA fingerprinting. Waved albatrosses are socially monogamous, long-lived seabirds whose main population is on Española. Aggressive extra-pair copulation (EPC) attempts have been observed in the breeding colony during the days preceding egg-laying. Our genetic analyses of 16 families (single chicks and their attending parents) revealed evidence of EPFs in four families. In all cases males were the excluded parent. These data suggest that waved albatrosses have an unusually high rate of EPF relative to taxa with similar life histories. Future behavioural observations will determine the extent to which forced vs. unforced EPCs contribute to this high EPF rate. PMID:10972780

  13. Turbulent pair dispersion of inertial particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bec, J; Lanotte, A S; Scagliarini, A; Toschi, F

    2009-01-01

    The relative dispersion of pairs of inertial particles in incompressible, homogeneous, and isotropic turbulence is studied by means of direct numerical simulations at two values of the Taylor-scale Reynolds number $Re_{\\lambda} \\sim 200$ and 400. The evolution of both heavy and light particle pairs is analysed at varying the particle Stokes number and the fluid-to-particle density ratio. For heavy particles, it is found that turbulent dispersion is schematically governed by two temporal regimes. The first is dominated by the presence, at large Stokes numbers, of small-scale caustics in the particle velocity statistics, and it lasts until heavy particle velocities have relaxed towards the underlying flow velocities. At such large scales, a second regime starts where heavy particles separate as tracers particles would do. As a consequence, at increasing inertia, a larger transient stage is observed, and the Richardson diffusion of simple tracers is recovered only at large times and large scales. These features ...

  14. Average prime-pair counting formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Jaap; Riele, Herman Te

    2010-04-01

    Taking r>0 , let π_{2r}(x) denote the number of prime pairs (p, p+2r) with p≤ x . The prime-pair conjecture of Hardy and Littlewood (1923) asserts that π_{2r}(x)˜ 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) with an explicit constant C_{2r}>0 . There seems to be no good conjecture for the remainders ω_{2r}(x)=π_{2r}(x)- 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) that corresponds to Riemann's formula for π(x)-{li}(x) . However, there is a heuristic approximate formula for averages of the remainders ω_{2r}(x) which is supported by numerical results.

  15. REX: Explaining Relationships between Entity Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Lujun; Yu, Cong; Bohannon, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge bases of entities and relations (either constructed manually or automatically) are behind many real world search engines, including those at Yahoo!, Microsoft, and Google. Those knowledge bases can be viewed as graphs with nodes representing entities and edges representing (primary) relationships, and various studies have been conducted on how to leverage them to answer entity seeking queries. Meanwhile, in a complementary direction, analyses over the query logs have enabled researchers to identify entity pairs that are statistically correlated. Such entity relationships are then presented to search users through the "related searches" feature in modern search engines. However, entity relationships thus discovered can often be "puzzling" to the users because why the entities are connected is often indescribable. In this paper, we propose a novel problem called "entity relationship explanation", which seeks to explain why a pair of entities are connected, and solve this challenging problem by integra...

  16. For the Smarter Good of Cities? On Cities, Complexity and Slippages in the Smart City Discourse’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Henriette; Veel, Kristin Eva Albrechtsen

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Cities for Smart Environmental and Energy Futures presents works written by eminent international experts from a variety of disciplines including architecture, engineering and related fields. Due to the ever-increasing focus on sustainable technologies, alternative energy sources......, and global social and urban issues, interest in the energy systems for cities of the future has grown in a wealth of disciplines. Some of the special features of this book include new findings on the city of the future from the macro to the micro level. These range from urban sustainability to indoor...... urbanism, and from strategies for cities and global climate change to material properties. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers active in architecture, engineering, the social and computational sciences, building physics and related fields....

  17. Paired de Bruijn Graphs: A Novel Approach for Incorporating Mate Pair Information into Genome Assemblers

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedev, Paul; Pham, Son; Chaisson, Mark; Tesler, Glenn; Pevzner, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    The recent proliferation of next generation sequencing with short reads has enabled many new experimental opportunities but, at the same time, has raised formidable computational challenges in genome assembly. One of the key advances that has led to an improvement in contig lengths has been mate pairs, which facilitate the assembly of repeating regions. Mate pairs have been algorithmically incorporated into most next generation assemblers as various heuristic post-processing steps to correct ...

  18. Strong pairing approximation in comparison with the exact solutions to the pairing Hamiltonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunyov, A. V.; Mikhajlov, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    Results of the Strong Pairing Approximation (SPA) as a method with the exact particle number conservation are compared with those of the quasiparticle method (QM). It is shown that SPA comes to the same equations as QM for the gap parameter, chemical potential and one- and two-quasiparticle states. Calculations are performed for 14864Gd84 as an example, and compared with the exact solutions to the pairing Hamiltonian.

  19. Radio structures in QSO-galaxy pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now generally agreed that if quasars and nearby low redshift galaxies are associated, then there should be luminous connections between them. However, most of the observational evidence being presented is in the optical domain, whereas such evidence should also exist at radio frequencies. The author is, therefore, investigating some quasar-galaxy pairs at radio frequencies to search for luminous connections and other structural peculiarities. Radio maps of some of these sources are presented

  20. Paired structures and bipolar knowledge representation

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Javier; Bustince, H.; Franco, C.; Rodríguez, Juan Tinguaro; Gómez, Daniel; Pagola, Miguel; Fernandez, Javier; Barrenechea, Edurne

    2014-01-01

    In this strictly positional paper we propose a general approach to bipolar knowledge representation, where the meaning of concepts can be modelled by examining their decomposition into opposite and neutral categories. In particular, it is the semantic relationship between the opposite categories which suggests the emergence of a paired structure and its associated type of neutrality, being there three general types of neutral categories, namely indeterminacy, ambivalence and conflict. Hence, ...

  1. Asteroid Systems: Binaries, Triples, and Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Taylor, Patrick; Carry, Benoît; Jacobson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of known binary near-Earth asteroids has more than quadrupled and the number of known large main belt asteroids with satellites has doubled. Half a dozen triple asteroids have been discovered, and the previously unrecognized populations of asteroid pairs and small main belt binaries have been identified. The current observational evidence confirms that small (20 km) binaries with small satellites are most likely created during large collisions.

  2. Narrowband polarization entangled telecom photon pair source

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Florian; Issautier, Amandine; Alibart, Olivier; Martin, Anthony; Tanzilli, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, quantum entanglement has paved the way out to of the lab modern applications such as quantum computation and communication. Today, small scale quantum networks exist already, but they are limited to a few 100 km distance, due to intrinsic fiber transmission losses and non perfect detectors. These networks are typically established using photon pair sources based on spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC). Widely used entanglement observables are time-bin and pola...

  3. Pair Correlations in Superfluid Helium 3

    OpenAIRE

    Vollhardt, D.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 Lee, Osheroff and Richardson received the Nobel Prize for their 1971 discovery of superfluid helium 3 -- a discovery which opened the door to the most fascinating system known in condensed matter physics. The superfluid phases of helium 3, originating from pair condensation of helium 3 atoms, turned out to be the ideal test-system for many fundamental concepts of modern physics, such as macroscopic quantum phenomena, (gauge-)symmetries and their spontaneous breakdown, topological defe...

  4. Temporal dependence in longitudinal paired comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Dittrich, Regina; Francis, Brian; Katzenbeisser, Walter

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a new approach to the analysis of longitudinal paired comparison data, where comparisons of the same objects by the same judges are made on more than one occasion. As an alternative to other recent approaches to such data, which are based on Kalman filter- ing, our approach treats the problem as one of multivariate multinomial data, allowing dependence terms between comparisons over time to be incorporated. The resulting model can be fitted as a Poisson log-linear model an...

  5. Bjerrum pairing correlations at charged interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Travesset, A.; Vaknin, D.

    2006-01-01

    Electrostatic correlations play a fundamental role in aqueous solutions. In this letter, we identify transverse and lateral correlations as two mutually exclusive regimes. We show that the transverse regime leads to binding by generalization of Bjerrum pair formation theory, yielding binding constants from first-principle statistical-mechanical calculations. We compare our theoretical predictions with experiments on charged membranes and Langmuir monolayers and find good agreement. We contras...

  6. W+- pairs and neutral currents at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is presented on two different types of processes which may form part of the weak interactions program. The first is the production of pairs of charged weak bosons in the process pp → W+W-X; the second involves searching for neutral current effects in the rate for ordinary lepton production, without measuring any charge asymmetry or helicities using the reaction pp → l+l-X

  7. Quantum Computation by Pairing Trapped Ultracold Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯芒; 朱熙文; 高克林; 施磊

    2001-01-01

    Superpositional wavefunction oscillations for the implementation of quantum algorithms modify the desired interference required for the quantum computation. We propose a scheme with trapped ultracold ion-pairs beingqubits to diminish the detrimental effect of the wavefunction oscillations, which is applied to the two-qubitGrover's search. It can be also found that the qubits in our scheme are more robust against the decoherencecaused by the environment, and the model is scalable.

  8. From city marketing to city branding : An interdisciplinary analysis with reference to Amsterdam, Budapest and Athens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaratzis, Mihalis

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the theory and practice of city marketing. It describes the transition from city marketing to city branding by identifying the roots of city marketing in general marketing theory, by adapting the concept of corporate-level marketing for the needs of cities and by analysing in

  9. Plan for city identity establishment and city marketing - the case of Kimpo city

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Inn

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide theoretical methods and practical strategies of crea-ting city identity, and to utilize them as basic tools of city management. Place marketing consists of two parts, place assets making and place promotion. Place asset making is the process of making the place-specific advantage or attractiveness and the place promotion is the process that makes notice of it. The place marketing debates and strategies is quite often confined to partial place marketing,...

  10. Banach Algebras Associated to Lax Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, James F.

    2015-04-01

    Lax pairs featuring in the theory of integrable systems are known to be constructed from a commutative algebra of formal pseudodifferential operators known as the Burchnall- Chaundy algebra. Such pairs induce the well known KP flows on a restricted infinite-dimensional Grassmannian. The latter can be exhibited as a Banach homogeneous space constructed from a Banach *-algebra. It is shown that this commutative algebra of operators generating Lax pairs can be associated with a commutative C*-subalgebra in the C*-norm completion of the *-algebra. In relationship to the Bose-Fermi correspondence and the theory of vertex operators, this C*-algebra has an association with the CAR algebra of operators as represented on Fermionic Fock space by the Gelfand-Naimark-Segal construction. Instrumental is the Plücker embedding of the restricted Grassmannian into the projective space of the associated Hilbert space. The related Baker and tau-functions provide a connection between these two C*-algebras, following which their respective state spaces and Jordan-Lie-Banach algebras structures can be compared.

  11. Chiral baryon in the coherent pair approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Aly, T S T

    1999-01-01

    We revisit the work of K. Goeke, M. Harvey, F. Grümmer, and J. N. Urbano (Phys. Rev. {\\bf D37}, 754 (1988)) who considered a chiral model for the nucleon based on the linear sigma model with scalar-isoscalar scalar-isovector mesons coupled to quarks and solved using the coherent-pair approximation. In this way the quantum pion field can be treated in a non-perturbative fashion. In this work we review this model and the coherent pair approximation correcting several errors in the earlier work. We minimize the expectation value of the chiral hamiltonian in the ansatz coherent-pair ground state configuration and solve the resulting equations for nucleon quantum numbers. We calculate the canonical set of nucleon observables and compare with the Hedgehog model and experiment. Using the corrected equations yield slightly different values for nucleon observables but do not correct the large virial deviation in the $\\pi$-nucleon coupling. Our results therefore do not significantly alter the conclusions of Goeke, et ...

  12. Population of the giant pairing vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, M.; Casten, R. F.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Clark, R. M.; Bucurescu, D.

    2016-03-01

    Background: The giant pairing vibration (GPV), a correlated two-nucleon mode in the second shell above the Fermi surface, has long been predicted and expected to be strongly populated in two-nucleon transfer cross sections similar to those of the normal pairing vibration. Recent experiments have provided evidence for this mode in ,15C14 but, despite sensitive studies, it has not been definitively identified in either Sn or Pb nuclei where pairing correlations are known to play a crucial role. Purpose: Our aim is to test whether features inherent to the mixing of bound and unbound levels might account for this and to study the effect in a simple and intuitively clear approach. Method: We study the mixing of unbound levels in a set of toy models that capture the essential physics of the GPV, along with a more realistic calculation including distorted-wave Born approximation transfer amplitudes. Results: The calculated (relative) cross section to populate a simulated GPV state is effectively low, compared to the case of bound levels with no widths Conclusions: The mixing turns out to be only a minor contributor to the weak population. Rather, the main reason is the melting of the GPV peak due to the width it acquires from the low orbital angular momentum single-particle states playing a dominant role in two-nucleon transfer amplitudes. This effect, in addition to a severe Q -value mismatch, may account for the elusive nature of this mode in (t ,p ) and (p ,t ) reactions.

  13. Photoinduced Charge Separation in Porphyrin Ion Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Mirco; Scandola, Franco

    2016-03-10

    Ion pairs between porphyrin-type compounds have been successfully employed for spectral sensitization of semiconductor surfaces and for the preparation of collective binary ionic materials for photonic and (photo)catalytic applications. The understanding of the photophysical processes occurring within ion-paired porphyrin dimers is thus of remarkable importance for the optimization and improvement of such systems. Herein the ion-pair species formed between ZnTMePyP(4+) (Zn1) or H2TMePyP(4+) (H21) and ZnTPPS(4-) (Zn2) or H2TPPS(4-) (H22) in a variety of solvent mixtures are characterized and their photophysics thoroughly investigated by time-resolved techniques. In all the systems studied, very fast and efficient photoinduced charge separation is observed, with the cationic porphyrin being reduced and the anionic one oxidized. Interestingly, despite the very short charge separation distance, the lifetime for charge recombination, depending on the energy gap, can extend into the nanosecond time domain, showing great potential for the utilization of this molecular design within energy conversion schemes. PMID:26905260

  14. Grandmothering life histories and human pair bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxworth, James E; Kim, Peter S; McQueen, John S; Hawkes, Kristen

    2015-09-22

    The evolution of distinctively human life history and social organization is generally attributed to paternal provisioning based on pair bonds. Here we develop an alternative argument that connects the evolution of human pair bonds to the male-biased mating sex ratios that accompanied the evolution of human life history. We simulate an agent-based model of the grandmother hypothesis, compare simulated sex ratios to data on great apes and human hunter-gatherers, and note associations between a preponderance of males and mate guarding across taxa. Then we explore a recent model that highlights the importance of mating sex ratios for differences between birds and mammals and conclude that lessons for human evolution cannot ignore mammalian reproductive constraints. In contradiction to our claim that male-biased sex ratios are characteristically human, female-biased ratios are reported in some populations. We consider the likelihood that fertile men are undercounted and conclude that the mate-guarding hypothesis for human pair bonds gains strength from explicit links with our grandmothering life history. PMID:26351687

  15. Tree structure compression with RePair

    CERN Document Server

    Lohrey, Markus; Mennicke, Roy

    2010-01-01

    In this work we introduce a new linear time compression algorithm, called "Re-pair for Trees", which compresses ranked ordered trees using linear straight-line context-free tree grammars. Such grammars generalize straight-line context-free string grammars and allow basic tree operations, like traversal along edges, to be executed without prior decompression. Our algorithm can be considered as a generalization of the "Re-pair" algorithm developed by N. Jesper Larsson and Alistair Moffat in 2000. The latter algorithm is a dictionary-based compression algorithm for strings. We also introduce a succinct coding which is specialized in further compressing the grammars generated by our algorithm. This is accomplished without loosing the ability do directly execute queries on this compressed representation of the input tree. Finally, we compare the grammars and output files generated by a prototype of the Re-pair for Trees algorithm with those of similar compression algorithms. The obtained results show that that our...

  16. Exclusive production of W pairs in CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Da

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the results on the search for exclusive production of W pairs in the LHC with data collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid detector in proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV. The analysis comprises the two-photon production of a W pairs, pp → pW+ W− p → p νe± νµ∓ p. Two events are observed in data for pT(ℓ > 4 GeV, |η(ℓ| 20 GeV, in agreement with the standard model prediction of 2.2 ± 0.4 signal events with 0.84 ± 0.15 background events. Moreover, a study of the tail of the lepton pair transverse momentum distribution is performed to search for an evidence of anomalous quartic gauge couplings in the γγ → W+ W− vertex. As no events are observed in data, it results in a model-independent upper limits for the anomalous W quartic gauge couplings aW0,C/Λ2, which are of the order of 10−4.

  17. The paired-domination and the upper paired-domination numbers of graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Ulatowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we continue the study of paired-domination in graphs. A paired-dominating set, abbreviated PDS, of a graph \\(G\\ with no isolated vertex is a dominating set of vertices whose induced subgraph has a perfect matching. The paired-domination number of \\(G\\, denoted by \\(\\gamma_{p}(G\\, is the minimum cardinality of a PDS of \\(G\\. The upper paired-domination number of \\(G\\, denoted by \\(\\Gamma_{p}(G\\, is the maximum cardinality of a minimal PDS of \\(G\\. Let \\(G\\ be a connected graph of order \\(n\\geq 3\\. Haynes and Slater in [Paired-domination in graphs, Networks 32 (1998, 199-206], showed that \\(\\gamma_{p}(G\\leq n-1\\ and they determine the extremal graphs \\(G\\ achieving this bound. In this paper we obtain analogous results for \\(\\Gamma_{p}(G\\. Dorbec, Henning and McCoy in [Upper total domination versus upper paired-domination, Questiones Mathematicae 30 (2007, 1-12] determine \\(\\Gamma_{p}(P_n\\, instead in this paper we determine \\(\\Gamma_{p}(C_n\\. Moreover, we describe some families of graphs \\(G\\ for which the equality \\(\\gamma_{p}(G=\\Gamma_{p}(G\\ holds.

  18. Cities in translation : some proposals on method

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    This article argues for the existence of a category of linguistically divided cities and provides four examples: colonial Calcutta, turn of the century Trieste, Barcelona and Montreal. These are cities which—at specific historical moments—are characterized by competition between two languages each claiming entitlement to the space of the city. Because there are two strong languages claiming the allegiance of citizens, these cities are different from most other multilingual cities where there ...

  19. Determinants of commercial identities of brandname cities

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Funda; Marangoz, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    As commercial products, cities compete by performing branding strategies in their own market. However branding strategies serve not only to create a tourism destination attracting more visitors by differentiating from its rivals. Further to that, residents and investors are also the stakeholders that cities target within city branding. Therefore developing a city brand identity that introduces the city to new investors and entrepreneurs is important. Accordingly, the aim of the study is to ex...

  20. Post-socialist city development in Tirana

    OpenAIRE

    Abitz, Julie

    2006-01-01

    #Abstract This thesis surveys how city development is contested in post-socialist Tirana, Albania. It explores how different actors contest city development in Tirana and how the concept of community informs their work. Furthermore, this study explores how socialist city development informs post-socialistic city development. Contestations in post-socialist city development are studied through a theoretical framework formed by a combination of two theoretical approaches: A discursive gover...

  1. Monitoring and Prevention the Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Berná Martínez, José Vicente; Maciá Pérez, Francisco; Sánchez Bernabeu, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the intensive use of Technology Information (TI) provide solutions to problems of the high population density, energy conservation and cities management. This produces a newest concept of the city, Smart City. But the inclusion of TI in the city brings associated new problems, specifically the generation of electromagnetic fields from the available and new technological infrastructures installed in the city that did not exist before. This new scenario produces a negative effect on a...

  2. Isolated Main Galaxy Pairs from the SDSS Data Release 4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Fa Deng; Yi-Qing Chen; Ping Wu; Cheng-Hong Luo; Ji-Zhou He

    2006-01-01

    From the Main galaxy data of the SDSS Data Release 4 (SDSS4), we have identified close galaxy pairs at neighbourhood radius R = 100 kpc by three-dimensional cluster analysis. Using the criterion that an "isolated galaxy pair" must be separated from its "nearest neighbor" by more than 500 kpc, we constructed an isolated galaxy pair sample of 1158 pairs.We also constructed a random pair sample by randomly selecting 1158 galaxy pairs from the Main galaxy sample, which has the same redshift distribution as the isolated galaxy pair sample, and in which the two components of any pair have the same redshifts. Comparative studies of luminosity and size between the members of the galaxy pairs are performed. We find and further confirm there is no tendency for paired galaxies to have similar luminosities or sizes. From the isolated pair sample we also selected a subsample with the magnitude limit of the primary raised by 2 magnitudes, so as to include pairs in which the secondary is 2 magnitudes fainter than the primary. This subsample contains 82 pairs. A random pair sample is similarly constructed.

  3. From one to N Cooper pairs, step by step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We suggest a method for the analytical solution of Richardson equations. We reveal a connection between one-pair Cooper problem and BCS superconductivity. The ground state energy is controlled by binding energy of a Cooper pair. The superconducting gap is due to many-body effects induced by Pauli blocking. We extend the one-pair Cooper configuration towards Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) model of superconductivity by adding one-by-one electron pairs to an energy layer, where a small attraction acts. To do it, we solve Richardson's equations analytically in the dilute limit of pairs on the one-Cooper pair scale. We find, through only keeping the first order term in this expansion, that the N correlated pair energy reads as the energy of N isolated pairs within a N(N-1) correction induced by the Pauli exclusion principle which tends to decrease the average pair binding energy when the pair number increases. Quite remarkably, extension of this first-order result to the dense regime gives the BCS condensation energy exactly. This leads us to suggest a different understanding of the BCS condensation energy with a pair number equal to the number of pairs feeling the potential and an average pair binding energy reduced by Pauli blocking to half the single Cooper pair energy - instead of the more standard but far larger superconducting gap.

  4. City scale pollen concentration variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Michiel; van Vliet, Arnold; Krol, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Pollen are emitted in the atmosphere both in the country-side and in cities. Yet the majority of the population is exposed to pollen in cities. Allergic reactions may be induced by short-term exposure to pollen. This raises the question how variable pollen concentration in cities are in temporally and spatially, and how much of the pollen in cities are actually produced in the urban region itself. We built a high resolution (1 × 1 km) pollen dispersion model based on WRF-Chem to study a city's pollen budget and the spatial and temporal variability in concentration. It shows that the concentrations are highly variable, as a result of source distribution, wind direction and boundary layer mixing, as well as the release rate as a function of temperature, turbulence intensity and humidity. Hay Fever Forecasts based on such high resolution emission and physical dispersion modelling surpass traditional hay fever warning methods based on temperature sum methods. The model gives new insights in concentration variability, personal and community level exposure and prevention. The model will be developped into a new forecast tool to serve allergic people to minimize their exposure and reduce nuisance, coast of medication and sick leave. This is an innovative approach in hay fever warning systems.

  5. Greenest city in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the reasons why Curitiba, Brazil, is considered the greenest city in the world. Accomplished by Jaime Lerner, former mayor of Curitiba, this city has been called by some planners the most environmentally advanced urban area on Earth. Several initiatives have contributed to Curitiba's environmental success. Most important of these initiatives is the bus system, which offers faster, cheaper and more comfortable transportation. Created in the 1970s, the system is a winning mix of fast express arteries, local feeder buses, and special routes for circulating in the downtown area. From this bus system a series of other initiatives were facilitated, including the creation of a 42 sq. km "Industrial City". This Industrial City is restricted to low-polluting industries, which generates about 33,000 jobs directly and another 150,000 indirectly. Moreover, Curitiba launched a series of programs aimed not only at preserving the city's existing trees and green space, but adding to them. Other programs include trading garbage for food, recycling rates, and free health care. PMID:12296011

  6. Tourism and City. Reflections about Tourist Dimension of Smart City

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2013-01-01

    The city of the future seems to be necessarily “intelligent” both in its physical and in functional features.This paper starts from the consideration that the diffusion of new communication technologies (ICTs) is significantly changing the urban supply system of tourist services giving rise to new ways of enjoying the city.As tourism can be assumed as an urban activity, by a town planning point of view, the study of tourism is meaningful to identify development trajectories of the present cit...

  7. City-City Tourism Collaboration in the Straits of Malacca Development Region: Key Success Factors

    OpenAIRE

    A. Habibah; Hamzah, J; A. C. Er; A. Buang; S. Selvadurai; I. Mushrifah

    2013-01-01

    City to city collaboration has emerged as one of the regional initiatives to promote and sustained economic growth in many parts around the world. Within the Asean cooperation, city to city tourism collaboration is also an emerging sector. Although existing literatures assert on key success factors that lead to economic and cultural collaboration, little has been done to explore and elaborate deeply the key success factors in the city to city (C2C) tourism collaboration the Straits of Malacca...

  8. Top quark pair production at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most interesting and manifold processes in the Standard Model of elementary particle physics is the top quark pair production. It enabled the discovery of the top quark at the Tevatron in 1995 and the determination of many of its properties. By means of a precise measurement and calculation of the cross section of top quark pair production it is possible to extract the top quark mass. Improvements in the gluon parton distribution functions (important for the Higgs boson production) or improvements in the prediction of the Higgs mass are also closely linked with the top quark pair production. Furthermore, the production process plays an important role in the discovery of new physics. On the one hand the top quark pair decays form the largest part of the background in many BSM models, on the other hand BSM physics can be detected directly in the decay process by investigating the charge symmetry or the invariant mass spectrum. At the LHC it will be possible for the first time to produce a large amount of top quarks; thereby the statistical errors of the observables will be strongly reduced. The enormous increase in the production rate has two reasons. On the one hand, the acceleration energy of the LHC (14 TeV and 7 TeV) is significantly greater than that of the Tevatron (1.96 Tev). This leads to an increase of the cross section by a factor of 100 (∝7.3 pb at the Tevatron to ∝800 pb at 14 TeV LHC). On the other hand, the luminosity of the LHC outperforms the Tevatron by a factor of 10-100. The reduced experimental errors for the observables demand an improvement of the theoretical error. The experimental accuracy of the LHC and the great relevance of the process led to an intensive activity of different research groups in order to improve the calculation of the cross section of top quark pair production. This work presents for the first time a complete numerical result for the full NNLO correction for the top quark pair production in quark anti

  9. Top quark pair production at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baernreuther, Peter

    2012-06-28

    One of the most interesting and manifold processes in the Standard Model of elementary particle physics is the top quark pair production. It enabled the discovery of the top quark at the Tevatron in 1995 and the determination of many of its properties. By means of a precise measurement and calculation of the cross section of top quark pair production it is possible to extract the top quark mass. Improvements in the gluon parton distribution functions (important for the Higgs boson production) or improvements in the prediction of the Higgs mass are also closely linked with the top quark pair production. Furthermore, the production process plays an important role in the discovery of new physics. On the one hand the top quark pair decays form the largest part of the background in many BSM models, on the other hand BSM physics can be detected directly in the decay process by investigating the charge symmetry or the invariant mass spectrum. At the LHC it will be possible for the first time to produce a large amount of top quarks; thereby the statistical errors of the observables will be strongly reduced. The enormous increase in the production rate has two reasons. On the one hand, the acceleration energy of the LHC (14 TeV and 7 TeV) is significantly greater than that of the Tevatron (1.96 Tev). This leads to an increase of the cross section by a factor of 100 ({proportional_to}7.3 pb at the Tevatron to {proportional_to}800 pb at 14 TeV LHC). On the other hand, the luminosity of the LHC outperforms the Tevatron by a factor of 10-100. The reduced experimental errors for the observables demand an improvement of the theoretical error. The experimental accuracy of the LHC and the great relevance of the process led to an intensive activity of different research groups in order to improve the calculation of the cross section of top quark pair production. This work presents for the first time a complete numerical result for the full NNLO correction for the top quark pair

  10. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, N J; Jr., Newton J. Moura; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results were obtained with the maximum likelihood estimator, showing an exponent equal to 2.41 for 1970 and 2.36 for the other three years.

  11. Auditing energy use in cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, M.; Newborough, M. [Cranfield University, Bedford (United Kingdom). Applied Energy Group

    2001-01-01

    'Energy auditing' as a technique for obtaining a 'snapshot' of the energy flows in a city or urban conurbation is discussed in the context of meeting national and international targets for CO{sub 2} emissions abatement. An audit methodology is presented which addresses the key questions: who needs to be involved in the audit? how should the city or conurbation be divided? what data are required? how might these data be obtained and then analysed? which are the areas of significant consumption? A basis for setting local targets for reducing future energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions is presented. The scope for auditing major cities and conurbations in the United Kingdom is identified with reference to implementing Local Agenda 21 and satisfying CO{sub 2} emissions reduction targets. (author)

  12. Shrinking Cities or Urban Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise Holst

    Shrinking Cities or Urban Transformation is a PhD-thesis conducted at the Department of Architecture and Design, Aalborg University in the period 2004-2008. The PhD concerns the spatial changes that emerge in contemporary urbanity. Contemporary urbanity can among others be characterized as both...... growing and declining. On the one hand, a concentration of the urban into a highly urbanized nodal point is happening and on the other a deconcentration of the urban fabric in declining territories is taking place. The starting point for the dissertation is the term shrinking cities, which has been...... investigation of the cases Baltimore and Denmark is conducted. This shall shed light upon whether the theoretical assumptions correspond to what is happening in the real world. The introduction of the term urban transformation is the result of these investigations and a response to shrinking cities. Urban...

  13. Microsensing networks for sustainable cities

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    This book explores the microsensing technologies and systems now available to monitor the quality of air and water within the urban environment and examines their role in the creation of sustainable cities against the background of the challenges posed by rapid urbanization. The opening section addresses the theoretical and conceptual background of microsensing networks. The coverage includes detailed description of microsensors, supported by design-specific equations, and clear explanation of the ways in which devices that harvest energy from ambient sources can detect and quantify pollution. The practical application of such systems in addressing environmental impacts within cities and in sustainable urban planning is then discussed with the aid of case studies in developing countries. The book will be of interest to all who wish to understand the benefits of microsensing networks in promoting sustainable cities through better delivery of information on health hazards and improved provision of data to envir...

  14. Sustainable development indicators for cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Bobylev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of urban population’s life quality implies an investigation of all factors defining it: economic, social and ecological. The development of the corresponding indicators of sustainable urban development is necessary. The majority of the cities in the world and this country show unsustainable development at present time. In the article, the world and Russian experience of development of indicators of sustainable urban development is considered. In the article, opportunities of adaptation of approaches to these indicators’ development on the basis of Human Development Index developed by United Nations Development Program and an index of Adjusted Net Savings of the World Bank for Russia are considered. The authors propose a new integrated index of sustainability for Russian cities. It is based on the concept and methodology of the Adjusted Net Savings index. In order to evaluate the sustainability of urban development taking into account economic, social, and ecological factors, the authors propose applying three corresponding sub-indexes: gross capital, expenses on human capital development, and damage from environmental pollution in the cities. In the article, the authors’ set of indicators for Russian cities is proposed. It reflects the most acute problems of sustainable urban development in Russia and the quality of life in cities; also it corresponds to Russian statistics. 21 key indicators reflecting important economic, social, and ecological urban priorities are proposed. Indicators are divided into nine groups: economic indicators; energy efficiency; transport; social and institutional indicators; air and climate; water resources; waste; especially protected natural territories; noise influence. Proposed indicators for cities allow more adequately assess trends of urbanized space shaping and quality of life

  15. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  16. Paired structures and bipolar knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Bustince, Humberto; Franco, Camilo;

    In this strictly positional paper we propose a general approach to bipolar knowledge representation, where the meaning of concepts can be modelled by examining their decomposition into opposite and neutral categories. In particular, it is the semantic relationship between the opposite categories...... at the same time the type of neutrality rising in between opposites. Based on this first level of bipolar knowledge representation, paired structures in fact offer the means to characterize a specific bipolar valuation scale depending on the meaning of the concept that has to be verified. In this...

  17. Invisible Decays in Higgs Pair Production

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Shankha; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Observation of Higgs pair production is an important long term objective of the LHC physics program as it will shed light on the scalar potential of the Higgs field and the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking. While numerous studies have examined the impact of new physics on di-Higgs production, little attention has been given to the well-motivated possibility of exotic Higgs decays in this channel. Here we investigate the consequences of exotic invisible Higgs decays in di-Higgs production. We outline a search sensitive to such invisible decays in the $b\\bar b+{\

  18. Generalized magnetofluid connections in pair plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asenjo, Felipe A., E-mail: felipe.asenjo@uai.cl [Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago 7941169 (Chile); Comisso, Luca, E-mail: lcomisso@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, Torino 10129, Italy and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi-CNR, Roma 00185 (Italy); Mahajan, Swadesh M., E-mail: mahajan@mail.utexas.edu [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    We extend the magnetic connection theorem of ideal magnetohydrodynamics to nonideal relativistic pair plasmas. Adopting a generalized Ohm's law, we prove the existence of generalized magnetofluid connections that are preserved by the plasma dynamics. We show that these connections are related to a general antisymmetric tensor that unifies the electromagnetic and fluid fields. The generalized magnetofluid connections set important constraints on the plasma dynamics by forbidding transitions between configurations with different magnetofluid connectivity. An approximated solution is explicitly shown where the corrections due to current inertial effects are found.

  19. A biometric signcryption scheme without bilinear pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingwen; Ren, Zhiyuan; Cai, Jun; Zheng, Wentao

    2013-03-01

    How to apply the entropy in biometrics into the encryption and remote authentication schemes to simplify the management of keys is a hot research area. Utilizing Dodis's fuzzy extractor method and Liu's original signcryption scheme, a biometric identity based signcryption scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is more efficient than most of the previous proposed biometric signcryption schemes for that it does not need bilinear pairing computation and modular exponentiation computation which is time consuming largely. The analysis results show that under the CDH and DL hard problem assumption, the proposed scheme has the features of confidentiality and unforgeability simultaneously.

  20. The split decomposition of a tridiagonal pair

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Kazumasa; Terwilliger, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Let $K$ denote a field and let $V$ denote a vector space over $K$ with finite positive dimension. We consider a pair of linear transformations $A:V \\to V$ and $A^*:V \\to V$ that satisfy (i)--(iv) below: (i) Each of $A$, $A^*$ is diagonalizable. (ii) There exists an ordering $V_{0},V_{1},...,V_{d}$ of the eigenspaces of $A$ such that $A^* V_i \\subseteq V_{i-1} + V_{i} + V_{i+1}$ for $0 \\leq i \\leq d$, where $V_{-1}=0$, $V_{d+1}=0$. (iii) There exists an ordering $V^*_{0},V^*_{1},...,V^*_{\\delt...

  1. Interacting pion pairs in nuclear matter

    OpenAIRE

    Grion, Nevio

    2000-01-01

    The pion-production $\\pi^+ A \\to \\pi^+\\pi^{\\pm} A'$ reactions were studied on nuclei $^{2}H$, $^{12}C$, $^{40}Ca$ and $^{208}Pb$ at a pion energy of $T_{\\pi^{+}}$=283 MeV using the CHAOS spectrometer. The experimental results are reduced to differential cross sections and compared to both theoretical predictions and reaction phase space. Near the $2m_{\\pi}$ threshold pion pairs couple to $(\\pi\\pi)_{I=J=0}$ when produced in the $\\pi^+\\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$ reaction channel. The $\\cal C$$_{\\pi\\pi}^A$ ...

  2. Matched molecular pair analysis in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossetter, Alexander G; Griffen, Edward J; Leach, Andrew G

    2013-08-01

    Multiple parameter optimisation in drug discovery is difficult, but Matched Molecular Pair Analysis (MMPA) can help. Computer algorithms can process data in an unbiased way to yield design rules and suggest better molecules, cutting the number of design cycles. The approach often makes more suggestions than can be processed manually and methods to deal with this are proposed. However, there is a paucity of contextually specific design rules, which would truly make the technique powerful. By combining extracted information from multiple sources there is an opportunity to solve this problem and advance medicinal chemistry in a matter of months rather than years. PMID:23557664

  3. Efficient Certificateless Signcryption Scheme from Weil Pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Yu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Certificateless signcryption has both the advantage of certificateless public key cryptography, which overcome the escrow problem inherited from identity based cryptography without the use of certificates as in traditional public key cryptography, and signcryption which can fulfill both the functions of signature and encryption in a logical signal step. In this paper, we explicit the security model for certificateless signcryption and propose an efficient certificateless signcryption scheme from Weil pairings. The new scheme not only can be proved to be secure in our model but also can simultaneously provide public verifiability and forward security. Furthermore, compared with existing schemes, the new scheme is more efficient.

  4. Generalized magnetofluid connections in pair plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenjo, Felipe A.; Comisso, Luca; Mahajan, Swadesh M.

    2015-12-01

    We extend the magnetic connection theorem of ideal magnetohydrodynamics to nonideal relativistic pair plasmas. Adopting a generalized Ohm's law, we prove the existence of generalized magnetofluid connections that are preserved by the plasma dynamics. We show that these connections are related to a general antisymmetric tensor that unifies the electromagnetic and fluid fields. The generalized magnetofluid connections set important constraints on the plasma dynamics by forbidding transitions between configurations with different magnetofluid connectivity. An approximated solution is explicitly shown where the corrections due to current inertial effects are found.

  5. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2) (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 14 is being distributed for use in development and testing of automated fingerprint classification and matching systems on a set of images which approximate a natural horizontal distribution of the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) fingerprint classes. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  6. Generalized Magnetofluid Connections in Pair Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Asenjo, Felipe A; Mahajan, Swadesh M

    2015-01-01

    We extend the magnetic connection theorem of ideal magnetohydrodynamics to nonideal relativistic pair plasmas. Adopting a generalized Ohm's law, we prove the existence of generalized magnetofluid connections that are preserved by the plasma dynamics. We show that these connections are related to a general antisymmetric tensor that unifies the electromagnetic and fluid fields. The generalized magnetofluid connections set important constraints on the plasma dynamics by forbidding transitions between configurations with different magnetofluid connectivity. An approximated solution is explicitly shown where the corrections due to current inertial effects are found.

  7. Z Boson Pair-Production at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Roux, B; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2003-01-01

    Events stemming from the pair-production of Z bosons in e^+e^- collisions are studied using 217.4 pb^-1 of data collected with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies from 200 GeV up to 209 GeV. The special case of events with b quarks is also investigated. Combining these events with those collected at lower centre-of-mass energies, the Standard Model predictions for the production mechanism are verified. In addition, limits are set on anomalous couplings of neutral gauge bosons and on effects of extra space dimensions.

  8. Pair Negotiation When Developing English Speaking Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Liliana Bohórquez Suárez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students’ negotiations: Establishing a connection with a partner to work with, proposing practical alternatives, refusing mates’ propositions, and making practical decisions. Moreover, we found that the constant performance of the process of negotiation provokes students to construct a sociolinguistic identity that allows agreements to emerge.

  9. Generalized magnetofluid connections in pair plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend the magnetic connection theorem of ideal magnetohydrodynamics to nonideal relativistic pair plasmas. Adopting a generalized Ohm's law, we prove the existence of generalized magnetofluid connections that are preserved by the plasma dynamics. We show that these connections are related to a general antisymmetric tensor that unifies the electromagnetic and fluid fields. The generalized magnetofluid connections set important constraints on the plasma dynamics by forbidding transitions between configurations with different magnetofluid connectivity. An approximated solution is explicitly shown where the corrections due to current inertial effects are found

  10. Slepton pair production in the POWHEG BOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an implementation for slepton pair production at hadron colliders in the POWHEG BOX, a framework for combining next-to-leading order QCD calculations with parton-shower Monte-Carlo programs. Our code provides a SUSY Les Houches Accord interface for setting the supersymmetric input parameters. Decays of the sleptons and parton-shower effects are simulated with PYTHIA. Our Monte-Carlo program allows the generation of events, and thus of arbitrary distributions with appropriate selection cuts. Kinematic distributions of experimentally observable quantities are shown for a representative point in the supersymmetric parameter space.

  11. Topological edge states of bound photon pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Gorlach, Maxim A

    2016-01-01

    We predict the existence of interaction-driven edge states of bound two-photon quasiparticles in a dimer periodic array of nonlinear optical cavities. Energy spectrum of photon pairs is dramatically richer than in the noninteracting case or in a simple lattice, featuring collapse and revival of multiple edge and bulk modes as well as edge states in continuum. Despite the unexpected breakdown of the Zak phase technique and the edge mixing of internal and center-of-mass motion we link the edge state existence to the two-photon quantum walk graph connectivity, thus uncovering the topological nature of the many-body problem in complex lattices.

  12. Hadroproduction of massive lepton pairs and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is presented of some current issues of interest in attempts to describe the production of massive lepton pairs in hadronic collisions at high energies. I concentrate on the interpretation of data in terms of the parton model and on predictions derived from quantum-chromodynamics (QCD), their reliability and their confrontation with experiment. Among topics treated are the connection with deep-inelastic lepton scattering, universality of structure functions, and the behavior of cross-sections as a function of transverse momentum

  13. Gibrat's Law for Cities Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    González-Val, Rafael; Lanaspa, Luis; Sanz, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to test empirically the validity of Gibrat's Law in the growth of cities, using data for all the twentieth century of the complete distribution of cities (without any size restrictions) in three countries: the US, Spain and Italy. For this we use different techniques (parametric and non-parametric methods), obtaining mixed evidence. Our results confirm that Gibrat's law for means holds only as a long-run average. In the short term, considered decade by decade, we find ...

  14. Changing mobilities in Asian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Boquet, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Asian countries have experienced tremendous changes in their mobility patterns in recent years. As economic development has allowed a rise in the standards of living of a god part of the population, the rate of motorzation has increased very quickly. At the sametime, cities populations continue to grow at a fast pace, and the spread of the urbanized area requires more and more to be able to travel on distances too long for walking or even bicycling. Given the high density of many central citi...

  15. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Qing W. Tian; Peter Brimblecombe

    2008-01-01

    The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollut...

  16. The post-secular city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    Spaces of post-secular engagement Session for the Association of American Geographers (AAG) Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., United States, 14-18 April 2010 The post-secular city: An emergent international culture? Anni Greve, Abstract The post-secular city is an emergent intellectual field which...... point of departure in cultural trauma theory (Alexander 2003) the paper calls attention to the ability of a site to offer a framework (in terms of meta narrative and ritual choreography) within which each story gains new meaning (Greve 2006). Against the idea that ‘political and ideological differences...

  17. Smart Cities via Data Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Poncela, J; Vlacheas, P; Giaffreda, R.; S.; Vecchio, M; Nechifor, S; Barco, R.; Aguayo-Torres, MC; Stavroulaki, V; Moessner, K.; Demestichas, P

    2014-01-01

    Cities have an ever increasing wealth of sensing capabilities, recently including also internet of things (IoT) systems. However, to fully exploit such sensing capabilities with the aim of offering effective city-sensing-driven applications still presents certain obstacles. Indeed, at present, the main limitation in this respect consists of the vast majority of data sources being served on a “best effort” basis. To overcome this limitation, we propose a “resilient and adaptive IoT and social ...

  18. Treatment of pairing correlations based on the equations of motion for zero-coupled pair operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pairing problem is treated by means of the equations of motion for zero-coupled pair operators. Exact equations for the seniority-v states of N particles are derived. These equations can be solved by a step-by-step procedure which consists of progressively adding pairs of particles to a core. The theory can be applied at several levels of approximation depending on the number of core states which are taken into account. Some numerical applications to the treatment of v = 0, v = 1, and v = 2 states in the Ni isotopes are performed. The accuracy of various approximations is tested by comparison with exact results. For the seniority-one and seniority-two problems it turns out that the results obtained from the first-order theory are very accurate, while those of higher order calculations are practically exact. Concerning the seniority-zero problem, a fifth-order calculation reproduces quite well the three lowest states

  19. Treatment of pairing correlations based on the equations of motion for zero-coupled pair operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, F.; Covello, A.; Gargano, A.; Ye, L.J.; Porrino, A.

    1985-07-01

    The pairing problem is treated by means of the equations of motion for zero-coupled pair operators. Exact equations for the seniority-v states of N particles are derived. These equations can be solved by a step-by-step procedure which consists of progressively adding pairs of particles to a core. The theory can be applied at several levels of approximation depending on the number of core states which are taken into account. Some numerical applications to the treatment of v = 0, v = 1, and v = 2 states in the Ni isotopes are performed. The accuracy of various approximations is tested by comparison with exact results. For the seniority-one and seniority-two problems it turns out that the results obtained from the first-order theory are very accurate, while those of higher order calculations are practically exact. Concerning the seniority-zero problem, a fifth-order calculation reproduces quite well the three lowest states.

  20. Synergy between pair coupled cluster doubles and pair density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza, Alejandro J.; Bulik, Ireneusz W. [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251-1892 (United States); Henderson, Thomas M. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251-1892 (United States); Scuseria, Gustavo E. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251-1892 (United States); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-01-28

    Pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD) has been recently studied as a method capable of accounting for static correlation with low polynomial cost. We present three combinations of pCCD with Kohn–Sham functionals of the density and on-top pair density (the probability of finding two electrons on top of each other) to add dynamic correlation to pCCD without double counting. With a negligible increase in computational cost, these pCCD+DFT blends greatly improve upon pCCD in the description of typical problems where static and dynamic correlations are both important. We argue that—as a black-box method with low scaling, size-extensivity, size-consistency, and a simple quasidiagonal two-particle density matrix—pCCD is an excellent match for pair density functionals in this type of fusion of multireference wavefunctions with DFT.