WorldWideScience

Sample records for city metropolitan area

  1. Convective weather hazards in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Kenneth A.

    This dissertation investigates the frequency and intensity of severe convective storms, and their associated hazards, in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), Minnesota. Using public severe weather reports databases and high spatial density rain gauge data, annual frequencies and return-periods are calculated for tornadoes, damaging winds, large hail, and flood-inducing rainfall. The hypothesis that severe thunderstorms and tornadoes are less likely in the central TCMA than in surrounding areas also is examined, and techniques for estimating 100-year rainfall amounts are developed and discussed. This research finds that: (i) storms capable of significant damage somewhere within the TCMA recur annually (sometimes multiple times per year), while storms virtually certain to cause such damage recur every 2-3 years; (ii) though severe weather reports data are not amenable to classical comparative statistical testing, careful treatment of them suggests all types and intensity categories of severe convective weather have been and should continue to be approximately as common in the central TCMA as in surrounding areas; and (iii) applications of Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) statistics and areal analyses of rainfall data lead to significantly larger (25-50%) estimates of 100-year rainfall amounts in the TCMA and parts of Minnesota than those currently published and used for precipitation design. The growth of the TCMA, the popular sentiment that downtown areas somehow deter severe storms and tornadoes, and the prior underestimation of extreme rainfall thresholds for precipitation design, all act to enhance local susceptibility to hazards from severe convective storms.

  2. Indoor and outdoor BTX levels in Barcelona City metropolitan area and Catalan rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Gallego; F. X. Roca; X. Guardino; M. G. Rosell

    2008-01-01

    Five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, and three isomeric xylenes) were monitored in indoor and outdoor air of 7 public buildings and 54 private homes, located in Barcelona City metropolitan area and in several rural areas of Catalonia. The sampling was carried out over four periods: spring-summer and winter of 2000, and summer and winter of 2001. Passive ORSA 5 Draiger samplers were used for benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) adsorption. BTX were extracted with carbon disulphide and analysed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a FID detector. In Barcelona metropolitan area the outdoor average concentrations of BTX were 3.5, 34.2, and 31.3 μg/m3 in urban areas, and 1.4, 9.2, and 9.2 μg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. Average indoor air concentrations of BTX were respectively 4.3, 64.8, and 47.6 μg/m3 in urban areas and 5.8, 67.0, and 51.4 μg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. A direct connection between the house and garage was one of the most influential factors for indoor BTX concentrations in rural areas. In urban areas, diffuse traffic sources were the predominant BTX source, slightly influenced by tobacco smoke in indoor air.

  3. The Hydro-Economic Interdependency of Cities: Virtual Water Connections of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Rushforth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water footprinting has revealed hydro-economic interdependencies between distant global geographies via trade, especially of agricultural and manufactured goods. However, for metropolitan areas, trade not only entails commodity flows at many scales from intra-municipal to global, but also substantial intra-metropolitan flows of the skilled labor that is essential to a city’s high-value economy. Virtual water flows between municipalities are directly relevant for municipal water supply policy and infrastructure investment because they quantify the hydro-economic dependency between neighboring municipalities. These municipalities share a physical water supply and also place demands on their neighbors’ water supplies by outsourcing labor and commodity production outside the municipal and water supply system boundary to the metropolitan area. Metropolitan area communities span dense urban cores to fringe agricultural towns, spanning a wide range of the US hydro-economy. This study quantifies water footprints and virtual water flows of the complete economy of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area’s municipalities. A novel approach utilized journey to work data to estimate virtual water flows embedded in labor. Commodities dominate virtual water flows at all scales of analysis, however labor is shown to be important for intra-metropolitan virtual water flows. This is the first detailed water footprint analysis of Phoenix, an important city in a water-scarce region. This study establishes a hydro-economic typology for communities to define several niche roles and decision making points of view. This study’s findings can be used to classify communities with respect to their relative roles, and to benchmark future improvements in water sustainability for all types of communities. More importantly, these findings motivate cooperative approaches to intra-metropolitan water supply policy that recognize the hydro-economic interdependence of these

  4. [Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Prieto, A

    1991-12-01

    Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion

  5. Urban agriculture in the metropolitan area of Mexico city

    OpenAIRE

    Losada, H.; Rivera, J.; Cortes, J; Vieyra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Mexico City and the rest of the country do not escape from the social and economic inequalities of the present economic model applied worldwide.  Agriculture is a traditional activity in Mexico. This urban productive process has particular features: the predominance of smallholding, the restricted use of physical space, and the use of recycled materials and organic wastes. The population engaged in agriculture is heterogeneous, and includes women and children. There are a couple of production...

  6. Surface albedo measurements in Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T; Mar, B; Longoria, R; Ruiz Suarez, L. G [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, L [Instituto de Geografia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Optical and thermal properties of soils are important input data for the meteorological and photochemical modules of air quality models. As development of these models increase on spatial resolution good albedo data become more important. In this paper measurements of surface albedo of UV (295-385 nm) and visible (450-550 nm) radiation are reported for different urban and rural surfaces in the vicinity of Mexico City. It was found for the downtown zone and average albedo value of 0.05 which is in very good agreement with reported values for urban surfaces. Our albedo values measured in UV region for grey cement and green grass are of 0.10 and 0.009, respectively, and quite similar to those found at the literature of 0.11 and 0.008 for those type of surfaces. [Spanish] Las propiedades opticas y termicas de suelos son datos importantes para los modulos meteorologicos y fotoquimicos de los modelos de calidad del aire. Conforme aumenta la resolucion espacial del modelo se vuelve mas importante contar con buenos datos de albedo. En este articulo se presentan mediciones de albedo superficial de radiacion Ultravioleta (295-385 nm) y visible (450-550 nm) para diferentes superficies urbanas. Los valores medidos de albedo en la region UV para cemento gris y pasto verde son de 0.10 y 0.009, respectivamente, y son muy similares a los reportados en la literatura, 0.11 y 0.008 para este tipo de superficies.

  7. Damage costs produced by electric power plants: an externality valuation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, P; Islas, J

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents an estimate of the externalities produced in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) through the impacts on health caused by secondary pollutants attributed to seven electric power plants located outside this area. An original method was developed to make possible a simplified application of the impact pathway approach to estimate the damage costs in the specified area. Our estimate shows that the annual costs attributed to secondary pollutants total 71 million USD (min/max 20/258 million USD). Finally, this paper discusses basic ideas on the implications for energy policy arising from this exercise in externality valuation.

  8. Water Quality Characteristics of Three Rain Gardens Located Within the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Elliott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted by the United States Geological Survey (USGS at three locations in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in Minnesota to assess the effect that bioretention areas, or rain gardens, have on water quality. The rain gardens are located at the University of Minnesota Landscape Arboretum (MLA, City of Hugo, and City of Woodbury. These sites were chosen because of their similar ages, differences in design, surrounding land use, precipitation patterns, and geology. This article reports the statistical analysis of six years of data obtained from these three sites. The data characterizes the water quality of the inflow, overflow, vadose zone, and groundwater of each rain garden. Nutrients analyzed included chloride, total suspended solids, ammonia, organic nitrogen, nitrate, and phosphorus. Lysimeters and wells had significantly lower nutrient concentrations compared to inflow for most nutrients. Increased nitrate occurred in the vadose zone at Woodbury and Hugo, suggesting some production of nitrate within the soil profile; however, groundwater beneath the rain gardens contained significantly lower concentrations of nitrate compared to the inflow, providing evidence of nitrate removal at deeper depths. Phosphorus concentrations were reduced in overflow and groundwater, with the exception of dissolved phosphorus at MLA. Rain garden and background wells often contained similar nutrient concentrations, suggesting that the rain gardens had little impact on the local ground water supplies. This unique six year study provides consistent evidence of the ability of these three rain gardens to reduce nutrient concentrations from urban stormwater.

  9. Measurements of Criteria Pollutants in Suburban Locations in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanes, O.; Sanchez, A.; Garcia, A.; Martinez, A.

    2004-12-01

    In the town of Santa Ana in the southern part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) at an approximate height of 370 meters above the Valley of Mexico, a series of criteria pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide) and meteorological parameters (wind speed and direction, temperature and relative humidity) were measured during the MCMA-2003 field campaign during April 2003. Santa Ana is considered a border site, agriculture being the predominant activity. The generated data in Santa Ana was compared with those from two representative atmospheric monitoring stations from the southeast zone (CENICA Supersite) and southwest (Revolucion Station) of Mexico City. The carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations measured in Santa Ana are atypical for a rural area. The sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are characteristic of the local activity. The average obtained during the measurement time for carbon monoxide was 0.86 ppm, the presence of the contaminant was within a 0.3 to 1.5 ppm range, 5 to 95 percentile, and does not follow the observed behavior of the monitoring stations that are located inside the urban area, although during the night (10 pm to 6 am) the carbon monoxide in Santa Ana was preset in levels from 0.4 to 1.5 ppm, 5 to 95 percentiles, average 0.92 ppm, above the reported concentrations at Revolucion Station, levels from 0.1 to 1.7 ppm, 5 to 95 percentiles; average 0.72 ppm. The presence of this contaminant can be attributed to transportation and accumulation phenomena. The ozone daytime behavior is similar to the one observed in the CENICA and Revolucion stations, but with a lower magnitude, the daily maximum generally occuring 2 or 3 hours after the urban stations. The one-hour average maximum values were 133 ppb in Santa Ana area and 188 ppb in the city. During the night the average concentrations were 37 ppb in Santa Ana and 17 ppb in the urban area. Nevertheless, the ozone average value in Santa Ana

  10. Quantifying the Benefits of Transportation Controls in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Bracho, L.; Fernández-Bremauntz, A.; Zuk, M.; Garibay, V.; Iniestra, R.; Franco, P.

    2004-12-01

    Similar to most large cities, the transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) constitutes the largest source of air pollution emissions, which result in significant impacts on human health. Although the majority of MCMA residents use public transportation, the share of trips in private vehicles is rising and these vehicles have become the largest contributor to mobile emissions. To reduce these emissions, there is an urgent need to improve the current fleet, improve the quality of fuels, and modify the paradigm of private car use, by providing clean, safe, efficient and comfortable public transportation options. Here we present the potential human health benefits of a set of five mobile source control measures that span public and private transportation options: Taxi fleet renovation, Hybrid buses, Metro Expansion, and the introduction of low sulfur gasoline and Tier II vehicles. We also discuss the methodology and preliminary results of the analysis of the implementation of the project for a Bus Rapid Transit system in Mexico City, in terms of its impacts on personal exposures, emissions, and public health.

  11. Cost-benefit analysis of using natural gas in vehicles of the Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Roldan, A.; Trinidad-Garcia, H.G.; Diaz, L.; Perdomo, V.; Castillo, H.; Schifter, I. [Istituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    According to the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) authorities the transport sector causes 75% of total pollutant emissions to the atmosphere, that is why to mitigate pollution several programs focus on reducing emissions from mobile sources, one of these programs promotes the use of Natural Gas (NG) in vehicles of the MCMA instead of gasoline or diesel. This work shows the cost-benefit analysis results of this program. The analysis considered the period 1999-2014. Projections for the MCMA vehicular fleet, and for the type and number of vehicles that would switch from gasoline or diesel to NG were made. To obtain the change in exhaust emissions, measurements were performed using the U. S. Federal Test Procedure 75 in vehicles consuming gasoline and NG Vehicle conversion, conversion shops, and gas station costs were considered in the analysis The estimated benefits stemmed from fuel price and efficiency differential, vehicle taxes, maintenance costs, and pollutant emission reductions. The Benefit/Cost ratio found was 3.79, and the vehicles suggested for conversion were those of intensive use circulating exclusively in the MCMA. Even though ozone formation simulations were done using the CIT trajectory model, the changes in ozone concentrations observed were smaller than the model resolution, mainly because the change in ozone precursors due to the fuel change in some of the MCMA vehicles, was less than 1% of total emissions. (authors)

  12. Investigation of OxProduction Rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MILAGRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusanter, S.; Molina, L. T.; Stevens, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants are important issues in atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) is of particular interest due to its detrimental effects on both human health and agricultural ecosystems. A detailed characterization of tropospheric O3 production rates will help in the development of effective control strategies. The 2006 Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2006) was one of four components of MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) intended to collect information on the impact of megacity emissions on local, regional and global scales. In this presentation, rates of production of Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) species during MCMA-2006 at the supersite T0 (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo) will be presented using different approaches based on measured and modeled concentrations of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals. In addition, we will examine both the reactivity of OH and the contribution of specific peroxy radicals to the oxidation rate of NO to estimate the contribution of groups of VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, oxygenated and biogenic VOCs) to the total production rate of Ox species.

  13. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH

  14. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Junkermann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18~March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19~March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19~March plume and to help interpret

  15. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH

  16. Levels, Composition and Sources of PM in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area During the MILAGRO Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Pey, J.; Minguillon, M. C.; Perez, N.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Bernabe, R.; Blanco, S.; Cardenas, B.

    2007-05-01

    Particle air pollution in urban agglomerations comes mostly from anthropogenic sources, mainly traffic, industrial processes, energy production, domestic and residential emissions, construction, but also a minor contribution from natural sources may be expected (bioaerosols, soil dust, marine aerosol). Once emitted into the atmosphere, this complex mixture of pollutants may be transformed as a function of the ambient conditions and the interaction among the different PM components, and also between PM components and gaseous pollutants. This system is especially complex in mega-cities due to the large emission volumes of PM components and gaseous precursors, the high variability and broad distribution of emission sources, and the possible long range transport of the polluted air masses. Speciation studies help to identify major sources of PM components with the end objective of applying plans and programs for PM pollution abatement. In this framework, concentration levels and compositions of particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) have been measured simultaneously at two sites in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (T0 and CENICA) and at one site 50 km away from Mexico City (T1) during the MILAGRO campaign (1st to 31st March 2006). Spatial and time (day and night) variations have been analysed. Coarse fraction levels were higher at T1 than at CENICA and T0, contrary to what was expected. This was due to the important soil re-suspension at T1, contributing significantly to the crustal load. Moreover, crustal levels were higher during daytime than during nights at all sites, while some secondary compounds (sulphate and ammonium) presented an opposite trend. Regarding trace elements, levels of Pb, Zn and Cd were higher at T0 than at CENICA and T1, probably due to traffic contribution. Arsenic levels did not show a clear pattern, being alternatively higher at CENICA and T0. Two intense episodes of Hg particulate have been recorded, more noticeable at T1 than at the urban

  17. The marketing management of cities and metropolitan areas: from product orientation to marketing orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO MANUEL GÓMEZ RODRÍGUEZ

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of marketing principles in the administration of cities has been usually reduced to the use of the communication tools to try to diffuse the city’s image among the different target publics. At the same time, the development of cities has habitually been based on the endowment of infrastructures and singular buildings, by means of relatively opaque strategic planning processes. From a marketing vision, we consider indispensable to base the development of cities on the active citizenship participation, as well as in the empowerment of the tangible and intangible aspects. In the case of the Metropolitan Bilbao, the strategic plan that has been developed in the last decade was centred on tangible elements, while the new plan puts a special emphasis on the intangible aspects and civic participation.

  18. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign

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    V. A. Karydis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3 in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m−3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m−3 in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m−3 as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m−3 potassium, 1 μg m−3 magnesium, 2 μg m−3 sodium, and 3 μg m−3 calcium from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m−3 over these areas. PM1−10 (particulate matter with diameter between 1 and 10 μm chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m−3 in Texcoco Lake. PM1 ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m−3 and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m−3. The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium is encouraging. At the T0 measurement site, located in the

  19. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm) sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3) in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m-3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m-3) in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m-3) as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m-3 potassium, 1 μg m-3 magnesium, 2 μg m-3 sodium, and 3 μg m-3 calcium) from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m-3 over these areas. PM1-10 (particulate matter with diameter between 1 and 10 μm) chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m-3 in Texcoco Lake. PM1 ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m-3) and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m-3). The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) is encouraging. At the T0 measurement site, located in the Mexico City urban center, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.5 μg m-3, 3.5 μg m-3, 2.1 μg m-3, and 0.36 μg m-3, respectively. The corresponding predicted values are 3.7

  20. Aerosol Simulation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MCMA2003 using CMAQ/Models3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L.

    2007-12-01

    CMAQ/Models3 has been employed to simulate the aerosol distribution and variation during the period from 13 to 16 April 2003 over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area as part of MCMA-2003 campaign. The meteorological fields are simulated using MM5, with three one-way nested grids with horizontal resolutions of 36, 12 and 3 km and 23 sigma levels in the vertical. MM5 3DVAR system has also been incorporated into the meteorological simulations. Chemical initial and boundary conditions are interpolated from the MOZART output. The SAPRC emission inventory is developed based on the official emission inventory for MCMA in 2004. The simulated mass concentrations of different aerosol compositions, such as elemental carbon (EC), primary organic aerosol (POA), secondary organic aerosol (SOA), nitrate, ammonium, and sulfate have been compared to the measurements taken at the National Center for Environmental Research and Training (Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, CENICA) super-site. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) are used as observations of POA and SOA, respectively in this study. The preliminary model results show that the temporal evolutions of EC and POA are reasonable compared with measurements. The peak time of EC and POA are basically reproduced, thus validating the emission inventory and its processing through CMAQ/Models3. But the magnitude of EC and POA are underestimated over the entire episode. The modeled nitrate and ammonium concentrations are overestimated on most of the days. There is 1-2 hour difference between the simulated peak time of nitrate and ammonium aerosols compared to observations at CENICA. The simulated mass concentrations of SOA and sulfate are significantly underestimated. The reasons of the discrepancy between simulations and measurements are due to the uncertainties existing in the emission inventory, meteorological fields, and as well as aerosol formation mechanism in the case

  1. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Apel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers were able to approximate the observed MCMA daytime patterns and absolute values of the VOC OH reactivity. The MOZART model is also in agreement with observations showing that NMHCs dominate the reactivity distribution except in the afternoon hours. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height.

    A northeast transport event was studied in which air originating in the MCMA was intercepted aloft with the Department of Energy (DOE G1 on 18 March and downwind with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind; ozone was shown to be photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial extent and temporal evolution of the plume

  2. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the mexico city metropolitan area during the milagro campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karydis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m−3 in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m−3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m−3 in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m−3 as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m−3 potassium, 1 μg m−3 magnesium, 2 μg m−3 sodium, and 3 μg m−3 calcium from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m−3 over these areas. PM1−10 chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m−3 in Texcoco Lake. PM ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m−3 and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m−3. The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium is encouraging. At T0, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.6 μg m−3, 3.6 μg m−3, 2.1 μg m

  3. Exposure of children to air pollution in the industrial zone of Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Quintanilla-Vega, Betsabé; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    An air quality monitoring in three schools located in the most important industrial zone at the Northeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) was conducted in order to determine the exposure of children to toxics contained in PM10. Particles were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic and elemental carbon by ICP-AES, GC-MS and TOT (Sunset lab) respectively. Average concentration of PM10 was 108.4±11.6 μg/m3. Most abundant metals were Fe, Zn and Pb with concentrations ranged by 1.1-5.4 μg/m3, 0.3-2 μg/m3, and 0.18-0.63 μg/m3 respectively; the sum of the seventeen PAHs varied from 1.4 to 3.3 ng/m3 where most abundant PAH were indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sum of the seven carcinogenic PAH contributed in average with the 48% of the total mixture. Carcinogenic potential of PAH were obtained using toxic equivalent factors determined by Nisbet and La Goy which varied from 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ m3 of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BAPeq), this value is lower than the standard proposed for the European Community of 1 ng/ m3, but higher than the standard from the United Kingdom of 0.25 ng/ m3. Principal component analysis for source apportionment showed that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main sources of PM in the zone. In general, the concentrations of particles as well as concentration of metals and PAHs are lower than concentrations measured six year before, showing that the established measures have improved the air quality. Nevertheless these PM10 concentrations exceeded frequently the Mexican Standard and children are especially susceptible due to the higher risk to develop diseases if the exposure occurs at early age.

  4. Ozone forming potential and sulfur effects on in-use vehicles of the metropolitan area of Mexico City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The largest urban areas of Mexico cities have witnessed high levels of air pollution in the past few decades. The most important air pollutants are ozone and particulate matter with levels that are still far above current air quality standard, In this work we studied exhaust and evaporative emissions of Mexico City metropolitan area (MAMC) vehicles using fuels in which sulfur content was varied from 89×10-6 to 817×10-6, and calculated the ozone forming potential of emissions as well as the specific reactivity of the exhaust for each average fleet-fuel combinations. Data on emission levels were compared to those obtained in 2000 for the same vintage of vehicles. The almost twofold increase in emissions found could be due to degradation of the exhaust emissions control systems.

  5. Robust Principal Component Analysis and Geographically Weighted Regression: Urbanization in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debarchana; Manson, Steven M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a hybrid approach, robust principal component geographically weighted regression (RPCGWR), in examining urbanization as a function of both extant urban land use and the effect of social and environmental factors in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. We used remotely sensed data to treat urbanization via the proxy of impervious surface. We then integrated two different methods, robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) to create an innovative approach to model urbanization. The RPCGWR results show significant spatial heterogeneity in the relationships between proportion of impervious surface and the explanatory factors in the TCMA. We link this heterogeneity to the "sprawling" nature of urban land use that has moved outward from the core Twin Cities through to their suburbs and exurbs.

  6. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  7. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  8. Ozone Trend Analysis at Pedregal Station in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Garfias Vázquez; Javier Audry Sánchez; Francisco Javier Garfias y Ayala

    2005-01-01

    Pedregal Station is located in a residential area in the southwest portion of Mexico City, where the worst ozone episodes are registered. Three models for forecasting ozone are analyzed based on the 19 mean semester maximum values of daily ozone registered at Pedregal Station. The logarithm model seems to fit best the available data. Its use suggests that near 10 years have to elapse fom July 2005, before air quality is recovered. Additional control measures are suggested, such as, doubling c...

  9. Urban forests sustain diverse carrion beetle assemblages in the New York City metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Nicole A.; Zhao, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly pervasive form of land transformation that reduces biodiversity of many taxonomic groups. Beetles exhibit a broad range of responses to urbanization, likely due to the high functional diversity in this order. Carrion beetles (Order: Coleoptera, Family: Silphidae) provide an important ecosystem service by promoting decomposition of small-bodied carcasses, and have previously been found to decline due to forest fragmentation caused by urbanization. However, New York City (NYC) and many other cities have fairly large continuous forest patches that support dense populations of small mammals, and thus may harbor relatively robust carrion beetle communities in city parks. In this study, we investigated carrion beetle community composition, abundance and diversity in forest patches along an urban-to-rural gradient spanning the urban core (Central Park, NYC) to outlying rural areas. We conducted an additional study comparing the current carrion beetle community at a single suburban site in Westchester County, NY that was intensively surveyed in the early 1970’s. We collected a total of 2,170 carrion beetles from eight species at 13 sites along this gradient. We report little to no effect of urbanization on carrion beetle diversity, although two species were not detected in any urban parks. Nicrophorus tomentosus was the most abundant species at all sites and seemed to dominate the urban communities, potentially due to its generalist habits and shallower burying depth compared to the other beetles surveyed. Variation between species body size, habitat specialization, and % forest area surrounding the surveyed sites also did not influence carrion beetle communities. Lastly, we found few significant differences in relative abundance of 10 different carrion beetle species between 1974 and 2015 at a single site in Westchester County, NY, although two of the rare species in the early 1970’s were not detected in 2015. These results indicate

  10. Urban forests sustain diverse carrion beetle assemblages in the New York City metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Nicole A; Zhao, Anthony; Munshi-South, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly pervasive form of land transformation that reduces biodiversity of many taxonomic groups. Beetles exhibit a broad range of responses to urbanization, likely due to the high functional diversity in this order. Carrion beetles (Order: Coleoptera, Family: Silphidae) provide an important ecosystem service by promoting decomposition of small-bodied carcasses, and have previously been found to decline due to forest fragmentation caused by urbanization. However, New York City (NYC) and many other cities have fairly large continuous forest patches that support dense populations of small mammals, and thus may harbor relatively robust carrion beetle communities in city parks. In this study, we investigated carrion beetle community composition, abundance and diversity in forest patches along an urban-to-rural gradient spanning the urban core (Central Park, NYC) to outlying rural areas. We conducted an additional study comparing the current carrion beetle community at a single suburban site in Westchester County, NY that was intensively surveyed in the early 1970's. We collected a total of 2,170 carrion beetles from eight species at 13 sites along this gradient. We report little to no effect of urbanization on carrion beetle diversity, although two species were not detected in any urban parks. Nicrophorus tomentosus was the most abundant species at all sites and seemed to dominate the urban communities, potentially due to its generalist habits and shallower burying depth compared to the other beetles surveyed. Variation between species body size, habitat specialization, and % forest area surrounding the surveyed sites also did not influence carrion beetle communities. Lastly, we found few significant differences in relative abundance of 10 different carrion beetle species between 1974 and 2015 at a single site in Westchester County, NY, although two of the rare species in the early 1970's were not detected in 2015. These results indicate that

  11. Environmental hazard and ecological infrastructure construction of hilly city: a case of metropolitan area of Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Weibo; Zhu Bo

    2008-01-01

    This paper takes metropolitan area of Chongqing Municipally, as an example. Chongqing, located at the tail area of the Three Gorges Reservoir, is a typically in-land hilly city in China. A series of serious eco-environmental hazard affecting hilly city have appeared: the forest landscape has been fragmented; the stability of ecological system has not been maintained; soil erosion has been serious; geological disasters have become more and more frequented; the phenomenon of citv "heat islands" is obvious." and environmental pollution is worsened with low physical self-puri-ficatian. All of the hazards above will affect ecological security of the tail area the the Three Gorges Reservoir and sus-tainable development of Chongqing. In order to guarantee ecological security and health of Chongqing and the Three Gorges Reservoir, the countermeasures for ecological infrastructure construction are put forward: quickly drawing up ecological infrastrueture planning of Chongqing Municipality, strengthening the integration and continuation of hilly, water spatial pattern, maintaining the diversity and stability of local ecosystem, establishing the green space system in-cluding suburban forest farmland and green space, recovering wetland ecosystem, optimizing industrial structure and urrban spatial distribution, developing recycling economy, establishing ecological infrastrucmre monitoring network and information forecast system, carrying out ecological management for Chongqing Municipality and so on.

  12. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Johnson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM techniques were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion V and Ni correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfate determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  13. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM measurements were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion, V and Ni, correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfates determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  14. Metropolitan Lima: area profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1986-11-01

    This profile of metropolitan Lima, Peru, covers administrative divisions; population growth; age distribution; ethnicity and religion; housing and households; education and health care; economic activity, income, and consumption; transport and communication; and sources of information. Nearly 30% of Peru's entire population and 42% of its urban population live in Lima. The trend continues, yet Lima's urban primacy is waning due to the growth of some regional centers like Trujillo and Chimbote. Lima is still almost 10 times as large as the country's next ranking cities, Trujillo on the northern coast and Arequipa in the south. Peru's main administrative divisions are the 24 departments, of which the Department of Lima is one. These departments are further divided into 156 provinces. Greater Lima consists of 2 such provinces, the province of Lima and the constitutional province of Callao. Although the population of Lima continues to grow, its rate of growth slowed from about 5.5% during the 1960s to about 3.9% in the 1970s. Current projections estimate a metropolitan population of 6.7 million by 1990. On the whole, Lima's age structure is somewhat older than that of the rest of Peru. The median age of the population is 22.3 years, compared to a national figure of 20.4. The proportion of persons over age 65 is only 3.6%, lower than the national average of 4.1%, due to the tendency of in-migration to concentrate people of intermediate ages in the cities. Almost 400,000 inhabitants of greater Lima are bilingual in Spanish and an indigenous language. As elsewhere in Peru, the dominant religion is Roman Catholicism. Lima is a spread out city with few high rise buildings due to the danger of earthquakes. Only 12% of Lima's households are found in apartment buildings. As in other cities of Latin America, the formal housing market is beyond the reach of a major segment of the population. Consequently, much of the urban settlement has occurred through informal self

  15. Nonfatal injuries 1 week after hurricane sandy--New York city metropolitan area, October 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackbill, Robert M; Caramanica, Kimberly; Maliniak, Maret; Stellman, Steven D; Fairclough, Monique A; Farfel, Mark R; Turner, Lennon; Maslow, Carey B; Moy, Amanda J; Wu, David; Yu, Shengchao; Welch, Alice E; Cone, James E; Walker, Deborah J

    2014-10-24

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy (Sandy) made landfall in densely populated areas of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Flooding affected 51 square miles (132 square kilometers) of New York City (NYC) and resulted in 43 deaths, many caused by drowning in the home, along with numerous storm-related injuries. Thousands of those affected were survivors of the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of September 11, 2001 (9/11) who had previously enrolled in the WTC Health Registry (Registry) cohort study. To assess Sandy-related injuries and associated risk factors among those who lived in Hurricane Sandy-flooded areas and elsewhere, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene surveyed 8,870 WTC survivors, who had provided physical and mental health updates 8 to 16 months before Sandy. Approximately 10% of the respondents in flooded areas reported injuries in the first week after Sandy; nearly 75% of those had more than one injury. Injuries occurred during evacuation and clean-up/repair of damaged or destroyed homes. Hurricane preparation and precautionary messages emphasizing potential for injury hazards during both evacuation and clean-up or repair of damaged residences might help mitigate the occurrence and severity of injury after a hurricane.

  16. The Amsterdam metropolitan housing market: how a prosperous metropolitan area coexists with a central city dominated by social rental housing for the poor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, P.; Vlist, van der A.

    2002-01-01

    In this Chapter we describe the development of Amsterdam Metropolitan Housing Market over the years. We start-off with a discussion of the historicaldevelopment of Amsterdam and its suburban areas. There we address how main contextual factors like wars, financial crises and prosperity have shaped th

  17. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  18. Public health impact assessment of a proposed cogeneration plant in the Quebec city metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, P.; Bolduc, D.; Gauvin, D.; Guerrier, P.; Gauthier, R. [Quebec Public Health Center, Ste-Foy (Canada); Laflamme, P. [Laval Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, public hearings were held in Quebec city concerning a 120 megawatt (MW) gas cogeneration project that was to be coupled with an already existing pulp and paper mill in the downtown area. Cogeneration plants are often described as highly beneficial from the point of view of local environment. It is well known that the burning of natural gas emits far less sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate matters (PM) than the combustion of oil or coal. The proposed plant would use high pressure vapour from a nearby incinerator plant and natural gas to produce low pressure vapor for the paper mill industry as well as electricity. The cogeneration plant would allow the paper mill to stop burning heavy oil. By using natural gas instead of heavy oil, the new cogeneration-paper mill complex (CPC) is expected to reinforce the recent trend and willingness towards improving downtown air quality. On the other hand, the CPC would emit more CO{sub 2}, due to the production of additional electricity. According to the Rio de Janeiro Agreement ratified in 1988, Canada is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. Nevertheless, the cogeneration file is a new option considered by the Quebec Provincial Governement in its last energy triennal plan. However, it must be specified that the Province of Quebec contributes to less than 15 % of the total Canadian CO{sub 2} production although it represents more than 25 % of its population. Furthermore the maximum production of electricity by this file has been set to 250 MW. It is a very small fraction of the total production of electricity in Quebec, which is 200 TW

  19. Public policy performance for social development: solar energy approach to assess technological outcome in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Aquino, Angel Raúl; Matsumoto-Kuwabara, Y; Kleiche-Dray, M

    2017-01-11

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the most populated urban area in the country. In 2010, MCMA required 14.8% of total energy domestic demand, but greenhouse gas emissions accounted for 7.7% of domestic emissions. Mexico has massive renewable energy potential that could be harnessed through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The problem to explore is the relationship between local and federal public strategies in MCMA and their stance on energy transition concern, social empowerment, new technology appropriation, and the will to boost social development and urban sustainability. A public policy typology was conducted through instruments of State intervention approach, based on political agenda articulation and environmental local interactions. Social equality is encouraged by means of forthright funding and in-kind support and energy policies focus on non-renewable energy subsidies and electric transmission infrastructure investment. There is a lack of vision for using PV technology as a guiding axis for marginalized population development. It is essential to promote economic and political rearrangement in order to level and structure environmental governance. It is essential to understand people's representation about their own needs along with renewable energy.

  20. Control of vehicle emissions in the metropolitan area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, R.

    1996-12-31

    The air pollution resulting from the intense activity in the city of Mexico is aggravated by the topographical and meteorological conditions which determine its climate. The city is ringed by mountains and the air cannot easily circulate. Moreover, the Valley of Mexico is exposed to high levels of solar radiation which induce photochemical reactions in the pollutants in the atmosphere. The strategies for reducing vehicular pollution are: producing fuels to environmental standards, improving and expanding public transport and discouraging the use of the private car, introducing systems and measures for monitoring polluting vehicles emissions. (N.C.)

  1. Implementing GLOBE in the New York City Metropolitan Area: Trials, Errors, and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludman, A.; Schmidt, P.; Borman, G.

    2003-12-01

    systems. To stimulate data entry, one half-day during the 3-day workshop is devoted to exploring the GLOBE website, and another to generating student research problems using the site's advanced capabilities. Three "carrots" have also improved data submission: (1)a vendor gives a probe and software to the first school in each workshop that submits 250 data items, (2)individual competitiveness (the record is 22 hours from end of training to first submission of data), and (3)congratulatory emails to teachers when they submit their first data. The "stick": a threat to repossess the instruments if no data are submitted within 6 months. We also offer training in GLOBE-related skills, such as acquiring free satellite images and digital elevation data, and workshops on the geological and environmental settings of the NYC area. Suggestions from our teachers for the future include: urbanize protocols to better welcome inner city schools to GLOBE; add protocols involving flora and fauna to fit GLOBE better into Biology classes; develop more links with researchers so GLOBE participants feel they are making a real contribution; create a NYC area listserve so teachers can discuss common issues and concerns; and develop correlations between GLOBE protocols and NYS Curricula in Earth Science, Living Environment, Chemistry, and Physics. The last would vastly improve integration of GLOBE into these Regents-level courses. Our teacher trainees are vehement in their appreciation of GLOBE for its high standards and scientific rigor.

  2. On-Road Measurement of Vehichle VOC Emission Measurements During the 2003 Mexico City Metropolitan Area Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T.; Grimsrud, E.; Herndon, S.; Allwine, E.; Lamb, B.; Velasco, E.; Westberg, H.

    2004-12-01

    In the spring of 2003 (April 1-May 5), a multinational team of experts conducted an intensive, five-week field campaign in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The overall goal of this effort was to contribute to the understanding of the air quality problem in megacities. As part of the campaign the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instruments and deployed for measuring a variety of vehicle emissions in real time including CO2, NO2, NH3, HCHO, VOC's and volatile (at 600 °C) aerosol. The on-road measurement of vehicle VOC emissions were performed using a commercial version of the IONICON PTR-MS modified to operate onboard the mobile lab platform. A summary of the PTR-MS results from these and supporting laboratory experiments will be presented and discussed. In particular, selected chase events will be presented to illustrate the utility of the PTR-MS technique for characterizing vehicle VOC emission profiles in real time. VOC emission profiles for different vehicle engine types which include gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas will be discussed and compared to the measurements from other high time response instruments deployed on the Aerodyne mobile van.

  3. Asymmetric correlations in the ozone concentration dynamics of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraz, M.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Echeverria, J. C.

    2017-04-01

    Mexico City is a megalopolis with severe pollution problems caused by vehicles and industrial activity. This condition imposes important risks to human health and economic activity. Based on hourly-sampled data during the last decade, in a recent work (Meraz et al., 2015) we showed that the pollutant dynamics in Mexico City exhibits long-term and scale-dependent persistence effects resulting from the combination of pollutants generation by vehicles and removal by advection mechanisms. In this work, we analyzed the dynamics of ozone, a key component reflecting the degree of atmospheric contamination, to determine if its long-term correlations are asymmetric in relation to the actual concentration trend (increasing or decreasing). The analysis is conducted with detrended fluctuation analysis. The results showed that the average ozone dynamics is uncorrelated when the concentration is increasing. In contrast, the ozone dynamics shows long-term anti-persistence effects when the concentration is decreasing.

  4. Limitations of urban development in land of social origin: the case of the metropolitan area of the city of Toluca (ZMCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Sánchez Pedro Leobardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the occupation process of agricultural land with social origin and urban uses in the metropolitan area of the city of Toluca (ZMCT, and the barriers that the population and authorities have to face in order to regularize the settlements. A mixed research method was applied, which included the use of quantitative and qualitative methods, on the basis of a theoretical analysis, to build a methodological research model, which was applied to an empirical case in municipal and metropolitan areas. The analysis of the 14 municipalities that constitute ZMCT shows that the barriers for regularizing settlements in land of social origin are the result of legal/administrative inefficiencies due to the incapability of local city halls to address the collective needs of society.

  5. Concentrations of benzene and toluene in the atmosphere of the southwestern area at the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Humberto; Sosa, Rodolfo; Sánchez, Pablo; Bueno, Emma; González, Laura

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) presents important emissions of hazardous air pollutants. It is well documented that the MCMZ suffers a critical air pollution problem due to high ozone and particulate matter concentrations. However, toxic air pollutants such as benzene and toluene have not been considered. Benzene has accumulated sufficient evidence as a human carcinogen, and the ratio benzene/toluene is an excellent indicator to evaluate control strategies efficiency. In order to evaluate the levels of these two air toxic pollutants in the MCMZ, ambient air samples were collected in canisters and analyzed with a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector, according to procedures described in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method TO-15. Quality assurance was performed collecting duplicate samples which were analyzed in replicate to quantify the precision of air-quality measurements. Three different sites located in the Southwestern area in the MCMZ were selected for the sampling: the University campus, a gas station, and a vertical condominium area, in the same neighborhood, which presents different activities. At these sites, grab air samples were collected during the morning hours (7-8 a.m.), while for the University area, 24 h integrated air samples were collected simultaneously, with grab samples. Benzene concentrations (24 h sampling) in the atmosphere around the University campus have similar present levels as in other cities of North America. Mean values in this site were about 1.7 ppb. A significant variation exists between the benzene and toluene concentrations in the studied sites, being the more critical values than those registered at the gas station (an average of 25.8 ppb and a maximum of 141 ppb of benzene). There is a fuel regulation for gasoline in Mexico, which allows a maximum of 1 percent of benzene. However, since more than 60 percent of vehicles do not have catalytic converters (models before 1991

  6. Concentrations of benzene and toluene in the atmosphere of the southwestern area at the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.; Sosa, R.; Sanchez, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria (Mexico). Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera; Bueno, E.; Gonzalez, L. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, SEMARNAP, Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-08-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) presents important emissions of hazardous air pollutants. It is well documented that the MCMZ suffers a critical air pollution problem due to high ozone and particulate matter concentrations. However, toxic air pollutants such as benzene and toluene have not been considered. Benzene has accumulated sufficient evidence as a human carcinogen, and the ratio benzene/toluene is an excellent indicator to evaluate control strategies efficiency. In order to evaluate the levels of these two air toxic pollutants in the MCMZ, ambient air samples were collected in canisters and analyzed with a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector, according to procedures described in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method TO-15. Quality assurance was performed collecting duplicate samples which were analyzed in replicate to quantify the precision of air-quality measurements. Three different sites located in the Southwestern area in the MCMZ were selected for the sampling: the University campus, a gas station, and a vertical condominium area, in the same neighborhood, which presents different activities. At these sites, grab air samples were collected during the morning hours (7-8 a.m.), while for the University area, 24 h integrated air samples were collected simultaneously, with grab samples. Benzene concentrations (24 h sampling) in the atmosphere around the University campus have similar present levels as in other cities of North America. Mean values in this site were about 1.7 ppb. A significant variation exists between the benzene and toluene concentrations in the studied sites, being the more critical values than those registered at the gas station (an average of 25.8 ppb and a maximum of 141 ppb of benzene). There is a fuel regulation for gasoline in Mexico, which allows a maximum of 1 percent of benzene. However, since more than 60 percent of vehicles do not have catalytic converters (models before 1991

  7. Megacities air pollution problems: Mexico City Metropolitan Area critical issues on the central nervous system pediatric impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kulesza, Randy J; Doty, Richard L; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    The chronic health effects associated with sustained exposures to high concentrations of air pollutants are an important issue for millions of megacity residents and millions more living in smaller urban and rural areas. Particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) concentrations close or above their respective air quality standards during the last 20 years affect 24 million people living in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Herein we discuss PM and O3 trends in MCMA and their possible association with the observed central nervous system (CNS) effects in clinically healthy children. We argue that prenatal and postnatal sustained exposures to a natural environmental exposure chamber contribute to detrimental neural responses. The emerging picture for MCMA children shows systemic inflammation, immunodysregulation at both systemic and brain levels, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, small blood vessel pathology, and an intrathecal inflammatory process, along with the early neuropathological hallmarks for Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases. Exposed brains are briskly responding to their harmful environment and setting the bases for structural and volumetric changes, cognitive, olfactory, auditory and vestibular deficits and long term neurodegenerative consequences. We need to improve our understanding of the PM pediatric short and long term CNS impact through multidisciplinary research. Public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce fine PM levels and pediatric exposures and establishing preventative screening programs targeting pediatric populations that are most at risk. We fully expect that the health of 24 million residents is important and blocking pediatric air pollution research and hiding critical information that ought to be available to our population, health, education and social workers is not in the best interest of our children.

  8. Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2016-10-19

    OverviewThis study assessed lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes applying three approaches: statistical analysis, field study, and groundwater-flow modeling.  Statistical analyses of lake levels were completed to assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes. A field study of groundwater and surface-water interactions in selected lakes was completed to (1) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (2) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (3) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake.  Groundwater flow was simulated using a steady-state, groundwater-flow model to assess regional groundwater and surface-water exchanges and the effects of groundwater withdrawals, climate, and other factors on water levels of northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes.

  9. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on

  10. Metropolitan Development Districts, Emporia-Lyon County Metropolitan Planning Area, Published in 2003, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Emporia/Lyon County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Metropolitan Development Districts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of...

  11. Aerosol radiative effects on the meteorology and distribution of pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MCMA-2006/MILAGRO Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guohui; Bei, Naifang; Molina, Luisa

    2013-04-01

    Aerosols scatter or absorb incoming solar radiation, perturb the temperature structure of the atmosphere, and impact meteorological fields and further the distribution of gas phase species and aerosols. In the present study, the aerosol radiative effects on the meteorology and photochemistry in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are investigated using the WRF-CHEM model during the period from March 24th to 29th associated with the MILAGRO-2006 campaign. Aerosols decrease incoming solar radiation by up to 20% and reduce the surface temperature by up to 0.5 °C due to scattering and absorbing the incoming solar radiation in Mexico City. The absorption of black carbon aerosols can also enhance slightly the temperature in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Generally, the change of the PBL height in the city is less than 200 m during daytime due to the aerosol-induced perturbation of temperature profile. Wind fields are also adjusted with the variation of temperatures, but all the aerosol-induced meteorological changes cannot significantly influence the distribution of pollutants in the city. In addition, when convective events occur in the city, the aerosol radiative effects reduce the convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the convective precipitation is generally decreased. Further studies still need to be performed to evaluate the aerosol indirect effect on precipitation in Mexico City.

  12. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on

  13. Sacramento Metropolitan Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    resource of the river. Also, strips of riparian vegetation along the riverbank provide good areas for naturalists and birdwatching . Recreational resources...policies #1 and #2 when improvements are made costing at least 50 percent of the estimated current market value of the structure before improvements. o1 S 0...height and depth of flooding is provided in Table 1. Although depreciation values have been used in our analysis, market values also had to be considered

  14. The use of the electric vehicle in the metropolitan area of Mexico city; Uso de vehiculos electricos en el area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, G. [Centro de Intrumentos, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sheinbaum, C. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A study is performed on the impact that the introduction of the electric vehicle (EV) would have in the environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC) for different penetration scenarios of this technology and the costs of the electric vehicle is analyzed and compared with its counterpart, the gasoline vehicle. The associated emissions of a fleet formed of EV and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) were determined and the emissions reduction of the contaminants considered in the period 1995-2010 produced was analyzed. It was found that the introduction of EV could importantly reduce the carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide and marginally the nitrogen oxides. It was determined that if the EV is massively produced its total cost for its entire useful life would be comparable to the cost of the ICEV. [Espanol] Se realiza un estudio sobre el impacto que tendria la introduccion de vehiculos electricos (VE) en la contaminacion ambiental del area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico (AMCM) para diferentes escenarios de penetracion de esta tecnologia y se analiza el costo de los vehiculos electricos en comparacion con su contraparte de gasolina. Se determinaron las emisiones asociadas a una flota compuesta de VE y vehiculos con motor de combustion interna (VMCI) y se analizo la reduccion que producia en las emisiones de los diferentes contaminantes considerados en el periodo 1995-2010. Se encontro que la introduccion de VE podria reducir de manera importante las emisiones de monoxido de carbono, metano y dioxido de carbono y marginalmente las de oxido de nitrogeno. Se determino que si los VE son producidos masivamente su costo total para toda su vida util seria comparable al correspondiente al de los VMCI.

  15. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brasov Metropolitan Area, Romania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Ionela Rezeanu

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas. However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital.The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval. The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey, based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600. The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method were conducted based on these data.Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences

  16. Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy has been prepared in close cooperation with the four cities of the metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen), the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY and other municipal, regional and state level organisations. In the strategy, strategic starting points and policies with which the metropolitan area prepares for the consequences of climate change, are compiled. The Helsinki Metropolitan Area adaptation strategy concentrates on the adaptation of the built and urban environment to the changing climate. The vision of the strategy is climate proof city - the future is built now. The strategy aims to (1) assess the impacts of climate change in the area, (2) prepare for the impacts of climate change and to extreme weather events and (3) to reduce the vulnerabilities of the area to climate variability and change. The target is to secure the well-being of the citizens and the functioning of the cities also in the changing climate conditions. The preparation of the adaptation strategy started in 2009 by producing the background studies. They include the regional climate and sea level scenarios, modelling of river floods in climate change conditions and a survey of climate change impacts in the region. Also, existing programmes, legislation, research and studies concerning adaptation were collected. The background studies are published in a report titled 'The Helsinki metropolitan area climate is changing - Adaptation strategy background studies' (in Finnish) (HSY 2010). HSY coordinated the strategy preparation. The work was carried out is close cooperation with the experts of the metropolitan area cities, regional emergency services, Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki Region Transport Authority and other regional organisations. The strategy work has had a steering group that consists of representatives of the cities and other central cooperation partners. The

  17. Youthification in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cocheci

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research exercise aims to identify all areas affected by what is now known as ‘youthification’ in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. Broadly speaking, an area touched by youthification witnesses a massive arrival of young adults, who invest in housing, but only remain there until they age. Youthification is usually the second phase within an encompassing process of gentrification. To gain a clearer picture of this phenomenon, we employed a snapshot of the situation recorded by the Population and Housing Census of 2011. Using this image as a starting point, we then applied statistical thresholds aimed at measuring the presence and intensity of youthification within different areas. Thereafter, we looked at areas exhibiting the same level of youthification, in order to find those common traits of their young adult inhabitants that might prove relevant for their choices in matters of housing. Once completed, our efforts resulted in the first map showing the areas affected by youthification within the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. In addition, we reached the following conclusion: Young adults who live in the city are more likely to still be enrolled in a form of education and less likely to be married or to have children than those who live in the suburbs or in rural areas. This observation implies that there might be some hidden dependency relations, which are at work in shaping the choice of housing.

  18. Initiatives towards Carbon Neutrality in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Dahal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon neutrality represents one climate strategy adopted by many cities, including the city of Helsinki and the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. This study examines initiatives adopted by the Helsinki metropolitan area aimed at reducing energy-related carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality through future actions. Various sectorial energy consumption rates per year and carbon emissions from various sectors within the city of Helsinki and the metropolitan area were extracted from an online database and re-calculated (in GWh, MWh/inhabitant and MtCO2e, KtCO2e/inhabitant. We employed a backcasting scenario method to explore the various carbon reduction measures in the Helsinki metropolitan area. About 96% of the emissions produced in the Helsinki metropolitan area are energy-based. District heating represents the primary source of emissions, followed by transportation and electricity consumption, respectively. We also found that accomplishing the carbon reduction strategies of the Helsinki metropolitan area by 2050 remains challenging. Technological advancement for clean and renewable energy sources, smart policies and raising awareness resulting in behavioral changes greatly affect carbon reduction actions. Thus, strong political commitments are also required to formulate and implement stringent climate actions.

  19. Final report for "Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez

    2009-05-18

    The objectives of this funded project were (a) to further analyze the data collected by our group and collaborators in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 field campaign, with the goal of further our understanding of aerosol sources and processes; and (b) to deploy several advanced instruments, including the newly developed high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and thermal-denuder (TD), during the MILAGRO/MAX-Mex/MCMA-2006 field campaign, and to analyze those data (together with the 2003 data) to provide additional insights on the formation and transformation of aerosols in the Mexico City area. These goals were addressed in collaboration with our project partners, MIT/Molina Center, and Aerodyne Research. Overall this project was very successful, resulting on 22+ journal papers including six “highly cited papers” and three papers that are the most cited in their respective journals (out of several thousand papers) since the year in which they were published. Multiple discoveries, such as the the underestimation of SOA in urban areas even for short photochemical ages, the demonstration that urban POA is of similar or higher volatility than urban SOA, and the first analysis of organic aerosol elemental composition in real-time have been recently published. Several dozen presentations at major US and international conferences and seminars also acknowledged this grant.

  20. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  1. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  2. Iodine status of pregnant women in a metropolitan city which proved to be an iodine-sufficient area. Is mandatory salt iodisation enough for pregnant women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Engin; Aydogan Mathyk, Begum; Aydogan, Berna Imge; Acıkgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Erenel, Hakan; Celik Acıoglu, Hasniye; Anık Ilhan, Gökce; Dane, Banu; Ozel, Aysegul; Tandogan, Bulent; Cakar, Erbil; Isci, Herman; Kayan, Basak; Aslan, Halil; Ekiz, Ali; Sancak, Seda; Celik, Ayhan; Yoldemir, Tevfik; Uzun, Ozgur; Erdogan, Murat Faik

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the iodine status of pregnant women in a metropolitan city which was stated as iodine sufficient area after salt iodination program. This multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out on 3543 pregnant women. Age, gestational weeks, smoking, consumption of iodized salt, dietary salt restriction, history of stillbirth, abortus and congenital malformations were questioned. Spot urine samples were analyzed for urine iodine concentration (UIC). The outcomes were: (a) median UIC in three trimesters of pregnancy and (b) frequency of ID among pregnant women. The median UIC was 73 µg/L. The median UIC was 77 µg/L (1-324), 73 µg/L (1-600) and 70 µg/L (1-1650) in three trimesters of pregnancy, respectively (p: 0.14). UIC <50 µg/L was observed in 36.6% (n: 1295) and UIC<150 µg/L was observed in 90.7% (n: 3214) of pregnant women. Only 1% (n: 34) of the pregnant women had UIC levels higher than 500 µg/L. This study showed that more than 90% of the pregnant women in this iodine-sufficient city are facing some degree of iodine deficiency during their pregnancy. A salt iodization program might be satisfactory for the non-pregnant population, but it seems to be insufficient for the pregnant population.

  3. Seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in the water resources of Granada city metropolitan areas (South of Spain): Pollution of raw drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Navas, Natalia; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Cantarero-Malagón, Samuel; Chica-Rivas, Lucía

    2015-12-01

    This piece of research deals with the monitoring of a group of emerging contaminants (ECs) in the metropolitan area of Granada, a city representative of the South of Spain, in order to evaluate the environmental management of the wastewater system. With that aim, the spatial and seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in groundwater, surface and irrigation water resources from the aquifer "Vega de Granada" (VG) have been investigated for the first time. A set of the most prescribed drugs in Spain (ibuprofen, loratadine, pantoprazole and paracetamol), a pesticide widely used in agriculture (atrazine) and a typical anthropogenic contaminant (caffeine) were included in the study. Water samples were taken from the metropolitan area of the city of Granada inside of the zone of the aquifer, from the downstream of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and from the two main irrigation channels where surface and wastewater are mixed before distribution for irrigation purposes in the crops of the study area. A total of 153 water samples were analyzed through liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) throughout the study that took place over a period of two years, from July 2011 to July 2013. Results demonstrated the occurrence of four of the six target pollutants. Ibuprofen was detected several times, always in both channels with concentration ranges from 5.3 to 20.8 μg/L. The occurrence of paracetamol was detected in rivers and channels up to 34.3 μg/L. Caffeine was detected in all the water resources up to 39.3 μg/L. Pantoprazole was detected twice in the surface water source near to a WWPT ranging from 0.02 to 0.05 μg/L. The pesticide atrazine and the drug loratadine were not detected in any of the water samples analyzed. These results show evidence of poor environmental management of the wastewater concerning the water quality of the aquifer studied. The groundwater sources seem to receive a very continuous input of wastewater

  4. Mobile Technology and the Challenge to Promote a Communicative City in Indonesia. Case Study Bandung Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutriadi, Ridwan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the role of mobile technology to promote a communicative city in Indonesia. The focus is on mobile technologies as symbols of the latest information and communication technology (ICT). Communication influences the capacity building of the governmental planning employees to conduct better planning…

  5. Sediment contamination of residential streams in the metropolitan kansas city area, USA: Part I. distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and pesticide-related compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J.; Huggins, D.; Welker, G.; Dias, J.R.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Murowchick, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first part of a study that evaluates the influence of nonpoint-source contaminants on the sediment quality of five streams within the metropolitan Kansas City area, central United States. Surficial sediment was collected in 2003 from 29 sites along five streams with watersheds that extend from the core of the metropolitan area to its development fringe. Sediment was analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 3 common polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures (Aroclors), and 25 pesticide-related compounds of eight chemical classes. Multiple PAHs were detected at more than 50% of the sites, and concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 290 to 82,150 ??g/kg (dry weight). The concentration and frequency of detection of PAHs increased with increasing urbanization of the residential watersheds. Four- and five-ring PAH compounds predominated the PAH composition (73-100%), especially fluoranthene and pyrene. The PAH composition profiles along with the diagnostic isomer ratios [e.g., anthracene/(anthracene + phenanthrene), 0.16 ?? 0.03; fluoranthene/(fluoranthene + pyrene), 0.55 ?? 0.01)] indicate that pyrogenic sources (i.e., coal-tar-related operations or materials and traffic-related particles) may be common PAH contributors to these residential streams. Historical-use organochlorine insecticides and their degradates dominated the occurrences of pesticide-related compounds, with chlordane and dieldrin detected in over or nearly 50% of the samples. The occurrence of these historical organic compounds was associated with past urban applications, which may continue to be nonpoint sources replenishing local streams. Concentrations of low molecular weight (LMW; two or three rings) and high molecular weight (HMW; four to six rings) PAHs covaried along individual streams but showed dissimilar distribution patterns between the streams, while the historical pesticide-related compounds generally increased in concentration downstream. Correlations were noted

  6. Patterns of dietary calcium intake in south Indian rural, urban and metropolitan city subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinarayan CV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate dietary calcium intake favours bone mineral accrual. Sparse published data are available on dietary calcium intake of metropolitan city population from south India. Methods: We recorded the dietary intake of calcium and phytates of 524 healthy subjects from Bengaluru, a metropolitan city, by recalling the diet consumed in the previous 5 to 7 days and compared it with dietary intake of calcium of 325 healthy subjects from rural areas around Tirupati, and 508 healthy subjects from urban Tirupati. Results: The dietary calcium intake of the Tirupati rural subjects was the least compared to that of the urban and metropolitan city subjects. In the metropolitan and urban groups the diet was high in calories, milk, milk products and vegetables compared to rural subjects. Dietary calcium intake was significantly lower (p<0.0001 in the rural subjects compared to the urban and metropolitan city subjects. The dietary phytate were significantly different in both the rural, urban as well as the metropolitan city groups (p<0.0001. The dietary phytate/calcium ratio was significantly higher in rural subjects compared to urban and metropolitan city group (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Improving the quality of diet by reducing the phytate and enriching/supplementing with calcium will be of benefit for maintaining bone health.

  7. Evaluation of the volatility basis-set approach for the simulation of organic aerosol formation in the Mexico City metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Tsimpidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New primary and secondary organic aerosol modules have been added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM, for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism based on recent smog chamber studies. The new modelling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach: both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. This new framework with the use of the new volatility basis parameters for low-NOx and high-NOx conditions tends to predict 4–6 times higher anthropogenic SOA concentrations than those predicted with the older generation of models. The resulting PMCAMx-2008 was applied in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA for approximately a week during April 2003 during a period of very low regional biomass burning impact. The emission inventory, which uses as a starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory, is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments. The predicted organic aerosol (OA concentrations peak in the center of Mexico City, reaching values above 40 μg m−3. The model predictions are compared with the results of the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of the Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS observations. The model reproduces both Hydrocarbon-like Organic Aerosol (HOA and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA concentrations and diurnal profiles. The small OA underprediction during the rush-hour periods and overprediction in the afternoon suggest potential improvements to the description of fresh primary organic emissions and the formation of the oxygenated organic aerosols, respectively, although they may also be due to errors in the simulation of dispersion and vertical mixing. However, the AMS OOA data are not specific enough to prove that the model reproduces the organic aerosol

  8. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were collected as part of two separate urban water-quality studies from adjacent basins, the Blue River Basin (Kansas City, Missouri), the Little Blue River and Rock Creek Basins (Independence, Missouri), and their tributaries. Consistent collection and processing procedures between the studies allowed for statistical comparisons. Seven Blue River Basin sites, nine Little Blue River Basin sites, including Rock Creek, and two rural sites representative of Missouri ecological drainage units and the area’s ecoregions were used in the analysis. Different factors or levels of urban intensity may affect the basins and macroinvertebrate community metrics differently, even though both basins are substantially developed above their downstream streamgages (Blue River, 65 percent; Little Blue River, 52 percent). The Blue River has no flood control reservoirs and receives wastewater effluent and stormflow from a combined sewer system. The Little Blue River has flood control reservoirs, receives no wastewater effluent, and has a separate stormwater sewer system. Analysis of macroinvertebrate community structure with pollution-tolerance metrics and water-quality parameters indicated differences between the Blue River Basin and the Little Blue River Basin.

  9. Modeling large Mexican urban metropolitan areas by a Vicsek Szalay approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcio, Roberto; Rodríguez-Romo, Suemi

    2011-08-01

    A modified Vicsek-Szalay model is introduced. From this, experiments are performed in order to simulate the spatial morphology of the largest metropolitan area of México: a set of clusters formed by the Valle de México metropolitan area (VMMA), Puebla metropolitan area (PMA) and Toluca metropolitan area (TMA). This case is presented in detail and here is called the Central México metropolitan area (CMMA). To verify the effectiveness of our approach we study two other cases; the set of clusters formed by the Monterrey zone (MZ, formed by the Monterrey metropolitan area and the Saltillo City metropolitan area) and the Chihuahua zone (ChZ, formed by the Chihuahua metropolitan area, Delicias City and Cuauthemoc City ), with acceptable results. Besides we compute three different fractal measures for all our areas of interest (AOI). In this paper, we focus on the global feature of these fractal measures in the description of urban geography and obtained local information which normally comes from inner city structures and small scale human decisions. Finally, we verified that the Zipf law is fulfilled by our simulated urban morphologies, so we know that our model follows it. As is normal for actual city size distributions, the CMMA case is presented in detail. We intend to pave the way in the understanding of population spatial distribution in a geographical space.

  10. THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF ORADEA - DEVELOPMENT DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Metropolitan Area of Oradea has certain directions of development settled in accordance with the objectives of development assumed by The Local Council of Oradea on 10 March 2015 once with the approval of the strategy for development of Oradea Municipality for the period 2016 – 2020. It is very important for for the Municipality of Oradea to become, by quantifiable arguments in a relatively short period of time a real competitor of the great cities surrounding it or of Timişoara, Cluj-Napoca, Arad and Debrecen. Domains, in which Oradea can excel as a clear differentiator in front of its competitor, are closely related to the local traditional specific and resources. Thus, Oradea proposed to be the capital of Art Nouveau and thermal-ism. The fulfilment of this goal would definitely bring more tourists and obviously additional financial resources to the local budget. At this moment, OMA is prepared in what concerns the hotelier infrastructure and utilities for taking the new tourists. In addition, another important objective regarded at macro level for the entire OMA is the assurance of a security comfort for the citizens of the Municipality of Oradea and implicitly of the neighbouring villages. One of the objectives – Oradea, the safest city – is closely linked to another one which represents the follow-up of some successful beginnings in 2012 with the award Oradea – the green city. In the following period an increase of the surfaces covered with green spaces and recreational areas is being planned for the optimum comfort of the inhabitants and tourists of the OMA. The three main objectives mentioned above must be added to the imperative need of completing the necessary investments for the increase of the quality of life. The infrastructure for the assurance of the quality of health and education is reflected by the completed HURO programme accessed by the executive of OMA.

  11. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  12. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Michimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US. The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  13. Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mugica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A field study was carried out from 2003 to 2004 with the aim to develop the PM2.5 emission source profiles from light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles, as well as emission source profiles from waste incineration, wood burning, LP gas combustion, and meat broiling. Over 25 chemical species were quantified from the fine particles emitted by the different combustion sources investigated, including organic and elemental carbon, ions, and elements. The OC/TC ratio found in the different PM2.5 profiles was dissimilar as well as the sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, soil species, and trace element content. Consequently, these combustion emission profiles could be used in source reconciliation studies for fine particles.

  14. Sediment contamination of residential streams in the metropolitan Kansas City area, USA: Part II. Whole-sediment toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J; Ingersoll, C G; Kemble, N E; Dias, J R; Murowchick, J B; Welker, G; Huggins, D

    2010-10-01

    This is the second part of a study that evaluates the influence of nonpoint sources on the sediment quality of five adjacent streams within the metropolitan Kansas City area, central United States. Physical, chemical, and toxicity data (Hyalella azteca 28-day whole-sediment toxicity test) for 29 samples collected in 2003 were used for this evaluation, and the potential causes for the toxic effects were explored. The sediments exhibited a low to moderate toxicity, with five samples identified as toxic to H. azteca. Metals did not likely cause the toxicity based on low concentrations of metals in the pore water and elevated concentrations of acid volatile sulfide in the sediments. Although individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently exceeded effect-based sediment quality guidelines [probable effect concentrations (PECs)], only four of the samples had a PEC quotient (PEC-Q) for total PAHs over 1.0 and only one of these four samples was identified as toxic. For the mean PEC-Q for organochlorine compounds (chlordane, dieldrin, sum DDEs), 4 of the 12 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 were toxic and 4 of the 8 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 3.0 were toxic. Additionally, four of eight samples were toxic, with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 based on metals, PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides. The increase in the incidence of toxicity with the increase in the mean PEC-Q based on organochlorine pesticides or based on metals, PAHs, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides suggests that organochlorine pesticides might have contributed to the observed toxicity and that the use of a mean PEC-Q, rather than PEC-Qs for individual compounds, might be more informative in predicting toxic effects. Our study shows that stream sediments subject to predominant nonpoint sources contamination can be toxic and that many factors, including analysis of a full suite of PAHs and pesticides of both past and present urban applications and the origins of

  15. Sediment contamination of residential streams in the metropolitan kansas city area, USA: Part II. whole-sediment toxicity to the amphipod hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.; Dias, J.R.; Murowchick, J.B.; Welker, G.; Huggins, D.

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of a study that evaluates the influence of nonpoint sources on the sediment quality of five adjacent streams within the metropolitan Kansas City area, central United States. Physical, chemical, and toxicity data (Hyalella azteca 28-day whole-sediment toxicity test) for 29 samples collected in 2003 were used for this evaluation, and the potential causes for the toxic effects were explored. The sediments exhibited a low to moderate toxicity, with five samples identified as toxic to H. azteca. Metals did not likely cause the toxicity based on low concentrations of metals in the pore water and elevated concentrations of acid volatile sulfide in the sediments. Although individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently exceeded effect-based sediment quality guidelines [probable effect concentrations (PECs)], only four of the samples had a PEC quotient (PEC-Q) for total PAHs over 1.0 and only one of these four samples was identified as toxic. For the mean PEC-Q for organochlorine compounds (chlordane, dieldrin, sum DDEs), 4 of the 12 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 were toxic and 4 of the 8 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 3.0 were toxic. Additionally, four of eight samples were toxic, with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 based on metals, PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides. The increase in the incidence of toxicity with the increase in the mean PEC-Q based on organochlorine pesticides or based on metals, PAHs, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides suggests that organochlorine pesticides might have contributed to the observed toxicity and that the use of a mean PEC-Q, rather than PEC-Qs for individual compounds, might be more informative in predicting toxic effects. Our study shows that stream sediments subject to predominant nonpoint sources contamination can be toxic and that many factors, including analysis of a full suite of PAHs and pesticides of both past and present urban applications and the origins of

  16. Research on Volatile Organic Compounds in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in two campaigns collected in the Winter-2011 and Spring-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña, M.; González-Vargas, S.; Blanco, S.; Watanabe, T.; Maeda, T.; Cardenas, B.

    2013-05-01

    Because of the importance of information on the concentration and speciation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in the atmosphere for the development of regulatory programs or emission control, is necessary to determine the type and the concentrations of reactive and toxic VOC in atmospheric air. The aim of this study is to determine the speciation and quantification of VOC in the atmospheric air of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), from samples obtained in November-December 2011 (cold-dry) and March-April (warm-dry). This study presents the results of characterization of VOC in ambient air in the MCMA conducted during 2011-2012. Sampling of VOC was done in two sampling campaigns: from November 17th to December 11th, 2011, and March 1st to April 6th, 2012 through collection of ambient air each six days in six liters stainless steel SUMMA canisters of 24 hours integrated samples, in three sites (Merced: commercial area with vehicular sources, Pedregal: residential area with vehicular sources and San Agustin: industrial sources with heavy traffic), in the MCMA. The analysis of samples was carried out with two chromatographic systems: 1) method equivalent to the EPA's Method TO-14, and 2) GC/MSD coupled to a preconcentrator ENTECH, for the analysis of the compounds listed in EPA method TO15. It was investigated the concentration of 111 volatile organic compounds, (ozone precursors and toxic compounds). It was found that concentrations of 23 species, constitute 80% of the total VOC concentration tested: ethane, propane, isobutane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, isopentane, methylcyclopentane, ethylene, propylene, acetylene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, o-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, ethyl and isopropyl alcohols, acetone, 2-butanone, MTBE and ethyl acetate. Both in 2011 and 2012, the highest concentrations measured in the three sites were for compounds associated with the combustion of LPG gas: propane, n-butane. The highest concentrations of

  17. Radiocarbon-insights into temporal variations in the sources and concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the Los Angeles and Salt Lake City Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czimczik, Claudia; Mouteva, Gergana; Simon, Fahrni; Guaciara, Santos; James, Randerson

    2014-05-01

    Increased fossil fuel consumption and biomass burning are contributing to significantly larger emissions of black carbon (BC) aerosols to the atmosphere. Together with organic carbon (OC), BC is a major constituent of fine particulate matter in urban air, contributes to haze and has been linked to a broad array of adverse health effects. Black carbon's high light absorption capacity and role in key (in-)direct climate feedbacks also lead to a range of impacts in the Earth system (e.g. warming, accelerated snow melt, changes in cloud formation). Recent work suggests that regulating BC emissions can play an important role in improving regional air quality and reducing future climate warming. However, BC's atmospheric transport pathways, lifetime and magnitudes of emissions by sector and region, particularly emissions from large urban centers, remain poorly constrained by measurements. Contributions of fossil and modern sources to the carbonaceous aerosol pool (corresponding mainly to traffic/industrial and biomass-burning/biogenic sources, respectively) can be quantified unambiguously by measuring the aerosol radiocarbon (14C) content. However, accurate 14C-based source apportionment requires the physical isolation of BC and OC, and minimal sample contamination with extraneous carbon or from OC charring. Compound class-specific 14C analysis of BC remains challenging due to very small sample sizes (5-15 ug C). Therefore, most studies to date have only analyzed the 14C content of the total organic carbonaceous aerosol fraction. Here, we present time-series 14C data of BC and OC from the Los Angeles (LA) metropolitan area in California - one of two megacities in the United States - and from Salt Lake City (SLC), UT. In the LA area, we analyzed 48h-PM10 samples near the LA port throughout 2007 and 2008 (with the exception of summer). We also collected monthly-PM2.5 samples at the University of California - Irvine, with shorter sampling periods during regional wildfire

  18. The Role of Great Cities in Romania for the Metropolitan Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Irina POPESCU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the legislation in force, in Romania there are 11 first rank cities that given their size, their importance, the level of services and the economic activity, represent attractions and are subjected to the development pressures. Still, according to the European tendencies, the urban agglomerations tend to approach this type of cooperation regardless the number of the inhabitants. Currently in Romania there are 11 great cities that have developed processes of organizing the metropolitan areas corresponding to them. Among them, two have already created metropolitan areas: Oradea (2001 and Iaşi (2004, both with the assistance of programs financed by USAID.

  19. Evaluation of the Volatility Basis-Set Approach for Modeling Primary and Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Pandis, S. N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    Anthropogenic air pollution is an increasingly serious problem for public health, agriculture, and global climate. Organic material (OM) contributes ~ 20-50% to the total fine aerosol mass at continental mid-latitudes. Although OM accounts for a large fraction of PM2.5 concentration worldwide, the contributions of primary and secondary organic aerosol have been difficult to quantify. In this study, new primary and secondary organic aerosol modules were added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (Gaydos et al., 2007), for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism (Carter, 2000; ENVIRON, 2006) based on recent smog chamber studies (Robinson et al., 2007). The new modeling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach (Lane et al., 2007): both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. The emission inventory, which uses as starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory (CAM, 2006), is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments (Robinson et al., 2007). Sensitivity tests where POA is considered as nonvolatile and POA and SOA as chemically reactive are also described. In all cases PMCAMx is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during March 2006. The modeling domain covers a 180x180x6 km region in the MCMA with 3x3 km grid resolution. The model predictions are compared with Aerodyne's Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) observations from the MILAGRO Campaign. References Robinson, A. L.; Donahue, N. M.; Shrivastava, M. K.; Weitkamp, E. A.; Sage, A. M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Lane, T. E.; Pandis, S. N.; Pierce, J. R., 2007. Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging. Science 315, 1259-1262. Gaydos, T. M.; Pinder, R. W.; Koo, B.; Fahey, K. M.; Pandis, S. N., 2007. Development and application of a three- dimensional aerosol

  20. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale of... since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined...

  1. Future Heat Waves in Paris Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulant, A.; Lemonsu, A.; Somot, S.; Masson, V.

    2010-12-01

    Cities are particularly vulnerable to heat waves, firstly because they concentrate the majority of the population and, secondly because the heat island that characterizes the urban climate exacerbates heat wave effects. This work is part of the interdisciplinary VURCA project (Vulnerability of cities to heat waves), which deals with the evolution of heat wave events in the context of global warming, urban vulnerability and adaptation strategies. The aim of this study is to analyse urban heat wave events in present climate (1950-2009) and their evolution in an enhanced greenhouse gazes future climate (2010-2100). We used daily observations of temperature from several stations covering Paris metropolitan area and climate projections following three different IPCC-SRES scenarios (B1, A1B, A2) and issued from several ENSEMBLES regional climate models. The heat wave definition is based on the indexes of the operational French warning system. A heat wave is detected within observed or simulated time-series by a heat wave peak, when the temperatures exceed the value of the 99.9th percentile. Its duration is determined by all adjacent days to this peak, for which the temperatures are not durably smaller than the 99.9th percentile value minus 2 °C. The 99.9th percentile threshold is inferred from quantile-quantile plots produced for each climate model in comparison with observations for the reference period 1950-2000. Heat waves have been extracted within observations and 12 climatic simulations. The number of heat wave events and cumulated HW days per year have been calculated, the maximum being seven heat waves cumulating more than 60 HW days in one year in the case of the A2 scenario and until 50 days in the case of the more moderate A1B scenario. From 2050, the occurrence of three or four HW events per year is becoming the norm all scenarios taken together. The evolution of heat wave features has been analysed, highlighting the large variability of the climatic

  2. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy... Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more Albany-Schenectady-Troy MSA...

  3. Digital data sets describing metropolitan areas in the conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes metropolitan areas in the conterminous United States, developed from U.S. Bureau of the Census boundaries of Consolidated Metropolitan...

  4. Green Urbanism for the Greener Future of Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaręba, Anna; Krzemińska, Alicja; Widawski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Intensive urbanization is swallowing municipal green areas which causes intensification of erosion, decrease in biodiversity and permanent fragmentation of habitats. In the face of these changes, a risk of irreversible damages to urban ecosystems is growing. That is why planning of solutions within the framework of Green Urbanism in metropolitan areas inhabited by over 55% of the global population is of extraordinary importance. The task of the paper is to present patterns of the Green Urbanism using selected examples of metropolitan areas as case studies. The main goal of the research is to make comparison between GU practices in different countries, in various spatial settings. The principles of triple zero framework: zero fossil-fuel energy use, zero waste, zero emissions (from low-to-no-carbon emissions) introduce not only the contemporary trends in theoretical urban planning but are dictated by practical considerations to create a healthy environment for a healthy society with a minimized environmental footprint. The research results help to identify Green Urbanism techniques used for multiple functions, including ecological, recreational, cultural, aesthetic and other uses and present opportunities for implementation of Green Urbanism solutions in metropolitan areas. To achieve healthier society and environment, highly congested and polluted cities have to be recreated through working with the existing landscape, topography and natural resources particular to the site.

  5. Subsurface information for risk-sensitive urban spatial planning in Dhaka Metropolitan City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Andreas; Aziz Patwary, Mohammad Abdul; Bahls, Rebecca; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun; Jabeen, Sarwat

    2016-04-01

    Dhaka Metropolitan City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six- or lower storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing city areas are projected in marshy terrains modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In most areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions within 30 meters. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development Authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Dhaka Metropolitan City area (approx. 1700 km2). Geo-information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, geospatial information in form of a geomorphic map, a digital terrain model and a 3-D subsurface model covering the whole city area have been generated at a scale of 1 : 50000. An extensive engineering geological data base consisting of more than 2200 borehole data with associated Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) and lab data has been compiled. With the field testing (SPT) and engineering geological lab data, the 3-D subsurface model can be parameterized to derive important spatial subsurface information for urban planning like bearing capacity evaluations for different foundation designs or soil liquefaction potential assessments for specific earthquake scenarios. In conjunction with inundation potential evaluations for different flooding scenarios, comprehensive building ground suitability information can be derived to support risk

  6. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    Background The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. Methods The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Results Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some

  7. Place-bound versus footloose firms: wiring metropolitan areas in a policy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geenhuizen, M.; Nijkamp, P.

    2009-01-01

    In the development of modern urban systems, we are facing a shift from central cities as the major location of coordination functions, high-order services and innovative activities, to interconnected nodes at some distance in a larger metropolitan area. However, which cities in the emerging new spat

  8. Multiplex networks in metropolitan areas: generic features and local effects

    CERN Document Server

    Strano, Emanuele; Dobson, Simon; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Most large cities are spanned by more than one transportation system. These different modes of transport have usually been studied separately: it is however important to understand the impact on urban systems of the coupling between them and we report in this paper an empirical analysis of the coupling between the street network and the subway for the two large metropolitan areas of London and New York. We observe a similar behaviour for network quantities related to quickest paths suggesting the existence of generic mechanisms operating beyond the local peculiarities of the specific cities studied. An analysis of the betweenness centrality distribution shows that the introduction of underground networks operate as a decentralising force creating congestions in places located at the end of underground lines. Also, we find that increasing the speed of subways is not always beneficial and may lead to unwanted uneven spatial distributions of accessibility. In fact, for London -- but not for New York -- there is ...

  9. Urban Seismology in the Taipei Metropolitan Area: Review and Prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeen-Hwa Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A strong collision between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates causes high seismicity in the Taiwan region. A substantial number of cities and large towns exist on thick sediments in western Taiwan. Larger-magnitude inland earthquakes, for example the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, can cause serious damage in urban areas. Consequently, urban seismology is of great interest to the local seismological community. The Taipei Metropolitan Area (TMA is the political, economic, and cultural center of Taiwan. It is situated over a region where the Philippine Sea plate subducts the Eurasian plate. Although seismicity in the TMA is lower than other areas of Taiwan, earthquakes still occur. Seismic risk mitigation is of grave concern in the TMA because of its high population, number of tall buildings, mass rapid transit system, and two nearby nuclear power plants. In this article, procedures for seismic risk mitigation, previous studies, core issues for future research and related topics are described and reviewed.

  10. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rasuly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs. The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2–11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1–5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan

  11. Regional Disparities and Social Cohesion Policies. The Case of the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSALINA GRUMO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of Regions appears reconfigured by the "reshaping" of national States. Besides, under a sub-regional scale, forms of governance have been launched, redefining a new territoriality. In Italy, the role of the Regions and Cities is more and more important in the decision-making processes of the territories and it is also characterized by the recent establishment of the metropolitan cities, but still not geo-politically defined. There is, in fact, a constitutional reform process through the region's reorganization legislative autonomy and strengthening of local governments. In this context, some areas are characterized by social unrest that includes new forms of poverty, urban malaise and marginalization, due also to the financial and economic crisis whose signs of recovery are still very weak. In the European Union, the programming decisions considered the policy of development and cohesion also at the local scale. The 2014-2020 EU programming cycle, in fact, has defined the main role of metropolitan cities, but also of cities and internal areas. The contribution will analyze Puglia, region of southern Italy, and the metropolitan area of Bari, the regional capital, in order to verify policies concerning the social field, both through "strategic planning" and launching the so-called "smart city" experience. In the metropolitan city, indeed, there is already an orientation towards the "social innovation" to address the issues of social cohesion and inclusion, consistent to sustainable development.

  12. Telecommunications for Metropolitan Areas: Opportunities for the 1980's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report intended for officials responsible for solving metropolitan problems identifies ways that telecommunications could improve the delivery of public services to metropolitan communities during the 1980's. Areas included in this study are delivery of public services to the home, operation of mobile public services, personal security…

  13. Sacramento Metropolitan Area, California Reconnaissance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    INTERVAL (YEARS) SACRAMENTO METROPOLITAN ARIA CALIFORNIA STAGE-FREQUENCY RELATIONSHIP SACRAMENTO RIVER AT FREMONT WEIR/WEST END SACRAMENTO DISTRICT...Wildlife Biologist/ Environmental Planner Karen Amerman Kuhn Civil Engineer/ Water Resources Plnr Patricia Roberson Environmental Studies

  14. Large eddy simulation of urban features for Copenhagen metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahura

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The large eddy simulations employing the SUBMESO model with the urban soil layer model SM2-U were performed for the model domain covering the Danish Island of Sealand and including the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Monthly and diurnal cycle variability were studied for the net radiation, sensible and storage heat fluxes, surface's temperatures, and others. These were evaluated for selected urban vs. non urban related types of covers/surfaces and urban districts such as city center, high buildings, industrial, and residential. Results showed strong effects of urban features on temporal and spatial variability. They are useful and applicable for verification of numerical weather prediction models and development of urban canopy parameterizations.

  15. Investigation of the climate change within Moscow metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varentsov, Mikhail; Trusilova, Kristina; Konstantinov, Pavel; Samsonov, Timofey

    2014-05-01

    As the urbanization continues worldwide more than half of the Earth's population live in the cities (U.N., 2010). Therefore the vulnerability of the urban environment - the living space for millions of people - to the climate change has to be investigated. It is well known that urban features strongly influence the atmospheric boundary layer and determine the microclimatic features of the local environment, such as urban heat island (UHI). Available temperature observations in cities are, however, influenced by the natural climate variations, human-induced climate warming (IPCC, 2007) and in the same time by the growth and structural modification of the urban areas. The relationship between these three factors and their roles in climate changes in the cities are very important for the climatic forecast and requires better understanding. In this study, we made analysis of the air temperature change and urban heat island evolution within Moscow urban area during decades 1970-2010, while this urban area had undergone intensive growth and building modification allowing the population of Moscow to increase from 7 to 12 million people. Analysis was based on the data from several meteorological stations in Moscow region and Moscow city, including meteorological observatory of Lomonosov Moscow State University. Differences in climate change between urban and rural stations, changes of the power and shape of urban heat island and their relationships with changes of building height and density were investigated. Collected data and obtained results are currently to be used for the validation of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with the purpose to use this model for further more detailed climate research and forecasts for Moscow metropolitan area. References: 1. U.N. (2010), World Urbanization Prospects. The 2009 Revision.Rep., 1-47 pp, United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division., New York. 2. IPCC (2007), IPCC Fourth Assessment Report

  16. Air quality modeling in Warsaw Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Holnicki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Decision support of air quality management needs to connect several categories of the input data with the analytical process of air pollution dispersion. The aim of the respective model of air pollution is to provide a quantitative assessment of environmental impact of emission sources in a form of spatial/temporal maps of pollutants’ concentration or deposition in the domain. These results are in turn used in assessment of environmental risk and supporting respective planning actions. However, due to the complexity of the forecasting system and the required input data, such environmental prognosis and related decisions contain many potential sources of imprecision and uncertainty. The main sources of uncertainty are commonly considered meteorological and emission input data. This paper addresses the problem of emission uncertainty, and impact of this uncertainty on the forecasted air pollution concentrations and adverse health effects. The computational experiment implemented for Warsaw Metropolitan Area, Poland, encompasses one-year forecast with the year 2005 meteorological dataset. The annual mean concentrations of the main urban pollutants are computed. The impact of uncertainty in emission field inventory is also considered. Uncertainty assessment is based on the Monte Carlo technique where the regional scale CALPUFF model is the main forecasting tool used in air quality analysis.

  17. Towards the societal system of innovation: The case of metropolitan areas in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkeli, S.; Wintjes, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Innovation serves many purposes. In this paper we study new varieties of innovation and innovation policy which address societal challenges in the largest cities in Europe. These metropolitan areas consistently show resounding characteristics in terms of multiplicities of innovation, governance and

  18. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Slott, R. S.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L. C.; Shorter, J. H.; Zahniser, M.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-11-01

    A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA) indicate that - in a mole per mole basis - have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  19. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA indicate that – in a mole per mole basis – have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  20. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles and fleet averaged emissions. Results indicate that colectivos, particularly CNG-powered colectivos, are potentially significant contributors of NOx and aldehydes in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in US cities. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  1. Estimation of the mass absorption cross section of the organic carbon component of aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Barnard

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Data taken from the MCMA-2003 and the 2006 MILAGRO field campaigns are used to examine the absorption of solar radiation by the organic component of aerosols. Using irradiance data from a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR and an actinic flux spectroradiometer (SR, we derive aerosol single scattering albedo, π0,λ, as a function of wavelength, λ. We find that in the near-UV spectral range (250 to 400 nm π0,λ is much lower compared to π0,λ at 500 nm indicating enhanced absorption in the near-UV range. Absorption by elemental carbon, dust, or gas cannot account for this enhanced absorption leaving the organic part of the aerosol as the only possible absorber. We use data from a surface deployed Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS along with the inferred π0,λ to estimate the Mass Absorption Cross section (MAC for the organic carbon. We find that the MAC is about 10.5 m2/g at 300 nm and falls close to zero at about 500 nm; values that are roughly consistent with other estimates of organic carbon MAC. These MAC values can be considered as "radiatively correct" because when used in radiative transfer calculations the calculated irradiances/actinic fluxes match those measured at the wavelengths considered here. For an illustrative case study described here, we estimate that the light absorption by the "brown" (organic carbonaceous aerosol can add about 40% to the light absorption of black carbon in Mexico City. This contribution will vary depending on the relative abundance of organic carbon relative to black carbon. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that organic aerosol would slow down photochemistry by selectively scavenging the light reaching the ground at those wavelengths that drive photochemical reactions. Finally, satellite retrievals of trace gases that are used to infer emissions currently assume that the MAC of organic carbon is zero. For trace gases that are

  2. Report on FS survey for project of introduction of highly energy-efficient trolley buses into the Mexico Metropolitan Area in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Mexico city eno sho energy gata trolley bus donyu project FS chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Traffic jam and air pollution by automobiles are currently getting severe in the Mexico Metropolitan Area. Trolley buses were introduced for improving the environment more than ten years ago. Vehicles become too old for use, and their energy efficiency is low. In this project, 200 highly energy-efficient trolley buses are introduced to replace old inefficient trolley buses, which results in the improved traffic convenience in the City and enhanced energy efficiency. The new energy-efficient trolley buses are made of energy-efficient control VVVF inverters produced and exported by MELCO (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation), energy-efficient motors by MELMEX (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Mexico), and bodies by MASA which is a major manufacturer of bus bodies. The objective of this research is to analyze the background of introduction of new energy-efficient trolley buses and the effects of the present project. The results of analysis are going to be utilized for future promotion of the Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism. 30 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Akihiko Michimi; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis...

  4. Analysis of Criteria Air Pollutant Trends in Three Mexican Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy-Edith Benítez-García

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Data from the annual, seasonal, and hourly behavior of the criteria air pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, O3, and PM10 in three Mexican metropolitan areas (the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA, Guadalajara Metropolitan Area (GMA, and Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA over the period 2000–2011 were analyzed; and compliance with Mexican air quality standards was evaluated, highlighting causes of specific episodes of high and low concentrations. Data analyzed were collected from automatic air-monitoring networks located in the MCMA (32 stations, GMA (8 stations, and MMA (5 stations. In the MCMA and MMA, correlations between wind direction and concentrations of SO2 suggest that there was a considerable contribution of trans-boundary transport from outside of these areas. Analysis of annual trends revealed large reductions of CO in the MCMA, and SO2 in the three metropolitan areas. However, the annual mean concentration of O3 increased by 47% and 42% in the GMA and MMA, respectively, from 2000 to 2011, but decreased by 13% in the MCMA from 2005 to 2010. The annual mean concentration of PM10 in the MMA was about 58% and 76% higher than that in the MCMA and GMA, respectively, from 2001 to 2010.

  5. Testing Estimates of Housing Cost Differences among US Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Easton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the accuracy of six measures of housing cost differences among US metropolitan areas. Using Census data from 177 metropolitan areas, it tests the measures in two ways. First, it tests the ability of changes in the measures to predict changes in the shelter component of the metropolitan CPI from 1990 to 2000. Second, it tests the ability of the measures themselves to predict a proxy in 2000. A measure based on Fair Market Rents calculated by HUD placed second on the first test but did badly on the second. The housing component of the ACCRA index, a living cost measure frequently used by researchers, performed poorly on both tests. The top performer on both tests was a measure based on the average rent per room for a metropolitan area’s dwellings. Researchers wishing to control for living cost differences among places should consider including it in their living cost index.

  6. Relationship of Transportation Noise and Annoyance for Two Metropolitan Cities in Korea: Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Joo Hyun; Lee, Jiho; Park, Sang Jin; Sim, Chang Sun

    2016-01-01

    Transportation noise is known to have negative impact on both public health and life quality. This study evaluated the relationship between transportation noise and annoyance levels, and also the difference of annoyance levels in two metropolitan cities based on epidemiologic surveys. Two thousand adult subjects living in Seoul and Ulsan were enrolled by stratified random sampling on the basis of noise maps from July 2015 to January 2016. Individual annoyance in accordance with transportation noise levels in two metropolitan cities were surveyed using an 11-point visual analog scale questionnaire. The results show that transportation noise level was significantly correlated with annoyance in both cities. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of being 'highly annoyed' increased with noise level (Ldn, day-night average sound level) in both cities. After adjusting for age, residence period, sociodemographic factors (sex, education, marriage, income, alcohol, smoking, and exercise) and noise sensitivity, the risk of being 'highly annoyed' was increased with noise levels in both cities. In comparison to those of areas with noise levels below 55 dBA, the adjusted odds ratios of 'highly annoyed' for areas with 55-65 dBA and over 65 dBA were 2.056 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.225-3.450), 3.519 (95% CI 1.982-6.246) in Seoul and 1.022 (95% CI 0.585-1.785), 1.704 (95% CI 1.005-2.889) in Ulsan, respectively. Based on the results of a population study, we showed that transportation noise levels were significantly associated with annoyance in adults. However, there were some differences between the two cities. In this study, there were differences in transportation noise between the two cities. Seoul has complex noise (traffic and aircraft), compared to single road traffic noise in Ulsan. Therefore, single and complex transportation noise may have different effects on annoyance levels.

  7. Office space bacterial abundance and diversity in three metropolitan areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krissi M Hewitt

    Full Text Available People in developed countries spend approximately 90% of their lives indoors, yet we know little about the source and diversity of microbes in built environments. In this study, we combined culture-based cell counting and multiplexed pyrosequencing of environmental ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequences to investigate office space bacterial diversity in three metropolitan areas. Five surfaces common to all offices were sampled using sterile double-tipped swabs, one tip for culturing and one for DNA extraction, in 30 different offices per city (90 offices, 450 total samples. 16S rRNA gene sequences were PCR amplified using bar-coded "universal" bacterial primers from 54 of the surfaces (18 per city and pooled for pyrosequencing. A three-factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA found significant differences in viable bacterial abundance between offices inhabited by men or women, among the various surface types, and among cities. Multiplex pyrosequencing identified more than 500 bacterial genera from 20 different bacterial divisions. The most abundant of these genera tended to be common inhabitants of human skin, nasal, oral or intestinal cavities. Other commonly occurring genera appeared to have environmental origins (e.g., soils. There were no significant differences in the bacterial diversity between offices inhabited by men or women or among surfaces, but the bacterial community diversity of the Tucson samples was clearly distinguishable from that of New York and San Francisco, which were indistinguishable. Overall, our comprehensive molecular analysis of office building microbial diversity shows the potential of these methods for studying patterns and origins of indoor bacterial contamination. "[H]umans move through a sea of microbial life that is seldom perceived except in the context of potential disease and decay." - Feazel et al. (2009.

  8. Assessing the impact of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on respiratory-cardiovascular chronic diseases in the New York City Metropolitan area using Hierarchical Bayesian Model estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stephanie A; Insaf, Tabassum Z; Hall, Eric S; Talbot, Thomas O; Huff, Amy K

    2016-11-01

    An enhanced research paradigm is presented to address the spatial and temporal gaps in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements and generate realistic and representative concentration fields for use in epidemiological studies of human exposure to ambient air particulate concentrations. The general approach for research designed to analyze health impacts of exposure to PM2.5 is to use concentration data from the nearest ground-based air quality monitor(s), which typically have missing data on the temporal and spatial scales due to filter sampling schedules and monitor placement, respectively. To circumvent these data gaps, this research project uses a Hierarchical Bayesian Model (HBM) to generate estimates of PM2.5 in areas with and without air quality monitors by combining PM2.5 concentrations measured by monitors, PM2.5 concentration estimates derived from satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, and Community-Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model predictions of PM2.5 concentrations. This methodology represents a substantial step forward in the approach for developing representative PM2.5 concentration datasets to correlate with inpatient hospitalizations and emergency room visits data for asthma and inpatient hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure (HF) using case-crossover analysis. There were two key objective of this current study. First was to show that the inputs to the HBM could be expanded to include AOD data in addition to data from PM2.5 monitors and predictions from CMAQ. The second objective was to determine if inclusion of AOD surfaces in HBM model algorithms results in PM2.5 air pollutant concentration surfaces which more accurately predict hospital admittance and emergency room visits for MI, asthma, and HF. This study focuses on the New York City, NY metropolitan and surrounding areas during the 2004-2006 time period, in order to compare the health outcome impacts with those from previous studies and focus on any

  9. From the metropolitan area to the urban sprawl: the patchiness of the territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available  The paper tackles the phenomenon of the urban expansion through two concepts: metropolitan area and sprawl. The first, heir of the rational and positivist tradition of development, would lead to orderly and efficient metropolis; the second, son of the capitalist individualism and of the environmentalist emergency, considers the expanded city as one of the symbols of the process of unlimited appropriation of the space. Between these two concepts there is the short period of last crisis of the city, the two decades from 1970s to 1980s. From this moment the city is emerged acting out towards three main directions: the first is the expulsion of activities considered unessential; the second is the repossession of abandoned parts of the city and their transformation into high quality urban districts; the third is the search for new meanings and new perspectives, with the following marketing actions that appear to be central in the city’s policies. In this process it is interesting to observe that the actions regarded as positive are physically positioned in different places from the negative ones: when one talk about urban rehabilitation the mind runs to downtown or to semi-central urban areas; the same when one talk about actions on the image of the city. The final section of the paper examines the metropolitan area of Naples. The analysis is conducted by a qualitative point of view (in relation to the functional character of the metropolitan area and by a quantitative point of view (in relation to the changes of the population structure over the past 150 years. In this regard, the “analytical metropolitan area” has nothing to do with the potential administrative boundaries.

  10. Spacial economic impacts of creative industries of the metropolitan areas of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Valdivia López

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth dynamics in contemporary cities and their territorial organization are subject to the influence of economic activities associated with creative industries. In this research, we perform a spatial analysis of such creative industries across all metropolitan areas of Mexico during the period. In order to show the spatial relevance that creative industries have over the urban structure, we calculate the employment concentration of each of the sectors and subsectors with respect to the distance from the closest metropolitan area’s Central Business District. We conclude that creative industries tend to localize close to the Metropolitan Areas’ CBD and they are the ones with greater capacity to generate positive externalities on employment growth.

  11. Usage of Social Media in City Marketing: A Research on 30 Metropolitan Municipalities in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Gümüş

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in information and communication technologies cause serious developments in marketing field similar to every sector. In parallel with these developments, the social media channels which appear as Web 2.0 applications have a number of advantages in comparison with traditional media channels. Social media gained a place in marketing activities because of its advantages. Social media is added on instruments in line with these developments that countries benefit in marketing activities for attracting more tourists, investment and becoming prominent against the other cities. Cities intensively benefit from social media because of social media’s properties like reaching the large masses, low marketing cost, interaction, receiving feedbacks rapidly, etc. Within this context, the purpose of this research is to determine the use statuses of social media by metropolitan municipalities as part of city marketing. In accordance with this purpose, official social media accounts of 30 metropolitan municipalities are investigated between the dates of 01/09/2016 and 30/09/2016, then their shares in social media channels are investigated in the context of city marketing.It is observed that two metropolitan municipalities do not have official Facebook accounts, four metropolitan municipalities do not have an official Twitter account as well. Again, it is found that 19 metropolitan municipalities do not have an official Instagram account and 17 metropolitan municipalities do not have official YouTube account. In consequence, it is observed that, our metropolitan municipalities do not benefit from social media effectively for city marketing activities.

  12. The Age of Environmental Impasse? Globalization and Environmental Transformation of Metropolitan Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchert Saguas Presas, L.

    2005-01-01

    Metropolitan cities are undergoing a major spatial and environmental transformation. The proliferation of business districts, corporate headquarters and international hotels is prompting a massive verticalization and densification of land use, which is affecting the urban environment and infrastruct

  13. Reformulated gasolines: The experience of Mexico City Metropolitan Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, H.B.; Jardon, R.T.; Echeverria, R.S. [Centro de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

    1997-12-31

    The introduction of several reformulated gasolines into the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) in the middle 1986 is an example of using fuel composition to improve, in theory, the air quality. However, although these changes have resulted in an important reduction of lead airborne concentrations, a worsened situation has been created. Ozone levels in the atmosphere MCMZ have presented a sudden rise since the introduction of the first reformulated gasoline, reaching in the 1990`s an annual average of 1,700 exceedances to the Mexican Ozone Air Quality Standard (0.11 ppm not to be exceeded 1 hr. a day one day a year). The authors examine the tendency on ozone air quality in MCMZ in relation with the changes in gasoline composition since 1986. The authors also discuss the importance to perform an air quality impact analysis before the introduction of reformulated gasolines in countries where the local economy do not allow to change the old car fleet not fitted with exhaust treatment devices.

  14. Simulation of Optical Packet—Switched Metropolitan Area Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炳春; 贾潞华; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces architectures of two types optical packet-switched metropolitan area networks and their media access control protocols.We have designed ralated network simulation systems.With these simulation systems,the characteristics and performanceof the two MANs can be achieved.

  15. Distribution of HCV genotypes in the metropolitan area of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sodano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hepatitis C virus is characterized by high genomic variability that leads to the identification of six different genotypes and many subtypes. In this work, we show the prevalence of genotypes in patients living in the metropolitan area of Naples collected in one year, analyzing differences in the distribution depending on sex and age groups.

  16. Accessibility and transit-oriented development in European metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papa, E.; Bertolini, L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how urban form is related to accessibility. In particular, it explores the relationship between Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) and rail-based accessibility in a metropolitan area. The following overarching questions are addressed: Does a TOD-informed urban spatial structu

  17. Evaluation on Cultivated Land Resource Ecologi-cal Service Value in Wuhan Metropolitan Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua TANG; Yinghui Ll; Gangqiang CHEN; Lei YU; Sujuan Ll

    2014-01-01

    The land ecosystem service function value contains the gas regulating function value, air purification function value, water conservation value, land conser-vation value, soil nutrient conservation value and maintain biodiversity value. Based on the method of market value and the data of Hubei Statistical yearbook, cultivat-ed land resources of ecosystem service function value is 730 038.69Mil ion in 2007-2009, and 714 774.99 Mil ion in 2010-2012 in Wuhan Metropolitan Area. After three years of development, Wuhan Metropolitan Area of ecological value of cultivated land has increased by about 3.97%. From the point of each composition, the im-portance of gas regulating function of cultivated land resources and water conserva-tion function is the forefront. From the point of spatial distribution, the highest of annual average value of the cultivated land ecological was Huanggang (1.725 bil ion yuan), the lowest was Ezhou (217.868 6 mil ion yuan) in 2010-2012. From the point of space changes, the land ecological value increased only in Qianjiang city, while farmland ecological value in other cities was fal ing The conclusion is of direc-tive significance to the regional land protection policy and the farmland reasonable distribution, for Wuhan Metropolitan Area and other areas.

  18. Monitoring urban growth and detecting land-cover changes on the Istanbul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geymen, Abdurrahman; Baz, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Istanbul is the most populated city of Turkey with a population of around 10.58 M (2000) living on around 5,750 km2. In 1980, the population was only 4.7 M and then it has been more than doubled in only two decades. The population has been increasing as a result of mass immigration. An urbanization process continues and it causes serious increases in urban areas while decreasing the amount of green areas. This rapid, uncontrolled, and illegal urbanization accompanied by insufficient infrastructure has caused degradation of forest and barren lands in the metropolitan area, especially through the last two decades. The watershed basins inside the metropolitan area and the transportation network have accelerated the land-cover changes, which have negative impacts on water quality of the basins. Monitoring urban growth and land cover change will enable better management of this complex urban area by the Greater Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (GIMM). A temporal assessment of land-cover changes of Istanbul has been documented in this study. The study mainly focuses on the acquisition and analysis of Landsat TM and Landsat GeoCover LC satellite images reflecting the significant land-cover changes between the years of 1990 and 2005. Raster data were converted to vector data and used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A database was created for Istanbul metropolitan area to plan, manage, and utilize statistical attribute data covering population, water, forest, industry, and topographic position. Consequently an overlay analysis was carried out and land use/cover changes through years have been detected for the case study area. The capability of Landsat images in determining the alterations in the macro form of the city are also discussed.

  19. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  20. Spatial variation of temperature and indicative of the urban heat island in Chennai Metropolitan Area, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, Anushiya; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Kumar, Divya Subash

    2016-01-01

    Heat island is the main product of urban climate, and one of the important problems of twenty-first century. Cities in tropical countries suffer extensively due to the urban heat island effect, and urban climate studies are necessary to improve the comfort level and city planning. Chennai is the tropical city; it is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and industrial growth centers in South Asia. The spatial distribution of heat intensity in Chennai Metropolitan Area was studied, and the influence of land use and green cover were analyzed in the present work. Mobile measurements were carried out throughout the study area using a grid network to represent various land use patterns of the city. The study revealed some heat and cool pockets within the city limit; the maximum intensities of temperature were noticed in the central core city and north Chennai, which are distinguished for their commercial centers and densely populated residential areas. In morning time, temperature differences between fringes and central parts of heat packets were in the range of 3-4.5 °C. Land use and green cover play a critical role in microclimate and influences it. Green cover has a significant negative correlation with observed microclimate variations. Thus, the study urges city administration, policy makers, and architects to take up effective mitigation and adaptation strategies in the city to make people more comfortable.

  1. Epidemic Process over the Commute Network in a Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashima, Kenta; Sasaki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of epidemiological dynamics is important for prevention and control of epidemic outbreaks. However, previous studies tend to focus only on specific areas, indicating that application to another area or intervention strategy requires a similar time-consuming simulation. Here, we study the epidemic dynamics of the disease-spread over a commute network, using the Tokyo metropolitan area as an example, in an attempt to elucidate the general properties of epidemic spread over a commute network that could be used for a prediction in any metropolitan area. The model is formulated on the basis of a metapopulation network in which local populations are interconnected by actual commuter flows in the Tokyo metropolitan area and the spread of infection is simulated by an individual-based model. We find that the probability of a global epidemic as well as the final epidemic sizes in both global and local populations, the timing of the epidemic peak, and the time at which the epidemic reaches a local population are mainly determined by the joint distribution of the local population sizes connected by the commuter flows, but are insensitive to geographical or topological structure of the network. Moreover, there is a strong relation between the population size and the time that the epidemic reaches this local population and we are able to determine the reason for this relation as well as its dependence on the commute network structure and epidemic parameters. This study shows that the model based on the connection between the population size classes is sufficient to predict both global and local epidemic dynamics in metropolitan area. Moreover, the clear relation of the time taken by the epidemic to reach each local population can be used as a novel measure for intervention; this enables efficient intervention strategies in each local population prior to the actual arrival. PMID:24905831

  2. Residential Segregation,Spatial Mismatch and Economic Growth across US Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Dr Harrison [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Li, Huiping [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the detrimental influence of residential segregation on poor inner-city residents. This study examines the impact of residential segregation on the welfare of populations in US metropolitan areas using economic growth as the indicator. Panel data of US metropolitan areas spanning 25 years, 1980 2005, are used to analyze the effect of segregation on economic growth. The results show that both racial and skill segregation have a negative impact on short and long-term economic growth, which have increased over time. Further, the negative impact of the variables associated with spatial mismatch is also revealed. The results clearly point to the need for mobility policies that favor non-White households and comprehensive strategies that promote economic opportunities in low-resource communities in the US.

  3. The Transition of Farmland Production Functions in Metropolitan Areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghong Tan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In metropolitan areas of China, farmland functions have undergone tremendous changes due to rapid urbanization and rising income per capita in the past three decades. This study examines tempo-spatial changes in the farmland functions, using a case study of the Beijing metropolitan area. The results indicate that: (1 during the past three decades, agricultural production experienced two transitions, in the years 1992 and 2003; (2 In terms of spatial differences, farmland functions of food production in Near Suburb significantly weakened. Middle Suburb produced the largest share of vegetables, while Far Suburb had the highest number of recreational farms. This case study may provide insights for large cities in China or other developing countries.

  4. Rapid Flood Evaluation Systems in Taiwan Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Dar Guo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological issues in metropolises in Taiwan have become increasingly important because the storm water sewer systems of metropolises are frequently unable to meet the requirements of the existing and future metropolitan development. Typhoons or torrential rains that cause rainfall intensities that exceed the designed capacity of storm water sewers can result in serious flooding. The losses caused by flooding can be reduced if the areas at risk of flooding can be predicted and warnings can be issued to prompt disaster prevention and allow response units and residents to prepare before disasters occur. The primary purpose of this study is to integrate the quantitative precipitation forecasting technologies [1, 2] developed by the Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute to establish a rapid, stable, real-time, and automatic metropolitan area flood estimation system for predictive flooding analysis. The objects of this study are metropolitan areas in Taiwan with storm water sewer systems. The standard capacities of storm water sewer systems throughout Taiwan and the geographic information system (GIS shape files are collected and compiled. Additionally, the potential flooding areas are divided into four levels (high, medium, low, and no flooding and are compared with the rainfall warning values of the Water Resources Agency. The study combines the results of quantitative precipitation forecasts, establishes an information database (MySQL, processes Google Earth KML files, and designs a WEB GIS display interface to construct a system for estimating the flooding possibility (probability in metropolitan areas during typhoons or torrential rains. This study subsequently employs the event of Typhoon Kalmaegi for flooding estimation and display; the estimation results are consistent with the flooding survey data, indicating that the estimations made by the flooding estimation system are correct.

  5. Hospital distribution in a metropolitan city: assessment by a geographic information system grid modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Soo; Moon, Kyeong-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Grid models were used to assess urban hospital distribution in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. A geographical information system (GIS) based analytical model was developed and applied to assess the situation in a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 10 million. Secondary data for this analysis were obtained from multiple sources: the Korean Statistical Information Service, the Korean Hospital Association and the Statistical Geographical Information System. A grid of cells measuring 1 × 1 km was superimposed on the city map and a set of variables related to population, economy, mobility and housing were identified and measured for each cell. Socio-demographic variables were included to reflect the characteristics of each area. Analytical models were then developed using GIS software with the number of hospitals as the dependent variable. Applying multiple linear regression and geographically weighted regression models, three factors (highway and major arterial road areas; number of subway entrances; and row house areas) were statistically significant in explaining the variance of hospital distribution for each cell. The overall results show that GIS is a useful tool for analysing and understanding location strategies. This approach appears a useful source of information for decision-makers concerned with the distribution of hospitals and other health care centres in a city.

  6. Is There a Global Role for Metropolitan City Libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the potential for linking large metropolitan public libraries to international interlibrary loan networks. Issues involved in international networking, including funding, standards, network connectivity, and protectionism, are discussed. Examples of libraries capable of participating and brief descriptions of their collections are given.…

  7. Derivation of Nationally Consistent Indices Representing Urban Intensity Within and Across Nine Metropolitan Areas of the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Falcone, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Two nationally consistent multimetric indices of urban intensity were developed to support studies of the effects of urbanization on streams in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States: Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Portland, Oregon; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Salt Lake City, Utah. These studies were conducted as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These urban intensity indices were used to define gradients of urbanization and to interpret biological, physical, and chemical changes along these gradients. Ninety census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables obtained from nationally available databases were evaluated. Only variables that exhibited a strong and consistent linear relation with 2000 population density were considered for use in the indices. Housing-unit density (HUDEN), percentage of basin area in developed land (P_NLCD1_2), and road density (ROADDEN) were selected as the best representatives of census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables. The metropolitan area national urban intensity index (MA-NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity within each metropolitan area and ranged from 0 (little or no urban) to 100 (maximum urban) for sites within each metropolitan area. The national urban intensity index (NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity across all nine metropolitan areas and ranged from 0 to 100 for all sites. The rates at which HUDEN, P_NLCD1_2, and ROADDEN changed with changes in population density varied among metropolitan areas. Therefore, these variables were adjusted to obtain a more uniform rate of response across metropolitan areas in the derivation of the NUII. The NUII indicated that maximum levels of urban intensity occurred in the West and Midwest rather than in the East primarily because small inner-city streams in eastern metropolitan areas are

  8. Gradient analysis of landscape spatial and temporal pattern changes in Beijing metropolitan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The gradient based landscape metrics analysis is now widely used to study the landscape pattern changes in respond to the urbanization.In order to discover the trend of spatio-temporal changes in Beijing metropolitan area during the past 15 years,several landscape metrics are computed using a moving window along a 96 km long transect across Beijing metropolitan area from west to east.Specially,the spatial extent of sub-landscape,which is determined by the moving window’s size,is profoundly examined.The results show that the metrics varies smoothly and regularly along the selected transect when the window size is greater than 6 km×6 km,and irregularly fluctuated for the smaller window size,that the spatial and temporal landscape characteristics of Beijing city match the hypothetical framework of spatio-temporal urban sprawl in the form of alternating processes of diffusion and coalescence well,and that some new trends of the urban sprawl style in Beijing metropolitan area,such as leap-frog manner,are also detected by the gradient landscape analysis.

  9. An integrated approach for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from 100 U.S. metropolitan areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markolf, Samuel A.; Matthews, H. Scott; Azevedo, Inês L.; Hendrickson, Chris

    2017-02-01

    Cities have become key players in climate change mitigation policy. To develop their climate policies, cities need good assessments of their current and future emissions. We use publically available national datasets to develop an integrated approach for estimating GHG emissions at the metropolitan level over time, between multiple locations, and across sectors. We estimate consistent production-based GHG emissions for the 100 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States in 2014. We find that total 2014 metropolitan CO2 emissions range from 4.1 million metric tons in Lancaster, Pennsylvania to nearly 170 million metric tons in the Houston, Texas; with an overall average of 27 million metric tons. The top 20 absolute emitters and top 20 per capita emitters only overlap for 9 locations. Per capita emissions also show a wide variation: from 5 metric tons per person in the Tucson, Arizona to 65 metric tons per person in the Baton Rouge, Louisiana; with an overall average of 14 metric tons per person. We also compute estimates for 2002 and 2011 and compare to our 2014 emission estimates. Across all locations analyzed, average total emissions increased by 3% and average per capita emissions decreased by 14%. Where possible, we also compare our emission estimates to those reported by the cities in their climate action plans and find an average absolute difference between our estimates and those reported by the cities of 5.6 metric tons CO2 per person, likely due to temporal and scope differences between the two estimates. Our integrated emission estimation approach complements bottom-up approaches typically employed by municipalities and helps practitioners divert their attention and resources away from continuous emission accounting toward more impactful emission mitigation efforts.

  10. Appreciation of housing policies in the Metropolitan Area of Londrina-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Roberta Zanon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the interpretation of partial search results on the "Right to Housing: applicability and effectiveness of legal instruments in the Metropolitan Area of Londrina-PR" since 2012 in the Universidade Estadual de Londrina. The context of social housing production in Londrina, from the years 1980 provides analysis allowance and reflection on the implementation of social housing policy in the city, especially in the 2000s programs, in particular with the implementation of the Residential Vista Bela by Minha Casa Minha Vida Program, one of the largest housing projects in Brazil, handed out the population in 2011 and 2012.

  11. PAD TECHNIQUE ON DEFORESTATION SITUATION ON PETROPOLIS’ METROPOLITAN AREA - RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Santos de Alencar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rising and intensification of production’s activities, as industries, the deforestation taxes show to be on an alarming level. It is wide spread known the consequences that deforestation might cause in metropolitan areas. In order to evalue the consequences of this growing phenomenon, is possible to use a role of ambiental impacts evaluations techniques. One of them is the Preliminary Analysis of Danger (PAD, which is based on qualitative and statistics analysis and might be used in association with other ambiental impacts evaluations techniques. It’s goal is to analyze dangers in potential, it’s causes and consequences, in which is also done an associated risk analysis, which the last is the association between the classifications of frequency and severity, and, in the end, it gives suggestions of measures to avoid these dangers (undesired events. In this study, six dangers have been identified, in which none of them present despicable or low risk (0%, 16% present medium or high risk and 66% present critic risk. These datas point out that the deforestation situation might cause dangers with great consequences to Petropolis’ metropolitan area, just as floodings and earth slidings, which higthlights the urgency of management of the area. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/sustinere.2015.20003

  12. Meteorological and Chemical Urban Scale Modelling for Shanghai Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Gonzalez-Aparicio, Iratxe; Amstrup, Bjarne; Yang, Xiaohua; Baklanov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Urban air pollution is a serious problem in megacities and major industrial agglomerations of China. Therefore, air quality information is important for public. In particular, the Shanghai metropolitan area is well known as megacity having severe air pollution episodes. The Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) is applied for on-line integrated meteorology and atmospheric composition forecasting for the Shanghai region of China. The model setup includes the urban Building Effects Parameterization module, describing different types of urban districts with its own morphological and aerodynamical characteristics. The model is running in downscaling chain from regional-to-urban scales for selected periods in summer and winter having both elevated pollution levels as well as unfavorable meteorological conditions. For these periods, the effects of urbanization are analyzed for spatio-temporal variability of atmospheric and chemical/aerosols patterns. The formation and development of meteorological (air and surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, boundary layer height) and chemical/aerosol patterns (concentration and deposition) due to influence of the metropolitan area is evaluated. The impact of Shanghai region on regional-to-urban scales as well as relationship between air pollution and meteorology are estimated.

  13. Geographically weighted regression for modelling the accessibility to the public hospital network in Concepción Metropolitan Area, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Martínez Bascuñán; Carolina Rojas Quezada

    2016-01-01

    Accessibility models in transport geography based on geographic information systems have proven to be an effective method in determining spatial inequalities associated with public health. This work aims to model the spatial accessibility from populated areas within the Concepción metropolitan area (CMA), the second largest city in Chile. The city’s public hospital network is taken into consideration with special reference to socio-regional inequalities. The use of geographically weighted reg...

  14. The Audiometric Findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas, Regina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hearing loss can compromise the language, learning process, and socialization of students. Objective Study the audiometric findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area students. Methods Analysis of data collected at the hearing health service of Paraná State special education and inclusion department. Results The sample consisted of 646 students, children and teenagers of both genders (38.2% female and 61.8% male, with average age of 8.12 years (range 2 to 15; all were students of public or private schools of Curitiba and Metropolitan Area. The justifications to refer the students to audiometric evaluation were: otolaryngologists diagnosis (73.1%, school difficulties (39.6%, and midlevel hearing problems (32%. Audiometric results showed that 29.5% of the students had hearing loss. Conductive hearing losses showed the greatest occurrence among preschool students (right ear 38.6%, left ear 39.8%. The predominant hearing loss degree was mild (RE 20.5%, LE 19.3% to slight (RE 17%, LE 19.3%, as was the horizontal configuration (RE 81.5%, LE 78.4%. A significant relationship (p = 0.0000 between hearing loss and poor school performance was noted. Conclusion Considering the available data, especially the high number of findings of conductive losses, it is necessary to highlight prevention and diagnosis of early hearing alteration. Nevertheless, Brazil, as an emerging country, has been pursuing improvement in health and life quality of all citizens.

  15. Decomposition of Net CO2 Emission in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area of Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Policy-makers have been sharing growing concerns that climate change has significant impacts on human society and economic activates. Knowledge of the influencing factors of CO2 emission is the crucial step to reduce it. In this paper, both CO2 emission and CO2 sink on a city-level of the nine cities in Wuhan Metropolitan Area are calculated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach. Moreover, the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI model was employed to decompose the net CO2 emission from 2001 to 2009. Results showed that (1 the largest amount of CO2 emission comes from energy while the largest amount CO2 sink comes from cropland; (2 economic level (S was the largest positive driving factor for net CO2 emission growth in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, population (P also played a positive driving role, but with very weak contribution; and as negative inhibiting factors, energy structure (E and energy efficiency (C significantly reduced the net CO2 emission.

  16. Urban mobility regulation in metropolitan area of Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lía Martínez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving the paradigm of sustainable urban mobility requires institutional capacities, appropriate policies and a regulatory framework that contains them. This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the regulation of urban mobility in the metropolitan area of Mendoza. To this end, the current mobility regulations are assessed through indicators that are classified into three key areas: institutional and political organization, urban system and financial setup. The purpose is to account for the existence, or not, of regulatory capacities contained in the paradigm of sustainable mobility. Among the results, the absence of a policy of sustainable urban mobility is noteworthy, as well as the lack of sectorial coordination. Also of note is the absence of coordination between the urban planning system and the public transport provision. Lastly, in the financial sector, the results point to a promotion of sustainable transport modes but without such an explicit purpose.

  17. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  18. Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2014-08-01

    Site selection for waste disposal is a complex task that should meet the requirements of communities and stakeholders. In this article, three decision support methods (Boolean logic, index overlay and fuzzy gamma) are used to perform land suitability analysis for landfill siting. The study was carried out in one of the biggest metropolitan regions of Italy, with the objective of locating suitable areas for waste disposal. Physical and socio-economic information criteria for site selection were decided by a multidisciplinary group of experts, according to state-of-the-art guidelines, national legislation and local normative on waste management. The geographic information systems (GIS) based models used in this study are easy to apply but require adequate selection of criteria and weights and a careful evaluation of the results. The methodology is arranged in three steps, reflecting the criteria defined by national legislation on waste management: definition of factors that exclude location of landfills or waste treatment plants; classification of the remaining areas in terms of suitability for landfilling; and evaluation of suitable sites in relation to preferential siting factors (such as the presence of quarries or dismissed plants). The results showed that more than 80% of the provincial territory falls within constraint areas and the remaining territory is suitable for waste disposal for 0.72% or 1.93%, according to the model. The larger and most suitable sites are located in peripheral areas of the metropolitan system. The proposed approach represents a low-cost and expeditious alternative to support the spatial decision-making process.

  19. The design of gated communities in São Paulo metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rett Lemos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as study object the formation of a kind of residential urban landscape spread in a large number of Brazilian cities, in special those around the Sao Paulo metropolitan area: the gated communities destined to a population with average and high income. The premise that it deals with a type of appropriation of urban ground related since the middle of the 1970‘s when internal adjustments in real estate market were implemented, and to the standards of growth of the São Paulo metropolitan area, specifically its process of dispersion, excites the necessity of identify the characteristics and specially the effects to the rest of the urban space that are been spread in terms never seen. Twenty eight enterprises launched between 1994 and 2005 in the metropolitan area are analyzed. The set of case studies involves from communities settled in the rural zones to the urban areas; in common is the fact that are enterprises created by a private entrepreneur to subdivide an only one private property, and the management of the internal space by proper codes. The analysis was developed in two scales: at a first moment, it was restricted in the internal spaces, appointing the planning methods and the distribution standards of the open areas, the volumetric occupations, and the leisure equipments; in the following one, were analyzed the neighbor landscape, identifying the main characteristics of the fabric urban and the not constructed natural environment.

  20. Real-time earthquake shake, damage, and loss mapping for Istanbul metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zülfikar, A. Can; Fercan, N. Özge Zülfikar; Tunç, Süleyman; Erdik, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    The past devastating earthquakes in densely populated urban centers, such as the 1994 Northridge; 1995 Kobe; 1999 series of Kocaeli, Düzce, and Athens; and 2011 Van-Erciş events, showed that substantial social and economic losses can be expected. Previous studies indicate that inadequate emergency response can increase the number of casualties by a maximum factor of 10, which suggests the need for research on rapid earthquake shaking damage and loss estimation. The reduction in casualties in urban areas immediately following an earthquake can be improved if the location and severity of damages can be rapidly assessed by information from rapid response systems. In this context, a research project (TUBITAK-109M734) titled "Real-time Information of Earthquake Shaking, Damage, and Losses for Target Cities of Thessaloniki and Istanbul" was conducted during 2011-2014 to establish the rapid estimation of ground motion shaking and related earthquake damages and casualties for the target cities. In the present study, application to Istanbul metropolitan area is presented. In order to fulfill this objective, earthquake hazard and risk assessment methodology known as Earthquake Loss Estimation Routine, which was developed for the Euro-Mediterranean region within the Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology EC-FP6 project, was used. The current application to the Istanbul metropolitan area provides real-time ground motion information obtained by strong motion stations distributed throughout the densely populated areas of the city. According to this ground motion information, building damage estimation is computed by using grid-based building inventory, and the related loss is then estimated. Through this application, the rapidly estimated information enables public and private emergency management authorities to take action and allocate and prioritize resources to minimize the casualties in urban areas during immediate post-earthquake periods. Moreover, it

  1. Swine trichinellosis in slaughterhouses of the metropolitan area of Toluca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, H; Flores-Trujillo, M; Benitez, E; Arriaga, C

    2001-06-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of Trichinella spiralis infections in abattoirs of the metropolitan area of Toluca where pigs from commercial farms as well as backyard pigs are slaughtered, 539 swine diaphragm tissue samples were collected and examined by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion. Serum samples from the same animals were analyzed by ELISA using somatic and excretory/secretory antigens, and by Western blot analysis. T. spiralis muscle larvae were not found by trichinoscopy or artificial digestion. However, specific antibodies were detected by ELISA and confirmed by Western blotting in 12.4% of the serum samples examined. Analysis of risk factors showed no association of seropositive results with sex. However, significant higher risk was observed in swine seven to 12 months old and in backyard pigs, compared with pigs from commercial farms.

  2. Gamma-ray and neutron background comparison of US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lee J., E-mail: lee.mitchell@nrl.navy.mil; Phlips, Bernard F., E-mail: bernard.phlips@nrl.navy.mil; Wulf, Eric A., E-mail: eric.wulf@nrl.navy.mil; Hutcheson, Anthony L., E-mail: anthony.hutcheson@nrl.navy.mil; Gwon, Chul, E-mail: chul.gwon@nrl.navy.mil; Woolf, Richard S., E-mail: richard.woolf@nrl.navy.mil; Polaski, Donald, E-mail: donald.polaski.ctr@nrl.navy.mil

    2015-06-01

    Gamma-ray and neutron background surveys were performed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in U.S. cities, including Washington, D.C.; Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri; Chicago, Illinois; Richmond, Virginia; Boston, Massachusetts and Baltimore, Maryland. Measurements covered a range of industrial, residential and commercial areas. Germanium grade gamma-ray data over the energy range of 0.05–3.0 MeV and neutron count rates with unmoderated He-3 sensitivity were recorded as a function of latitude, longitude and elevation in one second intervals. Typical Potassium Uranium Thorium (KUT) backgrounds were seen along with several anomalies. For example, a decrease in the thermal neutron flux in large urban canyons was seen and verified via Monte Carlo simulations. The data were collected to provide natural background models for simulation work. Germanium grade spectroscopy is required, because it provides sufficiently detailed isotopic information of the gamma-ray background. As expected a comparison of the background shows significant differences between the individual cities. - Highlights: • Gamma-ray and neutron background data were collected in several US metropolitan areas. • We examine the differences in the naturally occurring radioactive background. • We discuss the process of deconvolving the background data for use in future simulations. • City models are used in simulations to explain select background anomalies.

  3. Aspects of Land Take in the Metropolitan Area of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Land take is a phenomenon of great concern nowadays because of the large number of its negative impacts regarding biological, economic and social balance. In Italy, the development of urban and other artificial land has been irreversibly transforming a non-renewable resource such as soil, regardless the almost constant population rate, with different speed depending of the region considered. The aim of this paper is to analyze the phenomenon in the metropolitan area of Naples, which is an area highly affected by territorial aggression of human matrix. The data used are both by the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA Report 2015 on the usage of the land and by ISTAT relating to the resident population up to the 1st of January 2015 and the extension of land for agricultural use (Census 2010. The mathematical combination of this data creates a new indicator that can be referred to as “residual land”; this residual area is of great extension with many different characteristics and it could represent the area where the phenomenon of land take most occurs. The identification, measurement and analysis of “residual land” provide new insights on the evolution of land take and this new indicator can represent a critical element to work on to prevent future land transformation and protect natural and agricultural areas within the Italian context.

  4. Persistent organochlorines in human breast milk from major metropolitan cities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Someya, Masayuki; Sudaryanto, Agus; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Chakraborty, Paromita; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to understand the current contamination status of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in human breast milk from three metropolitan cities in India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata). Among the OCs analyzed, DDTs were predominant followed by HCHs and PCBs. CHLs and HCB levels were much lower. Contamination patterns were different in human milk found in our previous study in Chennai, a metropolitan city in southern India, indicating region specific exposure routes and variable sources. In comparison with previous data, levels of DDTs and HCHs generally declined with time, implying the effect of various bans and restrictions on their usage. No association between concentrations of OCs and demographic characteristics such as parity and age of mothers was observed which might be due to narrow range of mother's age. Estimated daily intake shows that some infants are exposed to OCs to a greater extent, particularly HCHs than the guideline standard.

  5. Geohydrology of the shallow aquifers in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1996-01-01

    The Denver metropolitan area is underlain by shallow layers of water-bearing sediments (aquifers) consisting of unconsolidated gravel, sand, silt, and clay. The depth to water in these aquifers is less than 20 feet in much of the area, and the aquifers provide a ready source of water to numerous shallow, small-capacity wells. The shallow depth to water also makes the aquifers susceptible to contamination from the land surface. Water percolating downward from residential, commercial, and industrial property, spills of hazardous materials, and leaks from underground storage tanks and pipelines can cause contaminants to enter the shallow aquifers. Wet basements, unstable foundation materials, and waterlogged soils also are common in areas of very shallow ground water.Knowledge of the extent, thickness, and water-table altitude of the shallow aquifers is incomplete. This, coupled with the complexity of development in this large metropolitan area, makes effective use, management, and protection of these aquifers extremely difficult. Mapping of the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of these aquifers would provide the general public and technical users with information needed to better use, manage, and protect this water resource. A study to map the geohydrology of shallow aquifers in the Denver metropolitan area was begun in 1994. The work was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army-Rocky Mountain Arsenal, U.S. Department of Energy-Rocky Flats Field Office, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Colorado Department of Natural Resources-State Engineers Office, Denver Water Department, Littleton-Englewood Wastewater Treatment Plant, East Cherry Creek Valley Water and Sanitation District, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District, Willows Water District, and the cities of Aurora, Lakewood, and Thornton.This report presents the results of a systematic mapping of the extent, thickness, and water-table altitude of the shallow

  6. Water resources outlook for the Minneapolis-Saint Paul Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvitch, R.F.; Ross, T.G.; Brietkrietz, Alex

    1973-01-01

    The water resources were studied within an area whose natural ground-water flow is largely towards the center of the metropolitan area. This area coincides with the extent of the Hinckley Sandstone aquifer. Thus, the general geohydrology of the area bounded by the extent of the Hinckley Sandstone (about 6,000 square miles) as it relates to the hydrology of the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area is described. Greater emphasis is placed on the area underlain by the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer (about 2,000 square miles), from which approximately 75 percent of the ground-water for the metropolitan area is pumped.

  7. Chieti-Pescara Metropolitan Area: International Migrations, Residential Choices and Economic Deconcentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Montanari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of human mobility – with reference to the migratory component – has taken on specific significance during the last decade, particularly with regard to the concept of place. This paper considers the subject in relation to residential and economic deconcentration. The specific point of reference is the metropolitan area of Chieti-Pescara, in the central part of Italy’s Adriatic coast. The research was carried out through quantitative analysis of official data from population censuses and register offices. The results highlight the links between movements of residents and those of firms, in which foreign residents show distinctive behaviour. The residential choices made by foreigners in the area are based on economic reasons and are primarily linked to housing and transport costs. Their communities tend to be concentrated in specific zones of the metropolitan area and in specific districts of the cities, as a consequence of a feeling of belonging and solidarity. Although there are no clear signs of segregation phenomena, the native population tends to avoid mingling with foreigners from marginal countries.

  8. Polycentric Structures in Latin American Metropolitan Areas : Identifying Employment Sub-centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Maldonado, Ana María; Romein, Arie; Verkoren, Otto; Parente Paula Pessoa, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Fernández-Maldonado A. M., Romein A., Verkoren O. and Parente Paula Pessoa R. Polycentric structures in Latin American metropolitan areas: identifying employment sub-centres, Regional Studies. The significant spatial transformations that have occurred within Latin American metropolitan areas since t

  9. Immigration and Internal Migration "Flight" from US Metropolitan Areas: Toward a New Demographic Balkanisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, William H.

    1995-01-01

    Examines migration dynamics for metropolitan areas that suggest immigration and internal migration processes are leading to a greater demographic balkanization--a spatial segmentation of the population by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status across metropolitan areas. A brief overview of migration at the state level is also provided. (GR)

  10. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  11. Measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO field campaign: a comparison of results from the T0 and T1 sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Marley

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In March 2006, a multiagency field campaign was undertaken in Mexico City called the Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO. Two of the five field components of the MILAGRO study focused a major part of their efforts on atmospheric particulate emissions from the Mexico City basin and their effects on radiative balance as a function of time, location and processing conditions. As part of these two MILAGRO components, measurements of aerosol optical properties were obtained at a site located in the northern part of Mexico City (T0 and also at a site located 29 km northwest (T1 to estimate the regional effects of aerosol emissions from the basin.

    Measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering for fine mode aerosols were obtained at both sites. Aerosol absorption at 550 nm was similar at both sites, ranging from 7–107 Mm−1 at T0 and from 3–147 Mm−1 at T1. Aerosol scattering measured at 550 nm at T0 ranged from 16–344 Mm−1 while the aerosol scattering values at T1 were much lower than at T0 ranging from 2–136 Mm−1. Aerosol single scattering albedos (SSAs were calculated at 550 nm for the fine mode aerosols at both sites using these data. The SSAs at T0 ranged from 0.47–0.92 while SSAs at T1 ranged from 0.35–0.86. The presence of these highly absorbing fine aerosols in the lower atmosphere of the Mexico City area will result in a positive climate forcing and a local warming of the boundary layer in the region.

    Broadband UVB intensity was found to be higher at site T0, with an average of 64 μW/cm2 at solar noon, than at site T1, which had an average of 54 μW/cm2 at solar noon. Comparisons of clear-sky modeled UVB intensities with the simultaneous UVB measurements obtained at sites T0 and T1 for cloudless days indicate a larger diffuse radiation field at site T0 than at site T1. The determination of aerosol

  12. WATER RESOURCES IN THE CONTEXT OF REGIONAL PLANNING. CASE STUDY: CLUJ-NAPOCA METROPOLITAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA OLIVIA CIMPOIEŞ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of water resources is controversial because it reveals the complex needs of the population on a certain territory, depending on the analysis scale. Public utilities or water surfaces in the surrounding rural areas of a city are rarely paid much attention to in comparison to the urban centre, though they could provide comfort attributes, aesthetic value and leisure activities. Is it a matter of social fairness, political orientation or funding accessibility for a community to benefit from the water resources in the vicinity? The present study propos ed to analyse the metropolitan area of Cluj and explain why the distribution of resources varies according to physical conditions, distance or localities’ economic statute.

  13. Potential projects in the metropolitan area of the Valley of Mexico for reducing emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan, G. [Universidad nacional autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This presentation describes the environmental characteristics of the metropolitan area of Mexico City, provides a statistical summary of energy consumption and emissions by the transport, industry, residential, and agricultural sectors of the economy, and some of the strategies designed to deal with the unique environmental problems of the area, including plans to extend subway transportation and interurban train lines, conversion of trucks and buses to natural gas, installation of catalytic converters in private vehicles, replacement of old trucks and cars. The role of environmental indicators and CDM in the fight against greenhouse gas emissions and climate change from the Mexican perspective are also reviewed. The scarcity of economic resources is shown to be the greatest barrier to sustained progress towards the realisation of these objectives.

  14. Assessment of the aerosols distribution in the Bucharest metropolitan area in relation with health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, M. A.; Dida, M. R.

    2013-06-01

    MODIS Terra/Aqua time-series satellite images and in- situ monitoring of particle matter PM2.5 and PM10 have been used in an effort to qualitatively assess distribution of aerosols in the greater Bucharest area during 2010-2011 period. It was found that PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols exhibit their highest concentration mostly in the central part mainly due to road traffic as well as in the industrialized parts outside of city's centre. An epidemiological study examining the relationships between adverse health outcomes and exposure to air pollutants in metropolitan agglomeration of Bucharest used ambient air pollution measurements like as PM10 and PM2.5 levels as a proxy for personal exposure levels. The measurements of environmental concentrations of particulate matter air pollutants have been correlated with health effects on respiratory health status of school children in urban/periurban areas of Bucharest.

  15. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  16. Manifestation of an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP Model on Fire Potential Zonation Mapping in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kumar Chhetri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Even though fewer people die as a result of fire than other natural disasters, such as earthquake, flood, landslide, etc., the average loss of property due to fire is high. Kathmandu Metropolitan City is becoming more vulnerable to fire due to haphazard urbanization and increase in population. To control problems due to fire, systematic studies are necessary, including fire potential mapping and risk assessment. This study applies an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal for generation of fire potential zonation map. The fire potential zonation map is prepared on the basis of available data of land use, fuel stations, and population density. This map shows that 58.04% of the study area falls under low fire potential zone, 32.92% falls under moderate fire potential zone and 9.04% falls under high fire potential zone. The map is also validated through major past fire incidents. The results show that the predicted fire potential zones are found to be in good agreement with past fire incidents, and, hence, the map can be used for future land-use planning.

  17. Cost-effective optical transponders for deployed metropolitan area networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanou, Maki; Politi, Christina (Tanya); Stavdas, Alexandros; Glentis, George-Othon; Georgoulakis, Kristina; Emeretlis, Andreas; Theodoridis, George

    2016-12-01

    Improving the performance of electronic and optoelectronic components has enabled the investigation of transmitting optical channels with data rates greater than 40 Gb/s, over infrastructures that were initially supporting 10 Gb/s transport. However, for transporting high capacity channels, over long distances, considerable signal processing is necessary, with current emphasis being on digital techniques. Meanwhile in the context of optical networking where spectrally adjacent channels may cross different routes to interconnect the same source destination nodes, adaptive transmission systems become vital. This paper will suggest, compare and develop the necessary transponder technologies that enable transportation of 40 Gb/s channels over deployed Metropolitan Area optical Networks (MAN) infrastructure with emphasis on the interplay between realistic performance, feasibility and complexity/cost. Specifically it will investigate utilizing deployed optical infrastructure for transporting 40 Gb/s DQPSK channels in conjunction with various high performance, low complexity electronic equalizers that can compensate the corresponding linear impairment enhancement that accompanies this upgrade, namely Chromatic Dispersion and Polarization Mode Dispersion while they can be implemented in a single FPGA. It is shown that resource constraint performance evaluation is vital and the exact technology choice is related to the deployed infrastructure.

  18. Agricultural land cover changes in metropolitan areas of Poland for the period 1990–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalej Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land covers more than half the area of metropolitan areas in Poland, and is therefore particularly prone to the influences of the processes associated with their development. The aim of the study was to analyse changes in agricultural land cover within the metropolitan areas of Poland for the years 1990–2012; and to capture their dynamics, types and directions. The percentage share of the total study area, for each of the forms of agricultural land cover and their changes were traced, with the spatial distribution of the changes also being determined. The results of the study show that in metropolitan areas, agricultural land cover is undergoing transformations that do not result in the loss of agricultural lands, or that involve a decrease in surface area due to their change into anthropogenic forms of land cover. The greatest transitions occurred between 2000 and 2006 and were observed in the outer zones of metropolitan areas.

  19. Shopper-Based Mall Equity: A Comparative Study of Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Area in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Zahari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to differentiate the role of generation Y on dimensions of shopper-based mall equity (SBME for two different locations in Malaysia. SBME is the differential effect of mall knowledge on shoppers' responses to a mall's marketing activities. We validated the shopper-based mall equity measure using data generated with mall-intercept surveys in two shopping malls in Malaysia located at Kuantan, Pahang (non-metropolitan area, while Petaling Jaya, Selangor represent metropolitan area (N=564. The data collected then was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, reliability test, descriptive statistics, and t-test. The results from t-test show that the variables i.e. mall awareness, mall environment, mall convenience, mall entertainment, and mall equity have significant difference between two selected malls. However the effect sizes (eta squared were small. Moreover, product/service quality, service quality, and mall loyalty have no significant difference between two malls.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of childhood allergic diseases in eight metropolitan cities in China: A multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xingming

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies conducted during the past two decades suggested increasing trend of childhood allergic diseases in China. However, few studies have provided detailed description of geographic variation and explored risk factors of these diseases. This study investigated the pattern and risk factors of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in eight metropolitan cities in China. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey during November-December 2005 in eight metropolitan cities in China. A total of 23791 children aged 6-13 years participated in this survey. Questions from the standard questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC were used to examine the pattern of current asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the risk factors for childhood allergies. Results The average prevalence of childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema across the eight cities was 3∙3% (95% Confidence interval (CI: 3∙1%, 3∙6%, 9∙8% (95% CI: 9∙4%, 10∙2% and 5∙5% (95% CI: 5∙2%, 5∙8%, respectively. Factors related to lifestyle, mental health and socio-economic status were found to be associated with the prevalence of childhood allergies. These risk factors were unevenly distributed across cities and disproportionately affected the local prevalence. Conclusions There was apparent geographic variation of childhood allergies in China. Socio-environmental factors had strong impacts on the prevalence of childhood allergies; but these impacts differed across regions. Thus public health policies should specifically target at the local risk factors for each individual area.

  1. Household dust metal levels in The Sao Paulo metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Valdirene O.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Sato, Ivone M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    A study about household dust is being conducted to determine the level of metal contamination in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). The SPMA, with 18 million inhabitants, is one of the largest urban areas of the world, with serious environmental problems, due to the great amount of industries, heavy traffic and the disordered growth of population. The pollutants originate from a multiplicity of indoor and outdoor sources. Indoor sources are originated from residual (hair, skin scales), pets, human activities, construction materials, and furnishings as well as biological material (pollen, insect parts).and outdoor pollution, usually from the urban traffic. The pollutant mixture involved in numerous physical and chemical processes and changes its characteristics with time. Its composition and concentration depend on the strengths of indoor sources, the concentration of pollutants outside and the properties of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. It is well recognized that many metals have chronic effects on humans, in particular toddlers, who are at an higher risk compared to adults because they engage in greater hand to-mouth activity and their neurological systems are still developing. The household dust samples were collected from different localities, using vacuum cleaner, and sieved up to particle size <63 {mu}m, which were then analyzed for 7 elements by X-ray fluorescence technique. The fundamental parameters method (FP) was applied and the simple pressed powder technique for sample preparation was used. The concentrations preliminary results of metals in the household dust were Cr, 18-188 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Mn, 119-369 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Fe, 372-1464 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Ni, 33-85 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Cu, 42-303 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Zn, 156-1369 {mu}g g{sup -1} and Pb, 26-160 {mu}g g{sup -1}. (author)

  2. Community Supported Agriculture in the Urban Fringe: Empirical Evidence for Project Feasibility in the Metropolitan Area of Naples (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Cicia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  Urbanisation of city-side areas effects on farm land use and organisation are analysed in this study with the objective of seeking the most effective way to implement a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA scheme. Specifically, we used a theoretical framework to describe and assess the relationships between urbanization and farm-styles in the city belt. Our analysis is based on a case study in the protected area of the Campi Flegrei Regional Park situated in the north-western part of the Neapolitan metropolitan area, which is a peri-urban rural area with severe environmental management problems. Our results from the empirical analysis allowed us to distinguish the farms of the area into three behavioural-social groups on the basis of specific features, in order to identify the best suited type of farm for the strategic implementation of the CSA. A market scenario was predicted for each of them without any intervention

  3. A study of risk in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara through dense GPS geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Azua, B.; Saldana-Hernandez, F.; Medina de La Pena, H.

    2007-05-01

    Geodesic measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) are used extensively for basic earth science research into natural hazards and seismic risk. In the private sector, GPS technology is additionally used for cadastral and photogrammetric mapping surveys, definition of political-administrative limits, space analysis with thematic cartography, GIS, and land-use planning, with a wide variety of applied social, economic, and political purposes, including conservation of the environment. The city of Guadalajara and its surrounding urban area has expanded greatly in the last three decades as a result of industrial, commercial and housing activity that have substantially changed in their urban morphology. This period of unprecedented growth has occurred primarily in an unplanned and sometimes disarticulated and unbalanced manner, incongruous with the development of the most important city in western Mexico. The Department of Geography of the University of Guadalajara and the Institute of Territorial Information of the State of Jalisco (IITJ) have initiated a study of 89 geodetic sites that are located in the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara to assist in future planning and regulation of urban development, including urban and rural cadastral surveys and the establishment of diverse public services. Our work includes careful examination and evaluation of the quality and distribution of these geodetic sites with regard to anticipated growth of the metropolitan municipalities, and the vulnerability of urban zones to ground subsidence or landslides. Guadalajara is also located in a seismic zone, making precise continuous GPS measurements useful for identifying rates of strain accumulation and aseismic strain events that cannot be measured by seismographs.

  4. Climate Change Management Approaches of Cities: A Comparative Study Between Globally Leading and Turkish Metropolitan Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Filiz Karabag

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on climate change policies and action at the national level, but few have studied policies and action at the city level, especially cities in emerging economies. To address this gap, the present study analyzes the management strategies globally leading cities have developed to address climate change and related issues and compares them with the city strategies of one rapidly urbanizing emerging economy, Turkey. In the analysis, the strategic plans of five leading global cities are compared with those of sixteen Turkish cities. While the leading global cities have specific managerial approaches to mitigate climate change, none of the Turkish cities exhibits any comprehensive approach. Furthermore, while leading global cities modify urban services to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, few Turkish cities adjust any services to address this challenge. Some Turkish cities propose an increased use of renewable energy sources and modification in their transportation system, but the focus in these plans is the current daily needs of their inhabitants. The findings of this study suggest several climate change strategies both for Turkish cities and cities in other developing countries.

  5. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  6. Spatial clustering of knowledge-based industries in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eduardo Chica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The central locations of metropolitan areas have some specific attributes, leading to an accumulation of large knowledge exchanges and extensive knowledge externalities, which encourage the concentration of various economic activities, especially knowledge-based industries (KBI. Other agglomeration economies found in metropolitan areas – such as telecommunications and transport infrastructures connected to global productive circuits and complementary labour markets – are key factors for KBI employment growth. This paper explores the Helsinki Metropolitan Area’s (HMA spatial clustering of KBI at the sub-district level, and the role played by agglomeration economies (both specialization and diversity economies in fostering this process. The results reveal that KBI employment shows patterns of concentration in the core and adjacent areas. The specialization and diversity economies found in the metropolitan core and the specialization economies found in others areas lead to KBI spatial clustering in the HMA. Public policies regarding the promotion of science parks have also played a decisive role.

  7. 1:1,000,000-Scale Metropolitan Statistical Areas - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States and Puerto Rico. The map layer was created from data produced by the U.S. Census Bureau....

  8. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2010 and Prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  9. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Homeless and Transient Population (DC-MADST-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  10. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Household and Non-Household Populations (DC-MADSH-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  11. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Metropolitan Statistical Areas 201309 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States and Puerto Rico. The map layer was created from data produced by the U.S. Census Bureau....

  12. Hybrid Wavelength Routed and Optical Packet Switched Ring Networks for the Metropolitan Area Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Increased data traffic in the metropolitan area network calls for new network architectures. This paper evaluates optical ring architectures based on optical packet switching, wavelength routing, and hybrid combinations of the two concepts. The evaluation includes overall throughput and fairness...

  13. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2011 to 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to 2012. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  14. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  15. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor...

  16. Development of evaluation metod of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2012-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of climate change adaptation strategy. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data, we constructed a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software.Based on these flood data , we created flood risk curve, representing the relation ship between damage and exceedbability of flood for the period 1976-2008. Based on the flood risk cruve, we aim to evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause of regional difference in flood risk at Tokyo metropolitan area by considering effect of socio-economic change and climate change

  17. Differences in Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Adolescent Girls in Metropolitan Versus Non-metropolitan Areas: Considering the Moderating Roles of Maternal Socioeconomic Status and Health Care Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhubart, Danielle C.; Wallington, Sherrie Flynt

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study is among the first to examine metropolitan status differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation and completion among United States adolescent girls and is unique in its focus on how maternal socioeconomic status and health care access moderate metropolitan status differences in HPV vaccination. Methods Using cross-sectional data from 3573 girls aged 12–17 in the U.S. from the 2008–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we estimate main and interaction effects from binary logistic regression models to identify subgroups of girls for which there are metropolitan versus non-metropolitan differences in HPV vaccination. Results Overall 34 % of girls initiated vaccination, and 19 % completed all three shots. On average, there were no metropolitan status differences in vaccination odds. However, there were important subgroup differences. Among low-income girls and girls whose mothers did not complete high school, those in non-metropolitan areas had significantly higher probability of vaccine initiation than those in metropolitan areas. Among high-income girls and girls whose mothers completed college, those in metropolitan areas had significantly higher odds of vaccine initiation than those in non-metropolitan areas. Moreover, among girls whose mothers experienced a medical cost barrier, non-metropolitan girls were less likely to initiate vaccination compared to metropolitan girls. Conclusions Mothers remain essential targets for public health efforts to increase HPV vaccination and combat cervical cancer. Public health experts who study barriers to HPV vaccination and physicians who come into contact with mothers should be aware of group-specific barriers to vaccination and employ more tailored efforts to increase vaccination. PMID:26511129

  18. Human capital growth in a cross section of U.S. metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Christopher H.

    2005-01-01

    Growth of human capital, defined as the change in the fraction of a metropolitan area's labor force with a bachelor's degree, is typically viewed as generating a number of desirable outcomes, including economic growth. Yet, in spite of its importance, few empirical studies have explored why some economies accumulate more human capital than others. This paper attempts to do so using a sample of more than 200 metropolitan areas in the United States over the years 1980, 1990, and 2000. The resul...

  19. The changing landscape of hospital capacity in large cities and suburbs: implications for the safety net in metropolitan America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrulis, Dennis P; Duchon, Lisa M

    2007-05-01

    An analysis of trends in hospital use and capacity by ownership status and community poverty levels for large urban and suburban areas was undertaken to examine changes that may have important implications for the future of the hospital safety net in large metropolitan areas. Using data on general acute care hospitals located in the 100 largest cities and their suburbs for the years 1996, 1999, and 2002, we examined a number of measures of use and capacity, including staffed beds, admissions, outpatient and emergency department visits, trauma centers, and positron emission tomography scanners. Over the 6-year period, the number of for-profit, nonprofit, and public hospitals declined in both cities and suburbs, with public hospitals showing the largest percentage of decreases. By 2002, for-profit hospitals were responsible for more Medicaid admissions than public hospitals for the 100 largest cities combined. Public hospitals, however, maintained the longest Medicaid average length of stay. The proportion of urban hospital resources located in high poverty cities was slightly higher than the proportion of urban population living in high poverty cities. However, the results demonstrate for the first time, a highly disproportionate share of hospital resources and use among suburbs with a low poverty rate compared to suburbs with a high poverty rate. High poverty communities represented the greatest proportion of suburban population in 2000 but had the smallest proportion of hospital use and specialty care capacity, whereas the opposite was true of low poverty suburbs. The results raise questions about the effects of the expanding role of private hospitals as safety net providers, and have implications for poor residents in high poverty suburban areas, and for urban safety net hospitals that care for poor suburban residents in surrounding communities.

  20. Persistent organochlorines in human breast milk from major metropolitan cities in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Someya, Masayuki; Sudaryanto, Agus; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Chakraborty, Paromita [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2009-01-15

    The present study was carried out to understand the current contamination status of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in human breast milk from three metropolitan cities in India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata). Among the OCs analyzed, DDTs were predominant followed by HCHs and PCBs. CHLs and HCB levels were much lower. Contamination patterns were different in human milk found in our previous study in Chennai, a metropolitan city in southern India, indicating region specific exposure routes and variable sources. In comparison with previous data, levels of DDTs and HCHs generally declined with time, implying the effect of various bans and restrictions on their usage. No association between concentrations of OCs and demographic characteristics such as parity and age of mothers was observed which might be due to narrow range of mother's age. Estimated daily intake shows that some infants are exposed to OCs to a greater extent, particularly HCHs than the guideline standard. - Indian infants may be exposed to relatively high levels of DDTs and HCHs through mothers' milk.

  1. Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands

  2. Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly

  3. Twelve-Year Trends of PM10 and Visibility in the Hefei Metropolitan Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available China has been experiencing severe air pollution and previous studies have mostly focused on megacities and a few hot spot regions. Hefei, the provincial capital city of Anhui province, has a population of near 5 million in its metropolitan area, but its air quality has not been reported in literature. In this study, daily PM10 and visibility data in 2001–2012 were analyzed to investigate the air quality status as well as the twelve-year pollution trends in Hefei. The results reveal that Hefei has been suffering high PM10 pollution and low visibility during the study period. The annual average PM10 concentrations are 2~3 times of the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard. PM10 shows fluctuating variation in 2001–2007 and has a slightly decreasing trend after 2008. The annual average visibility range is generally lower than 7 km and shows a worsening trend from 2001 to 2006 followed by an improving trend from 2007 to 2012. Wind speed, precipitation, and relative humidity have negative effects on PM10 concentrations in Hefei, while temperature could positively or negatively affect PM10. The results provide a general understanding of the status and long-term trends of PM10 pollution and visibility in a typical second-tier city in China.

  4. Impact of regional afforestation on climatic conditions in metropolitan areas: case study of Copenhagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stysiak, Aleksander Andrzej; Bergen Jensen, Marina; Mahura, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Like most other places, European metropolitan areas will face a range of climate-related challenges over the next decades that may influence the nature of urban life across the continent. Under future urbanization and climate change scenarios the well-being and comfort of the urban population might become progressively compromised. In urban areas, the effects of the warming climate will be accelerated by combination of Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) and extreme heat waves. The land cover composition directly influences atmospheric variability, and can either escalate or downscale the projected changes. Vegetation, forest ecosystems in particular, are anticipated to play an important role in modulating local and regional climatic conditions, and to be vital factor in the process of adapting cities to warming climate. This study investigates the impact of forest and land-cover change on formation and development of temperature regimes in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area (CPH-MA). Potential to modify the UHI effect in CPH-MA is estimated. Using 2009 meteorological data, and up-to-date 2012 high resolution land-cover data we employed the online integrated meteorology-chemistry/aerosols Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) modeling system to simulate air temperature (at 2 meter height) fields for a selected period in July 2009. Employing research tools (such as METGRAF meteorological software and Geographical Information Systems) we then estimated the influence of different afforestation and urbanization scenarios with new forests being located after the Danish national afforestation plan, after proximity to the city center, after dominating wind characteristics, and urbanization taking place as densification of the existing conurbation. This study showed the difference in temperature up to 3.25°C, and the decrease in the spatial extent of temperature fields up to 68%, depending on the selected scenario. Performed simulations demonstrated

  5. The Impact of Green Space Changes on Air Pollution and Microclimates: A Case Study of the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a sustainable urban environment, the increase of green space areas is commonly used as a planning tool and adaptation strategy to combat environmental impacts resulting from global climate change and urbanization. Therefore, it is important to understand the change of green space areas and the derived impacts from the change. This research firstly applied space analysis and landscape ecology metrics to analyze the structure change of the pattern of green space area within the Taipei Metropolitan Area. Then, partial least squares were used to identify the consequences on microclimate and air pollution pattern caused by the changing pattern of green space areas within the districts of the Taipei Metropolitan Area. According to the analytical results, the green space area within Taipei Metropolitan Areas has decreased 1.19% from 1995 to 2007, but 93.19% of the green space areas have been kept for their original purposes. Next, from the landscape ecology metrics analysis, in suburban areas the linkages, pattern parameters, and space aggregation are all improving, and the fragmentation measure is also decreasing, but shape is becoming more complex. However, due to intensive land development in the city core, the pattern has becomes severely fragmented and decentralized causing the measures of the linkages and pattern parameters to decrease. The results from structural equation modeling indicate that the changing pattern of green space areas has great influences on air pollution and microclimate patterns. For instance, less air pollution, smaller rainfall patterns and cooler temperatures are associated with improvement in space aggregation, increasing the larger sized green space patch.

  6. Urban agriculture in the metropolitan area of Mexico city L’agriculture urbaine dans la métropole de Mexico Agricultura urbana en el área metropolitana de la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Losada

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mexico City and the rest of the country do not escape from the social and economic inequalities of the present economic model applied worldwide.  Agriculture is a traditional activity in Mexico. This urban productive process has particular features: the predominance of smallholding, the restricted use of physical space, and the use of recycled materials and organic wastes. The population engaged in agriculture is heterogeneous, and includes women and children. There are a couple of production systems: the suburban, which uses the “chinampa” to produce mainly vegetable and flowers; and the periurban system, which has two sub-systems, the “terraces” producing nopal-vegetable and maize and the “Valleys” producing tuna (fruit and amaranth. The wastes of other systems (straw  and manure are used in these places. The production systems combine pre-hispanic and modern tools, such as the tractor and coa. The products of these sites are sold in tourist areas of ecological importance. These technologies are reproducible, socially inclusive and environmentally friendly, but government support is needed.developing countries, recycling, sub-urban, peri-urban, Opuntia, chinampaMexico et le reste du Mexique n’échappent pas aux inégalités sociales et économiques induites par le modèle économique qui prédomine actuellement dans le monde entier. L’agriculture est une activité traditionnelle au Mexique. Ce processus de production urbain présente des caractéristiques particulières : prédominance de petits lopins de terre, utilisation limitée de l’espace et utilisation de matériaux et de déchets organiques recyclés. La population engagée dans l’agriculture est hétérogène et comprend des femmes et des enfants. Deux systèmes de production cohabitent : le système suburbain qui utilise les « chinampa » pour produire essentiellement des légumes et des fleurs ; et le système périurbain qui comprend deux sous-systèmes : les

  7. Observed and Projected Climate Extremities in Chennai Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anushiya, j.; Andimuthu, R.

    2013-12-01

    Analyses of observed climate throughout world revealed some significant changes in the extremes. Any change in the frequency or severity of extreme climate events would have profound impacts on the resilience of nature and society. It is thus very important to analyze extreme events to reliably monitor and detect climate change. Chennai is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and Industrial growth centers in South Asia. Population has grown rapidly in the last 20 years due to its major industrialization and tremendous growth. Already Chennai's day and night time Temperature shows an increasing trend. The past incidence of catastrophic flooding was observed in the city due to heavy rains associated with depressions and cyclonic storm lead floods in major rivers. After 2000, the incidents were reported repeatedly. The effort has made in this study to find the observed climate extremities over the past years and in the future. For observed changes, IMD gridded data set, and station data are used. Future high resolution climate scenarios (0.220x0.220) are developed through RCM using PRECIS. The boundary data have provided by the UK Met office. The selected members are simulated under the A1B scenario (a mid range emission scenario) for a continuous run till 2100. Climate indices listed by Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) by the CLIVAR are considered in this study. The indices were obtained using the software package RClimDex. Kendall's tau based slope estimator has been used to find the significance lavel. The results shows the significant increasing tendency of warm days (TX90P) in the past and in future. The trends in extreme wet days (R99P) are also increased. The growth in population, urban and industrial area, economic activities, depletion of natural resources along with changing climate are forced to develop the infrastructure includes climate friendly policies to adopt and to ensure the

  8. To Withstand Loneliness in the Process of Urbanization---Research on the Construction and Planning of Metropolitan Suburban Rural Tourism Scenic Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiyue LlU; Kaiyu Ll; Qianqian TANG; Lei WANG; Yan Ll

    2015-01-01

    The conflicts between rurality and urbanization, tradition and modernity, in-dustry and environmental resource in the rural tourism have become major difficul-ties of its sustainable development in China. This paper analyzed the characteristics and difficult situations of metropolitan suburban rural tourism, put forward four kinds of region-city functions in the development of metropolitan suburban rural tourism, and researched on the construction of rural tourism scenic areas in metropolis sub-urb—"to Withstand Loneliness in the Process of Urbanization"—as the fol owing as-pects :the space organization mode, localization, social organization and manage-ment , the product organization and spatial planning modes and contents.

  9. Water-quality assessment of part of the upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality in an urban part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W.J.; Fong, A.L.; Harrod, Leigh; Dittes, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the spring of 1996, the Upper Mississippi River Basin Study Unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program drilled 30 shallow monitoring wells in a study area characterized by urban residential and commercial land uses. The monitoring wells were installed in sandy river-terrace deposits adjacent to the Mississippi River in Anoka and Hennepin Counties, Minnesota, in areas where urban development primarily occurred during the past 30 years.

  10. Urban enhancement of the heat waves in Madrid and its metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, F.; Rasilla, D.

    2009-04-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) is a worldwide phenomenon that causes an increase of the temperatures in the centre of the cities. The process of urbanization has developed an intense urban heat island in Madrid, with temperature differences up to 10°C higher than the surrounding rural environment. Such differences may potentially increase the magnitude and duration of heat waves within cities, exacerbating their most negative effects over human health, particularly by night, as it deprives urban residents of the cool relief found in rural areas. In this contribution we study the long term trends on warm extreme temperature episodes in the Madrid metropolitan area, and their impact at local scale, on the onw city of Madrid. For the first task, we have compared maximum and minimum temperatures from rural (Barajas and Torrejón) and urban (El Retiro, Cuatro Vientos, Getafe) stations from 1961-2008; for the second one a local network of automated meteorological stations inside the city provided hourly data from the 2002-2004 years. Finally, the 2003 heat wave is used as an example of the spatial and temporal patterns of temperature and ozone concentrations during those extreme episodes. Our results show a regional increase in the frequency and duration of those extreme warm episodes since the end of the 80´s, although their absolute magnitude remains unchanged. The urban environment exacerbates the heat load due to the persistence of the high temperatures during the night-time hours, as it is shown by the above average number of tropical nights (> 20°C) inside the urban spaces, simultaneous to the increasing trend of maximum temperatures. Besides, the diversity of urban morphologies introduces a spatial variability on the strength of this nocturnal heat load, aggravating it in the densely urbanized areas and mitigating it in the vicinities of the green areas. The regional meteorological conditions associated to these warm episodes, characterized also by low wind speed

  11. A water policy and planning model for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, D. A.; Quay, R.

    2012-12-01

    City level water policy and management decisions are typically based on past experience and best "guess" estimates of future conditions. These analyses use a limited number of socio-economic, water supply, and water demand projections, often only a single one. Increasingly, however, water planners are beginning to realize that high uncertainty associated with population projections and water use trends, and with future water supply estimates, greatly limit their ability to adequately predict a city's water future. We suggest that water governance at the municipal level could greatly benefit from water planning tools that generate and analyze a large ensemble of possible future scenarios in population growth dynamics and water availability. We adapted our existing water supply model to create a demand-based water planning and analysis tool that can explore the potential effects of population growth, drought, climate change, and policy options on surface water supplies, water demand, and groundwater pumping for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. Our advanced scenario framework can be used as a decision support tool (DST) by creating a broad spectrum of adaptive decision boundaries for a city's water planning horizon. This DST uses population estimates in conjunction with water use to estimate water demand, and legal rights in combination with estimates of groundwater, stream flows, and reservoir operations to estimate water supply. Policy options—water banking, the use of reclaimed water, etc.—permit evaluation of alternative governance strategies. In this contribution we compare and contrast two municipal water providers that have dramatically different growth projections and per capita water use, groundwater supplies, and water portfolios (one robust, the other not), examining potential, future water supply challenges under simulated climate change. Infrastructure elements for each water provider simulated. Presence of a state and rate are water-provider specific.

  12. Inner-city station areas in Chinese cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.

    2014-01-01

    Redevelopments of Chinese inner-­‐city station areas introduced both new transport infrastructures (high speed railway, urban mass transit system, etc.) and real estate projects to station vicinities during the past decades. However, existing station areas are isolated from the rest of the city, and

  13. Assessment of the Impact of Metropolitan-Scale Urban Planning Scenarios on the Moist Thermal Environment under Global Warming: A Study of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Using Regional Climate Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Suzuki-Parker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a high-resolution regional climate model coupled with urban canopy model, the present study provides the first attempt in quantifying the impact of metropolitan-scale urban planning scenarios on moist thermal environment under global warming. Tokyo metropolitan area is selected as a test case. Three urban planning scenarios are considered: status quo, dispersed city, and compact city. Their impact on the moist thermal environment is assessed using wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT. Future projections for the 2070s show a 2–4°C increase in daytime mean WBGT relative to the current climate. The urban scenario impacts are shown to be small, with a −0.4 to +0.4°C range. Relative changes in temperature and humidity as the result of a given urban scenario are shown to be critical in determining the sign of the WBGT changes; however, such changes are not necessarily determined by local changes in urban land surface parameters. These findings indicate that urban land surface changes may improve or worsen the local moist thermal environment and that metropolitan-scale urban planning is inefficient in mitigating heat-related health risks for mature cities like Tokyo.

  14. Temporal patterns of emergency calls of a metropolitan city in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Yuan, Ning; Pan, Lin; Jiao, Pengfei; Dai, Weidi; Xue, Guixiang; Liu, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative understanding of human communication behavior, one of the fundamental human activities, is of great value in many practical problems, ranging from urban planning to emergency management. Most of the recent studies have focused on human communication under normal situations. Here, we study the temporal patterns of emergency calls, which is a special kind of human communication activity under emergency circumstances, by analyzing a dataset of emergency call records that collected from a metropolitan city in China during a five year period. We find that most individuals rarely make emergency calls. The distribution of inter-call durations decays as double power law along with an exponential tail. We also discover that, comparing with the normal communication activities, the activity of calling the emergency number shows more significant characteristics of burstiness and memory. We further demonstrate that the behavior of calling the emergency number when people encounter extreme events could be explained by an event-driven memory process.

  15. Air pollution problem in the Mexico City metropolitan zone: Photochemical pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, H.B.; Alvarez, P.S.; Echeverria, R.S.; Jardon, R.T. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

    1997-12-31

    Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) represents an example of a megacity where the air pollution problem has reached an important evolution in a very short time, causing a risk in the health of a population of more than 20 million inhabitants. The atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, began several decades ago, but it increased drastically in the middle of the 80`s. It is important to recognize that in the 60`s, 70`s and the first half of the 80`s the main pollutants were sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles. However since the second half of the 80`s until now, ozone is the most important air pollutant besides of the suspended particles (PM{sub 10}) and other toxic pollutants (1--8). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution of the ozone atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, as well as to analyze the results of several implemented air pollution control strategies.

  16. Metropolitan all-pass and inter-city quantum communication network

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Teng-Yun; Liang, Hao; Liu, Wei-Yue; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Yuan; Wan, Xu; Cai, Wei-Qi; Ju, Lei; Chen, Luo-Kan; Wang, Liu-Jun; Gao, Yuan; Chen, Kai; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated a metropolitan all-pass quantum communication network in field fiber for four nodes. Any two nodes of them can be connected in the network to perform quantum key distribution (QKD). An optical switching module is presented that enables arbitrary 2-connectivity among output ports. Integrated QKD terminals are worked out, which can operate either as a transmitter, a receiver, or even both at the same time. Furthermore, an additional link in another city of 60 km fiber (up to 130 km) is seamless integrated into this network based on a trusted relay architecture. On all the links, we have implemented protocol of decoy state scheme. All of necessary electrical hardware, synchronization, feedback control, network software, execution of QKD protocols are made by tailored designing, which allow a completely automatical and stable running. Our system has been put into operation in Hefei in August 2009, and publicly demonstrated during an evaluation conference on quantum network organized by the Ch...

  17. Environmental conditions, political economy, and rates of injection drug use in large US metropolitan areas 1992-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eric T; Friedman, Samuel R; Brady, Joanne E; Pouget, Enrique R; Tempalski, Barbara; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-15

    City-specific studies have suggested the quality of the local environment and economic circumstances are associated with greater risk of injection drug use (IDU). No studies have assessed the relation among the quality of the local environment, economic circumstances, and IDU over time across US metropolitan areas. Annual numbers of IDUs in the 88 largest US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) were estimated by extrapolating, adjusting, and allocating existing estimates using various data sources. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relation among the quality of the local environment, metropolitan political economy, and IDU prevalence using lagged models taking into account potential confounders. MSAs with a worse local environment (measured as a one standard deviation difference) had a greater risk of IDU (relative risk [RR]=1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.06); similarly, a one-percentage point worsening of the political economy for an MSA was associated with greater risk of IDU (RR=1.04-1.10). Final models stratified by region indicated heterogeneity of effect by region whereby the quality of the local environment was associated with IDU strongest in the South (RR=1.12, CI: 1.05, 1.12) followed by the West (RR=1.04, CI: 1.01, 1.07) and Midwest (RR=1.03, CI: 1.00, 1.06), and the metropolitan political economy was associated with IDU in the West (RR=1.03-1.09) and Northeast (RR=1.04-1.12). Our results underscore the importance of sociopolitical factors as determinants of IDU in MSAs. Structural solutions targeted at improving environmental conditions and economic circumstances should be considered as drug use interventions.

  18. Cancer among Arab Americans in the metropolitan Detroit area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kendra L; Kulwicki, Anahid; Weiss, Linda K; Fakhouri, Haifa; Sakr, Wael; Kau, Gregory; Severson, Richard K

    2004-01-01

    Detroit is home to one of the largest populations of Arab Americans outside of the Middle East, yet little is known about the cancer distribution in this ethnic group. The authors of this study created an Arab/Chaldean surname list and matched it with the Detroit SEER Registry to identify cancer cases of probable Arabic descent. We then determined proportional incidence ratios (PIR) for specific cancer sites among metropolitan Detroit Arab Americans as compared to non-Arab Whites, and contrasted the results with Middle Eastern data. Arab/Chaldean men had greater proportions of leukemia (29%), multiple myeloma (46%), liver (64%), kidney (33%), and urinary bladder (26%) cancers. Arab/Chaldean women had greater proportions of leukemia (23%), thyroid (57%), and brain (35%) cancers as compared with non-Arab White men and women. The cancers with significantly increased PIRs in the Detroit Arab/Chaldean population also are frequently diagnosed in Middle Eastern countries.

  19. Assessing sustainability in real urban systems: the Greater Cincinnati Metropolitan Area in Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mejía, Alejandra M; Eason, Tarsha N; Cabezas, Heriberto; Suidan, Makram T

    2012-09-04

    Urban systems have a number of factors (i.e., economic, social, and environmental) that can potentially impact growth, change, and transition. As such, assessing and managing these systems is a complex challenge. While, tracking trends of key variables may provide some insight, identifying the critical characteristics that truly impact the dynamic behavior of these systems is difficult. As an integrated approach to evaluate real urban systems, this work contributes to the research on scientific techniques for assessing sustainability. Specifically, it proposes a practical methodology based on the estimation of dynamic order, for identifying stable and unstable periods of sustainable or unsustainable trends with Fisher Information (FI) metric. As a test case, the dynamic behavior of the City, Suburbs, and Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) of Cincinnati was evaluated by using 29 social and 11 economic variables to characterize each system from 1970 to 2009. Air quality variables were also selected to describe the MSA's environmental component (1980-2009). Results indicate systems dynamic started to change from about 1995 for the social variables and about 2000 for the economic and environmental characteristics.

  20. Frequency of dermatophytes in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzari, A

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate the distribution of dermatophytes in Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, they were isolated from the skin, hairs and nails samples and retrospectively analyzed from June 1981 to June 1995, in two different institutions in the city of Porto Alegre: (i) the Serviço de Micologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul which attends the low income population (low and middle classes) and, (ii) Laboratório Weinmann, a clinical pathology laboratory which attends predominantly the higher income population (middle and upper classes), both which attend in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. The dermatophyte predominance of Trichophyton rubrum was confirmed (55.33%) followed by T. mentagrophytes (21.46%). The data obtained were compared with the existing prevalence data which were collected in the interior of the state over a period of 32 years (1960-1992). T. verrucosum, T. simii, Microsporum persicolor, T. schöenleinii, M. nanum and M. cookei were isolated in the interior and have not been found in the capital so far. On the other side, T. violaceum was, isolated in the capital and has not been found in the interior so far.

  1. Frequency of dermatophytes in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEZZARI Adelina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the distribution of dermatophytes in Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, they were isolated from the skin, hairs and nails samples and retrospectively analyzed from June 1981 to June 1995, in two different institutions in the city of Porto Alegre: (i the Serviço de Micologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul which attends the low income population (low and middle classes and, (ii Laboratório Weinmann, a clinical pathology laboratory which attends predominantly the higher income population (middle and upper classes, both which attend in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. The dermatophyte predominance of Trichophyton rubrum was confirmed (55.33% followed by T. mentagrophytes (21.46%. The data obtained were compared with the existing prevalence data which were collected in the interior of the state over a period of 32 years (1960-1992. T. verrucosum, T. simii, Microsporum persicolor, T. schöenleinii, M. nanum and M. cookei were isolated in the interior and have not been found in the capital so far. On the other side, T. violaceum was, isolated in the capital and has not been found in the interior so far.

  2. Changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area Urban Heat Environment with Residential Redevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Je-Woo; Hong, Jinkyu

    2016-04-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the geographical extent of cities has increased around the world. In particular, following three decades of rapid regional economic growth, many Asian megacities have emerged and continue to expand. Short-term urban redevelopment is, therefore, inevitable. However, in this region the microclimatic impacts of urban redevelopment have not been extensively investigated using long-term in-situ observations. In this study, changes in surface sensible heat exchange, heat storage, and anthropogenic heat emissions due to urban residential redevelopment were quantified and analyzed based on a three-year micrometeorological record from the Seoul metropolitan area. The results show that following urban redevelopment of compact high-rise residential buildings, 1) the daily minimum air temperature near the ground surface increased by ˜0.6 K; 2) the ratio between surface sensible heat and net radiation increased by ˜ 9% (summer) to 31% (winter), anthropogenic heat emissions increased by 12 Wm-2 (spring) to 26 Wm-2 (summer), and daily maximum heat storage ranged by 35 Wm-2 (spring) to 55 Wm-2 (summer), and; 3) there was a transition of local circulation with changes in the surface properties of heat sources and roughness.

  3. 国际大都市区最新综合交通规划远景、目标、对策比较研究%A Comparative Study of Visions, Objectives, and Strategies of the Latest Comprehensive Transportation Plans for Metropolitan Areas of Intemational Citis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭建; 王雪松

    2011-01-01

    In China, quick motorization in Chinese cities has expedited urban spatial expansion. Construction of regional transportation system influences the land use pattern, housing, as well as employment distribution in a metropolis. And accessibility also produces impacts on the mode of growth and the level of economic activities. This paper reviews the latest comprehensive transportation plans of 35 international metropolitan areas. Based on an analysis of current urban transportation development in China, the paper proposed ways to improve comprehensive transportation plans of big Chinese cities in following aspects: transportation safety planning; environmental protection; establishment of smart traffic congestion management system; integration of transportation planning institutions, and optimization of traffic system management and operation.%我国快速的机动化进程推动了城市空间扩展和新城建设的步伐,区域综合交通运输体系的建设影响了城市土地利用形态、住房和就业分布,交通系统的可达性直接影响大都市区的增长模式和经济活动水平.国外发达地区的大都市区在综合交通规划方面积累了丰富的经验.我国城市交通发展面临的交通拥堵、交通安全、交通环境等问题日益突出,学习和借鉴国外发达地区大都市区综合交通规划经验显得十分必要.在对国际上35个大都市区最新一轮综合交通规划报告系统整理的基础上,统计和总结了35个大都市区综合交通规划的远景、总体目标以及目标实现的对策.针对当前中国城市交通问题,从重视交通安全规划,环境保护,建立完善的交通拥堵管理系统、改善城市机动性,健全交通规划机构、最优化综合交通系统管理和运营几个方面对城市综合交通系统提出了建议.

  4. Municipal community gardens in the metropolitan area of Milano. Assessment and planning criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Senes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A community garden (CG can generally be defined as a piece of land gardened collectively by a group of people that grow their produce on shared lots that have been divided into smaller plots. Some gardens are grown collectively, are divided into different plots for individual and family use; CGs are usually located in urban or peri-urban areas. As a growing portion of the urban open space network, CGs are contributing to land preservation, access to open space, and sustainable re-use of vacant land. They promote healthy communities and provide food security for many. In this context, the object of the study are the municipal community gardens (MCGs, a specific typology of CGs provided for land-use planning legislation and practice as an urban service with social function, made available to the community by the municipalities and assigned to be cultivated to citizens (usually seniors/retired people. In particular, the study aimed: i to evaluate the presence of MCGs in the città metropolitana di Milano (the former province of Milano; and ii to define criteria for new MCGs settlement, using existing geo-database and geographical information system to make it replicable in other settings. For the first topic the 133 municipalities of the former province of Milano (excluded the city of Milano were analysed. Only 59 municipalities had presence of MCGs. The average area per capita of MCGs is 0.68 sq.m/inhab. (if we exclude Rodano, an outlier with 35 sq.m/inhab.. An overlay with land use map has permitted to define the relationships between the MCGs and their surrounding territory. The major part of MCGs are included in urban or suburban areas. For the second goal, the land area to be allocated for new MCGs was assessed for each municipality, comparing area of existing MCGs and a minimum required area (calculated on the basis of the inhabitants number. Finally a method was proposed to locate the new MCGs areas. Criteria used to identify suitable areas

  5. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  6. Spatial analysis of the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and social and environmental management issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    This paper hopes to fill this gap by working with the notion of environmental justice and by introducing hydrographical systems as an important level of analysis, together with the municipal and metropolitan scales. In that sense, the environment figures as the basis to correlate social, economical...... and infrastructural data. Through these three levels of spatial analysis it is possible to develop and to support a more comprehensible study of urban development of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. The aim of this study is (a) to develop an alternative spatial analysis leading to a more comprehensive...... understanding of the urban development process and its correlation not just with political-administrative borders but also to ecological systems: (b) to identify the correlations between infrastructure and socio-economical data in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area (c) to evaluate urban development dynamics...

  7. ANXIETY AND DEPRESSIVE ILLNESS: CURSE TO METROPOLITAN CITIES AND ROLE OF AYURVEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajaria Divya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey says that world is not threatened by spreading communicable diseases but by raising incidences of non-communicable diseases that spoil mind and thereby causing ailment in body. Stress and stress related disorders like mood disorders and personality disorders including anxiety and depression become the major problem of metropolitan cities. Every third individual living in big cities is suffering from stress and related disorder, amazing but it is true that in 21st century when we are talking about genomics and chemical weapons world is destroying by fake thoughts. With the astonishing development in contemporary medicine pathogens are conquered but mind is still beyond the reach of science. Human mind has terrific power that can even endure the whole universe become ill merely by poor thoughts. Ayurveda, the ancient medical science is the world oldest treatise that gives emphasis on management of thoughts for successful management of psychiatric diseases. Ayurveda gives three fold treatment approaches for every disease including both pharmacological as well as non-pharmacological measures. This paper gives the details of management of anxiety and depressive illness through Ayurvedic treatment methodology.

  8. AN ANALYZING OF SOCIAL TRUST IN THE TABRIZ METROPOLITAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Zali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The social capital consists of two fundamental components. Relations and links, norms and trust that facilitate group activities, relations and social networks as components of social capital has been evaluated in Tabriz city. This research has been conducted with descriptive and analytical approach in survey. The statistical society of this research was citizens of Tabriz city and the information has been gathered via face to face referring to homes by cluster sampling. In this research four components like accumulating social relations, symmetrical relations, supporting relations and mediation relations as main components of quality of social relations and structure of relations has been analyzed. The results of this study show that the relational stable degree is low in Tabriz city and accumulating the social relation as one of indices of relational stability has got better status in comparison to other indices. Also based on results of this research the social relations in Tabriz city have got very low adaptability degree. At the end of article according to importance of social capital in social development it has been referred to its role in advancement of programs of social development.

  9. AN ANALYZING OF SOCIAL TRUST IN THE TABRIZ METROPOLITAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Zali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The social capital consists of two fundamental components. Relations and links, norms and trust that facilitate group activities, relations and social networks as components of social capital has been evaluated in Tabriz city. This research has been conducted with descriptive and analytical approach in survey. The statistical society of this research was citizens of Tabriz city and the information has been gathered via face to face referring to homes by cluster sampling. In this research four components like accumulating social relations, symmetrical relations, supporting relations and mediation relations as main components of quality of social relations and structure of relations has been analyzed. The results of this study show that the relational stable degree is low in Tabriz city and accumulating the social relation as one of indices of relational stability has got better status in comparison to other indices. Also based on results of this research the social relations in Tabriz city have got very low adaptability degree. At the end of article according to importance of social capital in social development it has been referred to its role in advancement of programs of social development.

  10. EVALUATION OF PRIVATE SCHOOL LOCATION IN THE ISTANBUL METROPOLITAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TOPÇU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment in education is considered important for economic growth and poverty alleviation. In many developed and developing countries families contribute privately to the education of their children as a result of continuously shrinking public budgets. Also, in Istanbul private primary schools were supported by the government in order to answer to increasing demand due to continuous rural migration and to create a competitive educational market to improve the quality of primary education. This paper, first, analyzes the spatial distribution of private primary schools according to the concentric rings and illustrates the gap between the center and the periphery and among the districts. Then, the relationships between the number of private primary schools and demand and the characteristics of the districts are investigated by a regression analysis. According to the results, the number of public primary schools is the most important factor and GDP per capita is the second factor to affect the number of private primary schools in the districts. Currently, the cluster of private primary schools mainly in high-income districts does not allow developing a competitive educational market at the metropolitan level. It is expected that a more balanced market will be develop as the urban structure of Istanbul adjusted to the neo-liberal economies in the future. The results are useful for urban planners, investors and policy makers. Further research is suggested to investigate the impact of private primary schools on the quality of public primary school education in Istanbul.

  11. The Prominence of Colleges and Universities in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Regional Report. Summary 09-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Denis M.; Marshall, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The Boston metropolitan area is recognized by many for its concentration of prestigious private colleges and universities. The metropolitan area is home to over 80 private colleges and universities employing 68,600 people and attracting over 360,000 students from all over the world. This report uses employment and wage data from the Bureau of…

  12. Employment Profiles of Women and Minorities in 23 Metropolitan Areas, 1974. Research Report No. 49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Joan, Ed.

    This study, which analyzes employment patterns of women and minorities in 23 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs), is based on reports (required by the EEOC--Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) from private employers (EEO-1 Reports) and State and local governments (EEO-4 Reports). For each SMSA, EEO-1 data are presented for 1970…

  13. Climate change impacts on extreme temperature mortality in select metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected mortality from climate change-driven impacts on extremely hot and cold days increases significantly over the 21st century in a large group of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Increases in projected mortality from more hot days are greater than decreases in ...

  14. Water needs and women's health in the Kumasi metropolitan area, Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buor, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of water fetching by women and the quality of water during periods of water scarcity on the health of women in the Kumasi metropolitan area. A sample of 210 women drawn using systematic random procedure is used for the study. Formal interview is the main instrument use

  15. Specifying the Determinants of Neighborhood Satisfaction: A Robust Assessment in 24 Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of households nested in census tracts in 24 metropolitan areas over four time points, this study provides a robust test of the determinants of neighborhood satisfaction, taking into account the census tract context. Consistent with social disorganization theory, the presence of racial/ethnic heterogeneity and single-parent…

  16. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  17. Understanding Metropolitan Living: Description and Evaluation of a Cooperative City--Suburban Program for Urban Students in the 1970s. Summer Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Betty; Levine, Daniel U.

    Understanding Metropolitan Living (UML) was a cooperative summer school sponsored and conducted by a suburban school district in Johnson County, Kansas, and the central city school districts in Kansas City, Kansas, and Kansas City, Missouri. A six-week instructional program was conducted between June 8 and July 17, 1970, for 40 suburban students…

  18. Hydrogeochemical characterization and Natural Background Levels in urbanized areas: Milan Metropolitan area (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Although aquifers in densely populated and industrialized areas are extremely valuable and sensitive to contamination, an estimate of the groundwater quality status relative to baseline conditions is lacking for many of them. This paper provides a hydrogeochemical characterization of the groundwater in the Milan metropolitan area, one of the most densely populated areas in Europe. First, a conceptual model of the study area based on the analysis of the spatial distribution of natural chemical species and indicator contaminants is presented. The hydrochemical facies of the study area depend on the lithology of catchments drained by the main contributing rivers and on the aquifer settings. The anthropogenic influence on the groundwater quality of superficial aquifers is studied by means of probability plots, concentration versus depth plots and spatial-temporal plots for nitrate, sulfate and chloride. These allow differentiation of contaminated superficial aquifers from deep confined aquifers with baseline water quality. Natural Background Levels (NBL) of selected species (Cl, Na, NH4, SO4, NO3, As, Fe, Mn and Zn) are estimated by means of the pre-selection (PS) and the component separation (CS) statistical approaches. The NBLs depend on hydrogeological settings of the study area; sodium, chloride, sulfate and zinc NBL values never exceed the environmental water quality standards. NBL values of ammonium, iron, arsenic and manganese exceed the environmental water quality standards in the anaerobic portion of the aquifers. On the basis of observations, a set of criteria and precautions are suggested for adoption with both PS and CS methods in the aquifer characterization of highly urbanized areas.

  19. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Street Dust in Kathmandu Metropolitan City and their Possible Impacts on the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Raj Shakya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Street dust often contains elevated concentrations of heavy metals and can influence on environment and human health. Therefore, a study on the characteristics of heavy metals in street dusts at different localities was carried out in the metropolitan city of Kathmandu of Nepal. A total of 20 street dusts have been sampled from four sampling sites with various activities or characteristics such as mechanical workshops (MWK, motor parks (MPK, market areas (MKA and residential areas (RDA and analyzed for Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. Results showed that street dust samples contained significant levels of the metals studied compared to the values from the control site. The variation in concentration of most of the heavy metals determined decreased in an order represented as MWK>MPK>MKA>RDA>Control. While the RDA and MKA give the same element abundance order as Zn > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd, the MPK and MWK show different abundance order in some elemental contents. In all the street dusts, zinc is the most available and labile element followed by lead. From the place of low activity (RDA to the place of high activity (MWK, the metal concentrations in street dusts varied from 55.4-419.3 μg g-1 for Zn, 12.3-116.8 μg g-1 for Pb, 4.9-86.3 μg g-1 for Ni, 1.4-14.3 μg g-1 for Cr and 0.3-39.6 μg g-1 for Cd respectively. Results indicate that the metal pollutants in street dusts could significantly contribute to deteriorate the environmental status of the city of Kathmandu metropolis.

  20. Truckee Meadows (Reno-Sparks Metropolitan Area) Nevada. Documentation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    4.oo ROC RESO C RES2 PYRI U)~100 e~X~ "- tm\\ Ow E N ke rlDERY DAk ý95r 2 Q, ~ ~ k~ 41 WAS3110 LAKE -7LE 7, II *. Rec/TR Q Non ~oi 4,01/ -~--Sto CITY...Steamboat Cr. Lske .s.380o TRM KEE outh RIVE -So th Rock /,,-’fru~c ee River Truckee R. Truckee R. .rM v r.. Vistavd0 at Wadsworth at Nixon Overflow 8ver...4400- 4390 -- 4385 ---- _ 4380, . 4375. . ~ -- ____ CD 03106 100+00 90+00 60+0-0 70+0 Horizontal distance in feet ad C= - 4400 CD LAU 4395 436 - --r

  1. PASSENGER CAR EQUIVALENT (PCE OF THROUGH VEHICLES AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS IN DHAKA METROPOLITAN CITY, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha SAHA

    2009-01-01

    PCE currently used in Bangladesh is based on the values given in Geometric Design of Highways (MoC, 2001, which is the modification of the values given by Webster (1958 on the study performed in the United Kingdom in the 50's and 60's. But now-a-days, the situation is far different both for traffic and road user as the characteristics have changed from that time. Hence, in this paper an empirical study was carried out to determine the PCE of different types of vehicle that reflect the actual traffic conditions of Dhaka Metropolitan City. Data were collected from ten signalized intersections and the headway ratio method was used to estimate the PCE of different types of vehicle. The main vehicle compositions observed during the study period consist of passenger cars, auto-rickshaws, mini-buses and buses. The PCE obtained in this study were compared to the values established earlier. It was found that the estimated PCE are smaller than those being used in Bangladesh.

  2. A Mediterranean case study of flood evolution: the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria Carmen; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Cortès, Maria; Marcos, Raül; Martín-Vide, Juan Pedro; Turco, Marco; Falcón, Lluis

    2016-04-01

    ensemble of regional models (ENSEMBLES project) have been also considered. Flood events have been obtained from newspapers, reports and insurance data. The role played by prevention measures, particularly in the specific case of Barcelona, which has been recognized by UNISDR (United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction) as resilient city in front of floods, is also presented. Results confirm the strong role played by the increase of urban surface (from less than 15% in 1956 to near 40% in 2009) and explore future adaptation measures in the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This work has been supported by the Spanish project HOPE and the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona, and developed by an interdisciplinary team that include experts from hydrology, meteorology, geography, environmental sciences and architecture.

  3. A Feasibility Test on Adopting Electric Vehicles to Serve as Taxis in Daejeon Metropolitan City of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoin Baek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For realizing sustainable development, EV (Electric Vehicle is currently considered as one of the most promising alternative due to its cleanness and inexhaustibility. However, the development and dissemination of EV has stagnated because it faces major constraints such as battery performance and an excessively long charging time. Thus, this study examined the feasibility of using EVs as taxis by analyzing real data from a pilot project in Daejeon, a metropolitan city in South Korea for proposing the effective way to adopt EV. To reflect reality and improve accuracy, we adopted scenarios and assumptions based on in-depth interviews with groups of experts. The resulting initial benefit-to-cost (B/C ratio for EV taxis is approximately 0.4, which is quite low compared to 0.7 for traditional taxis. However, after incorporating some further assumptions into the calculation, the B/C ratio shifts to approximately 0.7, which is more appropriate for EV adoption. For this improvement to be achieved, the dissemination of a charging infrastructure, improvement of the business model and policy support is strongly needed. Limitations to this work and potential areas for future study are also fully discussed.

  4. Photochemical Age Determinations in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Daum, Peter H.; Lee, Y.- N.; Nunnermacker, L. J.; Springston, S. R.; Weinstein-Lloyd, J.; Hyde, P.; Doskey, Paul; Rudolph, Jochen; Fast, Jerome D.; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2003-02-05

    An extensive VOC data set was gathered as part of a photochemical oxidant field campaign conducted in the Phoenix air basin in the late spring of 1998. Sampling was done at the surface and by aircraft at mid-boundary layer height; in regions with emission sources and downwind in the urban plume. VOC concentration ratios were used to calculate photochemical age, defined as the time integrated exposure of an air mass to OH radical. Based on the VOC ratios of 15 compounds (with OH reactivity varying between acetylene and p,m-xylene), we present estimates for photochemical age and dilution factors for several regions within the air basin. Geographic trends are in agreement with the expectation that pollutants are transported in a generally eastward direction so that older and more dilute mixtures occur to the east of the city. Photochemical ages determined from aircraft samples agree with those determined at a downwind surface site. The bias in photochemical age that occurs because fresh pollutants are added to an aged mixture has been quantified by using a particle trajectory model. A combination of trajectory results (actual age of the pollutants in an air mass) and photochemical age yields an estimate of the average OH concentration experienced by the air parcel. OH obtained in this way is somewhat lower, but has the same trends as OH concentrations calculated using a photochemical box model that is constrained with observed concentrations coincident with the VOC samples.

  5. Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs in the Seattle, WA Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. K.; Alberti, M.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen loading has been identified as a potential stressor to marine ecosystems of the Puget Sound in the Pacific Northwest, and the Washington State Department of Ecology has estimated that anthropogenic sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to the Sound are 2.7 times higher than natural loads (Mohamedali et al. 2011). The Seattle urban area, situated in the southeast of the Sound, has the largest population in the northwestern US. Heavily urbanized along the coast, the 4 counties comprising the region (Snohomish, King, Pierce, and Kitsap) also include forests and agriculture. Urban and agricultural areas tend to have substantial anthropogenic N loading due to fertilizer application, presence of N-fixing vegetation, N atmospheric deposition, and human and other animal waste. To determine the relative contribution of urban vs. rural agricultural activities to N loads from the Seattle region to the Puget Sound, we used the Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs (NANI) calculator developed by Hong et al. (2011) for the watersheds of this region. The NANI calculator uses nationally available datasets to calculate NANI as the sum of oxidized N deposition, fertilizer application, agricultural N fixation, net food and feed inputs, and net animal and human N consumption. We found that NANI ranged from approximately 100 to 1500 kg m-2 y-1, with some of the highest rates in watersheds with high impervious surface or agricultural areas with N-fixing crops or large fertilizer additions. Many of the agricultural watersheds have intervening low-NANI watershed between themselves and the coast, thus it is likely that agricultural NANI is attenuated before entering the Puget Sound. The urban areas in the region do not have these attenuating watersheds, and so are likely to be the main contributor to the observed total aquatic N yield. This information is helpful for developing policies to reduce N loading to the Sound.

  6. Residential moves by elderly persons to U.S. central cities, suburbs, and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golant, S M

    1987-09-01

    The 1975-1980 migration stream and net migration patterns of persons younger than 65 and 65 + were examined using data from the 1980 U.S. Census. Central cities and suburbs of metropolitan areas (SMSAs) and nonmetropolitan areas (NonSMSAs) were distinguished as origins and destinations. Most elderly movers relocated within a fairly limited geographic context and revealed strong preferences for metropolitan living. Suburban locations were more favored than central city locations. Net migration findings may provide misleading interpretations of older movers' locational choices. The migration patterns of the 65 + population were similar to those of the 45- to 64-year-old population but differed from those of the more youthful U.S. populations. These findings highlight migration streams of elderly movers who likely have experienced changed in their life styles or personal resources.

  7. Modelling the emissions from ships in ports and their impact on air quality in the metropolitan area of Hamburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacher, Martin; Karl, Matthias; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). Ships emit not only when sailing on open sea, but also when approaching harbors, during port manoeuvers and at berth to produce electricity and heat for the ship's operations. This affects the population of harbor cities because long-term exposure to PM and NOX has significant effects on human health. The European Union has therefore has set air quality standards for air pollutants. Many port cities have problems meeting these standards. The port of Hamburg with around 10.000 ship calls per year is Germany's largest seaport and Europe's second largest container port. Air quality standard reporting in Hamburg has revealed problems in meeting limits for NO2 and PM10. The amount and contribution of port related ship emissions (38% for NOx and 17% for PM10) to the overall emissions in the metropolitan area in 2005 [BSU Hamburg (2012): Luftreinhalteplan für Hamburg. 1. Fortschreibung 2012] has been modelled with a bottom up approach by using statistical data of ship activities in the harbor, technical vessel information and specific emission algorithms [GAUSS (2008): Quantifizierung von gasförmigen Emissionen durch Maschinenanlagen der Seeschiffart an der deutschen Küste]. However, knowledge about the spatial distribution of the harbor ship emissions over the city area is crucial when it comes to air quality standards and policy decisions to protect human health. Hence, this model study examines the spatial distribution of harbor ship emissions (NOX, PM10) and their deposition in the Hamburg metropolitan area. The transport and chemical transformation of atmospheric pollutants is calculated with the well-established chemistry transport model TAPM (The Air Pollution Model). TAPM is a three-dimensional coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model with a condensed chemistry scheme including

  8. A Comparison of Two Methods on the Climatic Effects of Urbanization in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingna Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the “urban minus rural” (UMR and the “observation minus reanalysis” (OMR methods were used to quantify the potential impacts of urbanization on regional temperature changes in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area in China. DMSP/OLS nighttime light imagery and population census data were used to classify stations into four classes: rural, small city, medium city, and large city groups. The regional average annual mean temperature was estimated to increase by 0.12°C decade−1 derived from urban warming, accounting for 40% of total climate warming from 1960 to 2009 using the UMR method. The OMR method also indicates that rapid urbanization has a significant influence on surface warming trend although the urban warming intensity is dependent on reanalysis dataset. The seasonal cycle patterns from all three datasets are consistent with each other, which is contrary to the UMR result owing to the cooling effect of agriculture activity in the rural stations confusing the UMR result. So in this paper we found a deficiency of the UMR method where it would underestimate the effects of urbanization in summer. In this regard, the results from the OMR method are relatively more convincing although we admit it still has many other problems.

  9. Changes in Hydrological Cycle Due to Urbanization in the Suburb Of Tokyo Metropolitan Area, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kondoh, Akihiko; Nishiyama, J

    1998-01-01

    [ABSTRACT] The suburbs of Tokyo Metropolitan area has been experiencing heavy land use/cover changes followed by modernization of Japan. The stages of land surface alteration can be precisely monitored by satellite remote sensing data and printed maps. Image processing system and Geographic Information System are used to draw land use/cover maps, and the changes in it was discussed. After delineating the urbanization process, the changes in hydrological cycle are assessed. In this paper, chan...

  10. Water supply and hydrosocial scarcity in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Britto, Ana Lucia; Johnsson, Rosa Maria Formiga; Carneiro,Paulo Roberto Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper aims to analyse the water supply systems in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area in the light of the hydrosocial scarcity concept and the human right to water. It also assesses how bulk water availability may aggravate this situation. We argue that water access-related problems are directly related to several aspects: the way that water and sanitation services are managed, deficiencies in planning, technical choices, and the way in which existing systems are operated. In a...

  11. Local materials in the regeneration of urban space of the historic centre of the Metropolitan City of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Joanna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is part of the studies conducted by the Urban Planning Board, Land Management, Environment Laboratory for the “metropolitan city” and the Big Project “Historic centre of Naples, enhancement of the UNESCO site”. Among the issues under discussion, very important for the 92 municipalities of the Metropolitan City, is the preservation of different urban identities which, although united administratively, are claiming their own cultural profile rooted in the urban space, in the architecture of places and in local resources. The work is based on the principle that the use of local resources affects the quality and perception of urban space and, as evidence of belonging to the place, it is necessary to deal its exploitation under sustainable auspices.

  12. Tendencia de los niveles de plomo en la atmósfera de la zona metropolitana de la Ciudad de México: 1988-1998 Trends in atmospheric concentrations of lead in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City: 1988-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Cortez-Lugo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir las tendencias del plomo atmosférico asociadas a la eliminación paulatina del plomo de la gasolina y el uso de convertidores catalíticos en el auto transporte de la Ciudad de México, de 1988 a 1998. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de series de tiempo que incluye las mediciones atmosféricas de plomo que se obtuvieron, entre 1988 y 1998, de nueve estaciones de la red manual de monitoreo atmosférico de la Ciudad de México. Las intervenciones evaluadas fueron la introducción de gasolina Magnasin, el uso de convertidores catalíticos y el descenso en la concentración de plomo hasta su eliminación total de la gasolina utilizada en los auto transportes. Se describen las tendencias de plomo por monitor, por zona geográfica, utilizando un modelo de regresión que incorpora una estructura de auto-correlación. RESULTADOS: La introducción de gasolina sin plomo y de los convertidores catalíticos se asoció con un descenso en la concentración de plomo atmosférico en 23%, la reducción paulatina del plomo en la gasolina ocasionó una reducción acumulada de 89% en todas las zonas estudiadas. CONCLUSIONES: La introducción de la gasolina sin plomo ha logrado abatir las concentraciones ambientales de este contaminante de una manera importante.OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in airborne lead levels and their association with the control measures implemented from 1988 to 1998 to phase out lead from gasoline that included the introduction of a lead-free gasoline and the use of catalytic converters in automobiles in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data of atmospheric lead levels were obtained from the 9 field stations included in the local air quality monitoring network (RMMA. Trends for airborne lead are shown by monitor, monitoring area and for the entire metropolitan zone. Analysis of data was performed using linear regression models including autocorrelation analysis. The models were validated by standard diagnostic

  13. Evaluation of background soil and air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations on a hill at the outskirts of a metropolitan city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, S Levent; Saral, Arslan; Güneş, Gülten; Karadeniz, Aykut

    2016-07-01

    Air and soil sampling was conducted inside a forested area for 22 months. The sampling location is situated to the north of a metropolitan city. Average atmospheric gas and particle concentrations were found to be 180 and 28 pg m(-3) respectively, while that of soil phase was detected to be 3.2 ng g(-1) on dry matter, The congener pairs of PCB#4-10 had the highest contribution to each medium. TEQ concentration was 0.10 pg m(-3), 0.07 pg m(-3), 21.92 pg g(-1), for gas, particle and soil phases, respectively. PCB#126 and PCB#169 contributed to over 99% of the entire TEQ concentrations for each medium. Local sources were investigated by conditional probability function (CPF) and soil/air fugacity. Landfilling area and medical waste incinerator, located to the 8 km northeast, contributed to ambient concentrations, especially in terms of dioxin-like congeners. The industrial settlement (called Dilovasi being to the east southeast of 60 km distant) contributed from southeast direction. Further sources were identified by potential source contribution function (PSCF). Sources at close proximity had high contribution. Air mass transportation from Aliaga industrial region (being to the southwest of 300 km distant) moderately contributed to ambient concentrations. Low molecular weight congeners were released from soil body. 5-CBs and 6-CBs were close to equilibrium state between soil/air interfaces. PCB#171 was close to equilibrium and PCB#180 was likely to evaporate from soil, which constitute 7-CBs. PCB#199, representing 8-CBs deposited to soil. 9-CB (PCB#207) was in equilibrium between soil and air phases.

  14. Cluj-Napoca Metropolitan Zone: Between a Growth Pole and a Deprived Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel DRANCA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth pole strategy has proved to be one of the main tools that the EU is using in its idealistic pursuit of economic and social cohesion across Europe. The objective behind this concept is reducing regional economic and social disparities by directing the investments towards a location presenting a growth pole potential, which will at its turn spread the development in the surrounding economical space. However, reducing the inter-regional disparities often claims an ironical, if not cynical, price to pay: the increase of intra-regional disparities, at least for a first stage. In Romania’s case, this price seems to be paid in vain, as neither the Government nor the metropolitan level appears to have correctly understood the purpose and the mechanism of the Regional Operational Program. A major confusion has been made between the potential of a growth pole and the existence of a growth pole, and as a consequence, investments designed for underdeveloped areas are now addressing developed areas. In the case of the Cluj-Napoca Metropolitan Zone, the situation has worsened due to the contrasting economic and demographic profiles both within the rural part and as compared to the urban part. The spreading development potential is denied by the unfeasible and undemocratic associative structure of the Cluj-Napoca Metropolitan Zone, which is leaving the rural zone no tool at all to protect itself, let alone follow its interest.

  15. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Age-adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses...

  16. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Age-adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the...

  17. A survey of online social networking used to support health awareness campaigns in the City of Johannesburg metropolitan municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Eloff

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Department of Health (DoH at the City of Johannesburg metropolitan municipality in South Africa develops various health awareness campaigns aimed at creating awareness of general health risks within the Johannesburg area. According to staff members of the DoH, the resources utilised in the current campaigns fail to reach a sufficiently broad audience and the campaigns struggle to deliver the intended messages. Furthermore, the development and implementation of campaigns are time consuming and costly.Objectives: This research focused on how online social networking (OSN can support health awareness campaigns for the DoH in the Johannesburg region. OSN may be regarded as a tool that will assist the DoH to reach a wider audience, send health-related messages and provide a two-way communication channel.Method: The research used an exploratory research design with a purposive non-probability sample. A survey was used as the data collection instrument. Statistical analysis was performed on the data obtained from the surveys.Results: The results indicate that the DoH can benefit from the use of OSN in health promotion campaigns. The benefits include, but are not limited to, an increase in engagement with the target market, ease of use and reach within the specified audience.Conclusion: Although there are numerous advantages associated with the integration of OSN by the DoH, the DoH needs to develop training and development programmes for OSN to encourage its use by DoH staff members. The main aim of the programmes is to create internal OSN capabilities to support the OSN strategy.

  18. Space-time variations of human capital assets across U.S. metropolitan areas, 1980 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Allen J

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the changing structure of human capital in U.S. metropolitan regions from 1980 to 2000. Data are drawn from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles and from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Intensive empirical investigation leads to three main conclusions. First, forms of human capital in the United States are becoming more oriented to labor tasks that call for cognitive-cultural skills. Second, cognitive-cultural skills are accumulating most intensively in large metropolitan areas. Third, physical or practical forms of human capital are increasingly being relegated to smaller metropolitan areas. That said, important residues of human capital, focused on physical or practical tasks, remain a durable element of the economies of large metropolitan areas. I offer a brief theoretical explanation of these results.

  19. Metro U.S.A. Data Sheet: Population Estimates and Selected Demographic Indicators for the Metropolitan Areas of the United States. Special edition of the United States Population Data Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This poster-size data sheet presents population estimates and selected demographic indicators for the nation's 281 metropolitan areas. These areas are divided into 261 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and 20 Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSAs), reporting units which replace the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs)…

  20. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  1. Does improving Public Transport decrease Car Ownership? Evidence from the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette; Rouwendal, Jan

    Car ownership is lower in urban areas, which is probably related to the availability of better publict ransport. Better public transport thus may offer the possibility to relieve the many problems (congestion,health, and parking) associated with the presence of cars in urban areas. To investigate...... this issue, wedevelop and estimate a model for the simultaneous choice of a residential area and car ownership. Themodel is estimated on Danish register data for single-earner and dual-earners households in the greaterCopenhagen metropolitan area. We pay special attention to accessibility of the metro...... network whichoffers particularly high quality public transport. Simulations based on the estimated model show that forthe greater Copenhagen area a planned extension of the metro network decreases car ownership by 2-3%.Our results suggest also a substantial increase in the interest for living in areas...

  2. Hurricane & Tropical Storm Impacts over the South Florida Metropolitan Area: Mortality & Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon Pagan, I. C.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1985, the South Florida Metropolitan area (SFMA), which covers the counties of Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach, has been directly affected by 9 tropical cyclones: four tropical storms and 5 hurricanes. This continuous hurricane and tropical storm activity has awakened the conscience of the communities, government, and private sector, about the social vulnerability, in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, and others. Several factors have also been significant enough to affect the vulnerability of the South Florida Metropolitan area, like its geographic location which is at the western part of the Atlantic hurricane track, with a surface area of 6,137 square miles, and elevation of 15 feet. And second, from the 2006 Census estimate, this metropolitan area is the 7th most populous area in the United States supporting almost 1,571 individuals per square mile. Mortality levels due to hurricanes and tropical storms have fluctuated over the last 21 years without any signal of a complete reduction, a phenomenon that can be related to both physical characteristics of the storms and government actions. The average annual death count remains almost the same from 4.10 between 1985 and 1995 to 4 from 1996 to 2006. However, the probability of occurrence of a direct impact of an atmospheric disturbance has increase from 0.3 to 0.6, with an average of three hurricane or tropical storm direct impacts for every five. This analysis suggests an increasing problem with regard to atmospheric disturbances-related deaths in the South Florida Metropolitan area. In other words, despite substantial increases in population during the last 21 years, the number of tropical cyclone-related deaths is not declining; it's just being segregated among more storms. Gaps between each impact can be related to mortality levels. When that time increases in five years or more, such as Bob and Andrew or Irene and Katrina, or decreases in weeks or months, such as Harvey and Irene or Katrina and Wilma

  3. INTERMUNICIPALITY AS AN EMERGENT INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT: THE WATER SUPPLY CASE IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF AGUASCALIENTES, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Pacheco-Vega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public water supply management is a complex process that requires the implementation of a series of accountability, coordination and regulatory mechanisms in order to guarantee continual supply of this vital liquid to the maximum number of people, maximizing spatial and hourly coverage. This article examines the case of a Mexican city that has been expanding until reaching the size of a metropolitan zone, i.e. Aguascalientes, analyzing in a critical manner the argument that intermunicipal governance of public services emerges as a response to increasingly complex needs of metropolitan regions, which need to offer quality services to a growing and demanding population.

  4. AB TEMPORAL TRIP GENERATION MODELLING FOR PRIMARY ACTIVITIES: A CASE STUDY OF FAST GROWING METROPOLITAN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhimaji K. Katti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transportation planning for any city evolves on the basis of complex interplay between urban activity, transport and land use system to result in varied travel patterns. Travel pattern can be defined at micro level to include individual journey departure and arrival time, journey duration and distances to make way for temporal trip generation and distribution from specific area. Trip generation is the first step of four stages of travel forecasting analysis mostly followed all over the world. Traditionally, it is focused on the prediction of aggregate trip generation by a household rather than the choice of individual activity participation. However, spatial and temporal activity domains are equally important in forecasting process and strategic urban transportation planning. The present paper attempts to develop Activity Based (AB Temporal Trip Generation Models (ABTGM for primary activities to cover work and educational trips considering fast growing Surat city of Gujarat, India as study area. Home interview surveys are carried to provide household and socioeconomic characteristics and the activity travel diary information to focus on the activity based tours rather the trips.

  5. Multi-geohazards of Ende city area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan Supriatman Sutawidjaja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol2no4.20073The Ende City is a steep mountainous area, of which the height of their peaks are above 1500 m asl. It has the limited extent of plain places, without coastal plains. Due to this condition, large parts of the area are vulnerable to mass-movements mainly debris flows, rock-falls and shallow translational and rotational landslides. On the other hand, Flores Island is a segment of the Banda Arc that contains eleven very active volcanoes and numerous inactive volcanic cones. Two of them, Mount Iya and Mount Kelimutu are included to Ende Regency. The northern foot of Mount Iya is only about 1 km away from the southern outskirts of Ende city. But the presence of Mount Meja and Mount Roja as the barrier, and the orientation of the active crater (K2, the highly explosive eruption of Iya Volcano may not directly endanger the city of Ende. Most pyroclastic flows of previous eruptions and other eruptive material emplaced into the sea, but due to a short horizontal distance between Mount Iya and Ende City, the ejected rock fragments can endanger the city of Ende especially its southern parts. A crack has developed around the active crater (K2 of Iya Volcano. It seems that the crack indicates a major weakness within the volcano, which could result in a giant landslide, entering the sea in future eruptions of Iya Volcano. The kinetic energy which is transmitted through the water may probably generate a tsunami. The Ende City also experienced significant damages in the 1992 earthquake. Luckily this city is located on a solid rock instead of alluvial sediments which can potentially undergo liquefaction.  

  6. Geographically weighted regression for modelling the accessibility to the public hospital network in Concepción Metropolitan Area, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Martínez Bascuñán

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility models in transport geography based on geographic information systems have proven to be an effective method in determining spatial inequalities associated with public health. This work aims to model the spatial accessibility from populated areas within the Concepción metropolitan area (CMA, the second largest city in Chile. The city’s public hospital network is taken into consideration with special reference to socio-regional inequalities. The use of geographically weighted regression (GWR and ordinary least squares (OLS for modelling accessibility with socioeconomic and transport variables is proposed. The explanatory variables investigated are: illiterate population, rural housing, alternative housing, homes with a motorised vehicle, public transport routes, and connectivity. Our results identify that approximately 4.1% of the population have unfavourable or very unfavourable accessibility to public hospitals, which correspond to rural areas located south of CMA. Application of a local GWR model (0.87 R2 adjusted helped to improve the settings over the use of traditional OLS methods (multiple regression (0.67 R2 adjusted and to find the spatial distribution of both coefficients of the explanatory variables, demonstrating the local significance of the model. Thus, accessibility studies have enormous potential to contribute to the development of public health and transport policies in turn to achieve equality in spatial accessibility to specialised health care.

  7. USING THE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE USE OF GEO-RESOURCES IN METROPOLITAN AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oswald MARINONI; Andreas HOPPE

    2006-01-01

    Sand and gravel are important raw materials which are needed for many civil engineering projects.Due to economic reasons, sand and gravelpits are frequently located in the periphery of metropolitan areas which are often subject to competing land-use interests. As a contribution to land-use conflict solving, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is applied within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Two AHP preference matrix scenario constellations are evaluated and their results are used to create a land-use conflict map.

  8. Landscape dynamics analysis in Iasi Metropolitan Area (Romania using remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÃTÃLIN CÎMPIANU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the observation and quantification of land cover changes in Iasi Metropolitan Area during 1993-2009. The analysis is centered upon the built-up space dynamics and includes the detection of its extension directions and the measurement of its structural changes by landscape metrics. In order to obtain the land cover data, some remote sensing images were processed by supervised classification and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. In the end of the study, a synthetic statistical analysis of the change dynamics is performed at commune level, in order to compare the administrative units by the intensity of land cover dynamics.

  9. Assessment of Landslide Susceptibility by Decision Trees in the Metropolitan Area of Istanbul, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Nefeslioglu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the possible application of decision tree in landslide susceptibility assessment. The study area having a surface area of 174.8 km2 locates at the northern coast of the Sea of Marmara and western part of Istanbul metropolitan area. When applying data mining and extracting decision tree, geological formations, altitude, slope, plan curvature, profile curvature, heat load and stream power index parameters are taken into consideration as landslide conditioning factors. Using the predicted values, the landslide susceptibility map of the study area is produced. The AUC value of the produced landslide susceptibility map has been obtained as 89.6%. According to the results of the AUC evaluation, the produced map has exhibited a good enough performance.

  10. Late Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Metropolitan Areas of the United States and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H Irene; Tang, Tian; Espinoza, Lorena

    2016-05-01

    The majority of persons infected with HIV live in large metropolitan areas and many such areas have implemented intensified HIV testing programs. A national indicator of HIV testing outcomes is late diagnosis of HIV infection (stage 3, AIDS). Based on National HIV Surveillance System data, 23.3 % of persons with HIV diagnosed in 2012 had a late diagnosis in large MSAs, 26.3 % in smaller MSAs, and 29.6 % in non-metropolitan areas. In the 105 large MSAs, the percentage diagnosed late ranged from 13.2 to 47.4 %. During 2003-2012, the percentage diagnosed late decreased in large MSAs (32.2-23.3 %), with significant decreases in 41 of 105 MSAs overall and among men who have sex with men. Sustained testing efforts may help to continue the decreasing trend in late-stage HIV diagnosis and provide opportunities for early care and treatment and potential reduction in HIV transmission.

  11. Relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.

    2010-01-01

    The relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics was examined collectively and individually for nine metropolitan areas of the United States?Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, Colorado; Dallas?Forth Worth, Texas; Milwaukee?Green Bay, Wisconsin; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Boston, Massachusetts. The study was part of a larger study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1999 to 2004 to examine the effects of urbanization on the physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems. The objectives of the current study were to determine how stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics relate to different aspects of urbanization across a variety of diverse environmental settings and spatial scales. A space-for-time rural-to-urban land-cover gradient approach was used. Reach-scale habitat data and geomorphic characteristic data were collected once during low flow and included indicators of potential habitat degradation such as measures of channel geometry and hydraulics, streambed substrate, low-flow reach volume (an estimate of base-flow conditions), habitat complexity, and riparian/bank conditions. Hydrologic metrics included in the analyses were those expected to be altered by increases in impervious surfaces, such as high-flow frequency and duration, flashiness, and low-flow duration. Other natural and human features, such as reach-scale channel engineering, geologic setting, and slope, were quantified to identify their possible confounding influences on habitat relations with watershed-scale urbanization indicators. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were compared to several watershed-scale indicators of urbanization, natural landscape characteristics, and hydrologic metrics by use of correlation analyses and stepwise linear regression. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were related to percentages of impervious surfaces only in some metropolitan areas and

  12. Investigation Into the Use of Satellite Data in Aiding Characterization of Particulate Air Quality in the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Erica J.; Sokolik, Irina, N.; Doddridge, Bruce G.

    2011-01-01

    Poor air quality episodes occur often in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. The primary focus of this research is to assess the capability of satellites as a tool in characterizing air quality in Atlanta. Results indicate that intra-city PM2.5 concentrations show similar patterns as other U.S. urban areas, with the highest concentrations occurring within the city. Both PM2.5 and MODIS AOD show more increases in the summer than spring, yet MODIS AOD doubles in the summer unlike PM2.5. A majority of OMI AI is below 0.5. Using this value as an ambient measure of carbonaceous aerosols in the urban area, aerosol transport events can be identified. Our results indicate that MODIS AOD is well correlated with PM2.5 on a yearly and seasonal basis with correlation coefficients as high as 0.8 for Terra and 0.7 for Aqua. A possible alternative view of the PM2.5 and AOD relationship is seen through the use of AOD thresholds. These probabilistic thresholds provide a means to describe the AQI through the use of past AOD for a specific area. We use the NAAQS to classify the AOD into different AQI codes, and probabilistically determine thresholds of AOD that represent the majority of a specific AQI category. For example, the majority 80% of moderate AQI days have AOD values between 0.5 - 0.6. The development of thresholds could be a tool used to evaluate air quality from the use of satellites in regions where there are sparse ground-based measurements of PM2.5.

  13. Transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in a risk area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G.P. Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Visceral leishmaniasis (VL has spread rapidly across cities in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte. The aim of this study was to investigate VL dynamics in a prospective cohort study of dogs in Juatuba, between 2010 and 2011, to confirm the incidence of Leishmania infantum, and to assess possible risk factors associated with infection. An observational and prospective closed cohort study was performed using serology testing in dogs, randomly selected from the whole municipality. All seronegative dogs, or dogs with inconclusive results were monitored using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF at 6-month intervals. The dog's owners completed a semi-structured questionnaire to assess possible causal factors of seroconversion, and the responses were assessed using logistic regression. The canine incidence coefficient was 206/1,000 dogs per year (CI: 178-238, and a cluster was identified in an area with a high concentration of seropositive dogs, but a low overall canine population. Large dogs were identified as a risk factor and the following variables were identified as protection factors: dogs aged over 4 years, daily peridomicile cleaning, and better socioeconomic conditions. VL is spreading over a large area in Juatuba in a short period of time.

  14. Airborne pollen of Carya, Celtis, Cupressus, Fraxinus and Pinus in the metropolitan area of Monterrey Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Estrada, Alejandra; Alvarado-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Torres-Cepeda, Teresa Elizabeth; Foroughbakhch-Pournavab, Rahim; Hernández-Piñero, Jorge Luis

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of pollen grains in the atmosphere over the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, was analyzed throughout a year from March 2003-February 2004, focused on the genus Carya, Celtis, Cupressus, Fraxinus and Pinus owing to their interest as etiological pollinosis agents in diverse regions of the world. A 7-day Hirst type volumetric spore and pollen trap was located on a building roof of the city at 15 m from ground level for continuous sampling. The total quantity of pollen recorded for the study period was 21,083 grains/m(3), corresponding to 49.75 % of the taxa of interest. February and March were the months with higher pollen amounts in the air with 7,525 and 2,781 grains/m(3), respectively, and amounted to 49 % of total year through pollen. Fraxinus was the genus which contributed to the largest amount of pollen with 28 % of total grains (5,935 grains/m(3)) followed by Cupressus with 13 % (2,742 grains/ m(3)). Celtis, Pinus and Carya contributed with 5.3 % , 2.7 % , and 0.6 % of total pollen, respectively. These results indicate that Fraxinus and Cupressus are present in the area in sufficient quantity to indicate likely involvement in the origin of allergic disorders in the human population.

  15. MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM FOR WORM DETECTION AND CONTAINMENT IN METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Active worms can cause widespread damages at so high a speed that effectively precludes human-directed reaction, and patches for the worms are always available after the damages have been caused, whichhas elevated them selfto a first-class security threat to Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN). Multi-agent sys-tem for Worm Detection and Containment in MAN (MWDCM) is presented to provide a first-class auto-matic reaction mechanism that automatically applies containment strategies to block the propagation of theworms and to protect MAN against worm scan that wastes a lot of network bandwidth and crashes therouters. Its user agent is used to detect the known worms. Worm detection agent and worm detection correla-tion agent use two-stage based decision method to detect unknown worms. They adaptively study the access-ing in the whole network and dynamically change the working parameters to detect the unknown worms.MWDCM confines worm infection within a macro-cell or a micro-cell of the metropolitan area networks, therest of the accesses and hosts continue functioning without disruption. MWDCM integrates Worm DetectionSystem (WDS) and network management system. Reaction measures can be taken by using Simple NetworkManagement Protocol (SNMP) interface to control broadband access server as soon as the WDS detect theactive worm. MWDCM is very effective in blocking random scanning worms. Simulation results indicatethat high worm infection rate of epidemics can be avoided to a degree by MWDCM blocking the propagationof the worms.

  16. SIXTEEN YEARS OF PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR IN METROPOLITAN AREA OF PORTO ALEGRE, SOUTHERN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, Daiane; Daboit, Tatiane Caroline; Stopiglia, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Vetoratto, Gerson; Amaro, Taís Guarienti; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is the most common of the diseases caused by Malassezia yeasts. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor and its etiological aspects in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A retrospective cross-sectional study with data from patients of a reference hospital from 1996 to 2011 was performed. Collected data included: date, age, gender, ethnicity, anatomical region of lesion and the direct mycological examination results. Among the positive results in the direct mycological examination, 5.8% (2,239) were positive for pityriasis versicolor. The angular coefficient (B) was -0.3%/year, showing a decrease over the years. The disease was more prevalent in men (7.1% of men versus 5.1% of women that underwent the direct mycological examination); younger age (median 31 years old); "pardo" and black people (3.7% more than expected in the sample); trunk (73.44% of the affected anatomic sites). Lesions in rare sites (groin, genitals, legs, feet and hands) were also observed in this study. In conclusion, due to the decrease in the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor, long-term epidemiological studies in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, are needed to continue the monitoring of this disease.

  17. Probabilistic Analysis of Drought Spatiotemporal Characteristics in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyuan Cai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The temporal and spatial characteristics of meteorological drought have been investigated to provide a framework of methodologies for the analysis of drought in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area (BTHMA in China. Using the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI as an indicator of drought severity, the characteristics of droughts have been examined. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area was divided into 253 grid-cells of 27 × 27km and monthly precipitation data for the period of 1960–2010 from 33 meteorological stations were used for global interpolation of precipitation using spatial co-ordinate data. Drought severity was assessed from the estimated gridded RDI values at multiple time scales. Firstly, the temporal and spatial characteristics of droughts were analyzed, and then drought severity-areal extent-frequency (SAF annual curves were developed. The analysis indicated that the frequency of moderate and severe droughts was about 9.10% in the BTHMA. Using the SAF curves, the return period of selected severe drought events was assessed. The identification of the temporal and spatial characteristics of droughts in the BTHMA will be useful for the development of a drought preparedness plan in the region.

  18. The Nutrition and Dietetics Workforce Needs Skills and Expertise in the New York Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaba, Ann; Shrivastava, Apoorva; Amadi, Chioma; Joshi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an increased demand in the Nutrition and Dietetics field which has fostered credentialing to ensure competent graduates. The objective of this study is to conduct an exploratory analysis to identify nutrition/dietetics workforce needs, skills and expertise in the New York metropolitan area as exemplified in position announcements over a 4 year period. Methods: We recorded position announcements for jobs in nutrition and dietetics from the New York State Registered Dietitian Yahoo group, and the Hunter College Nutrition and Food Sciences student and alumni listserv (NFS-L) over a 4 year period. Keywords were identified using job categories defined by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) compensation and benefits survey. This served as a starting point to enumerate the types of positions that have been posted for the New York metropolitan area in recent years. Results: Four hundred and twelve (412) unique job postings were recorded. Various educational levels, credentials, and skills desired by these employers were identified, assessed, and compared with similar data from the “supply side” reports from AND. Conclusions: The credentials and skills most desired by employers are similar to some of the learning objectives set forth for DPD and DI programs by ACEND, but not entirely congruent. The need for both client/customer focus and computer literacy may be implicit in the standards, but a more overt inclusion of these skills would likely be of benefit to ensure these are inculcated into every program and student. PMID:26755482

  19. Seismic Microzonation Study in Tabriz Metropolitan City for Earthquake Risk Mitigation x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebad Ghanbari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Azerbaijan is the site of convergent plate collisions along the Alpine-Himalayan active mountain belt. Brittle faults in the Azerbaijan area are mostly Cenozoic in or younger. The data presented demonstrate clearly that geological structures are commonly repeated at all scales from outcrop to regional. Several regional earthquakes have been strongly felt and caused damages in and around Tabriz during history. Urban seismic risk is increasing with population growth and encroachment of vulnerable built in environment into areas susceptible seismic hazard. Seismic -hazard assessment an estimate of ground motion at the site of interest, taking into account instrumental and historical earthquake records, information on tectonics, geology, and attenuation characteristics of seismic waves Tabriz is important industrial city of Iran. It has a very high population density about 2.000000 people in area just 90 km2 . The main objective of the Tabriz seismic instrumentation and microzonation study was to carry out and propose new building in Tabriz and suburbs in order to apply these criteria its development programs and determine the potential for damage to existing constructions during earthquake motions, and finally earthquake risk mitigation assessment.

  20. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust from the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, H; Onda, T; Harada, M; Ogura, N

    1991-09-01

    Molecular distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust samples collected from the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by capillary gas chromatography following HPLC fractionation. Three- to six-ring PAHs and sulfur-heterocyclics were detected. PAHs in the dusts were dominated by three and four unsubstituted ring systems with significant amounts of their alkyl homologues. PAHs were widely distributed in the streets, with concentrations (sigma COMB) of a few microgram/g dust. Automobile exhaust, asphalt, gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, tyre particles, automobile crankcase oils, and atmospheric fallout were also analysed. The PAH profile, especially the relative abundance of alkyl-PAHs and sulfur-containing heterocyclics, indicated that PAHs in the street dusts from roads carrying heavy traffic are mainly derived from automobile exhausts; dusts from residential areas have a more significant contribution from atmospheric fallout.

  1. The Potential of Periurban Areas for the Resilience of Metropolitan Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Colucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present as an organic structure the outcomes from various pieces of research and consulting activities developed over the last few years (2011-2015. Shared topics are: urban-rural partnerships, food planning, metropolitan polices and the territorial resilience of periurban areas. In the first part (the core of the paper the paper underlines critical questions and establishes needs so as to move towards a new approach to development processes in periurban areas. The paper uses some key concepts to present the main outcomes: 1. Understanding complexity (multiscales in space and dynamics (multiscales in time; 2. Identifying all the resources and opportunities; 3. Crosscutting and multi-issues. In the second part (in the final part the paper proposes the “Ecotone” metaphor to support innovation in the approach to periurban areas. It is a “zone of transition between adjacent ecological systems, having a set of characteristics uniquely defined by space and time scales and by the strength of the interactions between adjacent ecological systems” (Hansen et al, 1992. In these terms, periurban areas may be assumed to be ecotonal zones of transition between urban and rural or natural systems. Using the concept of “ecotonal buffer of transition” to approach the periurban systems it is possible to connect main needs and critical questions underlined to a homogeneous framework and to emphasise on the strategic role that the peri-urban systems play for the future development of metropolitan regions oriented to a improvement of resilience of socio-ecosystems. In the final part the paper focuses on the governace of urban rural partnerships and research perspectives.

  2. Urban Heat Island Variation across a Dramatic Coastal to Desert Climate Zone: An Application to Los Angeles, CA Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyebi, A.; Jenerette, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization is occurring at an unprecedented rate across the globe. The resulting urban heat island (UHI), which is a well-known phenomenon in urban areas due to the increasing number and density of buildings, leads to higher temperature in urban areas than surrounding sub-urban or rural areas. Understanding the effects of landscape pattern on UHI is crucial for improving the sustainability of cities and reducing heat vulnerability. Although a variety of studies have quantified UHI, there are a lack of studies to 1) understand UHI variation at the micro-scale (e.g., neighborhood effect) for large urban areas and 2) identify variation in the sensitivity of the UHI to environmental drivers across a megacity with a pronounced climate zone (i.e. coastal to desert climates) using advanced analytical tools. In this study, we identified the interacting relationship among various environmental and socio-economic factors to better identify UHI over the Los Angeles, CA metropolitan area. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantify the interacting relationships among land surface temperature (LST), land cover (NDVI), distance to ocean, elevation, and socio-economic status (neighborhood income). LST-NDVI slopes were negative across the climate zones and became progressively stronger with increasing distance from the coast. Results also showed that slopes between NDVI and neighborhood income were positive throughout the climate zone with a maximum in the relationship occurring near 25km from the coast. Because of these income-NDVI and NDVI-LST relationships we also found that slopes between LST and neighborhood income were negative throughout the climate zones and peaked at about 30km from the coast. These findings suggest assessments of urban heat vulnerability need to consider not only variation in the indicators but also variation in how the indicators influence vulnerability.

  3. Cancer incidence in Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area, 2000-2004. First five years report from population based cancer registry of Metropolitan Area of Bucaramanga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Eliana Meza Durán

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the most common chronic diseases that cause high morbidity and mortality. In the evaluation of all illnessand its impact on the community, a surveillance system becomes necessary to allows us to know its incidence. Cancersurveillance is achieved by the population-based cancer registry. Methodology: The Population Based Cancer Registry ofMetropolitan Area of Bucaramanga (RPC-AMB collected information from the years 2000 to 2004, in patients with anymalignant cancer the which include both invasive and in situ behavior in addition to reside within this geographical area . TheCancer Registry also collects data on brain and nervous system tumors classified as benign or those that have uncertainbehavior. Basal cell cancers of the skin were included during the two first years as well as all the intraepithelial neoplasm ofthe cervix. Active collections of information at all sources by registry staff were made (Hospitals, Health care institutions,especially oncology centers and Pathology and Hematology Laboratories and some specialist in oncology attention. Theinclusion approaches are verified and collects data on specific sociodemographic information (age, gender, residence, placeof birth, etc. and on the anatomic site of the tumor, the cell type of the cancer, behavior and extension on each individualdiagnosed with cancer. Each case was coded using the International Classification of Diseases Oncology Third Edition (ICDO-3, for topographical and morphological code. The data was entered into a computer with CanReg-4 software that is aconfigurable computer program designed for cancer registration in population-based registries and was provided as aservice by the Descriptive Epidemiology Unit to members of the International Association of Cancer Registries. This softwareprovides the number of cancer cases (frequency and the incidence rates. The quality control included exhaustiveness of thecases and information, verification of the

  4. Characteristics of black carbon concentration at a metropolitan city located near land-ocean boundary in Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti; Maitra, Animesh; Gogoi, Mukunda M.

    2015-02-01

    Near surface aerosol black carbon (BC) concentration data were collected using a seven channel Aethalometer (AE31) during June 2012-May 2013 in Kolkata (22° 34‧E, 88° 22‧N), a metropolitan city located near the land-ocean boundary in Eastern India. BC concentration shows a prominent seasonal and diurnal variation associated with the meteorological parameters. The mean BC concentration varied from 5 μg/m3 to 27 μg/m3 seasonally. The variation of BC mass concentration and its significant association with atmospheric parameters such as temperature profile, relative humidity and wind speed have been studied. Moreover, the influence of the transported air masses on BC concentration at different seasons has also been discussed. An estimation of Angstrom exponent discloses that fossil fuel combustion is a major source of BC at this location.

  5. Using monosaccharide anhydrides to estimate the impact of wood combustion on fine particles in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.; Saarikoski, S. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Niemi, J.V. [HSY Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    The spatiotemporal variation of ambient particles under the influence of biomass burning emissions was studied in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) in selected periods during 2005-2009. Monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs; levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), commonly known biomass burning tracers, were used to estimate the wood combustion contribution to local particulate matter (PM) concentration levels at three urban background sites close to the city centre, and at three suburban sites influenced by local small-scale wood combustion. In the cold season (October-March), the mean MAs concentrations were 115-225 ng m{sup -3} and 83-98 ng m{sup -} {sup 3}at the suburban and urban sites, respectively. In the warm season, the mean MAs concentrations were low (19-78 ng m{sup -3}), excluding open land fire smoke episodes (222-378 ng m{sup -}3{sup )}. Regionally distributed wood combustion particles raised the levels over the whole HMA while particles from local wood combustion sources raised the level at suburban sites only. The estimated average contribution of wood combustion to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) ranged from 18% to 29% at the urban sites and from 31% to 66% at the suburban sites in the cold season. The PM measurements from ambient air and combustion experiments showed that the proportions of the three MAs can be utilised to separate the wildfire particles from residential wood combustion particles. (orig.)

  6. Modeling the climatic effects of urbanization in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingna; Zhang, Xuezhen; Yan, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    In this analysis, the weather research and forecasting model coupled with a single-layer urban canopy model is used to simulate the climatic impacts of urbanization in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area, which has experienced significant expansion in its urban areas. Two cases examining current landscapes and the sensitivity test of urban areas replaced by cropland have been carried out to explore the changes in the surface air and atmospheric boundary structure. The impact of urbanization on annual mean surface air temperature has been found to be more than 1 °C in urban areas, and the maximum difference is almost 2 °C. The change in near-surface level temperature is most pronounced in winter, but the area influenced by urbanization is slightly larger in summer. The annual mean water vapor mixing ratio and wind speed are both reduced in the urban area. The effect of urbanization can only heat the temperature inside the urban boundary layer, below 850 hPa. The modeling results also indicate that the underlying surface thermal forces induced by the "urban heat island" effect enhance vertical air movement and engenders a convergence zone over urban areas. The convergence at low level together with the moisture increases in the layer between 850 and 700 hPa triggered the increase of convective precipitation.

  7. Internet of Things (IoT) Applicability in a Metropolitan City

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. D Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT)is defined here as a network of interconnected objects. These objects can include several technological systems. This paper examines the wireless communication systems and IoT sensors. IoT is technically feasible today, allowing people and things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with anything and anyone. IoT privacy is a concern but security solutions exist today to solve these issues. A proposal is made to use secure IoT solutions in supporting the metropolitan need...

  8. Internet of Things (IoT Applicability in a Metropolitan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. D Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoTis defined here as a network of interconnected objects. These objects can include several technological systems. This paper examines the wireless communication systems and IoT sensors. IoT is technically feasible today, allowing people and things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with anything and anyone. IoT privacy is a concern but security solutions exist today to solve these issues. A proposal is made to use secure IoT solutions in supporting the metropolitan needs in San Antonio, Texas.

  9. [A study of factors related to contraceptive dropout: colored women in the metropolitan area of Capetown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, M

    1985-06-01

    There is concern over persons who fail to attend family planning clinics without reason. The represents 1 of the major stumbling blocks to a successful family planning program. The author investigated factors associated with clinic dropout among black women in a metropolitan area (Capetown, South Africa). Almost 1/2 of those who ceased to attend had a good reason for doing so. The main findings regarding the other defaulters included a lack of motivation among black women to prevent uplanned pregnancies through temporary contraception and that the program may not have met all of the public needs. In this regard, specific reference is made to the need of those women who no longer bring their youngest child to the child health clinic as family planning services are usually integrated into such a clinic. (author's modified)

  10. Water needs and women's health in the Kumasi metropolitan area, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buor, Daniel

    2004-03-01

    This paper examines the impact of water fetching by women and the quality of water during periods of water scarcity on the health of women in the Kumasi metropolitan area. A sample of 210 women drawn using systematic random procedure is used for the study. Formal interview is the main instrument used. The survey has established that income, quality of water, hours spent fetching water during scarcity and age are the main factors influencing women's health in the metropolis during water scarcity. In both the core and periphery, the water-related problem influencing health is hours spent fetching water during scarcity. An empirical model on water needs and women's health has emerged from the survey. Recommendations have been made on strategies to ensure regular volume of surface water, effective management of scarce water resources with the participation of women, and ensuring gender equity in domestic services.

  11. Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Bell, Amanda H.; Brown, Larry R.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Woodside, Michael D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Bryant, Wade L.; Cappiella, Karen; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Stack, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Urban development is an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The urban footprint on the American landscape has expanded during a century and a half of almost continuous development. Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas, and the advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic species. Every stream is connected downstream to larger water bodies, including rivers, reservoirs, and ultimately coastal waters. Inputs of chemical contaminants or sediments at any point along the stream can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism.

  12. A decade of lead monitoring in schoolchildren in the metropolitan area of Monterrey NL, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Santos-Guzmán

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To establish the blood lead concentration and associated risk factors in schoolchildren during 1998 and 2008. Materials and methods. A blood lead screening was conducted in schoolchildren of 6-12 years of age, enrolled in 17 elementary schools of the metropolitan area of Monterrey, México, during 1998 and 2008. Results. The mean blood lead level were 9.6 ± 3.0 (μg/dL range of 3.18 to 20.88 in 1998 and 4.5±4.8 μg/dL (range of 3.3 to 53.7 showing a 2.1-times reduction in blood lead levels (p menor que 0.01. Conclusions. This reduction in blood lead levels demonstrate environmental and industrial control improvements and the benefits of fading out the leaded gasoline during the 1990´s.

  13. Healthy communities: the challenge of social capital in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Helena

    2009-03-01

    The debate about social environment, sustainability and health has been highlighted by the interest in social capital. It has been suggested that social capital varies from place to place and that such variations are relevant for explaining variations in health. This paper explores the association between neighbourhood social capital (making a distinction between linking, bonding and bridging social capital) and self-rated health. The study has involved 4,577 residents in 143 neighbourhoods of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. Logistic regression was used to measure the relationship between social capital and self-rated health. The results show that social capital was strongly associated with self-rated health, even after an adjustment for individual attributes. It is not possible to divorce health planning from urban planning and from the promotion of social capital. A sense of place, identity and belonging needs to be at the core of all healthy planning interventions.

  14. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Bucaramanga metropolitan area, 2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe, Claudia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Population-based cancer registries (PBCRs make possible to estimate the burden of this condition.Aim: To estimate cancer incidence and mortality rates in the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area (BMA during 2003-2007.Methods: Incident cases of invasive cancer diagnosed during 2003-2007 were identified from the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area PBCR (BMA-PBCR. Population counts and mortality were obtained from the Colombian National Administrative Department of Statistics (NADS. We estimated total and cancer-specific crude incidence and mortality rates by age group and sex, as well as age-standardized (Segi’s world population incidence (ASIR[W] and mortality (ASMR[W] rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using CanReg4 and Stata/IC 10.1.Results: We identified 8,225 new cases of cancer excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (54.3% among women. Of all cases, 6,943 (84.4% were verified by microscopy and 669 (8.1% were detected only by death certificate. ASIR(W for all invasive cancers was 162.8 per 100,000 women and 177.6 per 100,000 men. Breast, cervix, colorectal, stomach and thyroid were the most common types of cancer in women. In men, the corresponding malignancies were prostate, stomach, colorectal, lung and lymphoma. ASMR(W was 84.5 per 100,000 person-years in women and 106.2 per 100,000 person-years in men. Breast and stomach cancer ranked first as causes of death in those groups, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, mortality rates in our region are higher than national estimates possibly due to limited effectiveness of secondary prevention strategies. Our work emphasizes the importance of maintaining high-quality, nationwide PBCRs.

  15. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Bucaramanga metropolitan area, 2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Janeth Uribe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Population-based cancer registries (PB­CRs make possible to estimate the burden of this condition. Objetive: To estimate cancer incidence and mortality rates in the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area (BMA during 2003-2007. Methods: Incident cases of invasive cancer diagnosed during 2003-2007 were identified from the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area PBCR (BMA-PBCR. Population counts and mortality were obtained from the Colombian National Administrative De­partment of Statistics (NADS. We estimated total and cancer-specific crude incidence and mortality rates by age group and sex, as well as age-standardized (Segi’s world population incidence (ASIR[W] and mortality (ASMR[W] rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using CanReg4 and Stata/IC 10.1. Results: We identified 8,225 new cases of cancer excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (54.3% among women. Of all cases, 6,943 (84.4% were verified by microscopy and 669 (8.1% were detected only by death certificate. ASIR(W for all invasive cancers was 162.8 per 100,000 women and 177.6 per 100,000 men. Breast, cervix, colorectal, stomach and thyroid were the most common types of cancer in women. In men, the corresponding malignancies were prostate, stomach, colorectal, lung and lymphoma. ASMR(W was 84.5 per 100,000 person-years in women and 106.2 per 100,000 person-years in men. Breast and stomach cancer ranked first as causes of death in those groups, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, mortality rates in our region are higher than national estimates possibly due to limited effectiveness of secondary prevention strategies. Our work emphasizes the importance of maintaining high-quality, nationwide PBCRs.

  16. Sensitivity analyses of OH missing sinks over Tokyo metropolitan area in the summer of 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chatani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OH reactivity is one of key indicators which reflect impacts of photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. An observation campaign has been conducted in the summer of 2007 at the heart of Tokyo metropolitan area to measure OH reactivity. The total OH reactivity measured directly by the laser-induced pump and probe technique was higher than the sum of the OH reactivity calculated from concentrations and reaction rate coefficients of individual species measured in this campaign. And then, three-dimensional air quality simulation has been conducted to evaluate the simulation performance on the total OH reactivity including "missing sinks", which correspond to the difference between the measured and calculated total OH reactivity. The simulated OH reactivity is significantly underestimated because the OH reactivity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and missing sinks are underestimated. When scaling factors are applied to input emissions and boundary concentrations, a good agreement is observed between the simulated and measured concentrations of VOCs. However, the simulated OH reactivity of missing sinks is still underestimated. Therefore, impacts of unidentified missing sinks are investigated through sensitivity analyses. In the cases that unknown secondary products are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, they tend to suppress formation of secondary aerosol components and enhance formation of ozone. In the cases that unidentified primary emitted species are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, a variety of impacts may be observed, which could serve as precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA and significantly increase SOA formation. Missing sinks are considered to play an important role in the atmosphere over Tokyo metropolitan area.

  17. Sensitivity analyses of OH missing sinks over Tokyo metropolitan area in the summer of 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ishii

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OH reactivity is one of key indicators which reflect impacts of photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. An observation campaign has been conducted in the summer of 2007 at the heart of Tokyo metropolitan area to measure OH reactivity. The total OH reactivity measured directly by the laser-induced pump and probe technique was higher than the sum of the OH reactivity calculated from concentrations and reaction rate coefficients of individual species measured in this campaign. And then, three-dimensional air quality simulation has been conducted to evaluate the simulation performance on the total OH reactivity including "missing sinks", which correspond to the difference between the measured and calculated total OH reactivity. The simulated OH reactivity is significantly underestimated because the OH reactivity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and missing sinks are underestimated. When scaling factors are applied to input emissions and boundary concentrations, a good agreement is observed between the simulated and measured concentrations of VOCs. However, the simulated OH reactivity of missing sinks is still underestimated. Therefore, impacts of unidentified missing sinks are investigated through sensitivity analyses. In the cases that unknown secondary products are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, they tend to suppress formation of secondary aerosol components and enhance formation of ozone. In the cases that unidentified primary emitted species are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, a variety of impacts may be observed, which could serve as precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA and significantly increase SOA formation. Missing sinks are considered to play an important role in the atmosphere over Tokyo metropolitan area.

  18. The metropolitan area as a knee-jerk response to the multilevel governance and its derived national public decisions

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    Cătălin Daniel DUMITRICĂ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper objectifies the first part of a larger projects aiming at establishing a public decision-making map pertaining to the negative externalities in the framework of the economic approach of subsidiarity in the multilevel governance (the case of Romania. The first part of the larger research project refers to testing whether the economic theory of the European Union multilevel governance, with its core consisting in the subsidiarity principle, puts more pressure on the national public decisions (more specifically those related to specific market failures, though it interferes with all state’s functions and their specific decisions.Our research thesis begins by establishing whether the relationship between the local political elites and public governance at the level of towns and communes is considered a very straight forward, even obvious relationship. The political parties, by means of the publicly and democratically-elected officials (mayors and local council-members, make the most important decisions concerning public affairs (i.e. pertaining to a market failure examined by a second stage of the project.In an attempt to modernize the Romanian administrative system, to make public administration more dynamic, flexible and pro-active, the local political leaders decided the development of a new type of structure, the metropolitan area. The metropolitan areas, due to the constraints of the law, were established as associative organizations, composed of several administrative-territorial units.The paper at hand presents the establishment of the metropolitan areas in Romania as a political decision to associate towns and communes, in view of gaining access to better-performance instruments for local economic development. The emergence of the metropolitan areas in our country is strongly connected with the local political elites, the local political actors representing, in fact, the engine of the metropolitan structures and regional

  19. Assessing Natural Background Levels of aquifers in the Metropolitan Area of Milan (Lombardy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni; Frattini, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/CE) requires Member States to evaluate the status of groundwater bodies in order to reach a good water quality for human consumption. One of the preliminary steps for defining the status of groundwater bodies consists in the definition and evaluation of the so-called Natural Background Levels (NBL). The NBL or Baseline level can be defined as "the range of concentration of a given element, isotope or chemical compound in solution, derived entirely from natural, geological, biological or atmospheric sources, under conditions not perturbed by anthropogenic activity" (Edmund and Shand, 2009). The qualitative analysis for a large area (ca 4500 Km2) of the Po Plain around the Milan Metropolitan area (Lombardy, Italy) is presented in this study. Despite the aquifers in the Milan metropolitan area are an incredible groundwater resource for a very large population (3.195.629 inhabitants in the metropolitan area, data at November 2014) and a highly industrialized area, a groundwater baseline characterization is still missing. In order to attain the hydro-geochemical characterization a complete geodatabase was built (120.655 chemical samples from 1980 to 2014). This database has been explored by classical and multivariate statistical analyses to provide relationships among the more influential lithological, hydrogeological and hydro-chemical variables. Finally, the NBLs of different chemical species which may be anthropogenic sensitive (Na, Cl, K, NO3, SO4, NH4, As, Fe, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn) and for multiple aquifer bodies (phreatic, semi-confined and confined aquifer) are evaluated. Two different approaches are applied: the Pre-Selection method (BRIDGE, 2006) and the Component-Separation method. The first one (PS) consists in the exclusion of samples from the available dataset that could indicate human activities then deriving the NBL as the 90th percentile of the remaining data. The second one (CS) consists in the fitting of

  20. Eco-health evaluation for the Shanghai metropolitan area during the recent industrial transformation (1990-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xiangrong; Ho, Hon H; Yong, Yi

    2008-09-01

    Shanghai is a cosmopolitan city and one of the most important economic centers in China, but is saddled with serious environmental problems resulting from a recent industrial transformation. This paper examines the interactive relationships between economic growth, eco-efficiency of urban metabolism, and environmental performance of the Shanghai metropolitan area since the 1990s using 15 indicators. This study has revealed an enhanced eco-efficiency of water and energy use as well as an improved overall environmental quality in the central urban districts of Shanghai. Both TGDP (total GDP) and GDP per capita increased rapidly at the annual rate of 16.28% and 15.91%, respectively. In contrast, energy consumed per 10,000 RMB YUAN GDP (ECG), water consumed per 10,000 RMB YUAN GDP (WCG), wastewater discharged per 10,000 RMB YUAN GDP (WWDG), and waste gases emitted per 10,000 RMB YUAN GDP (WGEG) decreased at the annual rate of 9.34%, 10.69%, 14.57%, and 8.52%, respectively. The rapid decline in ECG, WCG, WWDG, and WGEG indicates an enhanced eco-efficiency of urban metabolism. However, uncontrolled emission of wastes from domestic instead of industrial sources adversely affected the overall environmental quality. In addition, suburban areas have undergone rapid economic growth at the cost of human health deterioration, as measured by mortalities and relative mortality ratios of three major diseases (tumor, respiratory disease, and trauma/toxicosis). With Shanghai serving as the "locomotive" driving the economy of the Yangtze River Basin, effective pollution control policies and a network of regional coordination are urgently needed in the globalization and ecological security of the entire area.

  1. 1990年代以来日本大都市圈的结构变化%Changes in Spatial Structure of Japanese Metropolitan Areas Since 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    日野正辉; 刘云刚

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present a general view of changes in spatial structures of Japanese metropolitan areas after the 1990s based on previous studies. Discontinuation of suburban expansion and recovery of inner area population have been observed in the Tokyo metropolitan area since the 1990s. Both the collapse of land myth and the continuous decrease in land price during the 1990s were pointed out as major factors directly contributing to these phenomena. The land myth which kept the land value increasing had induced vigorous investments in land since the post-war rapid economic growth period. This movement had been busted in the collapse of bubble economy of the late 1980s. As a result, the amount of land supplies in the inner part of Japanese metropolitan areas became increased, and the construction of affordable condominiums became active significantly. On the other hand, the trend of low birthrate weakened the inner-to-suburb residential migration in metropolitan areas according to life cycle. Increasing number of aged residents prefer condominiums in the inner areas to detached houses in suburbs because of convenience in living without depending on automobiles. In fact, there were many senior citizens who migrated from suburbs to inner areas. On the contrary, the residential areas without adjacency to the convenient public transportation system in outer suburbs tend to become less popular among all generation, thus the population in such areas began to decrease. Furthermore, the similar phenomena are also seen in provincial metropolitan areas. Population in such areas is predicted to decrease in the near future. Therefore, some of major provincial cities have already proposed "compact city planning" policies to regulate new suburban development and improve public transportation systems by providing both train and bus services in the inner areas.%基于既有研究综述了1990年代以来日本大都市圈的发展动态.1990年代初期,东京都市圈郊区

  2. RESEARCHES ON URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT IN THE MEXICAN CITY OF QUERETARO: FROM CENTRAL TO PERI-URBAN AREAS

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    Eduardo Betanzo-Quezada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While in developed countries the effects of urban freight transport on congestion levels, environment and quality of life of the population have been recognized and studied, in Latin American countries a limited amount of reports have been produced on this issue, focusing only on major urban agglomerations and capital cities. The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss the results and the key analytical concepts supporting a research work carried out in the Queretaro Metropolitan Area, within the 2003−2014 period. The methodological approach considered includes a multi-year research effort for creating analytical tools and evaluation methods. As a result of this effort, urban freight related issues have been characterized in a context of urban and peri-urban interacting environments for a medium-sized city. The resulting methods and tools can now be used for studying metropolitan areas on a nation-wide basis.

  3. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO2 in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the Δ14C in ginkgo leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Hong, W.; Park, G.; Sung, K. S.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. E.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, G. D.; Woo, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO2 (fossil fuel CO2) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO2 were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO2 ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO2 in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO2 over total CO2 in atmosphere), 13.9 ± 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  4. Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; McLean, Kathleen; Brauer, Michael; Chiarello, Sarah A; Davies, Hugh W

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that both air pollution and community noise are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Because road traffic is a major contributor to these environmental pollutants in metropolitan areas, it is plausible that the observed associations may be confounded by coexistent pollutants. As part of a large population-based cohort study to address this concern, we used a noise prediction model to assess annual average community noise levels from transportation sources in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada. The modeled annual average noise level was 64 (inter quartile range 60-68) dB(A) for the region. This model was evaluated by comparing modeled annual daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(day)) with measured 5-min daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(eq,day,5 min)) at 103 selected roadside sites in the study region. On average, L(day) was 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-7.9) dB(A) higher than, but highly correlated (r=0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72) with, L(eq,day,5 min). These results suggest that our model-based noise exposure assessment could approximately reflect actual noise exposure in the study region. Overall, modeled noise levels were not strongly correlated with land use regression estimates of traffic-related air pollutants including black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), NO(2) and NO; the highest correlation was with black carbon (r=0.48), whereas the lowest correlation was with PM(2.5) (r=0.18). There was no consistent effect of traffic proximity on the correlations between community noise levels and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations. These results, consistent with previous studies, suggest that it is possible to assess potential adverse cardiovascular effects from long-term exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollution in prospective epidemiologic studies.

  5. A multi-year study of air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions in three New York State metropolitan areas: results for 1988 and 1989 summers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurston, G.D.; Ito, K.; Kinney, P.L.; Lippmann, M. (Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States))

    1992-10-01

    As part of a multi-year study of air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions in the Buffalo, Albany, and New York City, New York, metropolitan areas, filter samples were collected daily at suburban air monitoring sites and analyzed for their content of particulate phase aerosol strong acidity (i.e., hydrogen ion, H+) and sulfate (SO4 =). In addition, daily hospital admissions for respiratory causes, other community air pollutant measurements (e.g., ozone, O3), and meteorological data (e.g., temperature) were also obtained for these metropolitan areas. The summer months (June-August) were selected for analysis because that is when the highest H+ (and O3) are usually experienced at these sites, and because these months are rarely complicated by other major influences (e.g., high pollen counts). Thus, any pollution-admissions relationships were expected to be most clearly discernible in this season. Prior to the health effects analysis, the summer admissions and environmental data were first detrended to eliminate long-wave autocorrelations, and day-of-week effects were removed via regression. Cross-correlations of the filtered 1988 and 1989 admissions and environmental data revealed strong associations between elevated summer haze pollution (i.e., H+, SO4 =, and O3) and increased total respiratory and asthma admissions on the same day and/or on subsequent days in Buffalo and New York City, especially during the summer of 1988 (when pollution levels were more extreme). Regression analyses indicated that the pollution-admissions associations remained significant (p < 0.05) even after the simultaneous inclusion of lagged daily maximum temperature. Mean effects calculations for these cities indicated that summertime haze can play a significant role in the occurrence of respiratory admissions in that season: accounting for an average 6 to 24% of 1988 Buffalo and NYC asthma admissions. O3 consistently had the highest mean effects estimates.

  6. Across the City, Toward the Nation: Philippine Poetry, Metropolitan Trains, and the Tulaan sa Tren Project

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    Oscar Tantoco Serquiña, Jr.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 and 2010, the Philippine government’s National Book Development Board (NBDB and Light Railway Transit Authority (LRTA launched Tulaan sa Tren, a project “designed to provide train passengers with an appreciation for Philippine Literature as they listen to their favorite celebrities reading poems about Manila over the public announcement system of LRT Line 2 stations” (goodnewspilipinas.com. This project also initiated a poetry writing contest and produced poetry anthologies that predominantly depicted views of the city and city life. Part appreciation, part revaluation, part critique, this paper initiates a sensing of: (1 the train as a figure of modern life; (2 NBDB and LRTA’s enterprise as a state measure to bridge the disparity between the public’s reception to Philippine literature and the intelligentsia’s academic way of life; and (3 literary representations of the city in the poetry anthologies this project produced, namely Train of Thought: Poems from Tulaan sa Tren and Off the Beaten Track: Poems from Tulaan sa Tren 2. This paper argues that the institutional intervention of popularizing travel, literature, and the city may be seen as a way of generating a socio-political and literary consciousness among train commuters who are linked to and implicated in the issues and anxieties of their lives in the urban environment. By analyzing the poems in the anthologies, this essay ultimately critiques Tulaan sa Tren’s attempt at nation building, identity making, and city mapping.

  7. Procesos de transformación urbana en la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires: una mirada sobre el avance de la ciudad-negocio Processes of urban renewal in the area of Metropolitan Buenos Aires: a look through the advance of business-city

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    María Florencia Girola

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo propone una exploración comparativa de dos procesos de mutación urbana que tienen lugar en áreas centrales y periféricas de la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. En el contexto de la centralidad se concentrará la atención en torno a la transformación de la zona portuaria de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires a través de la denominada operación Puerto Madero; en el ámbito de la periferia se focalizará en el surgimiento de las urbanizaciones cerradas localizadas en el eje norte del Gran Buenos Aires. Para llevar adelante el objetivo de este artículo se recurrió a la noción de paisaje urbano. De este modo, en la primera sección se reconstruirán dos dinámicas diferenciales de constitución de paisajes urbanos nuevos. En el segundo apartado se analizarán los casos propuestos como productos de procesos de recualificación anclados en las estrategias de la cultura-naturaleza y en la producción de seguridad. El artículo se nutre de un trabajo de campo etnográfico en desarrollo en cada uno de los escenarios urbanos mencionados.The main objective of this article is to analyze two processes of urban renewal from a comparative perspective, one in a downtown area of Metropolitan Buenos Aires and the other on the periphery of Buenos Aires. The first case focuses on the transformation of Puerto Madero, and in the second case, attention is brought to bear on the gated urban areas located in Greater Buenos Aires. Both cases are analyzed through the concept of urban landscape. A comparative analysis enables certain characteristics to be reflected upon which have been adopted by these new urban phenomena, characteristics which are related to urban recycling processes based on complementary culture/nature strategies, and the production of security. This article is based on a fieldwork carried out in these urban spaces.

  8. Modelling the photochemical pollution over the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Monteiro, A.; Ferreira, J.; Moraes, M. R.; Carvalho, A.; Ribeiro, I.; Miranda, A. I.; Moreira, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the photochemical pollution over the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre (MAPA), Brazil, where high concentrations of ozone have been registered during the past years. Due to the restricted spatial coverage of the monitoring air quality network, a numerical modelling technique was selected and applied to this assessment exercise. Two different chemistry-transport models - CAMx and CALGRID - were applied for a summer period, driven by the MM5 meteorological model. The meteorological model performance was evaluated comparing its results to available monitoring data measured at the Porto Alegre airport. Validation results point out a good model performance. It was not possible to evaluate the chemistry models performance due to the lack of adequate monitoring data. Nevertheless, the model intercomparison between CAMx and CALGRID shows a similar behaviour in what concerns the simulation of nitrogen dioxide, but some discrepancies concerning ozone. Regarding the fulfilment of the Brazilian air quality targets, the simulated ozone concentrations surpass the legislated value in specific periods, mainly outside the urban area of Porto Alegre. The ozone formation is influenced by the emission of pollutants that act as precursors (like the nitrogen oxides emitted at Porto Alegre urban area and coming from a large refinery complex) and by the meteorological conditions.

  9. Delineating Urban Fringe Area by Land Cover Information Entropy—An Empirical Study of Guangzhou-Foshan Metropolitan Area, China

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    Junyi Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has caused many environmental problems, such as the heat island effect, intensifying air pollution, pollution from runoff, loss of wildlife habitat, etc. Accurate evaluations of these problems demand an accurate delineation of the spatial extent of the urban fringe. Conceptual and analytical ambiguity of the urban fringe and a general lack of consensus among researchers have made its measurement very difficult. This study reports a compound and reliable method to delineate the urban fringe area using a case study. Based on the 'fringe effect' theory in landscape ecology, the existing land cover information entropy model for defining the urban fringe is renewed by incorporating scale theory, cartography and urban geography theory. Results show that the urban fringe area of Guangzhou and Foshan metropolitan area covers an area of 2031 km2, and it occupies over 31% of the total study area. Result evaluation by industry structure data shows satisfactory correspondence with different land cover types. This paper reports the method and outcome of an attempt to provide an objective, repeatable and generally applicable method for mapping its spatial extent from remote sensing imageries, and could be beneficial to relevant urban studies and urban fringe management projects.

  10. Water Resources Investigation. Cape Girardeau - Jackson Metropolitan Area, Missouri. Volume 2. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    TABLE A-3a LOG-LOG TRANSFORMATION OF A POLY-CURVE FIT 2" (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Cape Girardeau Cape Girardeau Year County City Jackson RSA ± ’ Hinterland...2030 92,700 72,600 15,700 1,800 2,600 1/ RSA : Remaining Study Area 2/ Hinterland: Remaining County Area 3/ Columns 2, 3, and 4 from the Study Area...4) football /soccer -33 fields; (5) baseball/softball - nine fields; (6) basketball - seventeen courts; sixteen swimming pools; (8) tent camping - 84

  11. Estimation of Populations Exposed to Road Traffic Noise in Districts of Seoul Metropolitan Area of Korea

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    Jaewon Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to model road traffic noise levels and estimate the human exposure at the 25 districts in the metropolitan Seoul, Republic of Korea. The SoundPLAN® Version 7.1 software package was used to model noise levels and simulated road traffic noise maps were created. The people exposed to daytime/nighttime road traffic noise were also estimated. The proportions of the population exposed to road traffic noise in major cities in the EU were also estimated and compared. Eight (8 districts show the exceeded rate (percentage of the exposed population exceeding the daytime standard of 20% or more, and eleven (11 districts show 10%-20% and six (6 districts show less than 10%, which indicates considerable variation among districts. Two districts (Nowon-gu and Yangcheon-gu show the highest exposure rate during the daytime (35.2%. For nighttime noise levels, fourteen (14 districts show the exceeded rate (percentage of exposed population exceeding the nighttime standard over 30%. The average percentages of the exposed population exceeding the daytime/nighttime standards in Seoul and the EU were 16.6%/34.8% and 13.0%/16.1%, respectively. The results show that road traffic noise reduction measures should urgently be taken for the nighttime traffic noise in Seoul. When the grid noise map and the 3-D façade noise map were compared, the 3-D façade noise map was more accurate in estimating exposed population in citywide noise mapping.

  12. Testing the efficacy of a molecular surveillance network: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) genotypes in six hospitals in the metropolitan New York City area. The BARG Initiative Pilot Study Group. Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lencastre, H; Severina, E P; Roberts, R B; Kreiswirth, B N; Tomasz, A

    1996-01-01

    Molecular fingerprinting techniques are rapidly becoming indispensable tools for hospital epidemiology. On the other hand, the relative complexity and unfamiliarity of these techniques to most hospital diagnostic laboratories limit their usefulness. In an attempt to provide a solution for this dilemma, we tested the feasibility and efficacy of a cooperative venture in which molecular typing of isolates recovered from patients in six hospitals was performed at two microbiology research laboratories with expertise in these techniques. In a small preliminary study, 30 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 30 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) isolates were collected over a 3-week period from six hospitals in the metropolitan New York area and transported to the Laboratory of Microbiology at The Rockefeller University during the summer months of 1994. Nineteen of the 27 confirmed MRSA isolates were closely related strains carrying the same mecA and the same Tn554 polymorphs in a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) background represented by closely related subtypes of a single pattern, indicating the wide distribution of this MRSA clone among the participating hospitals. Typing of the same 27 MRSA isolates was also performed at the Tuberculosis Center of the Public Health Research Institute and identical results were obtained. The 29 confirmed VREF isolates were highly heterogeneous and belonged to as many as 23 distinct clonal types as defined by PFGE patterns and probing with vanA. Characterization of the 60 isolates by these methods was completed in one month of full-time effort by a single experienced laboratory assistant guided by a doctoral-level expert in molecular fingerprinting techniques. The collection of samples for both MRSA and VREF was not intended to address epidemiological questions but to determine the feasibility of a multicenter study. On the basis of our preliminary findings we are encouraged that a larger

  13. Impact of future urban growth on regional climate changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsu; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Song, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-11-15

    The influence of changes in future urban growth (e.g., land use changes) on the future climate variability in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), Korea was evaluated using the WRF model and an urban growth model (SLEUTH). The land use changes in the study area were simulated using the SLEUTH model under three different urban growth scenarios: (1) current development trends scenario (SC 1), (2) managed development scenario (SC 2) and (3) ecological development scenario (SC 3). The maximum difference in the ratio of urban growth between SC 1 and SC 3 (SC 1 - SC 3) for 50years (2000-2050) was approximately 6.72%, leading to the largest differences (0.01°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively) in the mean air temperature at 2m (T2) and wind speed at 10m (WS10). From WRF-SLEUTH modeling, the effects of future urban growth (or future land use changes) in the SMA are expected to result in increases in the spatial mean T2 and WS10 of up to 1.15°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively, possibly due to thermal circulation caused by the thermal differences between urban and rural regions.

  14. Intermunicipal inequities in access and use of secondary health services in the metropolitan area of Curitiba

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    Sandra Lúcia Vieira Ulinski Aguilera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and analyze inequities in the access to specialized services in the municipalities of the metropolitan area of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. This is an ecological study. In its preparatory stage, this study focused on the socioeconomic, epidemiologic, healthcare network and sectoral financing network profiles of the 26 municipalities comprising this area. Factor analysis was employed to obtain the six principal components, and a synthetic index was calculated from them, allowing municipalities to be ranked according to living conditions and health situation. Primary data was collected from 24 municipalities, regarding their capacity, directed and repressed demand of specialized healthcare services. The context analysis revealed accentuated intermunicipal inequities. The synthetic index allowed municipalities to be classified in four relatively homogeneous groups regarding living and health conditions. Municipalities located in Vale do Ribeira obtained the worse outcomes for the Living Conditions and Health Situation Synthetic Index, as well as the higher repressed demand for specialized healthcare services. The geographical distance from the capital showed to contribute to worse living and health conditions and greater difficulties in access to healthcare services.

  15. Distribution of Platinum group elements in road dust in Beijing metropolitan area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; ZHU Ruo-hua; SHI Yan-zhi

    2007-01-01

    Dust samples collected from the Beijing metropolitan area (China) were evaluated to determine the distribution and the concentration of platinum group elements (PGEs). The dust particles that were smaller than 100 mesh size fraction (150 μm) were analyzed after aqua regia digestion. Concentrations[RL2] of Pt, Rh, and Pd were found to be between 3.96 and 356.3 ng/g, 2.76 and 97.11 ng/g, and 0.1 and 124.9 ng/g, respectively, in the urban areas of Beijing, whereas for the background samples collected from the suburbs of Beijing, the concentration of Pt, Pd, and Rh were very low and ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 ng/g, 0.5 to 1.4 ng/g, and 0.8 to 2.2 ng/g, respectively. The[RL3] distributions of PGEs in road dust were an accurate reflection of the levels of pollution and were found to match with the local traffic conditions. A strong positive correlation was established among all the elements found in road dust. This suggests that emissions of abraded fragments from vehicle exhausts may be the source of the high concentration of Pt, Rh, and Pd in road dust along the main roads of Beijing.

  16. Hydrothermal models of the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia: implications for geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver; Sheldon, Heather A.; Reid, Lynn B.; Corbel, Soazig

    2013-05-01

    Hydrothermal simulations are used to provide insight into the subsurface thermal regime of the Perth metropolitan area (PMA) in Western Australia. High average permeabilities and estimated fluid flow rates in shallow aquifers of the PMA suggest that advection and convection may occur in these aquifers. These processes are simulated, using a new geological model of the PMA to constrain the geometry of aquifers, aquitards and faults. The results show that advection has a strong influence on subsurface temperature, especially in the north of the PMA, where aquifer recharge creates an area of anomalously low temperature. Convection may be important, depending on the permeability of the Yarragadee Aquifer. If convection occurs, it creates thermal highs and lows with a spacing of approximately 5 km. Some of these thermal anomalies migrate over geological time due to coupling between advection and convection, but they are stationary on human timescales. Fault permeability influences the pattern of convection. Advection and convection cause variations in the geothermal gradient which cannot be predicted by conductive models; therefore, these processes should be considered in any model that is used for assessment of geothermal resources in the PMA.

  17. Spatial Patterns and Temporal Variability of Drought in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Areas in China

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    Wanyuan Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought identification and assessment are essential for regional water resources management. In this paper, the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought were evaluated based on monthly precipitation data from 33 synoptic stations during the period of 1960–2010. The percent of normal precipitation was applied to illustrate the driest years in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan areas (BTHMA (1965, 1997, and 2002. The modified Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI was applied to capture the drought patterns and to estimate the drought severity at 33 meteorological stations. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (AHCA and principal component analysis (PCA were used to identify three different drought subregions R1, R2, and R3 based on the monthly precipitation values in BTHMA, which is located in southeast, north, and south of BTHMA, respectively. The year 1965 was the driest and 1964 was the wettest during the observed period. The characteristics of drought were analyzed in terms of the temporal evolution of the RDI-12 values and the frequency of drought for the three identified regions. The percentage of years characterized by drought was 13.73% for R1, 16.50% for R2, and 15.53% for R3. 66.91% of drought belongs to the near normal drought category. The obtained results can aid to improve water resources management in the area.

  18. Morlet Wavelet Analysis of ML >= 3 Earthquakes in the Taipei Metropolitan Area

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    Kou-Cheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ML >= 3 earthquakes (ML = local magnitude that occurred in the Taipei Metropolitan Area (TMA from 1973 - 2013 are selected to study the dominant seismicity period of this area. The epicentral distribution and temporal sequences of earthquake magnitudes are simply described. These earthquakes can be divided into two groups: one for events shallower than 40 km and one for events deeper than 60 km. Shallow earthquakes are located mainly in the 0 - 10 km depth range north of 25.1°N,25.1°N, and down to 35 km for those south of 25.1°N.25.1°N. Deep events are located in the subduction zone, with a dip angle of about 70°.70°. The Morlet wavelet technique is applied to analyze the dominant periods of temporal variations in numbers of monthly earthquakes in the shallow and deep ranges for three magnitude ranges, i.e., ML >= 3, 4, and 5. The results show that for shallow earthquakes the dominant periods are 15.4, 30.8, 66.1, and 132.2 months when ML >= 3 and 30.8 months when ML >= 4; while for deep earthquakes, the dominant periods are 16.5 and 141.7 months when ML >= 3 and 141.7 months when ML >= 4. The dominant period cannot be obtained for both shallow and deep ML >= 5 earthquakes.

  19. Urban Dynamism within the Vienna-Bratislava Metropolitan Area: Improving Regional Competitiveness and the Constructed Regional Advantage Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danes Brzica

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the Bratislava metropolitan area (BMA and its strategic positioning within the broader cross-border metropolitan area (VBMA. It provides a review of the internal/external urban dynamism of bma and other processes ongoing within VBMA. We introduce the constructed regional advantage (CRA concept and indicate factors which contribute to the higher socio-economic dynamics of Bratislava and VBMA. Our focus is on two inter-related areas: industrial sector development and urban dynamics. The idea is that only a sufficient level of urban dynamics allows VBMA to generate an adequate complexity of activities, which can promote regional competitiveness. The CRA concept is used here for better understanding of existing developmental factors in territorial cooperation. It allows one to look at various knowledge bases existing in vbma and to show that regional similarities/ complementarities can contribute to dynamic changes within this area.

  20. Racial disparities in travel time to radiotherapy facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipins, Lucy A; Graham, Shannon; Young, Randall; Lewis, Brian; Flanagan, Barry

    2013-07-01

    Low-income women with breast cancer who rely on public transportation may have difficulty in completing recommended radiation therapy due to inadequate access to radiation facilities. Using a geographic information system (GIS) and network analysis we quantified spatial accessibility to radiation treatment facilities in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. We built a transportation network model that included all bus and rail routes and stops, system transfers and walk and wait times experienced by public transportation system travelers. We also built a private transportation network to model travel times by automobile. We calculated travel times to radiation therapy facilities via public and private transportation from a population-weighted center of each census tract located within the study area. We broadly grouped the tracts by low, medium and high household access to a private vehicle and by race. Facility service areas were created using the network model to map the extent of areal coverage at specified travel times (30, 45 and 60 min) for both public and private modes of transportation. The median public transportation travel time to the nearest radiotherapy facility was 56 min vs. approximately 8 min by private vehicle. We found that majority black census tracts had longer public transportation travel times than white tracts across all categories of vehicle access and that 39% of women in the study area had longer than 1 h of public transportation travel time to the nearest facility. In addition, service area analyses identified locations where the travel time barriers are the greatest. Spatial inaccessibility, especially for women who must use public transportation, is one of the barriers they face in receiving optimal treatment.

  1. Landslides in West Coast metropolitan areas: The role of extreme weather events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Biasutti

    2016-12-01

    That a news-based catalog of landslides is accurate enough to allow the identification of different landslide/rainfall relationships in the major urban areas along the US West Coast suggests that this technology can potentially be used for other English-language cities and could become an even more powerful tool if expanded to other languages and non-traditional news sources, such as social media.

  2. The characteristics of agricultural practices in Bang Kachao area, the Bangkok metropolitan fringe

    OpenAIRE

    Khaokhrueamuang, Amnaj

    2014-01-01

    Bang Kachao area, a conserved green zone in the southern part of Bangkok, has been recently well-known asone of the tourist destinations for rural tourism at a short distance to the city, which are mostly based on thetourism resources generated from agriculture. The present study, therefore, discusses agritourism that shouldbe mainly facilitated in four agricultural systems: traditional mixed orchards, monoculture, integratedfarming, and agroforestry. These systems have applied “sufficiency e...

  3. A complex systems approach to evaluate HIV prevention in metropolitan areas: preliminary implications for combination intervention strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon D L Marshall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV transmission among injecting and non-injecting drug users (IDU, NIDU is a significant public health problem. Continuing propagation in endemic settings and emerging regional outbreaks have indicated the need for comprehensive and coordinated HIV prevention. We describe the development of a conceptual framework and calibration of an agent-based model (ABM to examine how combinations of interventions may reduce and potentially eliminate HIV transmission among drug-using populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A multidisciplinary team of researchers from epidemiology, sociology, geography, and mathematics developed a conceptual framework based on prior ethnographic and epidemiologic research. An ABM was constructed and calibrated through an iterative design and verification process. In the model, "agents" represent IDU, NIDU, and non-drug users who interact with each other and within risk networks, engaging in sexual and, for IDUs, injection-related risk behavior over time. Agents also interact with simulated HIV prevention interventions (e.g., syringe exchange programs, substance abuse treatment, HIV testing and initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART in a stochastic manner. The model was constructed to represent the New York metropolitan statistical area (MSA population, and calibrated by comparing output trajectories for various outcomes (e.g., IDU/NIDU prevalence, HIV prevalence and incidence against previously validated MSA-level data. The model closely approximated HIV trajectories in IDU and NIDU observed in New York City between 1992 and 2002, including a linear decrease in HIV prevalence among IDUs. Exploratory results are consistent with empirical studies demonstrating that the effectiveness of a combination of interventions, including syringe exchange expansion and ART provision, dramatically reduced HIV prevalence among IDUs during this time period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Complex systems models of adaptive HIV

  4. Evaluation of radon activity in soil gas at Curitiba - metropolitan area and coastal region of Parana, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Janine N.; Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson; Schwarzbach, Vinicius; Schlottag, Thalyta C., E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: flavia_delclaro@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the results of Rn-222 and Rn-220 measurements in soil gas at the city of Curitiba, Metropolitan Area and Parana Coastal Region developed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of Federal University of Technology, Parana (UTFPR). The survey was performed using the AlphaGUARD instant radon detector (SAPHYMO) associated with gas probe, filter vessels and air pump (AlphaPUMP) following the recommendation of User Manual for soil gas measurements and practice protocols developed by CDTN. Each test consisted of three main steps: background evaluation, total activity measurement of Rn-222 and Rn-220 isotopes in soil gas and static activity measurements (with disconnected AlphaPUMP) of soil gas accumulated within the cavity of AlphaGUARD ionization chamber. Specific activity levels of Rn-222 and Rn-220 were obtained by theoretical decay curves fitting to the set of experimental data using scientific graphing and data analysis software Origin 6.1. Obtained Rn-222 concentrations in soil gas varied from 26.0 ± 8.2 kBq/m³ to 38.7 ± 7.7 kBq/m³ and the average values of Rn-220 were found in a range of 18.8 ± 7.4 kBq/m³ and 142±67 kBq/m³. It has to be noted that found activity of Rn-222 isotope in soil gas of studied locations of Parana is below 50 kBq/m³, which is the maximum radon activity level established by some European countries for classification of high-risk soil. Despite the high levels of Rn-220 activity in soil gas, this does not represent the health risk for the population since the half-life of Rn-220 is short (54.5 seconds). (author)

  5. Enviro-HIRLAM in Studies of Urban and Aerosol Impacts on Metropolitan Areas: Science-Education Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mazeikis, Adomas; Gonzalez-Aparicio, Iratxe; Ivanov, Sergey; Palamarchuk, Julia

    2014-05-01

    To attract more perspective young scientists (and especially, MSc and PhD students) for advanced research and development of complex and modern modelling systems, a specific approach is required. It should allow within a short period of time to evaluate personal background levels, skills, capabilities, etc. To learn more about new potential science-oriented developers of the models, it is often not enough to look into the personal resume. Thus, a special event such as Young Scientist Summer School (YSSS) can be organized, where young researchers could have an opportunity to attend not only relevant lectures, but also participate in practical exercises allowing to solidify lecture materials. Here, the practical exercises are presented as independent small-scale (having duration of up to a week) research projects or studies oriented on specific topics of YSSS. Developed approach was tested and realized during 2008 and 2011 YSSS events held and organized in Zelenogorsk, Russia (by NetFAM et al.; http://netfam.fmi.fi/YSSS08) and Odessa, Ukraine (by MUSCATEN et al.; http://atmos.physic.ut.ee/~muscaten/YSSS/1info.html), respectively. It has been refined for the new YSSS (Jul 2014) to be organized by the COST Action EuMetChem. The main focus of all these YSSSs was/is on the integrated modelling of meteorological and chemical transport processes and impact of chemical weather on numerical weather prediction and climate modelling. During previous YSSSs some of such projects - "URBAN: The Influence of Metropolitan Areas on Meteorology", "AEROSOL: The Impact of Aerosols Effects on Meteorology", and "COASTAL: The Coastal & Cities Effects on Meteorology" - were focused on evaluation of influence of metropolitan areas on formation of meteorological and chemical fields above urban areas (such as Paris, France; Copenhagen, Denmark, and Bilbao, Spain) and surroundings. The Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (Enviro-HIRLAM) was used and modifications were made taking

  6. Ozone weekend effects in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei metropolitan area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The ozone weekend effect (OWE was first investigated in the metropolitan area of Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH, China, using in situ measurements from the Atmospheric Environment Monitoring Network from July 2009 to August 2011. The results indicate that there is an obvious weekly periodical variation in the surface ozone concentration based on 24 h averaged value. There is a lower ozone concentration from Wednesday to Friday (weekday and a higher concentration from Saturday to Monday (weekend over the entire study area. NOx also displays weekly cycle, with the maximum level occurring on weekdays and the minimum level on weekends, especially later on Sunday night and early Monday morning. This pattern may be responsible for the higher concentration of ozone on weekends. Additionally, the vertical variations in O3 and NOx from the 8 m 47 m, 120 m and 280 m observation platforms on the 325 m Beijing meteorological tower displayed obvious weekly cycles that corresponded to the surface results. A smaller decrease in VOCs (a proxy for CO and much lower NOx concentrations on the weekend may lead to higher VOC/NOx ratio, which can enhance the ozone production efficiency in VOC-regime areas. Additionally, a clear weekly cycle in the fine aerosol concentration was observed, with maximum values occurring on weekdays and minimum values occurring on weekends. Higher concentrations of aerosol on weekdays can reduce the UV radiation flux by absorption or scattering, which leads to a decrease in the ozone production efficiency. A significant weekly cycle in UV radiation, in consistent with the aerosol concentration, was discovered at the BJT site, validating the assumption. A comprehensive understanding of the ozone weekend effect in the BTH area can provide deep insights into controlling photochemical pollution.

  7. Water-quality data for Arvada Reservoir, Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, L.J.; Gaggiani, N.G.

    1986-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological water quality data were collected and compiled for five sites in Arvada Reservoir, one site in Ralston Creek, and two sites in Croke Canal, in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado. The purpose of the data collection was to determine the water quality of Arvada Reservoir, evaluate the effect of source waters on the reservoir , and determine the trophic state of the reservoir. Data collected include reservoir profile measurements with depth and inflow measurements of water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Secchi disk depth measurements also are reported. In addition, water samples were analyzed periodically for concentrations of major chemical constituents, nutrients, trace elements, and selected radiochemicals; for densities and relative abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton; and for concentrations of chlorophyll alpha. Results of algal growth potential determinations are included. This report describes sampling site locations and methods of data collection and analyses and presents qualitative and quantitative results of water quality data collected during the study. Sampling began during June 1983 and continued through September 1985. (USGS)

  8. Trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, nitrates, and other chemicals in well water in the Fresno-Clovis Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, H

    1997-01-01

    In this study, the author examined the spatial and temporal distribution of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, nitrate, and several other organic and inorganic chemicals in large community wells in the Fresno-Clovis Metropolitan Area and estimated the lifetime cancer risk associated with exposure to tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene. By 1992-1993, investigators found the industrial solvent tetrachloroethylene in 34 wells and found trichloroethylene in 16 wells. All wells had detectable levels of nitrate. In addition, investigators found radon, arsenic, cadmium, iron, manganese, trihalomethanes, and several other volatile organic chemicals in the wells, but only radon and arsenic posed a significant health risk. In 1995, 16 wells were closed because chemicals were found in them. Twenty-six of 248 (10.5%) active wells and 24 of 43 (55.8%) closed wells contained multiple contaminants, excluding nitrate. Between 1988 and 1993, concentrations of trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and nitrates increased in selected wells. Daily, monthly, and bimonthly variations in the concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and nitrate were often considerable. Granulated activated carbon filtration reduced trichloroethylene levels in well water by 91%-95%, and the author examined its usefulness as a remedial measure. Estimated lifetime cancer risks for tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were 1 excess cancer death per 9.5 million people and 1 excess death per 250 million, respectively. The author also included recommendations for the conduct of further epidemiological and environmental studies.

  9. Results of simultaneous radon and thoron measurements in 33 metropolitan areas of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Bergman, Lauren; Falcomer, Renato; Whyte, Jeff

    2015-02-01

    Radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. (222)Rn (radon gas) and (220)Rn (thoron gas) are the most common isotopes of radon. In order to assess thoron contribution to indoor radon and thoron exposure, a survey of residential radon and thoron concentrations was initiated in 2012 with ∼4000 homes in the 33 census metropolitan areas of Canada. The survey confirmed that indoor radon and thoron concentrations are not correlated and that thoron concentrations cannot be predicted from widely available radon information. The results showed that thoron contribution to the radiation dose varied from 0.5 to 6% geographically. The study indicated that, on average, thoron contributes ∼3% of the radiation dose due to indoor radon and thoron exposure in Canada. Even though the estimated average thoron concentration of 9 Bq m(-3) (population weighted) in Canada is low, the average radon concentration of 96 Bq m(-3) (population weighted) is more than double the worldwide average indoor radon concentration. It is clear that continued efforts are needed to further reduce the exposure and effectively reduce the number of lung cancers caused by radon.

  10. Income, social stratification, class, and private health insurance: a study of the Baltimore metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, C; Parsons, P E

    1996-01-01

    Most studies of inequalities and access to health care have used income as the sole indicator of social stratification. Despite the significance of social theory in health insurance research, there are no empirical studies comparing the ability of different models of social stratification to predict health insurance coverage. The aim of this study is to provide a comparative analysis using a variety of theory-driven indicators of social stratification and assess the relative strength of the association between these indicators and private health insurance. Data were collected in a 1993 telephone interview of a random digit dialing sample of the white population in the Baltimore Metropolitan Statistical Area. Indicators of social stratification included employment status, full-time work, education, occupation, industry, household income, firm size, and three types of assets: ownership, organizational, and skill/credential. The association between social stratification and private health insurance was strongest for those having higher household incomes, having attained at least a bachelor's degree, and working in a firm with more than 50 employees, followed by being an owner or manager, and by being employed. The addition of education and firm size improved the prediction of the household income model. The authors conclude that studies of inequalities in health insurance coverage can benefit from the inclusion of theory-driven indicators of social stratification such as human capital, labor market segmentation, and control over productive assets.

  11. Diversity of Bacterial Communities of Fitness Center Surfaces in a U.S. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public fitness centers and exercise facilities have been implicated as possible sources for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial community residing on the surfaces in these indoor environments is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the overall bacterial ecology of selected fitness centers in a metropolitan area (Memphis, TN, USA utilizing culture-independent pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from the skin-contact surfaces (e.g., exercise instruments, floor mats, handrails, etc. within fitness centers. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacter and Actinobacteria, with a total of 17 bacterial families and 25 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human and environmental origin (including, air, dust, soil, and water. Additionally, we found the presence of some pathogenic or potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Micrococcus. Staphylococcus was found to be the most prevalent genus. Presence of viable forms of these pathogens elevates risk of exposure of any susceptible individuals. Several factors (including personal hygiene, surface cleaning and disinfection schedules of the facilities may be the reasons for the rich bacterial diversity found in this study. The current finding underscores the need to increase public awareness on the importance of personal hygiene and sanitation for public gym users.

  12. [Bullying in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico: prevalence and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega López, María Guadalupe; González Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Valle Barbosa, María Ana; Flores Villavicencio, María Elena; Vega López, Agustín

    2013-08-01

    This paper seeks to determine the prevalence of victims of school bullying among youth enrolled in public secondary schools in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico and to identify the factors associated with being a victim of bullying in the period 2009-2011. An analytic cross-sectional study was carried out. A multistage probability sampling was designed for the public secondary schools, in which 1,706 students between 11 and 16 years old were studied. A questionnare with four sections was applied in order to identify victims of bullying. A logistic regression model was then used to measure the association between the factors analyzed and being a victim of bullying. The prevalence of school bullying was 17.6% (95% CI 15.8; 19.5). Personal factors, such as the feeling of not being accepted by peers or not spending much time with friends, were the factors with the strongest statistically significant association with being a victim of bullying.

  13. A helminthological survey of wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the metropolitan area of Copenhagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, A L; Ockens, N W; Kapel, C M; Monrad, J

    1996-09-01

    Sixty-eight red foxes were collected from the metropolitan area of Copenhagen and examined for helminth infections. Standard faecal flotations for intestinal parasites gave the following results: Strongyle eggs (75.0%), Capillaria eggs (36.8%), Toxocara eggs (23.5%), Taenia eggs (1.5%), and coccidia oocysts (2.9%). Gastrointestinal helminths were collected from 21 of the 68 foxes with the following specimens found: Uncinaria stenocephala (85.7%), Toxocara canis (81.0%), Taenia spp. (38.1%), Mesocestoides lineatus (23.8%) and Polymorphus spp. (9.5%). Faeces of 39 foxes were examined by the Baermann method for larvae of cardiopulmonary worms with 20 foxes (51.3%) being infected. Fourteen foxes (35.9%) were infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum, 11 (28.2%) were infected with Crenosoma vulpis, and 5 foxes (12.8%) were infected with both species. Muscle digestion of diaphragms from the 68 foxes indicated that none harboured larvae of Trichinella spiralis.

  14. Competitive advantages of SMEs. The case of the Lodz Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Dorozynski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs play a major role in economic growth in developed and developing countries. For example, in the European Union, SMEs contribute to over 99% of all enterprises and more than 100 million jobs, representing 67% of private sector employment. In the Lodz Metropolitan Area (LMA SMEs play a decisive role in economic development and their economic condition translates into the condition of the sub-region. Hence, the main objective of the paper is the assessment of SMEs operations in the LMA by the identification of development factors and barriers to economic activity. The paper uses the results of a direct study of the group of 171 small and medium sized enterprises conducted in 2012. We applied various statistical tools useful in processing data from questionnaires, e.g. cross-sectional analysis, averages, variation coefficients, Cramer’s V, and internal consistency coefficient Cronbach’s alpha. The paper goes on to discuss the competitiveness of goods and services produced by companies included in the study by making reference to theories of sources of competitive advantage. Its important part will be devoted to the assessment of SMEs operating conditions taking account of 30 factors that facilitate or hamper business activity. The analysis will also cover enterprises’ opinions on selling opportunities in a medium-term perspective. These opinions will be presented in various cross-sectional studies.

  15. Dreptul la oraș – generația a IV-a de drepturi ale omului metropolitan (The Right to city – the IVth generation of rights for the metropolitan man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Virginia ANTONESCU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The right to city begins to be recently consecrated by academic research, presenting several links with the “sustainable development” paradigm. UN documents see our contemporary world as an “urban global world”, confronted with issues as chronic poverty, lack of access to basic urban services, insufficient democratic participation to main decisions regarding the urban management. This new right can be regarded as derived from solidarity rights as the right to a healthy, clean, durable environment, as well as the right to continuous improvement of life quality, but also, it can be seen as a special, distinct kind of human right. Right to have clean, sustainable cities can be recognized, at national, regional, international levels, to individuals, to local groups (as the metropolitan inhabitants of one city or to nations (having at their disposal a collective new right to own prosperous, sustainable cities, as effect of their right to economic development. We consider the right to city as being a dynamic right, in full process of exploration and consecration within academic research, more than necessary for understanding an urban globalized world characterized by proliferation of metropolises, towns, cities, megalopolises that demand new juridical approaches.

  16. Air pollution attributable postneonatal infant mortality in U.S. metropolitan areas: a risk assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzyzanowski Michal

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of outdoor air pollution on infant mortality has not been quantified. Methods Based on exposure-response functions from a U.S. cohort study, we assessed the attributable risk of postneonatal infant mortality in 23 U.S. metropolitan areas related to particulate matter 10 as a surrogate of total air pollution. Results The estimated proportion of all cause mortality, sudden infant death syndrome (normal birth weight infants only and respiratory disease mortality (normal birth weight attributable to PM10 above a chosen reference value of 12.0 μg/m3 PM10 was 6% (95% confidence interval 3–11%, 16% (95% confidence interval 9–23% and 24% (95% confidence interval 7–44%, respectively. The expected number of infant deaths per year in the selected areas was 106 (95% confidence interval 53–185, 79 (95% confidence interval 46–111 and 15 (95% confidence interval 5–27, respectively. Approximately 75% of cases were from areas where the current levels are at or below the new U.S. PM2.5 standard of 15 μg/m3 (equivalent to 25 μg/m3 PM10. In a country where infant mortality rates and air pollution levels are relatively low, ambient air pollution as measured by particulate matter contributes to a substantial fraction of infant death, especially for those due to sudden infant death syndrome and respiratory disease. Even if all counties would comply to the new PM2.5 standard, the majority of the estimated burden would remain. Conclusion Given the inherent limitations of risk assessments, further studies are needed to support and quantify the relationship between infant mortality and air pollution.

  17. Ozone weekend effects in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. H.; Hu, B.; Ji, D. S.; Liu, Z. R.; Tang, G. Q.; Xin, J. Y.; Zhang, H. X.; Song, T.; Wang, L. L.; Gao, W. K.; Wang, X. K.; Wang, Y. S.

    2014-03-01

    The ozone weekend effect (OWE) was first investigated in the metropolitan area of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), China, using in situ measurements from the Atmospheric Environment Monitoring Network from July 2009 to August 2011. The results indicate that there is an obvious weekly periodical variation in the surface ozone concentration. There is a lower ozone concentration from Wednesday to Friday (weekday) and a higher concentration from Saturday to Monday (weekend) at all the locations of the study. NOx also displays a weekly cycle, with the maximum level occurring on weekdays and the minimum level on weekends, especially later on Sunday night and early Monday morning. This pattern may be responsible for the higher concentration of ozone on weekends. Additionally, the vertical variations in O3 and NOx from the 8 m, 47 m, 120 m and 280 m observation platforms on the 325 m Beijing meteorological tower displayed obvious weekly cycles that corresponded to the surface results. A smaller decrease in volatile organic compounds (VOCs; using CO as a proxy) and much lower NOx concentrations on the weekend may lead to higher VOC / NOx ratio, which can enhance the ozone production efficiency in VOC-limited regime areas. Additionally, a clear weekly cycle in the fine aerosol concentration was observed, with maximum values occurring on weekdays and minimum values occurring on weekends. Higher concentrations of aerosol on weekdays can reduce the UV radiation flux by scattering or absorbing, which leads to a decrease in the ozone production efficiency. A significant weekly cycle in UV radiation, consistent with the aerosol concentration, was discovered at the Beijing meteorological tower site (BJT), validating the assumption. A comprehensive understanding of the ozone weekend effect in the BTH area can provide deep insights into controlling photochemical pollution.

  18. Smart City Surveillance Through Low-Cost Fiber Sensors in Metropolitan Optical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourmpos, Michail; Argyris, Apostolos; Syvridis, Dimitris

    2014-05-01

    A continuously growing number of municipalities has optical fiber networks supporting communications at their disposal. These fiber installations can also be utilized to convey low data optical signals from a large number of deployed sensing elements, usually positioned in critical infrastructure locations, providing a variety of useful information. Such information can be used in the context of a "smart city" to provide citizens with higher-level services or even to proactively ensure public security and safety. This work demonstrates a fiber sensing network based on low-cost fiber Bragg grating sensors that are able to appropriately oversee diverse monitoring parameters.

  19. Analysis of the seasonal and inter-annual variations, and long-term trends of ozone in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassmany Hernández Paniagua, Iván; Clemitshaw, Kevin C.; Mendoza, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Since 1993, high-precision and high-frequency measurements of ambient O3 have been recorded at 5 sites within the metropolitan area of Monterrey, the third largest city in Mexico. O3was measured by the Integral Environmental Monitoring System of the Nuevo Leon State Government using commercially available, conventional UV photometry instrumentation (precision better than ±1 ppb). The datasets exhibit variations on differing time-scales of minutes to hours, with evidence of seasonal cycles and inter-annual variability. The O3 diurnal cycles vary with length of daylight, which influences its formation and loss via photochemistry. No apparent influence is observed in the amplitudes of O3 diurnal cycles recorded during weekdays with higher emissions from fossil fuel combustion than at weekends, although larger amplitudes occur at sites with polluted air from industrial areas. Seasonal cycles are driven by the variation in solar radiation and changes in emissions of primary precursors, VOCs and NOX. Maximum O3 mixing ratios were recorded in spring, and minimum values in winter, with a secondary trough during summer due to the advection of clean air masses from the Gulf of Mexico. The largest spring maxima are recorded downwind of an industrial area likely due photochemical processing of VOCs and NOx, with the lowest recorded in a highly populated area due to reaction of O3 and NO. At all sites, decreasing seasonal amplitudes were observed during 1993-1998, followed by persistent increases from 1998 to 2014. Wind sector analyses were carried out by splitting the wind direction into 8 categories (45°). At all sites, the highest O3 mixing ratios were recorded from the E and SE sectors, with lowest values recorded in air masses from the W and NW. Wind sector analysis of primary precursors (such as VOCs, CO, NOX) reveal that sources are dominated by emissions from industrial regions in Monterrey and surrounding areas. The largest annual growth rates for the E and SE

  20. The influence of coyotes on an urban Canada goose population in the Chicago metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Justin L.; /Ohio State U.

    2007-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have become common in many urban areas, often creating nuisance problems for human residents. The presence of urban geese has raised concerns about the spread of disease, increased erosion, excessive noise, eutrophication of waterways, and general nuisance problems. Goose populations have grown due to an increase in urbanization resulting in an abundance of high quality food (urban grass) and suitable nesting sites, as well as a decrease in some predators. I monitored nest predation in the Chicago suburbs during the 2004 and 2005 nesting seasons using 3 nest monitoring techniques to identify predators: video cameras, plasticine eggs, and sign from nest using a classification tree analysis. Of 58 nests monitored in 2004 and 286 in 2005, only raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) were identified as nest predators. Raccoons were responsible for 22-25% of depredated nests, but were rarely capable of depredating nests that were actively defended by a goose. Coyotes were responsible for 75-78% of all Canada goose nest depredation and were documented killing one adult goose and feeding on several others. The coyote is a top-level predator that had increased in many metropolitan areas in recent years. To determine if coyotes were actively hunting geese or eggs during the nesting season, I analyzed coyote habitat selection between nesting and pre-nesting or post-nesting seasons. Coyote home ranges (95% Minimum Convex Polygon) were calculated for 19 coyotes to examine third order habitat selection related to goose nest abundance. A 100 m buffer (buffer habitat) was created and centered on each waterway edge and contained 90% of all nests. Coyotes showed selection for habitats during all seasons. Buffer habitat was the top ranked habitat in both pre-nesting and nesting seasons, but dropped to third ranked in post-nesting season. Habitat selection across seasons was compared using a repeated measures MANOVA. Habitat selection

  1. Revitalización de subcentros metropolitanos. Buenos Aires entre la ciudad dispersa y la ciudad compacta / Revitalization of metropolitan subcentres. Buenos Aires between the dispersed city and the compact city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccolella, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Las grandes ciudades latinoamericanas se debaten actualmente entre dos procesos de transformación socio-territorial convergentes: la densificación y verticalización de las áreas centrales, y la expansión cada vez más difusa y fragmentada de los suburbios. Esta dicotomía entre ciudad compacta y ciudad dispersa parece mostrar procesos singulares en el caso de la región metropolitana de Buenos Aires. A partir de los años dos mil, se han ralentizado los nuevos lanzamientos de urbanizaciones cerradas y, paralelamente, han comenzado a manifestarse algunos casos de revitalización de antiguas subcentralidades del sur de la metrópolis, que habían entrado en una fase de estancamiento y deterioro desde mediados de los años setenta, y actualmente experimentan una aceleración de la producción de vivienda multifamiliar de calidad. Este trabajo explora y muestra algunas experiencias concretas de esta tendencia, con la hipótesis que, al menos en Buenos Aires, los procesos de transformación y reestructuración metrolitana muestran complejidades y diversidades según los contextos temporales y territoriales que se analicen. The large Latin American cities are currently experiencing two convergent socio-territoria transformation processes: the densification and verticalization of central areas, and the increasingly diffuse and fragmented suburban expansion. This dichotomy between the compact city and the dispersed city seems to show unique features in the case of the metropolitan region of Buenos Aires. After the 2000s, the expansion of gated communities has slowed down and at the same time some old subcentralities in the South of the metropolis have begun to revitalize. Since the mid-1970s, they had entered a phase of stagnation and deterioration, and at present the production of quality multifamily housing is rapidly growing. This paper reflects on this trend and show some concrete experiences. Our hypothesis is that in Buenos Aires the process

  2. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Ryu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban–rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3 episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ. Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the

  3. Dynamics of thermal inversions on Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, R.; Tereshchenko, I.; Perez, D. A.; Lizarraga, S. J.; Thermal Inversions, Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara

    2013-05-01

    This work attempts an analysis of the dynamics of the meteorological variables in the lower troposphere in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara (ZMG), Jalisco, Mexico. It was used the radiosonde database 2000-2012, and a classification of synoptic situations typical for different inversions occurring. Preliminary results indicate that surface temperature inversions dominate the climate of the study area, mainly recorded two times during the year. An investment without matching the rainy season and covers the months of June to September where investments are recorded at a frequency below 41%. And a station with investments in the type of radiation surface which covers the months of January to May and November to December, with a frequency above 86% in October as month leaving transition with a frequency of 64%. As surface temperature inversions which most affect human activity in the ZMG by not allowing the dispersion of pollutants, the results show that these investments have a thickness ranging from 50 to 250 meters high, covering this range for 85% of the investments registered with respect to the temperature difference between the base and the apex of the observed reversal of between 1°C to 12°C, where the average is 5°C and 7 °C. While this shows that during most of the year there are temperature inversions in the ZMG, this does not mean that every day you will have concentration of pollutants above the norm, this is due to the influence of synoptic scale phenomena mainly to a combination of large anticyclonic systems of the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic, affecting mostly Mexico during the months of December to February, alternating with waves of Western middle latitudes.

  4. Spatial variation in particle number size distributions in a large metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Mejía

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Air quality studies have indicated that particle number size distribution (NSD is unevenly spread in urban air. To date, these studies have focussed on differences in concentration levels between sampling locations rather than differences in the underlying geometries of the distributions. As a result, the existing information on the spatial variation of the NSD in urban areas remains incomplete. To investigate this variation in a large metropolitan area in the southern hemisphere, NSD data collected at nine different locations during different campaigns of varying duration were compared using statistical methods. The spectra were analysed in terms of their modal structures (the graphical representation of the number size distribution function, cumulative distribution and number median diameter (NMD. The study found that with the exception of one site all distributions were bimodal or suggestive of bimodality. In general, peak concentrations were below 30 nm and NMDs below 50 nm, except at a site dominated by diesel trucks, where it shifted to around 50 and 60 nm respectively. Ultrafine particles (UFPs contributed to 82–90% of the particle number, nanoparticles (<50 nm to around 60–70%, except at the diesel traffic site, where their contribution dropped to 50%. Statistical analyses found that the modal structures heterogeneously distributed throughout Brisbane whereas it was not always the case for the NMD. The discussion led to the following site classification: (1 urban sites dominated by petrol traffic, (2 urban sites affected by the proximity to the road and (3 an isolated site dominated by diesel traffic. Comparisons of weekday and weekend data indicated that, the distributions were not statistically different. The only exception occurred at one site, where there is a significant drop in the number of diesel buses on the weekend. The differences in sampling period between sites did not affect the results. The statistics instead suggested

  5. Water-resources-related information for the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District planning area, Wisconsin, 1970-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Morgan A.; Lutz, Michelle A.; ,

    2004-01-01

    The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) Corridor Study is a three-phase project designed to improve the understanding of water resources in the stream corridors of the MMSD planning area by initially compiling existing data and using the compiled information to develop 3-year baseline and long-term monitoring plans. This report is one of the products of Phase I of the Corridor Study.

  6. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition and source apportionment of the organic fraction in the metropolitan area of Paris

    OpenAIRE

    M. Crippa; P. F. DeCarlo; Slowik, J. G.; Mohr, C; M. F. Heringa; R. Chirico; POULAIN L.; F. Freutel; Sciare, J.; Cozic, J.; Marco, C. F.; M. Elsasser; Nicolas, J.B.; N. Marchand; Abidi, E.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a post-industrial megacity on local and regional air quality was assessed via a month-long field measurement campaign in the Paris metropolitan area during winter 2010. Here we present source apportionment results from three aerosol mass spectrometers and two aethalometers deployed at three measurement stations within the Paris region. Submicron aerosol composition is dominated by the organic fraction (30–36%) and nitrate (28–29%), with lower contributions from sulfate (14–16%),...

  7. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition and source apportionment of the organic fraction in the metropolitan area of Paris

    OpenAIRE

    M. Crippa; P. F. DeCarlo; Slowik, J. G.; Mohr, C; M. F. Heringa; R. Chirico; POULAIN L.; F. Freutel; Sciare, J.; Cozic, J.; C. F. Di Marco; M. Elsasser; N. José; N. Marchand; Abidi, E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of a post-industrial megacity on local and regional air quality was assessed via a month-long field measurement campaign in the Paris metropolitan area during winter 2010. Here we present source apportionment results from three aerosol mass spectrometers and two aethalometers deployed at three measurement stations within the Paris region. Submicron aerosol composition is dominated by the organic fraction (30–36%) and nitrate (28–29%), with lower contributions from sulfate (14–16%),...

  8. Determinants of blood-lead levels in children in Callao and Lima metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza Rocío

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine blood lead levels in urban populations of children (n=2 510 and women (n=874 in the early postpartum in certain districts of Lima and Callao, and to correlate those levels with particular exposures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between July 1998 and January 1999 cross sectional study was conducted. The study population was selected using three sampling strategies in the government operated school system and from public pediatric and maternity hospitals at Lima and Callao, Peru. Study personnel were trained to collect finger stick blood samples with a protocol that minimizes external lead contamination. Lead determinations in blood and environmental samples were performed at the study site using portable anodic striping voltamenters. To determine the simultaneous effects of different predictors on blood lead levels, multivariate regression models were used to estimate adjusted mean differences. RESULTS: The mean blood lead level in the children studied was 9.9 µg/dl ranging from I µg/dl to 64 µg/dl with 29% of the children displaying values greater than 10 µg/dl and 9.4% at levels greater than 20 µg/dl. Among the women, the mean was 3.5 µg/dl (SD=2.4 µg/dl, and 2.4% (n=21 displayed levels greater than 10 µg/dl. Important differences were observed between the sample locations, and the highest levels were documented in the port region near Callao. The mean level of blood lead in this group was 25.6 µg/dl (SD=4.6 µg/dl, while among the rest of the sample it was 7.1 µg/dl (SD=5.1 µg/dl. The presence of a mineral storage area signified a difference in exposure in excess of 13 µg/dl for children living near the port area in contrast to the other children who were not as close to such fixed sources of lead exposure. For the participants in Lima, the risk of showing levels above 10 µg/dl was associated with exposure to high vehicular traffic. CONCLUSIONS: In metropolitan Lima, we conclude that the mean blood lead levels of

  9. Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Prasertkulsak, Sirilak; Hamjinda, Nutta Sangnarin; Kootatep, Thammarat; Itonaga, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Only 3.4% of total water use in the Bangkok Metropolitan area is reused treated sewage. This study anticipates that further treated-sewage reuse in industrial sectors, commercial buildings and public parks, in addition to present in-plant and street cleaning purposes, would increase total water reuse to about 10%. New water reuse technologies using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and microfiltration (MF) as tertiary treatment were implemented to assess their potential for their application in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MBR was applied to the treatment of raw sewage in a central treatment plant of the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MF membrane was used for polishing the effluent of the treatment plant. The results show the quality of treated water from MBR and tertiary MF treatment could meet stringent water reuse quality standard in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and biological parameters. Constant permeate flux of the membrane was achieved over long-term operation, during which inorganic fouling was observed. This is due to the fact that incoming sewage contains a considerable amount of inorganic constituents contributed from storm water and street inlet in the combined sewerage systems. The total cost of the MBR for sewage treatment and production of reuse water is estimated to be about USD1.10/m3.

  10. Land-use Effect on Stream Organic Matter Composition in Two Metropolitan Areas in USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, S.; Kaushal, S.; Amon, R. M.; Brinkmeyer, R.

    2011-12-01

    Urbanization is a form of land-use change that is increasing in coastal watersheds and may affect the quantity and quality of organic carbon delivered to streams and coastal ocean. Here, we examine the changes in optical and isotopic characteristics of organic matter in streams (Gwynns Fall and Buffalo Bayou) draining Baltimore and Houston Metropolitan Areas (USA), relative to nearby less affected forested watersheds. A summer longitudinal sampling in Gwynns Fall along a rural-urban gradient showed increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fluorescent protein to humic ratio but a decrease in specific UV absorption (SUVA). Parallel Factor modeling shows dominance of terrestrial component of DOC, and the ratio of an unknown component to the component of humic substance was high in urban watersheds and it was positively correlated impervious surface cover (an index of urbanization). Incubation experiments with leaves and stream algae suggest origin of decayed leaf leachate of this component. Conversely, DOM in Buffalo Bayou showed higher intensity of protein-like fluorescence, and the intensity increased longitudinal along a rural-urban gradient but decreased from low-flows to a flooding event. The difference in fluorescent organic matter composition between the two streams probably reflected different management of wastewater in watersheds. Surface sediment collected at sites of sub-watersheds of Gwynns Fall showed changes in particle size, elemental and isotopic composition with land use. Sediment incubations showed that higher temperature (due to urban heat island effect) enhanced loss of labile organic matter and release of refractory organic matter into stream water. Release of reactive soluble phosphorus, loss of nitrogen and reduction of sulfate also occurred at high incubating temperatures, along with mineralization of sediment organic matter. Bed sediment collected along Buffalo Bayou displayed a longitudinal decrease in N-15, probably reflecting the

  11. Monitoring and behavior of unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, José Alexander; Landaverde, José; Landaverde, Reynaldo López; Tejnecký, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Field monitoring and laboratory results are presented for an unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic. The pyroclastic belongs to the latest plinian eruption of the Ilopango Caldera in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, and is constantly affected by intense erosion, collapse, slab failure, sand/silt/debris flowslide and debris avalanche during the rainy season or earthquakes. Being the flowslides more common but with smaller volume. During the research, preliminary results of rain threshold were obtained of flowslides, this was recorded with the TMS3 (a moisture sensor device using time domain transmission) installed in some slopes. TMS3 has been used before in biology, ecology and soil sciences, and for the first time was used for engineering geology in this research. This device uses electromagnetic waves to obtain moisture content of the soil and a calibration curve is necessary. With the behavior observed during this project is possible to conclude that not only climatic factors as rain quantity, temperature and evaporation are important into landslide susceptibility but also information of suction-moisture content, seepage, topography, weathering, ground deformation, vibrations, cracks, vegetation/roots and the presence of crust covering the surface are necessary to research in each site. Results of the field monitoring indicates that the presence of biological soil crusts a complex mosaic of soil, green algae, lichens, mosses, micro-fungi, cyanobacteria and other bacteria covering the slopes surface can protect somehow the steep slopes reducing the runoff process and mass wasting processes. The results obtained during the assessment will help explaining the mass wasting problems occurring in some pyroclastic soils and its possible use in mitigation works and early warning system.

  12. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and ``excess`` human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all ``non-external`` causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM{sub 15}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub 4}{sup =}, for 63{sup 4} locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  13. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess'' human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external'' causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO[sub 4][sup =], Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM[sub 15], PM[sub 2.5] and SO[sub 4][sup =], for 63[sup 4] locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  14. HIV-1 resistance to antiretroviral drugs in pregnant women from Buenos Aires metropolitan area

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    Inés Zapiola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the prevalence of antiretroviral resistance associated mutations in HIV-1 infected pregnant woman treated in Buenos Aires metropolitan area (period 2008-2014. A total of 136 women with viral load = 500 copies/ml were included: 77 (56.6% were treatment-naïve and 59 (43.4% were antiretroviral-experienced patients either with current (n: 24 or previous (n = 35 antiretroviral therapy. Genotypic baseline resistance was investigated in plasma of antiretroviral-naïve patients and antiretroviral-experienced patients. The resistance mutations were identified according to the lists of the World Health Organization and the International Antiviral Society, respectively. Frequencies of resistance associated mutations detected in 2008-2011 and 2012-2014 were compared. A total of 37 (27.2% women presented at least one resistance associated mutation: 25/94 (26.5% in 2008-2011 and 12/42 (28.5% in 2012-2014 (p > 0.05. Among naïves, 15 (19.5% had at least one mutation: 10/49 (20.4% in the period 2008-2011 and 5/28 (17.8% in 2012-2014 (p > 0.05. The resistance mutations detected in naïves were associated with non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, being K103N the most common mutation in both periods. In antiretroviral experienced patients, 22/59 (37.3% had at least one resistance mutation. This study demonstrates a high frequency of resistance associated mutations which remained stable in the period analyzed. These levels suggest an increased circulation of HIV-1 antiretroviral resistant strains in our setting compared to previous reports from Argentina

  15. URBAN SYSTEM FRACTAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE YANGTZE DELTA INTERLOCKING METROPOLITAN AREAS%长江三角洲都市连绵区城市体系的分形特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚正永; 张小林

    2009-01-01

    分形研究是现代理论地理的重要内容之一,分形维数是刻画城市体系结构的有效参数.为定量分析长江三角洲都市连绵区城市体系的分形特征,通过计算豪斯道夫维数分析了长江三角洲城市体系规模分布的分形特征,通过计算关联维数和集聚维数,从城市要素的空间相关性和城市随机集聚的向心性两方面,分析了长江三角洲都市连绵区城市体系空间结构的分形特征.测算结果表明:(1)城市体系规模结构符合位序-规模分布类型,但首位城市的垄断性还很强,处于由首位型分布向序列型分布转变的过程之中,中间位序的城市数量偏少,城市之间呈竞争发展态势;(2)城市体系空间结构呈现出均匀分布的特征,城市的空间关联性强,空间相互作用强度大.在上述结论的基础上对长江三角洲都市连绵区城市体系的优化发展提出了建议.%The Yangtze Delta Interlocking Metropolitan Areas is one of the largest city regions in the world, and the structure of its urban system has had a great change in recent years. Fractal study is one of the most important content in modern theoretic geography,and the urban system fractal study is a new way for the study of the city geography especially, fractal dimension is an effective parameter describing the structure of the urban system. This paper commenced with the application of the urban system fractal theory and tried to find the rule of the urban system of the Yangtze Delta Interlocking Metropolitan Areas. Based on the fractal theory,the paper analyzed the scale structure and spatial structure of urban system, and found out that the urban system has the fractal properties,so the fractal theory could fit to calculate and analyze the scale structure and spatial structure of urban system of the Yangtze Delta Interlocking Metropolitan Areas. According to the results of calculation and analysis, the paper drew the conclusions below: (1) Scale

  16. Spatial and Temporal Hot Spots of Aedes albopictus Abundance inside and outside a South European Metropolitan Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Manica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is a tropical invasive species which in the last decades spread worldwide, also colonizing temperate regions of Europe and US, where it has become a public health concern due to its ability to transmit exotic arboviruses, as well as severe nuisance problems due to its aggressive daytime outdoor biting behaviour. While several studies have been carried out in order to predict the potential limits of the species expansions based on eco-climatic parameters, few studies have so far focused on the specific effects of these variables in shaping its micro-geographic abundance and dynamics. The present study investigated eco-climatic factors affecting Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural sites in Rome (Italy, which was colonized in 1997 and is nowadays one of the most infested metropolitan areas in Southern Europe. To this aim, longitudinal adult monitoring was carried out along a 70 km-transect across and beyond the most urbanized and densely populated metropolitan area. Two fine scale spatiotemporal datasets (one with reference to a 20m circular buffer around sticky traps used to collect mosquitoes and the second to a 300m circular buffer within each sampling site were exploited to analyze the effect of climatic and socio-environmental variables on Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics along the transect. Results showed an association between highly anthropized habitats and high adult abundance both in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural areas, with "small green islands" corresponding to hot spots of abundance in the metropolitan areas only, and a bimodal seasonal dynamics with a second peak of abundance in autumn, due to heavy rains occurring in the preceding weeks in association with permissive temperatures. The results provide useful indications to prioritize public mosquito control measures in temperate urban areas where nuisance, human-mosquito contact and risk of local arbovirus transmission are

  17. Helicopter emergency medical services: a report on the current status in a metropolitan area of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Hoon; Moon, Sung-Woo; Lee, Sung-Woo; Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Cho, Han-Jin; Kim, Jung-Yun

    2011-06-01

    This report introduces and discusses the present state of the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the metropolitan area of South Korea. The data of patients transported by HEMS from April 2007 to June 2009 were provided by Seoul Metropolitan Fire and Disaster Management Department. The data of patients subsequently transported to Korea University Guro Hospital were analyzed. During the study period, 725 emergency rescue calls were dispatched and 703 patients were rescued, of which 562 patients were judged by an emergency medical technician to be in a nonemergent condition and were referred to ground emergency medical services and 141 patients were judged as having an emergent situation and were directly transported to a nearby hospital. The data of patients who were transported to Korea University Guro Hospital by HEMS were as follows. The mean age was 51.7±12.1 years; 75.6% were male patients; 28 patients (68.3%) were traumatically injured; the mean of the injury severity score was 13.5±14.7, and 13 patients (46.4%) had an injury severity score of more than 15. No procedures other than basic life support were performed by the emergency medical technicians during transport. The role of HEMS in South Korea is limited to transporting injured patients from locations that cannot be approached by ground emergency medical services. Even though HEMS is essential considering the local mountainous geography of Seoul, Korea, overutilization of HEMS is still suspected in the metropolitan area.

  18. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Metropolitan Statistical Areas 201309 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States and Puerto Rico. The map layer was created from data produced by the U.S. Census Bureau....

  19. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure.This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established.Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man’s activities may play a role in faulting as well.Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  20. Bacterial Composition of Biofilms Collected From Two Service Areas in a Metropolitan Drinking Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development and succession of bacteria were examined by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries generated from various biofilms within a metropolitan water distribution system. Biofilms were obtained from off-line devices using polycarbonate coupons from annular reactors incubated for ...

  1. Impacts of Tanneries on Quality of Groundwater in Pallavaram, Chennai Metropolitan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Ramesh,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective of determining the extent of groundwater pollution caused by tanning industries and solid waster dumpsite in Pallavaram area located south of Chennai (Madras, which is a town of number of small and large scale leather industries. About 22 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for the concentration of physio-chemical parameters and trace ions during September 2011 and January 2012. Ca-Mg-Cl and Na-Cl are the major water types in this area. It is inferred that, total hardness falls in hard to very hard category. The water quality index rated as poor to very poor quality except few samples. The study reveals that the concentration of major ions and chromium are exceeding the permissible limit. Groundwater is unsuitable for human consumption as it contains higher concentration of major ions and chromium. Tannery uses a large number of chemicals during the process of discharging toxic wastes into open drains and municipality solid waste dumpsite to the nearby land is the major reasons deterioration of water quality in this area. Contamination of groundwater causes water scarcity for domestic purpose of this study is to highlight the impact of tannery effluent on groundwater

  2. Study of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) collected in a Leishmania-endemic area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo M L; Gontijo, Célia M F; Falcão, Alda L; Andrade Filho, José D

    2010-11-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are distributed across nearly all faunal regions of the world, represented by over 800 species, of which many are important vectors of human pathogens. Brazil is currently faced with the expansion and urbanization of leishmaniases, with an increase in the numbers of human cases and seropositive dogs in various medium-sized to large cities. The objective of the current study was to survey the phlebotomine sand fly species in an area endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), i.e., the municipal district of Santa Luzia, lying within the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Sand flies were collected monthly in 2004-2005 using modified Falcão light traps hung in the peridomiciles of houses and surrounding wooded areas in the district of Baronesa. A total of 1,552 sand flies belonging to seven species was collected, and an interesting pattern of the distribution of the most abundant species relative to the sampling locality was revealed. In the wooded areas Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) predominated, whereas in the urban area Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was the most abundant species. These results indicate two possible epidemiological patterns of Leishmania transmission in Santa Luzia: one for American cutaneous leishmaniasis associated predominantly with wooded areas, and another for AVL, with transmission principally occurring around human habitations.

  3. Occurrence of Phthalate Esters in Peri-urban Surface/Deep Soils from Metropolitan City-Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma LingLing; Xu DianDou; Li XingHong; Cheng HangXin; Xu XiaoBai

    2009-01-01

    @@ Peri-urban environmental issues are worldwide regarded.The traditional outskirts of Beijing,out of the 4~(th) Ring Road,are undergoing great changes and have been going to be the 'urban area' with the 'circle-spread feature' of city expanding.For the valid use of land and the safety of public health,the assessing of peri-urban soil sanitation appeared to be so essential.

  4. Changes in the Urban Spatial Structure of the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, A. A. M.

    2011-08-01

    Since the 1980s, rapid population growth and urbanization have become issues in big cities like Greater Cairo (GC). As a consequence of explosive growth, the living conditions of Cairo Metropolis deteriorate. Development trends of the last twenty years have increased general wealth and modernization, this sets out how GC megacity is creating an increased demand for land combined with environmental degradation. Planning a sustainable development of mega cities requires understanding of physical change of the main environmental drivers. However, this talk will be concerned with monitoring and analysis of dynamic environment changes to capture and refine the urban patterns in Greater Cairo Metropolis on the basis of pixel-based and object-based classifications. Satellite images (TM, ETM+, & Spot) of different dates and resolutions, and ground truth data collected from available maps, field observation, and personal experience were used to execute the image segmentation analysis to reveal urban patterns and expansions. By using Erdas Imagine, and eCognition Developer software, land use/land cover image classifications were constructed, which detect regimes and trends in land changes. Two main types of urban patterns could be detected (passing from centre to periphery). The first one is informal and the second one is formal building. The informal type mainly comprises slums and urban encroachment on arable land. The formal one mostly consists of new cities and legal houses. Moreover, a rate of land cover changes in Greater Cairo during the last three decades could be described as a rapid progression. In contrast, the combination between field observations and classification analyses showed that the high urban densities based on classification of satellite images does not reflect the real densities of population in urban areas in Greater Cairo.

  5. Prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in pregnant women living in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Leite Maia Monteiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available HTLV-1/2 infection can cause severe and disabling diseases in children and adults. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection in pregnant women living in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro.1,204 pregnant women were tested upon hospital admission for delivery in two public hospitals in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Mesquita, between November, 2012 and April, 2013. The samples were screened by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA and reactive ones were confirmed by Western blot (WB. Epi-info software was used for building the database and performing the statistical analysis. Eight patients had confirmed HTLV-1/2 infection (7 HTLV-1, one HTLV-2, equivalent to a prevalence rate of 0.66%. Two further reactive screening tests had negative Western blot results and therefore were considered negative in the statistical analysis. All HTLV-1/2-positive patients were born in Rio de Janeiro, most were non-Caucasian (87.5%, in a stable relationship (62.5%, had at least ten years of formal education (62.5% and a monthly family income of up to US$600.00 (87.5%. There was only one case of coinfection with syphilis and none with HIV. The mean age of the infected women was 28.4 (SD = 6.3 years and of the seronegative ones was 24.8 (SD = 6.5 (p = 0.10. The median number of pregnancies were 3.0 and 1.0 (p = 0.06 and the median number of sexual partners were 3.5 and 3.0 (p = 0.33 in the seropositive and negative groups, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups.A significant prevalence of HTLV-1/2 was found in our population. The socio-epidemiological profile of carrier mothers was similar to the controls. Such findings expose the need for a public health policy of routine HTLV-1/2 screening in antenatal care, since counselling and preventive measures are the only strategies currently available to interrupt the chain of transmission and the future development of HTLV-1

  6. Transnational Metropolitan Development Strategies and Governance in a Post-Socialist Setting: The Case of Szczecin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tölle Alexander

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The integration of cities and their regions into transnational networks has become a key municipal strategy, with the creation of a metropolitan governance structure being seen in this context as a fundamental element. The Szczecin Metropolitan Area constitutes an example of meagre results in intercommunal cooperation in post-socialist East-Central Europe. This has its repercussions on the task of creating cross-border metropolitan governance structures including adjacent German counties, a task which, in turn, may help to overcome development barriers. This becomes apparent particularly in the process of defining joint development objectives as well as an image for the cross-border metropolitan region

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for enterobiasis among preschool children in a metropolitan city in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong-Ji; Cho, Chong-Hee; Kim, Joung-Soon; Choi, Min-Ho; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2003-09-01

    The infection rate of Enterobius vermicularis was investigated in 1,191 preschool children in 25 daycare centers in Seoul, Korea by cellotape anal swab from July to August 1999. Both the directors of the daycare centers and the children's parents were asked to complete questionnaires that inquired about the potential risk factors involved. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 9.5%, and the prevalence in the daycare centers ranged from 0 to 31.1%. Children aged 6-7 years showed a significantly higher egg positive rate than younger children, but the infection rate was similar for boys and girls. The socioeconomic status of the family and personal hygiene were not associated with enterobiasis, but anthelmintic medication significantly reduced the infection rate. The daycare centers in residential areas showed significantly lower egg positive rates than those situated near traditional markets. The environment of daycare centers is an important factor in enterobiasis, and the mass screening and treatment of children at high risk is recommended.

  8. Lack of spatial variation of endotoxin in ambient particulate matter across a German metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Verena; Carty, Cara L.; Gehring, Ulrike; Cyrys, Josef; Bischof, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    In this study, we describe the spatial variation of endotoxin across an urban setting using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) methods. We also identify potential sources of endotoxin that account for between-site variability and compare endotoxin levels in particulate matter with a 50% aerodynamic cut-off diameter of 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) and of 10 μm (PM 10). In 1999-2000, we collected PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Munich urban air and measured soluble endotoxin concentrations in both particle fractions. Using Teflon filters and Harvard impactors, PM 2.5 was collected at 40 outdoor monitoring sites across Munich and PM 10 at a subset of these sites ( n=12). Approximately four samples were collected at each site for a total of 158 PM 2.5 samples and 48 PM 10 samples. We visited and characterized the surrounding 100 m of each site for potential endotoxin sources. The geometric mean endotoxin concentration for all sites was 1.46 EU mg -1 PM 2.5 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.21-1.77) and at the subset of the sites was 1.30 EU mg -1 PM 2.5 (95% CI: 1.01-1.67 EU mg -1 PM 2.5). Endotoxin levels in PM 10 were higher, 3.91 EU mg -1 PM 10 (95% CI: 3.03-5.03 EU mg -1 PM 10), than in PM 2.5 and were moderately correlated, r=0.51. All endotoxin concentrations measured in this study were endotoxin levels (MR: 1.30 for EU mg -1 PM 2.5 and 1.13 for EU m -3 PM 2.5) than sites with no identified sources. Based on the ranges of endotoxin levels at the different sites, we found very little spatial variation in ambient endotoxin concentrations across the metropolitan area of Munich using inverse distance weighting method (IDW) methods ( R2=0.013 for EU mg -1 PM 2.5 and R2=0.020 for EU m -3 PM 2.5). Potential sources of endotoxin surrounding the sites only partly explained the variation seen.

  9. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  10. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Rudolf; Lobo, José; Bettencourt, Luís M A; Ortman, Scott G; Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations), our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured urban spaces.

  11. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, José; Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Ortman, Scott G.; Smith, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step—to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics—has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations), our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured urban spaces. PMID

  12. The contribution of urbanization to recent extreme heat events and white roof mitigation strategy in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingna

    2015-04-01

    The UHI effect can aggravate summertime heat waves and strongly influence human comfort and health, leading to greater mortality in metropolitan areas. Many geo-engineering technological strategies have been proposed to mitigate climate warming, and for the UHI, increasing the albedo of artificial urban surfaces (rooftops or pavements) has been considered a lucrative and effective way to cool cities. The objective of this work is to quantify the contribution of urbanization to recent extreme heat events of the early 21st century in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area, using the mesoscale WRF model coupled with a single urban canopy model and actual urban land cover datasets. This work also investigates a simulation of the regional effects of white roof technology by increasing the albedo of urban areas in the urban canopy model to mitigate the urban heat island, especially in extreme heat waves. The results show that urban land use characteristics that have evolved over the past ~20 years in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area have had a significant impact on the extreme temperatures occurring during extreme heat events. Simulations show that new urban development has caused an intensification and expansion of the areas experiencing extreme heat waves with an average increase in temperature of approximately 0.60°C. This change is most obvious at night with an increase up to 0.95°C, for which the total contribution of anthropogenic heat is 34%. We also simulate the effects of geo-engineering strategies increasing the albedo of urban roofs. White roofs reflect a large fraction of incoming sunlight in the daytime, which reduced the net radiation so that the roof surface keep at a lower temperature than regular solar-absorptive roofs. Urban net radiation decreases by approximately 200 W m-2 at local noon because of high solar reflectance of white roofs, which cools the daytime urban temperature afer sunrise, with the largest decrease of almost -0.80

  13. Ozone Concentrations Patterns over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, C. R.; Carvalho, V. S.; Martins, L. D.; Freitas, E. D.; Andrade, M.

    2009-05-01

    Eleven years of ozone concentrations were analyzed in order to characterize the tropospheric ozone behavior since 1996 up to 2006 over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP). MASP covers an area of 8.051 square kilometers, where approximately 19 million people live, and represents the most important economic region of Brazil. The main sources of pollutants in the MASP are the vehicles, which are responsible for more than 95% of CO, NOX and HC emission according to the São Paulo State Environmental Agency (CETESB). These pollutants are strictly correlated with ozone formation through a complex mechanism that depends mainly on a nonlinear mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The ozone concentrations are also affected by meteorological conditions, as solar radiation that will be important for the photolysis, and by transport processes from/to other regions. The established maximum hourly National Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone is frequently violated in the MASP. According to CETESB, during the last five years the annual average of NAAQS violations was 65 days. It is important to emphasize that during this period a substantial increase in the number of vehicles was observed. So far, there is no study available in the literature which evaluates the complete historical time series of the ozone concentration data collected in the air quality monitoring network of the MASP. In this study, data from 12 air quality monitoring stations distributed over the MASP were evaluated. In general, annual mean concentrations of primary pollutants decreased on the last two decades mostly due to the Brazilian Vehicular Emission Control Program (PROCONVE). The program by itself was responsible for a drop of almost 70% of vehicular emissions. However, ozone annual mean concentrations do not reveal the same trend. Among 10 air quality monitoring sites four of it presented a reduction of ozone concentration values while the others six presented

  14. A low cost Mobile Network System for monitoring climate and air quality of urban areas at high resolution: a preliminary application in Florence (IT) metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibari, Camilla; Moriondo, Marco; Matese, Alessandro; Sabatini, Francesco; Trombi, Giacomo; Zaldei, Alessandro; Bindi, Marco

    2013-04-01

    The combination of the "Heat island effect" coupled with higher frequencies of extreme events (e.g. heat waves) due to climate change is of great concern for human health in urban areas. Anomalies of summer 2003, mentioned as possible typical climate for the near future summers (Schär et al., 2004), caused about 7,000 deaths in Italy and over 35,000 in the whole Europe. Furthermore, more than 50% of world's population is living in urban areas and, given the unprecedented urbanization rate that is expected in the next future, cities will likely be exposed to a growing environmental pressure in the following decades. Accordingly, climate monitoring of urban areas is gradually becoming a key element of planning that cannot be disregarded for an efficient public health management and for the development of a city scale Heat Waves Warning System tool, which is based on meteorological forecast of both air temperatures and humidity at a synoptic scale (Pascal et al., 2006). Building on these premises, a low cost Mobile Weather Station (MWS), to be placed on urban public transport, has been assembled. This mobile station logs every minute both meteorological variables (i.e. temperature and air humidity) and air quality parameters (i.e. atmospheric CO2 concentration and noise detection); the geographical position of each MWS's measurement is also recorded thanks to the built-in GPS antenna. The system, equipped with a data logger for data storage based on the open-source hardware platform Arduino, can also transmit data in real time via GPRS. The quality of meteorological and environmental data acquired by MWS was evaluated both on pre-existing steady meteorological stations of the metropolitan area of Florence (Petralli et al., 2010), and on professional research-grade data logger (Campbell CR800), logging air temperature in a non-aspirated shield by means of sensors at fast (thermocouple) and slower (digital) time response. Two prototypes of stations were thus designed

  15. Public-health impact of outdoor air pollution for 2nd air pollution management policy in Seoul metropolitan area, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Leem, Jong Han; Kim, Soon Tae; Kim, Hwan Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Air pollution contributes to mortality and morbidity. We estimated the impact of outdoor air pollution on public health in Seoul metropolitan area, Korea. Attributable cases of morbidity and mortality were estimated. Methods Epidemiology-based exposure-response functions for a 10 μg/m3 increase in particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) were used to quantify the effects of air pollution. Cases attributable to air pollution were estimated for mortality (adults ≥ 30 years), respiratory a...

  16. The Area and Population of Cities: New Insights from a Different Perspective on Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Rozenfeld, Hernan; Gabaix, Xavier; Makse, Hernan A

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of the population of cities has attracted a great deal of attention, in part because it sharply constrains models of local growth. However, to this day, there is no consensus on the distribution below the very upper tail, because available data need to rely on the "legal" rather than "economic" definition of cities for medium and small cities. To remedy this difficulty, in this work we construct cities "from the bottom up" by clustering populated areas obtained from high-resolution data. This method allows us to investigate the population and area of cities for urban agglomerations of all sizes using clustering methods from percolation theory. We find that Zipf's law (a power law with exponent close to 1) for population holds for cities as small as 12,000 inhabitants in the USA and 5,000 inhabitants in Great Britain. In addition the distribution of city areas is also close to a Zipf's law. We provide a parsimonious model with endogenous city area that is consistent with those findings.

  17. Strategic spatial planning in the era of crisis: Current trends and evidence from the metropolitan area of Thessaloniki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoidou Elisavet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic spatial planning has enjoyed widespread implementation since the 1990s, especially in urban and metropolitan areas, having its focus on promoting their competitiveness and sustainability. Nowadays, the effects of economic crisis, together with growing environmental and technological risks, trigger the vulnerability of these areas and stress the need for resilience. This paper examines the role of strategic spatial planning in promoting metropolitan resilience in the era of crisis. It is argued that this type of planning is capable of supporting the adaptation of territorial systems to crisis-induced risks, as is, for instance, the case of planning for climate change. This is further analyzed in light of four of the key aspects of the new strategic spatial planning, namely its principles, content, process, and utilization of resources. The paper draws evidence from the case of Greece and examines the abovementioned aspects of the recently prepared new Regulatory Plan for the Thessaloniki greater area. The first results of this examination show that, provided there is political will which allows for necessary adjustments, the Plan has the potential to incorporate the dimension of resilience. The elaboration and exploitation of the strategic nature of the Plan and of its sustainable development principle constitute key elements of a resilience-oriented approach.

  18. Genotoxic effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, evaluated by Helix aspersa (Mueller, 1774)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianistcki, M. [Laboratorio de Genetica Toxicologica, Department of Biology, ULBRA, Av. Farroupilha 8001, Pr. 14/Sala 218, Bairro Sao Jose, CEP 92425-900 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Dallarosa, J. [Laboratorio de Ecologia, UFRGS (Brazil); Sauer, C.; Teixeira, C.E. [Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler, FEPAM, RS (Brazil); Silva, J. da, E-mail: juliana.silva@ulbra.b [Laboratorio de Genetica Toxicologica, Department of Biology, ULBRA, Av. Farroupilha 8001, Pr. 14/Sala 218, Bairro Sao Jose, CEP 92425-900 Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to biomonitor metropolitan areas of Porto Alegre (Brazil) for PAHs associated with atmospheric particles and check their effects on the DNA of the land mollusk Helix aspersa. The sampling sites are located in an urban area with heavy traffic: (i) Canoas, (ii) Sapucaia do Sul, and (iii) FIERGS/Porto Alegre. The samples were collected during a continuous period of 24 hours during 15 days using Stacked Filter Units (SFU) on polycarbonate filters (two separated size fractions: PM{sub 10-2.5} and PM{sub <2.5}). The concentrations of 16 major PAHs were determined according to EPA. Comet assay on H. aspersa hemolymph cells was chosen for genotoxicity evaluation. This evaluation shows that, in general, the smaller PM-size fractions (PM{sub <2.5}) have the highest genotoxicity and contain higher concentrations of extractable organic matter. In addition, associations between chemical characteristics and PM carcinogenicity tend to be stronger for the smaller PM-size fractions. - DNA damage in H. aspersa exposed to atmospheric particulate in Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre demonstrated association with PAHs in the fine filter (PM{sub <2.5}).

  19. A comparison between developed and developing countries in terms of urban land use change effects on nitrogen cycle: Paris and São Paulo metropolitan areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardoto, Gabriela; Svirejeva-Hopkin, Anastasia; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Urbanization is considered one of the most powerful and characteristic anthropogenic forces on Earth in the 21st century. Although, currently, cities occupy only about 2 percent of the Earth's land surface, they are home to over 50 percent of the world's population. While in cities of some developed countries, urban population might stabilize or even slightly decrease, its rate of growth in developing countries is faster than in the industrialized nations. Such increase is accompanied by growing energy production, increased food demand, expanding transportation and industrialization. Although agricultural production is by far the largest cause of the doubling in the amount of reactive nitrogen entering the biospheric cycle compared to pre-industrial conditions, nowadays more than half of the crops produced in rural areas are consumed in urban zones. Having in mind that there is a clear global trend towards urbanization and growing urban areas, the objective of this study was to compare major nitrogen fluxes between a mega city situated in a developing country (São Paulo Metropolitan Area - SPMA) in Brazil with one of the largest city of highly industrialized Europe (Paris Metropolitan Area - PMA). We make the first step in producing a detailed N mass balance for the SPMA and PMA in order to estimate the magnitude of major fluxes across the urban landscape and see how N cycling vary among urban system components. This effort may help to highlight differences between developing and developed areas and subsidize the formulation of public policies towards reduction of N related pollution of recipient systems. The N mass balance showed the SPMA as a net source of nitrogen, emitting in total about 93.5 Gg of N per year, or about 4750 g of N per capita. Most N inputs to the SPMA are directly related to food consumption, N in wastewater and landfills. These fluxes are quite amendable to management efforts to reduce N input to the receiver component of the urban ecosystem

  20. Relationships between environmental governance and water quality in growing metropolitan areas: a synthetic view through the coupled natural and human system lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate relationships between environmental governance and water quality in two adjacent, growing metropolitan areas in the western US. While the Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington metro areas share many biophysical characteristics, they have different land development histories and water governance structures, providing a unique opportunity for examining a coupled human and natural system (CHANS. We conceptualize feedback loops in which water quality influences governance directly, using monitoring efforts as a metric, and indirectly, using the metric of changes in the sale price of single-family residential properties. Governance then influences water quality directly through, for example, changes in the monitoring regime and riparian restoration and indirectly through land use policy. We investigate these hypotheses by presenting evidence of these linkages. Our results show that changes in monitoring regimes and land use differed in response to differences in governance systems. On the other hand, property sale prices increased in response to water quality improvement for both studied watersheds. Our results show that sales prices responded positively to improved water quality (i.e. DO in both cities. Furthermore, riparian restoration efforts improved over time for both cities, indicating the positive effect of governance on this land-based resource that may result in improved water quality. However, as of yet, there were no substantial differences across study areas in changes in water temperature over time. While urban areas expanded more than 20% over 24 yr, water temperature did not change. The mechanisms by which water quality was maintained was similar in the sense that both cities benefited from riparian restoration, but different in the sense that Portland benefitted indirectly from land use policy. A combination of a long-term legacy effect of land development and a relatively short history of riparian restoration in

  1. Drivers of land cover and land use changes in St. Louis metropolitan area over the past 40 years characterized by remote sensing and census population data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaitijiang, Maitiniyazi; Ghulam, Abduwasit; Sandoval, J. S. Onésimo; Maimaitiyiming, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we explored the spatial and temporal patterns of land cover and land use (LCLU) and population change dynamics in the St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area. The goal of this paper was to quantify the drivers of LCLU using long-term Landsat data from 1972 to 2010. First, we produced LCLU maps by using Landsat images from 1972, 1982, 1990, 2000, and 2010. Next, tract level population data of 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 were converted to 1-km square grid cells. Then, the LCLU maps were integrated with basic grid cell data to represent the proportion of each land cover category within a grid cell area. Finally, the proportional land cover maps and population census data were combined to investigate the relationship between land cover and population change based on grid cells using Pearson's correlation coefficient, ordinary least square (OLS), and local level geographically weighted regression (GWR). Land cover changes in terms of the percentage of area affected and rates of change were compared with population census data with a focus on the analysis of the spatial-temporal dynamics of urban growth patterns. The correlation coefficients of land cover categories and population changes were calculated for two decadal intervals between 1970 and 2010. Our results showed a causal relationship between LCLU changes and population dynamics over the last 40 years. Urban sprawl was positively correlated with population change. However, the relationship was not linear over space and time. Spatial heterogeneity and variations in the relationship demonstrate that urban sprawl was positively correlated with population changes in suburban area and negatively correlated in urban core and inner suburban area of the St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area. These results suggest that the imagery reflects processes of urban growth, inner-city decline, population migration, and social spatial inequality. The implications provide guidance for sustainable urban

  2. Green and cool roofs to mitigate urban heat island effects in the Chicago metropolitan area: evaluation with a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A.; Conry, P.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Hellmann, J. J.; Chen, F.

    2016-06-01

    The effects of urban heat islands (UHIs) have a substantial bearing on the sustainability of cities and environs. This paper examines the efficacy of green and cool roofs as potential UHI mitigation strategies to make cities more resilient against UHI. We have employed the urbanized version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (uWRF) model at high (1 km) resolution with physically-based rooftop parameterization schemes (conventional, green and cool), a first-time application to the Chicago metropolitan area. We simulated a hot summer period (16-18 August 2013) and assessed (i) UHI reductions for different urban landuse with green/cool roofs, (ii) the interaction of lake breeze and UHI, and (iii) diurnal boundary layer dynamics. The performance of uWRF was evaluated using sensible heat flux and air temperature measurements from an urban mini-field campaign. The simulated roof surface energy balance captured the energy distribution with respective rooftop algorithms. Results showed that daytime roof temperature reduced and varied linearly with increasing green roof fractions, from less than 1 °C for the case of 25% green roof to ˜3 °C during peak daytime for 100% green roof. Diurnal transitions from land to lake breeze and vice versa had a substantial impact on the daytime cycle of roof surface UHI, which had a 3-4 hour lag in comparison to 2 m UHI. Green and cool roofs reduced horizontal and vertical wind speeds and affected lower atmosphere dynamics, including reduced vertical mixing, lower boundary layer depth, and weaker convective rolls. The lowered wind speeds and vertical mixing during daytime led to stagnation of air near the surface, potentially causing air quality issues. The selection of green and cool roofs for UHI mitigation should therefore carefully consider the competing feedbacks. The new results for regional land-lake circulations and boundary layer dynamics from this study may be extended to other urbanized areas, particularly to coastal

  3. On Innovative Approach of Building Metropolitan Areas in the Pearl River Delta%珠三角世界级城市群建设路径创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震; 刘品安

    2016-01-01

    本文在对现有世界级城市群经验的基础上,总结了世界级城市群的评判标准,并将其作为评判珠三角建设世界级城市群差距的分析框架。研究发现,珠三角城市群在全球中枢职能、现代产业体系、城际交通网络、城市群协调机制等方面均与世界级城市群有一定差距。本文从打造“穗深港”创新带、以大数据促进产业转型升级、共建城际轨道交通网络、健全城市群协调发展机制等方面提出了促进珠三角建设世界级城市群的路径创新建议。%Based on the experience of the existing world-class urban agglomerations, we summarize the evaluation standards of the world-class urban agglomerations, which is used as an analytical framework for the Pearl River Delta Area to construct a world-class urban metropolitan area. There is a large gap in the perspective of global central function, modern industrial system, inter city transportation network, urban agglomeration coordination mechanism. In order to make up the gap, we bring up some paths for the Pearl River Delta area to construct a world-class urban agglomeration, in terms of Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hongkong innovation zone, industrial transformation and upgrading based on big data, inter-city transport network, urban agglomeration coordination mechanism, etc.

  4. Lead poisoning among Arab American and African American children in the Detroit metropolitan area, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nriagu, Jerome; Senthamarai-Kannan, Raghavendra; Jamil, Hikmet; Fakhori, Monty; Korponic, Summer

    2011-09-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that acculturation is a risk factor for childhood lead poisoning in the Detroit area of Michigan. Blood lead levels (BLLs) were determined in 429 Arab American and African American children, aged 6 months to 15 years, who were receiving well-child examination in three Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) clinics in the city. Mean BLL was 3.8 ± 2.3 μg/dL (range: 1-18 μg/dL) and 3.3% of the children tested had blood lead values above the 10 μg/dL level of concern. Neither the age of the dwelling units nor ethnicity of the child was significantly associated with the BLL. Multivariable analyses instead identified a number of acculturation-related factors that are associated with elevation in blood lead including paternal education, language spoken at home (English only, English and Arabic, or Arabic only), home ownership, smoking in the home, and exposure of child to home health remedies. The difference in blood lead between Arab American children from families where Arabic only versus Arabic and English is spoken at home was found to be statistically significant. This study provides information showing that immigrant children are at heightened risk of being poisoned by lead which can be useful in identifying groups at risk of atypical exposures.

  5. Cause or Consequence?: Suburbanization and Crime in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargowsky, Paul A.; Park, Yoonhwan

    2009-01-01

    Inner-city crime is a motivating factor for middle-class flight. Therefore, crime is a cause of suburbanization. Movement of the middle and upper classes to the suburbs, in turn, isolates the poor in central-city ghettos and barrios. Sociologists and criminologists have argued that the concentration of poverty creates an environment within which…

  6. The land-use of Bandung, its density, overcrowded area and public facility toward a compact city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramita, B.

    2016-04-01

    The concept of a compact city has been introduced since 1973. It is a utopian vision largely driven by a desire to see more efficient uses of resources. In 1980s, the reconfiguration of the physical urban form of metropolitan areas was increasingly debated by both theorists and practitioners. Recently, the concept of a compact city has been more focused on developed countries in which the population tends to decrease. However, in Asia, except Japan which contains many dense cities, it has become a concept which promotes relatively high residential density with mixed land uses, though rather only in population and density. This paper addresses the land-use of Bandung that having the density over 14,000 people/km2, which has been so much potential toward a compact city. Somehow, unprepared ness of urban planning and regulation, the city seemed overwrought to serve its inhabitants. This condition is shown from the demographic condition, especially population density in Bandung based on its sub areas of the city (SWK). The stack of public facilities in a certain district has led the concentration of density and activity, which finally raising the slum and overcrowded settlement. Finally, this paper explores the implications of land use management and describes challenges faced and possible approaches, especially in land-use management strategies to be implemented in Bandung.

  7. AMBIENT HYDROCARBONS IN THE HOUSTON METROPOLITAN AREA DURING TEXAQS 2000: AN IDENTIFICATION OF UNUSUAL FEATURES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KLEINMAN, L.I.; DAUM P.H.

    2004-11-01

    Houston's ozone problem has been linked to the occurrence of very high light olefin concentrations. We have analyzed the DOE G-1 aircraft hydrocarbon data set to provide additional information on the geographic distribution and prevalence of air samples with high olefin concentration as well as an identification of other compounds which contribute to the high hydrocarbon reactivity in Houston. In order to identify high concentrations we need a definition of normal. For that purpose we use aircraft samples collected during a 1999 aircraft based field campaign in Philadelphia relying on the circumstance that the frequency distributions of NO{sub x} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} in Philadelphia are nearly the same as in Houston. Comparison is made also with hydrocarbons collected in Phoenix which exhibit nearly the same NO{sub x} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} frequency distribution as the other 2 cities, but in spite of that similarity have a much lower hydrocarbon reactivity. As in other studies we find that there is a subset of Houston hydrocarbon samples with very high OH-reactivity due to elevated concentrations of ethylene, propylene and less often butenes, including 1,3 butadiene. Although these samples stand out as being qualitatively different we present evidence that ethylene and propylene are significantly elevated in at least half of the Houston samples, covering a wide geographic area apart from the Ship Channel region. Frequency distributions for these compounds are log normal suggesting that Houston's atmosphere is a single entity rather than separate industrial and urban areas. The comparison between Houston and Philadelphia also identifies C{sub 2}-C{sub 5} alkanes, n-hexane, and benzene as having elevated concentrations. Emission reductions of these less reactive compounds sufficient to yield the concentrations observed in Philadelphia would have a minor effect on the most reactive samples, but about a 20% effect on samples with more typical (median

  8. Overweight according to geographical origin and time spent in France: a cross sectional study in the Paris metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Fernandez Judith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the first time in France in a population-based survey, this study sought to investigate the potential impact of migration origin and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France on body mass index (BMI and overweight in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods A representative, population-based, random sample of the adult, French speaking population of the Paris metropolitan area was interviewed in 2005. Self-reported BMI (BMI = weight/height2 and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 were our 2 outcomes of interest. Two variables were constructed to estimate individuals’ migration origin: parental nationality and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France, as declared by the participants. We performed multilevel regression models among different gender and age groups, adjusted for demographics and socioeconomic status. Results In women, a parental origin in the Middle East or North Africa (MENA was associated with a higher risk of being overweight (especially before the age of 55 and a higher BMI (between 35 and 54 years of age, and so were women of Sub-Sahara African parental origin in the middle age category. Only in the youngest men ( Conclusions Our results plea for potential cultural determinants of overweight in the migrant and migrants-born populations in the French context of the capital region. Taking into account the people’ family and personal migration histories may be an important issue in public health research and policies on overweight and obesity prevention.

  9. Protected areas in the city,urban wetlands of Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Sandoval Rincón

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the environmental ideologies on how to manage protected areas, specifically what ideologies may be applied when protected areas are within a city. Analysing the conservationist and preservationist discourses and the different types of community participation will give a wide view on possibilities of management for protected areas. Its main interest is to understand which ideologies were applied for protected areas in Bogota according to the Spatial Development Plan, and how it affected environmental management strategies of wetlands in the city. The case study of Córdoba Wetland will be analysed according to its policies and participation opportunities in order to guaranty sustainability.

  10. LCA of road infrastructure in Mexico City.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosales Carreon, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a major problem in metropolitan areas and Mexico City is no exception. Located in a pollutant-trapping valley, Mexico City (one of the largest cities in the world) is famous for its size, its history, and the warmth of its people. Nev

  11. METROPOLISATION AND THE METROPOLITAN SPACE: THE PRACTICE OF HORIZONTAL PARTNERSHIPS AT LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Alupului

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At present, the development of large cities raises problems to specialists, who must find solutions to the most diverse processes of concentration, to the numerous problems of the communities tightly connected with the metropolitan areas / growth poles. The formation of the metropolitan areas regards not only the most common issues related to the increase of the standard of living, but also the concrete ways of solving the crises and reducing the forms related to the current metropolitan issues. The objective of this article is to present the main favourable aspects of the metropolisation processes, pointing out the advantages of implementing such areas in Romania.

  12. “新区域主义”下城镇空间发展的规划协调机制——基于皖江城市带和济南都市圈的探讨%Planning and Coordination of Urban Spatial Development under Paradigm of New Regionalism——The Cases of City Cluster along the Yangtze River in Anhui and Jinan Metropolitan Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方伟; 赵民

    2013-01-01

    鉴于我国区域发展和地方管治的状况和存在的矛盾,探讨纵向政府关系及空间规划对城镇空间协调发展的作用机制.基于理论分析形成“政府管治-空间规划-空间发展”分析框架,结合皖江城市带和济南都市圈的实证研究,考察区域和地方尺度的空间发展状态,总结区域城镇空间发展的规划协调机制,探讨当前空间规划工作中的协调问题,提出改进思路和完善建议.%Faced with the conflicts between regional development and localized governance structure in China today, this paper tries to find out how inter-governmental relationship, regional governance as well as planning coordination affect urban and regional spatial development. Based on a literature review, the paper proposes an analytical framework that integrate inter-governmental relationship, planning coordination and development patterns. Then the paper chooses City Cluster along the Yangtze River in Anhui(CCYR) and Jinan Metropolitan Ring in Shandong (JMR) in Eastern China as case studies to generalize means of planning coordination in the regional context, highlight important issues in planning practice and propose necessary measures to improve planning.

  13. Chemical contamination of soils in the New York City area following Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandigo, Amy C; DiScenza, Dana J; Keimowitz, Alison R; Fitzgerald, Neil

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a unique data set of lead, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in soil samples collected from the metropolitan New York City area in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Initial samples were collected by citizen scientists recruited via social media, a relatively unusual approach for a sample collection project. Participants in the affected areas collected 63 usable samples from basements, gardens, roads, and beaches. Results indicate high levels of arsenic, lead, PCBs, and PAHs in an area approximately 800 feet south of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Superfund site at Newtown Creek. A location adjacent to the Gowanus Canal, another Superfund site, was found to have high PCB concentrations. Areas of high PAH contamination tended to be near high traffic areas or next to sites of known contamination. While contamination as a direct result of Hurricane Sandy cannot be demonstrated conclusively, the presence of high levels of contamination close to known contamination sites, evidence for co-contamination, and decrease in number of samples containing measureable amounts of semi-volatile compounds from samples collected at similar locations 9 months after the storm suggest that contaminated particles may have migrated to residential areas as a result of flooding.

  14. Regional Characterization of Metropolitan Areas in Japan for Strong Ground Motion Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.; Okaya, D.

    2002-12-01

    Introduction After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, was formed to oversee appropriate research in the earth sciences and civil engineering. This agency distributes research funds of \\$130 million per year. Projects include these topics: 1) Densification of seismic and GPS networks, 2) Paleoseismological investigation of major active faults, 3) Research on the geometry and physical properties of basins under the cities, 4) Probablistic strong ground motion estimation, and 5) Regional characterization of faults and physical parameters. Regional Characterization Study A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of: Source, Propagation path, Near surface and Ground motion response.A new five year project starts this year to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This projects focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3)Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties Reconstruction of source fault and velocity models allow for more realistic 3D EQ wave simulations. All of these information will be synthesized and provided to communities involved in probablistic hazards analysis, risk assessment and societal response. In 2002, we have started to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso Peninsula (112 km) and the Sagami bay area( 75 km) to image the subducting Philippine Sea plate

  15. Understanding Peri-Urban Maize Production through an Examination of Household Livelihoods in the Toluca Metropolitan Area, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amy M.; Eakin, Hallie; Sweeney, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The rates of urban growth globally continue to rise, especially in small and intermediary cities and peri-urban areas of the developing world. Communities in these settings share characteristics with rural areas, in terms of continued connections with agriculture, yet with an increasing reliance of non-agricultural employment which poses…

  16. Looking for the role of nature experiences in planning and decision making: a perspective from the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija Faehnle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Public experiences of everyday environments influence well-being and quality of life and effective planning for these environments can promote social sustainability. This article discusses how residents’ values related to urban nature areas are as important as ecological and technical issues and can inform urban nature planning and decision making. We first provide a generic review of residents’ values and meanings regarding urban nature. We then outline practices for obtaining data on these values and meanings and present examples from the Helsinki (Finland Metropolitan Area. The article concludes with a discussion of the challenges that nature experiences bring to planning and decision making and highlights why and how insights generated as a result of residents’ participation should be included in the knowledge base for planning decisions.

  17. The Challenge to Revert Unsustainable Trends: Uneven Development and Water Degradation in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. M. Costa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The search for water sustainability requires not only a combination of technical and managerial responses, but also firm action against socioeconomic injustices and political inequalities. The recognition of the politicised nature of water problems deserves particular attention in areas marred by long-term trends of environmental degradation and social exclusion. A case study of the Baixada Fluminense, an urbanised wetland in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro, illustrates the challenge to reverse unsustainable practices in situations where water problems have been politically and electorally exploited. The research made use of an interdisciplinary approach to assess past and present initiatives that have attempted, but systematically failed, to restore river ecology and improve water services. The empirical results have important implications for water policy making and urban planning.

  18. Supply and demand of jobs for young people in the metropolitan area of Goiânia (2010-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliane Prudente Nunes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the conceptual aspects of employment and unemployment in Brazil and the state Goiás, as theoretical support for understanding the phenomenon on the offer and search of jobs by young people in the metropolitan region of Goiânia (GO. The importance of this research is justified by the fact that unemployment is a major problem in the contemporary world, particularly in Brazil, which has been facing a mismatch between population growth and the supply and demand of employment. The article discusses the socio-cultural universe of unemployed youth, seeking to examine how the different dimensions of family and school life interfere with their performance, encouraging or hindering their inclusion in the workplace. It also evaluates the relation between the highest labor supply of unskilled work, low education rate among young people who are seeking employment and workers' skills required by entrepreneurs. It starts with reference anchored in Bourdieu, Enguita and Mannheim, as well as resorting to government officials. The data are based on empirical research with young people and entrepreneurs in the metropolitan area of Goiânia.JEL-Code | J21; J82; R12.

  19. An Analytic Network Process approach for siting a municipal solid waste plant in the Metropolitan Area of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés-Beltrán, Pablo; Pastor-Ferrando, Juan Pascual; García-García, Fernando; Pascual-Agulló, Amadeo

    2010-05-01

    In this paper the Analytic Network Process (ANP) is applied to select the best location for the construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) plant in the Metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain). Selection of the appropriate MSW facility location can be viewed as a complex multicriteria decision-making problem that requires an extensive evaluation process of the potential MSW plant locations and other factors as diverse as economic, technical, legal, social or environmental issues. The decision-making process includes the identification of six candidate MSW plant sites and 21 criteria grouped into clusters for the construction of a network. Two technicians of the Metropolitan Waste Disposal Agency acted as decision makers (DMs). The influences between the elements of the network were identified and analyzed using the ANP multicriteria decision method. Two different ANP models were used: one hierarchy model (that considers AHP as a particular case of ANP) and another network-based model. The results obtained in each model were compared and analyzed. The strengths and weaknesses of ANP as a multicriteria decision analysis tool are also described in the paper. The main findings of this research have proved that ANP is a useful tool to help technicians to make their decision process traceable and reliable. Moreover, this approach helps DMs undertake a sound reflection of the siting problem.

  20. Metropolitan Approaches to Desegregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before the May 1974 public hearings of the New York City Commission on Human Rights by the Director for the Center for National Policy Review, Catholic University Law School, notes that one barrier to the liberation of black people from a legally-sanctioned caste system is the racially segregated structure of metropolitan areas…

  1. 地被植物在郑州都市区园林绿化中的组成结构及管理对策研究%The investigation and analysis about common ground cover plants of metropolitan area parks in Zhengzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪进; 杨旭; 高闪闪; 何瑞珍

    2014-01-01

    The ground cover plants in the major urban parks and plazas of Zhengzhou City were investigated by using on‐the‐spot statistical investigation in this paper ,and the vegeta‐tion characteristics , selection criteria , and maintenance management , etc . w ere discussed and analysed .The results showed that the species of ground cover plants are simplex ,with smaller size plantation and often separatly planted with many bare grounds and extensive management at late stage . T herefore , some effective measurs are proposed by reasonable planting according to the viewing characteristis of different species in different growth seasonsand enhancing their management in time ,which can greatly improve their ornamental value ,and hence increase the level of ground cover plants landscaping .%采用实地调查统计的方法对郑州市各大公园及路边广场的地被植物及其特点、选择标准、养护管理等进行了研究分析。结果表明:当前地被植物品种单一,种植面积较小,且多单独种植,混合应用较少,较多地段没有地被植物覆盖,后期管理粗放。建议充分利用每种地被植物不同时期的观赏特点,种植时合理搭配,及时管理,以大大提高观赏价值,从而提高地被植物的造景水平。

  2. The contribution of vehicular emission to the atmospheric concentrations of carbon compounds in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M.; Fornaro, A.; Miranda, R.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Freitas, E. D.; LAPAt-Laboratorio de Analise dos Processos Atmosfericos

    2013-05-01

    It is recognized that megacities have regional and global effects on climate, and that aerosols and Green House Gases (GHG) constitute the principal tracer of those effects. Such is the case in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), one of the largest mega-cities in the world. MASP has a population of almost 20 million inhabitants. The main source of air pollution is the transport sector. In this region, there are approximately 6.5 million passenger cars and commercial vehicles: 85% light duty, 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (diesel + 3% bio-diesel) and 12% motorcycles. Of the light duty vehicle, approximately 55% burn a mixture (v/v) of 78% gasoline with 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), 4% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), 38% flexible fuel vehicles capable of burning both gasohol as hydrated ethanol, and 2% use diesel. In average 50% of the fuel used in MASP is ethanol what brings the necessity of more studies to understand the formation of photochemical oxidants and secondary particles. According to the São Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency, 97% of carbon monoxide (CO), 85% of hydrocarbons (HC), 82% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 36% of sulfur dioxide emitted, and 36% of all inhalable particulate matter (PM10) are emitted by the vehicular fleet. Concerning particles, 75% of the Fine Particle Concentration is related to the burning of fuel, mainly diesel. The fine particles are composed of Organic Carbon (40%), Black Carbon (30%), ions (15%) and metals. It is known that the soot is warming the climate and is important to the radiative balance. Another important driver to the radiative balance, the CO2 is mainly emitted by the transport sector, which is responsible for 57% of its emission. A comprehensive project under development has the objective of determine the role of MASP as the source of gaseous and particle compounds to the atmosphere of the region and in a mesoscale perspective. The project with funding from the São Paulo

  3. Mountain Land Use Planning of Metropolitan Suburbs: the Case of the Jinyun Mountain and Its Surrounding area, Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jingan; WEI Chaofu; XIE Deti

    2005-01-01

    Open space of metropolitan suburbs in mountain region, has been increasingly becoming the coupling mosaic structure of industrial actions and landscape behaviors. However, the local governments, when making land use planning, often aim at economic development, and rarely refer to the coordination of compatibilities and conflicts between industrial actions and landscape behaviors in the mosaic structure. In this study land use in the Jinyun Mountain and its surrounding area, Chongqing is adjusted by gray multi-objective programming approach and local-level decision-making process to cope with conflicts between objectives for human welfare and objectives for landscape conservation. The results indicate that: 1) the compatibilities and conflicts among different behavior characters and different landscape types result in the compatibilities of landscape to human behavior; 2) a land use planning in the study area is produced based on the sustainable land use and social-eco development, which pays more attention to the resources and environment constraints and economic objectives, and follows the distribution law of rare resources; 3) in the study area, cultivated land of 1,207.27 ha can meet the demands for food and byproducts by the residents there, orchard land and forestland of 632.55 ha, 2,276.61 ha, respectively can provide enough space for the local people to improve their living structure and meet their demands for recreational activities, and urban residential land, rural residential land, mining land and transportation land of 1,107.60 ha, 120.27 ha, 162.48 ha, 100.91 ha, respectively can satisfy the resident's economic development and infrastructures; 4) the equilibrium among industrial actions, landscape accessibility and ecological conservation can be obtained by analyzing the possible impacts of human activities on landscape ecological process in open space of metropolitan suburbs in mountain areas.

  4. Evaluation of multielement in serum of healthy population of the metropolitan area of the state of Rio de Janeiro by TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: c.canellas@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.br [Instituto Estadual de Hematologia Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu, E-mail: roberta@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Bellido, Alfredo Victor B., E-mail: alfredo@ien.gov.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2013-07-01

    The determination of multielemental concentrations in physiological fluids is of considerable interest in clinical chemistry. Since it has been established this levels in human serum can be utilized as indicators for several pathological conditions. The multielement composition determination in human serum is important for the investigation of their role in human physiology and metabolism. From this research, more detailed studies on the health of individuals living in the metropolitan region of the state of Rio de Janeiro can be realized in order to improve the quality of life of these individuals. We studied three hundred and sixty healthy volunteers (162 males and 198 females) aged 18 to 60 years old. All the serum samples had been collected of people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. The measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline at the Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a monochromatic beam with maximum energy of 20 keV for the excitation and an Ultra-LEGe detector with resolution of 148 eV at 5.9 keV. Standards solutions with Vanadium and Galium (Internal standards) were prepared for the calibration system. It was possible to determine the elemental concentrations of the following eleven elements: Na, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. (author)

  5. Tourism Spatial Structure Evolution of Metropolitan Area: A Case Study of Changjiang River Delta Metropolitan Area%都市圈旅游空间结构演变研究——以长三角都市圈为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱付彪; 陆林; 於冉; 鲍捷

    2012-01-01

    after 2003. Also its Herfindal index value of inbound tourism decreases from 0.371 to 0.237 and domestic tourism decreases from 0.219 to 0.105. Only the value of domestic tourism Her- findal index in 2000 is greater than year of 1999. It shows that the density of tourist number and tourism in- come of domestic tourism is smaller than inbound tourism. So the relative disparity of tourism development among cities is shrinking and tourism development tends to equilibrium in Changjiang River delta metropoli- tan area. In fact, the tourism development is multi-centered, networked, integrated and balanced, and tends to high-level equalization in the Changjiang River delta metropolitan area. Then we discuss its evolution mecha- nism of tourism spatial structure using the theory of tourism space interaction. It considers that the evolution of tourism spatial structure of metropolitan area may experience such processes as low-level equalization, concen- tration, diffusion and high-level equalization from the earlier to late period. In this periods, the tourism "space interaction play an important role, and the accessibility, complementary and alternative provide necessary con- ditions for the tourism space interaction among cities of metropolitan area. As main forms of the tourism space interaction, the accumulation and diffusion of tourism finance, technology, personnel, information and experi- ence and other factors promote the evolution tourism spatial structure of metropolitan area from low-level equalization to the high-level equalization. Finally, this article explores the mechanism of tourism spatial struc- ture evolution of metropolitan area from the view of the expansion of tourism enterprises and spatial behavior of tourists which play an important role in evolution of tourism spatial structure of metropolitan area wholly.

  6. Evolution of industrial wastewater pollution in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area; Evolucion de la contaminacion industrial en las aguas residuales del area metropolitana de Barcelona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantecon Pascual, R.

    2005-07-01

    The Environmental Agency of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area has full powers regarding sewerage. Industrial wastewater emptied into the public sewer system has been monitored and analysed since 1988. the data showing the evolution of the pollution in industrial wastewater are presented, broken down by activities and parameters. These data are based on the analysis of 14,528 samples taken during 19,555 inspections of 5,655 factories. It was found that there has been a gradual improvement in the quality of the effluents. Failure to meet the requirements concerning one or more of the physico-chemical parameters fell from 71% to 39% of the samples analysed. (Author)

  7. Epidemiological aspects of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a periurban area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. A. Passos

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in a periurban area of the municipality of Sabará in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH, an area until then considered free of the disease, a cross sectional survey was undertaken in 1990. The survey of the population consisted of 1119 interviews and 881 clinical examinations using Montenegro's skin test (MST. A low prevalence (3.7% of positive MST was encountered. The disease had been occuring in the area for about 20 years in the form of sporadic cases. The predominant species of sandfly both in domestic areas and nearby areas of secondary vegetation was Lutzomyia whitmani. A canine survey of delayed hypersensitivity to the antigen P10,000 identified only one dog with a positive reaction out of 113 examined. The transmission of ACL in MRBH was confirmed. The occurrence of the disease in women, children and individuals with no contact with forest areas as well as the presence of potential vector species in the domiciliar environment, suggests the transmission of the disease in this environment.

  8. Lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood levels and related factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, E. [Pediatrics Service, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida (Spain); Ballabriga, A.; Dominguez, C. [Centre d`Investigacions en Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Vall d`Hebron Hospitals, School of Medicine, Pediatrics Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    1998-12-11

    A cross-sectional was conducted on 254 individuals not occupationally exposed to lead to determine the degree of lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood lead levels (BPb) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) by haemofluorimetry. Blood lead levels were analysed with respect to individuals` age, sex, area of residence, the season of the year the blood was drawn and ZPP. Mean blood lead in our series was 0.22{+-}0.011 {mu}mol/l (mean{+-}S.E.); no significant differences were found with respect to area of residence, sex or season. A linear relationship was observed between BPb and individuals` age (BPb=0.08+0.05xage; r=0.37). The prevalence of lead intoxication (BPb>0.48 {mu}mol/l) was 7.1%. No linear relationship was observed between BPb and ZPP. ZPP determination does not appear to be a good screening method for lead intoxication since it presents low specificity and sensitivity values with an area below the ROC curve similar to the null value line (area below the curve=0.5052, IC 95%=0.443-0.568). We conclude that lead exposure does not constitute a serious health problem in the area studied, since BPb levels found are far below the toxic limit and the prevalence of intoxication is similar to that reported in other studies conducted in other developed countries

  9. High resolution of anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of 12 heavy metals in the three biggest metropolitan areas, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Zhu, C.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of typical toxic heavy metals from anthropogenic sources have received worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. An integrated inventory of anthropogenic emissions of twelve HMs (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) in the three biggest metropolitan areas, including Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region and Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, are developed for 1980-2012 by combining with detailed activity data and inter-annual dynamic emission factors which are determined by S-shaped curves on account of technology progress, economic development, and emission control. The results indicate total emissions of twelve HMs in the three metropolitan regions have increased from 5448.8 tons in 1980 to 19054.9 tons in 2012, with an annual average growth rate of about 4.0%. Due to significant difference in industrial structures and energy consumption compositions, remarkable distinctions can be observed with respect to source contributions of total HM emissions from above three metropolitan areas. Specifically, the ferrous metal smelting sector, coal combustion by industrial boilers and coal combustion by power plants are found to be the primary source of total HM emissions in the BTH region (about 34.2%), YRD region (about 28.2%) and PRD region (about 24.3%), respectively. Furthermore, we allocate the annual emissions of these heavy metals in 2012 at a high spatial resolution of 9 km × 9 km grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). The peak of HM emissions are mainly distributed over the grid cells of Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan, Shijiazhuang, Handan and Baoding in the BTH region; Shanghai, Suzhou, Wuxi, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Ningbo in the YRD region; Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Foshan in the PYD region, respectively. Additionally, monthly emission profiles are established in order to further identify

  10. Clinical characteristics of healthcare-associated pneumonia in a public hospital in a metropolitan area of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, Midori; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Shibuya, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Aki; Saitoh, Hitoshi; Shingu, Akiko; Narato, Ritsuko; Nomura, Koichiro

    2012-06-01

    Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a new category that is essential in the present aging society. Knowing the different characteristics and outcomes between patients with HCAP and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) would help physicians manage and treat HCAP patients. Although HCAP is thought to be heterogeneous in regions, there are no reports from a metropolitan area in Japan. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical findings of all consecutive pneumonia patients who required hospitalized care in our hospital between April 2006 and March 2010. There were 184 (35.0%) patients with HCAP and 342 (65.0%) patients with CAP. Previous hospitalization within 90 days of the infection was the most common criterion for HCAP (63.0%). HCAP patients were significantly older than CAP patients (82.5 vs. 70.0 years, P nutritional status and high severity scores on the pneumonia severity scoring system.

  11. Comprehensive assessment of toxic metals in urban and suburban street deposited sediments (SDSs) in the biggest metropolitan area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, G; Chen, Z; Bi, C; Li, Y; Teng, J; Wang, L; Xu, S

    2010-03-01

    A set of toxic metals, i.e. As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr, in urban and suburban SDSs were investigated comparatively in the biggest metropolitan area of China, Shanghai. Results showed that all of the metals except As were accumulated greatly, much higher than background values. Geo-accumulation index indicated that metal contamination in urban SDSs was generally heavier than that in suburban SDSs. Potential ecological risk index demonstrated that overall risks caused by metals were considerable. Cd contributed 52% to the overall risk. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that in urban SDSs, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu and Cr were related to traffic and industry; coal combustion led to elevated levels of Hg; soil parent materials controlled As contents. In suburban SDSs, Pb, Cu, As and Cd largely originated from traffic pollution; Zn, Ni and Cr were associated with industrial contaminants; Hg was mainly from domestic solid waste.

  12. Land potential appraisal for urban land reserve based on GIS:A case of metropolitan area in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming-hao; QIU Dao-chi; Hae-young Bae

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid urbanization, land banking has become an important means for rational land use and land configuration optimizing. Rational urban land reserve and supply plan are keys for an urban land banking. GIS has been used to model urban growth, growth at the rural-urban fringe specifically. This paper identifies that the urban land banking potential can be evaluated based on RS and GIS technology. 10 indicators were chosen in the integrated index system. As a case of Metropolitan area in Chongqing, urban land banking potential was evaluated based on RS and GIS technology. With GIS, two steps can help to finish potential analysis of land banking. One is goal driven process, such as the process of planning and definition; the other step is data-driven process, such as the process of Manipulating. The results are used to establish the current land banking plan.

  13. Evaluation of chloride mass balance of pore water as an indicator of groundwater recharge to the Monterrey Metropolitan Area, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Lagarde, Laura; Pasten, Ernesto; Mora, Abrahan; Mahlknecht, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Monterrey Metropolitan Area in Nuevo Leon, Mexico, is the third largest metropolitan area and one of the most important industrial sites of Mexico. Groundwater constitutes 40% of the water supply to this urban area. This supply is under constant stress due to the population increase. The unsaturated zone at six sites along two cross-sections was characterized to evaluate the potential of chloride concentration as an indicator of recharge. The selected sites include the range of topographic elevations, vegetation, and annual precipitation of the study area. In each site, boreholes up to 5 m deep were drilled and soil was sampled every 0.5 m. The grain size of each soil sample was determined and pore water extracted to determine the water content percentage, and the chloride, sulfate and nitrate concentration of the pore water. The undersaturated zone consists of alluvial deposits with an average gravel and sand content greater than 60% for all but one of the sampling sites. The pore water content varies from 0.4 to 25% by weight with a decreasing trend as depth increases in areas with agriculture. Sulfate has the highest anion concentration in the pore waters, ranging from 42 to 45,000 mg/L and no apparent distribution pattern along the soil profile columns. Chloride concentration ranges from 8 to 3600 mg/L with an increase in concentration below 1.5 m depth in all the profiles. Chloride and sulfate concentrations with depth are directly correlated suggesting a common input, possibly dissolution-precipitation of evaporite minerals from nearby outcrops or an anthropogenic input. Hence, it is unlikely that chloride behaves as a conservative ion. As a result, its concentration is not likely to be a good indicator of groundwater recharge. Finally; the nitrate concentration ranges from 2 to 96 mg/L nitrate, without a clear pattern along the soil profiles. Low concentration of nitrate in the soil profiles below agricultural areas may suggest denitrification as suggested

  14. Psychiatric emergency services in Amsterdam: Experiences with acute admissions in a metropolitan area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Gijsbers van WIjk, C.

    2005-01-01

    Problems in the acute sector of psychiatric care are not unique to the Netherlands and at an international level appear to be linked to problems that are significant for big cities. The search for an “acute bed” had become more difficult and patients were being placed and transported through the who

  15. PERFIL DEL MINI-MENTAL EN POLICONSUMIDORES DE 25 A 50 AÑOS DEL ÁREA METROPOLITANA DE LA CIUDAD DE BARRANQUILLA-COLOMBIA - PROFILE OF THE MINI-MENTAL POLICONSUMER FROM 25 TO 50 YEAR OF THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF THE CITY OF BARRANQUILLA-COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHAN ACOSTA LÓPEZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE is a widely used screening test for assessing mental status and cognitive decline in particular. Includes assessment of temporo-spatial orientation, immediate evocation, attention, calculation, evoking lazy, language (verbal description, reading, writing. The criteria in this instrument are highly sensitive to cognitive impairment. This study seeks to establish the significant differences in mental status among consumers poly (cases and nonusers (controls through a screening test in cognitive-behavioral scales to confirm and quantify a person’s mental state MMSE. Intentionally were selected 55 adults of both sexes aged 25 to 50 years grouped in 25 cases and 30 controls that met the inclusion criteria, a structured interview, medical and neurological evaluation, neuropsychological assessment that includes various tests that assessed cognitive functions, were administrated as the main finding indicates that the MMSE total score statistically separated the consumer poly (cases and nonusers (controls, gave a poorer score in those affected. An 32%consumers poly a totalof 30 points, while 16%had a score of 29 points in the scale, followed by 44%, poly consumerswith a score of 28 points, and finally in records obtained by 8% of consumers cop was 26 points. The case group showed greater disturbances in the areas that assess memory and attention.

  16. 城市土地利用变化中邻域相互作用的特征——日本三大都市圈的比较研究%Characteristics of neighborhood interaction in urban land-use changes: A comparative study between three metropolitan areas of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵耀龙; 崔秉良; 村山祐司

    2011-01-01

    Local spatial interaction between neighborhood land-use categories (i.e. neighborhood interaction) is an important factor which affects urban land-use change patterns. Therefore, it is a key component in cellular automata (CA)-based urban geosimulation models towards the simulation and forecast of urban land-use changes. Purpose of this paper is to interpret the similarities and differences of the characteristics of neighborhood interaction in urban land-use changes of different metropolitan areas in Japan for providing empirical materials to understand the mechanism of urban land-use changes and construct urban geosimulation models. Characteristics of neighborhood interaction in urban land-use changes of three metropolitan areas in Japan, i.e. Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya, were compared using such aids as the neighborhood interaction model and similarity measure function. As a result, urban land-use in the three metropolitan areas was found to have had similar structure and patterns during the study period. Characteristics of neighborhood interaction in urban land-use changes are quite different from land-use categories, meaning that the mechanism of urban land-use changes comparatively differs among land-use categories. Characteristics of neighborhood interaction reveal the effect of spatial autocorrelation in the spatial process of urban land-use changes in the three metropolitan areas, which correspond with the characteristics of agglomeration of urban land-use allocation in Japan. Neighborhood interaction amidst urban land-use changes between the three metropolitan areas generally showed similar characteristics. The regressed neighborhood interaction coefficients in the models may represent the general characteristics of neighborhood effect on urban land-use changes in the cities of Japan. The results provide very significant materials for exploring the mechanism of urban land-use changes and the construction of universal urban geosimulation models which may be

  17. A high resolution 3D velocity model beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area by MeSO-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2015-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes devastating mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating serious loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 23,000 fatalities and 95 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. We have launched the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions since 2012. We analyze data from the dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), which has 296 seismic stations with spacing of 5 km (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and estimated the velocity structure and the upper boundary of PSP (Nakagawa et al., 2010). The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) has activated seismicity also in Kanto region, providing better coverage of ray paths for tomographic analysis. We obtain much higher resolution velocity models from whole dataset observed by MeSO-net between 2008 and 2015. A detailed image of tomograms shows that PSP contacts Pacific plate at a depth of 50 km beneath northern Tokyo bay. A variation of velocity along the oceanic crust suggests dehydration reaction to produce seismicity in a slab, which may related to the M7+ earthquake. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters of MEXT, Japan and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  18. ‘New urbanism' or metropolitan-level centralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Based on a study in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area, this paper compares the influences of macro-level and micro-level urban form characteristics on the respondents' traveling distance by car on weekdays. The Copenhagen study shows that metropolitan-scale urban structural variables generally exert...... as influential, such as the street pattern in the neighborhood, show no significant effect on car travel when control is made for the location of the dwelling relative to the city center....... stronger influences than neighborhood-scale built environment characteristics on the amount of car travel. In particular, the location of the residence relative to the main city center of the metropolitan region shows a strong effect. Some local scale variables often mentioned in the literature...

  19. City School Desegregation and the Creative Uses of Enrollment Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Joseph M.

    1977-01-01

    Enrollment shifts create several planning and financial problems for school districts accustomed to continued growth and rising budgets; however they can also signal new possibilities for quality integrated education both in cities and metropolitan areas. (Author/AM)

  20. Impacts of converting from leaded to unleaded gasoline on ambient lead concentrations in Jakarta metropolitan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira KONDO; Esrom HAMONANGAN; Satoshi SODA; Akikazu KAGA; Yoshio INOUE; Masaharu EGUCHI; Yuta YASAKA

    2007-01-01

    Total suspended particulate mater (TSP) concentrations were monitored for one year from July 2000 and for one year from April 2003 in Jakarta City. Thirteen elemental TSP components, aluminum (Al), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), potassium (K), zinc (Zn), titanium (Ti), manganese (Mn), bromine (Br), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and vanadium (Ⅴ) were analyzed by a sequential X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Al, Na, Fe, K, and Pb were major components at most of the sampling locations in 2000. However, only Pb in 2003 dramatically decreased to one tenth. The phase-out of leaded gasoline began on July 1, 2001 in Jakarta City and lead content in gasoline decreased to one tenth, too. The decrease in Pb concentration was a result of the phase-out of leaded gasoline, as lead emissions mainly are exhaust gas from vehicles.

  1. Impacts of converting from leaded to unleaded gasoline on ambient lead concentrations in Jakarta metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Akira; Hamonangan, Esrom; Soda, Satoshi; Kaga, Akikazu; Inoue, Yoshio; Eguchi, Masaharu; Yasaka, Yuta

    2007-01-01

    Total suspended particulate mater (TSP) concentrations were monitored for one year from July 2000 and for one year from April 2003 in Jakarta City. Thirteen elemental TSP components, aluminum (Al), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), potassium (K), zinc (Zn), titanium (Ti), manganese (Mn), bromine (Br), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and vanadium (V) were analyzed by a sequential X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Al, Na, Fe, K, and Pb were major components at most of the sampling locations in 2000. However, only Pb in 2003 dramatically decreased to one tenth. The phase-out of leaded gasoline began on July 1, 2001 in Jakarta City and lead content in gasoline decreased to one tenth, too. The decrease in Pb concentration was a result of the phase-out of leaded gasoline, as lead emissions mainly are exhaust gas from vehicles.

  2. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO{sub 2} in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the {Delta}{sup 14}C in ginkgo leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.H.; Hong, W. [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no Yuseong, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Park, G., E-mail: junghun@kigam.re.kr [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no Yuseong, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, K.S.; Lee, K.H.; Kim, Y.E.; Kim, J.K.; Choi, H.W.; Kim, G.D.; Woo, H.J. [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no Yuseong, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO{sub 2} (fossil fuel CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The {Delta}{sup 14}C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO{sub 2} ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO{sub 2} over total CO{sub 2} in atmosphere), 13.9 {+-} 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  3. [Food habits of rural school children from Chile's metropolitan area. A comparative study. 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazbun Game, J; Ivanovic Marincovich, R; Durán Santana, M C; Ivanovic Marincovich, D

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the food habits of a representative sample of 651 rural school-age children from Chile's Metropolitan Region and to carry out a comparative study between 1986-1987 and 1989. Food habits were defined as the frequency of consumption of foods expressed as days per week and were determined through a questionnaire administered to school-age children by the investigators and were compared with Model Allowance, established by Chile's Ministry of Health. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured through Graffar's modified method. Statistical procedures included analysis of variance and student "t" test for comparison of the means. The frequency of consumption of most food decreased in 1989 compared with 1986-1987. Most consumed foods (above 90%) were bread and potatoes and between 70-75% of the school-age children consumed milk, meat, yoghurt, poultry, eggs, beans, onions, cabbage, squash, lettuce, bananas, oranges, apples, grapes, biscuits, spaghetti, rice, oil, butter, carbonated beverages and juices, candies, sugar and chocolate. Foods most disliked were fresh cheese (69.3%), radish (62.2%), shellfish (59.4%) and chickpeas (48.8%). Males presented a frequency of consumption of beans, chickpeas (p < 0.05), lentil and chard swiss (p < 0.01) significantly higher than females, but these last ones registered a frequency of consumption of apples, cookies, oil (p < 0.05), onions and candies (p < 0.01) significantly higher than males. The frequency of consumption of most foods, especially milk, fish and bread (p < 0.01) decreased with age. SES had no effect on food habits of the school-age children. These results could be useful in the School Feeding Program (PAE) and in nutrition education related to school population.

  4. Tri-Cities Index of Innovation and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Richard A.; Scott, Michael J.; Butner, Ryan S.

    2011-01-17

    In 2001 and 2004, the Economic Development Office of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory published companion reports to the Washington Technology Center Index studies that provided additional information on the Tri-Cities (Kennewick-Richland-Pasco) area of the state, its technology businesses, and important advantages that the Tri-Cities have as places to live and do business. These reports also compared the Tri-Cities area to other technology-based metropolitan areas in the Pacific Northwest and nation along critical dimensions known to be important to technology firms. This report updates the material in these earlier reports, and highlights a growing Tri-Cities metropolitan area.

  5. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Urban Heat Island and Urban Metabolism by Satellite Imagery over the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.; Zhan, S.; Kuai, X.; Zhan, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this research is to combine DMSP-OLS nighttime light data with Landsat imagery and use spatio-temporal analysis methods to evaluate the relationships between urbanization processes and temperature variation in Phoenix metropolitan area. The urbanization process is a combination of both land use change within the existing urban environment as well as urban sprawl that enlarges the urban area through the transformation of rural areas to urban structures. These transformations modify the overall urban climate environment, resulting in higher nighttime temperatures in urban areas compared to the surrounding rural environment. This is a well-known and well-studied phenomenon referred to as the urban heat island effect (UHI). What is unknown is the direct relationship between the urbanization process and the mechanisms of the UHI. To better understand this interaction, this research focuses on using nighttime light satellite imagery to delineate and detect urban extent changes and utilizing existing land use/land cover map or newly classified imagery from Landsat to analyze the internal urban land use variations. These data are combined with summer and winter land surface temperature data extracted from Landsat. We developed a time series of these combined data for Phoenix, AZ from 1992 to 2013 to analyze the relationships among land use change, land surface temperature and urban growth.

  6. FORMATION MECHANISM OF THE CLUSTER SPACE OF WUHAN METROPOLITAN AREA AMID EVOLUTION OF POWER RELATIONSHIP%权力关系变迁中武汉都市区簇群式空间的形成机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯艳; 叶建伟; 黄亚平

    2013-01-01

    随着城市区域化及区域城市化态势的日益显现,一些大城市受到各种条件的影响,在都市区尺度上形成一种簇群状空间形态,武汉表现得较为典型.本文试图从权力关系变迁入手分析武汉簇群式空间的形成机理.地方各级政府间的博弈使外围区政府采用“双城”模式发展,加上在都市区空间各个方向发展较为均等的条件下,各区政府纷纷与资本结盟各自为政发展,使都市区外围空间均衡镶嵌,武汉都市区空间被“簇化”.若武汉内外环境没有较大的变动,武汉簇群式的空间态势仍会继续下去.%With the urban regionalization and regional urbanization, cluster space appears in some metropolitan areas as a new urban spatial structure, among which Wuhan can be taken as a typical case. This paper tries to analyze the formation of Wuhan metropolitan cluster space from the perspective of power relationship. The "twin-city" approach is developed in peripheral area caused by the game between different local governments. With the equal development opportunities, the balanced cluster space in Wuhan metropolitan area formed in all directions by the incorporated development of the district governments and different economies. And if there are no huge environmental variations, the cluster space in Wuhan will continue to develop.

  7. Driving factors for attracting creative knowledge workers in the Amsterdam metropolitan area. The views of high-skilled employees, managers and transnational migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pethe, H.; Bontje, M.; Pelzer, P.

    2009-01-01

    This report is a synthesis of three previous studies which analysed the attractiveness of the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area (AMA) for three groups: creative knowledge workers and graduates, managers in selected creative knowledge industries and transnational migrants in the creative knowledge industry

  8. Non-equilibrium dynamic simulation of spatial evolution of the polycentric structure in metropolitan areas of China%中国大都市多中心空间演化过程的非均衡动态模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛领; 翁谨

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s, cities in China have experienced a period of rapid growth in economy. In face of the increasing complexity of the urban sprawl, many big cities are planning to build new towns to avoid over-intensive population and infrastructure construction and to ease the pressure on urban centers. Some findings show that the rapid increase of the share of service industries in the local economy can raise the probability of the emergence of subcenters. This paper builds a mathematic model of spatial structure of metropolitan commerce based on the theory of New Economic Geography in old and new center scenarios. By using agent-based modeling and out-of-equilibrium simulation, the spatial structure of subcenters can be observed dynamically in different scenarios. Dynamic simulations show that: (1) Population growth in metropolitan area is conducive to subcenters which implies the commercial centers emerged in the suburban areas were mostly subjected to population pilot policy. (2) The continuous growth of demand scale and capacity depend on the formation of the polycentric structure in metropolitan areas. The capacity of consumptions has great impact on agglomeration of subcenters. (3) The greater the gap of commercial fixed input between the new and old centers is, the more imbalanced urban space distribution would be presented. It is more likely to form the core-periphery structure. If the fixed cost is reduced continuously in suburban areas, it is beneficial for the formation of subcenters and the core-periphery structure of metropolitan areas could be changed gradually. (4) Transportation is a double-edged sword. Commerce and business tend to gather in the place with location advantages, and continuous improvements in traffic condition between old and new centers in metropolitan areas will accelerate the spatial concentration in the old center. The probability of the emergence of subcenters decreases with the increase of the distance to the city center, which

  9. Frequency of dermatophytes in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    MEZZARI Adelina

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate the distribution of dermatophytes in Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, they were isolated from the skin, hairs and nails samples and retrospectively analyzed from June 1981 to June 1995, in two different institutions in the city of Porto Alegre: (i) the Serviço de Micologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul which attends the low income population (low an...

  10. Frequency of dermatophytes in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    MEZZARI Adelina

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate the distribution of dermatophytes in Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, they were isolated from the skin, hairs and nails samples and retrospectively analyzed from June 1981 to June 1995, in two different institutions in the city of Porto Alegre: (i) the Serviço de Micologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul which attends the low income population (low an...

  11. The response of hydrophobic organics and potential toxicity in streams to urbanization of watersheds in six metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, W.L.; Goodbred, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in streams along a gradient of urban land-use intensity in and around six metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh - Durham, North Carolina; and Denver - Fort Collins, Colorado, in 2003; and Dallas - Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee - Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Portland, Oregon, in 2004 to examine relations between percent urban land cover in watersheds and the occurrence, concentrations, and potential toxicity of hydrophobic compounds. Of the 142 endpoints measured in SPMD dialysates, 30 were significantly (alpha = 0.05) related to the percent of urban land cover in the watersheds in at least one metropolitan area. These 30 endpoints included the aggregated measures of the total number of compounds detected and relative toxicity (Microtox?? and P450RGS assays), in addition to the concentrations of 27 individual hydrophobic compounds. The number of compounds detected, P450RGS assay values, and the concentrations of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were significantly related to percent urban land cover in all six metropolitan areas. Pentachloroanisole, the most frequently detected compound, was significantly related to urban land cover in all metropolitan areas except Dallas - Fort Worth. Petrogenic PAHs and dibenzofurans were positively related to percent urban land cover in Atlanta, Raleigh - Durham, Denver, and Milwaukee - Green Bay. Results for other endpoints were much more variable. The number of endpoints significantly related to urban land cover ranged from 6 in Portland to 21 Raleigh-Durham. Based on differences in the number and suite of endpoints related to urban intensity, these results provide evidence of differences in factors governing source strength, transport, and/or fate of hydrophobic compounds in the six metropolitan areas studied. The most consistent and significant results were that bioavailable, aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists increase in streams as basins become

  12. Approach to Delimiting Metropolitan Regions' Boundary and Grading Urban Hierarchy Within a Metropolitan Region A Case Study of Shanghai Metropolitan Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Shougui; Andrew JOHNSTON; CHEN Dongchun

    2008-01-01

    In metropolitan regions,the change in the strength of"flows" between a core city and surrounding cities reflects the range of the core city's influence,while the gravity between core city and other cities reflects the strength of potential relation between them.This article firstly attempts to delimit the boundary of metropolitan regions with the two dimensions measure combining "flows" and gravitation.The former is measured through the flow of people between the core city and surrounding cities,and the latter is measured through both population and gross domestic products (GDP) of the core city and surrounding cities.The hierarchy of the cities within a metropolitan region is classifted in order to emphasize the roles of the cities belonging to the metropolitan regions,different from the general way through population scale and administrative level,and is typical in China.This paper uses the Shanghai metropolitan region as a research case,determining boundary of this metropolitan region clearly and classifying hierarchy of the cities within the region.The final results are significantly different to previous work,even overthrowing the traditional system of urban hierarchy partly.It is helpful to highlight the function of cities in organizing the regional economy,the level structure of metropolitan regions,and each city's relative importance in a metropolitan region,which can be taken as scientific basis for planning integrated regions or urban systems.

  13. Modeling the Impacts of Urbanization on Regional Climate Change: A Case Study in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Zhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available China has experienced rapid urbanization since 1978, and the dramatic change in land cover is expected to have significant impacts on the climate change. Some models have been used to simulate the relationship between land use and land cover change and climate change; however, there is still no sufficient evidence for the impacts of urbanization on the regional climate. This study aims to identify the impact of urban land use change on regional temperature and precipitation in summer in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Metropolitan area during 2030–2040 based on the analysis of the simulation results of WRF model. Firstly, we analyzed the land use change and climate change during 1995–2005 in the study area. The impacts of future urbanization on regional climate change were then simulated. The results indicate that urbanization in this area has affected the regional climate and has the potential to increase temperature and precipitation in the summer of 2030–2040. These research results can offer decision-making support information related to future planning strategies in urban environments in consideration of regional climate change.

  14. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Harris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846 of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results: While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion: Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group.

  15. Concentrations and δ13C values of atmospheric CO2 in a less-urbanized environment: Are they different from large metropolitan areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childree, P.; FENG, W.; Thieme, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The carbon isotope compositions (δ13C values) and CO2 concentrations were measured for seventy-four atmospheric samples collected in the city of Valdosta to evaluate the sources of CO2 input in a less developed urban environment. The results are compared to studies conducted in larger metropolitan areas to evaluate possible difference in sources and concentrations. Sixty-one of the samples were collected at four "outdoor" sites within a ~100 km2 area around the city, while thirteen "indoor" samples were collected in classrooms on the Valdosta State University campus, located north of downtown. Four sample collection trips were made from March to April of 2012. The samples were collected from 5 AM to 6 PM to encompass possible diurnal changes in atmospheric CO2. The thirteen indoor air samples had concentrations ranging from 429 to 681 ppmV with δ13C values ranging from -14.0 to -10.3 ‰. The sixty-one outdoor samples ranged from 397 to 539 ppmV with δ13C values ranging from -13.0 to -7.0 ‰. The higher outdoor CO2 concentrations (> 450 ppmV) correspond to lower δ13C values and are for samples collected during prolonged calm periods (wind speed Mexico) were carried into the region, which led to decreased CO2 levels and increased δ13C values. Therefore, the elevated CO2 readings likely reflected influx of locally produced CO2. On a diagram of δ13C vs.104/CO2 (Keeling plot), the domain occupied by the Valdosta samples is mostly located within the boundaries of two endmember mixing lines: 1) mixing between global atmospheric background and petroleum burning; 2) mixing between global atmospheric background and natural gas burning. Results are compared to those from a Dallas, Texas study that showed more contribution of CO2 from soil respiration and petroleum burning. This study suggests that even in a smaller urban area, fossil fuel consumptions are still the main source of the CO2 input. Furthermore, significant amounts of CO2 may be introduced into the

  16. Ensemble simulations of the urban effect on a summer rainfall event in the Great Beijing Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shi; Yang, Xiu-Qun

    2015-02-01

    The Great Beijing Metropolitan Area (GBMA), located in North China, is one of the most rapidly developing regions in the world. In this study, ensemble simulations are conducted to investigate the urban effects on a summertime heavy rainfall event in the GBMA. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model that couples with a single-layer Urban Canopy Model (UCM) is used for the ensemble simulation. Results show that the ensemble simulation with a realistic land-use representation of urban areas (i.e. control run) can well reproduce the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the rainfall event. The simulated total precipitation agrees well with observation. Compared with the sensitivity ensemble simulation, in which the urban area is replaced by cropland, the control run generates more precipitation over the southwest of Beijing, while less rainfall is found in the area to the northeast of Beijing. This result suggests that the underlying urban surface and urban canopy physics in the surface layer have remarkable impacts on precipitation. The stronger upward motion along with larger convergence and more moisture transportation caused by the urban dynamic and thermodynamic effects directly contribute to the differences in rainfall distribution between the control run and the sensitivity run. In addition, the urban effects are found to slow the cold front movement due to the intense warm air over the urban area, leading to a delayed occurrence of the peak rainfall. However, the slow-moving cold front over the urban area enhances the maximum precipitation intensity. The evolution of the rainfall pattern during the intensification period of the precipitation event is dependent on the movement of the cold front in both the control and sensitivity experiments, indicating that urban effects tend to modify the precipitation distribution and influence the temporal variation of the rainfall process.

  17. Prevalence of anxiety disorders: a population-based epidemiological study in metropolitan area of Casablanca, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrada Soumia

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Morocco, no epidemiological study has been conducted to show the current prevalence of mental disorders in the general population. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and comorbidity of anxiety disorders in Moroccan subjects. Methods We used cross-sectional study, with a representative sample of Casablanca city. Direct interviews used the Mini International Neurpsychiatric Interview in its validated Moroccan Arabic version Results Among 800 subjects, 25.5% met criteria of at least one current anxiety disorder: Panic Disorder (2%, Agoraphobia (7.6% Social phobia (3.4, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (6.1%, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (3.4%, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (4.3% Conclusion The results are generally similar to those of Western countries. Future studies need to replicate these results and to concentrate on their impact on the quality of life and the cost of such conditions in the community.

  18. A study on the interaction and evolution of the spatial expansion and administrative division adjustment in Beijing metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfu; Dang, Anrong

    2008-10-01

    Since 1990s and especially since 2000, the city space of Beijing has grown rapidly. There's no doubt that the urban construction land area is expanding to the suburban areas, which is the result of rapid social and economic growth in the city and also closely related to the reform of "turning county into district". In other words, the adjustment of administrative division in Beijing interacts with the expansion of urban construction land space. Beijing turns counties into districts and introduces regional offices are two distinct evidence. As for the interaction, there're both advantages and disadvantages and the focus of the article is to explore how to exploit the favorable conditions and avoid unfavorable ones. The article takes the town administrative region as the minimum space unit so as to better explore the anisotropism and regional differences of city space expansion as well as the impact caused by the adjustment of administrative divisions. With initial analysis, we find that: firstly, on the contrary to the sharp reduction of farming land, the city construction land are for residential communities, factories and mines increases the fastest; secondly, the big central cluster expansion has great regional difference and the three directions of northwest, north and south grows the fastest, which is mainly caused by the positive guidance of trunk roads including highway construction; thirdly, the land area in central cluster used for new construction projects is mainly located in suburban area, but exurb districts of Daxing and Changping also take up a considerable proportion; fourthly, as for the key exurb towns including Changping, Shunyi, and Fangshan, the built-up area also grows rapidly.

  19. Public space in the housing estates of Poznan metropolitan area: design strategy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The article was prepared on the basis of research conducted at the Faculty of Architecture at Poznan University of Technology. It constitutes an introduction to the subject of regeneration of housing areas in the Poznan Municipal Area in order to familiarize the reader with the method of socio-spatial analysis in relation to public space in housing estates.

  20. 75 FR 37245 - 2010 Standards for Delineating Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ...(b) is used in a much more limited fashion, only applying that criterion to those potential... estimates. The urbanized areas and urban clusters used in the 2018 update will be those delineated with 2010... delineated urbanized area of at least 50,000 population or a Census Bureau delineated urban cluster of...

  1. Study on Spatial-Temporal Characteristics of Land Use Change in Wuhan Metropolitan Area Since 1990%1990年以来武汉城市圈土地利用变化时空特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯新利; 韩冰华; 刘蓉霞; 袁永卫

    2012-01-01

    improved coding system and land use dynamic degree model,we analysis land use data of 1990,1995,2000 and 2005 of Wuhan Metropolitan Area to recognize general pattern,trends in phases and regional heterogeneity of Wuhan Metropolitan Area since 1990.Results show that:(1) In Wuhan Metropolitan Area,area of cropland,forest and grassland decreased greatly,while water body and build up area increased during 1990 to 2005.Most decreased cropland was transformed to water body and build up area.(2) In different phases,it shows different land use change pattern in Wuhan Metropolitan Area: during 1990 to 1995,decreasing of cropland was the major characteristics;during 1995 to 2000,interconversion of cropland and water body was the main characteristics;during 2000 to 2005,cropland transformed to water body and build up area was the main characteristics.(3) Spatial heterogeneity of land use change in Wuhan Metropolitan Area is apparent: regions with large land use dynamic degree are centered on Wuhan City and counties beside it;as far as the land use dynamic degree for single land use class is concerned,regions with large cropland dynamic degree,forest dynamic degree and build up dynamic degree are centered on Wuhan City and counties beside it,while regions with large water body dynamic degree are centered on Xiantao City and Qianjiang City.

  2. Severe Weather Caused by Heat Island and Sea Breeze Effects in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Vemado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP is one of the most populated regions of the planet with one of the largest impervious regions as well. This research work aims to characterize MASP heat island (HI effect and its interaction with the local sea breeze (SB inflow in rainfall amounts and deep convection. The combined SB-HI produces direct circulation over the MASP and produces severe weather and socioeconomic impacts. All SB-HI episodes between 2005 and 2008 are identified and analyzed with surface and upper air measurements, weather radar, and satellite data. The current work indicates that intense SB-HI episodes are related to air and dew point temperatures above 30°C and 20°C, respectively, right after the passage of the SB front over MASP. Results indicate that the precipitation related to SB-HI episodes is up to 600 mm or about four times higher than that in rural or less urbanized areas in its surroundings. Measurements indicate that 74% of SB-HI episodes are related to NW winds in earlier afternoon hours. Moving cold fronts in southern Brazil tend to intensify the SB-HI circulation in MASP. A conceptual model of these patterns is presented in this paper.

  3. Motorways in Metropolitan Areas: The Northwestern Growth of Florence and the Urban Use of Motorway A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Cutini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent urban growth of Florence was mainly oriented northward, thus determining the urbanization of the flatland and the inclusion within a unique conurbation of a number of pre-existing urban nuclei. Over time, the congestion of the inner core has caused more and more prominent activities to shift towards this developing area, which is today one of the most attractive parts of the whole settlement, counterbalancing the representativeness and the touristic attractiveness of the historic center of Florence. This paper is concerned with the use of space syntax in order to reconstruct the genesis of the configurational geography of Florence. Configurational values at different dates will be cross-referenced with vehicular traffic data, so as to pinpoint the actual inclusion of the motorway A1, touching Florence on its western side, within the urban grid of Florence and its influence in the distribution of local traffic flows. Aside from this case study, this method can be extended to the general issue of the management of motorways in metropolitan areas. More in general, this approach is proposed as a suitable tool for interconnecting spatial issues and traffic questions, so as to concur in bridging the gap between urban design, focused on the morphologic features of blocks and buildings, and transport analysis, strictly concerned with the distribution of movement flows on the street network.

  4. China’s Metropolitan Area Planning Character And Trend%我国大城市连绵区规划建设进展与发展趋势探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明; 王凯

    2014-01-01

    The six southeastern coastal metropolitan areas are developed regions of China. They face mid-western regions growth and labor shortage chal enges. In recent years, the metropolitan areas have practiced low carbon city development, old district renovation, creative industry, livable city, and planning compilation innovation to boost development. Studies on land-sea integrate development and free trade zone impact, and a new round urban agglomeration planning are major missions of these areas.%我国东南沿海六大城市连绵区是国家经济社会发展的先发地区,但其发展也面临着中西部竞争力增强、外出劳动力增幅放缓等不利因素的影响。近年来,东南沿海大城市连绵区在低碳生态、旧区更新、创新创意产业发展、宜居城市建设,以及规划的编制和创新等方面作了许多探索。在加强区域协调发展的背景下,实现陆海统筹协调发展、研究自由贸易区对区域关系的影响、进行新一轮的城市群规划的编制,是这些大城市连绵区面临的重点任务。

  5. Seasonality, ambient temperatures and hospitalizations for acute exacerbation of COPD: a population-based study in a metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almagro P

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pere Almagro,1 Carme Hernandez,2,3,7 Pable Martinez-Cambor,4,5 Ricard Tresserras,2,6 Joan Escarrabill2,7 1Acute Geriatric Care Unit, Internal Medicine, University Hospital Mútua de Terrasa, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Respiratory Disease Management Plan, Department of Health of the Autonomous Government of Catalonia, Observatory of Respiratory Therapy, 3Integrated Care Unit, Medical and Nursing Management, Hospital Clínic Barcelona, Barcelona, 4Oficina de Investigación Biosanitaria de Oviedo, Asturias, Spain; 5Universidad Autonoma de Chile, Santiago, Chile; 6Health Department, 7Chronic Diseases Care Program, Hospital Clinic, Hospital Clínic & REDISSEC (Health Services Research on Chronic Patients Network, Barcelona, Spain Background: Excluding the tropics, exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are more frequent in winter. However, studies that directly relate hospitalizations for exacerbation of COPD to ambient temperature are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of temperature on the number of hospitalizations for COPD.Methods: This was a population-based study in a metropolitan area. All hospital discharges for acute exacerbation of COPD during 2009 in Barcelona and its metropolitan area were analyzed. The relationship between the number of hospitalizations for COPD and the mean, minimum, and maximum temperatures alongside comorbidity, humidity, influenza rate, and environmental pollution were studied.Results: A total of 9,804 hospitalization discharges coded with COPD exacerbation as a primary diagnosis were included; 75.4% of cases were male with a mean age of 74.9±10.5 years and an average length of stay of 6.5±6.1 days. The highest number of admissions (3,644 [37.2%] occurred during winter, followed by autumn with 2,367 (24.1%, spring with 2,347 (23.9%, and summer with 1,446 (14.7%; P<0.001. The maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures were associated similarly with the

  6. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... that especially eve-ryday-route strategies adding new public functions within the area can pave the way for integration with the surroundings. The applicability of such strategies is however highly dependent on the context, location and existing image of the ar-ea. Social distance may sustain though physical...... borders are removed, yet, in combination with other initiatives, linking the area better to the surroundings can over time benefit the image of the area....

  7. Mega drought in the Colorado River Basin, water supply, and adaptive scenario planning for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area; simulations using WaterSim 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Decision Center for a Desert City (DCDC), a boundary organization, bridges science and policy (to foster knowledge-based decision making); we study how decisions are made in the face of uncertainty. Our water policy and management model for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area (hereafter "Phoenix"), termed WaterSim, represents one such bridging mechanism. We evaluated the effect of varying the length of drought on water availability for Phoenix. We examined droughts (starting in 2000) lasting 15, 25, and 50 years. We picked a 60-year window of runoff estimates from the paleo reconstruction data for the Colorado River (CO) (1121 through 1180 A.D.), and the two local rivers (1391 through 1450 A.D.), and assumed that the proportional difference in median flow between these periods and the long-term record represented an estimate of potential drought reductions on river flows. This resulted in a 12%, and 19% reduction in flows for the CO River and the Salt-Verde (SV) Rivers, respectively. WaterSim uses 30-year trace periods from the historical flow records to simulate river flow for future projections. We used each 30-year trace from the historical record (1906 to present, CO River; 1945 to present SV Rivers) , and default settings, to simulate 60 year projections of Lake Mead elevation and the accompanying Colorado River water shortages to Phoenix. Overall, elevations for Lake Mead fell below the 1st shortage sharing tier (1075 ft) in 83% of the simulations; 74% of the simulations fell below the 2nd tier (1050 ft), and 64% fell below the 3rd (1025 ft). Length of drought, however, determined the shortage tiers met. Median elevations for droughts ending in 2015, 2025, and 2050 were 1036, 1019, and 967 feet msl, respectively. We present the plausible water futures with adaptive anticipatory scenario planning for the projected reductions in surface water availability to demonstrate decision points for water conservation measures to effectively manage shortage conditions.

  8. Fungal spores in four catholic churches in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo León State, Mexico – First study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rocha Estrada

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. About 500,000 species of fungi have been described to-date, although an estimated between 1 – 1.5 million species may occur. They have a wide distribution in nature, contributing to the decomposition of organic matter and playing a part in the biogeochemical cycles of major nutrients. A small number are considered pathogens of animals and plants. There is ample historical evidence that certain types of allergies are associated with fungi; exposure to fungal allergens occurs in both outdoor and indoor spaces. Many indoor allergens are the same as those found outside buildings, entering through windows and doors, ventilation systems, or through cracks or other fissures in the walls. Objective. To determine the diversity and abundance of fungal spores inside four churches in the metropolitan area of Monterrey city in Mexico. Materials and methods. The study was carried out from July 2009 – January 2010 using a Hirst type volumetric collector (Burkard Manufacturing Co Ltd. Results. A total of 31,629 spores from 54 taxa were registered in the four churches. The building that showed the highest amount of spores was the Santa Catarina Mártir Church with 12,766 spores, followed by Cristo Rey with 7,155 and Nuestra Señora del Roble with 6,887. Regularly high concentrations of spores were recorded from 14:00 – 20:00 hours. The highest concentration value was observed at the church of Santa Catarina Mártir at 16:00 hours with 1153 spores/m 3 air. Conclusions. The most abundant spores in the four churches studied corresponded to Cladosporium, the [i]Aspergillus/Penicillium complex[/i], [i]Coprinus[/i], [i]Ganoderma[/i], [i]Curvularia and Ustilago[/i].

  9. The Poor Rural Areas That Must Support The City of the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wimberley

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cities have exported poverty to rural areas, yet we forget that cities do not exist in nature. Sociologists and others often seem to forget that. Cities are a product of social behavior. Neither do cities exist in self-sustained vacuums unto themselves. Cities are dependent and interdependent with rural areas and through forms of social interaction that link people living in urban and rural areas. While cities are a product of social behavior, they are dependent upon natural resources. It is from rural areas that the natural resources which sustain cities are produced and extracted.

  10. Metropolitanization and Forest Recovery in Southern Brazil: a Multiscale Analysis of the Florianópolis City-Region, Santa Catarina State, 1970 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra R. Baptista

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the contexts of globalization and the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, I present a multiscale analysis of anthropogenic landscape dynamics in the Florianópolis city-region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Drawing on field research conducted between 2000 and 2004 and a review of the literature, I examined Brazilian demographic and agricultural census data for the period of 1970 to 1995-1996. I hypothesized that economic restructuring, new institutional arrangements, and the valuation of environmental amenities and ecosystem services have contributed to forest recovery trends and thus a forest transition in the city-region. My results indicate that along with rapid urbanization, in-migration, socioeconomic polarization, and segregation, the city-region has experienced the contraction of private agricultural land area, expansion of protected areas, recovery of forests, and conversion of coastal plain ecosystems to built environments. Future analyses of forest transition dynamics should consider the spatial configurations of socioeconomic inequality in city-regions.

  11. Consumption of Advanced Internet Services in the Enterprises Sector: the Spread of Telework in the Metropolitan Area of Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos MACÍA ARCE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the pillars of the technological revolution that began in the seventies was the development of the Internet. This network has evolved in such a way that it now forms a complex structure that radically changed the social and economic dynamics at the end of century XX. Nowadays, new technologies allow anything from communication and information exchange to the realization of complex financial transactions, all from anywhere in the world and almost instantaneously. In spite of the widespread use of the Internet, there are still territories and inhabitants, mostly emplaced in remote rural areas, who live outside of this technological revolution. By contrast, urban areas enjoy a privileged position in the dissemination of the information society by concentrating most of the telecommunications infrastructure and monopolize the most qualified people. But there are many disparities in terms of diffusion of new technologies and these will transfer, in turn, to the enterprise sector which is the subject of this research. The differences in the use of new technologies and more specifically the use of advanced services on the Internet are related to the sector where the population is employed and its level of training. One of the advanced services offered by the Network is teleworking. Nowadays there are companies that offer their employees the opportunity to develop their professional activities outside their headquarters, using their homes as an alternative or call centers enabled with computers and Internet access. The purpose of this research is the study of the consumption of Internet advanced services by companies in the metropolitan area of Madrid, analyzing the spread of telework in more detail,a potential offered by new technologies and which may modify the current pattern of mobility in the main urban areas because it is from here where big companies are guiding the global economy.

  12. Strong Ground Motions Generated by the February 11, 2014 Tatunshan Earthquake in the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kou-Cheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong-motion seismograms from the 11 February, 2014 Tatunshan earthquake were recorded at stations around the source area. These recordings were used to analyze the strong-motion characteristics in the area. The largest peak ground acceleration (PGA values of 100.7, 93.4, and 66.6 cm sec-2 in the vertical, EW, and NS directions, respectively, were recorded at station TAP056, about 4.9 km to the northwest of the epicenter. The PGA decays fast with distance, indicating high attenuation in the Tatun volcanic area. The PGA ratio of vertical to horizontal ground motions decreases with increasing epicenter distance. The PGA values in the EW component are larger than those in the NS component. This might be associated with the focal mechanism of the earthquake. The spectral accelerations decrease rapidly with increasing period.

  13. Truckee Meadows (Reno-Sparks Metropolitan Area) Nevada: Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    Creek, the largest tributary in the Reno area, originates at the outlet of Washoe Lake, a large flat depression that receives any runoff originating...pollutants, and other chemicals; and c) decompose organic materials by microbiota on and in wetland sediments. FWS estimates 14 percent of the Truckee River

  14. Fear of Crime among an Immigrant Population in the Washington, DC Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackah, Yaw

    2000-01-01

    Studied fear of crime among Ghanaian immigrants in the Washington, D.C. area, taking aspects of Ghanaian culture into account. Survey responses of 300 immigrants showed that the majority of the Ghanaian immigrants experienced fear of crime, but those who had been urban residents in Ghana were less fearful, probably because they were already…

  15. Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Wahlgren

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Commuting by bicycle could contribute to public health, and route environments may influence this behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the potential associations between appraisals of the overall route environment as hindering or stimulating for bicycle commuting, with both perceptions of commuting route environmental factors in a suburban area and background factors. Methods: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions and appraisals of their route environments in the suburban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable whether the overall route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and environmental factors (e.g., exhaust fumes, speeds of motor vehicles, greenery, as well as background factors (sex, age, education, income as predictor variables. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that in suburban areas, the factors aesthetics, greenery and bicycle paths seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting. On the other hand, flows of motor vehicles, noise, and low “directness” of the route seem to be hindering factors. A comparison of these results with those obtained from an inner urban area points to the importance of studying different types of built-up areas separately.

  16. 76 FR 60587 - Environmental Impact Statement; North Corridor Transit Project, Seattle (WA) Metropolitan Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... economic vitality and preserves a healthy environment; and 4. Supporting the long-range vision, goals, and... regional transit investment that supports economic vitality, preserves the environment, preserves... environment. Areas of investigation include, but are not limited to, transportation, land use,...

  17. Heavy Precipitation impacts and emergency planning - developing applicable strategies for a metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschker, Thomas; Glade, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Heavy rainfall in central Europe is one of the assumed effects of climate change, which occurs with large seasonal and regional differences in its magnitude. The extent of loss depends on natural parameters (e.g. topography and vegetation) as well as on socio-economic factors like urbanized and industrialized areas and population density. Dangerous cascade effects appear, if critical infrastructure like the electrical power supply is affected. In some cases mudflows and flash floods cause inundated or undercut roads and cause a high demand for fast and effective assistance of the authorities. The civil protection in Germany is based on a federal system with a bottom-up command-structure and responsibility to the local community. Commonly this responsibility is taken by the fire brigades and civil protection units of the community or district. After heavy rainfall in an urban area, numerous incidents and emergency calls appearing at a time are overstressing the human and technical resources of the fire brigades within the local authority frequently. In this study, a method of comprehensive evaluation of meteorological data and the operation data from local fire brigades shall be developed for the Rhine-Main-Area in order to identify particular affected spots of heavy rain and bundle resources of the fire brigades. It is to be found out if the study area contains regions with a particularly high exposure to heavy rain and high application numbers of the fire department and whether there is a relationship of rainfall and frequency of use. To evaluate particular local effects on the fire brigades capability, a brief analysis of the meteorological data provided by the German Meteorological Service (DWD) as well as the evaluation of the incident data of the affected fire brigades, is used to frame a realistic approach. In particular fire brigade operation data can be used accordingly to describe the intensity of the aftermath when heavy precipitation strikes a certain

  18. Housing transformations Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area. The passage from Neo-liberalism to Urban Neo-development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo del Río

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic recovery that followed the 2001/02 crisis in Argentina came with a relevant improvement in a number of social and economic indicators, related among other reasons to the design of public policies aimed at recuperating employment levels and the productive matrix. In this context, the “construction – public works” tandem became a central topic in the agenda, and Real Estate expansion was widely assessed as a positive outcome by macro-economic standards. However, this process was not exempt of contradictions, as can be seen in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, where it is possible to observe a set of concurring tendencies resulting from the hybridization of the urban neo-liberalization still present and the recent expansion of urban neo-developmentalism. As a result, the expansion of State-led de-commodification of goods and services aimed at social reproduction, coexists with a persisting process of socially regressive housing space production, together with an intense commodification of existing housing, associated with a growing financializationof “bricks”.

  19. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  20. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Genaro G; Arias-Merino, Elva D; Flores-Saiffe, María E; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E; Macías-Islas, Miguel A; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA), Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men); no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men); no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31-4.60). Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60.

  1. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Stock, W.D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)], E-mail: w.stock@ecu.edu.au; Hedderson, T. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar {delta}{sup 15}N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha{sup -1} a{sup -1} since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  2. Impact of the mobile phone on junior high-school students' friendships in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sugiura, Hitomi

    2005-04-01

    The proportion of having keitai (Japanese mobile phone) has increased rapidly in young children. To research how junior high school students use their own keitai and to examine the impact of using it on their psychology, especially on their friendship, we recruited 651 students, grade 8, from five public junior high schools in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Each student participant completed a questionnaire that we had created. The response rates were 88.8% (n = 578) for participants. The proportion of having their own keitai was 49.3% (n = 285) and that of not having it was 50.7% (n = 293). We found that they used it much more frequently for e-mail than as a phone. Most of them exchanged e-mails between schoolmates, and more than a half of them exchanged e-mails more than 10 times a day. Sociable students estimated that their own keitai was useful for their friendship. But they experienced some insecurity or started staying up late at night engaged in e-mail exchanges, and they thought that they could not live without their own keitai. Our findings suggest that keitai having an e-mail function play a big part in the junior high-school students' daily life, and its impact on students' friendships, psychology, or health should be discussed among students to prevent keitai addiction.

  3. Climate threats, water supply vulnerability and the risk of a water crisis in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (Northeastern Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Nicholas P.; Ramírez, Aldo I.; Aguilar-Barajas, Ismael; Magaña-Rueda, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    This paper evaluates the risk of a water crisis - a substantial, sudden reduction in water supply - in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA), posed by climate threats and the vulnerability of its water supply system. Our analysis of long-term precipitation, water supply and water availability data reveals that the MMA is highly vulnerable to recurring periods of exceptionally low precipitation and scarce surface water availability. We identify two episodes in the recent past (1998 and 2013) when the MMA water supply system almost collapsed as reservoirs neared depletion in the face of abnormally dry weather. Furthermore our climate projections point to warmer and drier future conditions for the region and consequently, heightened climate threats. We conclude that the risk of a water crisis in the MMA is substantial and probably will increase due to climate change. This establishes a clear and pressing need for a comprehensive package of adaptation measures to mitigate the consequences of a water crisis should one occur as well as to reduce the likelihood of such an event.

  4. Who Will Use Pre-Trip Traveler Information and How Will They Respond? Insights from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS is able to make the transportation system safer, smoother, and more sustainable. The research and practice of pre-trip traveler information (PTI, an indispensable component of ITS, is very limited in China. With data collected from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China, this empirical study revealed the socio-demographics of potential PTI users and feasible travel responses in daily trips under PTI. Young-and-middle-aged, influential, and motorized males were the most potential PTI users, while unemployed young females the least. Among the motorized potential users who habitually traveled by car, the high-income sub-group was least likely to shift travel modes under PTI. The younger white-collar or blue-collar had a lower propensity to shift to bicycle, but the younger blue-collar workers were more likely to shift to walking. The low income preferred to shift to bus rather than elevated light rail due to the difference of travel cost. The findings will facilitate our understanding of the market segments and effects of PTI, improve the system design and implementation strategy, and help address urban traffic and environmental issues throughout China.

  5. Household, Personal and Environmental Correlates of Rural Elderly’s Cycling Activity: Evidence from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is an important form of active transport and physical activity to provide substantial health benefits to the elderly. Among voluminous physical activity-related literature, few studies have investigated the correlates of active transport of the rural elderly in China. This study was the first attempt to investigate the impact of the household, personal, and environmental attributes on rural elderly’s cycling activity with data collected in 102 rural neighborhoods of Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China. The negative binomial regression models suggest that, all else being equal, living in a neighborhood with low proportion of elderly population (over 60, abundant bike lanes, and a compact urban form related to high density and mixed development, are associated with the increase of frequency and duration of the rural elderly’s cycling trips. The models also detect that attitude towards cycling and household bicycle and motorized vehicle ownership are strongly related to cycling trips of the rural elderly in Zhongshan. The findings provide insights for transportation and public health agencies, practitioners, and researchers into the effective design of interventions from the prospective of attitudes, social and built environment on health promotion of the rural elderly in China.

  6. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genaro G. Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA, Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men; no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men; no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31–4.60. Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60.

  7. Evaluation of the Relative Importance of Radical Sources in Determining the Regional Tropospheric Oxidation Capacity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, D.; Sanchez, D.; Blake, D. R.; Kim, D. S.; Lee, G.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.; Ahn, J.; Cho, G.; Guenther, A. B.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    We will discuss oxidation capacity in the boundary layer of the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) by analyzing a comprehensive field observational datasets of trace gases, radicals, and radical precursors. Two intensive field observations will be discussed. From mid-May to mid-June of 2015, we conducted a field observation in the middle of Seoul, representing a region with high anthropogenic emissions and photochemistry near the source region. We deployed an identical suite of instrumentation (i.e., CO, NOX, O3, SO2, VOCs, ClNO2, HONO, and PANs) at Taehwa Research Forest (TRF), ~ 50 km from the center of Seoul in early September of 2015. The site has been characterized as an ideal region in probing roles of biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) in a moderately polluted regional background. Therefore, the comparisons between two datasets will allow us to assess regional oxidation capacity of a megacity surrounded by forests, which is a typical set-up in the East Asian region. The main focus of the discussion was to investigate the following: (i) relative impact of nighttime radical reservoirs (i.e., HONO and ClNO2) in the morning radical budget in the urban and suburban environments and (ii) relative importance of unconstrained primary and recycling (e.g., BVOC oxidation) OH production at the isoprene dominated TRF region. An observationally constrained box model with detailed VOC chemical oxidation schemes (e.g., MCM) will be used for the comprehensive evaluations.

  8. Private Sector Participation in Urban Water and Sanitation Provision in Ghana: Experiences from the Tamale Metropolitan Area (TMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumanu, Issaka Kanton

    2008-07-01

    African governments, like most countries in the developing world, face daunting tasks in their attempts to provide effective and equitable water and sanitation services for their ever increasing urban populations. Consequently, the past few years have witnessed increased private sector participation in urban water and sanitation provision, as many African governments strive to improve access to water and sanitation services for their citizens in line with Millennium Development Goal 7 (MDG7). Since the early 1990s, the government of Ghana and many local authorities have entered into various forms of public-private partnerships in urban water and sanitation provision. This article examines the outcome of such partnerships using the Tamale Metropolitan Area (TMA) as a case study with the aim of providing policy guidelines for the way forward. The article argues that the public-private arrangement for water supply and sanitation infrastructure management in the Tamale Metropolis has done nothing that an invigorated public sector could not have possibly achieved. It concludes that there can be no sustainable improvement in water and sanitation provision without political commitment, stakeholder ownership, and strong support for community driven initiatives.

  9. Concentration and chemical composition of PM10 particles in the metropolitan area of ​Costa Rica in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During 2012 the PM10 concentrations were measured in 13 sampling sites distributed in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica. The samples were collected using high volume samplers and subsequently analyzed for: ions (F-, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, PO43-, SO42-, trace metals (V, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Al, Pb, Ni, organic and elemental carbon content. Sampling sites located in high traffic commercial and industrial zones exhibited significative increased concentrations (42 – 29 µg/m3 compared to low traffic commercial and residential zones (23 – 15 µg/m3. As for speciation, crustal contribution increases from 13-14 % found in high traffic industrial zones to 28 % in residential zones. While marine aerosol contribution ranges from 2,5 to 5% for all sampling sites without a distinctive pattern. The OC and EC fraction was the most important contribution to the PM10 composition, mainly in HE-01 and BE-01 sampling sites accounting for around 53 and 56 % of the total mass. This reflects the importance of combustion sources to the fine particulate matter composition. In the case of the trace metals fraction it was the lowest one found for all the sampling sites.

  10. Applying multivariate clustering techniques to health data: the 4 types of healthcare utilization in the Paris metropolitan area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lefèvre

    Full Text Available Cost containment policies and the need to satisfy patients' health needs and care expectations provide major challenges to healthcare systems. Identification of homogeneous groups in terms of healthcare utilisation could lead to a better understanding of how to adjust healthcare provision to society and patient needs.This study used data from the third wave of the SIRS cohort study, a representative, population-based, socio-epidemiological study set up in 2005 in the Paris metropolitan area, France. The data were analysed using a cross-sectional design. In 2010, 3000 individuals were interviewed in their homes. Non-conventional multivariate clustering techniques were used to determine homogeneous user groups in data. Multinomial models assessed a wide range of potential associations between user characteristics and their pattern of healthcare utilisation.We identified four distinct patterns of healthcare use. Patterns of consumption and the socio-demographic characteristics of users differed qualitatively and quantitatively between these four profiles. Extensive and intensive use by older, wealthier and unhealthier people contrasted with narrow and parsimonious use by younger, socially deprived people and immigrants. Rare, intermittent use by young healthy men contrasted with regular targeted use by healthy and wealthy women.The use of an original technique of massive multivariate analysis allowed us to characterise different types of healthcare users, both in terms of resource utilisation and socio-demographic variables. This method would merit replication in different populations and healthcare systems.

  11. [Mortality in metropolitan regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes Ccds

    1980-01-01

    Data from the 1970 census and a 1974-1975 survey carried out in Brazil by the Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica are used to examine recent mortality trends in urban areas. Specifically, life expectancy in nine metropolitan areas is analyzed in relation to income, diet, and sanitary facilities in the home.

  12. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Interim Report on Feasibility of Flood Management. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    B17 Current Employment in the Buffalo Labor Area B-20 B18 Agricultural Earnings Projected Agricultural Earnings to 2030 B-21 B19 Agricultural Output...Orleans County. The political subdivisions of the watershed, in addition to clima - tological and hydrologic stations, are shown on Plate BI. Economic...York. Its highway network, large supply of skilled labor , access to raw materials, ample electric power, and ready access to markets in the northeast

  13. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMA, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-K. Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant functional type (PFT distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and PM simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs. This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic VOC emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. Also, this paper attempts to provide important implications for biogenic emissions modeling studies for CTM simulations. MM5-MEGAN-SMOKE-CMAQ model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from MEGAN biogenic emissions analysis with three different sources of PFT input data, US EPA CMAQ O3 simulation results were evaluated by surface O3 monitoring datasets and further considered on the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT datasets considered were "(1KORPFT", developed with a region specific vegetation database; (2 CDP, adopted from US NCAR; and (3 MODIS, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf trees (BT are the most significant contributor, followed by needleleaf trees (NT, shrub (SB, and herbaceous plants (HB to the total biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs. In addition, isoprene from BT and terpene from NT were recognized as significant primary and secondary BVOC species in terms of BVOC emissions distributions and O3-forming potentials in the study domain. Multiple regression analyses with the different PFT data (δO3 vs. δPFTs suggest that KORPFT can provide reasonable information to the framework of MEGAN biogenic emissions modeling and CTM O3 predictions. Analyses of the CMAQ performance statistics suggest that deviations of BT areas can significantly affect CMAQ isoprene and O3 predictions. From further evaluations of the

  14. Natural background. gamma. radiation exposure in the metropolitan area of the valley of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the natural background radiation have been made at numerous places throughout the world. Very little work in this field has been done in developing countries. In Mexico the natural radiation to which the population is exposed has not been assessed. This dissertation represents a pioneer study in this environmental area. The radiation exposure which occupants within buildings receive as a result of naturally occurring radionuclides present in construction materials is the principal focus. Data were collected between August 1979 and November 1980. Continuous monitoring was done with TLDs placed on site for periods of 3 to 6 months. The instrumentation used for real-time measurements was a portable NaI (TI) scintillation detector. In addition, radiometric measurements were performed on construction materials commonly used in Mexican homes. Based on TLD readings taken within 75 dwellings, the typical indoor exposure for a resident of the study area is 9.2 ..mu..Rh/sup -1/. The average reading of the 152 indoor scintillometer surveys was 9.5 ..mu..Rh/sup -1/, the outdoor reading 7.5 ..mu..Rh/sup -1/. Results of one-way and multiway analyses of the exposure data to determine the effect due to building materials type, geologic subsoil, age of dwelling, and elevation are also presented. The results of 152 indoor scintillometer surveys are described.

  15. The Spatial Relationship of Child Homicides to Community Resources in a Large Metropolitan Area

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    Rohit Shenoi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the relationship between neighborhood sociodemographic factors, community resources, and homicides involving young children. We performed spatial analysis of children under age five murdered in Harris County, Texas, from 1997 to 2003. Data on county population, household, socioeconomic, and residential mobility characteristics were allocated to census block groups. Age-adjusted spatial clusters of the homicides were identified. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo negative binomial regression risk model tested the relationship of age-adjusted number of child homicides to block group characteristics and distance of victim’s residence to community resources. Child maltreatment accounted for 94% of 125 homicides. In all, 64% were concentrated in 12 age-adjusted spatial clusters involving 3% of county area. Predictors for number of homicides were a larger number of single-parent households (male and female and lower median household income. Distance to nearest community resources was not significant. Spatial clusters of child homicides were associated with low-income neighborhoods and single-parent (male and female households. No association between the spatial clusters of child homicides and their proximity to community resources was observed. A high percentage of child homicides were concentrated in a small area of the county, which offers the potential for targeted, cost-effective interventions.

  16. Analysis of long-term climate change on per capita water demand in urban versus suburban areas in the Portland metropolitan area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandvash, G. Hossein; Chang, Heejun

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the impacts of long-term climate variability and change on per capita water demand in urban and suburban service areas that have different degrees of development density in the Portland metropolitan area, USA. Together with historical daily weather and water production data, socioeconomic data such as population and unemployment rate were used to estimate daily per capita water demand in the two service areas. The structural time series regression model results show that the sensitivity of per capita water demand to both weather and unemployment rate variables is higher in suburban areas than in urban areas. This is associated with relatively higher proportional demand by the residential sector in the suburban area. The estimated coefficients of the historical demand model were used to project the mid-21st century (2035-2064) per capita water demand under three climate change scenarios that represent high (HadGEM2-ES), medium (MIROC5), and low (GFDL) climate changes. Without climate adaptation, compared to the historical period between 1983 and 2012, per capita water demand is projected to increase by 10.6% in the 2035-2064 period under the HadGEM2-ES in suburban areas, while per capita demand is projected to increase by 4.8% under the same scenario in urban areas. Our findings have implications for future urban water resource management and land use planning in the context of climate variability and change. A tight integration between water resource management and urban planning is needed for preparing for climate adaptation in municipal water planning and management.

  17. Clindamycin resistant emm33 Streptococcus pyogenes emerged among invasive infections in Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland, 2012 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, A K; Sihvonen, R; Lindholm, L; Pätäri-Sampo, A

    2015-05-07

    In 2012, blood, skin and soft tissue infections caused by clindamycin resistant Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus; GAS) appeared to be increasing in the Helsinki metropolitan area. We compared monthly percentages of clindamycin resistant isolates in the area between 2012 and 2013, with those in 2010 and 2011. Resistance frequency in terms of patient age was also studied. We reviewed the medical records of bacteraemic cases in 2012 and 2013 and linked the data to emm types. To inform on the emm distribution among GAS isolated from skin and soft tissue infections during the epidemic, GAS isolates of one month (March 2013) were emm typed. For GAS blood, skin, and soft tissue isolates taken together, the proportions of clindamycin resistant isolates were significantly higher in 2012 and 2013 (23% and 17%, respectively) compared with the two previous years (3%, p<0,001). The erythromycin resistance percentages were almost equal to clindamycin (22% and 17%) in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Clindamycin resistance was most frequent in GAS isolates of 40 to 60 year-old patients (148/417; 36%). Among clindamycin resistant isolates, 12 of 14 blood isolates from 2012 to 2013, and 11 of 13 skin and soft tissue isolates from March 2013, were emm33. Emm33 GAS bacteraemia was associated with clindamycin and erythromycin resistance (odds ratio (OR): 7.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-25.3). Infection focus was mainly the skin; either cellulitis (7/12) or necrotising fasciitis (3/12). All emm33 GAS isolates harboured the ermTR resistance gene with constitutive macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramines B (MLS(B)) phenotype. Emm33 GAS was responsible for the higher proportion of clindamycin resistance in skin, soft tissue, and blood isolates locally in 2012 and 2013.

  18. The Frequency Distribution of Inter-Event Times of M e 3 Earthquakes in the Taipei Metropolitan Area: 1973 - 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeen-Hwa Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available M ≥ 3 earthquakes which occurred in the Taipei Metropolitan Area from 1973 through 2010 are used to study seismicity of the area. First, the epicentral distribution, depth distribution, and temporal sequences of earthquake magnitudes are described. The earthquakes can be divided into two groups: one for shallow events with focal depths ranging 0 - 40 km and the other with focal depths deeper than 60 km. Shallow earthquakes are mainly located in the depth range from 0 - 10 km north of 25.1°N, and down to 35 km for those south of 25.1°N. Deep events are located in the subduction zone, with a dip angle of about 70°. Three statistical models, the gamma, power-law, and exponential functions, are applied to describe the single frequency distribution of inter-occurrence times between two consecutive events for both shallow and deep earthquakes. Numerical tests suggest that the most appropriate time interval for counting the frequency of events for statistical analysis is 10 days. Results show that among the three functions, the power-law function is the most appropriate for describing the data points. While the exponential function is the least appropriate to describe the observations, thus, the time series of earthquakes in consideration are not Poissonian. The gamma function is less and more appropriate to describe the observations than the power-law function and the exponential function, respectively. The scaling exponent of the power-law function decreases linearly with an increasingly lower-bound magnitude. The slope value of the regression equation is smaller for shallow earthquakes than for deep events. Meanwhile, the power-law function cannot work when the lower-bound magnitude is 4.2 for shallow earthquakes and 4.3 for deep events.

  19. Chemical and physical characterization of traffic particles in four different highway environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enroth, Joonas; Saarikoski, Sanna; Niemi, Jarkko; Kousa, Anu; Ježek, Irena; Močnik, Griša; Carbone, Samara; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Rönkkö, Topi; Hillamo, Risto; Pirjola, Liisa

    2016-05-01

    Traffic-related pollution is a major concern in urban areas due to its deleterious effects on human health. The characteristics of the traffic emissions on four highway environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area were measured with a mobile laboratory, equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation. Concentration gradients were observed for all traffic-related pollutants, particle number (CN), particulate mass (PM1), black carbon (BC), organics, and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2). Flow dynamics in different environments appeared to be an important factor for the dilution of the pollutants. For example, the half-decay distances for the traffic-related CN concentrations varied from 8 to 83 m at different sites. The PM1 emissions from traffic mostly consisted of organics and BC. At the most open site, the ratio of organics to BC increased with distance to the highway, indicating condensation of volatile and semi-volatile organics on BC particles. These condensed organics were shown to be hydrocarbons as the fraction of hydrocarbon fragments in organics increased. Regarding the CN size distributions, particle growth during the dilution was not observed; however the mass size distributions measured with a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), showed a visible shift of the mode, detected at ˜ 100 nm at the roadside, to a larger size when the distance to the roadside increased. The fleet average emission factors appeared to be lower for the CN and higher for the NO2 than ten years ago. The reason is likely to be the increased fraction of light-duty (LD) diesel vehicles in the past ten years. The fraction of heavy-duty (HD) traffic, although constituting less than 10 % of the total traffic flow, was found to have a large impact on the emissions.

  20. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  1. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  2. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  3. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...