WorldWideScience

Sample records for city military base

  1. Monitoring of MMCA-based Military Electronic Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG De-yu,; PAN Cheng-sheng; YANG Jing-yu

    2005-01-01

    A multiplex monitoring and control architecture (MMCA) for military supervision based on common information model (CIM) is put forward after analyzing the features of military system. Information format based on CIM can be compatible with other protocols by mapping data type into that of SNMP, DMI and CMIP, etc. And in order to realize transparence and dynamic expansibility of MMCA administrator, CIM object manager and CIM object provider are designed based on monitoring mechanism of agent extensibility--AgentX that MMCA agent uses.

  2. Promoting Behavior-Based Energy Efficiency in Military Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AH McMakin; EL Malone; RE Lundgren

    1999-09-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps agencies reduce the cost of doing business through energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of solar and other renewable energy. As a large energy user, the U.S. military has been one of the government sectors of focus. Several military installations have shown substantial energy savings in past years. Most of these efficiency projects, however, have focused primarily on physical upgrades, technologies, and purchasing habits. Furthermost projects have focused on administrative and operational areas of energy use. Military residential housing, in particular, has received little formal attention for energy efficiency involving behaviors of the residents themselves. Behavior-based change is a challenging, but potentially fruitful area for energy conservation programs. However, behavioral change involves links with values, social networks and organizations, and new ways of thinking about living patterns. This handbook attempts to fill a gap by offering guidance for promoting such efforts.

  3. The strategic importance of the English military bases in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyalp Tamçelik

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the strategic importance of the English military bases in Cyprus has been examined. Therefore, the primary goal of this research is to display Cyprus's political significance and the strategic merit of its military bases for the United Kingdom. While Englishmen have explained the strategic importance of the island, they have indicated that Cyprus has taken on a highly significant role within the rather complex region of the Middle East, the Caucasus, Southeast Europe and the Mediterranean. In this situation, in order to become more dominant either in the Eastern Mediterranean or in the Middle East, the English have been against the existence of an issue known as the Cyprus question. After all, it is for sure that stable peace in Cyprus which is directly related to issues such as the route of the oil pipelines, the Arab-Israeli peace process and the determination of Iraq's future, will suit the United Kingdom's interests the most. Therefore, it is necessary for stable peace to be maintained urgently in Cyprus. Actually, the United Kingdom's strategic interest in Cyprus could be evaluated from two angles. The first angle is to minimize or if possible, to eliminate the effectiveness and opportunities of powers which could prevent their national interests in this region. The second is to clearly take advantage of the island through the means of the dominant military bases. However, the existence of these military bases, established after the Second World War, has failed to be thoroughly discussed until now. Yet, as much as the existence of the Turkish troops on the island, the existence of the military bases is also a matter which should be brought to the agenda. But, by directing all the reactions received from world public opinion to the existence of the Turkish troops in the North, the English have prevented the discussion of the absolute domination of the English military bases on the island. Based on this reality, the research

  4. 77 FR 3503 - Guam Military Base Realignment Contractor Recruitment Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Employment and Training Administration Guam Military Base Realignment Contractor Recruitment Standards AGENCY... (Department) Employment and Training Administration (ETA) is issuing this notice to announce the recruitment..., and Puerto Rico, according to the terms of a recruitment plan developed and approved by the...

  5. 78 FR 1256 - Guam Military Base Realignment Contractor Recruitment Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... recruitment standards in the Federal Register on January 24, 2012 (77 FR 3503). This Final Notice has made... Employment and Training Administration Guam Military Base Realignment Contractor Recruitment Standards AGENCY... (Department) Employment and Training Administration (ETA) is issuing this notice to announce...

  6. The strategic importance of the English military bases in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyalp Tamçelik

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Therefore, the primary goal of this research is to display Cyprus's political significance and the strategic merit of its military bases for the United Kingdom.While Englishmen have explained the strategic importance of the island, they have indicated that Cyprus has taken on a highly significant role within the rather complex region of the Middle East, the Caucasus, Southeast Europe and the Mediterranean. In this situation, in order to become more dominant either in the Eastern Mediterranean or in the Middle East, the English have been against the existence of an issue known as the Cyprus question. After all, it is for sure that stable peace in Cyprus which is directly related to issues such as the route of the oil pipelines, the Arab-Israeli peace process and the determination of Iraq's future, will suit the United Kingdom's interests the most. Therefore, it is necessary for stable peace to be maintained urgently in Cyprus.Actually, the United Kingdom's strategic interest in Cyprus could be evaluated from two angles. The first angle is to minimize or if possible, to eliminate the effectiveness and opportunities of powers which could prevent their national interests in this region. The second is to clearly take advantage of the island through the means of the dominant military bases.However, the existence of these military bases, established after the Second World War, has failed to be thoroughly discussed until now. Yet, as much as the existence of the Turkish troops on the island, the existence of the military bases is also a matter which should be brought to the agenda. But, by directing all the reactions received from world public opinion to the existence of the Turkish troops in the North, the English have prevented the discussion of the absolute domination of the English military bases on the island.Based on this reality, the research is composed of two main sections. The first section has dealt with and examined the geopolitical

  7. Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group has screened six prospective demonstration projects for consideration by the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT). These projects include the Kirtland Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the March Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the McClellan Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the Williams Air Force Base Demonstration Project, and two demonstration projects under the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence. A seventh project (Port Hueneme Naval Construction Battalion Center) was added to list of prospective demonstrations after the September 1993 Working Group Meeting. This demonstration project has not been screened by the working group. Two additional Air Force remediation programs are also under consideration and are described in Section 6 of this document. The following information on prospective demonstrations was collected by the Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group to assist the DOIT Committee in making Phase 1 Demonstration Project recommendations. The remainder of this report is organized into seven sections: Work Group Charter's mission and vision; contamination problems, current technology limitations, and institutional and regulatory barriers to technology development and commercialization, and work force issues; screening process for initial Phase 1 demonstration technologies and sites; demonstration descriptions -- good matches;demonstration descriptions -- close matches; additional candidate demonstration projects; and next steps

  8. Adenoviruses isolated from civilian and military personnel in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albuquerque Maria Carolina Maciel de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus are important pathogen primarily associated to respiratory infections of children and military personnel, even though it is also associated to cases of conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis. We analyzed respiratory secretion collected from subjects with and without respiratory infection symptoms, being 181 civilians and 221 military subjects. The samples were inoculated in HEp-2 and/or A549 tissue cultures for viral isolation. Samples presenting cytopathogenic effect (CPE in any tissue culture were tested by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay to confirm adenovirus isolation. The isolates confirmed as adenovirus were further analyzed by restriction endonuclease assay for determination of viral species. Three isolates were identified as specie A (two from civilian and one from military, one isolate from military was identified as specie C, and one isolate from civilian was identified as specie D. For two isolates the specie could not be identified.

  9. Quantifying the risks of unexploded ordnance at closed military bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Jacqueline A; Small, Mitchell J; Morgan, M Granger

    2009-01-15

    Some 1,976 sites at closed military bases in the United States are contaminated with unexploded ordnance (UXO) left over from live-fire weapons training. These sites present risks to civilians who might come into contact with the UXO and cause it to explode. This paper presents the first systems analysis model for assessing the explosion risks of UXO at former military training ranges. We develop a stochastic model for estimating the probability of exposure to and explosion of UXO, before and after site cleanup. An application of the model to a 310-acre parcel at Fort Ord, California, shows that substantial risk can remain even after a site is declared clean. We estimate that risk to individual construction workers of encountering UXO that explodes would range from 4 x 10(-4) to 5 x 10(-2), depending on model assumptions, well above typical Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target risk levels of 10(-4) to 10(-6). In contrast, a qualitative UXO risk assessment method, the Munitions and Explosives of Concern Hazard Assessment (MEC HA), developed by an interagency work group led by the EPA, indicates that the explosion risk at the case study site is low and "compatible with current and determined or reasonably anticipated future risk." We argue that a quantitative approach, like that illustrated in this paper, is necessary to provide a more complete picture of risks and the opportunities for risk reduction. PMID:19238949

  10. Agent-Based Approaches for Behavioural Modelling in Military Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Chaudhary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral modeling of combat entities in military simulations by creating synthetic agents in order to satisfy various battle scenarios is an important problem. The conventional modeling tools are not always sufficient to handle complex situations requiring adaptation. To deal with this Agent-Based Modeling (ABM is employed, as the agents exhibit autonomous behavior by adapting and varying their behavior during the course of the simulation whilst achieving the goals. Synthetic agents created by means of Computer Generated Force (CGF is a relatively recent approach to model behavior of combat entities for a more realistic training and effective military planning. CGFs, are also sometimes referred to as Semi- Automated Forces (SAF and enables to create high-fidelity simulations. Agents are used to control and augment the behavior of CGF entities, hence converting them into Intelligent CGF (ICGF. The intelligent agents can be modeled to exhibit cognitive abilities. For this review paper, extensive papers on stateof-the-art in agent-based modeling approaches and applications were surveyed. The paper assimilates issues involved in ABM with CGF as an important component of it. It reviews modeling aspects with respect to the interrelationship between ABM and CGF, which is required to carry out behavioral modeling. Important CGFs have been examined and a list with their significant features is given. Another issue that has been reviewed is that how the synthetic agents having different capabilities are implemented at different battle levels. Brief mention of state-of-the-art integrated cognitive architectures and a list of significant cognitive applications based on them with their features is given. At the same time, the maturity of ABM in agent-based applications has also been considered.

  11. When Military Parents Come Home: Building "Strong Families Strong Forces," a Home-Based Intervention for Military Families with Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Ruth; Acker, Michelle L.; Ross, Abigail M.; DeVoe, Ellen R.

    2011-01-01

    The long wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have presented unique challenges to military-connected families with very young children, yet few evidence-based services are available to support these families through deployment and reintegration. Although many military families have shown remarkable resilience throughout the intense demands of the wars,…

  12. ALTERNATIVE URBAN REGENERATION POLICIES OF BROWN FIELDS LIKE OLD MILITARY CAMPS FOR THE CITY OF ALEXANDROUPOLIS

    OpenAIRE

    Portokalidis, Costas; Zygouri, Foteini

    2011-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the lack of free public spaces in Greek cities, is one of the most severe urban planning problems, not only in the central urban areas but also in the peripheral neighbourhoods. Furthermore, it is a fact that through the land use legal framework there have been efforts towards the implementation of a number of planning tools, regulations, thresholds, methods etc in order to obtain and secure an appropriate level of acceptable urban public space mainly for parks, ...

  13. Effects of School-Based Interventions with U.S. Military-Connected Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Maynard, Brandy R.; Albright, David L.; Bellomo, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of school-based interventions on the well-being of military-connected children (i.e., dependents of U.S. military service members, veterans, or reserve component members) who attend public or private elementary or secondary schools with parental deployment, parental reintegration, parental military-related trauma…

  14. Service allocation based on QoS evaluation in military organization cloud cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Zhang; Haiyang Sun; Yanxia Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The problem of cloud cooperation of military service providers (MSPs) is addressed for alocating limited resources to military service users (MSUs) that are geographicaly dis-tributed. The MSPs, also caled military organization clouds, are virtualized and encapsulated by the services they can offer and each of them contains different kinds of resources that MSU needs. The MSPs are also geographicaly dis-persed. They are required to alocate their resources to the MSU complying with the corresponding quality of service (QoS), so that each MSU gathers the services it needs to guarantee its task to be implemented. The outline of military organization cloud cooperation is discussed and the method of service optimal selection is proposed based on QoS evaluation. The QoS evaluation method based on exponential approximation is put forward to include the users’ will. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  15. AN SOA BASED REAL TIME INFORMATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN MILITARY AND GOVERNMENT OWNED RESCUE SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Muhammd Awais Bhatti; Fatima Hussain; Dr. Veera Pandiyan KalianiSundram

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine an SOA based real time information exchange between military and government owned rescue services. Information sharing is always not an easy approach for any organization. In case of military and government owned sectors, it becomes more fragile. There should be some quality and well standard approach that can be used for the secure sharing of information. A detailed proposed architectures and real time scenarios have used to clarify the essential need ...

  16. PTSD : new onset, persistence, and resiliency in a large population-based military cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tyler Clain

    2007-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) results from experiencing or witnessing traumatic, life- threatening events including military combat. There is concern about the health impact of military deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan after reports of higher prevalence of PTSD in combat-exposed veterans. Further, the vulnerability or resiliency for PTSD symptoms in individuals following overwhelming stress is not well understood. Methods: Using data from a large population- based militar...

  17. The Synergy between City Human Resources and City Economy Development Based on the City Marketing: The Case of Chengdu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Pu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available City human resources and the city economic development have a synergistic effect to attract high-quality talent and to encourage the sustainable development of the urban economy in the city marketing. Based on synergetics, we find out the evaluation indexes between the city human resources subsystem and urban economic development subsystem and constructed the evaluation system and model, and then used the yearbook data of Chengdu human resources and economic development from 2002 to 2012 and carried on empirical research. The results show that the level of coordinated development is weak between city human resources and city economic development at Chengdu, but it keeps rising slowly. The strong policy support shall be provided to Chengdu human resources and economic development by Chengdu government.

  18. Study on Visualization of Virtual City Model Based on Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Baoxuan; BIAN Fuling; ZUO Xiaoqing; WANG Fangxiong

    2005-01-01

    With the rapid development of computer graphics, distributed-computing and Internet, it is possible to achieve Internet-based virtual city.This paper dwells on the method of the terrain and its feature modeling and complex entity modeling in the virtual city.Then, discusses the method for Internet-based virtual city 3D visualization and the design of the Browser/Server architecture of the system of virtual city in the network environment.Finally, Java and Java 3D are used to show an experiment example, and the related conclusion about Internet-based virtual city 3D displaying and the client-side interactive operation is given.

  19. Agent-based simulation of military operations other than war small unit combat

    OpenAIRE

    Woodaman, Ronald F. A.

    2000-01-01

    A significant challenge to the Armed Forces today is the development of tactics, techniques, procedures, and equipment that will enable success in the small-scale combats that characterize Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW). This thesis develops an agent-based simulation methodology for modeling MOOTW combat scenarios. The methodology combines agent-based modeling with discrete event simulation in a software package called AgentKit. AgentKit is used to model a riot control problem for...

  20. Dilemmas in forward basing: understanding the impact of the American military presence in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    LaRow, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. military operates and maintains a vast forward basing infrastructure in countries throughout the world. Periodically, these bases become the central focus of either protest or violence from the citizens of the host nation. Questions have recently surfaced as to whether NAVCENT headquarters in Bahrain is in danger of experiencing protest or violence following the Arab Spring. This thesis seeks to understand the causes of protes...

  1. City under the Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    military conflicts are taking place. Studying the wealth of public representations of Camp Century, established 1959-60 by the US Army 128 miles east of the Thule Air Base and often referred to as the “City under the Ice”, we find a sharp contrast between the domesticated interior and the superpower...... public image of Camp Century was one of technological comfort and military-scientific control. Amidst the raging Cold War and up against the harsh environment, the construction of the camp would prove to the public that the combined forces of the US military-technology-science complex would prevail...

  2. Discovering the invisible city: Location-based games for learning in smart cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Sintoris

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss how location-based mobile games can be designed for learning in modern technology enhanced public spaces. We start with the description of the design process and we identify the main challenges faced. We elaborate the case of the game Invisible City: Rebels vs. Spies, a game to be played in a city centre using mobile devices. Through this case we highlight the adaptation of an original party game into a mobile form, the issues we faced and the key aspects conductive to learning in a smart city. It is claimed that creating mobile city games for learning is a new challenge, as our city landscapes are augmented with an increasing number of layers of digital information in which a new generation of city games are played.

  3. School-Based Health Center Model Within the Military Health System: The Role of the Adolescent Medicine Physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeffery P; Dawson, Rachel

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents are less motivated to seek medical care for various reasons. Within the military health care system, access barriers, although less encountered, can still be a burden not only to the adolescent, but also the school system. This article describes the development of a school-based health center within a school district on a military installation. The school clinic was created by adolescent medicine specialists to maximize access to care. Students of adolescent age utilized the clinic for evaluation of acute and chronic conditions, preventative services, preparticipation evaluation, and other general complaints. After receiving signed consent forms, 30% of students were eligible for health care. There was minimal cost to initiate the service. Development of school-based health center programs at other military installations could potentially improve the status of the military health system during a time of high stress among military dependents. PMID:27612351

  4. Military Base Off-Taker Opportunities for Tribal Renewable Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nangle, J.

    2013-05-01

    This white paper surveys DOD installations that could have an increased potential interest in the purchase of energy from renewable energy projects on tribal lands. Identification of likely purchasers of renewable energy is a first step in the energy project development process, and this paper aims to identify likely electricity customers that tribal commercial-scale projects could serve. This white paper builds on a geospatial analysis completed in November 2012 identifying 53 reservations within 10 miles of military bases (DOE 2012). This analysis builds on those findings by further refining the list of potential opportunity sites to 15 reservations (Table ES-1), based on five additional factors: 1) The potential renewable resources required to meet the installation energy loads; 2) Proximity to transmission lines; 3) Military installation energy demand; 4) State electricity prices; 5) Local policy and regulatory environment.

  5. Geochemical study of military bases impact on the environment in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been established that the geochemical and ecological situation in the sites formerly occupied by military bases does not satisfy nature management and living standards. The concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Mo and Cu), oil products and semi-volatile organic compounds in soil and ground which exceed the permissible contamination limits make them dangerous for utilisation and require cleaning up measures

  6. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for veterans exposed to military sexual trauma: rationale and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Autumn M; Cross, Wendi; Pigeon, Wilfred R

    2015-06-01

    Military sexual trauma (MST) represents a significant public health concern among military personnel and Veterans and is associated with considerable morbidity and suicide risk. It is estimated that 22% of Veteran women and 1% of Veteran men experienced sexual assault or repeated, threatening sexual harassment during their military service. Exposure to traumatic stress has detrimental effects on emotion regulation, which refers to a set of strategies used to modulate different components of emotion at different points on the trajectory of an emotional response. Mindfulness-based interventions offer approaches to health that focus on mind and body practices that can help regulate the experience and expression of difficult emotions. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an evidence-based therapy shown to be effective for depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. This article discusses the rationale for providing MBSR to Veterans who have been exposed to MST. The article also discusses ways to facilitate implementation of this practice in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs health care system. We address potential barriers to care and ways to facilitate implementation at the patient, provider, organization/local, and policy levels. MBSR is likely to be an important component of a comprehensive approach to care for Veterans exposed to MST. PMID:26032384

  7. Fatigue in the military: towards a fatigue detection test based on the saccadic velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Rieiro, Héctor; Suárez, Juan; Rios-Tejada, Francisco; Catena, Andrés; Di Stasi, Leandro Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Fatigue is a major contributing factor to operational errors. Therefore, the validation of objective and sensitive indices to detect fatigue is critical to prevent accidents and catastrophes. Whereas tests based on saccadic velocity (SV) have become popular, their sensitivity in the military is not yet clear, since most research has been conducted in laboratory settings using not fully validated instruments. Field studies remain scarce, especially in extreme conditions such as real flights. Here, we investigated the effects of real, long flights on SV. We assessed five newly commissioned military helicopter pilots during their aviation training. Pilots flew Sikorsky S-76C helicopters, under instrumental flight rules, for more than 2 h (ca. 150 min). Eye movements were recorded before and after the flight with an eye tracker using a standard guided-saccade task. We also collected subjective ratings of fatigue. SV significantly decreased from the Pre-Flight to the Post-Flight session in all pilots by around 3% (range: 1-4%). Subjective ratings showed the same tendency. We provide conclusive evidence about the high sensitivity of fatigue tests based on SV in real flight conditions, even in small samples. This result might offer military medical departments a valid and useful biomarker of warfighter physiological state. PMID:27531394

  8. Iraqi Military Academies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodar Z. Mossaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the system of training of officers in military academies in Iraq – in Zakho, Qalacholan, ar-Rustamiyah and an-Nasiriyah. The author describes the history of creation, process of evolution, challenges and features of training in these colleges. Particular attention paid to military academies in the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, which actually do not obey the central government of Iraq, however, have the highest level of training. Currently, Iraq's military academies operate on the basis of the NATO standards. Iraqi military academies paid miuch attention to the specifics of the military and political situation in Iraq – counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations, patrolling cities, fighting in an urban environment etc. Significant place in the curriculum take the courses contributing to the formation of pro-Western sentiment.

  9. Community-based screening for pre-hypertension among military active duty personnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moataz M. Abdel-Fattah; Fayssal M. Farahat; Abdul-Salam A. Al-Shehri

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study to determine the prevalence of both pre-hypertension and hypertension and risk factors associated with newly diagnosed Saudi military active duty service personnel. Methods: Community-based screening of 1283 Saudi military active duty service personnel was conducted during the period September - December 2007 at six randomly selected out of a total of 15 military units of Taif region, Western of Saudi Arabia. Screening tools included self-administrated questionnaire, general physical examination, anthropometric measurements and assessment of blood pressure. Results: All par-ticipants were Saudi males. Their age ranged from 19-56 years old with mean ± SD of 37.2 ± 7.02. By applying the Joint Na-tional Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high hypertension (JNC-7) criteria, 214 ( 17.3 % ) were considered pre-hypertensive. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that obesity as measured by body mass index ( OR = 2.71 CI: 1.39-5.28 ), positive family history ( OR = 1.46 CI: 1.03-2.06 ), ever smoking ( OR = 1.45 CI: 1.05-2.02), and in-creased waist circumference ( OR = 1.04 CI:1. 02-1.06) were the significant predictors of workplace newly diagnosed hyperten-sion among military active duty personnel. Conclusion: Pre-hypertension is a common hidden problem and it predicts the devel-opment of frank hypertension. Findings of the current study support the recommendation of lifestyle modification for pre-hyperten-sion patients. However, further prospective studied are required to determine the role of pharmacotherapy in pre-hypertension.

  10. Exploring Solutions to the U.S. Military-Base Issues in Okinawa

    OpenAIRE

    Yara, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    The issue of the U.S. military bases in Okinawa has been a pawn in relations between the U.S. and Japan. Both sides seem to have been reluctant to find a real solution to the issue. This is because the solution would inevitably result in a reduced force presence in Okinawa and open a discussion on Japan's security weaknesses. It would raise questions such as: Should Japan revise article nine of its constitution? Should Japan have nuclear weapons? These are heavy topics for post-war Japan and ...

  11. EPA cites military bases for unpermitted open burning/open detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EPA Region VI filed complaints and compliance orders on June 30, 1993 against two military installations in Texas for alleged violations of federal and state hazardous waste laws. The agency is seeking over $1 million from the two bases in proposed administrative penalties. Camp Stanley, an Army ammunition and materials storage facility, was fined for (1) allegedly operating an open burning/open detonation (OB/OD) unit from 1980 to 1987 without a permit, and (2) allegedly neglecting to submit to EPA a written closure plan for this unit (In the Matter of: Camp Stanley Storage Activity, Docket Number: RCRA VI-310-H). Lackland Air Force Base (AFB), a training facility in operation since 1941, was assessed a penalty for allegedly burning ignitable and reactive hazardous waste in an OB/OD unit without a permit (In the Matter of: Lackland Training Annex, Docket Number: RCRA VI-311-H). The case are two of the first such legal actions in the country and could set a precedent for environmental protection at other military bases

  12. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  13. Achieving army nursing evidence-based practice competencies through a civilian-military nurse partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaki, Leilani A; Lentino, Cynthia V; Mark, Debra D; Hopkins-Chadwick, Denise L

    2014-01-01

    Despite the Institute of Medicine's goal of 90% of all practice being evidence-based by 2020, educational and practice institutions are not on target to achieve this goal. Evidence-based practice is one of 5 core elements of the Army Nurse Corps' patient care delivery system and a key focus of the Hawaii State Center for Nursing. In order to increase evidence-based practice (EBP), a civilian-military partnership was formed to include healthcare organizations in the state, optimize resources, and share strategies for successful practice changes statewide. The partnership has been successful in meeting each of these goals using national EBP competencies and Bloom's taxonomy as a guide. The article presents a discussion regarding the history, processes, and outcomes of this partnership. PMID:24488872

  14. Concussion in the Military: an Evidence-Base Review of mTBI in US Military Personnel Focused on Posttraumatic Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, Matthew D; Grimes, Jamie; Ling, Geoffrey

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as an alteration in brain function caused by an external force. Mild TBI or concussion is now well recognized to be a risk of military service as well as participation in athletic sports such as football. Posttraumatic headache (PTH) is the most common symptom after mTBI in US service members. PTH most commonly presents with migraine-like headache features. The following is an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, prognosis, complications, and treatment of mTBI and associated comorbidities with a focus on PTH. There is a particular emphasis on emerging evidence-based clinical practice. One important medical consequence of the recognition that mTBI is a highly prevalent among military service members is that the Department of Defense (DoD) is dedicating significant financial and intellectual resources to better understanding and developing treatments for TBI. The identification of the importance of TBI among the US military population has had the added benefit of increasing awareness of this condition among civilian populations, particularly those engaged in both professional and youth sports. The NIH and NSF are also supporting important TBI research. President Obama's Brain Initiative is also providing additional impetus for these efforts. Unfortunately, the understanding of the acute and chronic effects of mTBI on the brain remains limited. Gratefully, there is hope that through innovative research, there will be advances in elucidating the underlying pathophysiology, which will lead to clinical and prognostic indicators, ultimately resulting in new treatment options for this very complicated set of disorders. PMID:27084376

  15. An evidence-based vector control strategy for military deployments: the British Army experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, A M; Baker, D; von Bertele, M J

    2001-01-01

    We describe the British Army's current strategy for controlling arthropod vectors of disease during overseas deployments. Military commanders and medical officers have different, but complementary responsibilities in achieving vector control. In this paper we define a hierarchy of evidence-based vector control guidelines. Field guidelines must be based on the best available research evidence, preferably that derived from pragmatic randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and from systematic reviews of trials. Assessing the effectiveness of different vector control measures involves a trade-off between the relative benefits and harm of different technology options. There is compelling scientific evidence that bed nets and screens treated with a pyrethroid insecticide are highly effective in protecting against nocturnally active, anthropophilic arthropods (including ectoparasites), and will reduce the incidence of malaria, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis and Chagas' disease. Etofenprox and deltamethrin are the safest pyrethroids, and permethrin the least safe. Vector control strategies of probable effectiveness are the use of insecticide-treated clothing, the wearing of protective clothing, and the correct use of DEET-based topical insect repellents. Aerosol insecticides are of debatable effectiveness. Other effective vector control measures, of limited usefulness during deployments, include electric fans, mosquito coils/vaporising mats, and smoke. "Biological" vector control measures, and insect buzzers/electrocuters are ineffective. Practical insect avoidance measures, based on an understanding of vector biology, complete the military vector-control arsenal. We conclude that practical insect avoidance measures, combined with pyrethroid-treated nets and clothing, and DEET-based topical repellents, can achieve almost 100% protection against biting arthropods. PMID:11584666

  16. Spatial Allometric Scaling of Cities Based on Variable Urban Boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang; Li, Xijing

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that urban growth and hierarchies of cities follow the allometric scaling law. However, there is no study on the allometric relations of the internal spatial structure within a city. This paper is devoted to explore the allometric scaling of intraurban patterns by means of variable boundaries of cities. Based on a digital map, an urban boundary can be determined by given searching radius. Changing the searching radius, we have different urban boundaries for the same city. A set of urban boundaries based on different searching radius is similar to a set of isograms. Three typical measurements can be obtained, including urban area, total length of streets, and number of street nodes. These measurements represent three basic spatial elements of geographical systems, i.e., area, lines, and points. A finding is that the numerical relationships between urban area, street length, and node number follow allometric scaling laws. In practice, the spatial allometry can be used to estimate the fr...

  17. Defining Smart City. A Conceptual Framework Based on Keyword Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Mosannenzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available “Smart city” is a concept that has been the subject of increasing attention in urban planning and governance during recent years. The first step to create Smart Cities is to understand its concept. However, a brief review of literature shows that the concept of Smart City is the subject of controversy. Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework to define Smart City. To this aim, an extensive literature review was done. Then, a keyword analysis on literature was held against main research questions (why, what, who, when, where, how and based on three main domains involved in the policy decision making process and Smart City plan development: Academic, Industrial and Governmental. This resulted in a conceptual framework for Smart City. The result clarifies the definition of Smart City, while providing a framework to define Smart City’s each sub-system. Moreover, urban authorities can apply this framework in Smart City initiatives in order to recognize their main goals, main components, and key stakeholders.

  18. From military to civil loadings: Preliminary numerical-based thorax injury criteria investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumtcha, Aristide Awoukeng; Bodo, Michèle; Taddei, Lorenzo; Roth, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    Effects of the impact of a mechanical structure on the human body are of great interest in the understanding of body trauma. Experimental tests have led to first conclusions about the dangerousness of an impact observing impact forces or displacement time history with PMHS (Post Mortem human Subjects). They have allowed providing interesting data for the development and the validation of numerical biomechanical models. These models, widely used in the framework of automotive crashworthiness, have led to the development of numerical-based injury criteria and tolerance thresholds. The aim of this process is to improve the safety of mechanical structures in interaction with the body. In a military context, investigations both at experimental and numerical level are less successfully completed. For both military and civil frameworks, the literature list a number of numerical analysis trying to propose injury mechanisms, and tolerance thresholds based on biofidelic Finite Element (FE) models of different part of the human body. However the link between both frameworks is not obvious, since lots of parameters are different: great mass impacts at relatively low velocity for civil impacts (falls, automotive crashworthiness) and low mass at very high velocity for military loadings (ballistic, blast). In this study, different accident cases were investigated, and replicated with a previously developed and validated FE model of the human thorax named Hermaphrodite Universal Biomechanical YX model (HUBYX model). These previous validations included replications of standard experimental tests often used to validate models in the context of automotive industry, experimental ballistic tests in high speed dynamic impact and also numerical replication of blast loading test ensuring its biofidelity. In order to extend the use of this model in other frameworks, some real-world accidents were reconstructed, and consequences of these loadings on the FE model were explored. These various

  19. Batch anaerobic digestion of synthetic military base food waste and cardboard mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asato, Caitlin M; Gonzalez-Estrella, Jorge; Jerke, Amber C; Bang, Sookie S; Stone, James J; Gilcrease, Patrick C

    2016-09-01

    Austere US military bases typically dispose of solid wastes, including large fractions of food waste (FW) and corrugated cardboard (CCB), by open dumping, landfilling, or burning. Anaerobic digestion (AD) offers an opportunity to reduce pollution and recover useful energy. This study aimed to evaluate the rates and yields of AD for FW-CCB mixtures. Batch AD was analyzed at substrate concentrations of 1-50g total chemical oxygen demand (COD)L(-1) using response surface methodology. At low concentrations, higher proportions of FW were correlated with faster specific methanogenic activities and greater final methane yields; however, concentrations of FW ⩾18.75gCODL(-1) caused inhibition. Digestion of mixtures with ⩾75% CCB occurred slowly but achieved methane yields >70%. Greater shifts in microbial communities were observed at higher substrate concentrations. Statistical models of methane yield and specific methanogenic activity indicated that FW and CCB exhibited no considerable interactions as substrates for AD. PMID:27323241

  20. Food-borne norovirus-outbreak at a military base, Germany, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoehne Marina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norovirus is often transmitted from person-to-person. Transmission may also be food-borne, but only few norovirus outbreak investigations have identified food items as likely vehicles of norovirus transmission through an analytical epidemiological study. During 7-9 January, 2009, 36 persons at a military base in Germany fell ill with acute gastroenteritis. Food from the military base's canteen was suspected as vehicle of infection, norovirus as the pathogen causing the illnesses. An investigation was initiated to describe the outbreak's extent, to verify the pathogen, and to identify modes of transmission and source of infection to prevent further cases. Methods For descriptive analysis, ill persons were defined as members of the military base with acute onset of diarrhoea or vomiting between 24 December 2008, and 3 February 2009, without detection of a pathogen other than norovirus in stools. We conducted a retrospective cohort study within the headquarters company. Cases were military base members with onset of diarrhoea or vomiting during 5-9 January. We collected information on demographics, food items eaten at the canteen and contact to ill persons or vomit, using a self-administered questionnaire. We compared attack rates (AR in exposed and unexposed persons, using bivariable and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Stool specimens of ill persons and canteen employees, canteen food served during 5-7 January and environmental swabs were investigated by laboratory analysis. Results Overall, 101/815 (AR 12.4% persons fell ill between 24 December 2008 and 3 February 2009. None were canteen employees. Most persons (n = 49 had disease onset during 7-9 January. Ill persons were a median of 22 years old, 92.9% were male. The response for the cohort study was 178/274 (72.1%. Of 27 cases (AR 15.2%, 25 had eaten at the canteen and 21 had consumed salad. Salad consumption on 6 January (aOR: 8.1; 95%CI: 1.5-45.4 and 7

  1. Consumption-based emission accounting for Chinese cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    mi, zhifu; Zhang, Yunkun; Guan, Dabo;

    2016-01-01

    substantial differences between production- and consumption-based accounting in terms of both overall and per capita carbon emissions. Urban consumption not only leads to carbon emissions within a city’s own boundaries but also induces emissions in other regions via interregional trade. In megacities such as......, exhibit per capita emissions that resemble those in Tianjin. From the perspective of final use, capital formation is the largest contributor to consumption-based emissions at 32–65%. All thirteen cities are categorized by their trading patterns: five are production-based cities in which production...

  2. Delimitating central areas of cities based on road density: a case study of Guangzhou City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingnian; Lu, Xueqiu

    2009-10-01

    The central area of a city is an important functional unit in many urban studies. It is a region where business concentrates and municipal facilities densely distribute. Traditionally, statistics of economic and social phenomena can be used to delimitate their boundaries. However, traditional methods based on economic and social investigation are labor-intensive and sometimes inaccurate. Alternatively, road networks acting as a kind of infrastructure reflect the association of locations. Thus the concentration of road networks indicates the congestion of social-economic activities and municipal facilities to some extent. Based on density analysis of road networks, the area where roads densely distribute is recognized as the central area of a city. Taking Guangzhou City as an example, the road network was studied on a set of spatial scopes, and the central area was delimitated and analyzed. Results showed that the road-density-based delimitation had to be adjusted according to the road system, and the delimitated area was consistent to the real central area to some extent. Since road data is much accessible, road-based method is useful and practical when short of socialeconomic data.

  3. An allometric scaling relation based on logistic growth of cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between urban area and population size have been empirically demonstrated to follow the scaling law of allometric growth. This allometric scaling is based on exponential growth of city size and can be termed "exponential allometry", which is associated with the concepts of fractals. However, both city population and urban area comply with the course of logistic growth rather than exponential growth. In this paper, I will present a new allometric scaling based on logistic growth to solve the abovementioned problem. The logistic growth is a process of replacement dynamics. Defining a pair of replacement quotients as new measurements, which are functions of urban area and population, we can derive an allometric scaling relation from the logistic processes of urban growth, which can be termed "logistic allometry". The exponential allometric relation between urban area and population is the approximate expression of the logistic allometric equation when the city size is not large enough. The prop...

  4. Research of information classification and strategy intelligence extract algorithm based on military strategy hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Li, Dehua; Yang, Jie

    2007-12-01

    Constructing virtual international strategy environment needs many kinds of information, such as economy, politic, military, diploma, culture, science, etc. So it is very important to build an information auto-extract, classification, recombination and analysis management system with high efficiency as the foundation and component of military strategy hall. This paper firstly use improved Boost algorithm to classify obtained initial information, then use a strategy intelligence extract algorithm to extract strategy intelligence from initial information to help strategist to analysis information.

  5. Military Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that while a certain level of fairness is necessary in considering the equity of compulsory military service, the most important issue is that of "winning the war." Also asserts that sex, age, and race discrimination are more important than social class discrimination in military service. (Author/GC)

  6. The Best Path Analysis in Military Highway Transport Based on DEA and Multiobjective Fuzzy Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Juan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Military transport path selection directly affects the transport speed, efficiency, and safety. To a certain degree, the results of the path selection determine success or failure of the war situation. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model based on DEA (data envelopment analysis and multiobjective fuzzy decision-making for path selection. The path decision set is established according to a search algorithm based on overlapping section punishment. Considering the influence of various fuzzy factors, the model of optimal path is constructed based on DEA and multitarget fuzzy decision-making theory, where travel time, transport risk, quick response capability, and transport cost constitute the evaluation target set. A reasonable path set can be calculated and sorted according to the comprehensive scores of the paths. The numerical results show that the model and the related algorithms are effective for path selection of military transport.

  7. An allometric scaling relation based on logistic growth of cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An allometric scaling based on logistic process can be used to model urban growth. • The traditional allometry is based on exponential growth instead of logistic growth. • The exponential allometry represents a local scaling of urban growth. • The logistic allometry represents a global scaling of urban growth. • The exponential allometry is an approximation relation of the logistic allometry. - Abstract: The relationships between urban area and population size have been empirically demonstrated to follow the scaling law of allometric growth. This allometric scaling is based on exponential growth of city size and can be termed “exponential allometry”, which is associated with the concepts of fractals. However, both city population and urban area comply with the course of logistic growth rather than exponential growth. In this paper, I will present a new allometric scaling based on logistic growth to solve the above mentioned problem. The logistic growth is a process of replacement dynamics. Defining a pair of replacement quotients as new measurements, which are functions of urban area and population, we can derive an allometric scaling relation from the logistic processes of urban growth, which can be termed “logistic allometry”. The exponential allometric relation between urban area and population is the approximate expression of the logistic allometric equation when the city size is not large enough. The proper range of the allometric scaling exponent value is reconsidered through the logistic process. Then, a medium-sized city of Henan Province, China, is employed as an example to validate the new allometric relation. The logistic allometry is helpful for further understanding the fractal property and self-organized process of urban evolution in the right perspective

  8. Aerostat-Based Sampling of Emissions from Open Burning and Open Detonation of Military Ordnance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from open detonation (OD), open burning (OB), and static firing (SF) of obsolete military munitions were collected using an aerostat-lofted sampling instrument maneuvered into the plumes with remotely controlled tether winches. PM2.5, PM10, metals, volatile organic comp...

  9. 科学统筹军民融合军事物流建设的八大关系%The Eight Relations in Scientifically Balance the Military Logistic Development based on Civil-Military Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何青; 李俊辉

    2014-01-01

    推动军事物流军民融合深度发展,必须科学统筹军民融合军事物流建设的共性与个性、借鉴与创新、当前需要与长远发展、务实与务虚、硬件建设与软件建设、平时与战时、全局利益与局部利益、安全保密与公开透明八大关系,使军民融合的军事物流建设充分体现平战一体的思想,具备“平时服务,急时应急,战时应战”的功能,有效保障完成多样化军事任务的物资需要。%To promote the deepen development of the military logistics based on civil-military integration,we should scientifically balance eight relations of military logistic based on civil-military integration,such as relation between the universality and individuality,learning from and making innovation,current demand and future development,dealing with concrete issues and ideological issues,hardware and software,peacetime and wartime,interest of the whole and parts,and confidentiality and transparency to fully reflect the thought of“the integration of peacetime and wartime”,make military logistics have the function of“providing service in the peacetime,playing the role of emergency logistics and accepting the challenge of enemy in wartime”,and effectively guarantee the demand for material of diversified military tasks.

  10. Determinants of physical activity based on the theory of planned behavior in Iranian Military Staff's Wives: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamnia Shirvani, Zeinab; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2015-01-01

    Level of physical activity as a key determinant of healthy lifestyle less than is required in individuals particularly women. Applying theories of behavioral change about complex behaviors such as physical activity leads to identify effective factors and their relations. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of physical activity behavior based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in military staff's wives in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was performed in 180 military personnel's spouses residing in organizational houses, in Tehran, Iran in 2014. The participants were randomly selected with multi-stage cluster sampling. The validity and reliability of the theory based scale evaluated before conducting the path analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS16 and LISREL8.8. The results indicated the model explained 77% and 17% of intention and behavior variance. Subjective norms (Beta=0.83) and intention (Beta=0.37) were the strongest predictors of intention and behavior, respectively. The instrumental and affective attitude had no significant path to intention and behavior. The direct relation of perceived behavioral control to behavior was non-significant. This research demonstrated relative importance and relationships of Theory of Planned Behavior constructs in physical activity behavior of military personnel's spouses in Tehran. It is essential to consider these determinants in designing of educational interventions for promoting and maintaining physical activity behavior in this target group. PMID:25948459

  11. Health impact of US military service in a large population-based military cohort: findings of the Millennium Cohort Study, 2001-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoroso Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combat-intense, lengthy, and multiple deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan have characterized the new millennium. The US military's all-volunteer force has never been better trained and technologically equipped to engage enemy combatants in multiple theaters of operations. Nonetheless, concerns over potential lasting effects of deployment on long-term health continue to mount and are yet to be elucidated. This report outlines how findings from the first 7 years of the Millennium Cohort Study have helped to address health concerns related to military service including deployments. Methods The Millennium Cohort Study was designed in the late 1990s to address veteran and public concerns for the first time using prospectively collected health and behavioral data. Results Over 150 000 active-duty, reserve, and National Guard personnel from all service branches have enrolled, and more than 70% of the first 2 enrollment panels submitted at least 1 follow-up survey. Approximately half of the Cohort has deployed in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Conclusion The Millennium Cohort Study is providing prospective data that will guide public health policymakers for years to come by exploring associations between military exposures and important health outcomes. Strategic studies aim to identify, reduce, and prevent adverse health outcomes that may be associated with military service, including those related to deployment.

  12. What is military psychology? Symposium Proceedings

    OpenAIRE

    Arima, James K.

    1980-01-01

    Symposium proceedings: papers presented in a symposium entitled "What is Military Psychology", held on 3 September 1979 at the 87th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association in New York City

  13. Services Oriented Smart City Platform Based On 3d City Model Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandi, F.; Soave, M.; Devigili, F.; Andreolli, M.; De Amicis, R.

    2014-04-01

    The rapid technological evolution, which is characterizing all the disciplines involved within the wide concept of smart cities, is becoming a key factor to trigger true user-driven innovation. However to fully develop the Smart City concept to a wide geographical target, it is required an infrastructure that allows the integration of heterogeneous geographical information and sensor networks into a common technological ground. In this context 3D city models will play an increasingly important role in our daily lives and become an essential part of the modern city information infrastructure (Spatial Data Infrastructure). The work presented in this paper describes an innovative Services Oriented Architecture software platform aimed at providing smartcities services on top of 3D urban models. 3D city models are the basis of many applications and can became the platform for integrating city information within the Smart-Cites context. In particular the paper will investigate how the efficient visualisation of 3D city models using different levels of detail (LODs) is one of the pivotal technological challenge to support Smart-Cities applications. The goal is to provide to the final user realistic and abstract 3D representations of the urban environment and the possibility to interact with a massive amounts of semantic information contained into the geospatial 3D city model. The proposed solution, using OCG standards and a custom service to provide 3D city models, lets the users to consume the services and interact with the 3D model via Web in a more effective way.

  14. Training Resilience for High-risk Environments: Towards a Strength-based Approach within the Military

    OpenAIRE

    Boermans, Sylvie; Delahaij, Roos; Korteling, J.E.; Euwema, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Stress and resilience are an inevitable part of a soldiers’ life, particularly in combat or war. Training military personnel to be resilient and capable of coping under high (combat)stress has been core business in most armies. Traditionally, this training was directed at maintaining physical performance under (combat)stress: the ability to fight. Nowadays, growing attention is given to physical, mental, and moral resilience, with a focus on short-term as well as on long-term adjustment in or...

  15. Services Oriented Smart City Platform Based On 3d City Model Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Prandi; Soave, M.; F. Devigili; Andreolli, M.; R. De Amicis

    2014-01-01

    The rapid technological evolution, which is characterizing all the disciplines involved within the wide concept of smart cities, is becoming a key factor to trigger true user-driven innovation. However to fully develop the Smart City concept to a wide geographical target, it is required an infrastructure that allows the integration of heterogeneous geographical information and sensor networks into a common technological ground. In this context 3D city models will play an increasingly...

  16. Determinants of Physical Activity Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in Iranian Military Staff’s Wives: A Path Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shirvani, Zeinab Gholamnia; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2014-01-01

    Level of physical activity as a key determinant of healthy lifestyle less than is required in individuals particularly women. Applying theories of behavioral change about complex behaviors such as physical activity leads to identify effective factors and their relations. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of physical activity behavior based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in military staff’s wives in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was performed in 180 military personnel’s...

  17. Developing a City Governance Index: Based on Surveys in Five Major Chinese Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Guo; Wenhao, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the establishment of a City Governance Index to evaluate the levels of governance of cities. We identified seven key dimensions of governance and then divided each of them into four stages: input, mechanism, result and effect. Each dimension/stage mix is correlated with indicators that can be measured with both objective and…

  18. World Cities of Scientific Knowledge: Systems, Networks and Potential Dynamics. An Analysis Based on Bibliometric Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Schwarz, Annette Winkel; Find, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based on identification of the pattern of the upper level of the world city network of knowledge as published in a series of papers.It is our aim to update the findings and relate to the general world city discussion. The structure of the world cities of knowledge network has changed...

  19. World Cities of Scientific Knowledge: Systems, Networks and Potential Dynamics. An Analysis Based on Bibliometric Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Schwarz, Annette Winkel; Find, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based on identification of the pattern of the upper level of the world city network of knowledge as published in a series of earlier papers. It is our aim to update the findings and relate to the general world city discussion. The structure of the world cities of knowledge network h...

  20. Swedish Military Bases of the Cold War The Making of a New Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Strömberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the Soviet Union completely transformed the military-political situation in the Nordic countries. The movement from invasion defence to input defence in Sweden has made many of the subter-ranean modern fortresses and permanent defence systems of the Cold War unnec-essary. The current problem is what the administration authorities will do with the superfluous military buildings: let them fall into decay, preserve or reuse them – and for what purpose? The aim of this article is to describe and analyze the cultural as well as spatial foundation of a new genre of heritage industry in Sweden – the cultural heritage of the Cold War – whose value is negotiated through a range of processes by the different stakeholders involved – emotional, social and cultural processes as well as legal and economic processes. The subterranean fortresses of Hemsö and Aspö are used as empirical case studies in the article. They both describe the making of a cultural heritage and illustrate the problems related to the ambitions of convert-ing cultural heritage into tourist attractions. One of the conclusions is that the previous making of the industrial cultural heritage in the 1980s and 1990s has many things in common with the one of the Cold War. The “post-military” landscape of bunkers and rusting barbed wires is regarded with the same romanticism and with similar preservation ideologies and economic interests as the post-industrial landscape was earlier. Similar negotiation issues appear, and these negotiations are carried out by similar stakeholders. The difference is that the military culture heritage of the Cold War was developed through a deeply centralized selection process directed by administration authori-ties, but was also influenced by certain persuasion campaigns and preservation actions made by local stakeholders such as retired officers and municipality ad-ministrations.

  1. An Agent Based Modelling Approach for Multi-Stakeholder Analysis of City Logistics Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, N

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a comprehensive framework for multi-stakeholder analysis of city logistics solutions using agent based modeling. The framework describes different stages for the systematic development of an agent based model for the city logistics domain. The framework includes a multi-perspective city logistics ontology and its validation, the development of an agent base model using this ontology, and a validation approach for the agent based model using a participatory simulation game.

  2. Swarm-Based Smart City Platform: A Traffic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo CHAMOSO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Smart cities are proposed as a medium-term option for all cities. This article aims to propose an architecture that allows cities to provide solutions to interconnect all their elements. The study case focuses in locating and optimized regulation of traffic in cities. However, thanks to the proposed structure and the applied algorithms, the architecture is scalable in size of the sensor network, in functionality or even in the use of resources. A simulation environment that is able to show the operation of the architecture in the same way that a real city would, is presented.

  3. A new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Singh; K. Jain; V. R. Mandla

    2014-01-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it’s related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based m...

  4. Economic transition policies in Chinese resource-based cities: An overview of government efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resource-based cities in China have made momentous contributions to the development of the national economy for decades. However, with the depletion of natural resources, their sustainable development is challenging and transition is important. The Chinese government has made great efforts to help resource-based cities. The purpose of this study is to investigate transition policies and their implementation. Firstly, we reviewed previous studies and summarized the essential elements of some successful resource-based cities, which are useful experiences for Chinese resource-based cities. Secondly, we studied the development of resource-based cities over the past 10 years with a focus on economic development, industrial structure, government revenue and environmental conditions. We found that resource-based cities were less developed compared to other cities. The main reasons are the after-effects of a planned economy, an unreasonable tax system, planning mistakes and misguided resources exploitation policies. Thirdly, we analyzed several aspects of the policy responses after the introduction of transition policies, including designating 69 resource-exhausted cities, supporting cities with funds and projects, formulating transition plans and evaluating transition performance. However, there are some deficiencies in the process of policy implementation. Finally, some recommendations were provided to improve transition performance and sustainable development for resource-based cities. - Highlights: ► Analyze the development of Chinese resource-based cities from four aspects. ► Analyze the causes of less development in resource-based cities. ► Investigate policies and their responses to transformation. ► Provide recommendations to improve transformation performance and sustainable development

  5. Staying Strong With Schools: A Civilian School-Based Intervention to Promote Resilience for Military-Connected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohye, Bonnie; Kelly, Hope; Chen, Yang; Zakarian, Rebecca J; Simon, Naomi M; Bui, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Since September 11, 2001, over 2 million U.S. service members have been deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan, resulting in hundreds of thousands of military-connected children (MCC) having experienced a parental deployment. Although parental deployments have significantly burdened these children, few evidence-based interventions designed to support their resilience to these stressors are available. To address this gap, we developed a civilian school-based intervention to promote resilience in MCC living in the community. Our intervention, Staying Strong With Schools (SSWS), aims to deliver: a training to all school professionals early in the school year to educate them about challenges for children and families experiencing parental deployment and signs of deployment-related distress; and a year-long training for the school guidance counselor who coordinates communication and provides psychosocial support to MCC within the school community. We piloted SSWS in two civilian elementary schools and found promising feasibility and acceptability. PMID:27483526

  6. Development and implementation of a geriatric care/case management program in a military community-based family medicine residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C M; Petrelli, J; Murphy, M

    2000-11-01

    This article discusses how the development of a longitudinal geriatric assessment form facilitated a case management program in identifying high-risk frail elders within a military family practice clinic. A careful review of geriatric assessment tools was performed. From this review, a model geriatric assessment form was developed. A "SWOT" (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of the family medicine department was completed to determine if the environment was ready for case management. Analysis of the SWOT data revealed that the environment was favorable for a population-based approach to case management. Results of this initial study are encouraging. The new longitudinal geriatric assessment form has assisted family practice residents in organizing problems and data while seeing elderly patients. As a direct result, higher-risk frail elders have been identified for closer evaluation and follow-up. Future goals are to measure outcomes-based data and to refine the geriatric assessment process. PMID:11143424

  7. Strategic Thinking for Sustainable Development of Mining-Based Cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shouxiang; Dai Xichao; Wang Yafen

    2004-01-01

    Cities based on mining are distinctive from other cities in China. Their heavy dependence on minerals, a relatively undiversified industrial structure, seriously damaged ecological environment and the rather low degree of openness have all reduced their competitiveness, and severely constrained and hindered their sustainable development. In this paper the authors will study mining-based cities from the perspective of sustainable development, first by having a critical review of their features, and then by researching into strategic options to support their sustainable development.

  8. Brief Cases on Military Treatise of English Translation of The Art of War Based on Functionalist Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙定宇

    2015-01-01

    Katharina Reiss put forward the functionalist translation theory in 1970s.It promotes the status of the translators and pro-vides options that translators could get in order to make the good translation.As China's military treasure,The Art of War exerts great influence on the military development for its profound theory and careful logic.Combined with the theory,the paper finds dif-ferent strategies in translating the military terminology of the cases.

  9. Military medical graduates' perceptions of organizational culture in Turkish military medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Mustafa; Bakir, Bilal; Teke, Abdulkadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Bas, Turker; Atac, Adnan

    2008-08-01

    Organizational culture is the term used to describe the shared beliefs, perceptions, and expectations of individuals in organizations. In the healthcare environment, organizational culture has been associated with several elements of organizational experience that contribute to quality, such as nursing care, job satisfaction, and patient safety. A range of tools have been designed to measure organizational culture and applied in industrial, educational, and health care settings. This study has been conducted to investigate the perceptions of military medical graduates on organizational culture at Gülhane Military Medical School. A measurement of organizational culture, which was developed by the researchers from Akdeniz University, was applied to all military medical graduates in 2004. This was a Likert type scale that included 31 items. Designers of the measurement grouped all these items into five main dimensions in their previous study. The items were scored on a five-point scale anchored by 1: strongly agree and 5: strongly disagree. Study participants included all military physicians who were in clerkship training period at Gulhane Military Medical Academy in 2004. A total of 106 graduates were accepted to response the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 25.2 +/- 1.1. At the time of study only 8 (7.5%) graduates were married. The study results have showed that the measurement tool with 31 items had a sufficient reliability with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.91. Factor analysis has resulted a final measurement tool of 24 items with five factors. Total score and the scores of five subdimensions have been estimated and compared between groups based on living city and marital status. The study has shown the dimension of symbol received positive perceptions while the dimension of organizational structure and efficiency received the most negative perceptions. GMMS has a unique organizational culture with its weak and strong aspects. Conducting this kind

  10. [Ecological sensitivity of Shanghai City based on GIS spatial analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian-jun; Liu, Yong-juan

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, five sensitivity factors affecting the eco-environment of Shanghai City, i.e., rivers and lakes, historical relics and forest parks, geological disasters, soil pollution, and land use, were selected, and their weights were determined by analytic hierarchy process. Combining with GIS spatial analysis technique, the sensitivities of these factors were classified into four grades, i.e., highly sensitive, moderately sensitive, low sensitive, and insensitive, and the spatial distribution of the ecological sensitivity of Shanghai City was figured out. There existed a significant spatial differentiation in the ecological sensitivity of the City, and the insensitive, low sensitive, moderately sensitive, and highly sensitive areas occupied 37.07%, 5.94%, 38.16%, and 18.83%, respectively. Some suggestions on the City's zoning protection and construction were proposed. This study could provide scientific references for the City's environmental protection and economic development. PMID:20879541

  11. [Catering services bases in the Russian army under military regulation of Peter the Great].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyshev, I S; adamenko, A M; Koshelev, V P

    2014-01-01

    At Peter I the regular army was organized and the system of target state deliveries to troops of the food is created. Provisioning and fodder was normalized as portion and ration. Portion was contained the products forpeoplefood, and ration - fodder for horses food who were used by the serviceman. Portion and ration unit was identical to all categories of the military personnel. Difference in food level consisted in that, how many portions and rations serviceman received. Up to the end of existence of Russian army in 1918 in each rota there were contractor and the cook who were engaged in foodstuff and cooking under sergeant-major and one of rota officers supervision. According to the Charter it was necessary to carry with respect and attention to officers and soldiers, their needs, including in the field of supply and catering services and providing with the food: Despite the lack of scientific justification, soldiers' nutrition was sufficient to provide fighting capacity of the Russian army. PMID:25816632

  12. An Agent Based Modelling Approach for Multi-Stakeholder Analysis of City Logistics Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, N.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a comprehensive framework for multi-stakeholder analysis of city logistics solutions using agent based modeling. The framework describes different stages for the systematic development of an agent based model for the city logistics domain. The framework includes a multi-perspect

  13. Incidence, Etiology and Risk Factors for Travelers' Diarrhea during a Hospital Ship-Based Military Humanitarian Mission: Continuing Promise 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Hameed

    Full Text Available Travelers' diarrhea (TD is the most common ailment affecting travelers, including deployed U.S. military. Continuing Promise 2011 was a 5-month humanitarian assistance/disaster response (HA/DR military and non-governmental organization training mission aboard the hospital ship USNS Comfort, which deployed to Central and South America and the Caribbean between April and September 2011. Enhanced TD surveillance was undertaken during this mission for public health purposes. Passive surveillance (clinic visits, active surveillance (self-reported questionnaires, and stool samples were collected weekly from shipboard personnel. Descriptive statistics and multivariate-logistic regression methods were used to estimate disease burden and risk factor identification. Two polymerase chain reaction methods on frozen stool were used for microbiological identification. TD was the primary complaint for all clinic visits (20% and the leading cause of lost duties days due to bed rest confinement (62%, though underreported, as the active self-reported incidence was 3.5 times higher than the passive clinic-reported incidence. Vomiting (p = 0.002, feeling lightheaded or weak (p = 0.005, and being a food handler (p = 0.017 were associated with increased odds of lost duty days. Thirty-eight percent of self-reported cases reported some amount of performance impact. Based on the epidemiological curve, country of exercise and liberty appeared to be temporally associated with increased risk. From the weekly self-reported questionnaire risk factor analysis, eating off ship in the prior week was strongly associated (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.4, p<0.001. Consumption of seafood increased risk (aOR 1.7, p = 0.03, though consumption of ice appeared protective (aOR 0.3, p = 0.01. Etiology was bacterial (48%, with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as the predominant pathogen (35%. Norovirus was identified as a sole pathogen in 12%, though found as a copathogen in an additional 6

  14. The Evolution of Natural Cities from the Perspective of Location-Based Social Media

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the former location-based social medium Brightkite, over its three-year life span, based on the concept of natural cities. The term 'natural cities' refers to spatially clustered geographic events, such as the agglomerated patches aggregated from individual social media users' locations. We applied the head/tail division rule to derive natural cities. More specifically, we generated a triangulated irregular network, made up of individual unique user locations, and then categorized small triangles (smaller than an average size) as natural cities for the United States (mainland) on a monthly basis. The concept of natural cities provides a powerful means to develop new insights into the evolution of real cities, because there are virtually no data available to track the history of a city across its entire life span and at very fine spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, natural cities can act as a good proxy of real cities, in the sense of understanding underlying interactions, at a global l...

  15. Model- based Military Training Game Platform Design%基于游戏模式的作战训练平台研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永红; 邓红艳; 邓桂龙

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problems which include little access chance for information training system, too complex setup steps and management, narrow spread discipline courses and others in military training for troops, with explica-tion of foreign military training transform milestones marked with training on games, the idea of building PLA military training game platform based on game concepts and technologies is presented. With analysis of PLA military training game platform function characteristics, technology requirement, technologies of commercial and foreign military train-ing games, an appropriate technique architecture for the PLA one is proposed. Military data management and military operating model components are stones of the platform. Designs of the two are elaborated when a method based on op-eration rule scripts is put up. Preparatory experiments have proved that military training game platform can be leisure-ly and effectively developed and easily updated, and it will inevitably provide an excellent simulative training platform for trainers.%为解决当前部队训练中受训人员接触信息化平台机会少,缺乏真实环境训练.针对实战训练问题,对目前平台开设的管理和训练范围较窄等问题,在分析外军已开始游戏练兵的训练变革的基础上,提出了借鉴游戏理念和技术建设作战训练游戏平台的设计,总结分析了作战训练游戏平台的功能特点、技术要求以及商业游戏和外军游戏软件技术特点,初步提出了适合我军特点的基于游戏模式的作战训练游戏平台技术路线,并重点对其中核心的业务数据管理与军事模型进行了详细设计,提出了规则脚本引擎的军事模型等实现方法.实验表明作战训练游戏平台具备随时随地展开、易于布设和保鲜的特点,可扩大作战人员的受训机会,可为部队训练提供一个好的仿真训练平台.

  16. Studies on the Development of Walnut Industry in Shangluo City Based on SWOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; ZHANG; Xikun; HONG

    2014-01-01

    The walnut industry in Shangluo City is evaluated based on SWOT. The internal advantage,disadvantage,external opportunities and threats to the walnut industry are found out. In the end,suggestions towards the development of walnut industry in Shangluo City are put forward.

  17. Environmental Radiation Monitoring at the Areas of the Former Military Technical Bases at the Russian Far East - 12445

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After termination of operation at the serviced facilities of the nuclear fleet of the former Soviet Union, the Military Technical Base in Sysoeva Bay has been reorganized to the site for SNF and RW temporary storage (STS). The main activities of STS are receipt, storage and transmission to radioactive waste reprocessing. Establishment of the RW management regional centre in the Far-Eastern region at the STS in Sysoeva Bay implies intensification of SNF and RW management in this region that can result in increasing ecological load to the adjacent areas and settlements. Regulatory supervision of the radiation safety at the areas of the Former Military Technical Bases at the Russian Far East is one of the regulatory functions of the Federal Medical Biological Agency (FMBA of Russia). To regulate SNF an RW management and provide the effective response to changing radiation situation, the environmental radiation monitoring system is arranged. For this purpose, wide range of environmental media examinations at the Sysoeva Bay STS was performed by Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre - a technical support organization of FMBA of Russia in collaboration with the Federal State Geological Enterprise 'Hydrospecgeology' (Federal Agency for Entrails). Regulation during the RW and SNF management is continuous process, which the FMBA of Russia implements in close cooperation with other Russian responsible authorities - the State Atomic Energy Corporation 'Rosatom' and Federal Agency for Entrails. The Environmental radiation monitoring findings served as a basis for the associated databank arrangement. The radio ecological monitoring system was arranged at the facilities under inspection for the purpose of the dynamic control of the radiation situation. It presupposes regular radiometry inspections in-situ, their analysis and assessment of the radiation situation forecast in the course of the STS remediation main stages. Some new data on the radiation situation at the

  18. Federal Military Facilities, Federal Lands, National Atlas, Published in 2005, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Whiteman Air Force Base.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Federal Military Facilities dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2005....

  19. Identifying military impacts on archaeology deposits based on differences in soil organic carbon and chemical elements at soil horizon interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Historic Preservation Act requires land-managing agencies to identify and account for their impacts on archaeological resources. Regulatory agencies that oversee compliance with historic preservation legislation frequently assume military training adversely affects archaeological resou...

  20. MODERN MILITARY GEOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Bezuidenhout

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern Military Geography is a new text that explores the relationship between geography and military conflict. As such, it covers many different scenarios and operational theatres and brings perspective to the link between local topography, hydrographical settings, climate, coastal conditions and military operations. The text goes further by examining the influence of secondary factors, which include, biological, health and environmental issues on military operations. The unique interaction between physical conditions and the geopolitical realities of different geographical settings are well illustrated. This book is therefore an excellent addition to the fields of military geography and military history, as well as other related military disciplines.

  1. Coalition-based Planning of Military Operations: Adversarial Reasoning Algorithms in an Integrated Decision Aid

    OpenAIRE

    Ground, Larry; Kott, Alexander; Budd, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Use of knowledge-based planning tools can help alleviate the challenges of planning a complex operation by a coalition of diverse parties in an adversarial environment. We explore these challenges and potential contributions of knowledge-based tools using as an example the CADET system, a knowledge-based tool capable of producing automatically (or with human guidance) battle plans with realistic degree of detail and complexity. In ongoing experiments, it compared favorably with human planners...

  2. Evaluating Pillar Industry's Transformation Capability: A Case Study of Two Chinese Steel-Based Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhidong Li

    Full Text Available Many steel-based cities in China were established between the 1950s and 1960s. After more than half a century of development and boom, these cities are starting to decline and industrial transformation is urgently needed. This paper focuses on evaluating the transformation capability of resource-based cities building an evaluation model. Using Text Mining and the Document Explorer technique as a way of extracting text features, the 200 most frequently used words are derived from 100 publications related to steel- and other resource-based cities. The Expert Evaluation Method (EEM and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP techniques are then applied to select 53 indicators, determine their weights and establish an index system for evaluating the transformation capability of the pillar industry of China's steel-based cities. Using real data and expert reviews, the improved Fuzzy Relation Matrix (FRM method is applied to two case studies in China, namely Panzhihua and Daye, and the evaluation model is developed using Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE. The cities' abilities to carry out industrial transformation are evaluated with concerns expressed for the case of Daye. The findings have policy implications for the potential and required industrial transformation in the two selected cities and other resource-based towns.

  3. Studying the Multilingual City: A GIS-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselinova, Ljuba Nikolova; Booza, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Work in two distinct disciplines, urban geography and sociolinguistics, readily points out the multiethnic and multilingual character of metropolitan areas. However, there is still demand for studies which establish the language structure of modern cities. For the purposes of this pilot study, we focus on the Detroit Metropolitan Area (DMA),…

  4. Reinventing military retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Pyle, Mark D.

    1995-01-01

    The thesis examines the possibility of applying private sector retirement plan principles to the military retirement system. The increasing cost and generosity of military retirement coupled with political pressures to reduce federal spending have focused attention on reforming the military retirement system. Previous studies of the military retirement system are addressed and critiqued. Private retirement options are reviewed and a 401(k) plan is proposed to replace the current military reti...

  5. Research on 6R Military Logistics Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Wan; Wen, Wang

    The building of military logistics network is an important issue for the construction of new forces. This paper has thrown out a concept model of 6R military logistics network model based on JIT. Then we conceive of axis spoke y logistics centers network, flexible 6R organizational network, lean 6R military information network based grid. And then the strategy and proposal for the construction of the three sub networks of 6Rmilitary logistics network are given.

  6. Development of internet-based information systems using software components with the emphasis on the application in the military organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš J. Pejanović

    2011-01-01

    to work over the Internet and represents an open standard maintained by the W3C (the World Wide Web Consortium. The drawback of SOAP is interoperability which is not always 100% practicable with CORBA, ie. the existing implementation does not always meet the required reliability. This may be one of the causes of an insufficient number of available Web services on the Internet. The implementation of SOAP is possible in almost any programming language, on all popular platforms, so it has the potential to create a transparent web of services and applications that can be accessed on demand by everyone from every point, which will lead to the explosive growth of new services and therefore profits. SOAP does not try to replace CORBA or any other distributed system. Compared to CORBA, SOAP is less powerful, but it is impressive in its simplicity and scalability, which is very useful from the aspect of need for a wider acceptance by companies and by developers. SOAP is still developing, and a number of new protocols will appear, simplifying and facilitating the implementation of Web services in all business areas, including military information systems. Conclusion The possibility to connect the existing solutions is of great importance in determining the development strategy of information systems in the Army as well as in other complex organizational systems that contain heterogeneous hardware and software platforms. The research and analysis of the application of these standardized concepts, technologies and development platforms, including the experience of foreign armed forces lead to the conclusion that the concept of development of information systems in the Internet environment by using software components is a recommendation for strategic determination to overcome incompatible and unrelated existing partial software solutions. The basic idea is based on Web services which can be created from finished applications or from the start, while programming languages

  7. Prediction of Military Vehicle's Drawbar Pull Based on an Improved Relevance Vector Machine and Real Vehicle Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Sun, Wei; Lin, Guoyu; Zhang, Weigong

    2016-01-01

    The scientific and effective prediction of drawbar pull is of great importance in the evaluation of military vehicle trafficability. Nevertheless, the existing prediction models have demonstrated lots of inherent limitations. In this framework, a multiple-kernel relevance vector machine model (MkRVM) including Gaussian kernel and polynomial kernel is proposed to predict drawbar pull. Nonlinear decreasing inertia weight particle swarm optimization (NDIWPSO) is employed for parameter optimization. As the relations between drawbar pull and its influencing factors have not been tested on real vehicles, a series of experimental analyses based on real vehicle test data are done to confirm the effective influencing factors. A dynamic testing system is applied to conduct field tests and gain required test data. Gaussian kernel RVM, polynomial kernel RVM, support vector machine (SVM) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) are also used to compare with the MkRVM model. The results indicate that the MkRVM model is a preferable model in this case. Finally, the proposed novel model is compared to the traditional prediction model of drawbar pull. The results show that the MkRVM model significantly improves the prediction accuracy. A great potential of improved RVM is indicated in further research of wheel-soil interactions. PMID:26978359

  8. Prediction of Military Vehicle’s Drawbar Pull Based on an Improved Relevance Vector Machine and Real Vehicle Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Sun, Wei; Lin, Guoyu; Zhang, Weigong

    2016-01-01

    The scientific and effective prediction of drawbar pull is of great importance in the evaluation of military vehicle trafficability. Nevertheless, the existing prediction models have demonstrated lots of inherent limitations. In this framework, a multiple-kernel relevance vector machine model (MkRVM) including Gaussian kernel and polynomial kernel is proposed to predict drawbar pull. Nonlinear decreasing inertia weight particle swarm optimization (NDIWPSO) is employed for parameter optimization. As the relations between drawbar pull and its influencing factors have not been tested on real vehicles, a series of experimental analyses based on real vehicle test data are done to confirm the effective influencing factors. A dynamic testing system is applied to conduct field tests and gain required test data. Gaussian kernel RVM, polynomial kernel RVM, support vector machine (SVM) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) are also used to compare with the MkRVM model. The results indicate that the MkRVM model is a preferable model in this case. Finally, the proposed novel model is compared to the traditional prediction model of drawbar pull. The results show that the MkRVM model significantly improves the prediction accuracy. A great potential of improved RVM is indicated in further research of wheel-soil interactions. PMID:26978359

  9. Intelligent monitoring systems based on sensor networks with military, environmental, domotics, security and tracking applications

    OpenAIRE

    Artés Rodríguez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The Signal Processing Group (Department of Signal Theory and Communications, University Carlos III, Madrid, Spain) offers the expertise of its members in the development of monitoring systems based on sensor networks. The main advantages of this technology are the decreased cost, the time saved and the increased reliability of the results. Technical cooperation for the research and development with internal and external funding is sought.

  10. Analysis of Urban Expansion and Driving Forces in Xuzhou City Based on Remote Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhao-ling; DU Pei-jun; GUO Da-zhi

    2007-01-01

    Based on satellite remote sensing TM/ETM+ images of Xuzhou city, land use forms of the city in 1987, 1994 and 2000 were extracted by using a neural network classification method. The expansion contribution rate and annual expansion intensity index of each administrative district have been calculated and the contribution rate matrices and spatial distribution maps of land use changes were obtained. Based on the above analysis, the characteristics of urban expansion from 1987 to 2000 have been explored. From 1987 to 1994, the expansion contribution rate of Quanshan district reached 46.80%, the highest in all administrative districts of Xuzhou city; Tongshan town was in a high-speed expansion period; both Quanshan and Yunlong districts were experiencing fast-speed expansion periods while the entire city was expanding at a medium-speed with an annual expansion intensity index of 0.98; the city spread eastwards and southwards. From 1994 to 2000, the expansion contribution rate of Quanshan district reached 43.67%, the highest in Xuzhou; the entire city was in a medium-speed expansion period with an annual expansion intensity index of 1.04; the city has rapidly been extended towards the southeast. According to the contribution rate matrices of land use changes, urban expansion mainly usurps cropland and woodland. A quantitative analysis found that population growth, industrialization and economic development are the primary driving forces behind urban expansion.

  11. Symposium by NATO Defense Research Group Panel VIII on Computer-Based Instruction in Military Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Weddle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    This collection of papers is the result of a symposium sponsored by NATO's Defense Research Group Panel VIII in the Spring of 1985. The symposium came into being when it became obvious to the NATO countries that research, development and utilization of advanced technologies for training was the best means of increasing both training effectiveness and efficiency. This symposium was the second in a series of three devoted to training. The series was structured to cover all aspects of training. The first series addressed the value of training, the second one dealt with the application of training technologies and the third and last of the series focused on academic issues concerned with the effect of prior learning on subsequent learning. The fact that a major American publisher has determined that computer based instruction is the technology of greatest interest to the NATO community is not surprising. Advances in microprocessor technology have revolutionized both how and where we train. During this symposium t...

  12. Creative-based strategies in small and medium-sized cities: some European study cases

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaz, Elisabete; Selada, Catarina; da Cunha, Inês Vilhena

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, creative and cultural approaches have been implemented in regional and urban development strategies as key drivers for competitiveness and growth. However, research literature tends to focus mainly in big cities and metropolis, not recognizing the potential of small cities in intermediate and rural regions in fostering territorial cohesion. Nevertheless, public policies based on creativity and innovation are being experienced in non-metropolitan and rural contexts aro...

  13. Measuring intermodalism at European port cities: An employment-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Ducruet, César; Lee, S. W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a continental approach to the combination of transport functions within European port cities. It reviews a number of concepts and theories, regarding with transport chain integration and urban centrality in the case of ports. While many studies on intermodalism face a lack of quantifiable data, this research proposes an original methodology based on employment. The data is collected for 76 port cities, 9,000 companies and more than one million employees in all transport mo...

  14. China's Military Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Qisong; Li Baowen

    2008-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, China's military diplomacy has displayed an omni-directional and multi-level form, and with an increasing transparency which has increased trust and reduced doubt. China has enhanced its conventional military functions and strengthened its military soft power. This has helped China develop into a responsible state on the world stage. Through military exchanges with other countries, the Chinese military has gradually strengthened its ability to undertake a variety of tasks. The Chinese military has to make greater efforts to counter the perception of a "China threat." There is also a need to establish a system of military spokesmen and to develop a theory of military diplomacy with Chinese characteristics.

  15. National Military Family Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 931.6632 info@MilitaryFamily.org © 2016 - National Military Family Association Twitter Facebook Pinterest Instagram Charity Navigator Four Star Charity GuideStar Exchange Better Business Bureau Charity Watch Independent Charity of America nonprofit ...

  16. Mindfulness-Based Mind Fitness Training: A Case Study of a High-Stress Predeployment Military Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Elizabeth A.; Schaldach, John M.; Kiyonaga, Anastasia; Jha, Amishi P.

    2011-01-01

    Current military deployments have resulted in many psychological and physical health issues and created interest in protective measures to mitigate effects of prolonged and repetitive stress. Mindfulness training has been successfully used for stress reduction in other contexts. The following case report presents a detachment of U.S. Marines who…

  17. Microzonation of seismic risk in a low-rise Latin American city based on the macroseismic evaluation of the vulnerability of residential buildings: Colima city, México

    OpenAIRE

    Zobin, V. M.; Cruz-Bravo, A. A.; Ventura-Ramírez, F.

    2010-01-01

    A macroseismic methodology of seismic risk microzonation in a low-rise city based on the vulnerability of residential buildings is proposed and applied to Colima city, Mexico. The seismic risk microzonation for Colima consists of two elements: the mapping of residential blocks according to their vulnerability level and the calculation of an expert-opinion based damage probability matrix (DPM) for a given level of earthquake intensity and a given type of residential block. A specified exposure...

  18. Mining Urban Performance: Scale-Independent Classification of Cities Based on Individual Economic Transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Grauwin, Sebastian; Combes, Remi Tachet des; Hawelka, Bartosz; Arias, Juan Murillo; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Intensive development of urban systems creates a number of challenges for urban planners and policy makers in order to maintain sustainable growth. Running efficient urban policies requires meaningful urban metrics, which could quantify important urban characteristics including various aspects of an actual human behavior. Since a city size is known to have a major, yet often nonlinear, impact on the human activity, it also becomes important to develop scale-free metrics that capture qualitative city properties, beyond the effects of scale. Recent availability of extensive datasets created by human activity involving digital technologies creates new opportunities in this area. In this paper we propose a novel approach of city scoring and classification based on quantitative scale-free metrics related to economic activity of city residents, as well as domestic and foreign visitors. It is demonstrated on the example of Spain, but the proposed methodology is of a general character. We employ a new source of large...

  19. A new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-05-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling and third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete solution available to create complete 3D city model by using images. These image based methods also have limitations This paper gives a new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry. This approach is divided into three sections. First, data acquisition process, second is 3D data processing, and third is data combination process. In data acquisition process, a multi-camera setup developed and used for video recording of an area. Image frames created from video data. Minimum required and suitable video image frame selected for 3D processing. In second section, based on close range photogrammetric principles and computer vision techniques, 3D model of area created. In third section, this 3D model exported to adding and merging of other pieces of large area. Scaling and alignment of 3D model was done. After applying the texturing and rendering on this model, a final photo-realistic textured 3D model created. This 3D model transferred into walk-through model or in movie form. Most of the processing steps are automatic. So this method is cost effective and less laborious. Accuracy of this model is good. For this research work, study area is the campus of department of civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. This campus acts as a prototype for city. Aerial photography is restricted in many country

  20. Sustainable development of coal cities in Heilongjiang province based on AHP method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yupu; Sun Yongbo; Qin Jiangbo

    2012-01-01

    The sustainable development of coal mining cities in Heilongjiang province has important effect on the economic stability and development of Heilongjiang,Northeast China.and China at large.To further the sustainable development evaluation system of coal mining cities in Heilongjiang province,based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method combined with operational and scientific principles using Saaty's 1-9 scale method to construct the judgment matrix from five aspects,such as economic development and environmental quality,this paper establishes the comprehensive evaluation index system of sustainable development of coal mining cities in Heilongjiang province,including comprehensive index of industrial economic benefits and the contribution rate of science and technology.In addition,using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method,a comprehensive evaluation is made on the indices of the four major coal mining cities of Heilongjiang.The result shows that the coal mining cities are not better than Datong of Shanxi province in many indices.The economic development and environment quality are the most important indices of the targeted layer influencing the sustainable development of coal mining cities of Heilongjiang,and their index weights are 0.4358 and 0.2844,respectively.These two indices including comprehensive index of industrial economic benefit and the ratio of environmental protection investment to GDP are the key elements influencing the two aspects.

  1. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military burn casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate burns, or complicate burn management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683

  2. Improving risk assessment of violence among military Veterans: An evidence-based approach for clinical decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Elbogen, Eric B.; Fuller, Sara; Johnson, Sally C.; Brooks, Stephanie; Kinneer, Patricia; Calhoun, Patrick; Beckham, Jean C.

    2010-01-01

    Despite increased media attention on violent acts against others committed by military Veterans, few models have been developed to systematically guide violence risk assessment among Veterans. Ideally, a model would identify which Veterans are most at risk for violence and increased attention could then be turned to determining what could be done to prevent violent behavior. This article suggests how empirical approaches to risk assessment used successfully in civilian populations can be appl...

  3. Development of internet-based information systems using software components with the emphasis on the application in the military organization

    OpenAIRE

    Miloš J. Pejanović

    2011-01-01

    The development of personal computers and Internet technology causes continuous changes in methodological approaches and concepts of development of information systems. Most existing information systems, due to their heterogeneity, have a problem of integration of subsystems. In order to overcome this problem, software vendors offer different solutions. In this work we explore different approaches and propose an optimal way, with a special emphasis on its application in the military organizat...

  4. Military sexual trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Diane M; Haley, Jenna L; Bouder, Michelle

    2011-12-01

    Nurses' awareness of MST as a specific type of sexual assault within the military culture and sensitivity to the physical and psychological symptoms are important aspects of care. Nurses must treat the physical and emotional components of sexual assault in all settings; however, referral to the veterans administration programs and resources is key for the woman veteran to receive the specialized care developed by the healthcare system. Women veterans who have PTSD from MST and combat exposure are prone to depression, suicide and substance use/abuse. Nurses must not fear asking the woman if she is having suicidal thoughts or has a plan and intent to follow through with the plan. MST and PTSD may result in internalized anger, shame, self-blame, helplessness, hopelessness and powerlessness. Patient safety is of utmost importance. Assessing Patients for Sexual Violence, A Guide for Health Care Providers (2009) is a useful resource for nurses. The National Center for PTSD (2009) newsletter on the topic of MST includes a list of research studies. The work of Benedict (2007) and Corbett (2007) provide additional personal accounts of women soldiers who were in the Middle East conflicts. The nurse's referral to specialized services to treat MST and PTSD with evidence-based therapies is a crucial first step in the resiliency and well-being of these brave women who have served in all branches of the U.S. military. PMID:22359967

  5. Measuring Urban Sprawl Based on Massive Street Nodes and Natural Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Urban sprawl devours large amount of open space each year and subsequently leads to many environmental issues. To curb urban sprawl with proper policies, a major problem is how to effectively measure it. Existing studies heavily rely on population data and legally or administratively determined urban boundaries for the measurement, although satellite imagery has been used to automatically detect urban boundaries. In this paper, we develop a novel approach to measuring urban sprawl based on street nodes and naturally defined urban boundaries. The street nodes refer to street intersections and ends, while naturally defined urban boundaries constitute what we call natural cities. We find that the street nodes are significantly correlated with population of cities. Based on this finding, we set street nodes as a proxy of population to measure urban sprawl. We further find that street nodes have a linear relationship with city sizes, with a correlation coefficient up to 0.97. In the plot with the x axis representi...

  6. Military Surgeon and Humanity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Lu; WANG Yiran

    2015-01-01

    Military surgeons are a special group of doctors. They are both medical workers and soldiers.Their mission is to serve the wounded on the battlefield.And there is no doubt that military surgeons will save our comrades in the army. However,should a military surgeon save the wounded enemy? It is indeed a dilemma.Some may save the wounded enemy because military surgeons are doctors after all and they can't possibly abandon anybody to his fate,but some refuse to do so because military surgeons are soldiers.Therefore,some situations on the battlefield are discussed and advice is suggested for military surgeons,with heartfelt anticipation for there being less casualties on the battlefield as well as alleviating human suffering caused by war.

  7. Iraqi Military Academies

    OpenAIRE

    Nodar Z. Mossaki

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the system of training of officers in military academies in Iraq – in Zakho, Qalacholan, ar-Rustamiyah and an-Nasiriyah. The author describes the history of creation, process of evolution, challenges and features of training in these colleges. Particular attention paid to military academies in the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, which actually do not obey the central government of Iraq, however, have the highest level of training. Currently, Iraq's military academies operat...

  8. Military Leaders and Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Fors Brandebo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study trust in military leaders. Empirical data was gathered through interviews and questionnaires with military personnel mostly from Sweden, but also from four other European countries. Paper I illustrates that trust in military leaders can be theoretically understood in terms of a hierarchical system of categories, higher-level categories and two superior categories labelled Individual-related and Communication- and relationship-related characteristics. Paper I...

  9. Evaluation of Suitability of Selected Set of Department of Defense Military Bases and Department of Energy Facilities for Siting a Small Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poore III, Willis P [ORNL; Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL

    2013-03-01

    This report summarizes the approach that ORNL developed for screening a sample set of US Department of Defense (DOD) military base sites and DOE sites for possible powering with an SMR; the methodology employed, including spatial modeling; and initial results for several sample sites. The objective in conducting this type of siting evaluation is demonstrate the capability to characterize specific DOD and DOE sites to identify any particular issues associated with powering the sites with an SMR using OR-SAGE; it is not intended to be a definitive assessment per se as to the absolute suitability of any particular site.

  10. APPLICATION OF WEB-BASED ADDRESS INFORMATION SYSTEM: EXAMPLE OF THE CITY CENTER OF ISPARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Nihat MOROVA

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, using GIS in the center of the city of Isparta province of Mimar Sinan Street Located along the road line and the organizations carrying out commercial activities of the verbal and numerical data was created using the Web-based Adress Information system (AIS). Intergraph company that has produced a web-based map visualization and analysis software architectures using Geomedia WepMap data bases of the study area is presented to users via the Internet.

  11. The Social Value of Community-Based Adult Education in Limerick City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Patricia; O'Dwyer, Maria; Power, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    This article documents the findings of a qualitative study into the social value of community-based adult education in Limerick City. The article demonstrates that participants experience significant improvements in numerous facets of their lives and we argue that it is crucial that we recognise the multiple and inter-connected social impacts that…

  12. Effects of a Stage-based Alcohol Preventive Intervention for Inner-City Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.; Carlson, Joan M.; Owen, Deborah M.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Carbonari, Joseph P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines first year outcomes of an alcohol preventive intervention within inner-city middle schools. Results reveal that significantly fewer neighborhood intervention students initiated alcohol use compared to control students. Suggests that a brief, stage-based preventive intervention may result in significant reductions in alcohol initiation and…

  13. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...

  14. Evaluation of the Development of Circular Agriculture in Chongqing City Based on Entropy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangying; ZHOU; Shunqiang; SUN; Guiying; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    The circular agriculture is conducive to achieving the purpose of efficient agricultural economy and environment- friendliness.Based on the perspective of circular agriculture theory,this paper builds the evaluation indicator system for circular agriculture,and uses entropy method and Matlab analysis tool to carry out the comprehensive evaluation of the level of agricultural development in Chongqing City during the period 2003- 2012. It analyzes the obstacles to the development of circular agricultural economy in Chongqing City in 2012,and finally puts forward the corresponding recommendations.

  15. Enhanced job performance: a new role for military compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Frampton, James Scott.

    2000-01-01

    This study concentrates on aspects of military and civilian compensation that motivate employees and provide incentives upon which job performance and productivity may depend. The study achieves its end by applying successful attributes of civilian compensation to military remuneration systems. Its main purpose is to judge whether military pay is structured toward a modern view of performance-based compensation and whether it is comparable to civilian pay. At issue is a military pay system th...

  16. U.S. Foreign Policy, The South American Integration, and the case of the military bases in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Iglesias-Cavicchioli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the nature of the conflict generated in South America by the adoption of the new military agreement between the U.S. and Colombia. The article will evaluate the political and the geostrategic implications of this agreement, especially its repercussions for the regional integration process of South America. It will also analyze the stances of the local actors in order to consider prospective scenarios, and will assess the U.S. approach to South American integration under the Obama administration.

  17. Selection of leading industries for coal resource cities based on coupling coordination of industry's technological innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Jiming; Yu Bo; Yao Xilong

    2012-01-01

    Taking the city of Qitaihe is as an example in order to provide practical methods for the selection of leading industries for coal resource cities,this paper establishes the specific operation scheme for selection of leading industries according to the actual situation of coal resource cities based on the theory of coupling coordination together with the coupling coordination for technological innovation.The results show that the degree for coupling coordination of the technological innovation for each alternative industry differentiates with the development of coal resource cities.For example,the average degree of food processing industry from agricultural produce is 0.9.Therefore,coal resource cities should develop some industries related to coal industry,such as coking industry,some chemical and medicines industry and non-metallic mineral products manufacturing,in the near future,however,some industries with greater market and influence potentials and low carbon emissions should be attached much importance to in the future.

  18. Qualifying lighting remodelling in a Hungarian city based on light pollution effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolláth, Z.; Dömény, A.; Kolláth, K.; Nagy, B.

    2016-09-01

    The public lighting system has been remodelled in several Hungarian cities. In some cases the majority of the old luminaries were fitted with high pressure sodium lamps and they were replaced with white LED lighting with a typical correlated colour temperature of about 4500 K. Therefore, these remodelling works provide a testbed for methods in measurements and modelling. We measured the luminance of the light domes of selected cities by DSLR photometry before and after the remodelling. Thanks to the full cut off design of the new lighting fixtures we obtained a slight decrease even in the blue part of the sky dome spectra of a tested city. However, we have to note that this positive change is the result of the bad geometry (large ULR) of the previous lighting system. Based on Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations we provide a comparison of different indicators that can be used to qualify the remodelling, and to predict the possible changes in light pollution.

  19. 76 FR 9346 - Sun City Project LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sun City Project LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Sun City Project LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  20. Cell-based representation and analysis of social-economic data in grid-city construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangnan; Huang, Fang; Wang, Ping

    2007-06-01

    Grid-city management currently attracts a wider audience globally. Socio-economic data is an essential part of grid-city management system. Social-economic data of an urban is characterized by discrete, time-varying, statistical, distributed and complicated. Most of data are with no exactly spatial location or from various statistical units. There is obvious gap while matching social-economic data with existing grid map of natural geographical elements emerges. It may cause many difficulties in data input, organization, processing and analysis while the grid system constructing and executing. The issue of how to allocate and integrate the huge social-economic data into each grid effectively is crucial for grid-city construction. In this paper, we discussed the characteristics of social-economic data in a grid-city systematically, thereafter a cell-based model for social-economic data representing and analyzing is presented in this paper. The kernel issues of the cell-based model establishment include cell size determining, cell capabilities developing for multi-dimension representation and evaluation, and cell dynamic simulation functions designing. The cell-based model supplements the methods system of spatial data mining, and is also promising in application to the spatialization of statistical data obtained from other researches including environmental monitoring, hydrological and meteorological observation.

  1. WMN-based city traffic information acquisition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Traffic information acquisition system is an essential part of the intelligent transportation system (ITS). This paper presents a novel traffic information acquisition system, i.e., a dynamic traffic information acquisition system based on wireless mesh networks (WMN). The system comprises of probe vehicles and wireless mesh networks. Compared to the conventional systems, it is independent of other network infrastructures and easy to implement. It can acquire the real-time traffic information correctly with lower cost.

  2. Data Mining and Visualization of Grid-Based City Emergency System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Jingsheng; SUN Jizhou; LIU Muxing; ZHANG Xu; HE Hong

    2005-01-01

    A cluster analyzing algorithm based on grids is introduced in this paper,which is applied to data mining in the city emergency system. In the previous applications, data mining was based on the method of analyzing points and lines, which was not efficient enough in dealing with the geographic information in units of police areas. The proposed algorithm maps an event set stored as a point set to a grid unit set, utilizes the cluster algorithm based on grids to find out all the clusters, and shows the results in the method of visualization. The algorithm performs well when dealing with high dimensional data sets and immense data. It is suitable for the data mining based on geogra-phic information system and is supportive to decision-makings in the city emergency system.

  3. Military housing foam application and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, J. J.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in sustainable communities. This project consists of two activities conducted in Hawaii that focus on performance, integration and application of energy saving technologies. Hawaii has many energy challenges, making this location an excellent testbed for these activities. Under this project, spray foam technology was applied at military housing on Oahu and the consumption data collected. A cost benefit and operational analysis of the foam was completed. The second phase of this project included design, integration, and analysis of photovoltaic systems at a military community on Oahu. This phase of the project was conducted as part of Forest City's second Solar America Showcase Award.

  4. Implementing the CASPiE course-based research experience at the United States Military Academy: Affective responses and effects on critical thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Anthony Michael

    The Center for Authentic Science Practices in Education (CASPiE) pioneered a course-based research experience approach to teaching chemistry laboratory courses. The method had previously been studied in a variety of institutional settings. Recently, the United States Military Academy at West Point decided to develop CASPiE-style modules for the introductory honors chemistry course. This research setting presents clean experimental-control comparisons and a group of faculty who were completely new to the method. Equipping students with authentic research experiences early in their education is important regardless of the institution. However, cadets at a military academy must make decisions relatively early (the outset of their second year) as to what their career trajectory will be as eventual officers. In the new CASPiE-based experience, cadets are given the opportunity to select from one of three different modules (analytical chemistry, toxicology, and chemical engineering) in which to participate during the course. These three modules represent subsections of an overall Army waste-to-energy research project. Cadets generate unique hypotheses, real data, and research posters towards the advancement of the project. Posters are then presented in a session. that includes an audience of project stakeholders, course instructors, and other academy faculty and staff. Here, I will present my research methods, evaluative procedures, and findings in the affective domain, critical thinking, and laboratory content comprehension.

  5. Fractal-based exponential distribution of urban density and self-affine fractal forms of cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The model of urban population density differs from the common exponential function. ► Fractal landscape influences the exponential distribution of urban density. ► The exponential distribution of urban population suggests a self-affine fractal. ► Urban space can be divided into three layers with scaling and non-scaling regions. ► The dimension of urban form with characteristic scale can be treated as 2. - Abstract: Urban population density always follows the exponential distribution and can be described with Clark’s model. Because of this, the spatial distribution of urban population used to be regarded as non-fractal pattern. However, Clark’s model differs from the exponential function in mathematics because that urban population is distributed on the fractal support of landform and land-use form. By using mathematical transform and empirical evidence, we argue that there are self-affine scaling relations and local power laws behind the exponential distribution of urban density. The scale parameter of Clark’s model indicating the characteristic radius of cities is not a real constant, but depends on the urban field we defined. So the exponential model suggests local fractal structure with two kinds of fractal parameters. The parameters can be used to characterize urban space filling, spatial correlation, self-affine properties, and self-organized evolution. The case study of the city of Hangzhou, China, is employed to verify the theoretical inference. Based on the empirical analysis, a three-ring model of cities is presented and a city is conceptually divided into three layers from core to periphery. The scaling region and non-scaling region appear alternately in the city. This model may be helpful for future urban studies and city planning.

  6. Effects of extreme-duration heavy load carriage on neuromuscular function and locomotion: a military-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordane G Grenier

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Trekking and military missions generally consist of carrying heavy loads for extreme durations. These factors have been separately shown to be sources of neuromuscular (NM fatigue and locomotor alterations. However, the question of their combined effects remains unresolved, and addressing this issue required a representative context. PURPOSE: The aim was to investigate the effects of extreme-duration heavy load carriage on NM function and walking characteristics. METHODS: Ten experienced infantrymen performed a 21-h simulated military mission (SMM in a middle-mountain environment with equipment weighing ∼27 kg during battles and ∼43 kg during marches. NM function was evaluated for knee extensors (KE and plantar flexors (PF pre- and immediately post-SMM using isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC measurement, neural electrical stimulation and surface EMG. The twitch-interpolation method was used to assess central fatigue. Peripheral changes were examined by stimulating the muscle in the relaxed state. The energy cost, mechanical work and spatio-temporal pattern of walking were also evaluated pre-/post-SMM on an instrumented treadmill in three equipment conditions: Sportswear, Battle and March. RESULTS: After the SMM, MVC declined by -10.2±3.6% for KE (P<0.01 and -10.7±16.1% for PF (P = 0.06. The origin of fatigue was essentially peripheral for both muscle groups. A trend toward low-frequency fatigue was detected for KE (5.5%, P = 0.08. These moderate NM alterations were concomitant with a large increase in perceived fatigue from pre- (rating of 8.3±2.2 to post-SMM (15.9±2.1, P<0.01. The SMM-related fatigue did not alter walking energetics or mechanics, and the different equipment carried on the treadmill did not interact with this fatigue either. CONCLUSION: this study reports the first data on physiological and biomechanical consequences of extreme-duration heavy load carriage. Unexpectedly, NM function

  7. A cloud-based car parking middleware for IoT-based smart cities: design and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhanlin Ji; Ivan Ganchev; Máirtín O'Droma; Li Zhao; Xueji Zhang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the generic concept of using cloud-based intelligent car parking services in smart cities as an important application of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. This type of services will become an integral part of a generic IoT operational platform for smart cities due to its pure business-oriented features. A high-level view of the proposed middleware is outlined and the corresponding operational platform is illustrated. To demonstrate the provision of car parking service...

  8. Inaugural editorial: Military Medical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Guo-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Military medicine is one of the most innovative part of human civilization. Along with the rapid development of medicine and advances in military techniques, military medicine has become the focus and intersection of new knowledge and new technologies. Innovation and development within military medicine are always ongoing, with a long and challenging path ahead. The establishment of “Military Medical Research” is expected to be a bounden responsibility in the frontline of Chinese military med...

  9. Inaugural editorial: Military Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guo-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Military medicine is one of the most innovative part of human civilization. Along with the rapid development of medicine and advances in military techniques, military medicine has become the focus and intersection of new knowledge and new technologies. Innovation and development within military medicine are always ongoing, with a long and challenging path ahead. The establishment of "Military Medical Research" is expected to be a bounden responsibility in the frontline of Chinese military medicine. PMID:25722860

  10. Effective learning techniques for military applications using the Personalized Assistant that Learns (PAL) enhanced Web-Based Temporal Analysis System (WebTAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMonica, Peter; Dziegiel, Roger; Liuzzi, Raymond; Hepler, James

    2009-05-01

    The Personalized Assistant that Learns (PAL) Program is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) research effort that is advancing technologies in the area of cognitive learning by developing cognitive assistants to support military users, such as commanders and decision makers. The Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Information Directorate leveraged several core PAL components and applied them to the Web-Based Temporal Analysis System (WebTAS) so that users of this system can have automated features, such as task learning, intelligent clustering, and entity extraction. WebTAS is a modular software toolset that supports fusion of large amounts of disparate data sets, visualization, project organization and management, pattern analysis and activity prediction, and includes various presentation aids. WebTAS is predominantly used by analysts within the intelligence community and with the addition of these automated features, many transition opportunities exist for this integrated technology. Further, AFRL completed an extensive test and evaluation of this integrated software to determine its effectiveness for military applications in terms of timeliness and situation awareness, and these findings and conclusions, as well as future work, will be presented in this report.

  11. Measuring Polycentricity of Mega-City Regions in China Based on the Intercity Migration Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaoyan; Yeh, Anthony G. O.

    2016-06-01

    This paper uses the intercity migration flows to examine relations between Chinese cities, identify the important mega-city regions and measure each region's polycentricity from an interaction perspective. Data set contains the long-term residential migration trajectories of three million Sina weibo users across 345 cities. Cities with close connectivity deployed around one or several mega cities are identified as mega-city regions. Features of the mega-city regions are characterized by the strength of migration flows, density of connections, and regional migration patterns. The results show that the disparities exist in different mega-city regions; most mega-city regions are lack of polycentricity.

  12. THE MILITARY GLIDER REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmoed-Römer Heitman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The military glider has, arguably, enjoyed the briefest life span of any major military equipment type - spanning not much more than a decade and a half from the entry into production of the first, to the demise of the concept as such. During its heyday, however, the glider was instrumental in not a few spectacular operations. Thus, it is not really surprising that some of the more iconoclastic military thinkers have, albeit infrequently, wondered whether there is not still a place for up to date gliders in modern warfare.

  13. Performance-based Assessment in Selected Higher Education Institutions in Cebu City, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Rufina C. Rosaroso; Nelson A. Rosaroso

    2015-01-01

    The study described how performance-based assessment was used in selected higher education classrooms in Cebu City, Philippines. Purposive sampling was used in the selection of six students from one sectarian and one non-sectarian institutions of higher learning. A qualitative content analysis was used in analyzing the key informants’ verbatim accounts, gestures and other factors. Motivation to learn, self-regulation and willingness to work in group were the emerging categories/themes identif...

  14. MOSAIIC : City-Level Agent-Based Traffic Simulation Adapted to Emergency Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Czura, Guillaume; Taillandier, Patrick; Tranouez, Pierrick; Daudé, Éric

    2015-01-01

    International audience In this paper, we present MOSAIIC, an agent-based model to simulate the road traffic of a city in the context of a catastrophic event. Whether natural (cyclone, earthquake, flood) or human (industrial accident) in origin, catastrophic situations modify both infrastructures (buildings, road networks) and human behaviors, which can have a huge impact on human safety. Because the heterogeneities of human behaviors, of land- uses and of network topology have a great impa...

  15. Performance-based Assessment in Selected Higher Education Institutions in Cebu City, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufina C. Rosaroso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study described how performance-based assessment was used in selected higher education classrooms in Cebu City, Philippines. Purposive sampling was used in the selection of six students from one sectarian and one non-sectarian institutions of higher learning. A qualitative content analysis was used in analyzing the key informants’ verbatim accounts, gestures and other factors. Motivation to learn, self-regulation and willingness to work in group were the emerging categories/themes identified in the study.

  16. Exploring the polycentric city with multi-worker households: an agent-based microeconomic model

    OpenAIRE

    LEMOY, Rémi; Raux, Charles; Jensen, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    We propose an agent-based dynamics which leads an urban system to the standard equilibrium of the Alonso, Muth, Mills (AMM) framework. Starting for instance from a random initialization, agents move and bid for land, performing a kind of local search and finally leading the system to equilibrium rent, density and land use. Agreement with continuous analytical results is only limited by the discreteness of simulations. We then study polycentrism in cities with this tool. Two job centers are in...

  17. External cost of coal based electricity generation:A tale of Ahmedabad city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahapatra, Diptiranjan; Shukla, Priyadarshi; Dhar, Subash

    2012-01-01

    -cycle analysis (LCA) on the production of electricity from conventional coal based electricity generation system has been performed in order to examine the environmental impacts of coal based electricity generating systems in the twin-city of Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar in western India.By using dose...... to estimate the damage to human health, crops and building materials.This study reveals that the health as well as on non-health impacts of air pollution resulting from coal based electricity generation may not be ignored both in absolute as well as economic value terms. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  18. Military Interrogations: Best Practices and Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew D. Semel

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to address some of the gaps in knowledge about interrogations conducted by military interrogators and provide information about methods from their perspectives, based on their experiences.  Kassin et al.  (2007) conducted the first self-report survey of best interrogation practices and beliefs of law enforcement officers. This study followed that model, using a different population from which to obtain the sample: military interrogators.  Like Kassin&rsq...

  19. Radiometry in military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof

    2001-08-01

    Missiles guided using optoelectronic methods, optoelectronic imaging systems (thermal imaging systems, night vision devices, LLLTV cameras, TV cameras), and optoelectronic countermeasures (smoke screens, camouflage paints and nets, IR flares, decoys, jamming systems, warning systems) are one of the most important components of modern military armament. There are numerous military standards, some of them secret, that precise radiometric parameters to be measured and the testing methods to be used. There is also much literature on the subject of testing of the systems mentioned above, although mostly on subject of testing of the thermal imaging systems. In spite of this apparently numerous literature, there still significant confusion in this area due to secrecy of some parameters and testing methods, differences in recommendations of different military standards, fast progress in military optoelectronics, and also due to enormous number of different types of optoelectronics systems used in the military armament. A review of testing methods of the three basic groups of optoelectronics systems used in modern military armament: the missiles guided using optoelectronics methods, the optoelectronic imaging systems, and the optoelectronic countermeasures is presented in this paper. Trends in the measuring sets.

  20. Design and Implementation of Multi Agent-based Information Fusion System for Supporting Decision Making (A Case Study on Military Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwin Datumaya Wahyudi Sumari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Quick, accurate, and complete information is highly required for supporting strategically impact decision making in a Military Operation (MO in order to reduce the decision cycle and to minimize the loss. For that purpose, we propose, design and implement a hierarchical Multi Agent-based Information Fusion System for Decision Making Support (MAIFS-DMS. The information fusion is implemented by applying Maximum Score of the Total Sum of Joint Probabilities (MSJP fusion method and is done by a collection of Information Fusion Agents (IFA that forms a multiagent system. MAIFS uses a combination of generalization of Dasarathy and Joint Director’s Laboratory (JDL process models for information fusion mechanism. Information fusion products that are displayed in graphical forms provide comprehensive information regarding the MO area dynamics. By observing the graphics resulted from the information fusion, the commandant will have situational awareness and knowledge in order to make the most accurate strategic decision as fast as possible

  1. Methodical approaches to the implementation of radiation-ecological and sanitary investigation of the areas of the former military bases and recreation zones adjacent to them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus N856 dated 21.12.93, the possibility of using the former military bases for remediation of the population from the Chernobyl accident affected areas has been investigated. It was necessary to conduct a detailed investigation of the territory, as there was no information on sanitary and radioecological state on the sites. Firstly, contamination level and contamination areals were to be defined, as well as evaluation of danger risk for the population. Secondly, the obtained results of the investigation should form the basis for further estimation of the environment state on the sites, as well as for decision making on the territory remediation

  2. If You Build It, Will They Come? Patterns of Internet-Based and Face-To-Face Participation in a Parenting Program for Military Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Jennifer L; Rudi, Jessie H; Pinna, Keri L M; Hanson, Sheila K

    2016-01-01

    Background Some evidence suggests parents are drawn to media-based interventions over face-to-face interventions, but little is known about the factors associated with parents’ use of Internet-based or Internet-enhanced programs, especially among military families. Research is needed to understand characteristics of parents who may be most likely to use online components or attend face-to-face meetings in order to ensure maximum engagement. Objective In this study, we examined characteristics that predict various patterns of Internet use and face-to-face attendance in a parenting program designed for military families. Methods An ecological framework guided analysis of differences in patterns of Internet-based use and face-to-face attendance by parents’ demographic characteristics (gender, education, employment, and child age), incentives offered, and number of months the parent was deployed. We reported differences in the total number of online components completed over the 14 modules, total number of face-to-face sessions attended, and the use of different types of online components accessed (videos, downloadable handouts, mindfulness exercises, knowledge checks, and downloadable summaries). Then, we computed multinomial logistic regression accounting for nestedness (parents within families) to examine associations between demographic, programmatic, and military-related characteristics and patterns of engagement (use of online components and attendance at face-to-face sessions). Results Just over half (52.2%, 193/370) of the participants used the online components at least once, and the majority of participants (73.2%, 271/370) attended at least 1 face-to-face session. An examination of different patterns of participation revealed that compared with those who participated primarily in face-to-face sessions, parents who participated online but had little face-to-face participation were more likely to have received incentives than those who did not (95% CI 1

  3. Selecting alternative industries for Chinese resource cities based on intra- and inter-regional comparative advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a method for choosing alternative industries for resource-based cities that are confronted with resource depletion and have to restructure their industries for future development. The method integrates intra- and inter-regional comparative advantages in a two-dimensional matrix model. We applied this method in an empirical study of Jiaozuo city, China and found that the size of the pool of alternative industries depends on the strictness of the selection criteria. - Highlights: ► Alternative industries should have intraregional and interregional comparative advantages. ► An indicator system is built to evaluate intraregional comparative advantage. ► A comparative advantage matrix is set up to select alternative industries

  4. An Oracle-based Data Management Method for Large Database in CyberCity GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Qing; HUANG Duo; YAO Xuefeng; ZHANG Yeting

    2003-01-01

    An Oracle8i-based ap-proach is proposed to manage the inte-grated databases of large CyberCity.This approach consists of threeis designed to accelerate spatial retrieving, in which the bounding boxes oflocal regions have no intersection andall leaf nodes of the R+-tree (geome-try records ) have no repetition;rithms are adopted to compress thedigital elevation models, 3D vectormodels and images, such as LZ77lossless compression algorithm forcompression of vector data and JPEGcompression algorithms for texture im-Oracle8i database, a CyberCity GISspatial database engine (SDE) is designed. On the basis of this SDE pro-totype a case study is done.

  5. Living City, a Collaborative Browser-based Massively Multiplayer Online Game

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Emilio; Pagano, Francesco; 10.4108/ICST.SIMUTOOLS2010.8730

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the design and implementation of our Browser-based Massively Multiplayer Online Game, Living City, a simulation game fully developed at the University of Messina. Living City is a persistent and real-time digital world, running in the Web browser environment and accessible from users without any client-side installation. Today Massively Multiplayer Online Games attract the attention of Computer Scientists both for their architectural peculiarity and the close interconnection with the social network phenomenon. We will cover these two aspects paying particular attention to some aspects of the project: game balancing (e.g. algorithms behind time and money balancing); business logic (e.g., handling concurrency, cheating avoidance and availability) and, finally, social and psychological aspects involved in the collaboration of players, analyzing their activities and interconnections.

  6. Military Retention. A Comparative Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Sminchise

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals for human resources management structures and for armed forces leaders is to maintain all necessary personnel, both qualitatively and quantitatively for operational needs or for full required capabilities. The retention of military personnel is essential to keep morale and unit readiness and to reduce the costs for recruiting, training, replacement of manpower. Retention rates depend not only on money or other social measures. The goal for retention is to keep in use the most valuable resource that belongs to an organization: the human beings and their knowledge. The aim pf this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of retention measures in various countries based on Research and Technology Organisation report released in 2007 and, thus, provide more examples of retention measures as far as the Romanian military system is concerned.

  7. A new concept of wildland-urban interface based on city clustering algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevski, M.; Champendal, A.; Vega Orozco, C.; Tonini, M.; Conedera, M.

    2012-04-01

    Wildland-Urban-Interface (WUI) is a widely used term in the context of wild and forest fires to indicate areas where human infrastructures interact with wildland/forest areas. Many complex problems are associated to the WUI; but the most relevant ones are those related to forest fire hazard and management in dense populated areas where fire regime is dominated by anthropogenic-induced ignition fires. This coexistence enhances both anthropogenic-ignition sources and flammable fuels. Furthermore, the growing trend of the WUI and global change effects may even worsening the situation in the near future. Therefore, many studies are dedicated to the WUI problem, focusing on refinement of its definition, development of mapping methods, implementation of measures into specific fire management plans and the validation of the proposed approaches. The present study introduces a new concept of WUI based on city clustering algorithm (CCA) introduced in Rosenfeld et al., 2008. CCA was proposed as an automatic tool for studying the definition of cities and their distribution. The algorithm uses demographic data - either on a regular or non-regular grid in space - where a city (urban zone) is detected as a cluster of connected populated cells with maximal size. In the present study the CCA is proposed as a tool to develop a new concept of population dynamic analysis crucial to define and to localise WUI. The real case study is based on demographic/census data - organised in a regular grid with a resolution of 100 m and the forest fire ignition points database from canton Ticino, Switzerland. By changing spatial scales of demographic cells the relationships between urban zones (demographic clusters) and forest fire events were statistically analyzed. Corresponding scaling laws were used to understand the interaction between urban zones and forest fires. The first results are good and indicate that the method can be applied to define WUI in an innovative way. Keywords: forest fires

  8. Baise City of Guangxi Province Plans to Build a Key Asian Aluminium Production Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Baise City of Guangxi Province is launching a project to build the aluminium industry into a pillar industry worth 100 billion yuan,and make Baise a key aluminium production base in China and Asia at large,said Ma Biao, Chairman of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in a conference that concludes the per- formance of the government in the first half of the year.Guangxi,abundant in bauxite,is one of the four bauxite bases in China.Its potential reserve of bauxite tops 1 billion tons,mainly in

  9. Preventing heat injury: military versus civilian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J K

    1997-01-01

    Guidelines for preventing heat injury (HI) among military personnel are not directly applicable to civilian personnel. Military guidelines call for relatively large volumes of prophylactic water consumption and physical activity limitations depending on the wet bulb globe temperature. However, in civilian populations, there is an increased prevalence of HI risk factors: older age, medication use, especially anticholinergic and psychotropic medications, obesity, previous HI, and skin disorders. Although dehydration is a major contributor to HI in military situations, it is unlikely in classical heat stroke among civilians. Civilian guidelines are based on the heat index. Activity levels must be restricted more for civilians, and prophylactic water consumption (beyond replacing loss from sweat) is not necessary. This review discusses the pathophysiology of heat injury, contrasts the military and civilian approach to prevention of HI, and describes appropriate field intervention for HI. PMID:9002705

  10. 20 CFR 404.111 - When we consider a person fully insured based on World War II active military or naval service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on World War II active military or naval service. 404.111 Section 404.111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... States during World War II; (b) The person died within three years after separation from service and... War II active military or naval service. We consider that a person, who was not otherwise...

  11. Analysis of place distribution of urban services, based on people demanding (case study: Estahban city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Bazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1- IntroductionIn recent decades as the population in cities of country, which had been influenced by natural population growth of cities and migration of people in towns and rural to middle cities and metro polices, increases city spaces and infrastructures, which are needed have not been equipped.Urban services are the means for managing urban development and a prominent cause in continuing city life, which without it the life of citizens has been stopped. Its optimal and systematic distribution consistent with the people’s demands in the process of urban planning is very important.Urban services have been considered as one of clear indicators of civilization from many years ago.Today as the civilization increases, urban services and their qualities have been regarded by experts, planners and citizens, so urban services have been followed by urbanization development.2- Methodology In this study through library studies, referring to the relevant agencies, field observation and analysis and evaluation the questionnaire given to residents of various neighborhoods in Estahban city with SPSS were presented.To evaluate the proportion of urban services and people demand six neighborhoods were chosen among 15 neighborhoods of Estahban. (Two neighborhoods of each region. These neighborhoods were chosen based on place- cluster sampling and also economic-social conditions of them and detailed plan of Estahban. In this research a wealthy neighborhood and poor neighborhood were chosen in each region. By using general Cochran formula we obtained 300 sample size . So 300 questionnaires had been distributed among the residents.3- DiscussionAfter 1350, Estahban city faces numerous problems in supplying urban services, because of population growth, physical development in addition to injustice distribution of urban services. These problems have also been strengthened by people who live in more deprived parts of the township to use the urban

  12. Study on Resources-Based Spatial Distribution of Cities Based on City Competitiveness%基于城市竞争力的资源型城市空间布局研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭东; 张福浩; 张丽萍

    2012-01-01

    The paper summarizes the existing definition principle of resource -based cities. Based on these existing principles, the author conducts definition and classification of resource - based cities in China. The 51 above prefecture level resources - based cities have been defined and the space distribution law of these cities have been analyzed in terms of geography space and competitiveness of cities. Through the study, it is found that resource — based cities in China are mostly located in the Midwest and the regions near the North. Competitiveness is a comprehensive reflection of the city. Those cities which are ranked forward have several characteristics in common in terms of resource type and the conditions of geography location. We can effectively reduce the negative impact caused by resources on urban development by improving the local geographical location to some extent.%在总结已有的界定原则基础上,对中国资源型城市进行了界定和划分,确定了51个地级市及以上资源型城市,并从地理空间和城市竞争力的角度分析了这些城市的在空间位置上的分布规律.研究发现,我国资源型城市大多分布在中西部和偏北地区,而城市竞争力排名靠前的城市,无论在资源类型还是地理区位条件上都有着很明显的共性.可见地理区位因素隐藏在资源禀赋背后,对城市发展有着显著的影响.

  13. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  14. Building and evaluating sensor-based Citizens' Observatories for improving quality of life in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Lahoz, William; Schneider, Philipp; Høiskar, Britt Ann; Grossberndt, Sonja; Naderer, Clemens; Robinson, Johanna; Kocman, David; Horvat, Milena; Bartonova, Alena

    2014-05-01

    Urban air quality, the environmental quality of public spaces and indoor areas such as schools, are areas of great concern to citizens and policymakers. However, access to information addressing these areas is not always available in a user-friendly manner. In particular, the quality and quantity of this information is not consistent across these areas, and does not reflect differences in needs among users. The EU-funded CITI-SENSE project will build on the concept of the Citizens' Observatories to empower citizens to contribute to and participate in environmental governance, and enable them to support and influence decision making by policymakers. To achieve this goal, CITI-SENSE will develop, test, demonstrate and validate a community-based environmental monitoring and information system using low-cost sensors and Earth Observation applications. Key to achieving this goal is the chain "sensors-platforms-products-users" linking providers of technology to users: (i) technologies for distributed monitoring (sensors); (ii) information and communication technologies (platform); (iii) information products and services (products); (iv) and citizen involvement in both monitoring and societal decisions (users). The CITI-SENSE observatories cover three empowerment initiatives: urban air quality; public spaces; and school indoor quality. The empowerment initiatives are being performed at nine locations across Europe. Each location has adapted the generic case study to their local circumstances and has contacted the urban stakeholders needed to run the study. The empowerment initiatives are divided into two phases: a first phase (Pilot Study), and a second phase (Full Implementation). The main goal of the Pilot Study is to test and evaluate the chain "sensors-platform-products-users". To assess the results of the empowerment initiatives, key performance indicators (KPIs) are being developed; these include questionnaires for users. The KPIs will be used to design the full

  15. DEFENCE, DEMOCRACY AND SOUTH AFRICA’S CIVIL-MILITARY GAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindy Heinecken

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Civil-military relations theory suggests that a functional and effective military requires a unique culture, separate from its parent society. This is based on the assumption that a “gap” between the military and society is inevitable as the military’s function, the lawful application of military force in accordance with government direction, is fundamentally different from civilian business. Those interested in civil-military relations are essentially concerned with determining when the “gap” between the military and parent society becomes dysfunctional in terms of civil-control over the military and/or the military’s ability to execute its mandate. The correct balance needs to be obtained to ensure that the military remains strong enough to defend the state (protected by the military and subservient enough not to threaten the state (protected from the military.

  16. [Cancer incidence in the military: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peragallo, Mario Stefano; Urbano, Francesco; Sarnicola, Giuseppe; Lista, Florigio; Vecchione, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    An abnormally elevated rate of Hodgkin's lymphoma was reported in 2001 among Italian soldiers in Bosnia and Kosovo since 1995: a surveillance system was therefore set up for the military community. Preliminary results for a longer period (1996-2007) have shown incidence rates lower than expected for all malignancies. No significant difference was registered between observed and expected cases of Hodkin's lymphoma: the excess of reported cases for this malignancy in 2001-2002 was probably due to a peak occurred in 2000 among the whole military; it is therefore unrelated to deployment in the Balkans, and probably represents a chance event. Moreover, a significant excess of thyroid cancer was reported among the whole military.The estimated number of incident cases, including those missed by the surveillance system, was not significantly higher than expected for all cancers; conversely, the estimated incidence rate of thyroid cancer was significantly increased; this excess, however, is probably due to a selection bias.These data concerning cancer surveillance in the Italian military are consistent with lacking evidence of an increased cancer incidence among troops of other countries deployed in the areas of Iraq, Bosnia, and Kosovo, where armour penetrating depleted uranium shells have been used. However, a comprehensive assessment of cancer morbidity in the military requires a revision of the privacy regulations, in order to link individual records of military personnel and data bases of the National Health Service. PMID:22166781

  17. Designed microtremor array based actual measurement and analysis of strong ground motion at Palu city, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we investigated the strong ground motion characteristics under Palu City, Indonesia. The shear wave velocity structures evaluated by eight microtremors measurement are the most applicable to determine the thickness of sediments and average shear wave velocity with Vs ≤ 300 m/s. Based on subsurface underground structure models identified, earthquake ground motion was estimated in the future Palu-Koro earthquake by using statistical green’s function method. The seismic microzonation parameters were carried out by considering several significant controlling factors on ground response at January 23, 2005 earthquake

  18. Designed microtremor array based actual measurement and analysis of strong ground motion at Palu city, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thein, Pyi Soe, E-mail: pyisoethein@yahoo.com [Geology Department, Yangon University (Myanmar); Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Wilopo, Wahyu; Setianto, Agung [Geological Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia); Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri [Physics Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia); Kiyono, Junji; Putra, Rusnardi Rahmat [Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2015-04-24

    In this study, we investigated the strong ground motion characteristics under Palu City, Indonesia. The shear wave velocity structures evaluated by eight microtremors measurement are the most applicable to determine the thickness of sediments and average shear wave velocity with Vs ≤ 300 m/s. Based on subsurface underground structure models identified, earthquake ground motion was estimated in the future Palu-Koro earthquake by using statistical green’s function method. The seismic microzonation parameters were carried out by considering several significant controlling factors on ground response at January 23, 2005 earthquake.

  19. Research on Military Environmental Security’s Strategy Based on the WSR Methodology%基于WSR方法论的军事环境安全策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永利; 方振东

    2013-01-01

    In order to overcome a series of environmental security problems in the progress of military development under new situation,and strengthen the military environmental management continuously,this paper expands the concept of military environ⁃mental security and analyzes its connotation,and based on which builds a three⁃dimensional analysis model for military environmen⁃tal security in terms of the WSR methodology. Combination with the analysis of wuli(i.e. material mechanism),shili(i.e. thing prin⁃ciple)and renli(i.e. humanity logic)of the model,this paper puts forward a set of interrelated strategies for ensuring military envi⁃ronmental security,gives the primary analysis and provides an important reference to further research and develop strategic plan⁃ning for military environmental security.%  为了克服新形势下军事发展面临的一系列环境安全问题,不断加强军事环境管理工作,拓展并解析了军事环境安全的概念,建立了基于WSR方法论的军事环境安全三维分析模型。结合模型的“物理”、“事理”、“人理”分析,提出了一套相互关联的军事环境安全策略,为进一步深入研究并制定军事环境安全战略规划提供了重要参考。

  20. Web数据挖掘在军事训练信息资源管理中的应用%The application of Web-based data mining technology in military information resource management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红光; 王田辉

    2012-01-01

    随着军队院校和军事训练单位信息化建设的快速发展,军事训练信息资源日益丰富,如何把这些分属于不同系统的信息资源加以整合、合理使用、安全存储,成为军队院校信息化建设过程中亟待解决的问题,对军事训练信息资源数据挖掘存在的主要问题进行了分析,在此基础上给出了军事训练信息资源Web数据挖掘模型的组成,结合信息资源管理的实践,论述了基于Web数据挖掘在军事训练信息资源管理中的应用。%With the rapid development of information construction in military academies, the mili- tary training network information resource is increasingly rich. The integration of these mass da- ta, the use of the data analysis results and their storage security can provide decision supports for further military academy information construction, which is the most important task to conduct military education and technical workers' training in the military academy. The paper discusses the data mining technology and the Web--based data mining applications in the military training and the military information resource management by constructing a data mining model of the mil- itary training information resources in combination with the practices in information resources management.

  1. Land Eco-sensitivity Assessment of Ecological Cities Based on LUCC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-xu; LI Chun-yue; REN Zhi-yuan; HE Yan-fen

    2012-01-01

    Land eco-sensitivity assessment is an important method in analyzing regional eco-environmental safety. This article is based on the studies of land use and coverage change (LUCC) with the interpretation result from Landsat images. It analyzes the land use degree of Shangluo City and gives the land eco-sensitivity classification, which includes soil and water conservation, disaster prevention and eco-environmental protection. Then an improved classification model is taken through the gray model and the variation coefficient. By comparing sensitivity in each level of land use degree change, the ecological recovery mode in study area is analyzed. The results show: the land use degree in Shangluo City has been declining from 1990 to 2009, with large area converted form cropland to forest, environment becomes better; the sensitivities of zoning based on the index level shows the medium sensitive area was largest. According to the variation coefficient gives the more reasonable proportion, the zoning was improved based on uncertainties. Because of the least amount of land use degradation area was taken in high sensitive region, it is considered that the ecological construction model in study area was still worth discussing. The healthy ecological development mode is proposed that low sensitive region should be protected while high sensitive region should receive high attention, so as to further improve the regional ecological security and improve the living environment efficiently.

  2. Kyai and Japanese Military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Yasuko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the second world war in Southeast Asia, the Japanese army tried to gain the support and cooperation of the people it occupies. In this case the policy becomes very important political Islam in Indonesia, and one prominent characteristic of Japanese politics is concerned with the role of Islamic clerics. But when he landed in Indonesia, the Japanese military has not formulated political Islam is to be implemented. Then immediately stated that the Japanese military government respect the religious population.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v4i3.772

  3. Autonomous military robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief reveals the latest techniques in computer vision and machine learning on robots that are designed as accurate and efficient military snipers. Militaries around the world are investigating this technology to simplify the time, cost and safety measures necessary for training human snipers. These robots are developed by combining crucial aspects of computer science research areas including image processing, robotic kinematics and learning algorithms. The authors explain how a new humanoid robot, the iCub, uses high-speed cameras and computer vision algorithms to track the objec

  4. Use of Ubiquitous Technologies in Military Logistic System in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, P.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.

    2013-09-01

    This study is about integration and evaluation of RFID and ubiquitous technologies in military logistic system management. Firstly, supply chain management and the necessity of a revolution in logistic systems especially in military area, are explained. Secondly RFID and ubiquitous technologies and the advantages of their use in supply chain management are introduced. Lastly a system based on these technologies for controlling and increasing the speed and accuracy in military logistic system in Iran with its unique properties, is presented. The system is based on full control of military logistics (supplies) from the time of deployment to replenishment using sensor network, ubiquitous and RFID technologies.

  5. USE OF UBIQUITOUS TECHNOLOGIES IN MILITARY LOGISTIC SYSTEM IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jafari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is about integration and evaluation of RFID and ubiquitous technologies in military logistic system management. Firstly, supply chain management and the necessity of a revolution in logistic systems especially in military area, are explained. Secondly RFID and ubiquitous technologies and the advantages of their use in supply chain management are introduced. Lastly a system based on these technologies for controlling and increasing the speed and accuracy in military logistic system in Iran with its unique properties, is presented. The system is based on full control of military logistics (supplies from the time of deployment to replenishment using sensor network, ubiquitous and RFID technologies.

  6. Transferring Multi-Scale Approaches from 3d City Modeling to Ifc-Based Tunnel Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrmann, A.; Kolbe, T. H.; Donaubauer, A.; Steuer, H.; Jubierre, J. R.

    2013-09-01

    A multi-scale representation of the built environment is required to provide information with the adequate level of detail (LoD) for different use cases and objectives. This applies not only to the visualization of city and building models, but in particular to their use in the context of planning and analysis tasks. While in the field of Geographic Information Systems, the handling of multi-scale representations is well established and understood, no formal approaches for incorporating multi-scale methods exist in the field of Building Information Modeling (BIM) so far. However, these concepts are much needed to better support highly dynamic planning processes that make use of very rough information about the facility under design in the early stages and provide increasingly detailed and fine-grained information in later stages. To meet these demands, this paper presents a comprehensive concept for incorporating multi-scale representations with infrastructural building information models, with a particular focus on the representation of shield tunnels. Based on a detailed analysis of the data modeling methods used in CityGML for capturing multiscale representations and the requirements present in the context of infrastructure planning projects, we discuss potential extensions to the BIM data model Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). Particular emphasis is put on providing means for preserving the consistency of the representation across the different Levels-of-Detail (LoD). To this end we make use of a procedural geometry description which makes it possible to define explicit dependencies between geometric entities on different LoDs. The modification of an object on a coarse level consequently results in an automated update of all dependent objects on the finer levels. Finally we discuss the transformation of the IFC-based multi-scale tunnel model into a CityGML compliant tunnel representation.

  7. Urban megaprojects-based approach in urban planning: from isolated objects to shaping the city:The case of Dubai

    OpenAIRE

    Aoun, Oula

    2016-01-01

    Urban megaprojects are at the core of cities’ re-imaging and marketing. As large-scale development projects, they are considered as a globalization product, marked by a search for spectacle and visibility. In Dubai, UMPs have constituted in recent years the main tool in drawing a city image that aims to compete with the world global cities. Through UMPs, an economy based on spectacle and fascination is being deployed, within a complex system of governance that encompasses family ties, busines...

  8. Web-based destination marketing: Do official city culture and tourism websites’ in Turkey consider international guidelines?

    OpenAIRE

    Ali YAYLI; Bayram, Murat

    2010-01-01

    The Internet plays a significant role in attracting visitors and facilitating their trip planning and reservations. Therefore, it is essential for city tourism websites to evaluate and improve website performance in order to keep and increase their online presence and competitiveness in the marketplace. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the official websites of City Culture and Tourism Directorates (CCTD) in Turkey based on the facilities and services offered by the websites. In order ...

  9. “Ranking-based Ties” Social Networks. An illustration based on a system of Fashion Capital Cities in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodolfo Hernández-Carrión

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims to apply a non-conventional Social Network Analysis to a network generated from an initial sorting of data with mere order. The aim is to test whether and how one relationship set "conveniently" generated by the ranking is able to provide a coherent system of interactions with possible practical and theoretical utility. We consider a system of city distributions where we focus on “Ranking-Based Ties” social networks, considering a system of "objects" of the same class that would be able to interact. The objects in question are ordered according to their "performance" in a particular ranking. According to a survey developed by Global Language Monitor, there is a ranked number for every capital that could be considered important among the world’s most fashionable cities. Using the rank of scoring average we construct a fashion cities network in order to analyze the dynamics and the topology of the system following a gradual process of clustering or densification of relationships consistent with key network statistics analysis.

  10. Environmental Assessment of Zanjan city from the perspective of sustainable development based on SWOT technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rabieifar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionEnvironmental problems are one of the most fundamental problems in modern city and the result of conflict and confrontation with the natural environment. Recently, cities are confronted with numerous environmental problems and the incidence of environmental pollution, resource degradation and loss of natural spaces. Zanjan as one of the most important cities in the North West has many environmental issues such as incomplete sewage disposal system, physical development of the City and the degradation and loss of agricultural lands and gardens and etc. The dominant approaches in current attempt are qualitative and quantitative and the type of research is applied. The research methodology is descriptive analysis. In this article, the environmental structure of Zanjan is evaluated and analyzed using the SWOT technique in four stages. And in the end to resolve the existing problems, strategies are prioritized and suggested based on QSPM matrix.2- Theoretical basesTheory of sustainable urban development is the result of discussions of environmental advocates regarding environmental issues especially the urban environment which were presented following the concept of sustainable development to protect environmental resources.- General environmental considerations in planning for sustainable urban development are as following:- Linear flow of material (data input to the urban system should be as close as possible to a cyclic process (recycling materials. - Serious and careful study and assessment of environmental impact of urban development plans. - Defining thresholds and ecological capacity of the environment.- Reduction of air pollution, noise, solid waste and wastewater. Maintaining healthy urban environment3– DiscussionAnalysis and evaluation of environmental features of Zanjan have been carried out based on the quality and quantity of their techniques using SWOT strategic planning in the context of internal

  11. Syria’s Military Capabilities and Options for Military Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradhan-Blach, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This background paper does not endorse any military action towards Syria. The document does not reflect or express any official Danish policy or a position of the University of Copenhagen or the Centre for Military Studies. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe military capabilities and...

  12. Urbanity as military loot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Bobić

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available While discussing on a series of examples concerning urbanity, the author presents the present reality of Eastern Europe cities (countries and a parallel to the events in the Balkans. The reasons for civilisational unsuccess can be found in the devaluation of constant values and the incomprehensible multilateral linking if particular civilisational elements or deliberate destruction of negatively annotated ways of living. He continues with questions concerning: the relationship between a town and its surroundings, the iconization of inner cities or the character of particular city areas, the changing urban elite following present social changes, especially in culture and the culture of city life.

  13. Integrating ALS, aerial prospection and ground-based survey into the study of visible and hidden components of post-medieval military open landscapes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gojda, Martin

    Amersfoort : Aerial Archaeology Research Group, 2013. s. 21. ISBN N. [The past and present from above. 26.09.2013-28.09.2013, Amersfoort] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : aerial prospection * military installations Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  14. Ecological Network Construction Based on Minimum Cumulative Resistance for the City of Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Dong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With economic growth and the improvement of the urbanization level, human activities have constantly interfered with landscape patterns, resulting in serious threats to regional ecological security. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the evolution and optimization of the landscape patterns. Based on three TM images from 1990, 2000, and 2010, and selected landscape pattern indexes, the changes in the landscape pattern of Nanjing in the past twenty years were studied based on landscape ecology theory using Remote Sensing (RS and a Geographical Information System (GIS. The ecological network was built on the basis of extracted ecological nodes and the minimum cumulative resistance. The results show that changes in the landscape pattern of the city of Nanjing were notable. Class-level indexes indicate that the farmland landscape area decreased and the degree of patch fragmentation increased. The construction land area increased, and it tended to show dispersed distribution. The proportion of forest land increased and the shape of patches became more complex. The proportion of water firstly showed a decrease, followed by an increase, and the shape of the water became more regular. Landscape-level indexes indicate that biological diversity and the degree of fragmentation increased. Spatial heterogeneity of the natural landscape increased, and the patch shape of each landscape type developed similarly. The results also call for stepping-stones to enhance the connectivity and optimization of the ecological network, which will help improve ecological services and improve the landscape pattern of the city.

  15. Sustainable Use of Agricultural Land in Zhoukou City Based on Emergy Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian; WEN; Shuijuan; SUN; Qingsong; LI; Huiping; FAN

    2013-01-01

    Taking Zhoukou City in Henan Province as an example,we select the statistics during the period 2000-2009,and use emergy analysis method to research the sustainable use of agricultural land in Zhoukou City. The study results show that: ( i) The agricultural input is mainly based on resources purchase input,which accounts for more than 90% of total emergy input; the industrial energy input is to a large extent dependent on the input of chemical fertilizer and pesticide; precipitation significantly affects the input of renewable environmental resources. ( ii) The agricultural output is mainly based on farming and animal husbandry,with the proportion reaching 99% ; the proportion of fishery and forestry is too low; the agricultural output structure is relatively simple. ( iii) The use of agricultural land has achieved initial success in terms of economic sustainability,but in terms of ecological sustainability and social sustainability,it is at a low level; the sustainable use index shows the great vitality and development potential of agricultural system; unsustainability is reflected in considerable input of chemical fertilizer and pesticide,and simple agricultural output structure.

  16. Substance Abuse in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DrugFacts » Substance Abuse in the Military DrugFacts: Substance Abuse in the Military Email Facebook Twitter Revised March ... alcohol and tobacco use, and especially prescription drug abuse, are much more prevalent and are on the ...

  17. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  18. Resilience among Military Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…

  19. 面向软件Agent的“数字城市”组织模型研究%Research on Building Models of "Digital City" Based on Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王映辉; 周明全; 耿国华

    2001-01-01

    According to the distribution of "digital city",discuss it's data organization model. Classify the basic software-Agent of "digital city" for three kinds: data-Agent, medi-Agent and function-Agent.Describe inner structure of these three Agent, propose a organization model of "digital city" based on these three Agent, and give description of this model.

  20. Evaluation of the utility and energy monitoring and control system installed at the US Army, Europe, 409th Base Support Battalion, Military Community at Grafenwoehr, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broders, M.A.; Ruppel, F.R.

    1993-05-01

    Under the provisions of Interagency Agreement DOE 1938-B090-A1 between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Europe (USAREUR), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., is providing technical assistance to USAREUR in the areas of computer science, information engineering, energy studies, and engineering and systems development. One of the initial projects authorized under this interagency agreement is the evaluation of utility and energy monitoring and control systems (UEMCSs) installed at selected US Army installations in Europe. This report is an evaluation of the overall energy-conservation effectiveness and use of the UEMCS at the 409th Base Support Battalion located in Grafenwoehr, Germany. The 409th Base Support Battalion is a large USAREUR military training facility that comprises a large training area, leased housing, the main post area, and the camp areas that include Camps Aachen, Algier, Normandy, Cheb, and Kasserine. All of these facilities are consumers of electrical and thermal energy. However, only buildings and facilities in the main post area and Camps Aachen, Algier, and Normandy are under the control of the UEMCS. The focus of this evaluation report is on these specific areas. Recommendations to further increase energy and cost savings and to improve operation of the UEMCS are proposed.

  1. Ripple Effect of Housing Prices among Chinese Deputy Provincial Cities Based on an Alternative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper applies a two-stage procedure of non-parametric testing and business cycle dating techniques to examine the ripple effect of housing prices among Chinese cities since 2006. Empirical analysis indicates that housing prices fluctuations among nineteen Chinese cities do have ripple effect. We divide the cities into three layers: Shenzhen and Guangzhou are in the first layer; Beijing, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Xiamen are in the second; and other cities are in the third one. The dire...

  2. [Study on strategies of pollution prevention in coastal city of Zhejiang Province based on scenario analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jin-Ping; Chen, Lü-Jun; Du, Peng-Fei; Qian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Scenario analysis was used to study the environmental burden in a coastal city of Zhejiang province under different patterns of economic development. The aim of this research is to propose advices on decision making by illustrating how to make emissions reduced by transforming the pattern of economic development in a developed coastal area, which had acquired the level of 70 000 yuan GDP per cap. At first, 18 heavy pollution industries were screened out, by referencing total emissions of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia-nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide. Then, a model of scenario analysis and the back-up calculation program were designed to study the sustainable development of the heavy pollution industries. With 2008 and 2015 as the reference year and the target year respectively, emissions of four pollutants mentioned above in the 18 heavy pollution industries in the city were analyzed under six scenarios. The total emissions of 4 pollutants should be reduced to an expectant degree, which is set as the constraint prerequisite of the scenario analysis. At last, some suggestions for decision-making are put forward, which include maintaining a moderate increase rate of GDP around 7%, strengthening the adjustment of economic structure, controlling the increasing rate of industrial added value of the industries with heavy pollution, optimizing the structure of industries with heavy pollution, decreasing the intensity of waste emission by implementing cleaner production to reduce emission produce at the source, and strengthening regulations on the operation of waste treatment plants to further promote the efficiency of waste treatment. Only by implementing such measures mentioned above, can the total emissions of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia-nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide of the 18 industries with heavy pollution in the city be reduced by a 10%, 10%, 5%, and 15% respectively based on the reference year. PMID:23487960

  3. Democratic Control of Military Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Smail Ostrakovic

    2011-01-01

    The transition requirement for post communism countries, especially the part that is about military forces is to establish those civil-military relation that will have prepared projects for awareness evolving of society and mili­tary about necessity of democratic control over military sector of country through development of many different communication forms and shapes. Before everything, it means the entire freedom and independence of media at access to military forces as the topic and subj...

  4. The Political-Military Matrimony : Integrated Strategic Leadership and Civil-Military Relations in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In 2003 the Norwegian government introduced Integrated Strategic Leadership (ISL). The Chief of Defence and his military/strategic functions is now integrated within the Ministry of Defence in an attempt to strengthen the Ministry’s collective abilities in strategic planning, leadership and control of the Norwegian armed forces. ISL has since the beginning been widely discussed, and the most prominent critiques are based on a concern that this ‘political-military matrimony’ challenge the Chie...

  5. MALE CONSTRUCTIONS AND RESISTANCE TO WOMEN IN THE MILITARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyameka Mankayi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Given that a masculinised institution like the military presents anexaggerated picture of hegemonic masculinities, and particularly emphasisingphysical fitness as one of the multiple ways in achieving masculinity, this paperprovides an overview of how men in the military construct women’s role in themilitary. This information is useful in understanding the gender power relations thatmake it difficult for most women in the military. The paper is based on a qualitativestudy of a diverse group of 24-33 year old male soldiers. Participants’ storiesreflected how notions of the strong body, particularly in the military context, whichvalues toughness, contributes to masculinity. They further see women’s expressionof sexuality and their participation in command or combat roles as having direconsequences in terms of corrupting or weakening military deployment. This paperconcludes that tackling traditional forms of male sexuality as they get played out inthe military context involves the examination of dominant constructions ofmasculinity, and in particular discourses prescribing traditional sexual practices.

  6. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P.;

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of drug consumption biomarkers in wastewater can provide objective information on community drug use patterns and trends. This study presents the measurement of alcohol consumption in 20 cities across 11 countries through the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), and...... consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE....... The average per capita consumption in 20 cities ranged between 6.4 and 44.3. L/day/1000 inhabitants. An increase in alcohol consumption during the weekend occurred in all cities, however the level of this increase was found to differ. In contrast to conventional data (sales statistics and interviews...

  7. 'Ranking-based Ties' Social Networks : an illustration based on a system of Fashion Capital Cities in the world.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Our paper aims to apply a non-conventional Social Network Analysis to a network generated from an initial sorting of data with mere order. The aim is to test whether and how one relationship set 'conveniently' generated by the ranking is able to provide a coherent system of interactions with possible practical and theoretical utility. We consider a system of city distributions where we focus on ¿Ranking-Based Ties¿ social networks, considering a system of 'objects' of the same class that woul...

  8. The Closure of the Russian Military Base at Akhalkalaki: Challenges for the Local Energy Elite, the Informal Economy and Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Øverland

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the base of the Russian army’s 62nd Division at Akhalkalaki, Georgia was shut down. After outlining the historical role of the base in Russian–Armenian–Turkish relations, this article examines how it was the linchpin of informal economies and power relations among the Javakheti Armenians. Vital to these relations was the control of the disproportionately large number of petrol stations in Akhalkalaki by key economic groups. The article then offers several reasons why, in light of the informal socio-economic structures and interests of local power brokers, one might have expected the closure of the base to result in upheaval among the Javakheti Armenians. Finally, the paper briefly considers Georgian and Western efforts to ameliorate the socio-economic situation, before concluding with reasons for the absence of major unrest following closure of the Akhalkalaki base.

  9. Measuring self-rated social health of Iranians: a population based survey in three cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Background and objectives: Social health as third dimension of health, along with physical and mental health, has drawn more attention in recent years among policy makers and health system managers. No other study, to our knowledge, has documented measuring individual-level social health in Iran. In response to this need, our study tends to assess Iranians self-rated social health through conducting a survey in 3 cities of Iran. Methods: We conducted a survey using cross sectional method in three cities of Iran included people more than 18 years old. We use a random sample size of 800 people. The scale provides a total score of social health and three sub-scores. Total score was calculated by summing all 33 items, so the range was between 33 to 165, considering that higher score indicating better social health. Psychometric parameters of scale were acceptable. To interpret scores, respondents were categorized into five ordered groups as quintiles for amount of social health. To compare social health scores in different demographic groups multiple linear regression was employed to interpret association between demographic variables and social health score. Results: From a pool of 800 persons, 794 (99% agreed to participate and filled out the questionnaire completely.  The mean of self-rated social health score was 105.0 (95% confidence interval, 103.8 to 106.2. 50% of participants had medium level of social health. social health score was higher for those who live in Urmia as a small city in comparison with big cities- Tehran and Isfahan (P V< 0.001 and was lower for unemployed people (PV= 0.029. There was no association between social health score and other factors such as sex, age and educational level (PV>0.05 Conclusion:This study may be considered as the first step in evidence-based policy-making in the field of social health in Iran. Certainly, it is necessary to conduct more studies to measure social health and its

  10. Neuromuscular training with injury prevention counselling to decrease the risk of acute musculoskeletal injury in young men during military service: a population-based, randomised study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suni Jaana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapidly increasing number of activity-induced musculoskeletal injuries among adolescents and young adults is currently a true public health burden. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a neuromuscular training programme with injury prevention counselling is effective in preventing acute musculoskeletal injuries in young men during military service. Methods The trial design was a population-based, randomised study. Two successive cohorts of male conscripts in four companies of one brigade in the Finnish Defence Forces were first followed prospectively for one 6-month term to determine the baseline incidence of injury. After this period, two new successive cohorts in the same four companies were randomised into two groups and followed prospectively for 6 months. Military service is compulsory for about 90% of 19-year-old Finnish men annually, who comprised the cohort in this study. This randomised, controlled trial included 968 conscripts comprising 501 conscripts in the intervention group and 467 conscripts in the control group. A neuromuscular training programme was used to enhance conscripts' motor skills and body control, and an educational injury prevention programme was used to increase knowledge and awareness of acute musculoskeletal injuries. The main outcome measures were acute injuries of the lower and upper limbs. Results In the intervention groups, the risk for acute ankle injury decreased significantly compared to control groups (adjusted hazards ratio (HR = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (95% CI = 0.15 to 0.78, P = 0.011. This risk decline was observed in conscripts with low as well as moderate to high baseline fitness levels. In the latter group of conscripts, the risk of upper-extremity injuries also decreased significantly (adjusted HR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.99, P = 0.047. In addition, the intervention groups tended to have less time loss due to injuries (adjusted HR = 0.55, 95% CI 0

  11. A Cloud-Based Car Parking Middleware for IoT-Based Smart Cities: Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanlin Ji

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the generic concept of using cloud-based intelligent car parking services in smart cities as an important application of the Internet of Things (IoT paradigm. This type of services will become an integral part of a generic IoT operational platform for smart cities due to its pure business-oriented features. A high-level view of the proposed middleware is outlined and the corresponding operational platform is illustrated. To demonstrate the provision of car parking services, based on the proposed middleware, a cloud-based intelligent car parking system for use within a university campus is described along with details of its design, implementation, and operation. A number of software solutions, including Kafka/Storm/Hbase clusters, OSGi web applications with distributed NoSQL, a rule engine, and mobile applications, are proposed to provide ‘best’ car parking service experience to mobile users, following the Always Best Connected and best Served (ABC&S paradigm.

  12. A cloud-based car parking middleware for IoT-based smart cities: design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhanlin; Ganchev, Ivan; O'Droma, Máirtín; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Xueji

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the generic concept of using cloud-based intelligent car parking services in smart cities as an important application of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. This type of services will become an integral part of a generic IoT operational platform for smart cities due to its pure business-oriented features. A high-level view of the proposed middleware is outlined and the corresponding operational platform is illustrated. To demonstrate the provision of car parking services, based on the proposed middleware, a cloud-based intelligent car parking system for use within a university campus is described along with details of its design, implementation, and operation. A number of software solutions, including Kafka/Storm/Hbase clusters, OSGi web applications with distributed NoSQL, a rule engine, and mobile applications, are proposed to provide 'best' car parking service experience to mobile users, following the Always Best Connected and best Served (ABC&S) paradigm. PMID:25429416

  13. A Cloud-Based Car Parking Middleware for IoT-Based Smart Cities: Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhanlin; Ganchev, Ivan; O'Droma, Máirtín; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Xueji

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the generic concept of using cloud-based intelligent car parking services in smart cities as an important application of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. This type of services will become an integral part of a generic IoT operational platform for smart cities due to its pure business-oriented features. A high-level view of the proposed middleware is outlined and the corresponding operational platform is illustrated. To demonstrate the provision of car parking services, based on the proposed middleware, a cloud-based intelligent car parking system for use within a university campus is described along with details of its design, implementation, and operation. A number of software solutions, including Kafka/Storm/Hbase clusters, OSGi web applications with distributed NoSQL, a rule engine, and mobile applications, are proposed to provide ‘best’ car parking service experience to mobile users, following the Always Best Connected and best Served (ABC&S) paradigm. PMID:25429416

  14. Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Changes of Land Usein Xuzhou City Based on Remote Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhao-ling; DU Pei-jun; GUO Da-zhi

    2006-01-01

    Based on the satellite remote sensing TM/ETM images of Xuzhou city, basic data about land use of the city from 1994 to 2000 are obtained with the neural network classification module of PCI software, and the dynamic conversion matrix of land use is thus calculated. The areas of construction land and water body have increased by 1833.93hm2 and 804.87 hm2, respectively. On the contrary, the area of cropland has decreased by 3207.24 hm2. The area of cropland converted into construction land makes up 26.84%, and that converted into water body amounts for 8.17% of the total area of cropland in 1994. The variation index of land use degree and the dynamic degree index of land use computed are 1.38 and 57.81%, respectively, which demonstrate that land use in Xuzhou is in a development period and the changes are drastic. The frequency index and importance index of the form in which cropland converted into construction land are 29.91% and 68.93% respectively. The results indicate that the change is not only widespread in space but a major form of spatial change of land use in the area.

  15. A Computational Architecture Based on RFID Sensors for Traceability in Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Mora, Higinio; Gilart-Iglesias, Virgilio; Gil, David; Sirvent-Llamas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Information Technology and Communications (ICT) is presented as the main element in order to achieve more efficient and sustainable city resource management, while making sure that the needs of the citizens to improve their quality of life are satisfied. A key element will be the creation of new systems that allow the acquisition of context information, automatically and transparently, in order to provide it to decision support systems. In this paper, we present a novel distributed system for obtaining, representing and providing the flow and movement of people in densely populated geographical areas. In order to accomplish these tasks, we propose the design of a smart sensor network based on RFID communication technologies, reliability patterns and integration techniques. Contrary to other proposals, this system represents a comprehensive solution that permits the acquisition of user information in a transparent and reliable way in a non-controlled and heterogeneous environment. This knowledge will be useful in moving towards the design of smart cities in which decision support on transport strategies, business evaluation or initiatives in the tourism sector will be supported by real relevant information. As a final result, a case study will be presented which will allow the validation of the proposal. PMID:26067195

  16. A Computational Architecture Based on RFID Sensors for Traceability in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higinio Mora-Mora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Information Technology and Communications (ICT is presented as the main element in order to achieve more efficient and sustainable city resource management, while making sure that the needs of the citizens to improve their quality of life are satisfied. A key element will be the creation of new systems that allow the acquisition of context information, automatically and transparently, in order to provide it to decision support systems. In this paper, we present a novel distributed system for obtaining, representing and providing the flow and movement of people in densely populated geographical areas. In order to accomplish these tasks, we propose the design of a smart sensor network based on RFID communication technologies, reliability patterns and integration techniques. Contrary to other proposals, this system represents a comprehensive solution that permits the acquisition of user information in a transparent and reliable way in a non-controlled and heterogeneous environment. This knowledge will be useful in moving towards the design of smart cities in which decision support on transport strategies, business evaluation or initiatives in the tourism sector will be supported by real relevant information. As a final result, a case study will be presented which will allow the validation of the proposal.

  17. Economic opportunities from military remediation sites in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of base closures occurring nationwide has created an urgent need to develop new and innovative technologies for cleaning up toxic contamination. Traditional methods for characterizing and remediating contamination at military installations, and elsewhere, have not resulted in timely, efficient and cost-effective cleanups. Past industrial and waste management practices conducted at California bases have resulted in contamination of the soil and ground water by a variety of chemical contaminants. Cleaning solvents and fuel wastes are the most prevalent contamination found at military installations. However, other less common types of contamination may also be present in significant quantities at specific bases. Environmental contamination resulting from leaking underground fuel tanks is also prevalent at California military installations. Common fuels present at military bases include gasoline diesel, bunker fuel, and JP-4 and JP-5 jet fuels. The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) is actively involved in efforts to encourage the development of new environmental technologies, especially at closing military installations

  18. Mapping urban heat islands of arctic cities using combined data on field measurements and satellite images based on the example of the city of Apatity (Murmansk Oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, P. I.; Grishchenko, M. Y.; Varentsov, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of a study of the urban heat island (UHI) in the city of Apatity during winter that were obtained according to the data of field meteorological measurements and satellite images. Calculations of the surface layer temperature have been made based on the surface temperature data obtained from satellite images. The experimental data on air temperature were obtained as a result of expeditionary meteorological observations, and the experimental data on surface temperature were obtained based on the data of the space hyperspectral Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) system, channels 31 and 32 (10.78-11.28 and 11.77-12.27 micrometers, respectively). As a result of the analysis of temperature fields, an intensive heat island (up to 3.2°C) has been identified that was estimated based on the underlying surface temperature, and its mean intensity over the observation period significantly exceeds the representative data for European cities in winter. It has also been established that the air temperature calculated according to the MODIS data is systematically higher under winter conditions than the air temperature from direct measurement data.

  19. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Hernández, Félix; Lai, Foon Yin; Lopes, Alvaro; de Alda, Miren López; Mastroianni, Nicola; Munro, Kelly; O'Brien, Jake; Ort, Christoph; Plósz, Benedek G; Reid, Malcolm J; Yargeau, Viviane; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-09-15

    Quantitative measurement of drug consumption biomarkers in wastewater can provide objective information on community drug use patterns and trends. This study presents the measurement of alcohol consumption in 20 cities across 11 countries through the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), and reports the application of these data for the risk assessment of alcohol on a population scale using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Raw 24-h composite wastewater samples were collected over a one-week period from 20 cities following a common protocol. For each sample a specific and stable alcohol consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE. The average per capita consumption in 20 cities ranged between 6.4 and 44.3L/day/1000 inhabitants. An increase in alcohol consumption during the weekend occurred in all cities, however the level of this increase was found to differ. In contrast to conventional data (sales statistics and interviews), WBE revealed geographical differences in the level and pattern of actual alcohol consumption at an inter-city level. All the sampled cities were in the "high risk" category (MOE<10) and the average MOE for the whole population studied was 2.5. These results allowed direct comparisons of alcohol consumption levels, patterns and risks among the cities. This study shows that WBE can provide timely and complementary information on alcohol use and alcohol associated risks in terms of exposure at the community level. PMID:27188267

  20. Women in the military

    OpenAIRE

    Garb, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF) include a significant proportion of women (at least according to other NATO members and make up approximately 15 % of the total structure. Lately, the percentage is diminishing due to stricter standards. At the beginning, women could enter the SAF without any prior military knowledge. Today common training and education is provided for all- men and women. Gender issues are regulated by laws, but the legal regulation appeared rather late. In addition, many aspe...

  1. Military display performance parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  2. Military Interrogations: Best Practices and Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Semel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to address some of the gaps in knowledge about interrogations conducted by military interrogators and provide information about methods from their perspectives, based on their experiences.  Kassin et al.  (2007 conducted the first self-report survey of best interrogation practices and beliefs of law enforcement officers. This study followed that model, using a different population from which to obtain the sample: military interrogators.  Like Kassin’s study, this survey asked participants to address and self-report on a number of issues, some in common with law enforcement and others that apply specifically to military interrogations.  Participants were asked to estimate, rate and self-report on seven facets of their work. (Like the law enforcement study, the goal here was to obtain common practices, observations, and beliefs about interrogations directly from military interrogators.  Subsequent research can test the interrogation methods that the subjects of this study believe are the most effective and focus on practices and beliefs unique to the military context.  This study empirically supports, for the first time, the hypothesis that experienced interrogators favor rapport-building approaches over all other available techniques.

  3. Web Design Based on Integrated and Supervision Control System in City Rail Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojuan; Xing, Yu; Zheng, Hengchao

    This paper presents a method of setting up WEB System to Integrated Supervision Control System for the requirements of city Rail Transit. First, basic platform and software/hardware architecture of WEB System are discussed. Then the function module, data flow and communication mechanisms are described and a design based on technologies of SVG and Ajax is proposed and the WEB video release function and system security are described. This design makes it possible that important information of Integrated Supervision Control System can be browsed and queried in external Web pages. Watching Real-time images of all cameras in internal network of Rail Transit is possible, which is providing remote viewing and management functions for metro managers.

  4. Dengue transmission based on urban environmental gradients in different cities of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Bushra; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2015-03-01

    This study focuses on the dengue transmission in different regions of Pakistan. For this purpose, the data of dengue cases for 2009-2012 from four different cities (Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore, and Karachi) of the country is collected, evaluated, and compiled. To identify the reasons and regions of higher risk of Dengue transmission, land use classification, analysis of climate covariates and drainage patterns was done. Analysis involves processing of SPOT 5 10 m, Landsat TM 30 m data sets, and SRTM 90 m digital elevation models by using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The results are based on the change in urbanization and population density, analysis of temperature, rainfall, and wind speed; calculation of drainage patterns including stream features, flow accumulation, and drainage density of the study areas. Results suggest that the low elevation areas with calm winds and minimum temperatures higher than the normal, rapid increase in unplanned urbanization, low flow accumulation, and higher drainage density areas favor the dengue transmission.

  5. A primary care-based health needs assessment in inner city Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Kelly, C M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2001, a primary care-based health needs assessment (HNA) in South Inner City of Dublin identified high levels of morbidity and widespread and frequent use of primary care and specialist hospital services as particular concerns. AIMS: This study aims to determine the primary care health needs of a local community, from the perspective of service users and service providers. METHODS: A similar methodology to our 2001 HNA was adopted, involving semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of patients attending two general practices and key informants regarding local health issues and health service utilisation. RESULTS: High levels of morbidity and chronic illness were found. A correlation between the local environment and ill-health was identified, as well as high utilisation of primary care services in the area. CONCLUSION: The establishment of a Primary Care Team would begin to address the health needs of the community.

  6. Military radiobiology: A perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute medical consequences affecting military personnel fall into two major classes: early events affecting performance and later more lethal events associated with single and combined injuries. If cells survive the radiation insult, they have the capability for repair. But the patient must survive fluid loss, infection, and bleeding defects until this can occur. Although no one can ever eliminate the incomprehensible destruction of human life associated with the use of nuclear weapons, significant medical advances can be achieved that will increase the performance and recovery of persons exposed to these weapons. Furthermore, these medical advances will go far toward improving the life and functioning of persons undergoing radiotherapy, trauma, accidental exposures, or a variety of other clinical situations. In the near future, the military battlefield will move into another dimension - space. Once outside the geomagnetic shield of the earth, military prsonnel will be exposed to a formidable array of new radiations. Among the new radiations will be high solar energy, solar particles and flares, and heavy nuclei from galactic cosmic arrays. Associated stresses will be microgravity, vibration, and isolation. To protect man in these new environments will truly challenge our ingenuity. This book looks at various medical consequences we face as a result of nuclear energy

  7. The Military Orders in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Maria Sans i Travé

    2011-01-01

    monarchy in the 14th and 15th centuries. The Knights Hospitallers and the Order of Saint James founded convents in Catalonia which noble women entered. Only one military order was founded on Catalan soil, the Order of Saint George of Alfama created in 1201 by Peter the Catholic. Despite the protection of the monarchy, it was subsequently incorporated into the Valencia-based Military Order of Montesa in 1400.

  8. [Haemovigilance and blood safety in overseas military].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailliol, A; Plang, S; Martinaud, C; Pouget, T; Vedy, S; Clavier, B; Cellarier, V; Roche, C; Civadier, C; Ausset, S

    2014-11-01

    The French military blood institute (FMBI) is the only military blood supplier in France. FMBI operates independently and autonomously under the Ministry of Defense's supervision, and accordingly, to the French, European and NATO technical and safety guidelines. FMBI is in charge of the collection, preparation and distribution of blood products to supply transfusion support to armed forces, especially during overseas operations. In overseas military, a primary physician is responsible for haemovigilance in permanent relation with an expert in the FMBI to manage any adverse reaction. Additionally, traceability of delivered or collected blood products during overseas operation represents a priority, allowing an appropriate management of transfusion inquiries and assessment of practices aiming to improve and update procedures and training. Transfusion safety in overseas operation is based on regular and specific training of people concerned by blood supply chain in exceptional situation. PMID:25284434

  9. An outbreak of scrub typhus in military personnel despite protocols for antibiotic prophylaxis: doxycycline resistance excluded by a quantitative PCR-based susceptibility assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patrick N A; Oltvolgyi, Csongor; Islam, Aminul; Hussain-Yusuf, Hazizul; Loewenthal, Mark R; Vincent, Gemma; Stenos, John; Graves, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Scrub typhus is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi and is endemic to many countries in the Asia-Pacific region, including tropical Australia. We describe a recent large outbreak amongst military personnel in north Queensland. A total of 45 clinical cases were identified (36% of all potentially exposed individuals). This occurred despite existing military protocols stipulating the provision of doxycycline prophylaxis. Doxycycline resistance in O. tsutsugamushi has been described in South-East Asia, but not Australia. In one case, O. tsutsugamushi was cultured from eschar tissue and blood. Using quantitative real-time PCR to determine susceptibility to doxycycline for the outbreak strain, a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≤0.04 μg/mL was found, indicating susceptibility to this agent. It seems most probable that failure to adhere to adequate prophylaxis over the duration of the military exercise accounted for the large number of cases encountered rather than doxycycline resistance. PMID:27005452

  10. Environmental Assessment of Zanjan city from the perspective of sustainable development based on SWOT technique

    OpenAIRE

    V. Rabieifar; K. Zayari; G. HaghighatNaeini

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionEnvironmental problems are one of the most fundamental problems in modern city and the result of conflict and confrontation with the natural environment. Recently, cities are confronted with numerous environmental problems and the incidence of environmental pollution, resource degradation and loss of natural spaces. Zanjan as one of the most important cities in the North West has many environmental issues such as incomplete sewage disposal system, physical devel...

  11. THE CLASSIFICATION OF CITIES THROUGH FUZZY CLUSTERING ANALYSIS BASED ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC DATA

    OpenAIRE

    TUNÇ, Taner; Erilli, Alp; Yüksel ÖNER; Yolcu, Ufuk

    2009-01-01

    In economy policies, socioeconomic indicators have an important place in determining the development levels. The determination and classification of the current social and economic structure of cities is considerably important in analyzing the development of cities and their probable development tendencies and in developing the regional development policies in parallel with this. In this study, cities are classified by fuzzy clustering c-means method according to their development levels wit...

  12. Moral Dilemmas in a Military Context. a Case Study of a Train the Trainer Course on Military Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baarle, Eva; Bosch, Jolanda; Widdershoven, Guy; Verweij, Desiree; Molewijk, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Moral competence is important for soldiers who have to deal with complex moral dilemmas in practice. However, openly dealing with moral dilemmas and showing moral competence is not always easy within the culture of a military organization. In this article, based on analysis of experiences during a train the trainer course on military ethics, we…

  13. HUMAN FACTOR IMPACT IN MILITARY AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE

    OpenAIRE

    MARINKOVIC SRBOLJUB J.; DRENOVAC ALEKSANDAR Z.

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft maintenance, as a specific field of military materiel maintenance, is characterized by high reliability standards, based on regulations and technical standards. A system approach to maintenance represents the key element of maintenance quality, while aircraft maintenance staff has a crucial influence on the final outcome of aircraft maintenance.

  14. Paradigm Change in Military Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Herbert H.; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    All branches of the U.S. military are moving toward education and training that is tailored to meet individuals' needs wherever they are and whenever they are ready to learn. The result will be a culture of continuous, personalized learning with learner progress that is based on proficiency and a greater emphasis on technology-enabled immersive…

  15. Tobacco Pricing in Military Stores: Views of Military Policy Leaders.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, EA; Jahnke, SA; Poston, WS; Malone, RE; Haddock, CK

    2016-01-01

    Higher tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use. On military installations, cigarettes and other tobacco products are sold tax-free, keeping prices artificially low. Pricing regulations in the military specify that tobacco should be within 5% of the local most competitive price, but prices still average almost 13% lower than those at local Walmarts.To gain insight into policy leaders' ideas and positions on military tobacco pricing, we interviewed members of the Department of Defense (DoD) Addictive ...

  16. External cost of coal based electricity generation: A tale of Ahmedabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity production causes unintended impacts. Their exclusion by the market leads to suboptimal resource allocations. Monetizing and internalizing of external costs, though challenging and debatable, leads to a better allocation of economic resources and welfare. In this paper, a life-cycle analysis (LCA) on the production of electricity from conventional coal based electricity generation system has been performed in order to examine the environmental impacts of coal based electricity generating systems in the twin-city of Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar in western India. By using dose–response functions, we make an attempt to estimate the damages to human health, crops, and building materials resulting from the operation of coal power plants and its associated mines. Further, we use geographic information system to account for spatially dependent data. Finally, monetary values have been assigned to estimate the damage to human health, crops and building materials. This study reveals that the health as well as on non-health impacts of air pollution resulting from coal based electricity generation may not be ignored both in absolute as well as economic value terms. Highlights: ► External cost from coal power generating systems has been calculated. ► We use LCA approach to monetize externalities. ► Geographic information software has been used to account for spatially dependent data. ► This study monetizes damages only to human health, crops, and building materials. ► We finally recommend policy directions to arrest this externality.

  17. DEVELOPING GIS-BASED DEMAND-RESPONSIVE TRANSIT SYSTEM IN TEHRAN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Faroqi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Create, maintain and development of public transport network in metropolitan are important problems in the field of urban transport management. In public transport, maximize the efficient use of public fleet capacity has been considered. Concepts and technologies of GIS have provided suitable way for management and optimization of the public transports systems. In demand-responsive public transportation system, firstly fellow traveller groups have been established for applicants based on spatial concepts and tools of GIS, second for each group according to its’ members and their paths, a public vehicle has been allocated to them then based on dynamic routing, the fellow passenger group has been gathered from their origins and has been moved to their destinations through optimal route. The suggested system has been implemented based on network data and commuting trips statistics of 1 to 6 districts in Tehran city. Evaluation performed on the results show the 34% increase using of Taxi capacity, 13% increase using of Van capacity and 10% increase using of Bus capacity in comparison between current public transport system and suggested public transportation system has been improved.

  18. Developing Gis-Based Demand-Responsive Transit System in Tehran City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi, H.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.

    2015-12-01

    Create, maintain and development of public transport network in metropolitan are important problems in the field of urban transport management. In public transport, maximize the efficient use of public fleet capacity has been considered. Concepts and technologies of GIS have provided suitable way for management and optimization of the public transports systems. In demand-responsive public transportation system, firstly fellow traveller groups have been established for applicants based on spatial concepts and tools of GIS, second for each group according to its' members and their paths, a public vehicle has been allocated to them then based on dynamic routing, the fellow passenger group has been gathered from their origins and has been moved to their destinations through optimal route. The suggested system has been implemented based on network data and commuting trips statistics of 1 to 6 districts in Tehran city. Evaluation performed on the results show the 34% increase using of Taxi capacity, 13% increase using of Van capacity and 10% increase using of Bus capacity in comparison between current public transport system and suggested public transportation system has been improved.

  19. A Research of Construction Mechanism of Vassal State's City Group during Spring and Autumn Period Based on the Analyzation of Geographic Image - Take south region of Shandong as example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Li, B.; Zhou, X.

    2015-08-01

    Spring and Autumn period, the vassal states began to carry out country defense construction actively, brought changes to building the ideological. At that time, the south region of Shandong, as an independent unit of geography, seldom affected by external factors, and had striking cultural characteristics. Vassal states there constructed their capital mainly to defense the neighboring countries and cope with small scale mergers war, not involving the nationwide military deployment. Therefore, the region reflect the construction thought changes during the Spring and Autumn Period, and consistent with the research purpose. Based on this judgment, the author analyzed each capital's location and terrain feature by topographic map. In brief, the Spring and Autumn Period, feudal states acted of one's own free will, the relationship between cities contained the one within and between vassal states. Within vassal state relationships included economic support, entrenching each other and protecting the country together. Meanwhile, strategic defensing, scrambling for resources and geographical location comprised of the competition between vassal states. In the agrarian age, the political centers and agricultural areas were interdependent, giving priority to the development of political cities. Transformation of capitals' space layout was actually the process of carving up farming plains, the powerful states occupy favorable geographical position, and the small countries would be encroached and annexed gradually.

  20. Ontology-based data integration from heterogeneous urban systems: A knowledge representation framework for smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psyllidis, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel knowledge representation framework for smart city planning and management that enables the semantic integration of heterogeneous urban data from diverse sources. Currently, the combination of information across city agencies is cumbersome, as the increasingly available da

  1. Advertisements and information objects' positioning technologies based on the territorial zoning of the city of Tomsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyev, R.; Seryakov, V.

    2014-10-01

    The main results obtained in the analysis of existing advertising facilities in the city of Tomsk were considered as a basis for media planning while choosing the most effective advertising medium and its location depending on the area of territorial and functional purpose of the city.

  2. A Mexico City-Based Immersion Education Program: Training Mental Health Clinicians for Practice with Latino Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Jason James

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the philosophical foundations and educational methods of a Spanish language and cultural immersion program based in Mexico City, Mexico. The program is designed to assist U.S. graduate students in marriage and family therapy and clinical psychology programs to improve clinical service delivery with Latino clients. Utilizing…

  3. Film-Induced Tourism, City-Branding and Place-Based Image: the Cityscape of Naples between Authenticity and Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Libera D'Alessandro; Rosario Sommella; Lida Vigagnoni

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims at analysing the connections between film-induced tourism, city-branding and place-based image through the case-study of Naples, particularly deepening the role played by urban policies not only in promoting or sustaining but also in refusing some specific city’s representations. In the first part we will explore this relationship focusing the attention on the changing representations of the city in films and on the changes produced by the urban policies carried out in the phas...

  4. Military influence in Russian politics

    OpenAIRE

    Tsypkin, Mikhail

    1992-01-01

    The tradition of the Russian and Soviet militaries has made them important elements in the political balance of power at this turning point of history. The same tradition, however, requires that the military's political intervention be legitimized by a civilian authority and/or political movement. The military in Russia is likely to continue to seek political influence, but the thrust of this search will be narrowly limited, unless it is combined with a strong Russian nationali...

  5. Cities as Spatial Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinand Rauch

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that Zipf's Law for cities can emerge as a property of a clustering process. If initially uniformly distributed people chose their location based on a specific gravity equation as found in trade studies, they will form cities that follow Zipf's Law in expected value. This view of cities as spatial agglomerations is supported empirically by the observation that larger cities are surrounded by larger hinterland areas and larger countryside populations.

  6. A Computational Method based on Radio Frequency Technologies for the Analysis of Accessibility of Disabled People in Sustainable Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Gilart-Iglesias

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability strategy in urban spaces arises from reflecting on how to achieve a more habitable city and is materialized in a series of sustainable transformations aimed at humanizing different environments so that they can be used and enjoyed by everyone without exception and regardless of their ability. Modern communication technologies allow new opportunities to analyze efficiency in the use of urban spaces from several points of view: adequacy of facilities, usability, and social integration capabilities. The research presented in this paper proposes a method to perform an analysis of movement accessibility in sustainable cities based on radio frequency technologies and the ubiquitous computing possibilities of the new Internet of Things paradigm. The proposal can be deployed in both indoor and outdoor environments to check specific locations of a city. Finally, a case study in a controlled context has been simulated to validate the proposal as a pre-deployment step in urban environments.

  7. Conversion of Abbandoned Military Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Marcinkevičiūtė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the situation of abandoned military sites, their value and significance of their conservation. It also reviews their impact on their environment and their potential in tourism, environmental, economic and social spheres. Further the positive experiences in military sites' conversion are studied. The importance of society's involvement in the conversions is discussed. The situation of XIX-XX age's military object's, the significance of their conservation and their potential in tourism market is separately analysed. The results of two researches are introduced, one of which inquires about the Lithuanian military objects' potential in tourism sphere, another one explores the possibilities of conversion. Article in Lithuanian

  8. Battlefield ethics training: integrating ethical scenarios in high-intensity military field exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Megan M. Thompson; Jetly, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that modern missions have added stresses and ethical complexities not seen in previous military operations and that there are links between battlefield stressors and ethical lapses. Military ethicists have concluded that the ethical challenges of modern missions are not well addressed by current military ethics educational programs. Integrating the extant research in the area, we propose that scenario-based operational ethics training in high-intensity military field...

  9. The crisis of civil-military relations in Venezuela : testing rational choice, cultural, and institutional theories

    OpenAIRE

    Cortes Flores, Jose Luis.

    1999-01-01

    The thesis analyzes the extent to which civil-military relations in Venezuela have deteriorated in the past decade. The thesis's central theme is that the civilian control over the military in Venezuela is far from ideal. The relations between the armed forces and the decision-makers are based only on the interactions of the President with the military. There are no other civilian institutions involved in the control of the military. However, the armed forces of Venezuela have shown very stro...

  10. K-Shortest-Path-Based Evacuation Routing with Police Resource Allocation in City Transportation Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunyue; Liu, Zhong; Shi, Jianmai; Wang, Yishan; Zhang, Jiaming; Liu, Jinyuan

    2015-01-01

    Emergency evacuation aims to transport people from dangerous places to safe shelters as quickly as possible. Police play an important role in the evacuation process, as they can handle traffic accidents immediately and help people move smoothly on roads. This paper investigates an evacuation routing problem that involves police resource allocation. We propose a novel k-th-shortest-path-based technique that uses explicit congestion control to optimize evacuation routing and police resource allocation. A nonlinear mixed-integer programming model is presented to formulate the problem. The model's objective is to minimize the overall evacuation clearance time. Two algorithms are given to solve the problem. The first one linearizes the original model and solves the linearized problem with CPLEX. The second one is a heuristic algorithm that uses a police resource utilization efficiency index to directly solve the original model. This police resource utilization efficiency index significantly aids in the evaluation of road links from an evacuation throughput perspective. The proposed algorithms are tested with a number of examples based on real data from cities of different sizes. The computational results show that the police resource utilization efficiency index is very helpful in finding near-optimal solutions. Additionally, comparing the performance of the heuristic algorithm and the linearization method by using randomly generated examples indicates that the efficiency of the heuristic algorithm is superior. PMID:26226109

  11. The Bioenvironmental modeling of Bahar city based on Climate-consistent Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parna Kazemian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the climate of a particularplace and the analysis of the climatic needs in terms of human comfort and theuse of construction materials is one of the prerequisites of aclimate-consistent design. In studies on climate and weather, usingillustrative reports, first a picture of the state of climate is offered. Then,based on the obtained results, the range of changes is determined, and thecause-effect relationships at different scales are identified. Finally, by ageneral examination of the obtained information, on the one hand, the range ofchanges is identified, and, on the other hand, their practical uses in thefuture are selected. In the present paper, the bioclimatic conditions of Baharcity, according to the 29-year-long statistics of the synoptic station between1976 and 2005 was examined, using Olgyay and Mahoney indexes. It should beadded that, because of the short distance between Bahar and Hamedan, they havea single synoptic station. The results indicate that Bahar city has dominantlycold weather during most of the months. Therefore, based on the implications ofeach method, the principles of the suggestive architectural designing can beintegrated and improved in order to achieve sustainable development.

  12. K-Shortest-Path-Based Evacuation Routing with Police Resource Allocation in City Transportation Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyue He

    Full Text Available Emergency evacuation aims to transport people from dangerous places to safe shelters as quickly as possible. Police play an important role in the evacuation process, as they can handle traffic accidents immediately and help people move smoothly on roads. This paper investigates an evacuation routing problem that involves police resource allocation. We propose a novel k-th-shortest-path-based technique that uses explicit congestion control to optimize evacuation routing and police resource allocation. A nonlinear mixed-integer programming model is presented to formulate the problem. The model's objective is to minimize the overall evacuation clearance time. Two algorithms are given to solve the problem. The first one linearizes the original model and solves the linearized problem with CPLEX. The second one is a heuristic algorithm that uses a police resource utilization efficiency index to directly solve the original model. This police resource utilization efficiency index significantly aids in the evaluation of road links from an evacuation throughput perspective. The proposed algorithms are tested with a number of examples based on real data from cities of different sizes. The computational results show that the police resource utilization efficiency index is very helpful in finding near-optimal solutions. Additionally, comparing the performance of the heuristic algorithm and the linearization method by using randomly generated examples indicates that the efficiency of the heuristic algorithm is superior.

  13. A Model for Valuing Military Talents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-sheng

    2002-01-01

    The method of collocating military talents is a difficult problem. It is different from other talents, for the characteristic of military talents. This paper presents a model for valuing military talents,which can assists the military leaders to collocate military talents properly.

  14. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    several public transport units running all across the city. This is accompanied by an analysis of probability density functions (PDF) for heat waves based on recent climate data and climate projections. A dense net of 40 PM measurement sites is operated in order to obtain the spatial pattern of PM concentration as depending on meteorological condition and location. It is lined out how this climate related sub-projects interact with investigations on social networks, governance issues, buildings structure development and health outcome. Related to the later the chemical composition of PM is analyzed in more detail and related to the spatial patterns of health deficiencies. At a later stage City2020+ will propose new strategies based on cooperation from the fields of medicine, geography, sociology, history, civil engineering, and architecture for adapting the city for future needs. The Project CITY 2020+ is part of the interdisciplinary Project House HumTec (Human Sciences and Technology) at RWTH Aachen University funded by the Excellence Initiative of the German federal and state governments through the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG).

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of Military Macaw (Ara militaris): its comparison with mitogenomes of two other Ara species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid Urantowka, Adam

    2016-09-01

    The Military Macaw is one of the eight species of the genus Ara. The genus is one of six genera, which form morphologically diverse group termed as Macaws. Parrots of this group differ in body size on demand of the genus and species. Six of Ara species are classified as large Macaws. Based on morphological similarities and differences, these species can be segregated into three pairs according to their plumage coloration. Representative mitochondrial genomes were sequenced only for A. glaucogularis (blue and yellow coloration) and A. macao (predominantly red/scarlet). Ara militaris is one of two predominantly green species and full mitochondrial genome of considered species was sequenced in this study. It's comparison with A. glaucogularis and A. macao mitogenomes revealed higher degree of identity between militaris and macao sequences than between militaris and glaucogularis mtDNAs. Ara militaris mitogenome will be indispensable to refine the phylogenetic relationships within Macaw group. PMID:25703844

  16. An Environmentally-Friendly Tourist Village in Egypt Based on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System––Part One: What Is the Optimum City?

    OpenAIRE

    Fahd Diab; Hai Lan; Lijun Zhang; Salwa Ali

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to select the optimum city from five touristic Egyptian cities (Luxor, Giza, Alexandria, Qena and Aswan) to establish an environmentally-friendly tourist village. The selection of the city, according to the economic cost (cost of energy (COE), net present cost (NPC)) and the amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted, is carried out with respect to four cases, based on the effects of ambient temperature and applying GHG emission penalties. According to the s...

  17. The Inversion-based Coverage Prediction Tool for Cellular Networks - Real City Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a novel tool, called ICPT (inversion-based coverage prediction tool, for predicting coverage field strength in outdoor cellular network by means of the inversion method. Instead of using the high-precision geometric modeling of wireless environments, the problem of radio propagation prediction is solved by using an inversion of the measured data (under all priori constraints, adapting the system parameters according to the change of radio channels and the characteristics of user behaviors. ICPT undertakes the whole process of coverage calculation by loading GIS (Google Earth, selecting the placement of target area and cells with their characterization, and presenting the results in Google Earth. These tasks are easily carried out due to a friendly graphical interface developed in Visual C++2010. The proposed ICPT system is demonstrated using two applications in real city-Zhuhai in China. The results are compared to that obtained by the COST231 model. The system can be used in coverage prediction, network fault diagnosing, as well as automatic drive test.

  18. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CAREER PROGRAM CHARACTERISTICS AND JOB SATISFACTION IN A CITY BASED LOCAL AUTHORITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman ISMAIL

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the human resource development literature, career program has two salient characteristics: career planning and career management. Recent studies in this area reveal that the ability of management to properly implement such career program characteristics may have a significant impact on job satisfaction. Although the nature of this relationship is interesting, little is known about the role of career program characteristics as an important antecedent of job satisfaction in the workplace career models. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between career program and job satisfaction in a city based local authority in Sabah, Malaysia. A survey research method was used as the main instrument to gather data from employees in the organization. The outcomes of testing hypothesis using a stepwise regression analysis showed two important findings: first, career planning insignificantly correlated with job satisfaction. Secondly, career management significantly correlated with job satisfaction. Statistically, this result demonstrates that the career planning does not act as an important determinant of job satisfaction, career management act as an important determinant of job satisfaction in the career model of the organizational sample. In addition, discussion, implications and conclusion are elaborated.

  20. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-CityVehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365

  1. Ecosystem Services Estimation Based on Food Production in Xinjian County of Nanchang City, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated estimation on ecosystem services value based on food production in Xinjian County of Nanchang City, East China. We used two Landsat TM data sets (1996, 2004 to estimate changes in the size of seven land use categories and we used the most recently published value equivalent to estimate changes in the values of ecosystem services. The total value of ecosystem services in Xinjian County was 4588.2 million Yuan in 1996 and 4587.8 million Yuan in 2004, with a decrease of 340.8 thousand Yuan mainly due to the relatively biggish decrement in values of ecosystem service functions for waste treatment, hydrology regulation and food production, although the values for all the other six ecosystem service functions showed an escalating trend from 1996 to 2004. We concluded that future local land use plan should give priority to the conservation of these reductive ecosystems, in order to promote and maintain the balance of local ecosystem.

  2. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Olivares-Mendez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

  3. Thinking on Beautiful Countryside Construction Based on Land Consolidation in Hefei City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; WANG; Zhongxiang; YU

    2013-01-01

    This paper stated the background under which beautiful countryside construction was proposed;reviewed the new countryside construction profile of Hefei City before beautiful countryside construction was proposed;analyzed the practices of beautiful countryside construction of Hefei City from the perspective of the land consolidation when considering the development of new-type urbanization conjunctively;then,on the basis of the analysis,it proposed a consideration that the land consolidation and beautiful countryside construction practices of Hefei City should be used for reference,that is to say,the city should focus on beautiful countryside construction planning and comprehensively promote the land consolidation.And it also indicated that there were three kinds of relations needed to be treated well and"five combinations"needed to be done well in land consolidation.

  4. GIS-based Analysis of Main Air Pollutants of Changchun City in Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of air pollution of Changchun city, P. R. China, in summer, the analytical methods of geographical information system(GIS) and statistical analysis software SPSS were applied to the analysis of the monitored concentrations of SO2, NO2, and O3 in July of 2002 to 2004 in Changchun city. The results obtained show that the average hourly O3 concentrations in July 2002 and 2004 were higher than the first-level hourly standard of China. At the same time, the dynamic distribution of the O3 concentration and the relationship between the concentration of O3 and that of NOx were studied. The air quality evaluation result of Changchun city indicates that the southwest of this city was heavily polluted during the monitored period.

  5. New experience in atmospheric monitoring in Moscow city on the base of WSN technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavin, Alex; Litvinov, Artur; Baskakov, Sergey; Chesalova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this report is to present the gas emission of H2 in the general composition of atmospheric pollution of Moscow city. We start the project at the beginning of 2015 year in two Moscow academicals organization -Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry and Moscow Geological State Museum. One place is in the center of Moscow, near the Kremlin and other one is in the most clear zone of Moscow - Moscow State University place, Vorobyevy Mountains (high point of Moscow). We plan to compare these regions by the concentration of H2 and other gases (CH4, SO2) for green gas pollution. Application network of monitoring is composed of gas sensors (H2, CH4), complex autonomous equipment for measurement temperature, pressure, humidity and network of telecommunications (used ZigBee protocol). Our project offer the technical solutions for monitoring network on the base of WSN (wireless sensor network) technology and the high-sensitive sensors of hydrogen and methane, software and electronic equipment with a transmitter network. This work is the first project in Russia. Gas sensors for monitoring system were developed on the base of MIS-structures (metal-insulator-semiconductor). MIS-sensors are suitable for measuring the concentrations of the following gases: hydrogen, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen dioxide, ethylmercaptan, chlorine and ammonia. The basis of the sensor is MIS - structure Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si,), which capacitance changes when reaction with gases occurs. The sensor fabrication technology is based on the microelectronics device fabrication technologies and the thin film laser deposition technique. Sensor can be used for measuring the concentration of any gas among noted before, in ambient temperature range -30..+40°C and RH 30-90% (30°C).Three gas sensors with analog interface were made for our experimental monitoring system. Original calibration was made using calibration by special standard mixture of H2 and atmosphere. There are 10-15 points

  6. Ontology-based data integration from heterogeneous urban systems: A knowledge representation framework for smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    Psyllidis, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel knowledge representation framework for smart city planning and management that enables the semantic integration of heterogeneous urban data from diverse sources. Currently, the combination of information across city agencies is cumbersome, as the increasingly available datasets are stored in disparate data silos, using different models and schemas for their description. To overcome this interoperability barrier, the presented framework employs a modular and scalabl...

  7. A research into the large-scaled spatial forms of cities based on urban design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JianGuo

    2009-01-01

    In the process of unprecedented urbanization in contemporary China, a great many of Chinese cities have witnessed a rapid expansion of urban scale to different degrees. With the continuous compilation,amendment and enforcement of urban planning, the functional structure, spatial environment, street patterns and textures and even the social aspect of cities have changed conspicuously, all of which have directly happened to the spatial forms of the dimension, or even the multi-dimension of a certain city. By describing and analyzing the structure, evolution and explicit tokens of the spatial forms of cities, this thesis attempts to set up a model of factors that affect urban forms, as well as discuss the attributes, protection, adjustment and development-potential of urban land closely associated with forms. In addition, on the basis of the professional features for urban design to participate in the mod-eling and construction-management of desirable spatial forms of cities, the author has put forward technical measures for quantitatively appraising and analyzing the large-scaled spatial forms of cities, thus offering technical support to municipal governments and management departments of planned construction.

  8. A research into the large-scaled spatial forms of cities based on urban design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the process of unprecedented urbanization in contemporary China, a great many of Chinese cities have witnessed a rapid expansion of urban scale to different degrees. With the continuous compilation, amendment and enforcement of urban planning, the functional structure, spatial environment, street patterns and textures and even the social aspect of cities have changed conspicuously, all of which have directly happened to the spatial forms of the dimension, or even the multi-dimension of a certain city. By describing and analyzing the structure, evolution and explicit tokens of the spatial forms of cities, this thesis attempts to set up a model of factors that affect urban forms, as well as discuss the attributes, protection, adjustment and development-potential of urban land closely associated with forms. In addition, on the basis of the professional features for urban design to participate in the modeling and construction-management of desirable spatial forms of cities, the author has put forward technical measures for quantitatively appraising and analyzing the large-scaled spatial forms of cities, thus offering technical support to municipal governments and management departments of planned construction.

  9. Outbreak of H3N2 Influenza at a US Military Base in Djibouti during the H1N1 Pandemic of 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Cosby, Michael T.; Pimentel, Guillermo; Nevin, Remington L.; Fouad Ahmed, Salwa; Klena, John D.; Amir, Ehab; Younan, Mary; Browning, Robert; Sebeny, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza pandemics have significant operational impact on deployed military personnel working in areas throughout the world. The US Department of Defense global influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance network serves an important role in establishing baseline trends and can be leveraged to respond to outbreaks of respiratory illness. Objective We identified and characterized an operationally unique outbreak of H3N2 influenza at Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti occurring simultaneously wi...

  10. Effectiveness of Environmental Management Based on Trash in The City of Depok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismiyati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian government efforts, particularly in the city of Depok, regarding decent and healthy environmental management in the waste sector have to be enhanced. This is a complex and diverse problems, even though the government has set into the form of Law (UU Number 18 Year 2008 on Waste Management to build a strategic partnership of stakeholders in waste management. The Government has also issued Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 81 Year 2012 on “Management of household waste and household-like waste”. Further research is required on what extent that the implementation of waste management had been undertaken, as well as the necessity to study the methods of environmental insight in waste management. Waste management needs to be comprehensive and integrated from upstream to downstream, thus providing economic benefits, people healthiness and environmental safety. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of environmental management based in Depok. This study uses qualitative design, which is to observe, understand and expose reality or empirical phenomena; hence the proper method used is descriptive method. Instrument to gather the data is completed by observation and in-depth interviews. The type of data required includes primary and secondary data. The informant is selected by purposive sampling, and data analysis is treated with triangulation technique. The results present that in the framework of the effectiveness of environmental management based trash in Depok showed that 1 Institutional Factor for Urban Waste Management of Depok has run properly, 2 Private partnership (commercial solution to be involved in urban waste management in Depok is being explored, 3 Applicable technology in fostering a culture of 3R (reduce, reuse and recycle on the entire community of Depok, has been done with the declaration of Depok Trash Care towards Trash Clean 2020 in March 2014.

  11. Fourth Generation Nuclear Weapons: Military effectiveness and collateral effects

    OpenAIRE

    Gsponer, Andre

    2005-01-01

    The paper begins with a general introduction and update to Fourth Generation Nuclear Weapons (FGNW), and then addresses some particularly important military aspects on which there has been only limited public discussion so far. These aspects concern the unique military characteristics of FGNWs which make them radically different from both nuclear weapons based on previous-generation nuclear-explosives and from conventional weapons based on chemical-explosives: yields in the 1 to 100 tons rang...

  12. New experience in atmospheric monitoring in Moscow city on the base of WSN technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavin, Alex; Litvinov, Artur; Baskakov, Sergey; Chesalova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this report is to present the gas emission of H2 in the general composition of atmospheric pollution of Moscow city. We start the project at the beginning of 2015 year in two Moscow academicals organization -Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry and Moscow Geological State Museum. One place is in the center of Moscow, near the Kremlin and other one is in the most clear zone of Moscow - Moscow State University place, Vorobyevy Mountains (high point of Moscow). We plan to compare these regions by the concentration of H2 and other gases (CH4, SO2) for green gas pollution. Application network of monitoring is composed of gas sensors (H2, CH4), complex autonomous equipment for measurement temperature, pressure, humidity and network of telecommunications (used ZigBee protocol). Our project offer the technical solutions for monitoring network on the base of WSN (wireless sensor network) technology and the high-sensitive sensors of hydrogen and methane, software and electronic equipment with a transmitter network. This work is the first project in Russia. Gas sensors for monitoring system were developed on the base of MIS-structures (metal-insulator-semiconductor). MIS-sensors are suitable for measuring the concentrations of the following gases: hydrogen, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen dioxide, ethylmercaptan, chlorine and ammonia. The basis of the sensor is MIS - structure Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si,), which capacitance changes when reaction with gases occurs. The sensor fabrication technology is based on the microelectronics device fabrication technologies and the thin film laser deposition technique. Sensor can be used for measuring the concentration of any gas among noted before, in ambient temperature range -30..+40°C and RH 30-90% (30°C).Three gas sensors with analog interface were made for our experimental monitoring system. Original calibration was made using calibration by special standard mixture of H2 and atmosphere. There are 10-15 points

  13. Smart City Mobility Application—Gradient Boosting Trees for Mobility Prediction and Analysis Based on Crowdsourced Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semanjski, Ivana; Gautama, Sidharta

    2015-01-01

    Mobility management represents one of the most important parts of the smart city concept. The way we travel, at what time of the day, for what purposes and with what transportation modes, have a pertinent impact on the overall quality of life in cities. To manage this process, detailed and comprehensive information on individuals’ behaviour is needed as well as effective feedback/communication channels. In this article, we explore the applicability of crowdsourced data for this purpose. We apply a gradient boosting trees algorithm to model individuals’ mobility decision making processes (particularly concerning what transportation mode they are likely to use). To accomplish this we rely on data collected from three sources: a dedicated smartphone application, a geographic information systems-based web interface and weather forecast data collected over a period of six months. The applicability of the developed model is seen as a potential platform for personalized mobility management in smart cities and a communication tool between the city (to steer the users towards more sustainable behaviour by additionally weighting preferred suggestions) and users (who can give feedback on the acceptability of the provided suggestions, by accepting or rejecting them, providing an additional input to the learning process). PMID:26151209

  14. Smart City Mobility Application--Gradient Boosting Trees for Mobility Prediction and Analysis Based on Crowdsourced Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semanjski, Ivana; Gautama, Sidharta

    2015-01-01

    Mobility management represents one of the most important parts of the smart city concept. The way we travel, at what time of the day, for what purposes and with what transportation modes, have a pertinent impact on the overall quality of life in cities. To manage this process, detailed and comprehensive information on individuals' behaviour is needed as well as effective feedback/communication channels. In this article, we explore the applicability of crowdsourced data for this purpose. We apply a gradient boosting trees algorithm to model individuals' mobility decision making processes (particularly concerning what transportation mode they are likely to use). To accomplish this we rely on data collected from three sources: a dedicated smartphone application, a geographic information systems-based web interface and weather forecast data collected over a period of six months. The applicability of the developed model is seen as a potential platform for personalized mobility management in smart cities and a communication tool between the city (to steer the users towards more sustainable behaviour by additionally weighting preferred suggestions) and users (who can give feedback on the acceptability of the provided suggestions, by accepting or rejecting them, providing an additional input to the learning process). PMID:26151209

  15. Smart City Mobility Application—Gradient Boosting Trees for Mobility Prediction and Analysis Based on Crowdsourced Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Semanjski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobility management represents one of the most important parts of the smart city concept. The way we travel, at what time of the day, for what purposes and with what transportation modes, have a pertinent impact on the overall quality of life in cities. To manage this process, detailed and comprehensive information on individuals’ behaviour is needed as well as effective feedback/communication channels. In this article, we explore the applicability of crowdsourced data for this purpose. We apply a gradient boosting trees algorithm to model individuals’ mobility decision making processes (particularly concerning what transportation mode they are likely to use. To accomplish this we rely on data collected from three sources: a dedicated smartphone application, a geographic information systems-based web interface and weather forecast data collected over a period of six months. The applicability of the developed model is seen as a potential platform for personalized mobility management in smart cities and a communication tool between the city (to steer the users towards more sustainable behaviour by additionally weighting preferred suggestions and users (who can give feedback on the acceptability of the provided suggestions, by accepting or rejecting them, providing an additional input to the learning process.

  16. Film-Induced Tourism, City-Branding and Place-Based Image: the Cityscape of Naples between Authenticity and Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libera D'Alessandro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analysing the connections between film-induced tourism, city-branding and place-based image through the case-study of Naples, particularly deepening the role played by urban policies not only in promoting or sustaining but also in refusing some specific city’s representations. In the first part we will explore this relationship focusing the attention on the changing representations of the city in films and on the changes produced by the urban policies carried out in the phase of so-called Neapolitan Renaissance. The second part will be dedicated to deepen the link between the images of the city conveyed by the media and the touristic sector, emphasizing the role of the official representations and of the Campania Region Film Commission. The third part of the paper will focus on the conflicts involving the urban actors about the existence of a potential link between some negative representations of the periodical crisis of the city (for garbage, organized crime and difficulties in the administrative management and tourist flows. We will argue that the duplicity of representations proposes in a new way the traditional dual image of the Neapolitan cityscape, inspiring by a different notion of “authenticity”.

  17. Conjoint Analysis As Robust Measure Leadership Preferences Evidence From The Military Service

    OpenAIRE

    Easter B. Belandres

    2015-01-01

    The study proves that conjoint analysis is a robust measure of preferences as it offers to be a promising technique in determining the leadership preferences in the military service. The process of conjoint analysis in this study employs both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative result shows that the ideal military leadership style in Baguio City and in Benguet is authentic servant transformational and transactional leadership. The findings led to the construction of a data ...

  18. Cultural intelligence support for military operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthormsen, Amy M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MacKerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merritt, Terence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgart, Ruth E [INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY

    2010-04-08

    It has long been recognized that military success relies on knowledge of the enemy. In the context of standard warfare, adequate knowledge of the enemy may be gained by analyzing observable, measurable data. In the context of modern counterinsurgency operations and the global war on terror, the task of predicting the behavior of the enemy is vastly more complex and difficult. Without an understanding of the ways individuals in the host nation interpret and react to events, no amount of objective information can provide the insight required to accurately predict behavior. US military doctrine has begun to recognize the importance of the many ways that local culture can affect operation success. Increasingly military decision makers use cultural information in the service of operation planning, and troops are provided with pre-deployment cultural training. However, no amount of training can cover the breadth and depth of potentially useful cultural information, and no amount of careful planning can avoid the need to adapt as situations develop. Therefore, a critical challenge is to provide useful tools to US personnel in their efforts to collect, analyze, and utilize cultural information. Essential functions for cultural support tools include the following: (1) to narrow down a broad range of available data and focus the user's attention on context-relevant information, (2) to present cultural information in an easily understood form, (3) to prompt the user to seek relevant information in the environment, (4) to synthesize information, and (5) to predict outcomes based on possible courses of operation. In this paper, we begin by reviewing the ways in which military operations can benefit from cultural intelligence. We then discuss frameworks for analyzing cultural information in the context of a military operation. We conclude with a demonstration of our current efforts to develop a tool that meets the aforementioned functional challenges.

  19. Study of smectite clays of the city Pedra Lavrada - PB for use in water-based drilling fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraiba has large reserves of bentonite clays, with the largest deposits in Boa Vista, PB. Recently new deposits were discovered in the cities of Cubati and Pedra Lavrada-PB, creating great expectations for further expansion of reserves for industrial production. The aim of this work is the study of smectite clays from the city of Pedra Lavrada, PB for use in drilling fluids water based. The characterization was made by the diffraction of laser (AG), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA), chemical composition by X-ray fluorescence (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), exchange capacity of cations (ECC) and surface area (SA). The results obtained so far showed that the samples presented at its mineral composition smectite, kaolinite and quartz. In relation to rheological properties showed that the bentonite clay sample Dark presents promising features for use in water based drilling fluids. (author)

  20. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003). But......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  1. Kelimeng Ancient City:The Command Centre of the Great Military Alliance of Xanbei-race%克里孟古城:檀石槐鲜卑军事大联盟的指挥中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晋

    2012-01-01

    拓拔鲜卑南迁途经二蓝虎沟一带时,曾留下部分部众。所留部众中的檀石槐,自幼就“勇健有谋略”,能“施法禁,平曲直,无敢犯者”,受到部落民众的拥戴,于公元二世纪中叶,大家推举他当了鲜阜大人。对鲜卑人来说,“大人”就是首领。《后汉书》栽:“桓帝时檀石槐乃立庭于弹汗山,歃仇水上,去高柳北三百余里,兵马甚盛,东西皆归焉。”东汉的高柳就在现山西阳高县城附近。据此推算,阳高北三百余里,正好是现鸟兰察布市的商都、察右后旗一带,而察右后旗白音察干西北二十多公里处,有个牧民村营叫克里孟,克里孟是蒙古语“城墙”之意。笔者认定,弹汉山就是现在的韩勿拉山,歆仇水就是现在的哈不泉河。%Tuoba Xianbei left some their followers when they moved southwards and passed Erlanhu valley. Among them, there was a person called Tanshihuai. He was very brave and strategy when he was a child. He was strict with his followers and upright to the people. Nobody dared offend him, so all the people respected and feared him. In the middle of the second century, the people elected him as "Xianbei Daren". To Xianbei-race, "Daren" meant "Chief". The History of Latter Han recorded: "While Huan Emperor was in office, Tanshihuai built his palaces between Danhan mountain and Cuochou river, more than 300 miles from Gaoliu. He had a lot of soldiers and horses. The east and west were converted to him." Gaoliu of the Eastern Han Dynasty is just this, we can calculate: North of Yanggao County of near now Yanggao County of Shanxi. According to more than 300 miles is just in now Shangdu county and Chayouhou county. And in 20 kilometres northwest from Baiyinchagan of Chayouhou County a village called "Kelimeng". "Kelimeng" means "City Walls" in Mongolian. The author finds , there is : Danhan mountain is now Hanwula mountain. Cuochou river is now Habuquan

  2. Community-based control of Aedes aegypti by adoption of eco-health methods in Chennai City, India

    OpenAIRE

    Arunachalam, Natarajan; Tyagi, Brij Kishore; Samuel, Miriam; R. Krishnamoorthi; R.Manavalan; Tewari, Satish Chandra; Ashokkumar, V; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Petzold, Max

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is highly endemic in Chennai city, South India, in spite of continuous vector control efforts. This intervention study was aimed at establishing the efficacy as well as the favouring and limiting factors relating to a community-based environmental intervention package to control the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Methods A cluster randomized controlled trial was designed to measure the outcome of a new vector control package and process analysis; different data collection tool...

  3. Development of optimization-based probabilistic earthquake scenarios for the city of Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, M. R.; Peyghaleh, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and practical example for the application of optimization process to select earthquake scenarios which best represent probabilistic earthquake hazard in a given region. The method is based on simulation of a large dataset of potential earthquakes, representing the long-term seismotectonic characteristics in a given region. The simulation process uses Monte-Carlo simulation and regional seismogenic source parameters to generate a synthetic earthquake catalogue consisting of a large number of earthquakes, each characterized with magnitude, location, focal depth and fault characteristics. Such catalogue provides full distributions of events in time, space and size; however, demands large computation power when is used for risk assessment, particularly when other sources of uncertainties are involved in the process. To reduce the number of selected earthquake scenarios, a mixed-integer linear program formulation is developed in this study. This approach results in reduced set of optimization-based probabilistic earthquake scenario, while maintaining shape of hazard curves and full probabilistic picture by minimizing the error between hazard curves driven by full and reduced sets of synthetic earthquake scenarios. To test the model, the regional seismotectonic and seismogenic characteristics of northern Iran are used to simulate a set of 10,000-year worth of events consisting of some 84,000 earthquakes. The optimization model is then performed multiple times with various input data, taking into account probabilistic seismic hazard for Tehran city as the main constrains. The sensitivity of the selected scenarios to the user-specified site/return period error-weight is also assessed. The methodology could enhance run time process for full probabilistic earthquake studies like seismic hazard and risk assessment. The reduced set is the representative of the contributions of all possible earthquakes; however, it requires far less

  4. Committed dose assessment based on background outdoor gamma exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on populations health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the committed dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, annual effective dose, and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected along the Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Muller counter. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 n Gy h-1. Results indicated that lifetime effective dose to inhabitants of Chihuahua City is in average of 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of activity concentrations in soil were 51.8, 73.1, and 1096.5 Bq kg-1, of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis of the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K is to north, to north-center, and to south of city, respectively. In conclusion, natural background gamma dose received by inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to geological characteristics of the zone. (Author)

  5. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luevano-Gurrola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize.

  6. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-01-01

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize. PMID:26437425

  7. Committed dose assessment based on background outdoor gamma exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luevano G, S.; Perez T, A.; Pinedo A, C.; Renteria V, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecologia, Perif. Francisco R. Almada Km 1, 31415 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Carrillo F, J.; Montero C, M. E., E-mail: mrenteria@uach.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31136 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on populations health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the committed dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, annual effective dose, and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected along the Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Muller counter. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 n Gy h{sup -1}. Results indicated that lifetime effective dose to inhabitants of Chihuahua City is in average of 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of activity concentrations in soil were 51.8, 73.1, and 1096.5 Bq kg{sup -1}, of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. From the analysis of the spatial distribution of {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K is to north, to north-center, and to south of city, respectively. In conclusion, natural background gamma dose received by inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to geological characteristics of the zone. (Author)

  8. 基于军队疗养院信息系统的教育信息发布系统%Education Information Release System Based on Military Sanitarium Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明喜

    2013-01-01

    本文介绍了基于军队疗养院信息管理系统平台的教育信息发布系统的设计思想及主要特点。该系统的应用使疗养院的信息化管理水平得到了进一步提高。%This paper introduces the design idea and main features of education information release system based on military sanitarium information system, and indicates that the informatization management level of the sanitarium has been improved by using the system.

  9. An Environmentally-Friendly Tourist Village in Egypt Based on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System––Part One: What Is the Optimum City?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Diab

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to select the optimum city from five touristic Egyptian cities (Luxor, Giza, Alexandria, Qena and Aswan to establish an environmentally-friendly tourist village. The selection of the city, according to the economic cost (cost of energy (COE, net present cost (NPC and the amount of greenhouse gases (GHG emitted, is carried out with respect to four cases, based on the effects of ambient temperature and applying GHG emission penalties. According to the simulation results, using the well-known Homer software, Alexandria is the economic city for hybrid photovoltaics (PV/wind/diesel/battery and wind/diesel/battery systems, while Aswan is the most economic city for a hybrid PV/diesel/battery system. However, for a diesel/battery system there is no significant economic difference between the cities in the study. On the other hand, according to the amount of GHG emitted from a hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system, Qena is the optimum city if the effects of ambient temperature are considered. However, if the GHG emission penalties are applied, Aswan will be the optimum city. Furthermore, Alexandria is the optimum city if the effects of ambient temperature are considered and the GHG emission penalties are applied. Additionally, the effects of ambient temperature and applying GHG emission penalties are studied on hybrid PV/diesel/battery, wind/diesel/battery and diesel/battery systems in this study.

  10. Outbreak of H3N2 influenza at a US military base in Djibouti during the H1N1 pandemic of 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Cosby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza pandemics have significant operational impact on deployed military personnel working in areas throughout the world. The US Department of Defense global influenza-like illness (ILI surveillance network serves an important role in establishing baseline trends and can be leveraged to respond to outbreaks of respiratory illness. OBJECTIVE: We identified and characterized an operationally unique outbreak of H3N2 influenza at Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti occurring simultaneously with the H1N1 pandemic of 2009 [A(H1N1pdm09]. METHODS: Enhanced surveillance for ILI was conducted at Camp Lemonnier in response to local reports of a possible outbreak during the A(H1N1pdm09 pandemic. Samples were collected from consenting patients presenting with ILI (utilizing a modified case definition and who completed a case report form. Samples were cultured and analyzed using standard real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rt-RT-PCR methodology and sequenced genetic material was phylogenetically compared to other published strains. RESULTS: rt-RT-PCR and DNA sequencing revealed that 25 (78% of the 32 clinical samples collected were seasonal H3N2 and only 2 (6% were A(H1N1pdm09 influenza. The highest incidence of H3N2 occurred during the month of May and 80% of these were active duty military personnel. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that sequenced H3N2 strains were genetically similar to 2009 strains from the United States of America, Australia, and South east Asia. CONCLUSIONS: This outbreak highlights challenges in the investigation of influenza among deployed military populations and corroborates the public health importance of maintaining surveillance systems for ILI that can be enhanced locally when needed.

  11. Outbreak of H3N2 Influenza at a US Military Base in Djibouti during the H1N1 Pandemic of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosby, Michael T.; Pimentel, Guillermo; Nevin, Remington L.; Fouad Ahmed, Salwa; Klena, John D.; Amir, Ehab; Younan, Mary; Browning, Robert; Sebeny, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza pandemics have significant operational impact on deployed military personnel working in areas throughout the world. The US Department of Defense global influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance network serves an important role in establishing baseline trends and can be leveraged to respond to outbreaks of respiratory illness. Objective We identified and characterized an operationally unique outbreak of H3N2 influenza at Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti occurring simultaneously with the H1N1 pandemic of 2009 [A(H1N1)pdm09]. Methods Enhanced surveillance for ILI was conducted at Camp Lemonnier in response to local reports of a possible outbreak during the A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. Samples were collected from consenting patients presenting with ILI (utilizing a modified case definition) and who completed a case report form. Samples were cultured and analyzed using standard real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rt-RT-PCR) methodology and sequenced genetic material was phylogenetically compared to other published strains. Results rt-RT-PCR and DNA sequencing revealed that 25 (78%) of the 32 clinical samples collected were seasonal H3N2 and only 2 (6%) were A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza. The highest incidence of H3N2 occurred during the month of May and 80% of these were active duty military personnel. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that sequenced H3N2 strains were genetically similar to 2009 strains from the United States of America, Australia, and South east Asia. Conclusions This outbreak highlights challenges in the investigation of influenza among deployed military populations and corroborates the public health importance of maintaining surveillance systems for ILI that can be enhanced locally when needed. PMID:24339995

  12. On Development of Sports Culture Based on Military%基于塑造健康人格的军校体育文化发展探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩; 杨文伟; 韩稼梓; 魏俊杰

    2013-01-01

    For shaping the military academy cadets’healthy personality, this article investigates the cadets’ psychological health level for a certain academy by sampling survey. The test results indicate that those who have a disturbed personality account for 50%of total survey, including the mild-to-moderate ones for 38.7%, the mild ones for 11.1% and the severe ones for 0.2%. Hereby, it is suggested that the development strategies should be planned well as a whole, which include reinforcing the construction of PE curriculum in military academies , improving the structure of teachers’quality , creating the strong atmosphere of military sports culture, and merging the modern information technologies and etc.%为塑造军校学员健康人格,采用抽样调查方法,对某院校学员的心理健康水平进行了测试.测试结果表明:人格有偏差的占总调查人数的50%,其中轻度偏差占38.7%,中度偏差占11.1%,重度偏差占0.2%.据此,提出了加大军校体育课程建设力度、完善教员素质结构、营造浓厚军事体育文化氛围、融合现代信息技术等军校体育文化的发展方略.

  13. The prevalence of common mental disorders and PTSD in the UK military: using data from a clinical interview-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotopf Matthew

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mental health of the Armed Forces is an important issue of both academic and public interest. The aims of this study are to: a assess the prevalence and risk factors for common mental disorders and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms, during the main fighting period of the Iraq War (TELIC 1 and later deployments to Iraq or elsewhere and enlistment status (regular or reserve, and b compare the prevalence of depression, PTSD symptoms and suicidal ideation in regular and reserve UK Army personnel who deployed to Iraq with their US counterparts. Methods Participants were drawn from a large UK military health study using a standard two phase survey technique stratified by deployment status and engagement type. Participants undertook a structured telephone interview including the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ and a short measure of PTSD (Primary Care PTSD, PC-PTSD. The response rate was 76% (821 participants. Results The weighted prevalence of common mental disorders and PTSD symptoms was 27.2% and 4.8%, respectively. The most common diagnoses were alcohol abuse (18.0% and neurotic disorders (13.5%. There was no health effect of deploying for regular personnel, but an increased risk of PTSD for reservists who deployed to Iraq and other recent deployments compared to reservists who did not deploy. The prevalence of depression, PTSD symptoms and subjective poor health were similar between regular US and UK Iraq combatants. Conclusion The most common mental disorders in the UK military are alcohol abuse and neurotic disorders. The prevalence of PTSD symptoms remains low in the UK military, but reservists are at greater risk of psychiatric injury than regular personnel.

  14. SOUTH AFRICA'S MILITARY ON THE MOVE

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. McWilliams

    2012-01-01

    If one looks at the South African Defence Force (SADF), it becomes apparent that it is the strongest defence force in Africa based on trained manpower, organisation, weapons systems, mobilisation capacity and defence budget. The Republic of South Africa has the capability to procure and manufacture the overwhelming majority of its weapons and armaments through its existing parastatal, Armaments Corporation of South Africa Ltd. (Armcscor). According to The Military Balance, 1986-87, published ...

  15. Political Stability and Military Intervention in Egypt

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Casey; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2013-01-01

    Policy choices in the wake of recent mass protests in Egypt will determine the likelihood of civil war in the short run and the prospects for democracy in the long run. Economic conditions can be improved by international action to reduce grain-based biofuel production and finance employment generation. Creating the conditions for stable democracy requires accepting power-sharing mechanisms in which the military will have an important role.

  16. The character of the internal buildings of the Roman military bases on Burgstall at Mušov (South Moravia, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komoróczy, Balázs

    Vol. 3. Madrid: Concejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 2009 - (Morillo, Á.; Hanel, N.; Martín, E.), s. 1421-1436. (Anejos de Gladius. 13). ISBN 978-84-00-08857-6. [International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies /20./. León (ES), 03.09.2006-05.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA404/05/2455 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Roman archaeology * Marcomannic wars * Roman military * Architecture * Mušov Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  17. Education Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  18. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  19. The foundation of computer based closed radionuclide sources turnover control system in Moscow city region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concerns the problem of Closed Radionuclide Sources (CRS) automated account and control in Moscow city and Moscow region. Information relations structure between authorities and enterprises is shown. Special computer oriented system of CRS turnover monitoring is used for this purposes. Its possibilities and numeric characteristics of database are mentioned. This system benefit and application aspects are discussed in detail. (author)

  20. A study of urban traffic based on the temporal maps: the case of Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenling; Li Yawen; Li Shangzhi; Tang Yuanfang

    2008-01-01

    Temporal map is an isoehronal map taking time as a measuring unit. It traces out the isochrones according to the discrepancy of the time distance between the different sites from the outside of the city and the down town. It can be clear and intuitional to show the different temporal relationships between the outside of the city and the city centre with the temporal map. The problem of traffic congestion, with its potential for urban chaos, has increased dramatically with a growing number of vehicles and the continuing aerial expansion of Guangzhou. Both transit rid-ers and drivers find it is a great difficulty to try to acquire the necessary information.from urban spatial movements.Valuable time is lost due to the absence of good transportation information. So, the paper analyzes a case in Guang-zhou communication with Geographic Information System (GIS), and uses the most popular vehicles, including buses and taxis that are used to measure the temporal distance in the city, and then proposes the design of a new map that better reflects the status of urban communication, and attempts to change the relationship between one point and another point of travel. Reducing the amount of time allocated to such, often complex, movements. This paper also points out the obstacles associated with Guangzhou's existing traffic congestion, and puts forward a strategy aimed at better defining the need of linking the temporal map to spatial map of Guangzhou.

  1. Cities as Platforms for Co-creating Experience-based Business and Social Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogner, Karl-Heinz; Tsakarestou, Betty

    to address societies’ challenges remains a concern for governments, cities, businesses and social innovators. These solutions emerge out of changes in technologies, advancement of knowledge as well as of the emerging model of the collaborative and sharing economy and networked peer local and global...

  2. A strategy-based framework for assessing the flood resilience of cities : a Hamburg case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Restemeyer, Britta; Woltjer, Johannes; van den Brink, Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and continuous urbanization contribute to an increased urban vulnerability towards flooding. Only relying on traditional flood control measures is recognized as inadequate, since the damage can be catastrophic if flood controls fail. The idea of a flood-resilient city – one which can

  3. School-Based Budgeting in New York City: Perceptions of School Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatarola, Patrice; Stiefel, Leanna

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes results of surveys and interviews of community members from 29 New York City schools involved in school-level budgeting during 1995-96. Analyzes respondents' knowledge about school budgets, ideas about resource decision making, perceptions of budgetary power, and suggestions. Fully 80% of respondents supported a participatory process.…

  4. Army Military Land Tracts (AMLT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — This data set is part of a collection of real estate data concerning current and historic military installations whose real property interests are managed by the...

  5. MEASURING LAND USES ACCESSIBILITY BY USING FUZZY MAJORITY GIS-BASED MULTICRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS CASE STUDY: MALAYER CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Taravat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Public spaces accessibility has become one of the important factors in urban planning. Therefore, considerable attention has been given to measure accessibility to public spaces on the UK, US and Canada, but there are few studies outside the anglophone world especially in developing countries such as Iran. In this study an attempt has been made to measure objective accessibility to public spaces (parks, school, library and administrative using fuzzy majority GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis. This method is for defining the priority for distribution of urban facilities and utilities as the first step towards elimination of social justice. In order to test and demonstrate the presented model, the comprehensive plan of Malayer city has been considered for ranking in three objectives and properties in view of index per capital (Green space, sport facilities and major cultural centers like library and access index. The results can be used to inform the local planning process and the GIS approach can be expanded into other local authority domains. The results shows that the distribution of facilities in Malayer city has followed on the base of cost benefit law and the human aspect of resource allocation programming of facilities (from centre to suburbs of the city.

  6. Agent based models for testing city evacuation strategies under a flood event as strategy to reduce flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Neiler; Sanchez, Arlex; Nokolic, Igor; Vojinovic, Zoran

    2016-04-01

    This research explores the uses of Agent Based Models (ABM) and its potential to test large scale evacuation strategies in coastal cities at risk from flood events due to extreme hydro-meteorological events with the final purpose of disaster risk reduction by decreasing human's exposure to the hazard. The first part of the paper corresponds to the theory used to build the models such as: Complex adaptive systems (CAS) and the principles and uses of ABM in this field. The first section outlines the pros and cons of using AMB to test city evacuation strategies at medium and large scale. The second part of the paper focuses on the central theory used to build the ABM, specifically the psychological and behavioral model as well as the framework used in this research, specifically the PECS reference model is cover in this section. The last part of this section covers the main attributes or characteristics of human beings used to described the agents. The third part of the paper shows the methodology used to build and implement the ABM model using Repast-Symphony as an open source agent-based modelling and simulation platform. The preliminary results for the first implementation in a region of the island of Sint-Maarten a Dutch Caribbean island are presented and discussed in the fourth section of paper. The results obtained so far, are promising for a further development of the model and its implementation and testing in a full scale city

  7. Measuring Land Uses Accessibility by Using Fuzzy Majority Gis-Based Multicriteria Decision Analysis Case Study: Malayer City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taravat, A.; Yari, A.; Rajaei, M.; Mousavian, R.

    2014-10-01

    Public spaces accessibility has become one of the important factors in urban planning. Therefore, considerable attention has been given to measure accessibility to public spaces on the UK, US and Canada, but there are few studies outside the anglophone world especially in developing countries such as Iran. In this study an attempt has been made to measure objective accessibility to public spaces (parks, school, library and administrative) using fuzzy majority GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis. This method is for defining the priority for distribution of urban facilities and utilities as the first step towards elimination of social justice. In order to test and demonstrate the presented model, the comprehensive plan of Malayer city has been considered for ranking in three objectives and properties in view of index per capital (Green space, sport facilities and major cultural centers like library and access index). The results can be used to inform the local planning process and the GIS approach can be expanded into other local authority domains. The results shows that the distribution of facilities in Malayer city has followed on the base of cost benefit law and the human aspect of resource allocation programming of facilities (from centre to suburbs of the city).

  8. [Assessment on the ecological suitability in Zhuhai City, Guangdong, China, based on minimum cumulative resistance model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-fei; Li, Lin; Guo, Luo; Du, Shi-hong

    2016-01-01

    Urban landscape has the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity. Because the expansion process of urban constructive or ecological land has different resistance values, the land unit stimulates and promotes the expansion of ecological land with different intensity. To compare the effect of promoting and hindering functions in the same land unit, we firstly compared the minimum cumulative resistance value of promoting and hindering functions, and then looked for the balance of two landscape processes under the same standard. According to the ecology principle of minimum limit factor, taking the minimum cumulative resistance analysis method under two expansion processes as the evaluation method of urban land ecological suitability, this research took Zhuhai City as the study area to estimate urban ecological suitability by relative evaluation method with remote sensing image, field survey, and statistics data. With the support of ArcGIS, five types of indicators on landscape types, ecological value, soil erosion sensitivity, sensitivity of geological disasters, and ecological function were selected as input parameters in the minimum cumulative resistance model to compute urban ecological suitability. The results showed that the ecological suitability of the whole Zhuhai City was divided into five levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (10.1%), constructive expansion restricted zone (32.9%), key construction zone (36.3%), priority development zone (2.3%), and basic cropland (18.4%). Ecological suitability of the central area of Zhuhai City was divided into four levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (11.6%), constructive expansion restricted zone (25.6%), key construction zone (52.4%), priority development zone (10.4%). Finally, we put forward the sustainable development framework of Zhuhai City according to the research conclusion. On one hand, the government should strictly control the development of the urban center area. On the other hand, the

  9. FEATURES OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    BOGDAN-IOAN CÎMPAN

    2012-01-01

    Military organizations have developed a human resource management performance by which to encourage communication, internal conflict solving, motivation and employee involvement in decision making. This paper aims to identify the features of human resource management in military organizations, the ways to develop and possible solutions for improving performance management. Based on documents, observing participants and on discrete measurements we were able to identify the need for a special p...

  10. Does military spending nonlinearly affect economic growth in South Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Phiri, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Using annual data collected from 1988 to 2014, this study provides evidence of a nonlinear relationship between military spending, economic growth and other growth determinants for the South African economy. The empirical study is based on estimates of a logistic smooth transition regression (LSTR) model and our empirical results point to an inverted U-shaped relationship between military spending and economic growth for the data. Furthermore, our empirical results suggest that the current le...

  11. A new survivability measure for military communication networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, H.; Yang, QP; Butler, C; Chen, J

    1998-01-01

    A new measure for survivability of military communication networks based upon topological structures is presented. The proposed measure can be used to evaluate and enhance the survivability of military communication networks, which is illustrated through case studies. The computer simulation results have shown that the new measure can well reflect the survivability of networks. It can be used as a reliable criterion for estimating the survivability of networks and designing networks with high...

  12. Research on Pallet Base Set-forming Packaging of Military Vehicle Equip- ment%军用车辆器材托盘基数化组套包装研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春和; 尹永超

    2012-01-01

    The purpose and the significance of pallet base set-forming packaging of military vehicle equipment was an- alyzed. The implementation method and procedure of pallet base set-forming packaging was put forward and the method of pallet base set-forming was studied. The purpose was to provide reference for pallet base set-forming packaging.%分析了车辆器材托盘基数化组套包装的目的及意义,在此基础上提出了托盘基数化组套包装的实现方法及步骤,并研究了托盘基数化组套方法,对开展托盘基数化组套包装工作具有一定的指导意义。

  13. Increasing the value of the Public Building Assets: the former military sites redevelopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Pollo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The sale of public real estate assets is one of the main issues in the governments agenda. The goal is to find resources and improve the management of the building stock. Such assets are different from each other and transformation involves issues of urban and regional importance. Former military sites are mainly characterized by: different types (barracks, military airports, military bases, military hospitals, firing ranges, powder magazine, ports, spread out, obsolescence and environmental liabilities. Also historical buildings are relatively few in the military building stock. It follows that these assets cannot be converted to other uses without a technological knowledge. The paper discusses the key issues in rehabilitation of the military sites with particular attention to recent international experiences. The paper then goes on to focus the role of the research institutions in the screening required of the military real estate to be divested.

  14. Forecast-Based Operations Support Tool for the New York City Water Supply System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, G.; Porter, J.

    2012-12-01

    The NYC water supply system serves 9 million people with over 1 BGD of water drawn from 19 reservoirs. To support operation of the system to meet multiple objectives (e.g. supply reliability, water quality, environmental releases, hydropower, peak flow mitigation), the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) is developing an Operations Support Tool (OST), a forecast-based decision support system that provides a probabilistic foundation for water supply operations and planning. Key features of OST include: the ability to run both long-term simulations and short-term probabilistic simulations on the same model platform; automated processing of near-real-time (NRT) data sources; use of inflow forecasts to support look-ahead operational simulations; and water supply-water quality model linkage to account for feedback and tradeoffs between supply and quality objectives. OST supports two types of simulations. Long-term runs execute the system model over an extended historical record and are used to evaluate reservoir operating rules, infrastructure modifications, and climate change scenarios (with inflows derived from downscaled GCM data). Short-term runs for operational guidance consist of multiple (e.g. 80+) short (e.g. one year) runs, all starting from the same initial conditions (typically those of the current day). Ensemble reservoir inflow forecast traces are used to drive the model for the duration of the simulation period. The result of these runs is a distribution of potential future system states. DEP managers analyze the distributions for alternate scenarios and make operations decisions using risk-based metrics such as probability of refill or the likelihood of a water quality event. For operational simulations, the OST data system acquires NRT data from DEP internal sources (SCADA operations data, keypoint water quality, in-stream/in-reservoir water quality, meteorological and snowpack monitoring sites). OST acquires streamflow data from

  15. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: Population-based data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernáldez-Ríos Roberto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0–14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0–11 years old in El Salvador. Methods Design: Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamín Bloom", the only center in El Salvador which attends all children, younger than 12 years, with oncologic disease. The Pediatric Hospital and the General Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City, the only centers in Mexico City which attend all those children with acute leukemia who have a right to this service. Diagnosis: All patients were diagnosed by bone marrow smear and were divided into acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL, acute myeloid leukemia (AML, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, and unspecified leukemias (UL. The annual incidence rate (AIR and average annual incidence rate (AAIR were calculated per million children. Cases were stratified by age and assigned to one of four age strata: 1 Results The number of cases was 375 and 238 in El Salvador and Mexico City, respectively. AAIRs in Mexico City were 44.9, 10.6, 2.5, 0.5, and 58.4 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. The AAIRs in El Salvador could not be calculated because the fourth age stratum in El Salvador included children only from 0–11 years old. The incidence rates for the Salvadoran group of 0–11 year olds were 34.2, 7.1, 0.6, 0.2, and 43.2 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. Conclusion Reported AIRs for each age group in El Salvador were similar to those from other American countries. The AAIR of ALL in Mexico City is one of the highest reported for North America.

  16. An analysis of the effects of military housing allowances and other military related factors on private sector rental housing prices

    OpenAIRE

    Wick, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    Privatization of Military Family Housing will place a greater reliance on private sector rental housing. Before the DoD embarks on any policy changes that place a greater emphasis on private sector housing, the DoD must be certain that rental property landlords do not raise rental prices based on changes in a service member's housing allowances. This thesis explores the relationship between changes in military housing allowances and changes in private sector rental prices. A multiple regressi...

  17. Dynamic Changes of Land Ecological Carrying Capacity Based on the Ecological Footprint——By the Case Study of Chengdu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfu PENG; Xiaolan ZHONG; Qiuyang LI; Qin LI

    2012-01-01

    Chengdu City is in the period of rapid urbanization and industrialization, and the disturbance derived from human activities on environment is increasing remarkablely in recent 20 years. The pressure on environment, economy and population is also increasing and land use in Chengdu has changed enormously. As struc- ture and function of land ecological system change obviously, sustainable development of land productivity has been an important goal and strategic task from now on, and it is necessary to systematically research land ecological carrying capacity based on ecological footprint. The ecological footprint of Chengdu City in the past ten years was calculated and analyzed from the spatial and temporal aspects according to statistical data from 1998 to 2008, as per ecological footprint method, ecological carrying capacity and the GIS spatial analysis method, and regression analysis method. The ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity values from 2009 to 2019 in Chengdu City were predicted through calculation results in the past ten years. The results show that the ecological footprint and ecological deficit of land use from 1998 to 2008 increased in Chengdu City. The ecological deficit of land use within the city center was in high levels in the past ten years, and the ecological footprint kept raising, especially in areas, such as Shuangliu, Chongzhou, Qingyang among 9 city areas, 4 counties and 6 districts in Chengdu City. There is fanlike distribution of ecological deficit of land use. Analysis shows that the social and natural ecological system is uneven distribution, which is not in sustainable de- velopment situation. The results of the study show that the economic, social and natural ecological system in Chengdu City is not sustainable, and the ecological foot- print is uneven distribution. The analysis of the dynamic change of land ecological carrying capacity in Chengdu City is very important for city government in the pro- cess of the

  18. Liberation psychological implications for pastoral care of Korean military wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bocheol

    2010-01-01

    Native Korean women frequently suffer poverty, sexual violence, and Confucian gender discrimination. Once in America Korean military wives also experience racial and sexual oppression, intercultural familial conflicts and violence, and identity crisis and lead to feelings of isolation and non-belonging, a sense of anomie. Korean American pastors tend to understate and oversimplify the complexity of psychological and spiritual suffering of Korean military wives and overemphasize individual faith development as a solution. Liberation psychology evolved from an awareness of similar dehumanizing realities. The context-based perspective of liberation psychology offers a model to interpret and assist in the psychological and spiritual healing of Korean military wives. The healing power of conscientization offered in Liberation psychology for oppressed individuals encourages self-awakening suggesting it as an ideal interventional model to help Korean military wives and would be a useful approach for Korean American pastors. PMID:21404760

  19. An Agricultural Land Resource Assessment Study Based on GIS-An Example from Guiyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建军; 李春来; 万鹰昕

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the agricultural land resources of Guiyang City by means of GIS,on the basis of the pressure-state-response model in which soil heavy metal contamination is selected as a pressure indicator. The results suggest that most of the agricultural land resources are of good quality. However, there are 17.11 km2 dry land and paddy field, which belong to the region of serious heavy metal contamination and are not fit for planting crops. At the same time, the high quality plowland, which is suitable for cultivation, has decreased nearly by 1/3due to soil heavy metal contamination. These findings may improve our understanding that it is very important to prevent and cure heavy metal contamination of Guiyang City.

  20. Fractal-Based Exponential Distribution of Urban Density and Self-Affine Fractal Forms of Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    Urban population density always follows the exponential distribution and can be described with Clark's model. Because of this, the spatial distribution of urban population used to be regarded as non-fractal pattern. However, Clark's model differs from the exponential function in mathematics because that urban population is distributed on the fractal support of landform and land-use form. By using mathematical transform and empirical evidence, we argue that there are self-affine scaling relations and local power laws behind the exponential distribution of urban density. The scale parameter of Clark's model indicating the characteristic radius of cities is not a real constant, but depends on the urban field we defined. So the exponential model suggests local fractal structure with two kinds of fractal parameters. The parameters can be used to characterize urban space filling, spatial correlation, self-affine properties, and self-organized evolution. The case study of the city of Hangzhou, China, is employed to ...

  1. Taxi pooling in New York City: a network-based approach to social sharing problems

    CERN Document Server

    Santi, Paolo; Szell, Michael; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Strogatz, Steven; Ratti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Taxi services are a vital part of urban transportation, and a major contributor to traffic congestion and air pollution causing substantial adverse effects on human health. Sharing taxi trips is a possible way of reducing the negative impact of taxi services on cities, but this comes at the expense of passenger discomfort in terms of a longer travel time. Due to computational challenges, taxi sharing has traditionally been approached on small scales, such as within airport perimeters, or with dynamical ad-hoc heuristics. However, a mathematical framework for the systematic understanding of the tradeoff between collective benefits of sharing and individual passenger discomfort is lacking. Here we introduce the notion of shareability network which allows us to model the collective benefits of sharing as a function of passenger inconvenience, and to efficiently compute optimal sharing strategies on massive datasets. We apply this framework to a dataset of millions of taxi trips taken in New York City, showing th...

  2. A Computational Architecture Based on RFID Sensors for Traceability in Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Higinio Mora-Mora; Virgilio Gilart-Iglesias; David Gil; Alejandro Sirvent-Llamas

    2015-01-01

    Information Technology and Communications (ICT) is presented as the main element in order to achieve more efficient and sustainable city resource management, while making sure that the needs of the citizens to improve their quality of life are satisfied. A key element will be the creation of new systems that allow the acquisition of context information, automatically and transparently, in order to provide it to decision support systems. In this paper, we present a novel distributed system for...

  3. Preschool and Educational Technology: Evaluating a Tablet-Based Math Curriculum in Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Garduno, Ana Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effect of an intervention called Native Numbers on the development of number sense and quantitative skills in low-SES preschool children (ages 5 to 6) in Mexico City, using a randomized control trial (RCT). Native Numbers (NN) is a math curriculum built as an application for iPads that includes activities on number concepts, relations, ordering and counting. The study was conducted in 2014, with eight participating schools and an analytic sample of 249 students. The in...

  4. TRANSFERRING MULTI-SCALE APPROACHES FROM 3D CITY MODELING TO IFC-BASED TUNNEL MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    A. Borrmann; Kolbe, T. H.; Donaubauer, A.; Steuer, H.; Jubierre, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    A multi-scale representation of the built environment is required to provide information with the adequate level of detail (LoD) for different use cases and objectives. This applies not only to the visualization of city and building models, but in particular to their use in the context of planning and analysis tasks. While in the field of Geographic Information Systems, the handling of multi-scale representations is well established and understood, no formal approaches for incorporat...

  5. City pig farm: A design-based-research on urban livestock farming

    OpenAIRE

    Hackauf, U.D.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last centuries, the global food system has managed to provide a growing global population with more and better food. Yet, the system is criticised for its negative effects, like increasing food miles, monocultures, a lack of transparency and poor animal welfare. The recent trend to farm more food in an around cities (urban and peri-urban farming) seems to provide an alternative to the existing system. Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) comes with many potential benefits, from red...

  6. Mining Urban Performance: Scale-Independent Classification of Cities Based on Individual Economic Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Sitko, Izabela; Tachet des Combes, Remi; Hawelka, B.; Murillo Arias, Juan; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Intensive development of urban systems creates a number of challenges for urban planners and policy makers in order to maintain sustainable growth. Running efficient urban policies requires meaningful urban metrics, which could quantify important urban characteristics including various aspects of an actual human behavior. Since a city size is known to have a major, yet often nonlinear, impact on the human activity, it also becomes important to develop scale-free metrics that capture qualitati...

  7. A school-based smoking prevention program for adolescent girls in New York City.

    OpenAIRE

    Hynes, M M

    1989-01-01

    Teenaged girls comprise the largest percentage of new cigarette smokers in the United States today. Factors contributing to smoking initiation include peer pressure, family and social influences, cigarette availability, and cigarette advertising. Because three-quarters of smokers become dependent on cigarettes by age 20, smoking prevention programs aimed at the adolescent population have great potential. The proposed program outlined is directed at girls 12 to 18 years of age in New York City...

  8. Recent Czech developments in cultural heritage research and education based on a partnership with historic cities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš

    Rhodos : National office of Greece, 2003 - (Ricard, D.), s. 113-122 ISBN 960-86235-2-9. [Symposium OWHC:Keeping heritage alive /7./. Rhodos (GR), 24.07.2003-26.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA MK PK99P04OPP013; GA MK PK99P04OPP006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : research in historic cities * tourism impact in historic environment Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  9. Content-based Cognitive Interference Control for City Monitoring Applications in the Urban IoT

    OpenAIRE

    Baidya, Sabur; Levorato, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In the Urban Internet of Things devices and systems are interconnected at the city scale to provide innovative services to the citizens.However, the traffic generated by the sensing and processing systems may overload local access networks. A coexistence problem arises where concurrent applications mutually interfere and compete for available resources. This effect is further aggravated by the multiple scales involved and heterogeneity of the networks supporting the urban IoT. One of the main...

  10. The urban expansion trends in the city of Nanjing based on RS and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Pu, Yingxia

    2008-10-01

    With the acceleration of the Chinese urbanization, the problems between social economy and environment are increasingly serious, and the contradiction between men and land is even more evident. Therefore, how will the urban land growth in cities tend to change? How can we use urban land in an appropriate way? These have become hot topics among many scientific fields. In this paper, we take Nanjing city as an example, using remote sensing and GIS technology to reveal the spatial-temporal dynamics of urban expansion. According to the specific development stages of Nanjing, we classify the whole period into two phases which are 1988-1997, and 1997-2001, and use TM remote sensing images for the years 1988, 1997, 2001 as the basic data sources. In order to obtain the dynamic characteristics of urban land use, we divide the land use type into three types, which are urban land, watershed and green lands through Supervised Classification method. In this study, we use annual changing rate and the urban land expansion index to understand the urban expansion of each region in Nanjing city. Finally, we provide some suggestions to keep the urban land sustainable.

  11. The impact of military identity on performance in the Norwegian Armed Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Rino Bandlitz

    2013-01-01

    From a Norwegian point of view, doctrinaire guidance now set the premises for new perspectives related to the military ethos and identity. The exodus of idealism, a military identity based on traditional values as altruism, patriotism and nationalism, has opened up for professionalism as a preferred and necessary military identity in the Norwegian armed forces. Based on this paradigmatic change, it follows that if professionalism could be reliably defined and measured, it might...

  12. Constructing War and Military Power after the Cold War : The Role of the United States in the Western Definitions of War and Military Power in the post-Cold War Era

    OpenAIRE

    Raitasalo, Jyri

    2005-01-01

    Based on a constructivist theoretical framework, the research problem that animated this study asks how and through what mechanisms has the meaning of military power changed after the Cold War. In order to focus upon military power, a paradigm of war-framework is elaborated. Thus, in order to analyse shared western understandings of military power - what constitutes military power in the post-Cold War era - a framework for analysing the institution of war is developed. Concerning the ch...

  13. Vietnam military service history and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritschi Lin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three decades after US and Australian forces withdrew from Vietnam, there has been much public interest in the health consequences of service in Vietnam. One controversial question is whether the risk of prostate cancer amongst Vietnam veterans is increased. This paper examines relationships between military history, family history and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case control study. Methods Cases were selected from the Cancer Registry of Western Australia as incident cases of histologically-confirmed prostate cancer, and controls were age-matched and selected from the Western Australian electoral roll. Study participants were asked to report any military service history and details about that service. Results Between January 2001 and September 2002, 606 cases and 471 controls aged between 40–75 years were recruited. An increased prostate cancer risk was observed in men reporting they were deployed in Vietnam although this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 0.88–5.06. An increased risk was also observed in men reporting prostate cancer in fathers (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.20–3.00 or brothers (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.20–3.50 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Conclusion These findings support a positive association between prostate cancer and military service history in the Vietnam war and a first degree relative family history of prostate cancer.

  14. Design and realization of military depot geography information system based on WebGIS%基于WebGIS的库站地理信息系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德川

    2014-01-01

    通过对库站管理的需求分析,研究设计了基于WebGIS的库站网络地理信息系统。采用MVC框架实现以交互方式动态维护库站站点,及时了解各地库站部署情况。整个系统分层构架、结构清晰,数据传输方案合理,交互操作方便,数据处理高效,总体方案对此类系统的研发具有一定的实用性和推广价值。%Based on WebGIS,the military depot Internet geographical information system were designed by means of analyzing the needs of military depot’s management.The system maintains database network station in the way of alternation,in order to know about the distributing situations of every depot, to show immediately the depot capacity and it’s disposing information.The delaminating truss of whole system and structure are clear, the blue print of date transmission is reasonable,alternative operation is convenient,the data processing is high efficient and convenient.In a word, the general blue print can be used for reference for the likewise system research.

  15. Effect on Implementation of Military Logistics Support System in Disasters Based on ANP%基于ANP的救灾军事物流保障体系实施效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠义; 鲍利平; 李红勋; 邱鹞; 徐更杰

    2012-01-01

    从影响救灾活动的军事物流3个要素分析入手,从组织协调能力、物流运作能力和信息处理能力3个维度来定义救灾军事物流保障体系实施的效果评价指标体系。以各准则层指标之间的依存关系和互相影响为依据,运用网络层次分析法(ANP),得出军事物流保障能力的ANP值,分析提升综合物流保障能力的关键因素,以期为加强救灾军事物流中的协调保障能力、提高物流保障效能提供理论指导。%This paper began with the three factors which effected on the efficiency of military transportation in the disasters, using the ability of cooperation, manipulation and information as the index points to define the evaluation system. Using the ANP based on the connections among the factors to analyze the effect of military logistics support in the disasters, which can provide theoretical guidance to improve the logistics support efficiency.

  16. Environmental Sustainability and Effects on Urban Micro Region using Agent-Based Modeling of Urbanisation in Select Major Indian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Urbanisation has gained momentum with globalization in India. Policy decisions to set up commercial, industrial hubs have fuelled large scale migration, added with population upsurge has contributed to the fast growing urban region that needs to be monitored in order to design sustainable urban cities. Unplanned urbanization have resulted in the growth of peri-urban region referred to as urban sprawl, are often devoid of basic amenities and infrastructure leading to large scale environmental problems that are evident. Remote sensing data acquired through space borne sensors at regular interval helps in understanding urban dynamics aided by Geoinformatics which has proved very effective in mapping and monitoring for sustainable urban planning. Cellular automata (CA) is a robust approach for the spatially explicit simulation of land-use land cover dynamics. CA uses rules, states, conditions that are vital factors in modelling urbanisation. This communication effectively introduces simulation assistances of CA with the agent based modelling supported by its fuzzy characteristics and weightages through analytical hierarchal process (AHP). This has been done considering perceived agents such as industries, natural resource etc. Respective agent's role in development of a particular regions into an urban area has been examined with weights and its influence of each of these agents based on its characteristics functions. Validation was performed obtaining a high kappa coefficient indicating the quality and the allocation performance of the model & validity of the model to predict future projections. The prediction using the proposed model was performed for 2030. Further environmental sustainability of each of these cities are explored such as water features, environment, greenhouse gas emissions, effects on human human health etc., Modeling suggests trend of various land use classes transformation with the spurt in urban expansions based on specific regions and

  17. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  18. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing on...

  19. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: Population-based data

    OpenAIRE

    Bernáldez-Ríos Roberto; González-Miranda Guadalupe; Pérez-Saldivar María; de Reyes Gladys; Juárez-Ocaña Servando; Lorenzana Rodolpho; Bonilla Miguel; Mejía-Aranguré Juan; Ortiz-Fernández Antonio; Ortega-Alvarez Manuel; Martínez-García María; Fajardo-Gutiérrez Arturo

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0–14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0–11 years old in El Salvador. Methods Design: Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamín Bloom", the only center ...

  20. Ideal Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Meitner, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Erika Meitner discusses her new book: Ideal Cities. This collection of autobiographical narrative and lyric poems explores the relationship between body and place—specifically the pleasures and dangers of women’s corporeal experiences. Ideal Cities is guided by an epigraph from Song of Songs, and the metaphorical idea of bodies as cities, and cities as bodies. How do women’s bodies become sites of inscription via sex, childbirth, and other highly physical acts? These poems also investigate ur...

  1. Sin City?

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Pieter A; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? Weinvestigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners bymoving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danishcouples. We find that of the couples who married in the city, the ones who stay inthe city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who marriedoutside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. Thiscorrelation ...

  2. Quantitative analysis of ecological effects for land use planning based on ecological footprint method: a case research in Nanyang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yaolin; Chen, Xinming

    2008-10-01

    The research of coordinated development between land use and ecological building is a new problem with the development of country economy, whose intention is to improve economy development and protect eco-environment in order to realize regional sustainable development. Evaluating human effects on the ecosystem by a comprehensive, scientific and quantitative method is a critical issue in the process of general land use planning. At present, ecological footprint methodology, as an excellent educational tool applicable to global issues, is essential for quantifying humanity's consumption of natural capital, for overall assessments of human impact on earth as well as for general land use planning. However, quantitative studies on the development trends of ecological footprint (EF) time series and biological capacity (BC) time series in a given region are still rare. Taking Nanyang City as a case study, this paper presents two quantitative estimate indices over time scale called the change rate and scissors difference to quantitatively analyze the trends of EF and BC over the planning period in general land use planning form 1997-2004 and to evaluate the ecological effects of the land use general planning form 1997 to.2010. The results showed that: 1 In Nanyang city, trends of the per capita EF and BC were on the way round, and the ecological deficit enhanced from 1997 to 2010. 2 The difference between the two development trends of per capita EF and BC had been increasing rapidly and the conflict between the EF and BC was aggravated from 1997 to 2010. 3 The general land use planning (1997 - 2010) of Nanyang city had produced some positive effects on the local ecosystem, but the expected biological capacity in 2010 can hardly be realized following this trend. Therefore, this paper introduces a "trinity" land use model in the guidelines of environment- friendly land use pattern and based on the actual situation of Nanyang city, with the systemic synthesis of land

  3. Utility of Urban Public Facilities of Haikou City Based on Behavioral Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun; YUAN

    2013-01-01

    From functions,ornament and art,on the basis of the behavioral theory,the utility of urban public facilities was surveyed and studied with Longhua District of Haikou City as an example.It summed up the basis for designing urban public facilities behind behavior habits of residents,in the hope of making future urban construction and management more humanized.Accordingly,it is expected to set up appropriate concept of public facilities,and play especially important role in creating favorable urban living environment.

  4. A GIS-based Earthquake and Tsunami Emergency Command System for Seaside Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Youhai; FENG Qimin; JIA Jing

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the geographical information system (GIS) is applied to earthquake and tsunami emergency work and an earthquake and tsunami emergency command system (ETECS) for seaside cities is developed which is composed of a basic database and six subsystems. By employing this system, the responsible municipal departments can make rapid prediction before the occurrence of earthquake or tsunami, make commanding decisions concerning the disaster-fight during the disastrous event, and make rapid estimates of the casualties and economic losses. So that the government could conduct relief work in time and planning for future disaster reduction and prevention.

  5. OLED displays for military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Janice K.; Brown, Julie J.; Hack, Michael G.; Hewitt, Richard H.; Huffman, David C.

    2000-08-01

    Through the years, there has been a steady evolution of technology to ruggedize displays for harsh military environments. This work has spanned cathode-ray-tubes (CRTs) to present day active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs). Organic light emitting device (OLED) display technology has the potential to solve many of the inherent limitations of today's AMLCD technology and to provide the military system designer with a more cost effective solution. OLED technology offers bright, colorful emissive light with excellent power efficiency, wide viewing angle and video response rates; it is also demonstrating the requisite environmental robustness for a wide variety of display applications. OLED displays also have a very thin and lightweight form factor. Moreover, in full production, OLEDs are projected to be very cost-effective by comparison to AMLCDs. This paper will examine some of these advantages and the opportunities presented by the rapidly emerging OLED display technology for military applications.

  6. Upward Sweeps of Empire and City Growth Since the Bronze Age

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Chase-Dunn; Alexis Alvarez; Hiroko Inoue; Richard Niemeyer; Anders Carlson; Ben Fierro; Kirk Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper uses quantitative estimates of the sizes of cities and empires to tentatively identify upward sweeps in which uniquely large cities and empires emerged in the Central Political/military network since the Bronze Age, and it formulates a causal model to explain both the cyclical rise and fall of cities and empires and the upward sweep

  7. 城市营销误区剖析与城市营销策略实施--以珠江三角洲城市为例%An Analysis on the Misguidance in the Implementation of City Marketing Strategies:A Case Study Based on the Data Taken from City Marketing in the Pearl Delta Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅蜜蜜

    2015-01-01

    As urbanisation is in progress, city marketing has become an important area of study and research because of the need to meet the demand generated by the expansion of cities. People doing city marketing are now in a situation which requires them to re-evaluate the role of city marketing in these bigger and more modern cities. City marketing has a relatively short history in China and executives doing marketing in the new environment, in their endeavour to furnish new citizens with better services and products, are easily misguided. This essay is aimed at offering for discussion new ideas and suggestions for the improvement of city marketing basing on the study of city marketing in a number of Pearl Delta cities.%随着城市化进程的加快,城市营销已成为城市根据其现有或潜在的目标市场需求,甄别、发掘和创造城市价值的重要策略和手段,并以此提供更能满足市场需求的城市产品或服务。但由于我国城市营销开展时间不长,营销中还存在一些误区。本文以珠江三角洲城市群的营销现状为例,就如何提高城市营销水平提出合理的意见和建议。

  8. An Analysis on the Misguidance in the Implementation of City Marketing Strategies:A Case Study Based on the Data Taken from City Marketing in the Pearl Delta Cities%城市营销误区剖析与城市营销策略实施--以珠江三角洲城市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅蜜蜜

    2015-01-01

    As urbanisation is in progress, city marketing has become an important area of study and research because of the need to meet the demand generated by the expansion of cities. People doing city marketing are now in a situation which requires them to re-evaluate the role of city marketing in these bigger and more modern cities. City marketing has a relatively short history in China and executives doing marketing in the new environment, in their endeavour to furnish new citizens with better services and products, are easily misguided. This essay is aimed at offering for discussion new ideas and suggestions for the improvement of city marketing basing on the study of city marketing in a number of Pearl Delta cities.%随着城市化进程的加快,城市营销已成为城市根据其现有或潜在的目标市场需求,甄别、发掘和创造城市价值的重要策略和手段,并以此提供更能满足市场需求的城市产品或服务。但由于我国城市营销开展时间不长,营销中还存在一些误区。本文以珠江三角洲城市群的营销现状为例,就如何提高城市营销水平提出合理的意见和建议。

  9. Military and Military Medical Support in Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI/H5N1) Pandemic Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avian influenza (Bird flu) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting mainly chickens, turkeys, ducks, other birds and mammals. Reservoirs for HPAI /H5N1 virus are shore birds and waterfowl (asymptomatic, excrete virus in feces for a long periods of time), live bird markets and commercial swine facilities. Virus tends to cycle between pigs and birds. HPAI (H5N1) virus is on every 'top ten' list available for potential agricultural bio-weapon agents. The threat of a HPAI/H5N1 pandemic is a definitively global phenomenon and the response must be global. A number of National plans led to various measures of preventing and dealing with epidemics/pandemics. Lessons learned form the pandemic history indicated essential role of military and military medical support to civil authorities in a crisis situation. Based on International Military Medical Avian Influenza Pandemic workshop (Vienna 2006), an expected scenario would involve 30-50% outpatients, 20-30% hospital admission, 2-3% deaths, 10-20% complicated cases. Activities of civil hospital may be reduced by 50%. Benefits of military support could be in: Transportation of patients (primarily by air); Mass vaccination and provision of all other preventive measures (masks, Tamiflu); Restriction of movements; Infection control of health care facilities; Field hospitals for triage and quarantine, military barracks to treat milder cases and military hospitals for severe cases; Deal with corpses; Stockpiling (vaccines, antiviral, antibiotics, protective equipment, supplies); Training; Laboratories; Ensure public safety, etc. With the aim of minimizing the risk of a pandemic spread by means of rapid and uncomplicated cooperation, an early warning system has to be established to improve surveillance, improve international contacts (WHO, ECDC, CDC), establish Platform for sharing information, close contacts of national and international military and civilian surveillance networks and databases, cooperation between military

  10. Numerical modeling of dam-break flood through intricate city layouts including underground spaces using GPU-based SPH method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建松; 张辉; 杨锐

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies the meshfree Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method with Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) parallel computing technique to investigate the highly complex 3-D dam-break flow in urban areas including underground spaces. Taking the advantage of GPUs parallel computing techniques, simulations involving more than 107 particles can be achieved. We use a virtual geometric plane boundary to handle the outermost solid wall in order to save considerable video card memory for the GPU computing. To evaluate the accuracy of the new GPU-based SPH model, qualitative and quantitative comparison to a real flooding experiment is performed and the results of a numerical model based on Shallow Water Equations (SWEs) is given with good accu- racy. With the new GPU-based SPH model, the effects of the building layouts and underground spaces on the propagation of dam- break flood through an intricate city layout are examined.

  11. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...... urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  12. Conjoint Analysis As Robust Measure Leadership Preferences Evidence From The Military Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easter B. Belandres

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study proves that conjoint analysis is a robust measure of preferences as it offers to be a promising technique in determining the leadership preferences in the military service. The process of conjoint analysis in this study employs both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative result shows that the ideal military leadership style in Baguio City and in Benguet is authentic servant transformational and transactional leadership. The findings led to the construction of a data gathering tool for the quantitative method to determine the average importance utility weight that the respondents attach to their preferences on military leadership. Quantitative results reveal that the respondents give a higher degree of importance to military officers who carry out transformational transactional servant and authentic leadership in decreasing order of importance.

  13. Olomouc - Possibilities of Geovisualization of the Historical City

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Popelka; Alžběta Brychtová

    2011-01-01

    Olomouc, nowadays a city with 100,000 inhabitants, has always been considered as one of the most prominent Czech cities. It is a social and economical centre, which history started just about the 11th century. The present appearance of the city has its roots in the 18th century, when the city was almost razed to the ground after the Thirty years’ war and a great fire in 1709. After that, the city was rebuilt to a baroque military fortress against Prussia army. At the beginning of the 20th cen...

  14. [Moscow Semenov cemetery--a monument of military glory of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, I B; Medvedev, G A; Smirnova, A G; Ovchinnikova, M B

    2012-03-01

    Until recently, beyond the attention of the public and the scientific community remains the question of memorializatsii once existed in Moscow, a large-scale military burial--Semenov military cemetery. This cemetery was not associated with any one war, and actually covered several periods of military history of Russia. Today, this place can be perceived as a symbol of Russia's military prowess, as a unique fraternal burial of soldiers of different generations. Today, thanks to the initiative of the public, the Chief Military Clinical Hospital. N.N. Burdenko Institute of History and Archives State Humanitarian University, the Union of Russian ethnographers, with the support of the Prefecture of HLW in Moscow and the district council "Falcon Hill" is working on giving the territory of the park, located in the cemeteries of Semenov, the status of places of interest here in order to create a military memorial. August 25, 2011 there was established the foundation stone of the future memorial. Continued hard work to gather and organize archival materials on the history of the necropolis Semenov, developed the scientific and artistic vision for the future memorial site. Memorial, designed by leading Russian experts--historians, sculptors, architects, artists who will be able to enrich the historical and cultural heritage of the city, will preserve the historical continuity of the traditions of the military glory of Russia, to perpetuate the memory of generations of defenders of the Fatherland. PMID:22686034

  15. Suicide Risk by Military Occupation in the DoD Active Component Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimovich, Lily; Reger, Mark A.; Luxton, David D.; Oetjen-Gerdes, Lynne A.

    2013-01-01

    Suicide risk based on occupational cohorts within the U.S. military was investigated. Rates of suicide based on military occupational categories were computed for the Department of Defense (DoD) active component population between 2001 and 2010. The combined infantry, gun crews, and seamanship specialist group was at increased risk of suicide…

  16. Adventure Education and the Returning Military Veteran: What Do We Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Alan; Van Puymbroeck, Marieke; Frankel, Jon; Overholt, Jillisa

    2011-01-01

    This article describes two studies examining the effects of an experiential and adventure-based program (Outward Bound) on returning military veterans. The assumption underlying these studies is the belief that adventure-based programs can serve as a beneficial mediator in the reintegration of returning military veterans into society. The two…

  17. The Carbon City Index (CCI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Straatman, Bas; Mangalagiu, Diana;

    This paper presents a consumption-based Carbon City Index for CO2 emissions in a city. The index is derived from regional consumption and not from regional production. It includes imports and exports of emissions, factual emission developments, green investments as well as low carbon city...

  18. Research on public logistics centers of Zhenzhou city based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuhuai; Chen, Shuisen; Tian, Zhihui; Miao, Quansheng

    2008-10-01

    The regional public logistics center (PLC) is the intermedium that transports goods or commodity from producer to wholesaler, retailer and end consumer through whole supply chains. According to the Central Place Theory, the PLC should be multi-centric and of more kinds of graded degrees. From the road network planning discipline, an unique index---Importance Degree, is presented to measure the capacity of a PLC. The Importance Degree selects three township criteria: total population, gross industry product and budget income as weights to calculate the weighted vectors by principle component analysis method. Finally, through the clustering analysis, we can get the graded degrees of PLCs. It proves that that this research method is very effective for the road network planning of Zhengzhou City.

  19. Military Social Work Thinking in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian D. van Breda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Military social workers in South Africa have developed distinctive ways of thinking about military social work. These developments have been influenced by various contextual factors, such as the transition of South Africa to a non-racial democracy in 1994 and the establishment of a military social work research capacity. These factors contributed to new ways of thinking, such as the recognition that military social work has a mandate to facilitate organizational change and the adoption of a resilience perspective. A central development in military social work thinking in South Africa was the formulation of a Military Social Work Practice Model, which is described and illustrated in some detail. This model emphasizes binocular vision (focusing on the interface between soldiers and the military organization and four practice positions, derived from occupational social work theory. The author notes the importance of creating appropriate contexts that facilitate further developments in military social work theory.

  20. Predeployment Riskiest Time for Military Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159029.html Predeployment Riskiest Time for Military Suicide Attempts Two months into service is a pivotal period, ... 25, 2016 WEDNESDAY, May 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Suicide attempts in the military aren't necessarily combat-driven. ...

  1. Pakistan, military rule and terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Casaca, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    As long as the Pakistani military structures do not cut radically their instrumental view of Islamic extremism, and do not understand the imperative need to leave the political scene, allowing the strengthening of the civil society, minority rights, education for tolerance and the rule of law, terrorism will remain a major threat endangering the Pakistani people and its neighbours.

  2. [The "woman" in military recruitment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedić, G

    2000-01-01

    Transsexuality is a phenomenon, which presents a rarity on recruitment. A case of male-to-female genuine transsexualism was presented in term of psychological-psychiatric evaluation of a recruit for military service. A phenomenon of transsexualism is discussed through etiology, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and modern treatment. PMID:11039317

  3. 'Military Thinkers and Academic Thinkers'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke

    Culture analysis seems to create friction when we try to introduce academic concepts relating to culture to military planners. This friction might be related to the fact that officers and academics do their thinking in different 'spaces'. This paper argues the interface or overlapping space betwe...... the two different traditions of thought....

  4. Stress fractures in military training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During military training, the incidence of overuse injuries like stress fractures increase. The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of bone scan in a military population with clinical suspected stress fractures or periostitis. Material and methods: A three-year retrospective analysis was made on patients who were clinically diagnosed with stress fractures at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department. Thirty-seven patients were studied (mean age 23. +/- 8 y.o; 31 males), 28 cases of which (76%) had tibial stress syndrome. Other localizations were lumbar spine, femoral, fibular, tarsal or metatarsal. Bone scintigraphy was performed injecting 1036 MBq of Tc99m-MDP i.v. Whole body images and lateral projections of lower extremities were done. Results: Bone scan in tibial syndrome was positive for 23 cases (82%), 65% of them were bilateral and 13% also had femoral injuries. X-rays were done in 10 cases and were all negative. In other localizations, the bone scans were negative, but demonstrated other degenerative lesions. All stress fractures were conservatively treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatories and suspension of physical activity. Conclusions: Bone scan is a reliable confirmatory tool for tibial stress syndrome diagnosis. In addition, it helps to determine both the severity and extension of the injury as well as support the indication of rest in the military population

  5. Assessment of Trace Element Daily Intake Based on Consumption Rate of Foodstuffs in Bandung City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements are required by human body and have a variety role in biochemical functions mostly as catalyst for enzymatic activity in human body. Some trace elements are essential since they are inadequately or not synthesized by human body. The deficiency or excess of those essential trace element may cause disease and be deleterious to health. Since food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements either, the levels of trace elements in consumed food products must be determined. The determination of trace elements content in foodstuffs widely consumed in Bandung city were conducted to assess their daily intake and contribution to the recommended dietary allowance (RADA) values. Food samples were collected from traditional markets spread across five regions of the Bandung city and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1567a Wheat Flour and 1568a Rice Flour and gave good results with % recovery, 93.2 - 104.8%; and %CV, 3.8-11.6%. A large variability of essential trace elements concentration in all types of foods analyzed were observed. The daily intake of Cr, Co, Mn, Se and Zn were supplied enough by the diet, except for Fe which found that almost all the foods analyzed were not give a satisfying contribution to the RDA value of Fe. These result were expected could provide information of nutritional status of the society and can be a reference for government and related institution to effectively making policies and solution for public health improvement (author)

  6. [Magnetic Responses of Heavy Metals in Street Dust of Typical Mine-Based City, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Bo; Xu, Shu-jing; Gao, Fu-yuan; Yu, Ye; Xia, Dun-sheng; Xia, Xin-ming

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic characteristics and heavy metal properties of 43 street dust samples collected from Baiyin City, northwest of China were systematically analyzed. The results revealed that the main magnetic minerals were low-coercivity magnetite and maghemite with coarse pseudo single domain (PSD) and multi-domain (MD) in magnetic grain size. Compared with the domestic comprehensive cities, low frequency magnetic susceptibility(χlf) value of street dust samples in Binyin varied from 43. 75 x 10(-8) m3.kg-1 to 1 340. 08 x 10(-8) m3.kg-1 with the average value of 245. 98 x 10(-8) m3.kg-1, the magnetic mineral content in street dust samples of Binyin was low relatively, hut it varied among distinct districts with industrial district was the highest and the stripe traffic area was more higher than those of other regions(commercial district, new district). Different functional zones of Baiyin had a single pollution source relatively. Additionally, the contribution to strong magnetic minerals was predominated by industrial pollution and the distribution of pollution degrees in Bainyin showed a significant spatial difference. Concentrations of heavy metals(Cu, Pb, Zn) were generally high in Baiyin street dust. The significantly positive correlation between magnetic parameters(χlf, χARM, SIRM, SOFT) and pollution load index(PLI) and their consistent spatial characteristics confirm that magnetic concentration parameters can effectively monitor urban heavy metals pollution and determine the bounds and areas of pollution, providing a valuable tool for further urban pollution control. PMID:26717708

  7. Assessment of Trace Element Daily Intake Based on Consumption Rate of Foodstuffs in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damastuti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are required by human body and have a variety role in biochemical functions mostly as catalyst for enzymatic activity in human body. Some trace elements are essential since they are inadequately or not synthesized by human body. The deficiency or excess of those essential trace element may cause disease and be deleterious to health. Since food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements either, the levels of trace elements in consumed food products must be determined. The determination of trace elements content in foodstuffs widely consumed in Bandung city were conducted to assess their daily intake and contribution to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA values. Food samples were collected from traditional markets spread across five regions of the Bandung city and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA. Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1567a Wheat Flour and 1568a Rice Flour and gave good results with % recovery, 93.2 – 104.8%; and %CV, 3.8-11.6%. A large variability of essential trace elements concentration in all types of foods analyzed were observed. The daily intake of Cr, Co, Mn, Se and Zn were supplied enough by the diet, except for Fe which found that almost all the foods analyzed were not give a satisfying contribution to the RDA value of Fe. These result were expected could provide information of nutritional status of the society and can be a reference for government and related institution to effectively making policies and solution for public health improvement

  8. Using the Military Instrument in Conflict Resolution: A Changing Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of current armed conflicts have grown in complexity, and the operations carried out to solve them are often performed without the agreement of all of those involved. Accordingly, the traditional use of military forces in the resolution of conflicts seems to be undergoing a rapid evolution. In face of this mounting complexity, peace operations began to be considered as broader “military operations” guided by principles that in the past were limited to the execution of combat operations, materialized by the implementation and application of a complex set of techniques and activities. In this new paradigm, the same “peace” operation may comprise a wide range of activities, ranging from conflict prevention to medium and high intensity fighting operations, and including also parallel humanitarian support activities. For this reason, and in accordance with the concept of employment and the functions to be carried out, the performance of the military forces in current peacekeeping operations is based on the simultaneous completion of a set of tasks that are required to attain the required final military goal. In the presence of the wide range of tasks that need to be performed, a military force should have the resources and be organized based on multiple capacities and characteristics. Areas that in the past used to support the actual force have now assumed increased relevance and are perceived as being crucial, given that the main role of military forces is that of creating and maintaining a safe and stable atmosphere that enables the remaining sectors participating in the process to act. In an integrated approach system to conflict, the aim is that military forces attain and ensure safety conditions, and guarantee the necessary support so that other agents can come up with the most appropriate solutions to address the causes of conflict.

  9. Which cities produce worldwide more excellent papers than can be expected? A new mapping approach--using Google Maps--based on statistical significance testing

    CERN Document Server

    Bornmann, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    The methods presented in this paper allow for a spatial analysis revealing centers of excellence around the world using programs that are freely available. Based on Web of Science data, field-specific excellence can be identified in cities where highly-cited papers were published. Compared to the mapping approaches published hitherto, our approach is more analytically oriented by allowing the assessment of an observed number of excellent papers for a city against the expected number. With this feature, this approach can not only identify the top performers in output but the "true jewels." These are cities locating authors who publish significantly more top cited papers than can be expected. As the examples in this paper show for physics, chemistry, and psychology, these cities do not necessarily have a high output of excellent papers.

  10. Determinants of military expenditure in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Zachary Tambudzai

    2011-01-01

    While many articles have been written on the determinants of military expenditure in developing countries, few have attempted to use a qualitative approach to investigate the underlying motives for military expenditure. This article uses data drawn from interviews with key informants and documentary sources to study the determinants of military expenditure in Zimbabwe. Findings suggest that Zimbabwe’s military expenditure since 1980 has been influenced more by internal political dynamics than...

  11. Pastoral Care and Counseling with Military Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Zachary

    2016-06-01

    The complex human experience of military service and the stress suffered by millions of military families each time a loved one deploys present unique challenges and opportunities in providing pastoral care and counseling. War and military service impact many facets of our society, as well as generational and interpersonal relationships. This article speaks to both academic and practitioner communities, and provides a vision for effective pastoral care and counseling with military families drawing on resources from family systems theory. PMID:27281760

  12. Sino-U. S. Military Transparency in a New Security Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Military transparency is a complicated and sensitive issue in the Sino-U. S. relations and also a touchstone testing the degree of their interest coincidence. One can hardly gain a full and profound insight into the essential implication of military transparency if he is dominated by the realist logic and putting undue emphasis on the importance of it in the bilateral military relation.Given the fact that China and the United States are two important powers shouldering critical responsibilities for maintaining global peace and security, this article argues that only by adopting a new security concept toward military transparency could the two countries forge a consensus on the international security situation and remove misunderstanding, misgivings and distrust in their military contacts and cooperation. Only by actively seeking and constructing a new security regime could the two sides strengthen the institutional base for their military cooperation.

  13. Cloud-Based Geospatial 3D Image Spaces—A Powerful Urban Model for the Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Nebiker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the concept and an implementation of geospatial 3D image spaces as new type of native urban models. 3D image spaces are based on collections of georeferenced RGB-D imagery. This imagery is typically acquired using multi-view stereo mobile mapping systems capturing dense sequences of street level imagery. Ideally, image depth information is derived using dense image matching. This delivers a very dense depth representation and ensures the spatial and temporal coherence of radiometric and depth data. This results in a high-definition WYSIWYG (“what you see is what you get” urban model, which is intuitive to interpret and easy to interact with, and which provides powerful augmentation and 3D measuring capabilities. Furthermore, we present a scalable cloud-based framework for generating 3D image spaces of entire cities or states and a client architecture for their web-based exploitation. The model and the framework strongly support the smart city notion of efficiently connecting the urban environment and its processes with experts and citizens alike. In the paper we particularly investigate quality aspects of the urban model, namely the obtainable georeferencing accuracy and the quality of the depth map extraction. We show that our image-based georeferencing approach is capable of improving the original direct georeferencing accuracy by an order of magnitude and that the presented new multi-image matching approach is capable of providing high accuracies along with a significantly improved completeness of the depth maps.

  14. 78 FR 66607 - Military Family Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ..., parents and children, sisters and brothers. During Military Family Month, we celebrate the families who... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9048 of October 31, 2013 Military Family Month, 2013 By the President of the... as well as they serve us. Military families exemplify the courage and resolve that define...

  15. Suicide and the Military Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Raymond G.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that U.S. military policies emphasize humanitarian approach to issue of suicide, yet military law may view suicidal behavior as deviant and may prosecute suicide attempters. Cites convictions of soldiers for attempted and assisted suicides. Reviews recent court decisions and suggests revisions in military law. (Author/NB)

  16. "EII META-MODEL" ON INTEGRATION FRAMEWORK FOR VIABLE ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS - CITY PLANNING METAPHOR BASED ON STRUCTURAL SIMILARITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yukio NAMBA; Junichi IIJIMA

    2003-01-01

    Enterprise systems must have the structure to adapt the change of business environment. Whenrebuilding enterprise system to meet the extended operational boundaries, the concept of IT cityplanning is applicable and effective. The aim of this paper is to describe the architectural approachfrom the integrated information infrastructure (In3) standpoint and to propose for applying the "CityPlanning" concept for rebuilding "inter-application spaghetti" enterprise systems. This is mainlybecause the portion of infrastructure has increased with the change of information systems fromcentralized systems to distributed and open systems. As enterprise systems have involvedheterogeneity or architectural black box in them, it may be required the integration framework(meta-architecture) as a discipline based on heterogeneity that can provide comprehensive view of theenterprise systems. This paper proposes "EH Meta-model" as the integration framework that canoptimize the overall enterprise systems from the IT city planning point of view. EH Meta-modelconsists of "Integrated Information Infrastructure Map (In3-Map)", "Service Framework" and "ITScenario". It would be applicable and effective for the viable enterprise, because it has the mechanismto adapt the change. Finally, we illustrate a case of information system in an online securitiescompany and demonstrate applicability and effectiveness of EII Meta-model to meet their businessgoals.

  17. Gender-based violence and sexual and reproductive health among low-income youth in three Brazilian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacham, Alessandra Sampaio; Simão, Andrea Branco; Caetano, André Junqueira

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we investigate how gender-based violence (GBV) affects the sexual and reproductive health of impoverished adolescents and young adults. We analyse data from a 2011 survey of 450 young women and 300 young men aged 15-29, living in poor neighbourhoods of three middle-sized cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this survey we used a closed-ended questionnaire to collect data from 150 women and 100 men in each city. Our main goal was to explore the relationship between GBV and young women's autonomy in relation to their sexuality, using indicators appropriate to Brazil. Our results showed a decreased prevalence of condom use at first intercourse and an increased prevalence of teenage pregnancies among young women who were in a relationship with a controlling and violent partner. Lower condom use was observed mostly among young men who acknowledged being violent and controlling towards a partner and they also were more likely to have made a partner pregnant as teenagers themselves. We conclude that some variables utilized here as indicators of control and violence from a partner and of young women's autonomy can help us to understand how GBV inside relationships affects the reproductive and sexual health of young men and women, and how empowering them can reduce their susceptibility to unwanted pregnancies and HIV and other STI infections. PMID:27578347

  18. Socially-pedagogical terms of preparation of senior pupils to service in Military Powers of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutin V.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of preparation of senior pupils is investigational to military service. The social pedagogical terms of preparation of senior pupils are certain to military service. Adequate psychological pedagogical measures are developed on overcoming of tendency of subzero perception by the senior pupils of service in Military Powers of Ukraine. Basic directions the personal interest are rotined in harmonious, valuable psychical and physical development of the Ukrainian young people. The national orientation of military patriotic education of senior pupils is marked. It is based on ethnology and regional principles of education, respect to history of the people and state.

  19. Fourth Generation Nuclear Weapons: Military effectiveness and collateral effects

    CERN Document Server

    Gsponer, A

    2005-01-01

    The paper begins with a general introduction and update to Fourth Generation Nuclear Weapons (FGNW), and then addresses some particularly important military aspects on which there has been only limited public discussion so far. These aspects concern the unique military characteristics of FGNWs which make them radically different from both nuclear weapons based on previous-generation nuclear-explosives and from conventional weapons based on chemical-explosives: yields in the 1 to 100 tons range, greatly enhanced coupling to targets, possibility to drive powerful shaped charged jets and forged fragments, enhanced prompt radiation effects, reduced collateral damage and residual radioactivity, etc.

  20. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...... emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban...

  1. Limerick City

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Postcard. Colour photograph of River Shannon with Limerick City in background. Number 2/LK-018. Printed on reverse "Limerick city, where the Shannon river meets the sea is one of the most progressive of Irish cities, where the past and present mingle pleasantly. That part of the city called Newtown Pery was designed and planned in 1767, and is the Limerick of wide streets crossing at right angles, and the pleasantly tree-sprinkled People's Park. The tall column in the park commemorates Thomas...

  2. Block-based Community in China’s Social Housing Development:A Case Study on Old City Renovation of Kashgar,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through the analysis of the international definition and classification of slums,this paper explores the development of China’s social housing system and the renovation of the Old City of Kashgar.It argues that one of the issues in China’s social housing system is to solve the problems of the scarcity of spatial elements and the lack of developmental driving force in large mixed communities of the Han and minority nationalities.Then it examines the elements of renovation and approaches based on a survey of the local residents in different parts of Kashgar City.Comparing the international development of traditional residential quarters and block-based communities,the paper points out that the block-based community is preferred for its impartiality and sustainability,and applies this mode to the renovation of the Old City of Kashgar in the form of design guidelines.

  3. Land use change pattern of analysis based on landscape ecology in Nanhai District of Foshan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Qingnian

    2008-10-01

    Land use is an important field in the global environment change. This paper, taking Luocun town of NanHai District of Foshan city as an example, with the help of GIS technology, mathematics model and landscape-ecology theory, analyses the landscape pattern's changes of land-use from different region scales and different levels(the whole luocun Town and every village in luocun Town). The study shows that the fragmentation level increased. The edge degree and the PD are increased, and the landscape contagion indexes increased, but the LPI decreased. It suggests that the fragment degree and the separate degree are increased constantly. The landscape evenness index is increased, which suggests that the area of land-use patch class approach to equality. The change of the landscape pattern takes on district diversity, in the mainly, which can be cured up two different area (the eastern area and the western area). The villages in the east have a high land-use index all the time, and they have a low extent during 1987-2002; but the villages in the west have a high extent during1987-2002, the landscape diversity index and landscape evenness index are increased, the land-use develop to the diversity and at the same time, the land-use develop to the evenness, also.

  4. Development of the updated system of city underground pipelines based on Visual Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianxiong; Zhu, Yun; Li, Xiangdong

    2009-10-01

    Our city has owned the integrated pipeline network management system with ArcGIS Engine 9.1 as the bottom development platform and with Oracle9i as basic database for storaging data. In this system, ArcGIS SDE9.1 is applied as the spatial data engine, and the system was a synthetic management software developed with Visual Studio visualization procedures development tools. As the pipeline update function of the system has the phenomenon of slower update and even sometimes the data lost, to ensure the underground pipeline data can real-time be updated conveniently and frequently, and the actuality and integrity of the underground pipeline data, we have increased a new update module in the system developed and researched by ourselves. The module has the powerful data update function, and can realize the function of inputting and outputting and rapid update volume of data. The new developed module adopts Visual Studio visualization procedures development tools, and uses access as the basic database to storage data. We can edit the graphics in AutoCAD software, and realize the database update using link between the graphics and the system. Practice shows that the update module has good compatibility with the original system, reliable and high update efficient of the database.

  5. Irrigation water quality in southern Mexico City based on bacterial and heavy metal analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: corina@fisica.unam.mx; Sandoval, J. [Instituto de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-275, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Perez-Vega, H. [Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, Ave. Universidad S/N. Zona de la Cultura, 86040 Villa Hermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Mazari-Hiriart, M. [Instituto de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-275, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2006-08-15

    Xochimilco is located in southern Mexico City and represents the reminiscence of the pre-Columbian farming system, the 'chinampa' agriculture. 'Chinampas' are island plots surrounded by a canal network. At present the area is densely urbanized and populated, with various contaminant sources contributing to the water quality degradation. The canal system is recharged by a combination of treated-untreated wastewater, and precipitation during the rainy season. Over 40 agricultural species, including vegetables, cereals and flowers, are produced in the 'chinampas'. In order to characterize the quality of Xochimilcos' water used for irrigation, spatial and temporal contaminant indicators such as microorganisms and heavy metals were investigated. Bacterial indicators (fecal coliforms, fecal enterococcus) were analyzed by standard analytical procedures, and heavy metals (such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) were analyzed by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The more contaminated sites coincide with the heavily populated areas. Seasonal variation of contaminants was observed, with the higher bacterial counts and heavy metal concentrations reported during the rainy season.

  6. Irrigation water quality in southern Mexico City based on bacterial and heavy metal analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xochimilco is located in southern Mexico City and represents the reminiscence of the pre-Columbian farming system, the 'chinampa' agriculture. 'Chinampas' are island plots surrounded by a canal network. At present the area is densely urbanized and populated, with various contaminant sources contributing to the water quality degradation. The canal system is recharged by a combination of treated-untreated wastewater, and precipitation during the rainy season. Over 40 agricultural species, including vegetables, cereals and flowers, are produced in the 'chinampas'. In order to characterize the quality of Xochimilcos' water used for irrigation, spatial and temporal contaminant indicators such as microorganisms and heavy metals were investigated. Bacterial indicators (fecal coliforms, fecal enterococcus) were analyzed by standard analytical procedures, and heavy metals (such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) were analyzed by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The more contaminated sites coincide with the heavily populated areas. Seasonal variation of contaminants was observed, with the higher bacterial counts and heavy metal concentrations reported during the rainy season

  7. Allocation of basic health units based on the multicriteria approach: a proposition for a mediumsized city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ferreira de Negreiros

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Basic Health Units (UBSs are responsible for the treatment of diseases in their initial phase. It is possible to observe that there is an investment by the Brazilian government into this kind of strategy in health policies. These kinds of actions aim to reduce the number of patients being sent to hospitals, because the low and medium priority problems can be treated at a UBS. The UBSs are related to the Family Health Program (PSF with the objective of serving the poorest population. The government must allocate these units efficiently, to improve the services and serve more people. However, this kind of decision is made by the empirical knowledge of municipal managers. This paper proposes a model to rationalize this decision process using the multiple criteria decision aid approach to allocate these units in a city in the west region of Rio Grande do Norte State, in Brazil. We can conclude that the model developed prioritizes the neighborhoods with the greatest need for healthcare, using the value system of the city’s health department.

  8. Analysis of air pollution in two major Korean cities: trends, seasonal variations, daily 1-hour maximum versus other hour-based concentrations, and standard excedances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study considers the characteristics of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in two major South Korean cities, including the capital city of Seoul, over a time period of 7-8 years. Changes in the annual mean and percentiles of the daily 1-h maximum and other hour-based concentrations varied according to the compound and city type. Seasonal variations varied according to the compound, yet not with the city type. Both Seoul and Taegu exhibited lower O3 concentrations in July compared to other summer months. There was a high degree of correlation between the daily 1- and 8-h maximum or daily mean concentrations of all compounds in both cities, with an R2 of 0.66-0.90 at p 3, the 8-h standard was more stringent than the 1-h standard, while for NO2 and SO2, the 1-h standard was more stringent than the 24-h standard. The correlation coefficients between the daily 1-h maximum and daily mean concentrations decreased as the maximum concentration values of NO2, O3 , and SO2 increased in the two cities. For all the target compounds, Seoul recorded a substantially higher frequency of days with concentrations above the relevant 1-, 8-, and 24-h standards compared to Taegu. (author)

  9. Services and donations of the City of Valencia to the Monarchy during the Catalan revolt

    OpenAIRE

    Felipo Orts, Amparo

    2011-01-01

    The calls for contributions from the City of Valencia to Phillip IV’s military forces, already important in the previous years, increased during the Catalan revolt, given the proximity of the French troops on the border of the Kingdom. The great danger that this entailed determined that the City was present at the various stages of battle, providing substantial donations and military services, with serious consequences for the population and Municipal Funds.

  10. [French European military haemovigilance guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailliol, A; Clavier, B; Cap, A; Ausset, S

    2010-12-01

    European military transfusion services follow operational guidelines established by their respective national health systems and conform with European Union directives and NATO standards as applicable to member countries. Certain features are common to all of these standards, especially the pre-selection of volunteer, almost exclusively unpaid donors. NATO requirements are very close to European guidelines, with the exception that NATO permits the use of blood products collected in emergency conditions in theater when circumstances allow no better option. Blood product traceability exists for every country but is not always centralized or computerized. Serious adverse event reporting relies on national haemovigilance networks. Military considerations become important mainly in overseas operations, where the overall policy is to implement the relevant national, European or NATO guidelines with adjustments made for unique wartime circumstances and the risk/benefit ratio for the individual patient needing a transfusion. PMID:21051263

  11. Private Military and Security Contractors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In Private Military and Security Contractors: Controlling the Corporate Warrior a multinational team of 16 scholars and a practitioner from political science, sociology, and law address a developing phenomenon: controlling the use of privatized force by states in international politics. Robust...... analyses of the evolving, multi-layered tapestry of formal and informal mechanisms of control include addressing the microfoundations of the market: the social and role identities of contract employees, their acceptance by military personnel, and potential tensions between them. The extent and willingness...... of key states—South Africa, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Israel—to monitor and enforce discipline to structure their contractual relations with PMSCs on land and at sea is examined, as is the ability of the industry to regulate itself. Finally, they assess the nascent...

  12. "Do you expect me to receive PTSD care in a setting where most of the other patients remind me of the perpetrator?": Home-based telemedicine to address barriers to care unique to military sexual trauma and veterans affairs hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Amanda K; Davis, Margaret T; Grubaugh, Anouk; Resnick, Heidi; Birks, Anna; Denier, Carol; Muzzy, Wendy; Tuerk, Peter; Acierno, Ron

    2016-05-01

    Home-based telemedicine (HBT) is a validated method of evidence-based treatment delivery for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and justification for its use has centered on closing gaps related to provider availability and distance to treatment centers. However, another potential use of HBT may be to overcome barriers to care that are inherent to the treatment environment, such as with female veterans who have experienced military sexual trauma (MST) and who must present to VA Medical Centers where the majority of patients share features with perpetrator (e.g. gender, clothing) and may function as reminders of the trauma. Delivering evidence-based therapies to female veterans with MST-related PTSD via HBT can provide needed treatment to this population. This manuscript describes an ongoing federally funded randomized controlled trial comparing Prolonged Exposure (PE) delivered in-person to PE delivered via HBT. Outcomes include session attendance, satisfaction with services, and clinical and quality of life indices. It is hypothesized that based on intent-to-treat analyses, HBT delivery of PE will be more effective than SD at improving both clinical and quality of life outcomes at post, 3-, and 6-month follow-up. This is because 'dose received', that is fewer sessions missed, and lower attrition, will be observed in the HBT group. Although the current manuscript focuses on female veterans with MST-related PTSD, implications for other populations facing systemic barriers are discussed. PMID:26992740

  13. Review about the Transformation of Resource-based City%资源型城市转型问题研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩科峰

    2012-01-01

    阐述目前学术界对资源型城市的不同界定,分析了国内外对资源型城市的研究动态以及国外资源性城市研究对我国的启示。%The paper discussed academic circles to different definitions of resources-based city,analyzed research dynamic of resources-based city at home and abroad,the inspiration of abroad research to China.

  14. Developing an effective 2-D urban flood inundation model for city emergency management based on cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Flash floods have occurred frequently and severely in the urban areas of South China. An effective process-oriented urban flood inundation model becomes an urgent demand for urban storm water and emergency management. This study develops an effective and flexible cellular automaton (CA model to simulate storm water runoff and the flood inundation process during extreme storm events. The process of infiltration, inlets discharge and flow dynamic can be simulated only with little pre-processing on commonly available basic urban geographic data. In this model, a set of gravitational diverging rules are implemented in a cellular automation (CA model to govern the water flow in a 3 x 3 cell template of a raster layer. The model is calibrated by one storm event and validated by another in a small urban catchment in Guangzhou of Southern China. The depth of accumulated water at the catchment outlet is interpreted from street monitoring sensors and verified by on-site survey. A good level of agreement between the simulated process and the reality is reached for both storm events. The model reproduces the changing extent and depth of flooded areas at the catchment outlet with an accuracy of 4 cm in water depth. Comparisons with a physically-based 2-D model (FloodMap results show that the model have the capability of simulating flow dynamics. The high computational efficiency of CA model can satisfy the demand of city emergency management. The encouraging results of the simulations demonstrate that the CA-based approach is capable of effectively representing the key processes associated with a storm event and reproducing the process of water accumulation at the catchment outlet for making process-considered city emergency management decisions.

  15. NA22 Model Cities Project - LL244T An Intelligent Transportation System-Based Radiation Alert and Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peglow, S

    2004-02-24

    The purpose of this project was twofold: first, provide an understanding of the technical foundation and planning required for deployment of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)-based system architectures for the protection of New York City from a terrorist attack using a vehicle-deployed nuclear device; second, work with stakeholders to develop mutual understanding of the technologies and tactics required for threat detection/identification and establish guidelines for designing operational systems and procedures. During the course of this project we interviewed and coordinated analysis with people from the New Jersey State Attorney General's office, the New Jersey State Police, the Port Authority of New York/New Jersey, the Counterterrorism Division of the New York City Police Department, the New Jersey Transit Authority, the State of New Jersey Department of Transportation, TRANSCOM and a number of contractors involved with state and federal intelligent transportation development and implementation. The basic system architecture is shown in the figure below. In an actual system deployment, radiation sensors would be co-located with existing ITS elements and the data will be sent to the Traffic Operations Center. A key element of successful system operation is the integration of vehicle data, such as license plate, EZ pass ID, vehicle type/color and radiation signature. A threat data base can also be implemented and utilized in cases where there is a suspect vehicle identified from other intelligence sources or a mobile detector system. Another key aspect of an operational architecture is the procedures used to verify the threat and plan interdiction. This was a major focus of our work and discussed later in detail. In support of the operational analysis, we developed a detailed traffic simulation model that is described extensively in the body of the report.

  16. Detection of pollution transport events southeast of Mexico City using ground-based visible spectroscopy measurements of nitrogen dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grutter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents ground based differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the Tenango del Aire research site located to the southeast of Mexico City. The DOAS NO2 column density measurements are used in conjunction with ceilometer, meteorological and surface nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen oxides (NOx and total reactive nitrogen (NOy measurements to analyze pollution transport events to the southeast of Mexico City during the MILARGO field campaign. The study divides the data set into three case study pollution transport events that occurred at the Tenango del Aire research site. The unique data set is then used to provide an in depth analysis of example days of each of the pollution transport events. An in depth analysis of 13 March 2006, a Case One day, shows the transport of several air pollution plumes during the morning through the Tenango del Aire research site when southerly winds are present and demonstrates how DOAS tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCD, surface NO2 mixing ratios and ceilometer data are used to determine the vertical homogeneity of the pollution layer. The analysis of 18 March 2006, a Case Two day, shows that when northerly winds are present for the entire day, the air at the Tenango del Aire research site is relatively clean and no major pollution plumes are detected. Case 3 days are characterized by relatively clean air throughout the morning with large DOAS NO2 enhancements detected in the afternoon. The analysis of 28 March 2006 show the DOAS NO2 enhancements are likely due to lightning activity and demonstrate how suitable ground-based DOAS measruements are for monitoring anthropogenic and natural pollution sources that reside above the mixing layer.

  17. Chemism of the run-off wastewater from urbanized areas based on the Kielce City example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabajczyk A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the collector of run-off wastewater (Si9, located in Kielce. Silnica River is a small river cutting through the city of Kielce from the North to the South-West. It has its source in Masłowskie Range at a height of 360 m a.s.l. and it flows into Bobrza River. It is ranked among mountain rivers at a 6.4 ‰ gradient. Its river-bed bas belonged to Kielecki Protected Landscape Area since 2006. Next to Szydłowek estate the artificial water body was build - Kielecki Bay. Beneath Kielecki Bay, Silnica River flows in regu1ated river-bed. Because of no separated storm water drainage, the rainwater washes away pollutants among others from industrial plants, houses, pavements, and streets into Silnica River. The wastewater treatment plant is located at the mouth of the Silnica River. It receives rainwater and snowmelt from the central - eastern part of the city with an area of 62 ha. The primary channel has a length of 1569 m and its diameter varies from 600 mm to 1250 mm. Is attached to the side of seventeen channels (with diameters from 300 mm to 1000 mm. The collector wells are 32 inspection and connection, and 24 entries. The side channels are located 119 wells and 82 outlets. The total length of the sewerage system is equal to 5583 m. The decrease of the collector changes to individual sections from 0.04% to 3.9%, and decreases in side channels to reach 2.61%. On average, one groove receives water from the surface of 0.585 ha. Ordinate the highest point in the catchment area is 271.20 m, 260.0 m above sea level the lowest, the average decrease in surface area is equal to 0.71%. Within the basin was isolated six types of surface runoff: roofs (14.3%, walks (8.4%, roads (17.7%, parking (11.2%, green (47.2% and pitch school (1.3%. Generally, paved areas with a high coefficient of runoff represent 52.83% of the total catchment area, which shows the typical urban character. The run-off wastewater is collected from the roofs by

  18. Engaging Future Teachers in Problem-Based Learning with the Park City Mathematics Institute Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogical technique recommended for K-12 mathematics classrooms. However, the mathematics courses in future teachers' degree programs are often lecture based. Students typically learn about problem-based learning in theory, but rarely get to experience it first-hand in their mathematics courses. The premise…

  19. Echocardiography in military oxygen divers.

    OpenAIRE

    Boussuges, Alain; Riera, Florence; Rossi, Pascal; Castagna, Olivier; Galland, François; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxygen divers undergo environmental stressors such as immersion, ventilation with scuba, cold exposure, and increased ambient pressure. All of these stressors may be responsible for acute hemodynamic modifications. We hypothesized that repeated hyperbaric hyperoxia exposure induces long-term cardiovascular modifications. METHODS: A Doppler echocardiography was conducted on 20 military oxygen divers (average 12 yr diving experience) and compared with 22 controls. Parameters known t...

  20. Trends in Mortality Disparities by Area-Based Poverty in New York City, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprani, Amita; Li, Wenhui; Hadler, James L

    2016-06-01

    Residing in a high-poverty area has consistently been associated with higher mortality rates, but the association between poverty and mortality can change over time. We examine the association between neighborhood poverty and mortality in New York City (NYC) during 1990-2010 to document mortality disparity changes over time and determine causes of death for which disparities are greatest. We used NYC and New York state mortality data for years 1990, 2000, and 2010 to calculate all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted death rates (AADRs) by census tract poverty (CTP), which is the proportion of persons in a census tract living below the federal poverty threshold. We calculated mortality disparities, measured as the difference in AADR between the lowest and highest CTP groups, within and across race/ethnicity, nativity, and sex categories by year. We observed higher all-cause AADRs with higher CTP for each year for all race/ethnicities, both sexes, and US-born persons. Mortality disparities decreased progressively during 1990-2010 for the NYC population overall, for each race/ethnic group, and for the majority of causes of death. The overall mortality disparity between the highest and lowest CTP groups during 2010 was 2.55 deaths/1000 population. The largest contributors to mortality disparities were heart disease (51.52 deaths/100,000 population), human immunodeficiency virus (19.96/100,000 population), and diabetes (19.59/100,000 population). We show that progress was made in narrowing socioeconomic disparities in mortality during 1990-2010, but substantial disparities remain. Future efforts toward achieving health equity in NYC mortality should focus on areas contributing most to disparities. PMID:27177681

  1. OLED study for military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, F.; Chiquard, A.; Faure, S.; Landais, L.; Patry, P.

    2005-07-01

    The presentation deals with some applications of OLED displays in military optronic systems, which are scheduled by SAGEM DS (Defence and Security). SAGEM DS, one of the largest group in the defence and security market, is currently investigating OLED Technologies for military programs. This technology is close from being chosen for optronic equipment such as future infantry night vision goggles, rifle-sight, or, more generally, vision enhancement systems. Most of those applications requires micro-display with an active matrix size below 1". Some others, such as, for instance, ruggedized flat displays do have a need for higher active matrix size (1,5" to 15"). SAGEM DS takes advantages of this flat, high luminance and emissive technology in highly integrated systems. In any case, many requirements have to be fulfilled: ultra-low power consumption, wide viewing angle, good pixel to pixel uniformity, and satisfactory behaviour in extreme environmental conditions.... Accurate measurements have been achieved at SAGEM DS on some micro display OLEDs and will be detailed: luminance (over 2000 cd/m2 achieved), area uniformity and pixel to pixel uniformity, robustness at low and high temperature (-40°C to +60°C), lifetime. These results, which refer to military requirements, provide a valuable feedback representative of the state of the art OLED performances.

  2. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It thus...... makes an investigation into the complex relationship between the words and policies of the ‘Experience Economy' and the actual urban transformations made in cities with reference to these changes. The paper discusses the cases researched in relation to the state, market, civil society framework as well...

  3. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  4. OB CITY-Definition of a Family-Based Intervention for Childhood Obesity Supported by Information and Communication Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruofei; Cancela, Jorge; Arredondo Waldmeyer, Maria Teresa; Cea, Gloria; Vlachopapadopoulou, Elpis-Athina; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Fico, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is becoming one of the 21st century's most important public health problems. Nowadays, the main treatment of childhood obesity is behavior intervention that aims at improve children's lifestyle to arrest the disease. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have not been widely employed in this intervention, and most of existing ICTs systems are not having a long-term effect. The purpose of this paper is to define a system to support family-based intervention through a state-of-the-art analysis of family-based interventions and related technological solutions first, and then using the analytic hierarchy process to derive a childhood obesity family-based behavior intervention model, and finally to provide a prototype of a system called OB CITY. The system makes use of applied behavior analysis, affective computing technologies, as well as serious game and gamification techniques, to offer long term services in all care dimensions of the family-based behavioral intervention aiming to provide positive effects to the treatment of childhood obesity. PMID:27602306

  5. Estimating Military Aircraft Cost Using Least Squares Support Vector Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jia-yuan; ZHANG Xi-bin; ZHANG Heng-xi; REN Bo

    2004-01-01

    A multi-layer adaptive optimizing parameters algorithm is developed for improving least squares support vector machines(LS-SVM),and a military aircraft life-cycle-cost(LCC)intelligent estimation model is proposed based on the improved LS-SVM.The intelligent cost estimation process is divided into three steps in the model.In the first step,a cost-drive-factor needs to be selected,which is significant for cost estimation.In the second step,military aircraft training samples within costs and cost-drive-factor set are obtained by the LS-SVM.Then the model can be used for new type aircraft cost estimation.Chinese military aircraft costs are estimated in the paper.The results show that the estimated costs by the new model are closer to the true costs than that of the traditionally used methods.

  6. Problems-based learning and the Agency of mapping the contemporary city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte

    The article presents a problem-based workshop held at Chulalongkorn University in bangkok. The gola is to show how problembased learning can be used in an intercultural context......The article presents a problem-based workshop held at Chulalongkorn University in bangkok. The gola is to show how problembased learning can be used in an intercultural context...

  7. Stress and Job Satisfaction among Air Force Military Pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress induces impairment of performance is a relatively common issue in pilots of military aviation. The present study aimed at gathering preliminary data on the relationship between stress and job satisfaction among military pilots, so determine to what extent military pilots suffering from job satisfaction. This study was cross- sectional in design and used survey methodology. The survey was offered to 89 military pilots. Subjects completed a Questionnaire with 32-item on Aviation Stress and short form of Minnesota job Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ. Results indicated that %33.7 pilots who had mild stress, %48.3 pilots who exhibited moderate stress and only, %13.5 pilots who indicated high stress. The stresses in pilots rating so: life stress, organizational stress, flight environmental stress and task-based stress. The correlation between job satisfactions and life stress was (-0/53, with organizational stress (-0/38, with flight environmental stress (-0/25, with task-based stressors (-0/23 and finally correlation between job satisfaction with flying hours was (-0/22. At this time when our military pilots have the least flights and spend most of their time idly, having no schedule can increase their stress, as well. Therefore, it is essential to provide them with some training, informing, evaluating and other psychological services, especially life skills and organizational skills. Furthermore, attending to military pilots and filling their schedule with useful programs such as flight with civilian airplanes, educational and research activities, favorite executive activities, sports and entertainment can decrease their stress, increase their job satisfaction and decrease their occupational weariness.

  8. ELIST8: simulating military deployments in Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planning for the transportation of large amounts of equipment, troops, and supplies presents a complex problem. Many options, including modes of transportation, vehicles, facilities, routes, and timing, must be considered. The amount of data involved in generating and analyzing a course of action (e.g., detailed information about military units, logistical infrastructures, and vehicles) is enormous. Software tools are critical in defining and analyzing these plans. Argonne National Laboratory has developed ELIST (Enhanced Logistics Intra-theater Support Tool), a simulation-based decision support system, to assist military planners in determining the logistical feasibility of an intra-theater course of action. The current version of ELIST (v.8) contains a discrete event simulation developed using the Java programming language. Argonne selected Java because of its object-oriented framework, which has greatly facilitated entity and process development within the simulation, and because it fulfills a primary requirement for multi-platform execution. This paper describes the model, including setup and analysis, a high-level architectural design, and an evaluation of Java

  9. Mad City Mystery: Developing Scientific Argumentation Skills with a Place-based Augmented Reality Game on Handheld Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Kurt D.; Jan, Mingfong

    2007-02-01

    While the knowledge economy has reshaped the world, schools lag behind in producing appropriate learning for this social change. Science education needs to prepare students for a future world in which multiple representations are the norm and adults are required to "think like scientists." Location-based augmented reality games offer an opportunity to create a "post-progressive" pedagogy in which students are not only immersed in authentic scientific inquiry, but also required to perform in adult scientific discourses. This cross-case comparison as a component of a design-based research study investigates three cases (roughly 28 students total) where an Augmented Reality curriculum, Mad City Mystery, was used to support learning in environmental science. We investigate whether augmented reality games on handhelds can be used to engage students in scientific thinking (particularly argumentation), how game structures affect students' thinking, the impact of role playing on learning, and the role of the physical environment in shaping learning. We argue that such games hold potential for engaging students in meaningful scientific argumentation. Through game play, players are required to develop narrative accounts of scientific phenomena, a process that requires them to develop and argue scientific explanations. We argue that specific game features scaffold this thinking process, creating supports for student thinking non-existent in most inquiry-based learning environments.

  10. The Military Route of 24 th Infantry Division within the Troops of North-Western, Western and Northern Fronts. 1914–1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylov Andrey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the operational record of 24th infantry division during the First World War within the troops of three fronts (North-Western, Northern and Western. This division was formed in 1863, and in 1892-1895 three of its four regiments were located in Pskov, an old city in the North-West of Russia. The officer staff (their social origin and education by the eve of the First World War as well as the mobilization course at the beginning of the War have been reviewed in the article. On the example of one military unit, typical of the Russian Army, the author analyzes the peculiar features of military operations during the First World War and the role of the division’s participation in several major operations in 1914-1917. They include the Russian Army’s dramatic offensive in East Prussia (summer and autumn 1914, the defensive fighting on the Ravca river (in the beginning of 1915, the offensive of the Russian army in Galicia in 1916 (known as Brusilov Offensive. The article has been finished with the story about the division’s way during the Russian Army’s disintegration in the period of the revolution of 1917. The article is based on the unpublished documents from Russian Military and Historic Archive (Moscow as well as on the press materials.

  11. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge...

  12. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... on the block” that will potentially be a game-changer for urban governance, economics and everyday life. Here we are thinking of the unmanned aerial vehicle or drone as the popular term has it. Therefore, the paper asks how life in “drone city” may play out. Drones may alter the notion of surveillance by means...

  13. One Step Forward--Half a Step Back: A Status Report on Bias-Based Bullying of Asian American Students in New York City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In September 2008, Mayor Michael Bloomberg and former Schools Chancellor, Joel Klein announced Chancellor's Regulation A-832, which established policies and procedures on how New York City schools should respond to bias-based harassment, intimidation, and bullying in schools. The Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund (AALDEF), the…

  14. 基于熵值法的中心城市宜居水平研究%Research of Center City Livable Level Based on Entropy Evaluation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张拓宇; 周婧博

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, our government attaches great importance to ecological civilization, the center cities have also proposed the development ideas of ecological livable. This paper selects the top 30 center cities on 2013 GDP, analysis their livable level based on relative index of economy, urban construction, people’s livelihood and environmental. According to the results, it will explore the common problems of center city ecological civilization, find the individual differences of the cities, and fulfill the evaluation methods of city ecological civilization.%近年来,国家高度重视生态文明建设,各中心城市也纷纷提出宜居、生态的发展理念。本文选取2013年地区生产总值排名前30位的中心城市为对象,基于城市经济、城建、民生、环境等方面若干相对性表征指标对城市宜居水平进行了分析,以期探讨中心城市生态文明建设的共性问题及不同城市间的个性差异,并为科学评价城市生态文明建设进行有益实践。

  15. Trial by Jury in Russian Military Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai P. Kovalev

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available One of peculiar features of the military criminal justice system in Russia is that in some cases military defendants may apply for trial by jury. Unlike the existing U.S. court-martial jury and the Russian military jury of the early 1900s (World War I period which were comprised of the members of the armed forces, in modern Russia jurors trying military defendants are civilians. This article aims to provide a brief history of military jury in Russia and identify issues of independence and impartiality in Russian military courts with participation of lay decision-makers. In particular, the article will analyze two high-profile cases which resulted in acquittals of Russian officers accused of killing several Chechen civilians during counter-terrorist operations in Chechnya.

  16. Military display market segment: helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2004-09-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of one of its segments: helicopter displays. Parameters requiring special consideration, to include luminance ranges, contrast ratio, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are examined. Performance requirements for rotary-wing displays relative to several premier applications are summarized. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DoD applications across 10 or more platforms, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area sizes across helicopter platforms, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or greater, is illustrated. Rotary-wing displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus Rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military helicopter programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. The military display market study is summarized with breakouts for the helicopter market segment. Our defense-wide study as of March 2004 has documented 1,015,494 direct view and virtual image displays distributed across 1,181 display sizes and 503 weapon systems. Helicopter displays account for 67,472 displays (just 6.6% of DoD total) and comprise 83 sizes (7.0% of total DoD) in 76 platforms (15.1% of total DoD). Some 47.6% of these rotary-wing applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, as per fixed-wing aircraft, the predominant instantiation involves higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  17. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  18. Touchscreen displays for military cockpits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoener, Steven J.; Hardy, Gregory J.

    1999-08-01

    To be successful, the implementation and mechanization of an infrared (IR) touchscreen display for military cockpit applications requires close attention to all aspects of integration, optics, display format design and system processing hardware and software. The F/A-18E/F program has incorporated a monochrome AMLCD touchscreen display into the cockpit to replace the mechanical pushbutton control panel. The new display provides the pilot with the versatility of a much more capable control panel and a new video display surface. This paper addresses the design considerations starting from concept development through integration and flight test, and finally to successful deployment of the Up- Front Control Display (UFCD) into production aircraft.

  19. Potential Cities_

    OpenAIRE

    Budzynski, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Buildings and urban construction are understood in this paper as representations of the city. Their meanings, however, are often invisible, positing unrealized urban visions, which are both imbedded in and which call up chains of associations expressing desires and fears. Narratives of what the city should be often contain the rejection of the existing urban situation. Understanding architectural objects as potential underscores their imaginary nature. Freud, for example, uses the Roman ruins...

  20. Beautiful city

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino

    2009-01-01

    Proponents of the City Beautiful movement advocated for sizable public investments in monumental spaces, street beautification, and classical architecture. Today, economists and policymakers see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract people and jobs to cities. But past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisure amenities for urban growth and development. In this article, Jerry Carlino uses a new data set on the number of leisure tourist ...

  1. City Beautiful

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino; Saiz, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The City Beautiful movement, which in the early 20th century advocated city beautification as a way to improve the living conditions and civic virtues of the urban dweller, had languished by the Great Depression. Today, new urban economic theorists and policymakers are coming to see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract population, especially the highly skilled and their employers. However, past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisur...

  2. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    M Batty

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  3. Military Burden and the Democracy Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Rota, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Kantian thought had advanced the idea that wars and military expenditure should decrease as long as democracy widens across the World. Historical evidence seems to invalidate this wisdom because frequency of wars is ncreasing over time and a large amount of public resources is still being committed to military spending. This paper contributes to explain this point by considering the effect of polity regimes on the military spending during the period 1880-1938. Indeed, before World War ...

  4. Taking Stock of EU Military Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    Annemarie Peen Rodt

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, the EU has established itself as a player in the international field of conflict management. Both its civilian missions and military operations have played a significant part in this development. This article takes a closer look at the EU’s military endeavours in conflict management. It presents a theoretically grounded definition and a corresponding set of criteria for success in military conflict management and evaluates the operations accordingly. The article provides...

  5. Sustainable cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed

  6. WEB ENABLED OPEN SOURCE GIS BASED TOURIST INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR BHOPAL CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreejit S. Nair,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available With GIS gaining its foot as a decision support system, its use is gaining relevance, but high cost of commercial GIS software hinders the growth. On the other hand the Free/Open Source Software (FOSS has opened up a gateway for many budget restricted institutions & users to venture into GIS development. This research paper assesses the possibility of using Open Source GIS (OS GIS based software’s to create a low cost GIS project and to publish the same over internet using free Web GIS software’s and services available. The project has been carried out to create a Tourist Information System model using OS GIS. It is found that OS GIS software like QGIS can provide practically all the GIS tools required for the GIS application like Tourist Information System. Mapserver and Google Map API can be used for web based GIS and query .

  7. Early warning GBInSAR-based method for monitoring Volterra (Tuscany, Italy) city walls

    OpenAIRE

    Pratesi F.; Nolesini T.; Bianchini S.; Leva D.; Lombardi L.; Fanti R.; Casagli N.

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based synthetic aperture radar interferometry (GBInSAR) remote sensing technique has been repeatedly proved an effective tool for monitoring built environment affected by structural and geological criticalities. In this paper, it is described how this technique can be successfully applied for early-warning procedures and detection of ongoing deterioration processes on archeological and cultural heritage sites. An integrated approach of GBInSAR and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) techno...

  8. Power-knowledge in district-based planning : the case of regeneration in Kowloon City District

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, Kin-ho; 楊建豪

    2014-01-01

    For the past decade, Hong Kong’s redevelopment strategy has been dictated by property-led urban regeneration. This approach is highly controversial as it often neglects the voices of people in the plan-making process. The growing desire for transparency and public involvement in the city’s governance system prompted the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) Government to introduce broad-based public engagement (PE) procedures to its institutional framework. In 2011, the new Urban Re...

  9. Aboriginal settlement patterns in Canadian cities: does the classic index-based approach apply?

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Starchenko; Evelyn J Peters

    2008-01-01

    Based on the evidence obtained in qualitative studies, Massey and Denton argued in their 1988 paper (“The dimensions of residential segregation” Social Forces 67 281 – 315) that the residential segregation of ethnic or racialized groups is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon and, therefore, should be measured along several dimensions simultaneously. In a systematic review and analysis of all segregation measures proposed to that date, they identified five conceptually distinct dimension...

  10. The Bioenvironmental modeling of Bahar city based on Climate-consistent Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Parna Kazemian

    2014-01-01

    The identification of the climate of a particularplace and the analysis of the climatic needs in terms of human comfort and theuse of construction materials is one of the prerequisites of aclimate-consistent design. In studies on climate and weather, usingillustrative reports, first a picture of the state of climate is offered. Then,based on the obtained results, the range of changes is determined, and thecause-effect relationships at different scales are identified. Finally, by ageneral exam...

  11. Khat Chewing and Mental Distress: A Community Based Study, in Jimma City, Southwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Damena, Tekalign; Mossie, Andualem; Tesfaye, Markos

    2011-01-01

    Background Khat (Catha edulis) contains a psychoactive substance, cathinone, which produces central nervous system stimulation analogous to amphetamine. It is believed that khat chewing has a negative impact on the physical and mental health of individuals as well as the socioeconomic condition of the family and the society at large. There is lack of community based studies regarding the link between khat use and poor mental health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association ...

  12. Study of Educational Adjustment and Educational Motivation in Military and Non-Military Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Students abilities to transfer from the community colleges into baccalaureate granting colleges and universities have become a global issue. The rise in students’college attendance has brought about new challenges in the area of academic motivation depriving them from educational pursuit despite proper qualifications. This comparative-descriptive study has been designed in order to compare between military and non-military students in terms of educational adjustment and motivation power and their related subscales. Subjects were selected from four colleges in Tehran.100 students from each college were selected through random sampling, subsequently the total sample were 400 college students. Half of whom were military college students and the other half was non-military college students. In order to collect data the Bell’s adjustment questionnaire and the questionnaire of educational motivation were used. Comparison between military and non-military students in terms of various aspects of adjustment showed that there is a meaningful difference between military and non-military students in terms of familial adjustment, hygienic adjustment and total adjustment (p≤0.01. Comparison between military and non-military students in terms of educational motivation power showed that there is meaningful difference in the level of p≤0.01 and was higher in military college students. Unlike non-military students, military students will definitely be working in areas relevant to their field of study. On one hand the motive to serve their country is stronger and that is why military students’ academic motive in meaningfully stronger than non-military students, maybe we need to increase motivation in non-military students with providing them job relevant to their field of study. The women Army population is not too high in IRAN so the problem related to this issue is not very serious at the moment. In order to prevent the upcoming problems in this issue we

  13. Lateral and Base Shear Forces Acting on 20 Stories Building in Bujumbura City during the Seismic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ndihokubwayo, Athanase

    2014-01-01

    International audience For designing a high-rise building in Bujumbura city, it is very important to know that the city is located in the seismic zone and therefore take adequate conceptual measures. This study was inspired by a tendency to high-rise building in Bujumbura city while the designers of these buildings do not have sufficient data on the impact of seismic activity in the area lying in the extension of the Rift Valley. By referring to the International Building code (Berkeley 20...

  14. WEB ENABLED OPEN SOURCE GIS BASED TOURIST INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR BHOPAL CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Sreejit S. Nair,; Katiyar, Dr. S. K.

    2011-01-01

    With GIS gaining its foot as a decision support system, its use is gaining relevance, but high cost of commercial GIS software hinders the growth. On the other hand the Free/Open Source Software (FOSS) has opened up a gateway for many budget restricted institutions & users to venture into GIS development. This research paper assesses the possibility of using Open Source GIS (OS GIS) based software’s to create a low cost GIS project and to publish the same over internet using free Web GIS soft...

  15. 基于宜居目标的山水城市规划控制研究:以肇庆市为例%Planning Control to Scenic City Based on Livable Target: The Case of Zhaoqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘垚; 邓昭华; 李钰

    2012-01-01

    In the "Research of livable city evaluation index system of science", the livable city includes six indicators, "the beauty of environment" and "the ease of living "are closely related to the urban planning. Zhaoqing as a famous tourist city and historical&cultural city, has always been famous by its "Mountain. Lake. City. River". With rapid advance in modern cities and towns in recent years, some new development of residential area for local interests at the expense of urban environmental quality acts common. Technical perspective, the results of internal predictability of the urban space planning, lack of control, and need a complete index system. Indicators of current planning controls do not apply to reflect the city's old town area. It will not be able to ensure the public use of the scarce resources of nature landscape. The research is based on the "livable" urban landscape experience and the idea of "form-based coding". Through the overall control and form control of residential area, the urban landscape will be suitable for living purposes.%在《宜居城市科学评价指标体系研究》中,宜居城市包括六项指标,其中“环境优美度”和“生活便宜度”与城市规划密切相关.肇庆作为著名的风景旅游城市和国家历史文化名城,一向以“山湖城江”闻名于世.近年来随着城镇建设的快速推进,一些新开发的楼盘为了局部利益牺牲城市环境质量的行为屡见不鲜.从技术层面看,国内当前规划对空间结果预见性不足,缺乏相对完善的控制指标体系.现行的规划控制不适用于体现城市特色的老城区,更无法保证稀缺景观资源的公共性是导致上述现象的主要原因.该文借鉴世界著名“宜居”山水城市经验,借助“形态区划”的方法,从宏观到微观,通过整体风貌控制和居住建筑形态控制,在保护城市山水环境基础上达到宜居的目的.

  16. Non-Military Nuclear Ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents short description of nuclear reactor of loop-type PWRs for non-military ships in Russia and in Japan. It starts with the first nuclear ice-breaker ''Lenin'' initially powered with 3 x OK-150 reactors, replaced later by only 2 x OK-900 and then 2 x OK-900A. By reason of success the OK-900A twins were chosen for the six subsequent ice-breaker. Newer generation of propulsion reactors is KLT-40, also loop-type PWRs, which is used for container transport despite ice-breaking capabilities. Its modification, KLT-40M is meant also for river bound routes. Whereas the KLT-40C is intended for a floating power plant version. As the number of nuclear ships, civilian as well as military (aircraft carriers, submarines) increased it was rational to provide special (diesel powered) fleet to serve them for refueling, fuel storage, and liquid radwaste processing and interim storage. The Japanese nuclear research ship, Mutsu (36 MWt), had terminated its service several years ago. A stationary version of its reactor design (36 MWt, 9 MWe), being smaller in pressure vessel size, is being offered by the MHI for the coupling with a desalination plant

  17. The supply of pharmaceuticals in humanitarian assistance missions: implications for military operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Maysaa; Riley, Kevin; Bennett, David; Anderson, Warner

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of key international guidelines governing the supply of pharmaceuticals during disasters and complex emergencies. We review the World Health Organization?s guidelines on pharmaceutical supply chain management and highlight their relevance for military humanitarian assistance missions. Given the important role of pharmaceuticals in addressing population health needs during humanitarian emergencies, a good understanding of how pharmaceuticals are supplied at the local level in different countries can help military health personnel identify the most appropriate supply options. Familiarity with international guidelines involved in cross-border movement of pharmaceuticals can improve the ability of military personnel to communicate more effectively with other actors involved in humanitarian and development spheres. Enhancing the knowledge base available to military personnel in terms of existing supply models and funding procedures can improve the effectiveness of humanitarian military operations and invite policy changes necessary to establish more flexible acquisition and funding regulations. PMID:22113725

  18. Concept Of Revitalization Of Selected Military Facilities Of Dragoons Barracks In Olsztyn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagroba, Marek

    2015-12-01

    Revitalization is a complex program to restore the functioning of the neglected urban areas in terms of spatial, economic and social. Revitalization activities on post-military facilities are stopping negative phenomena, such as degradation of space, social pathology or lack of proper functioning of the area, adapted to modern needs. The object of the work is to present some aspects with the revitalization of former military facilities in the area of the Artyleryjska Street in Olsztyn. The presented design concept aims to revitalize a neglected area of the barracks, which will enable the activation site and include it in the city urban space. The method adopted in this work is the architectural project of adapting selected post-military facilities for new functions, affecting the economic development and social integration of people.

  19. Training MSSW Students for Military Social Work Practice and Doctoral Students in Military Resilience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuMars, Tyler; Bolton, Kristin; Maleku, Arati; Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2015-01-01

    The demand for social workers with military-related practice and research experience exceeds the current supply. To advance military social work education, we developed an interlevel master's of science in social work (MSSW) field practicum and doctoral research practicum that provides military social work field experiences and contributes to…

  20. Bringing the Military Back in: Military Expenditures and Economic Growth 1990 to 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Kentor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available After the “peace bonus” era, global military expenditures have escalated sharply despite some worldwide declines in military personnel. Theories on the economic impacts of the military institution and escalated military spending greatly differ and include arguments that they either improve domestic economic performance or crowd out growth-inducing processes. Empirical findings on this matter are inconclusive, in part due to a failure to disentangle the various dimensions of military expenditures. We further suggest that modern sociology's relative inattention to such issues has contributed to these shortcomings. We explore a new dimension of military spending that clarifies this issue—military expenditures per soldier —which captures the capital intensiveness of a country’s military organization. Our cross-national panel regression and causal analyses of developed and less developed countries from 1990 to 2003 show that military expenditures per soldier inhibit the growth of per capita GDP, net of control variables, with the most pronounced effects in least developed countries. These expenditures inhibit national development in part by slowing the expansion of the labor force. Labor-intensive militaries may provide a pathway for upward mobility, but comparatively capital-intensive military organizations limit entry opportunities for unskilled and under- or unemployed people. Deep investments in military hardware also reduce the investment capital available for more economically productive opportunities. We also find that arms imports have a positive effect on economic growth, but only in less developed countries.

  1. SOUTH AFRICA'S MILITARY ON THE MOVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. McWilliams

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available If one looks at the South African Defence Force (SADF, it becomes apparent that it is the strongest defence force in Africa based on trained manpower, organisation, weapons systems, mobilisation capacity and defence budget. The Republic of South Africa has the capability to procure and manufacture the overwhelming majority of its weapons and armaments through its existing parastatal, Armaments Corporation of South Africa Ltd. (Armcscor. According to The Military Balance, 1986-87, published by the International Institute for Strategic Studies, (IISS, South Africa has 250 Centurian/Olifant tanks, 1 600 Eland armoured cars, 1 500 Ratel Infantry combat vehicles, 372 combat aircraft, 16 armed helicopters and 144 other helicopters. The SADF can mobilize over 400 000 personnel. Defence expenditures for 1985/6 were 2,27 billion dollars. The defence budget for 1986/7 indicates allocations of 2,012 billion dollars.

  2. THE COMPARISON OF QUALITY OF LIFE FOR THE ELDERLY BASED ON DIFFERENT LEVELS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE CITY OF SHIRAZ

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Sabet Sarvestani; Mehrdad Afkhami

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study to compare quality of life for the elderly based on differentlevels of physical activity in the city of Shiraz in 1389 was conducted. In this study; theresearch is type event (eli comparison). For this purpose; 120 elderly residents of nursing atthe center of Shiraz Jhandydgan example and were randomly selected. Elderly participantseligible after completion of physical activity determined based on the type and duration ofdaily activity and calorie intake was designed...

  3. Geo-hazards risk zonation and warning system based on GIS in Anshan City of Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhishuang YANG; Mao PAN; Xiaopeng WANG

    2006-01-01

    Debris flow and Karst collapse are the main parts of geological disasters in Anshan, which have affected on the construction and development of the social economy of Anshan. In order to enhance the studies of rules of disaster and give scientific estimation and alarm ahead of schedule warning, we established the warning system of Anshan and investigated the corresponding software, which are based on the deep discussions about the crisis estimation and methods of prediction of disasters. In this paper, the foundation of model used in estimating the alarm ahead of schedule for disaster and the methods of appraisal for the alarm ahead of schedule are discussed. This system for warning and evaluating is the combination of the models of warning and GIS flat roof, with so many virtues, such as complete functions, convenience, applicability, which has considered the output of data, analyses of space, chooses of model, output of production, report of information for warning and the statements and help of system.

  4. BUDGETING FOR CITY AND COUNTY GOVERNMENTS: HOW PERFORMANCE-BASED BUDGETING COULD HAVE REDUCED BUDGET DEFICITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. Murray, Ph.D.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The recession of 2007-09 resulted in large budget deficits for municipal governments in the U.S. One of the major causes was the use of traditional line-item budgeting. Research has shown that line-item budgeting is particularly ineffective during times of fiscal turbulence and uncertainty as policy-makers tend to overestimate anticipated revenues during recessionary periods while underestimating the growth rate of expenses. Further complicating the budgetary process is the large, and growing, amount of employee health care and pension unfunded liabilities. Municipal governments that employed performance-based budgeting, however, experienced budgetary deficits that were significantly smaller and whose duration was measurably shorter, suggesting that this process of budgeting provided significant advantages.

  5. GIS-based approach for optimised collection of household waste in Mostaganem city (Western Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelli, I S; Abdelmalek, F; Djelloul, A; Mesghouni, K; Addou, A

    2016-05-01

    This work proposes an optimisation of municipal solid waste collection in terms of collection cost and polluting emissions (carbon oxides, carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter). This method is based on a simultaneous optimisation of the vehicles routing (distance and time travelled) and the routing system for household wastes collection based on the existing network of containers, the capacity of vehicles and the quantities generated in every collecting point. The process of vehicle routing optimisation involves a geographical information system. This optimisation has enabled a reduction of travelled distances, collection time, fuel consumption and polluting emissions. Pertinent parameters affecting the fuel consumption have been utilised, such as the state of the road, the vehicles speed in the different paths, the vehicles load and collection frequencies. Several scenarios have been proposed. The results show the importance of the construction of a waste transfer station that can reduce the cost of household waste collection and emissions of waste transfer pollutants. Among the proposed five scenarios, we have noticed that the fourth scenario (by constructing a waste transfer centre) was the most performing. So, the routes of optimised travelled distance of the new circuits have been reduced by 71.81%. The fuel consumption has been reduced by 72.05% and the total cost of the collection has been reduced by 46.8%. For the polluting emissions, the reduction has been by 60.2% for carbon oxides, by 67.9% for carbon dioxides, by 74.2% for nitrogen oxides and by 65% for particulate matter. PMID:26951341

  6. The diurnal and seasonal characteristics of urban heat island variation in Beijing city and surrounding areas and impact factors based on remote sensing satellite data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Jiahua; HOU; Yingyu; LI; Guicai; YAN; Hao; YANG; Lim

    2005-01-01

    Based on the land surface temperature (LST), the land cover classification map,vegetation coverage, and surface evapotranspiration derived from EOS-MODIS satellite data, and by the use of GIS spatial analytic technique and multivariate statistical analysis method, the urban heat island (UHI) spatial distribution of the diurnal and seasonal variabilities and its driving forces are studied in Beijing city and surrounding areas in 2001. The relationships among UHI distribution and landcover categories, topographic factor, vegetation greenness, and surface evapotranspiration are analyzed. The results indicate that: (i) The significant UHI occur in Beijing city areas in the four seasons due to high heat capacity and multi-reflection of compression building, as well as with special topographic features of its three sides surrounded by mountains,especially in the summer. The UHI spatial distribution is corresponding with the urban geometry structure profile. The LST difference is approximately 4-6℃ between Beijing city and suburb areas, comparatively is 8- 10℃ between Beijing city area and outer suburb area in northwestern regions. (ii) The UHI distribution and intensity in daytime are different from nighttime in Beijing city area, the nighttime UHI is obvious. However, in the daytime, the significant UHI mainly appears in the summer, the autumn takes second place, and the UHI in the winter and the spring seem not obvious. The surface evapotranspiration in suburb areas is larger than that in urban areas in the summer, and high latent heat exchange is evident, which leads to LST difference between city area and suburb area. (iii) The reflection of surface landcover categories is sensitive to the UHI, the correlation between vegetation greenness and UHI shows obviously negative.The scatterplot shows that there is the negative correlation between NDVI and LST (R2 = 0.6481).The results demonstrate that the vegetation greenness is an important factor for reducing the UHI

  7. Are Cyber Weapons Effective Military Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Iasiello

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-attacks are often viewed in academic and military writings as strategic asymmetric weapons, great equalizers with the potential of leveling the battlefield between powerful nations and those less capable. However, there has been little evidence to suggest that cyber-attacks are a genuine military option in a state-on-state conflict. In instances of actual military operations (e.g., Afghanistan, Georgia, Iraq, and Israel/Gaza, there is little accompanying evidence of a military conducting cyber-attacks against either a civilian or military target. Given that some of the nation states that have been involved in military conflict or peacekeeping missions in hostile areas are believed to have some level of offensive cyber capability, this may be indicative. More substantive examples demonstrate that cyber-attacks have been more successful in non-military activities, as they may serve as a clandestine weapon of subterfuge better positioned to incapacitate systems without alerting the victims, veiling the orchestrator’s true identity via proxy groups and plausible deniability. Consequently, this paper provides a counter argument to the idea that cyber tools are instrumental military weapons in modern day warfare; cyber weapons are more effective options during times of nation state tension rather than military conflict, and are more serviceable as a signaling tool than one designed to gain military advantage. In situations where state-on-state conflict exists, high value targets that need to be neutralized would most likely be attacked via conventional weapons where battle damage assessment can be easily quantified. This raises the question: are cyber weapons effective military tools?

  8. The demographics of military children and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clever, Molly; Segal, David R

    2013-01-01

    Since the advent of the all-volunteer force in the 1970s, marriage, parenthood, and family life have become commonplace in the U.S. military among enlisted personnel and officers alike, and military spouses and children now outnumber service members by a ratio of 1.4 to 1. Reviewing data from the government and from academic and nonacademic research, Molly Clever and David R. Segal find several trends that distinguish today's military families. Compared with civilians, for example, service members marry younger and start families earlier. Because of the requirements of their jobs, they move much more frequently than civilians do, and they are often separated from their families for months at a time. And despite steady increases since the 1970s in the percentage of women who serve, the armed forces are still overwhelmingly male, meaning that the majority of military parents are fathers. Despite these distinguishing trends, Clever and Segal's chief finding is that military families cannot be neatly pigeonholed. Instead, they are a strikingly diverse population with diverse needs. Within the military, demographic groups differ in important ways, and the service branches differ from one another as well. Military families themselves come in many forms, including not only the categories familiar from civilian life--two-parent, single-parent, and so on--but also, unique to the military, dual-service families in which both parents are service members. Moreover, military families' needs change over time as they move through personal and military transitions. Thus the best policies and programs to help military families and children are flexible and adaptable rather than rigidly structured. PMID:25518690

  9. Developing an effective 2-D urban flood inundation model for city emergency management based on cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Yu, D.; Liu, K.; Huang, H.; Hu, G.

    2015-03-01

    Flash floods have occurred frequently in the urban areas of southern China. An effective process-oriented urban flood inundation model is urgently needed for urban storm-water and emergency management. This study develops an efficient and flexible cellular automaton (CA) model to simulate storm-water runoff and the flood inundation process during extreme storm events. The process of infiltration, inlets discharge and flow dynamics can be simulated with little preprocessing on commonly available basic urban geographic data. In this model, a set of gravitational diverging rules are implemented to govern the water flow in a rectangular template of three cells by three cells of a raster layer. The model is calibrated by one storm event and validated by another in a small urban catchment in Guangzhou of southern China. The depth of accumulated water at the catchment outlet is interpreted from street-monitoring closed-circuit television (CCTV) videos and verified by on-site survey. A good level of agreement between the simulated process and the reality is reached for both storm events. The model reproduces the changing extent and depth of flooded areas at the catchment outlet with an accuracy of 4 cm in water depth. Comparisons with a physically based 2-D model (FloodMap) show that the model is capable of effectively simulating flow dynamics. The high computational efficiency of the CA model can meet the needs of city emergency management.

  10. Ground based measurements of SO2 and NO2 emissions from the oil refinery 'la Teja' in Montevideo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present preliminary results of ground based measurements of SO2 and NO2 emissions from 'La Teja' oil refinery located in the northern part of Montevideo Bay. Our study is part of a long term effort to localize and monitor relevant emission sources in the city area of Montevideo. These measurements were performed with a Miniature Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometry (MiniMAX-DOAS) instrument, which is basically a temperature controlled medium-resolution spectrometer (∼ 0.5 nm) equipped with a small telescope and a stepper motor allowing automatic scans in one dimension. We present a discussion about the evolution and transformation of both above species in the atmosphere. Our observation site was approximately 1.9 km away from the oil refinery and we were able to perform vertical and horizontal scans of the plume emitted (during our measurements) almost horizontally from its stacks. The maximum value of the SO2 slant column density (SCD) was found to be ∼ 4x1017 molec cm-2 directly over the oil refinery, decreasing as the plume disperses. In contrast, the NO2 SCD peaks at ∼ 1x1016 molec cm-2 directly over the source and increases continuously as the plume disperses. The SO2 flux measured immediately downwind of the refinery was found to be about 1200 kg h-1 (±40% uncertainty).

  11. Driver Sleepiness and Risk of Car Crashes in Shenyang, a Chinese Northeastern City: Population-based Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAI-FEN LIU; SONG HAN; DUO-HONG LIANG; FENG-ZHI WANG; XIN-ZHU SHI; JIAN YU; ZHENG-LAI WU

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the association of driver sleepiness with the risk of car crashes.Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in Shenyang, a northeastern city in China, between November 2001 and July 2002. The case group comprised 406 car drivers involved in crashes, and 438 car drivers recruited at randomly selected sites, and on the day of week, and the time of day when they were driving on highways in the study region during the study period were used as control groups. Face-to-face interviews with drivers were conducted according to a well-structured questionnaire covering the circumstances of their current trip and their background information.Stanford sleepiness scale and Epworth sleepiness scale were used to quantify acute sleepiness and chronic sleepiness respectively. Results There was a strong association between chronic sleepiness and the risk of car crash. Significantly increased risk of crash was associated with drivers who identified themselves as sleepy (Epworth sleepiness score ≥ 10 vs <10; adjusted odds ratio 2.07, 95%confidence interval 1.30 to 3.29), but no increased risk was associated with measures of acute sleepiness. Conclusions Chronic sleepiness in car drivers significantly increases the risk of car crash. Reductions in road traffic injuries may be achieved if fewer people drive when they are sleepy.

  12. A WebGIS-Based Information System for Monitoring and Warning of Geological Disasters for Lanzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Miao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and warning of geological disasters accurately and in a timely fashion would dramatically mitigate casualties and economic losses. This paper takes Lanzhou city as an example and designs a Web-based system, namely the information system for geological disaster monitoring and warning (ISGDMW. Presented are its framework, key developing technologies, database, and working flow. The information system adopts a Browser/Server (B/S structure and has three-tier architecture, combining in-situ monitoring instruments, the wireless sensor network, WebGIS techniques and the grey system theory. The framework of the ISGDMW can be divided into three categories: (1 in-situ monitoring system, it aims to monitor geological disaster sites and get state information of geological disaster sites; (2 database, manage in-situ monitoring data, antecedent field investigating data and basic data; (3 analyzing and warning system, analyze in-situ monitoring data, understand the deformation trend of the potential geological disaster, and release disaster warning information to the public. The ISGDMW allow the processes of geological disaster monitoring, in-situ monitoring data analysis, geological disaster warning to be implemented in an efficient and quick way, and can provide scientific suggestions to commanders for quick response to the possibility of geological disaster.

  13. Profiles of Mathematics Performance by Students of Chilean City Schools, Based on Cognitive Ability by Socioeconomic Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tirso Oscar Baltra San Martín

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the performance profile of Chilean city-school students from different socioeconomic strata, in relation to different sets of cognitive abilities specified in the curriculum framework for mathematics education in their country. The study is correlational and ex post facto in type, derived from the results of the math test of the System for Measuring Educational Quality (SIMCE applied to second-semester students of the 2001 school year. The percentage of students at each performance level was calculated, based on each student’s probability of correctly answering each of the test questions, using logistic function, associated with the two-parameter model of the Item Response Theory (IRT. The results show that regardless of the set of cognitive abilities in question, the performance profile follows a similar pattern. It was found that in general, there is a linear decrease in the percentage of those who achieve superior performances among students from low and medium-low strata, and exponential increases for middle-class students.

  14. GIS applications for military operations in coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, S.; Jordan, T.; Madden, M.; Usery, E.L.; Welch, R.

    2009-01-01

    In order to successfully support current and future US military operations in coastal zones, geospatial information must be rapidly integrated and analyzed to meet ongoing force structure evolution and new mission directives. Coastal zones in a military-operational environment are complex regions that include sea, land and air features that demand high-volume databases of extreme detail within relatively narrow geographic corridors. Static products in the form of analog maps at varying scales traditionally have been used by military commanders and their operational planners. The rapidly changing battlefield of 21st Century warfare, however, demands dynamic mapping solutions. Commercial geographic information system (GIS) software for military-specific applications is now being developed and employed with digital databases to provide customized digital maps of variable scale, content and symbolization tailored to unique demands of military units. Research conducted by the Center for Remote Sensing and Mapping Science at the University of Georgia demonstrated the utility of GIS-based analysis and digital map creation when developing large-scale (1:10,000) products from littoral warfare databases. The methodology employed-selection of data sources (including high resolution commercial images and Lidar), establishment of analysis/modeling parameters, conduct of vehicle mobility analysis, development of models and generation of products (such as a continuous sea-land DEM and geo-visualization of changing shorelines with tidal levels)-is discussed. Based on observations and identified needs from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, formerly the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the Department of Defense, prototype GIS models for military operations in sea, land and air environments were created from multiple data sets of a study area at US Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Results of these models, along with methodologies for developing large

  15. Smart City Services over a Future Internet Platform Based on Internet of Things and Cloud: The Smart Parking Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lanza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the effectiveness of city services and assisting on a more sustainable development of cities are two of the crucial drivers of the smart city concept. This paper portrays a field trial that leverages an internet of things (IoT platform intended for bringing value to existing and future smart city infrastructures. The paper highlights how IoT creates the basis permitting integration of current vertical city services into an all-encompassing system, which opens new horizons for the progress of the effectiveness and sustainability of our cities. Additionally, the paper describes a field trial on provisioning of real time data about available parking places both indoor and outdoor. The trial has been carried out at Santander’s (Spain downtown area. The trial takes advantage of both available open data sets as well as of a large-scale IoT infrastructure. The trial is a showcase on how added-value services can be created on top of the proposed architecture.

  16. High resolution mapping of the tropospheric NO2 distribution in three Belgian cities based on airborne APEX remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Frederik; Merlaud, Alexis; Fayt, Caroline; Danckaert, Thomas; Iordache, Daniel; Meuleman, Koen; Deutsch, Felix; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Fierens, Frans; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    An approach is presented to retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs) and to map the NO2 two dimensional distribution at high resolution, based on Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) observations. APEX, developed by a Swiss-Belgian consortium on behalf of ESA (European Space Agency), is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with a high spatial (approximately 3 m at 5000 m ASL), spectral (413 to 2421 nm in 533 narrow, contiguous spectral bands) and radiometric (14-bit) resolution. VCDs are derived, following a similar approach as described in the pioneering work of Popp et al. (2012), based on (1) spectral calibration and spatial binning of the observed radiance spectra in order to improve the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, (2) Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analysis of the pre-processed spectra in the visible wavelength region, with a reference spectrum containing low NO2 absorption, in order to quantify the abundance of NO2 along the light path, based on its molecular absorption structures and (3) radiative transfer modeling for air mass factor calculation in order to convert slant to vertical columns. This study will be done in the framework of the BUMBA (Belgian Urban NO2 Monitoring Based on APEX hyperspectral data) project. Dedicated flights with APEX mounted in a Dornier DO-228 airplane, operated by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), are planned to be performed in Spring 2015 above the three largest and most heavily polluted Belgian cities, i.e. Brussels, Antwerp and Liège. The retrieved VCDs will be validated by comparison with correlative ground-based and car-based DOAS observations. Main objectives are (1) to assess the operational capabilities of APEX to map the NO2 field over an urban area at high spatial and spectral resolution in a relatively short time and cost-effective way, and to characterise all aspects of the retrieval approach; (2) to use the APEX NO2 measurements

  17. A Comparative Field Based Study of Katz and Barthel Indices in North Indian City of Dehradun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Luthra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elderly persons are one of the most vulnerable groups of society and have more chances of disease and disabilities (restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. It reflects how well an individual is able to function in general areas of life. Magnitude of disability has become an important indicator in measuring disease burden along with morbidity and mortality rates. Katz and Barthel Indices have been largely used to assess disability in activities of daily living among elderly people.Aim & objectives: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among persons aged 60 years and above in urban field practice area of SGRRIM&HS, Dehradun, Uttarakhand with the aim of comparing these two indices in community setting. The specific objectives were to find ADL dependence by both the indices, find the factors which significantly affect ADL dependence and to find the degree of agreement which is not by chance between Katz and Barthel Indices.Material methods: An interview schedule was developed and administered to participants in Hindi, by trained investigators. Information on age, marital status, living status education, occupation and economic dependence was recorded. House-to-house visits were conducted in the selected area to collect the data. All elderly persons residing in the selected area were included in the study.Results: Prevalence of ADL dependence was 8.23% as per Katz Index and 28.45% as per Barthel Index, taking a score of less than 20 for BI and less than 6 for KI as criterion for ADL dependence. That there is a moderate degree of agreement between Katz and Barthel Scores which is not by chance was estimated by Kappa Statistic.Conclusion: Katz Index is better suited for ADL estimation in a community setting.

  18. Sustainability of water-supply at military installations, Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2014-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, including the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, is host to several military installations of Afghanistan, the United States, and other nations that depend on groundwater resources for water supply. These installations are within or close to the city of Kabul. Groundwater also is the potable supply for the approximately four million residents of Kabul. The sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin is a concern to military operations, and Afghan water-resource managers, owing to increased water demands from a growing population and potential mining activities. This study illustrates the use of chemical and isotopic analysis, groundwater flow modeling, and hydrogeologic investigations to assess the sustainability of groundwater resources in the Kabul Basin.Water supplies for military installations in the southern Kabul Basin were found to be subject to sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow-water supply wells as a result of declining water levels. Model simulations indicate that new withdrawals from deep aquifers may have less of an impact on surrounding community water supply wells than increased withdrawals from near- surface aquifers. Higher rates of recharge in the northern Kabul Basin indicate that military installations in that part of the basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Simulations of groundwater withdrawals may be used to evaluate different withdrawal scenarios in an effort to manage water resources in a sustainable manner in the Kabul Basin.

  19. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... intercepting any waterbased activity occurring within the active military security zone/s and...

  20. 7 CFR 1400.213 - Military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military personnel. 1400.213 Section 1400.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.213 Military personnel. If...

  1. 14 CFR 13.21 - Military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military personnel. 13.21 Section 13.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.21 Military personnel. If a report...

  2. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...

  3. Investigating Team Learning in a Military Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veestraeten, Marlies; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2014-01-01

    As teams have become fundamental parts of today's organisations, the need for these teams to function and learn efficiently and effectively is widely emphasised. Also in military contexts team learning is vital. The current article examines team learning behaviour in military teams as it aims to cross-validate a team learning model that was…

  4. 76 FR 68609 - Military Family Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... make America's military the finest in the world, their family members embody the resilience and... United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-28838 Filed... November 4, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8743--Military Family Month, 2011 Proclamation...

  5. Mapping of leptospirosis risk factor based on remote sensing image in Tembalang, Semarang City, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaryo Sunaryo

    2012-09-01

    of leptospirosis, physical environment of risk factor analysis.Methods: This cross sectional design consisted of 246 leptospirosis subjects mapped with GPS, and processed by using ArcGis 92 program. Leptospirosis case was overlaid with remote sensing (Quickbird image, then is done interpretation of spatial feature, and digitation on screen to visual identify of risk factor.Results: Based on digital visualization leptospirosis cases in 2009 were clustered in Tembalang with shortest distance index 0,009 km and is furthermost 18 km. More case distribution found at children and men adolescent. Temporally, case increased in the dry season, among of July and August. Result of visual interpretation and digitation can obtain land use map, water body, settlement, fl oods area, vegetation index and height.Conclusion: Spatial high resolution remote sensing image is very good for mapping of leptospirosis risk factor. Leptospirosis case distribution forms the cluster in Tembalang; case is predominated by children andmen adolescent. (Health Science Indones 2012;1:45-50 

  6. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria colonization of healthy US military personnel in the US and Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Vento, Todd J.; Cole, David W; Mende, Katrin; Calvano, Tatjana P.; Rini, Elizabeth A.; Tully, Charla C; Zera, Wendy C.; Guymon, Charles H; Yu, Xin; Cheatle, Kristelle A; Akers, Kevin S.; Beckius, Miriam L.; Landrum, Michael L.; Murray, Clinton K.

    2013-01-01

    Background The US military has seen steady increases in multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections in casualties from Iraq and Afghanistan. This study evaluates the prevalence of MDR GNB colonization in US military personnel. Methods GNB colonization surveillance of healthy, asymptomatic military personnel (101 in the US and 100 in Afghanistan) was performed by swabbing 7 anatomical sites. US-based personnel had received no antibiotics within 30 days of specimen collect...

  7. OW DIFFERENT ARE THE PERCEPTIONS OVER THE MAIN MOTIVATIONAL TOOLS IN MILITARY? AN ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP) APPROACH.

    OpenAIRE

    Paul - Mugurel POLEANSCHI

    2014-01-01

    In the Romanian military system, motivational rewards based on merits are precisely regulated and ranked as confined by the military order in which they are mentioned. The existing hierarchy of these main motivational rewards is partly inherited, partly harmonized with other international military partner organizations and it is implicitly assumed that decision makers are able to equidistantly evaluate the merits of their subordinates. Still, decision makers’ personal, implicit perceptions ov...

  8. Aerosol airmass type mapping over the urban Mexico City region from space-based multi-angle imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Patadia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Using Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR and sub-orbital measurements from the 2006 INTEX-B/MILAGRO field campaign, in this study we demonstrate MISR's ability to map different aerosol air mass types over the Mexico City metropolitan area. The aerosol air mass distinctions are based on shape, size and single scattering albedo retrievals from the MISR Research Aerosol Retrieval algorithm. In this region, the research algorithm identifies dust-dominated aerosol mixtures based on non-spherical particle shape, whereas spherical biomass burning and urban pollution particles are distinguished by particle size. Four distinct aerosol air masses are identified in the MISR data on 6 March 2006; these results are supported by coincident, airborne high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL measurements. Aerosol optical depth (AOD gradients are also consistent between the MISR and sub-orbital measurements, but particles having SSA558≈0.7 must be included in the retrieval algorithm to produce good absolute AOD comparisons over pollution-dominated aerosol air masses. The MISR standard V22 AOD product, at 17.6 km resolution, captures the observed AOD gradients qualitatively, but retrievals at this coarse spatial scale and with limited spherical absorbing particle options underestimate AOD and do not retrieve particle properties adequately over this complex urban region. However, we demonstrate how AOD and aerosol type mapping can be accomplished with MISR data over urban regions, provided the retrieval is performed at sufficiently high spatial resolution, and with a rich enough set of aerosol components and mixtures.

  9. Calculation of ground vibration spectra from heavy military vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, V. V.; Pickup, S.; McNuff, J.

    2010-07-01

    The demand for reliable autonomous systems capable to detect and identify heavy military vehicles becomes an important issue for UN peacekeeping forces in the current delicate political climate. A promising method of detection and identification is the one using the information extracted from ground vibration spectra generated by heavy military vehicles, often termed as their seismic signatures. This paper presents the results of the theoretical investigation of ground vibration spectra generated by heavy military vehicles, such as tanks and armed personnel carriers. A simple quarter car model is considered to identify the resulting dynamic forces applied from a vehicle to the ground. Then the obtained analytical expressions for vehicle dynamic forces are used for calculations of generated ground vibrations, predominantly Rayleigh surface waves, using Green's function method. A comparison of the obtained theoretical results with the published experimental data shows that analytical techniques based on the simplified quarter car vehicle model are capable of producing ground vibration spectra of heavy military vehicles that reproduce basic properties of experimental spectra.

  10. Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Military Populations During Pandemic Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Kilic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Influenza causes substantial illness and loss of work days among young adults, and outbreaks can affect the preparedness of military units. In an influenza pandemic, people who live in confined settings have greater risk of infection. Military trainees are at particularly high risk. Because of likely unavailability of vaccines and antiviral drugs at the start of a pandemic and for many months thereafter, nonpharmaceutical interventions may be very important. During a pandemic, it seems prudent that military public health officials employ at least several nonpharmaceutical interventions. For example frequent handwashing and respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette should be strongly encouraged among soldiers. Head-to-toe sleeping, a “no-cost” intervention should be for crowded berthing areas. Isolation of patients with influenza and quarantine of their close contacts should be employed. Masks and alcohol-based hand rubs may be employed among those at highest risk. Finally, whenever possible military planners should, reduce crowding and limit the interaction of training cohorts to reduce risk of influenza virus transmission. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 285-290

  11. Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Military Populations During Pandemic Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Kilic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Influenza causes substantial illness and loss of work days among young adults, and outbreaks can affect the preparedness of military units. In an influenza pandemic, people who live in confined settings have greater risk of infection. Military trainees are at particularly high risk. Because of likely unavailability of vaccines and antiviral drugs at the start of a pandemic and for many months thereafter, nonpharmaceutical interventions may be very important. During a pandemic, it seems prudent that military public health officials employ at least several nonpharmaceutical interventions. For example frequent handwashing and respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette should be strongly encouraged among soldiers. Head-to-toe sleeping, a “no-cost” intervention should be for crowded berthing areas. Isolation of patients with influenza and quarantine of their close contacts should be employed. Masks and alcohol-based hand rubs may be employed among those at highest risk. Finally, whenever possible military planners should, reduce crowding and limit the interaction of training cohorts to reduce risk of influenza virus transmission. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 285-290

  12. World military expenditures and global cardiovascular mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, M Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Can we estimate the consequences of world military expenditures for the physical and mental health of nations that produce and purchase armaments? If anxiety and fear are promoting military expenditures, then those sentiments may well reflect poorer mental health and war-related stress as it influences cardiovascular illness rates. Further, extensive military expenditure by a society implies that other societal needs are allocated fewer resources, including nutrition, water and sanitation, health care, and economic development. We use a model focused on military expenditures to predict cardiovascular mortality in world samples of industrialized and developing countries over 2000-2011. The cardiovascular mortality model controls for economic development, smoking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and carbon dioxide emissions. Military expenditures as proportion of gross domestic product show significant positive relations to cardiovascular disease mortality in linear multiple regression analyses, using both cross-sectional and pooled cross-sectional time-series approaches. PMID:26675148

  13. Taking Stock of EU Military Conflict Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Peen Rodt

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the EU has established itself as a player in the international field of conflict management. Both its civilian missions and military operations have played a significant part in this development. This article takes a closer look at the EU’s military endeavours in conflict management. It presents a theoretically grounded definition and a corresponding set of criteria for success in military conflict management and evaluates the operations accordingly. The article provides a comprehensive review of all the EU military conflict management operations to date. The analysis is structured and focused around the criteria for success, which provides a more nuanced picture of the Union’s operational achievements throughout its first decade in military conflict management.

  14. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trads, Søren Frimann; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services with...... potential visitors, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of...... - or willingness to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  15. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project exploring sustainable ways of urban living. The project renders a scenario comprised of an array of simple conversions of existing urban spaces and buildings, in the attempt to tie strategies ranging from urban planning to interior design into a coherent vision of a...... sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  16. Optical interconnects for military systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, David A.

    1999-04-01

    Optical interconnects are being used increasingly in military systems. Sensor platforms in particular have seen great benefit from the use of fiberoptics as a replacement for coaxial cables. Optical interconnects is continuing to find new application at shorter and shorter distances throughout the sensor platform. High density free space optical components will extend the use of optical interconnects down to the inter-chip level. However, optical interconnect technologies can do more than just transmit data at high speeds. The ability to simultaneously process and transmit optical data, as could be done in optical signal processing, gives optical interconnects the ability to inject new capabilities into sensor system on-board processing. In order to see actual field deployment, these new technologies will need to be rigorously tested.

  17. Military nuclear activities. Strategic prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This special dossier aims at providing some key articles about France's deterrence doctrine. It provides a comprehensive overview of the challenges and questions about military nuclear activities and opens up some future prospects about this question. The dossier comprises 37 papers dealing with: 1 - Military nuclear activities: yesterday, today, tomorrow (Coldefy, A.); 2 - Deterrence according to French President Francois Hollande: continuation, precision and inflexions (Tertrais, B.); 3 - French deterrence warrantor of our independence in the 21. century (Rouillard, G.); 4 - The deterrence concept prior to the nuclear weapon era (Widemann, T.); 5 - France: the strategic marine force in operation (Guillaume, L.M.); 6 - Relevance of the airborne component in the nuclear deterrence strategy (Steininger, P.); 7 - Deterrence stakes for the Directorate General of Armaments (Guillemette, A.); 8 - The Charles-de-Gaulle aircraft carrier: the deterrence voice from the sea (Wodka-Gallien, P.); 9 - Deterrence: missions of the army's radiation protection department (Amabile, J.C.; Granger-Veyron, N.; Carbonnieres, H. de); 10 - The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the French defense strategy (Roche, N.); 11 - DCNS, general contractor in the service of deterrence (Guillou, H.); 12 - The airborne nuclear component for MBDA (Bouvier, A.); 13 - Ballistic missile of the marine nuclear component: industrial stakes (Pastre, B.); 14 - Beyond defense against missiles: a US anti-deterrence strategy (Baconnet, A.); 15 - Deterrence dynamics in South Asia (Monsonis, G.); 16 - Military nuclear activities in East Asia (Brisset, J.V.); 17 - North Korea would own nuclear weapons, so what? (Hemez, R.); 18 - About the risk of nuclear warfare in Europe (Tchernega, V.); 19 - Present day nuclear activities: deterrence and gesticulation (Wedin, L.); 20 - Belgian F-16 replacement: nuclear dimension (Dumoulin, A.); 21 - Israel and nuclear deterrence (Razoux, P.); 22 - Nuclear

  18. Market impact of military material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international uranium market is unique among industries affected by disarmament, in that primary uranium production is so far below consumption that the market can easily accommodate the introduction of military materials. However, governments need to schedule their introduction responsibly to avoid jeopardizing the multi-billion dollar investments made in the private sector over the past 40 years; but so far, the only recognition of this responsibility is in the assurances given U.S. producers and Canada. Unfortunately, these assurances are already under attack by US Enrichment Corp. (USEC). How this drama is played out will determine the future of producers around the world and, for the time being, will continue to contribute to an uncertain world uranium market. 5 figs

  19. Radiochemical analysis of military nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Radiochemical Analysis is a branch of analytical chemistry comprising an aggregate of methods for qualitatively determining the composition and content of radioisotopes in the products of transformations. Safety and minimization of radiation impact on human and environment are important demand of operation of Military Nuclear Facilities (MNF). In accordance of recommendations of International Commission on Radiological Protection there are next objects of radiochemical analysis: 1) potential sources of radiochemical pollution; 2) environment (objects of environment, human environment including buildings, agricultural production, water, air et al.); 3) human himself (determination of dose from external and internal radiation, chemical poisoning). The chemical analysis can be carried out using, for example, the Gas Chromatography instrument whish separates chemical mixtures and identifies the components at a molecular level. It is one of the most accurate tools for analyzing environmental samples. The Gas Chromatography works on the principle that a mixture will separate into individual substances when heated. The heated gases are carried through a column with an inert gas (such as helium). As the separated substances emerge from the column opening, they flow into the Mass Spectrometry. Mass spectrometry identifies compounds by the mass of the analyte molecule. Newly developed portable Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry are techniques that can be used to separate volatile organic compounds and pesticides. Other uses of Gas Chromatography, combined with other separation and analytical techniques, have been developed for radionuclides, explosive compounds such as royal demolition explosive and trinitrotoluene, and metals. So, based on the many years experience of operation of dangerous MNF, in concordance with norms of radiation and chemical safety it was considered that the tasks of the radiochemical analysis of Military Nuclear Facilities include

  20. Natural Bionic Design Based on Expressions of Essence, Energy and Spirit Culture in the Military Camps%基于营区精、气、神文化表达的自然仿生设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑涛; 刘宁波; 黄帅; 陈暲

    2014-01-01

    精、气、神文化是营区规划设计的核心。自然仿生设计为营区精、气、神文化的表达提供了独特而有效的方式。通过对营区精、气、神文化的解读,发掘出自然仿生的3个层面,即“形”之仿生,“意”之仿生和“结构”之仿生。在营区规划设计中,当自然仿生的这3个层面得到有效表达,实现有机统一,营区就会产生独特的文化气质与魅力,从而体现其精、气、神特色,展现部队的“军营魂”。%The essence, energy and spirit are the essence of the planning and designs of military camps. Natural bionic de⁃signs provide a unique and effective way for the expressions of the essence, energy and spirit culture in military camps. By means of interpretation of essence, energy and spirit culture in military camps, three ideas of the natural bionics is found, which are the ap⁃pearances, connotations and constructions. In the planning design of military camps, when these ideas of the natural bionics are ex⁃pressed effectively and united organically, the military camps will have the unique cultural qualities and charms. In this way, the es⁃sence, energy and spirit culture of the military camps are reflected and the soul of the army is manifested.

  1. A Novel Location-Centric IoT-Cloud Based On-Street Car Parking Violation Management System in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Dinh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in big cities, parking management is a critical issue from both the driver’s side and the city government’s side. From the driver’s side, how to find an available parking lot in a city is a considerable concern. As a result, smart parking systems recently have received great interest, both in academia and industry. From the city government’s side, how to manage and distribute such a limited public parking resource efficiently to give every visitor a fair chance of finding an on-street parking lot is also a considerable concern. However, existing studies of smart parking management focus only on assisting the driver’s side to find available parking spaces. This study aims to raise a new perspective on such smart parking management and to propose a novel location-centric IoT-cloud-based parking violation management system. The system is designed to assist authoritative officers in finding parking violations easily and recommends the least cost path for officers so that officers can achieve their highest productivity in finding parking violations and issuing parking tickets. Experimental results show that the system not only improves the productivity of officers in finding parking violations and issuing tickets, but also helps reduce the traveling cost of officers and to reduce the average violation period of violating cars considerably.

  2. A Novel Location-Centric IoT-Cloud Based On-Street Car Parking Violation Management System in Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Thanh; Kim, Younghan

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, in big cities, parking management is a critical issue from both the driver's side and the city government's side. From the driver's side, how to find an available parking lot in a city is a considerable concern. As a result, smart parking systems recently have received great interest, both in academia and industry. From the city government's side, how to manage and distribute such a limited public parking resource efficiently to give every visitor a fair chance of finding an on-street parking lot is also a considerable concern. However, existing studies of smart parking management focus only on assisting the driver's side to find available parking spaces. This study aims to raise a new perspective on such smart parking management and to propose a novel location-centric IoT-cloud-based parking violation management system. The system is designed to assist authoritative officers in finding parking violations easily and recommends the least cost path for officers so that officers can achieve their highest productivity in finding parking violations and issuing parking tickets. Experimental results show that the system not only improves the productivity of officers in finding parking violations and issuing tickets, but also helps reduce the traveling cost of officers and to reduce the average violation period of violating cars considerably. PMID:27271620

  3. AHEAD OF THE GAME: ADOPTING 21ST CENTURY LEARNING APPROACHES SUPPORTED BY VIDEO-BASED WEB CONFERENCING TECHNOLOGY IN A ROMANIAN PROFESSIONAL TRAINING MILITARY CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula CHARBONNEAU-GOWDY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent major political uprisings are indicating the extent to which social learning Web 2.0 technologies, can infl uence change in informal learning settings. Recognition and a discussion of the potential of that infl uence in formal learning settings have only just begun. This article describes a study of an international distance learning project in 2004, using a variety of Web 2.0 technologies, including video-based web conferencing, that sought to initiate and respond to this urgent need for dialogue in the research. Self-selected participants took part in a 5-week English as a foreign language (EFL program, a joint NATO sponsored Canadian and Romanian Ministry of Defense-supported initiative. Clear evidence of linguistic knowledge construction and of important changes to participants’ learner identities, indicates the power of these technologies to support the kind of learning that can lead to the development of global citizens and the skills they will increasingly require in the 21st century.

  4. GIS-based Identification of Urban Residential Hotspots to Flooding and the Quantification of the Uncertainties for two African Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Risi, Raffaele; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Cavan, Gina; Renner, Florian; Lindley, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    The hot spots in an urban setting can be defined as the zones exposed to significant risk due to climate-related extreme events such as flooding. Arguably, identifying the urban hot spots to flooding is one of the first steps in an integrated methodology for urban flood risk assessment and mitigation. The delineation of urban hotspots not only can provide useful information for the policy makers but also it can be useful as support information for indicating future urban dynamics and trends. This work employs two GIS-based frameworks for identifying the urban residential hot spots. This is done by overlaying a map of potentially flood prone areas (the topographic wetness index, TWI) and a map of urban morphology types (UMT) classified as residential. The topographic wetness index (TWI, Beven Qin et al. 2011) allows for the delineation of a portion of a hydrographic basin potentially exposed to flood inundation by identifying all the areas characterized by a topographic index that exceeds a given threshold. The urban morphological types (Pauleit and Duhme 2000, Gill et al. 2008, Cavan et al. 2012) form the foundation of a classification scheme which brings together facets of urban form and function. The application of the UMTs allows the delineation of geographical units. The distinction of UMTs at a 'meso'-scale (i.e. between the city level and that of the individual units) makes a suitable basis for the spatial analysis of cities. The TWI threshold value depends on the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM), topology of the hydrographic basin (i.e. urban, peri-urban or rural) and the constructed infrastructure (Manfreda et al. 2011). This threshold value is usually calibrated based on the results of detailed delineation of the inundation profile for selected zones. In this study, the TWI threshold is calibrated based on the calculated inundation profiles for various return periods for selected zones within the basin through a Bayesian framework. The

  5. Ecological Safety Evaluation of Land Use in Ji’an City Based on the Principal Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the ecological safety evaluation index data of land-use change in Ji’an City from 1999 to 2008,positive treatment on selected reverse indices is conducted by Reciprocal Method.Meanwhile,Index Method is used to standardize the selected indices,and Principal Component Analysis is applied by using year as a unit.FB is obtained,which is related with the ecological safety of land-use change from 1999 to 2008.According to the scientific,integrative,hierarchical,practical and dynamic principles,ecological safety evaluation index system of land-use change in Ji’an City is established.Principal Component Analysis and evaluation model are used to calculate four parameters,including the natural resources safety index of land use,the socio-economic safety indicators of land use,the eco-environmental safety index of land use,and the ecological safety degree of land use in Ji’an City.Result indicates that the ecological safety degree of land use in Ji’an City shows a slow upward trend as a whole.At the same time,ecological safety degree of land-use change is relatively low in Ji’an City with the safety value of 0.645,which is at a weak safety zone and needs further monitoring and maintenance.

  6. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  7. City Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  8. Production of Liquid Synthetic Fuels from Carbon, Water and Nuclear Power on Ships and at Shore Bases for Military and Potential Commercial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is demonstrable that synthetic fuels (jet/diesel/gasoline ≅ (CH2)n) can be produced from carbon, water, and nuclear energy. What remains to be shown is that all system processes are scalable, integrable, and economical. Sources of carbon include but are not limited to CO2 from the atmosphere or seawater, CO2 from fossil-fired power plants, and elemental carbon from coal or biomass. For mobile defense (Navy) applications, the ubiquitous atmosphere is our chosen carbon source. For larger-scale sites such as Naval Advance Bases, the atmosphere may still be the choice should other sources not be readily available. However, at many locations suitable for defense and, potentially, commercial syn-fuel production, far higher concentrations of carbon may be available. The rationale for this study was manifold: fuel system security from terrorism and possible oil embargoes; rising demand and, eventually, peaking supply of conventional petroleum; and escalating costs and prices of fuels. For these reasons, the initial parts of the study were directed at Syn-fuel production for mobile Naval platforms and shore sites such as Rokkasho, Japan (as an exemplar). Nuclear reactors would provide the energy for H2 from water-splitting, Membrane Gas Absorption (MGA) would extract CO2 from the atmosphere, the Reverse Water-Gas Reaction (RWGR) would convert the CO2 to CO, and the resultant H2 and CO feeds would be converted to (CH2)n by the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Many of these processes exist at commercial scale. Some, particularly MGA and RWGR, have been demonstrated at the bench-scale, requiring up-scaling. Likewise, the demonstration of an integrated system at some scale is yet to be done. For ship-based production, it has been shown that the system should be viable and, under reasonable assumptions, both scalable and economical for defense fuels. For the assumptions in the study, fuel cost estimates range from ∼ $2.55 to $4.75 per gallon with a nominal cost of ∼ $3.65 per

  9. Analysis on inbound tourists satisfaction in China:an empirical study based on the investigation of 5 cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Rong; Wang Xueping

    2009-01-01

    In China,the tourism industry is regarded as one means of fostering local economic development.This paper tries to examine inbound tourism development in China in the last decade and analyze inbound tourism's satisfaction of their travel experience with tourist attractions,facilities,services and price by an empirical study based on the investigation of Lanzhou,Wuhan,Guangzhou,Shanghai and Beijing.This paper discusses the demographie characteristics of visitors from Hong Kong,Macao and Taiwan,US,Korea and Japan by surveying a sample of 528 visitors in five different cities.The survey showed that four provinces/autonomous region in western China ranked the top 10 popular destinations.Chinese natural landscape,culture and food were highly regarded by the tourists.At the same time,tourists expressed less satisfaction with tourist language convenience,tourist facility and nightlife in China.It was also found that only 7.4% of the tourists thought travel in China was far more than what they had paid,that 6.5% regarded they got what they paid for,and that 34.9% thought the travel cost was reasonable.Most tourists were satisfied with their travel experience in China;many of them would like to return to China and would like to recommend China.For the sustainable development of tourism,Chinese tourism authorities should strengthen the construction,propaganda and management of scenic spots,improve tourist facility and tourist edueation,especially language convenience,and strengthen the supervision of tickets,souvenir and hotel prtce.

  10. Sustainability analysis of the urban ecosystem in Guangzhou City based on information entropy between 2004 and 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhenming; XIA Bin

    2013-01-01

    The urban ecosystem possesses dissipating structures that can absorb substances and energy from the external environment and export products and wastes to maintain order within the system.Given these circumstances,this paper analyzed the ability of the urban ecosystem in Guangzhou City to sustain development from the perspective of entropy.The research was carried out in three steps.First,an evaluation index system that considers the ability of the urban ecosystem for sustainable development was formed based on the structures and functions of the urban ecosystem and the change in the entropy of the urban socioeconomic ecosystem.Second,the sustainable development ability assessment model for the urban ecosystem was built using information entropy.Last,by combining the time series variation of the evaluation indicators with the entropy weights,this paper analyzed the influence of the combined factors on the sustainable development ability of the urban ecosystem in Guangzhou and suggested some measures to promote the sustainable development of the urban ecosystem in Guangzhou.The conclusions of this study can be summarized as follows:(1) The urban ecosystem has developed in an orderly and healthy direction,with effective control over the urban environmental pollution problems in Guangzhou between 2004 and 2010.(2) The sustainable development ability of the urban ecosystem had been on an upward trend in Guangzhou during the study period.The ability of the natural urban ecosystem to support the urban socioeconomic ecosystem increased continuously,and the improved ecoenvironment enhanced the harmony and vitality of the urban ecosystem in Guangzhou.

  11. Geospatial and Remote Sensing-based Indicators of Settlement Type---Differentiating Informal and Formal Settlements in Guatemala City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Karen K.

    This research addresses the need for reliable, repeatable, quantitative measures to differentiate informal (slum) from formal (planned) settlements using commercial very high resolution imagery and elevation data. Measuring the physical, spatial and spectral qualities of informal settlements is an important precursor for evaluating success toward improving the lives of 100 million slum dwellers worldwide, as pledged by the United Nations Millennium Development Goal Target 7D. A variety of measures were tested based on surface material spectral properties, texture, built-up structure, road network accessibility, and geomorphology from twelve communities in Guatemala City to reveal statistically significant differences between informal and formal settlements that could be applied to other parts of the world without the need for costly or dangerous field surveys. When information from satellite imagery is constrained to roads and residential boundaries, a more precise understanding of human habitation is produced. A classification and regression tree (CART) approach and linear discriminant function analysis enabled a variable dimensionality reduction from the original 23 to 6 variables that are sufficient to differentiate a settlement as informal or formal. The results demonstrate that the entropy texture of roads, the degree of asphalt road surface, the vegetation patch compactness and patch size, the percent of bare soil land cover, the geomorphic profile convexity of the terrain, and the road density distinguish informal from formal settlements with 87--92% accuracy when results are cross-validated. The variables with highest contribution to model outcome that are common to both approaches are entropy texture of roads, vegetation patch size, and vegetation compactness suggesting that road texture, surface materials and vegetation provide the necessary characteristics to distinguish the level of informality of a settlement. The results will assist urban planners and

  12. Military Importance of Natural Toxins and Their Analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitschmann, Vladimír; Hon, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Toxin weapon research, development, production and the ban on its uses is an integral part of international law, with particular attention paid to the protection against these weapons. In spite of this, hazards associated with toxins cannot be completely excluded. Some of these hazards are also pointed out in the present review. The article deals with the characteristics and properties of natural toxins and synthetic analogs potentially constituting the basis of toxin weapons. It briefly describes the history of military research and the use of toxins from distant history up to the present age. With respect to effective disarmament conventions, it mentions certain contemporary concepts of possible toxin applications for military purposes and the protection of public order (suppression of riots); it also briefly refers to the question of terrorism. In addition, it deals with certain traditional as well as modern technologies of the research, synthesis, and use of toxins, which can affect the continuing development of toxin weapons. These are, for example, cases of new toxins from natural sources, their chemical synthesis, production of synthetic analogs, the possibility of using methods of genetic engineering and modern biotechnologies or the possible applications of nanotechnology and certain pharmaceutical methods for the effective transfer of toxins into the organism. The authors evaluate the military importance of toxins based on their comparison with traditional chemical warfare agents. They appeal to the ethics of the scientific work as a principal condition for the prevention of toxin abuse in wars, military conflicts, as well as in non-military attacks. PMID:27136512

  13. Military Importance of Natural Toxins and Their Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pitschmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxin weapon research, development, production and the ban on its uses is an integral part of international law, with particular attention paid to the protection against these weapons. In spite of this, hazards associated with toxins cannot be completely excluded. Some of these hazards are also pointed out in the present review. The article deals with the characteristics and properties of natural toxins and synthetic analogs potentially constituting the basis of toxin weapons. It briefly describes the history of military research and the use of toxins from distant history up to the present age. With respect to effective disarmament conventions, it mentions certain contemporary concepts of possible toxin applications for military purposes and the protection of public order (suppression of riots; it also briefly refers to the question of terrorism. In addition, it deals with certain traditional as well as modern technologies of the research, synthesis, and use of toxins, which can affect the continuing development of toxin weapons. These are, for example, cases of new toxins from natural sources, their chemical synthesis, production of synthetic analogs, the possibility of using methods of genetic engineering and modern biotechnologies or the possible applications of nanotechnology and certain pharmaceutical methods for the effective transfer of toxins into the organism. The authors evaluate the military importance of toxins based on their comparison with traditional chemical warfare agents. They appeal to the ethics of the scientific work as a principal condition for the prevention of toxin abuse in wars, military conflicts, as well as in non-military attacks.

  14. A perspective on safeguarding and monitoring of excess military plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a perspective and framework for the development of safeguarding and monitoring procedures for the various stages of disposition of excess military plutonium. The paper briefly outlines and comments on some of the issues involved in safeguarding and monitoring excess military plutonium as it progresses from weapons through dismantlement, to fabrication as reactor fuel, to use in a reactor, and finally to storage and disposal as spent fuel. open-quotes Militaryclose quotes refers to ownership, and includes both reactor-grade and weapon-grade plutonium. open-quotes Excessclose quotes refers to plutonium (in any form) that a government decides is no longer needed for military use and can be irrevocably removed from military stockpiles. Many of the issues and proposals presented in this paper are based on, or are similar to, those mentioned in the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on excess military plutonium. Safeguards for plutonium disposition are discussed elsewhere in terms of requirements established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Here, the discussion is less specific. The term open-quotes safeguardingclose quotes is used broadly to refer to materials control and accountancy (MC ampersand A), containment and surveillance (C ampersand S), and physical protection of nuclear materials by the state that possesses those materials. This is also referred to as material protection, control, and accountancy (MPCA). The term open-quotes safeguardingclose quotes was chosen for brevity and to distinguish MPCA considered in this paper from international or IAEA safeguards. open-quotes Monitoringclose quotes is used to refer to activities designed to assure another party (state or international organization) that the nuclear materials of the host state (the United States or Russia) are secure and not subject to unauthorized

  15. The military-technical aspect in activities of Kharkiv aviation plant (60-s – 80-s of XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Kharuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main trends in military programs implemented in Kharkiv aviation plant. The issue of creation of military models of the passenger aircrafts Tu-124 and Tu-134, production of Tu-141 drones, cruise missiles Ch-55 and light military transport aircraft An-72 at this enterprise is described. It is shown that production of military equipment was taking a significant share in total production of Kharkiv aviation plant (Kharkiv Aviation Production Association in 1960-1980. The analysis is based mainly on published materials and can be further studied in relevant archives.

  16. Preventing Postpartum Smoking Relapse Among Inner City Women: Development of a Theory-Based and Evidence-Guided Text Messaging Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Kuang-Yi; Miller, Suzanne M.; Kilby, Linda; Fleisher, Linda; Belton, Tanisha D.; Roy, Gem; Hernandez, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Background Underserved women are at high risk for smoking relapse after childbirth due to their unique socioeconomic and postpartum stressors and barriers. Mobile text messaging technology allows delivery of relapse prevention programs targeted to their personal needs over time. Objective To describe the development of a social-cognitive theory-based and evidence-guided text messaging intervention for preventing postpartum smoking relapse among inner city women. Methods Guided by the cognitiv...

  17. A Study on Celebrity Based Advertisements on the Purchase Attitude of Consumers towards Durable Products in Coimbatore city, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    A. Pughazhendi; Thirunavukkarasu, R.; S.Susendiran

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to investigate celebrity based advertisements on the purchase attitude of consumers towards durable products in reference to the city of Coimbatore. In the present era of information explosion and media influence, these advertisements play a major role in changing the settled perception or thinking, which is otherwise called attitude, of the consumer and also the consumption pattern of the society in general. Across the world, celebrities have been used for a wide variety of br...

  18. 基于CityMaker的VR导游系统植物景观的创建研究%Research on Modeling Plants' Landscapes of Virtual Reality Tour Guide System Based on CityMaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄惠阳; 陈能

    2012-01-01

    研究了基于CityMaker的VR导游系统植物景观的创建流程,解决其他植物模型创建方法所面临的问题。从外部地块树的创建、内部地块树的创建、大面积植物的种植、MDB文件的导出与修改、LOD的制作、植物景观的导入与合成等6个步骤,一一加以剖析。最后,总结植物景观贴图的制作规范,并强调3DMAX之Billboard插件在营造贴图立体感上的重要作用。%This paper describes a process about modeling plants' landscapes of Virtual Reality Tour Guide System based on CityMaker, solving similar problems when we use other methods. It consists of six steps, namely, modeling external area trees, modeling internal area trees, cultivating a large area of plants, exporting and modifying MDB files, setting Levels of Detail, importing and synthesizing plants' landscapes. Finally, it sums up some standards of producing plants' maps, and stresses that a plug-in called Billboard for Autodesk 3ds Max plays an important role in creating people's stereoscopic feel.

  19. Eco-Environmental Assessment and Analysis of Tonglvshan Mining Area in Daye City, Hubei Province Based on Spatiotemporal Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. M.; He, G. J.; Wang, M. M.; Zhang, Z. M.; Jiao, W. L.; Peng, Y.; Wang, G. Z.; Liu, H. C.; Long, T. F.

    2015-07-01

    Mine exploitation has a significant impact on the ecological environment status of the surroundings. To analyze the impact of Tonglvshan Mining area to its surroundings, this paper adopted the spatiotemporal methodology based on the extracted Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI) to analysis the extent and degree of the effect. The spatiotemporal methodologies are based on two scales: buffers and administrative units. EQI includes Biological Abundance Index (BAI), Vegetation Index (VI), Water Network Density Index (WNDI), and Land Degradation Index (LDI). The weight of each Index was determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and scores of the experts. The calculating of EQI was referenced to the standard "Technical criterion for Eco-environment Status Evaluation" HJ/T192-2006 and the "Standards for Classification and Gradation of Soil Erosion" SL 190-96. Considering ecological and environmental characteristics relevant to China, this method has been widely used to study the environment status of specific regions in China. The assessment based on buffers adopted the radius of 300m, 500m, 700m, 1000m, 1500m, 2000m, 2500m, 3000m, 3500m, and 4000m as the buffers in 3 typical miners respectively. The calculated result indicates that, the REI is increasing with the radius and the increasing rate becoming smaller until REI is stable. Which means the effect of miner is getting weaker with the distance to the miner is increasing and the effect is diminished when the distance is far enough. The analysis of the 3 typical miner shows that the extent and degree of the effect of miner relates not only with the area of the miner, but also with type of mineral resource, the status of mining and the ecological restoration. The assessment was also carried out by calculating the EQI in 14 administrative units in Daye city in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The study shows that the EQI is decreasing in 14 units from 2000 to 2010. The spatiotemporal analysis of the type and area of land

  20. ECO-ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF TONGLVSHAN MINING AREA IN DAYE CITY, HUBEI PROVINCE BASED ON SPATIOTEMPORAL METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. M. Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mine exploitation has a significant impact on the ecological environment status of the surroundings. To analyze the impact of Tonglvshan Mining area to its surroundings, this paper adopted the spatiotemporal methodology based on the extracted Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI to analysis the extent and degree of the effect. The spatiotemporal methodologies are based on two scales: buffers and administrative units. EQI includes Biological Abundance Index (BAI, Vegetation Index (VI, Water Network Density Index (WNDI, and Land Degradation Index (LDI. The weight of each Index was determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and scores of the experts. The calculating of EQI was referenced to the standard “Technical criterion for Eco-environment Status Evaluation” (HJ/T192-2006)and the “Standards for Classification and Gradation of Soil Erosion” (SL 190-96). Considering ecological and environmental characteristics relevant to China, this method has been widely used to study the environment status of specific regions in China. The assessment based on buffers adopted the radius of 300m, 500m, 700m, 1000m, 1500m, 2000m, 2500m, 3000m, 3500m, and 4000m as the buffers in 3 typical miners respectively. The calculated result indicates that, the REI is increasing with the radius and the increasing rate becoming smaller until REI is stable. Which means the effect of miner is getting weaker with the distance to the miner is increasing and the effect is diminished when the distance is far enough. The analysis of the 3 typical miner shows that the extent and degree of the effect of miner relates not only with the area of the miner, but also with type of mineral resource, the status of mining and the ecological restoration. The assessment was also carried out by calculating the EQI in 14 administrative units in Daye city in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The study shows that the EQI is decreasing in 14 units from 2000 to 2010. The spatiotemporal

  1. Cities, Towns and Villages, The City Limit was originally obtained from FEMA dataset in 2003 and continued to be updated based on DeKalb County tax map and City's deed and annexation., Published in 2010, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Decatur.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. It is described as 'The...

  2. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P.;

    2016-01-01

    ), and reports the application of these data for the risk assessment of alcohol on a population scale using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Raw 24-h composite wastewater samples were collected over a one-week period from 20 cities following a common protocol. For each sample a specific and stable alcohol...... consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE...

  3. Scarcity Makes the City

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The first talk in the series, Scarcity Makes the City, features Vancouver-based economic geographer Geoff Mann. Looking at how modern political economy affects social relations and our experience of everyday life, Mann will discuss how contemporary capitalist dynamics shape Vancouver’s urban context, and the pasts, presents, and futures that weave it together.

  4. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  5. Revealing hidden paint layers in oil paintings by means of scanning macro-XRF: a mock-up study based on Rembrandt's “An old man in military costume”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfeld, M.; De Nolf, W.; Cagno, S.; Appel, K.; Siddons, D.P.; Kuczewski, A.; Janssens, K.; Dik, J.; Trentelman, K.; Walton, M.; Sartorius, A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several decades the oeuvre of Rembrandt has been the subject of extensive art historical and scientific investigations. One of the most striking features to emerge is his frequent re-use of canvases and panels. The painting An Old Man in Military Costume (78.PB.246), in the collection

  6. Canned rice products as Philippine military food ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V

    2003-05-01

    Canned prototypes of rice (CR) and rice meal with pork sausage (CRM) were developed as military food ration models for evaluation by personnel in the Bonifacio Naval Station, Fort Bonifacio, Makati, Philippines. The prototypes were produced based on the assumption that a serving size equivalent to 400 g cooked rice and a meat-based viand using a 1:4 (wt/wt) viand to rice ratio was adequate as a single-serve meal for a typical Philippine military personnel. The CR and CRM prototypes were low acid products with pH values of 4.9 and 5.5, respectively. The processed rice portions of the prototypes showed about 200% volume and weight increases, moderate clumpiness and low percentage breakage. More than 90% of the respondents agreed that CR and CRM were suitable military food rations. Majority of the panelists indicated preference for meat-based and poultry-based viands. Bulk and weight portativity problems, however, were raised with the 400 g serving size of cooked products in cans. PMID:12775372

  7. Application of modern reliability database techniques to military system data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunea, Cornel [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, George Washington University, 1776 G Street, NW, Suite 9, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)], E-mail: cornel@gwu.edu; Mazzuchi, Thomas A.; Sarkani, Shahram; Chang, H.-C. [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, The George Washington University, 1776 G Street, NW, Suite 9, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    This paper focuses on analysis techniques of modern reliability databases, with an application to military system data. The analysis of military system data base consists of the following steps: clean the data and perform operation on it in order to obtain good estimators; present simple plots of data; analyze the data with statistical and probabilistic methods. Each step is dealt with separately and the main results are presented. Competing risks theory is advocated as the mathematical support for the analysis. The general framework of competing risks theory is presented together with simple independent and dependent competing risks models available in literature. These models are used to identify the reliability and maintenance indicators required by the operating personnel. Model selection is based on graphical interpretation of plotted data.

  8. Hamilton : the electric city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Earth's City Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  10. MILITARY PATRIOTIC EDUCATION OF CADETS IN A MARITIME UNIVERSITY: THE ESSENCE AND THE DEFINITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorofeev A. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the political, the military and the economic power of the Russian Federation is impossible without development of patriotism and without stirring up the most important part of military-patriotic education of youth, including, of course, cadets of maritime colleges. Nowadays, the patriotism is demanded by society as a state ideology, as a most important condition and the way of spiritual and economic revival of Russia; it’s demanded as a way to unite and consolidate the entire population of Russia and as the answer to provocation from western countries seeking to weakening of Russia and finally to the collapse of the Russian world. Patriotism can be understood as a moral-political principle, social feeling, that consist of love and devotion to Fatherland, pride for it’s past and present, tendency to protect the interests of Homeland. Patriotism is expressed in love and devotion to its own Homeland, native land and its own nation, its history and culture. In present conditions, the most important direction and formation of patriotic qualities among maritime cadets can and is to be military-patriotic education, carried out on a base of regulatory documents, heroic history or Fatherland, military traditions of army and navy. Loyalty to the Fatherland, sincere love to the own country, moral-psychological and military-professional alacrity to armed protection of the Fatherland in the armed forces of the Russian Federation- it is quintessence of military – patriotic education and so it differs from patriotic education of Russian citizens. In the article it is considered the core of the military-patriotical education, based on analysis of local scientists’ views; we have formulated the goal, the tasks and the pedagogic conditions of military-patriotic education of maritime cadets; we have made an attempt to give author’s definition the term of “maritime college military-patriotic education of cadets”

  11. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Christian Daniel; Tranæs, Torben

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders who enter service at ages 19-22. For this group property crime is reduced for up to five years from the beginning of service, and the effect is...... therefore not only a result of incapacitation while enrolled. We find no effect of service on violent crimes. We also find no effect of military service on educational attainment and unemployment, but we find negative effects of service on earnings. These results suggest that military service does not...

  12. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel; Tranæs, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders. For this group property crime is reduced, and our results indicate that the effect is unlikely to be the result of incapacitation only. We find no...... effect of military service on violent crime, on educational attainment, or on employment and earnings, either in the short or the long run. These results suggest that military service does not upgrade productive human capital directly, but rather impacts criminal activity through other channels, for...

  13. Simulation in Military Training: Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Dutta

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Training is considered to be one of the key factors in achieving military goal. Growing concernover the increasing training costs, time, risk of life and paucity of training ranges has forced peopleto adopt newer technologies like computer simulation models, simulators and computer wargamesin military training. With the advancement of computer and communication technologies along withthe advent of other newer technologies, these tools have emerged effective and also havesignificantly less operational cost. It is also becoming possible to integrate simulators, simulationand live exercise through networking, resulting into an effective training tool. This paper highlightsthe advancement of simulation technology in military training and also highlights its applications inIndia.

  14. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel; Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders. For this group property crime is reduced, and our results indicate that the effect is unlikely to be the result of incapacitation only. We find no...... effect of military service on violent crime, on educational attainment, or on employment and earnings, either in the short or the long run. These results suggest that military service does not upgrade productive human capital directly, but rather impacts criminal activity through other channels, for...

  15. Military Expenditure in European/NATO Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rožmberský, Vít

    2013-01-01

    After the break-up of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, there prevailed a belief that keeping a significant military force will no longer be necessary and that European democratic countries with developed market economy need not fear major armed conflicts anymore. This led to a significant military budget and military investment downsizing known as the Peace Dividend. As a result of the geo-political and socio-economic events in early 1990s there were two opposing views on global ...

  16. Assessment of quality indicators in spanish higher military education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmos Gómez Maria del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality assessment is subject to multiple interpretations of its content and purpose, and also regarding to methods and techniques used to develop it. Although purposes of assessment are varied, usually pursuit three goals: Improvement, accountability and information. Currently, the concept of quality evaluation has been replaced by the management of educational quality, as Matthew [6] point “the new culture of evaluation is no longer oriented to penalty, ranking or selection of people, as provide a reasoned and reasonable information to guide the management of educational improvement”. Military Training Centres are externally evaluated by an experts External Evaluation Unit to identify strengths and weaknesses on their self-evaluation system and focus on important aspects related to the organization of the Centre, development of work plans, teacher’s style and students learning strategies, system of evaluation and qualification and accurate recommendations to improve all that. This research focuses on the evaluation of quality indicators for the external evaluation of higher education at Military Education Centres in Spain and it is funded by a joint project between University of Granada and MADOC. The technique used for collecting and analysing information was a content description of several documents provided by these military educational authorities, arising the identification and extraction of relevant indicators on the evaluation of higher education. This analysis was primarily based on standards and indicators systems by ANECA (National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation adapted to the Military Higher Education, but also it was consider other standards by international agencies and evaluative institutions, such as University of Chile, University of Paraguay, Canarias Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation and Agency for Quality Education System University of Castilla y León. The analysis realize a usual

  17. 基于 ANT 的军民融合技术创新动力机制研究%ANT -Based Research on the Dynamic Mechanism of Civil -Military Integration Technology Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明亲; 谢立仁; 张冬敏

    2015-01-01

    ANT 为研究军民融合技术创新网络的组构、利益联盟及实现机制提供了一种新的视角。军民融合技术创新网络利益联盟的实现依赖于各个行动者的利益制衡及利益协调。军民融合技术创新网络的核心行动者能否通过问题呈现、利益赋予、征召和动员等基本环节,协调其他行动者的利益,是军民融合技术创新网络稳定运行的关键。%ANT(Actor Network Technology)provides a new perspective to study the formation of civil -military integra-tion technology innovation network,its alliance interests and the realization of the network mechanism.The realization of civil -military technology integration network depends on the interests counterbalance and coordination between different agents.Civil -military integration innovation technology is a joint evaluation and mutual construction dynamic process between governments,military enterprises,private enterprises,scientific research institutions,colleges and intermediar-ies,as we say human actors,and policies,conceptions and patterns,as we say nonhuman actors.The core actors play crucial roles in the successful operation of civil -military technology innovation network by following the basic procedures of problematization,profits sharing,enrollment and mobilization and by coordinating the interests of other actors.

  18. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its

  19. New Soviet concepts in military doctrine, strategy, and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbachev offered a new Soviet view of nuclear war, and national security. The core of the new thinking is as follows: human interests take precedence over the interests of any particular class; the world is becoming increasingly interdependent; there can be no victors in a nuclear war; security has to be based increasingly on political, rather than military, instruments; and security has to be mutual. This paper discusses what brought this new thinking about and how this thinking might impact policy decisions

  20. Decision making in military command teams: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Christopher James; Monk, John Wesley

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study examines the role of resource allocation in naval command teams. The experiment is based on the Composite Warfare Commander - Distributed Dynamic Decision-making (CWC-DDD) paradigm and investigates the impact of uncertainty in neutral/enemy discriminability, team information structure, and leader's involvement in resource coordination. Seven four-member teams, consisting of military officers, used the CWC-DDD to combat a p...