WorldWideScience

Sample records for city metropolitan area

  1. Popular Neighborhood and city development: Montevideo and its metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altair Jesica MAGRI DÍAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Observed from the housing factor, Montevideo and its metropolitan area walk in a model that drives development in the city and not the city development. In this process, we find ways to influence the urban residential structure, through public strategies, market and social. Each sector expressed their aspirations and develop capacities to carry out their interests, composing a scene that defies the guidelines of urban integration and cohesion that progressive governments intend to promote. The AMM intensity expresses the dominance of a functional economic relationship on political and social issues.

  2. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness: the Case Study of Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In several urban contexts, the definition of a new development process is arising and it is focused on the use and the application of new technologies in different areas of the urban system. Such new development process is aimed at increasing life quality and local communities wellness and at promoting the creation of a more efficient and more sustainable urban system, as well as at making it more competitive. The issue of the reorganization of metropolitan areas is combined with such process, following the recent approval of the Delrio Law that establishes the Metropolitan City in Italy, as government authority of the metropolitan areas. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness are the three topics of this paper, which aim is the description of the most innovative politics and initiatives adopted in the Metropolitan City of Florence that is proposed as a case study where such topics are combined.

  3. Indoor and outdoor BTX levels in Barcelona City metropolitan area and Catalan rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Gallego; F. X. Roca; X. Guardino; M. G. Rosell

    2008-01-01

    Five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, and three isomeric xylenes) were monitored in indoor and outdoor air of 7 public buildings and 54 private homes, located in Barcelona City metropolitan area and in several rural areas of Catalonia. The sampling was carried out over four periods: spring-summer and winter of 2000, and summer and winter of 2001. Passive ORSA 5 Draiger samplers were used for benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) adsorption. BTX were extracted with carbon disulphide and analysed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a FID detector. In Barcelona metropolitan area the outdoor average concentrations of BTX were 3.5, 34.2, and 31.3 μg/m3 in urban areas, and 1.4, 9.2, and 9.2 μg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. Average indoor air concentrations of BTX were respectively 4.3, 64.8, and 47.6 μg/m3 in urban areas and 5.8, 67.0, and 51.4 μg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. A direct connection between the house and garage was one of the most influential factors for indoor BTX concentrations in rural areas. In urban areas, diffuse traffic sources were the predominant BTX source, slightly influenced by tobacco smoke in indoor air.

  4. The Hydro-Economic Interdependency of Cities: Virtual Water Connections of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Area

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    Richard R. Rushforth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water footprinting has revealed hydro-economic interdependencies between distant global geographies via trade, especially of agricultural and manufactured goods. However, for metropolitan areas, trade not only entails commodity flows at many scales from intra-municipal to global, but also substantial intra-metropolitan flows of the skilled labor that is essential to a city’s high-value economy. Virtual water flows between municipalities are directly relevant for municipal water supply policy and infrastructure investment because they quantify the hydro-economic dependency between neighboring municipalities. These municipalities share a physical water supply and also place demands on their neighbors’ water supplies by outsourcing labor and commodity production outside the municipal and water supply system boundary to the metropolitan area. Metropolitan area communities span dense urban cores to fringe agricultural towns, spanning a wide range of the US hydro-economy. This study quantifies water footprints and virtual water flows of the complete economy of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area’s municipalities. A novel approach utilized journey to work data to estimate virtual water flows embedded in labor. Commodities dominate virtual water flows at all scales of analysis, however labor is shown to be important for intra-metropolitan virtual water flows. This is the first detailed water footprint analysis of Phoenix, an important city in a water-scarce region. This study establishes a hydro-economic typology for communities to define several niche roles and decision making points of view. This study’s findings can be used to classify communities with respect to their relative roles, and to benchmark future improvements in water sustainability for all types of communities. More importantly, these findings motivate cooperative approaches to intra-metropolitan water supply policy that recognize the hydro-economic interdependence of these

  5. Urban agriculture in the metropolitan area of Mexico city

    OpenAIRE

    H. Losada; Rivera, J.; Cortes, J; Vieyra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Mexico City and the rest of the country do not escape from the social and economic inequalities of the present economic model applied worldwide.  Agriculture is a traditional activity in Mexico. This urban productive process has particular features: the predominance of smallholding, the restricted use of physical space, and the use of recycled materials and organic wastes. The population engaged in agriculture is heterogeneous, and includes women and children. There are a couple of production...

  6. Crime report in the cities of Aburra Valley metropolitan area

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    Luis Fernando Duque

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes crime report in Valle de Aburrá cities, based on a household survey of a representative sample of subjects between 12 and 60 years old, interviewed in 2003-2004. Actually, there is almost no report of non severe aggressions and over 75% of victims of severe aggression do not report to authorities. Sexual aggression is almost no reported by men. According to these high rates of no reporting, it is not advisable to support public policies on such statistical reports.

  7. Longitudinal Study of Microbial Diversity and Seasonality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area Water Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Ponce-de-León, Sergio; Calva, Juan José; Rojo-Callejas, Francisco; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    In the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA), 70% of the water for 18 million inhabitants is derived from the Basin of Mexico regional aquifer. To provide an overview of the quality of the groundwater, a longitudinal study was conducted, in which 30 sites were randomly selected from 1,575 registered extraction wells. Samples were taken before and after chlorine disinfection during both the rainy and dry seasons (2000-2001). Microbiological parameters (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, streptoc...

  8. Surface albedo measurements in Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T; Mar, B; Longoria, R; Ruiz Suarez, L. G [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, L [Instituto de Geografia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Optical and thermal properties of soils are important input data for the meteorological and photochemical modules of air quality models. As development of these models increase on spatial resolution good albedo data become more important. In this paper measurements of surface albedo of UV (295-385 nm) and visible (450-550 nm) radiation are reported for different urban and rural surfaces in the vicinity of Mexico City. It was found for the downtown zone and average albedo value of 0.05 which is in very good agreement with reported values for urban surfaces. Our albedo values measured in UV region for grey cement and green grass are of 0.10 and 0.009, respectively, and quite similar to those found at the literature of 0.11 and 0.008 for those type of surfaces. [Spanish] Las propiedades opticas y termicas de suelos son datos importantes para los modulos meteorologicos y fotoquimicos de los modelos de calidad del aire. Conforme aumenta la resolucion espacial del modelo se vuelve mas importante contar con buenos datos de albedo. En este articulo se presentan mediciones de albedo superficial de radiacion Ultravioleta (295-385 nm) y visible (450-550 nm) para diferentes superficies urbanas. Los valores medidos de albedo en la region UV para cemento gris y pasto verde son de 0.10 y 0.009, respectivamente, y son muy similares a los reportados en la literatura, 0.11 y 0.008 para este tipo de superficies.

  9. Applications of ERTS imagery to mappings sediments of the Twin Cities Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    ERTS images were compared to surficial geologic maps, prepared through traditional field studies. Lithologic boundaries, bedrock outcrops, bedrock structures, and geomorphologic features were examined. An area southeast of the Twin Cities, located chiefly in northern Dakota County was studied, as well as the New Brighton 15-minute quadrangle located in portions of Ramsey and Anoka Counties. Visual comparison of geologic maps and ERTS imagery demonstrated the limitations of this approach to geological investigations. Bedrock outcrops and bedrock structure in the metropolitan area do not appear on ERTS imagery. However, certain glacial sediments can be identified and are potentially mappable. Certain geomorphological features were also discernable.

  10. Smart City and Metropolitan Area: the Energy Component in the Case Studies of Genoa and Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Battarra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Smart City model is now considered one of the opportunities to rethink cities and, in general, the development of urban communities. One of the most relevant themes in the application of the Smart City paradigm is the city/energy relationship and Italian cities are fielding several actions to effectively cope with the energy issues. Nevertheless, actions and projects are often uncritically promoted as ‘smart’, but actually lack innovative contents and methods. Therefore, the aim of this research, of which we present the first findings, is the drafting of a survey, tested through field analysis, of the experimentations of Italian metropolitan areas on the Smart City topic. The in-depth analysis of two case studies, Genoa and Naples, allowed us to compare the actual state of the two cities. We have that they have undertaken a common path in the implementation of strategies to try to transform themselves into Smart Cities, focusing especially on the energy aspects.

  11. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

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    W. Lei

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO (primary HCHO, which together with photochemical production of HCHO from hydrocarbon oxidation (secondary HCHO, lead to high ambient HCHO levels. The CAMx chemical transport model was employed to evaluate the impact of primary HCHO on its ambient concentration, on the ROx radical budget, and on ozone (O3 formation in the MCMA. Important radical sources, including HCHO, HONO, and O3-olefin reactions, were constrained by measurements from routine observations of the local ambient air monitoring network and the MCMA-2003 field campaign. Primary HCHO was found not only contributing significantly to the ambient HCHO concentration, but also enhancing the radical budget and O3 production in the urban atmosphere of the MCMA. Overall in the urban area, total daytime radical production is enhanced by up to 10% and peak O3 concentration by up to 8%. While primary HCHO contributes predominantly to the ambient HCHO concentration between nighttime and morning rush hours, significant influence on the radical budget and O3 production starts early morning, culminates at mid-morning and is sustained until early afternoon.

  12. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, K.S.; B. de Foy; B. Zuberi; L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina; Xie, Y; A. Laskin; Shutthanandan, V.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign f...

  13. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, K.S.; B. de Foy; B. Zuberi; L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina; Xie, Y; A. Laskin; Shutthanandan, V.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) were collected dur...

  14. Investigation of OxProduction Rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MILAGRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusanter, S.; Molina, L. T.; Stevens, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants are important issues in atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) is of particular interest due to its detrimental effects on both human health and agricultural ecosystems. A detailed characterization of tropospheric O3 production rates will help in the development of effective control strategies. The 2006 Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2006) was one of four components of MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) intended to collect information on the impact of megacity emissions on local, regional and global scales. In this presentation, rates of production of Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) species during MCMA-2006 at the supersite T0 (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo) will be presented using different approaches based on measured and modeled concentrations of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals. In addition, we will examine both the reactivity of OH and the contribution of specific peroxy radicals to the oxidation rate of NO to estimate the contribution of groups of VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, oxygenated and biogenic VOCs) to the total production rate of Ox species.

  15. Processing of soot in an urban environment: case study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

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    K. S. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, size, and mixing state of atmospheric particles are critical in determining their effects on the environment. There is growing evidence that soot aerosols play a particularly important role in both climate and human health, but still relatively little is known of their physical and chemical nature. In addition, the atmospheric residence times and removal mechanisms for soot are neither well understood nor adequately represented in regional and global climate models. To investigate the effect of locality and residence time on properties of soot and mixing state in a polluted urban environment, particles of diameter 0.2–2.0 μm were collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign from various sites within the city. Individual particle analysis by different electron microscopy methods coupled with energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy, and secondary ionization mass spectrometry show that freshly-emitted soot particles become rapidly processed in the MCMA. Whereas fresh particulate emissions from mixed-traffic are almost entirely carbonaceous, consisting of soot aggregates with liquid coatings suggestive of unburned lubricating oil and water, ambient soot particles which have been processed for less than a few hours are heavily internally mixed, primarily with ammonium sulfate. Single particle analysis suggests that this mixing occurs through several mechanisms that require further investigation. In light of previously published results, the internally-mixed nature of processed soot particles is expected to affect heterogeneous chemistry on the soot surface, including interaction with water during wet-removal.

  16. Time series analyses for PM10 and ozone in the Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icaza del Rio, G. de; Choularton, T.W.

    1998-12-31

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is located in a U shape valley at the foothills of the Anahuac cordilleras. Although situated in the tropical latitudes it has the climate of a temperate urban agglomeration. The topography of the valley is dominated by its high altitude, on the average of 2400 m above the mean sea level (msl), and its surrounding mountains that reach to more than 5300 m above msl. Overall the climate on the valley floor is semiarid with an accumulated annual mean precipitation over the city dropping from about 900 to 400 mm as one travels from west to east while the wet and dry seasons are fairly well defined, April to September and October to March respectively. The annual variation of temperature is relatively small but the diurnal range is large. Because of its geographic location, among other factors, the MCMA suffers from severe pollution problems. The altitude of the valley provides abundant solar radiation and its shape reduces the dispersion capabilities of the basin. Ozone and PM10 have been characterized as two of the most dangerous pollutants, because of both their high concentrations and their inherent chemical composition. Trends of both pollutants are examined for the period 1994-96 and the relation with some of their associated pollutants is analyzed. The results from this study show that the concentration of PM10 has increased in the three years and that the ozone concentrations have decreased slightly over the same period. Furthermore, meteorological parameters are incorporated into the analyses to help explain some of the deviations within the time series.

  17. Vehicle Traffic as a Source of Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Marr, Linsey C.; GROGAN, LISA A.; Wöhrnschimmel, Henry; MOLINA, LUISAT.; Molina, Mario J.; Smith, Thomas J.; Garshick, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Surface properties of aerosols in the Mexico City metropolitan area have been measured in a variety of exposure scenarios related to vehicle emissions in 2002, using continuous, real-time instruments. The objective of these experiments is to describe ambient and occupational particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations associated with vehicular traffic and facilities using diesel vehicles. Median total particulate PAH concentrations along Mexico City’s roadways range from ...

  18. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO (primary HCHO, which together with photochemical production of HCHO from hydrocarbon oxidation (secondary HCHO, lead to high ambient HCHO levels. The CAMx chemical transport model was employed to evaluate the impact of primary HCHO on its ambient concentration, on the ROx radical budget, and on ozone (O3 formation in the MCMA. Important radical sources, including HCHO, HONO, and O3-olefin reactions, were constrained by measurements from routine observations of the local ambient air monitoring network and the MCMA-2003 field campaign. Primary HCHO was found not only to contribute significantly to the ambient HCHO concentration, but also to enhance the radical budget and O3 production in the urban atmosphere of the MCMA. Overall in the urban area, total daytime radical production is enhanced by up to 10% and peak O3 concentration by up to 8%; moreover primary HCHO tends to make O3 both production rates and ambient concentration peak half an hour earlier. While primary HCHO contributes predominantly to the ambient HCHO concentration between nighttime and morning rush hours, significant influence on the radical budget and O3 production starts early in the morning, peaks at mid-morning and is sustained until early afternoon.

  19. Urban agriculture, food production and city planning in a medium sized city of Turin metropolitan area: a preliminary note which compares geography and local policies

    OpenAIRE

    Artuso, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This research is stated on a main question: do urban and periurban agriculture be considered a valuable source for food supply, environmental, economic and social development in a medium sized city? This question has been addressed considering urban agriculture management in the planning policies of Nichelino, a 48.000 inhabitants city in the Turin Metropolitan area. The results addressed the issue of urban and periurban agriculture considering their spatial distribution and relationships wit...

  20. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH

  1. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH

  2. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Junkermann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18~March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19~March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19~March plume and to help interpret

  3. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm) sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3) in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m-3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m-3) in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m-3) as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m-3 potassium, 1 μg m-3 magnesium, 2 μg m-3 sodium, and 3 μg m-3 calcium) from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m-3 over these areas. PM1-10 (particulate matter with diameter between 1 and 10 μm) chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m-3 in Texcoco Lake. PM1 ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m-3) and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m-3). The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) is encouraging. At the T0 measurement site, located in the Mexico City urban center, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.5 μg m-3, 3.5 μg m-3, 2.1 μg m-3, and 0.36 μg m-3, respectively. The corresponding predicted values are 3.7

  4. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karydis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3 in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m−3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m−3 in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m−3 as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m−3 potassium, 1 μg m−3 magnesium, 2 μg m−3 sodium, and 3 μg m−3 calcium from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m−3 over these areas. PM1−10 (particulate matter with diameter between 1 and 10 μm chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m−3 in Texcoco Lake. PM1 ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m−3 and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m−3. The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium is encouraging. At the T0 measurement site, located in the

  5. Aerosol Simulation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MCMA2003 using CMAQ/Models3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L.

    2007-12-01

    CMAQ/Models3 has been employed to simulate the aerosol distribution and variation during the period from 13 to 16 April 2003 over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area as part of MCMA-2003 campaign. The meteorological fields are simulated using MM5, with three one-way nested grids with horizontal resolutions of 36, 12 and 3 km and 23 sigma levels in the vertical. MM5 3DVAR system has also been incorporated into the meteorological simulations. Chemical initial and boundary conditions are interpolated from the MOZART output. The SAPRC emission inventory is developed based on the official emission inventory for MCMA in 2004. The simulated mass concentrations of different aerosol compositions, such as elemental carbon (EC), primary organic aerosol (POA), secondary organic aerosol (SOA), nitrate, ammonium, and sulfate have been compared to the measurements taken at the National Center for Environmental Research and Training (Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, CENICA) super-site. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) are used as observations of POA and SOA, respectively in this study. The preliminary model results show that the temporal evolutions of EC and POA are reasonable compared with measurements. The peak time of EC and POA are basically reproduced, thus validating the emission inventory and its processing through CMAQ/Models3. But the magnitude of EC and POA are underestimated over the entire episode. The modeled nitrate and ammonium concentrations are overestimated on most of the days. There is 1-2 hour difference between the simulated peak time of nitrate and ammonium aerosols compared to observations at CENICA. The simulated mass concentrations of SOA and sulfate are significantly underestimated. The reasons of the discrepancy between simulations and measurements are due to the uncertainties existing in the emission inventory, meteorological fields, and as well as aerosol formation mechanism in the case

  6. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Apel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers were able to approximate the observed MCMA daytime patterns and absolute values of the VOC OH reactivity. The MOZART model is also in agreement with observations showing that NMHCs dominate the reactivity distribution except in the afternoon hours. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height.

    A northeast transport event was studied in which air originating in the MCMA was intercepted aloft with the Department of Energy (DOE G1 on 18 March and downwind with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind; ozone was shown to be photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial extent and temporal evolution of the plume

  7. Air emissions scenarios from ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate in Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Carlos A. [Posgrado en Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Manzini, Fabio; Islas, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    The Mexican Biofuel Introduction Program states that during year 2010 the three biggest Mexican cities will have a gasoline blending with 6% ethanol available for all gasoline on-road vehicle fleet. Also in 2010 Mexican government has programmed to start the substitution of Tier 1 - the adopted US emission standards - by Tier 2, which are more stringent emission standards for motor vehicles and gasoline sulfur control requirements. How will the air emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) be modified by using this blending? Four scenarios up to year 2030 were constructed and simulated using the Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning model. Beginning with a BAU or reference scenario, in this scenario the current available fuel is a blending composed by 5% methyl tertiary butyl ether and 95% gasoline (MTBE5). Then, three alternative scenarios that use ethanol as an oxygenate are considered, one with the already programmed E6 blending (6% anhydride ethanol, 94% gasoline), for the sake of comparison the E10 blending (10% anhydride ethanol, 90% gasoline), and the other alternative to compare, ETBE13.7 (13.7% ethyl tertiary butyl ether, 86.3% gasoline; where ETBE is an ether composed by 48% anhydride ethanol and 52% isobutene). Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), total hydrocarbons (THC), benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and 1,3-butadiene were calculated using emission factors previously calculated using the adapted US-EPA computer model called MOBILE6-Mexico. Results show that Tier 1 and Tier 2 standards effectively lowers all emissions in all studied scenarios with the exception of PM10 and CO{sub 2} emissions. The alternative scenario E10 has the most total avoided emissions by weight but it is not the best when considering some individual pollutants. The greatest environmental benefit of ethanol in its final use as a gasoline oxygenate is for

  8. Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Chemical Transport Model (PMCAMx) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2007-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have adverse effects on human health, contribute to the visibility reduction and influence the energy balance of the planet. A three-dimensional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) (Gaydos et al., 2007) is used to simulate the particular matter (PM) mass composition distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). PMCAMx uses the framework of CAMx (ENVIRON, 2002) modelling the processes of horizontal and vertical advection, horizontal and vertical dispersion, wet and dry deposition, and gas-phase chemistry. In addition to the above, PMCAMx includes three detailed aerosol modules: inorganic aerosol growth (Gaydos et al., 2003; Koo et al., 2003a), aqueous-phase chemistry (Fahey and Pandis, 2001), and secondary organic aerosol formation and growth (Koo et al., 2004). The aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA has been improved as it now simulates explicitly the chemistry of Ca, Mg, and K salts and is linked to PMCAMx. The hybrid approach (Koo et al., 2003b) for modelling aerosol dynamics is applied in order to accurately simulate the inorganic components in coarse mode. This approach assumes that the smallest particles are in equilibrium while the condensation/evaporation equation is solved for the larger ones. The new CMU organic aerosol model, which is based on the splitting of the organic aerosol volatility range in discrete bins, is also used. The model predictions are evaluated against the PM and vapour concentration measurements from the MCMA-2003 Campaign (Molina et al., 2007). References Gaydos, T., Pinder, R., Koo, B., Fahey, Κ., Yarwood, G., and Pandis, S. N., (2007). Development and application of a three-dimensional Chemical Transport Model, PMCAMx. Atmospheric Environment, in press. ENVIRON (2002). User's guide to the comprehensive air quality model with extensions (CAMx). Version 3.10. Report prepared by ENVIRON International corporation, Novato, CA Gaydos, T., Koo, B., and Pandis, S. N., (2003). Development and application of

  9. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the mexico city metropolitan area during the milagro campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karydis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m−3 in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m−3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m−3 in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m−3 as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m−3 potassium, 1 μg m−3 magnesium, 2 μg m−3 sodium, and 3 μg m−3 calcium from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m−3 over these areas. PM1−10 chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m−3 in Texcoco Lake. PM ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m−3 and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m−3. The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium is encouraging. At T0, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.6 μg m−3, 3.6 μg m−3, 2.1 μg m

  10. Exposure of children to air pollution in the industrial zone of Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Quintanilla-Vega, Betsabé; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    An air quality monitoring in three schools located in the most important industrial zone at the Northeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) was conducted in order to determine the exposure of children to toxics contained in PM10. Particles were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic and elemental carbon by ICP-AES, GC-MS and TOT (Sunset lab) respectively. Average concentration of PM10 was 108.4±11.6 μg/m3. Most abundant metals were Fe, Zn and Pb with concentrations ranged by 1.1-5.4 μg/m3, 0.3-2 μg/m3, and 0.18-0.63 μg/m3 respectively; the sum of the seventeen PAHs varied from 1.4 to 3.3 ng/m3 where most abundant PAH were indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sum of the seven carcinogenic PAH contributed in average with the 48% of the total mixture. Carcinogenic potential of PAH were obtained using toxic equivalent factors determined by Nisbet and La Goy which varied from 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ m3 of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BAPeq), this value is lower than the standard proposed for the European Community of 1 ng/ m3, but higher than the standard from the United Kingdom of 0.25 ng/ m3. Principal component analysis for source apportionment showed that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main sources of PM in the zone. In general, the concentrations of particles as well as concentration of metals and PAHs are lower than concentrations measured six year before, showing that the established measures have improved the air quality. Nevertheless these PM10 concentrations exceeded frequently the Mexican Standard and children are especially susceptible due to the higher risk to develop diseases if the exposure occurs at early age.

  11. Estimation of a "radiatively correct" black carbon specific absorption during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) 2003 field campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, J. C.; E. I. Kassianov; Ackerman, T. P.; K. Johnson; Zuberi, B.; L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina

    2007-01-01

    During the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) field campaign of 2003, measurements of the shortwave radiation field allowed the inference of the black carbon (BC) specific absorption, αλ, defined as the monochromatic absorption cross section per unit mass (with units of m2/g). The averaged values of αλ derived from the method here are either 8.9 m2/g or 8.2 m2/g at 500 nm, depending upon the physical and optical parameters assumed for BC. These re...

  12. Estimation of a "radiatively correct" black carbon specific absorption during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) 2003 field campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, J. C.; E. I. Kassianov; Ackerman, T. P.; K. Johnson; Zuberi, B.; L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina

    2007-01-01

    During the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) field campaign of 2003, measurements of the shortwave radiation field allowed the inference of the black carbon (BC) specific absorption, αλ, defined as the monochromatic absorption cross section per unit mass (with units of m2/g). The averaged values of αλ derived from the method here are either 8.9 m2/g or 8.2 m2/g at 500 nm, depending upon the physical and optical parameters assumed for BC. These results are reasonab...

  13. Ozone forming potential and sulfur effects on in-use vehicles of the metropolitan area of Mexico City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The largest urban areas of Mexico cities have witnessed high levels of air pollution in the past few decades. The most important air pollutants are ozone and particulate matter with levels that are still far above current air quality standard, In this work we studied exhaust and evaporative emissions of Mexico City metropolitan area (MAMC) vehicles using fuels in which sulfur content was varied from 89×10-6 to 817×10-6, and calculated the ozone forming potential of emissions as well as the specific reactivity of the exhaust for each average fleet-fuel combinations. Data on emission levels were compared to those obtained in 2000 for the same vintage of vehicles. The almost twofold increase in emissions found could be due to degradation of the exhaust emissions control systems.

  14. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  15. Biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution using lichens in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric pollution of Sao Paulo city is a serious problem due to the expansion of industrial area, increasing number of vehicles and population density. This work presents results obtained in the analysis of lichens collected in different sites of Sao Paulo city and in non-polluted areas of Atlantic Forest. Concentrations of twenty elements were determined in Canoparmelia texanaspecies and comparisons were made between the results obtained in lichens from different sites. High concentrations of the elements As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Sb and Zn were found for samples collected in sites located near industries and petrochemical plant. Br and Sb concentrations were also high in lichens from sites affected by vehicular emissions. (author)

  16. Atmospheric deposition of selected chemicals and their effect on nonpoint-source pollution in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and subsequent runoff concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, total sulfate (only for atmospheric deposition), total chloride, and total lead were studied from April 1 to October 31, 1980, in one rural and three urban watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota. Seasonal patterns of wetfall and dryfall generally were similar for all constituents except chloride in both rural and urban watersheds. Similarity between constituents and between rural and urban watersheds suggested that regional air masses transported from the Gulf of Mexico by frontal storm movements influence seasonal patterns of atmospheric deposition in the metropolitan area. Local influences such as industrial, agricultural, and vehicular air pollutants were found to influence the magnitude or rate of atmospheric deposition rather than the seasonal pattern. Chloride was primarily influenced by northwest frontal storms laden with coastal chloride. Local influences such as dust from road deicing salt dust are thought to have caused an increase in atmospheric chloride during June.

  17. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  18. Acanthamoeba spp. in domestic tap water in houses of contact lens wearers in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Lemus, Patricia; Ramírez-Bautista, Gerardo A; Zamora-Muñoz, Claudia; Ibarra-Montes, María Del Rocío; Ramírez-Flores, Elizabeth; Hernández-Martínez, María Dolores

    2010-09-01

    A survey was carried out in the metropolitan area of Mexico City to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba in the tap water of houses of contact lens wearers. Water samples were taken from the mains water entry, bathroom sinks and storage containers (roof tanks, cisterns) of 27 houses; and from the solution contained in the contact lens cases. Samples were filtered and cultured onto NNE medium. The isolates were identified based on their morphological features and pathogenicity. Total and fecal coliforms, water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and residual free-chlorine were measured by standard methods. Forty five isolates of Acanthamoeba from 200 water samples were obtained. The highest number of amoebae was isolated from cisterns and roof tanks. Most Acanthamoeba isolates were non-pathogenic, however, their presence in tap water is a potential hazard since some species can cause Acanthamoeba keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. PMID:19995560

  19. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM measurements were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion, V and Ni, correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfates determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  20. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Johnson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM techniques were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion V and Ni correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfate determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  1. Environmental hazard and ecological infrastructure construction of hilly city: a case of metropolitan area of Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Weibo; Zhu Bo

    2008-01-01

    This paper takes metropolitan area of Chongqing Municipally, as an example. Chongqing, located at the tail area of the Three Gorges Reservoir, is a typically in-land hilly city in China. A series of serious eco-environmental hazard affecting hilly city have appeared: the forest landscape has been fragmented; the stability of ecological system has not been maintained; soil erosion has been serious; geological disasters have become more and more frequented; the phenomenon of citv "heat islands" is obvious." and environmental pollution is worsened with low physical self-puri-ficatian. All of the hazards above will affect ecological security of the tail area the the Three Gorges Reservoir and sus-tainable development of Chongqing. In order to guarantee ecological security and health of Chongqing and the Three Gorges Reservoir, the countermeasures for ecological infrastructure construction are put forward: quickly drawing up ecological infrastrueture planning of Chongqing Municipality, strengthening the integration and continuation of hilly, water spatial pattern, maintaining the diversity and stability of local ecosystem, establishing the green space system in-cluding suburban forest farmland and green space, recovering wetland ecosystem, optimizing industrial structure and urrban spatial distribution, developing recycling economy, establishing ecological infrastrucmre monitoring network and information forecast system, carrying out ecological management for Chongqing Municipality and so on.

  2. In situ measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury and the identification of source regions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Rutter

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to expand the currently limited understanding of atmospheric mercury source-receptor relationships in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, real time measurements of atmospheric mercury were made at a downtown urban site, and a rural site on the outskirts of Mexico City, during March, 2006.

    Numerous short-lived increases in particulate mercury (PHg and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM concentrations were observed at the urban site during the 17 day study, and less frequent increases in gaseous elemental mercury (GEM concentrations were measured at both the urban and rural sites. The episodic increases observed were attributed to plume impacts from industrial point source emissions in and around Mexico City. Average concentrations and standard deviations measured during the study were as follows:

    i Urban site: PHg=187±300 pg m−3, RGM=62±64 pg m−3, GEM=7.2±4.8 ng m−3.

    ii Rural site: GEM=5.0±2.8 ng m−3.

    Several source regions of atmospheric mercury to the urban and rural sites were determined using Concentration Field Analysis, in which atmospheric mercury measurements were combined with back trajectory data to determine source regions. Only some source regions correlated to mercury emission sources listed in the Federal Pollutant Release and Transfer Register, leaving the rest unaccounted for. Contributions of anthropogenic mercury point sources in and around Mexico City to concentration averages measured at the urban site during the study were estimated to be: 93±3% of reactive mercury (PHg and RGM, and; 81±0.4% of GEM. Point source contributions to GEM measured at the rural site were 72±1%. GEM and reactive mercury (PHg and RGM were not found to correlate with biomass burning at either of the measurement sites.

  3. In situ measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury and the identification of source regions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Rutter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to expand the currently limited understanding of atmospheric mercury source-receptor relationships in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, real time measurements of atmospheric mercury were made at a downtown urban site, and a rural site on the outskirts of Mexico City, during March 2006.

    Numerous short-lived increases in particulate mercury (PHg and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM concentrations were observed at the urban site during the 17 day study, and less frequent increases in gaseous elemental mercury (GEM concentrations were measured at both the urban and rural sites. The episodic increases observed were attributed to plume impacts from industrial point source emissions in and around Mexico City. Average concentrations and standard deviations measured during the study were as follows: i urban site; PHg=187±300 pg m−3, RGM=62±64 pg m−3, GEM=7.2±4.8 ng m−3, and; ii rural site; GEM=5.0±2.8 ng m−3.

    Several source regions of atmospheric mercury to the urban and rural sites were determined using Concentration Field Analysis, in which atmospheric mercury measurements were combined with back trajectory data to determine source regions. Only some source regions correlated to mercury emission sources listed in the Federal Pollutant Release and Transfer Register, leaving the rest unaccounted for. Contributions of anthropogenic mercury point sources in and around Mexico City to concentration averages measured at the urban site during the study were estimated to be: 93±3% of reactive mercury (PHg and RGM, and; 81±0.4% of GEM. Point source contributions to GEM measured at the rural site were 72±1%. GEM and reactive mercury (PHg+RGM were not found to correlate with biomass burning at either of the measurement sites.

  4. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  5. The marketing management of cities and metropolitan areas: from product orientation to marketing orientation

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The application of marketing principles in the administration of cities has been usually reduced to the use of the communication tools to try to diffuse the city’s image among the different target publics. At the same time, the development of cities has habitually been based on the endowment of infrastructures and singular buildings, by means of relatively opaque strategic planning processes. From a marketing vision, we consider indispensable to base the development of cities on the active ci...

  6. Public health impact assessment of a proposed cogeneration plant in the Quebec city metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, P.; Bolduc, D.; Gauvin, D.; Guerrier, P.; Gauthier, R. [Quebec Public Health Center, Ste-Foy (Canada); Laflamme, P. [Laval Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, public hearings were held in Quebec city concerning a 120 megawatt (MW) gas cogeneration project that was to be coupled with an already existing pulp and paper mill in the downtown area. Cogeneration plants are often described as highly beneficial from the point of view of local environment. It is well known that the burning of natural gas emits far less sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate matters (PM) than the combustion of oil or coal. The proposed plant would use high pressure vapour from a nearby incinerator plant and natural gas to produce low pressure vapor for the paper mill industry as well as electricity. The cogeneration plant would allow the paper mill to stop burning heavy oil. By using natural gas instead of heavy oil, the new cogeneration-paper mill complex (CPC) is expected to reinforce the recent trend and willingness towards improving downtown air quality. On the other hand, the CPC would emit more CO{sub 2}, due to the production of additional electricity. According to the Rio de Janeiro Agreement ratified in 1988, Canada is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. Nevertheless, the cogeneration file is a new option considered by the Quebec Provincial Governement in its last energy triennal plan. However, it must be specified that the Province of Quebec contributes to less than 15 % of the total Canadian CO{sub 2} production although it represents more than 25 % of its population. Furthermore the maximum production of electricity by this file has been set to 250 MW. It is a very small fraction of the total production of electricity in Quebec, which is 200 TW

  7. Are Big Cities Bad Places to Live? Estimating Quality of Life across Metropolitan Areas

    OpenAIRE

    David Albouy

    2008-01-01

    The standard revealed-preference estimate of a city's quality of life is proportional to that city's cost-of-living relative to its wage-level. Adjusting estimates to account for federal taxes, non-housing costs, and non-labor income produces more plausible quality-of-life estimates than in the previous literature. Unlike previous estimates, adjusted quality-of-life measures successfully predict how housing costs rise with wage levels, are positively correlated with popular "livability" ranki...

  8. The energy demand and the impact by fossil fuels use in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, from 1988 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporary variation for the demand of refining products which are used in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is presented. Its consequent energy contribution is evaluated from 1988 to 2000. The annual estimation was integrated from a detailed inventory of fuels volume, so as the calculus of its respective energy equivalence. The fuel quality specifications, which have been required by regional Air Quality authority for controlling emissions to the atmosphere, are also presented for the same period. The evolution demand of fuels, in term of volume, quality and its energy contribution for this area, is compared with the national demand. On this regard, fuel pool differs in each bound and the demand along the same period has been increasing on both regions but at different rates, with 21% at MCMA and 31% countrywide. In 2000, the MCMA demanded 14% of the internal refining products volume sales, which represented 17% of the energy contribution to the country for those fuels. Likewise, the energy use coefficient (GJ per capita) was applied to compare this region with country trends. During 1996 and up to 2000, the MCMA presented slightly minor energy use per capita, than the rest of the country, and this period was distinguished also for using cleaner fuels and for obtaining improvements in air quality. On the other hand, MCMA and country greenhouse gases emissions will increase because of their fossil fuel dependence, so several mitigation measures must be implemented in the next decades

  9. Implementing GLOBE in the New York City Metropolitan Area: Trials, Errors, and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludman, A.; Schmidt, P.; Borman, G.

    2003-12-01

    systems. To stimulate data entry, one half-day during the 3-day workshop is devoted to exploring the GLOBE website, and another to generating student research problems using the site's advanced capabilities. Three "carrots" have also improved data submission: (1)a vendor gives a probe and software to the first school in each workshop that submits 250 data items, (2)individual competitiveness (the record is 22 hours from end of training to first submission of data), and (3)congratulatory emails to teachers when they submit their first data. The "stick": a threat to repossess the instruments if no data are submitted within 6 months. We also offer training in GLOBE-related skills, such as acquiring free satellite images and digital elevation data, and workshops on the geological and environmental settings of the NYC area. Suggestions from our teachers for the future include: urbanize protocols to better welcome inner city schools to GLOBE; add protocols involving flora and fauna to fit GLOBE better into Biology classes; develop more links with researchers so GLOBE participants feel they are making a real contribution; create a NYC area listserve so teachers can discuss common issues and concerns; and develop correlations between GLOBE protocols and NYS Curricula in Earth Science, Living Environment, Chemistry, and Physics. The last would vastly improve integration of GLOBE into these Regents-level courses. Our teacher trainees are vehement in their appreciation of GLOBE for its high standards and scientific rigor.

  10. Estimation of a "radiatively correct" black carbon specific absorption during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA 2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Barnard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA field campaign of 2003, measurements of the shortwave radiation field allowed the inference of the black carbon (BC specific absorption, αλ, defined as the monochromatic absorption cross section per unit mass (with units of m2/g. The averaged values of αλ derived from the method here are either 8.9 m2/g or 8.2 m2/g at 500 nm, depending upon the physical and optical parameters assumed for BC. These results are reasonably consistent with those of Schuster et al. (2005, 9.5 m2/g, and Baumgartner et al. (2002, 7.0 m2/g, both measured at 550 nm. The αλ values reported in this paper should only be considered effective, "radiatively correct" values because when used in radiative transfer calculations the calculated irradiances match the measured irradiances at 500 nm. The specific absorption so defined can assume a wide range of values, depending upon: (1 the assumptions made prior to the retrieval (e.g., shell/core aerosol configuration, and (2 values chosen for BC density and refractive index. The range of possible values is large, corresponding to a "worst case" uncertainty of about ±70%, assuming that all errors are additive and of the same sign so that no error cancellation occurs.

  11. Emission factors for domestic use of L.P. gas in the metropolitan area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main problems found in air pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is the presence of high concentrations of ozone at ground level in the atmosphere. The official Mexican standard for ozone concentration in the air (0.11 ppm, one hour, once every 3 years) has been exceeded more than 300 days per year. Ozone is formed due to the emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons originated from either combustion processes or vapors emanating from fuel handling operations. The results of an evaluation of several domestic devices like stoves and water heaters with L.P. gas as fuel are presented. A method for the evaluation of hydrocarbon emission was developed. A prototype of domestic installation was constructed. The prototype includes L.P. gas tank, domestic stove, water heater, piping and instrumentation. Several combinations of stoves and water heaters were evaluated. The sampling and analysis of hydrocarbons were performed using laboratory equipment originally designed for the evaluation of combustion and evaporative emissions in automobiles: a SHED camera (sealed room equipped with an hydrocarbon analyzer) was used to measure leaks in the prototype of domestic installation and a Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) for the measurement of incomplete combustion emissions. Emission factors were developed for each domestic installation

  12. Anthropogenic organic compounds in ground water and finished water of community water systems in the Greater Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2004–05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornes, Lan H.; Stark, James R.; Hoard, Christopher J.; Smith, Erik A.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, two Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) were conducted during 2004–05 in unconfined parts of the glacial aquifer system and in unconfined parts of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer in the Greater Twin Cities metropolitan area of Minnesota and Wisconsin. SWQAs are two-phased sampling activities in the NAWQA Program. The first phase evaluated the occurrence of 265 (258 are included in this report) anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) through monitoring source water in 30 of the largest-producing community water system wells completed in the aquifers underlying the Greater Twin Cities metropolitan area. The AOCs included volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and other AOCs. During the second phase of the study, 15 of the original community water system wells, those with the greatest number of AOC detections, were resampled along with associated finished water.

  13. Concentrations of benzene and toluene in the atmosphere of the southwestern area at the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.; Sosa, R.; Sanchez, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria (Mexico). Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera; Bueno, E.; Gonzalez, L. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, SEMARNAP, Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-08-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) presents important emissions of hazardous air pollutants. It is well documented that the MCMZ suffers a critical air pollution problem due to high ozone and particulate matter concentrations. However, toxic air pollutants such as benzene and toluene have not been considered. Benzene has accumulated sufficient evidence as a human carcinogen, and the ratio benzene/toluene is an excellent indicator to evaluate control strategies efficiency. In order to evaluate the levels of these two air toxic pollutants in the MCMZ, ambient air samples were collected in canisters and analyzed with a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector, according to procedures described in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method TO-15. Quality assurance was performed collecting duplicate samples which were analyzed in replicate to quantify the precision of air-quality measurements. Three different sites located in the Southwestern area in the MCMZ were selected for the sampling: the University campus, a gas station, and a vertical condominium area, in the same neighborhood, which presents different activities. At these sites, grab air samples were collected during the morning hours (7-8 a.m.), while for the University area, 24 h integrated air samples were collected simultaneously, with grab samples. Benzene concentrations (24 h sampling) in the atmosphere around the University campus have similar present levels as in other cities of North America. Mean values in this site were about 1.7 ppb. A significant variation exists between the benzene and toluene concentrations in the studied sites, being the more critical values than those registered at the gas station (an average of 25.8 ppb and a maximum of 141 ppb of benzene). There is a fuel regulation for gasoline in Mexico, which allows a maximum of 1 percent of benzene. However, since more than 60 percent of vehicles do not have catalytic converters (models before 1991

  14. Measurements of volatile organic compounds emitted from plants in the metropolitan area of São Paulo City , Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, L.; Pisani, S.; Pool, C.; Vasconcellos, P.

    2003-04-01

    The presence of the biogenic hydrocarbons in an NO_x-containing atmosphere can enhance ozone generation and the impact of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from vegetation on atmospheric chemistry has been investigated. No study of VOC emission rates from plant species has been carried out in São Paulo City, Brazil, prior to this work. This study is part of a three-years project on biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from species of plants found in the vegetation of the São Paulo metropolitan area. Typical plants (Alchornea sidifolia, Cupania oblongifolia, Cecropia pachystachia, Casearia sylvestris, Machaerium villosum, Croton floribundus, Myrcia rostrata, Solanum erianthum and Ficus insípida) were selected and identical species were studied in urban, sub-urban and forest regions. Biogenic hydrocarbons were determined placing branches of plants in enclosures and measuring the accumulation of emitted compounds in an all-Teflon chamber, the cuvette system. Measuring ambient VOC concentration adsorptive preconcentration, followed by GC-MS after thermal desorption of the sample, was employed to determine components heavier than C_5. Collection of carbonyl compounds on 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine coated particles followed by HPLC-UV was used to analyze low molecular weight carbonyl compounds. Emissions rates of isoprene, a-pinene, camphene and limonene ranged from 0.01 to 2.16 μg C/h.g and emissions rates of aldehydes (C_1 - C_6), acrolein, methacrolein, 2-butanone and acetone ranged from 0.04 to 4.20 μg C/h.g. Ambient and chamber temperatures, relative humidity, light intensity, O_3 and NO_x were monitored during experiments.

  15. Measurements of Black Carbon Specific Absorption in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MCMA 2003 Field Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Barnard

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA field campaign of 2003, measurements of the shortwave radiation field, lidar backscatter, and atmospheric concentrations of black carbon (BC permitted the inference of the BC carbon specific absorption, αλ, defined as the absorption cross section per unit mass (with units of m2/g. This diverse set of measurements allowed us to determine αλ in two ways. These methods – labeled I and II – are distinguished from one another in the manner that the columnar concentration of BC (with units of mg/m2 is determined. This concentration is found by using either surface measurements of BC concentration and lidar estimates of aerosol mixing heights, or a more rigorous method that relies on the columnar aerosol size distribution. The averaged values of αλ derived from these methods agree to about 20%, although we expect that the values obtained from method I are underestimated. These results, along with those of Schuster et al. (2005, suggest that in the MCMA, αλ is in a range of 8 to 10 m2/g at a wavelength of 550 nm. This range is somewhat lower than the commonly accepted value of 10 m2/g for a wavelength of 550 nm, but is consistent with the calculations of Fuller et al. (1999, who suggest that this value is too high.

  16. The stable carbon isotope composition of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Mexico City Metropolitan Area air

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Veneroni, D.

    The sources and distribution of carbon in ambient suspended particles (PM 2.5 and PM 10) of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) air were traced using stable carbon isotopes ( 13C/ 12C). Tested potential sources included rural and agricultural soils, gasoline and diesel, liquefied-petroleum gas, volcanic ash, and street dust. The complete combustion of LP gas, diesel and gasoline yielded the lightest δ13C values (-27 to -29‰ vs. PDB), while street dust (PM 10) represented the isotopically heaviest endmember (-17‰). The δ13C values of rural soils from four geographically separated sites were similar (-20.7 ± 1.5‰). δ13C values of particles and soot from diesel and gasoline vehicle emissions and agricultural soils varied between -23 and -26‰. Ambient PM samples collected in November of 2000, and March and December of 2001 at three representative receptor sites of industrial, commercial and residential activities had a δ13C value centered around -25.1‰ in both fractions, resulting from common carbon sources. The predominant carbon sources to MCMA atmospheric particles were hydrocarbon combustion (diesel and/or gasoline) and particles of geological origin. The significantly depleted δ13C values from the industrial site reflect the input of diesel combustion by mobile and point source emissions. Based on stable carbon isotope mass balance, the carbon contribution of geological sources at the commercial and residential sites was approximately 73% for the PM 10 fraction and 54% for PM 2.5. Although not measured in this study, biomass-burning emissions from nearby forests are an important carbon source characterized by isotopically lighter values (-29‰), and can become a significant contributor (67%) of particulate carbon to MCMA air under the prevalence of southwesterly winds. Alternative sources of these 13C-depleted particles, such as cooking fires and municipal waste incineration, need to be assessed. Results show that stable carbon isotope

  17. NON-METROPOLITAN TO METROPOLITAN AREA MIGRATION OF YOUNG ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Bradford F.; Hazarika, Gautam

    1999-01-01

    The decisions of young adults from non-metropolitan areas to either migrate to metropolitan areas or remain in non-metropolitan areas following the completion of schooling are studied in this paper. The migration decision is decomposed into an hourly initial earnings component and a cost component comprising the financial, psychic, and employment attainment costs of migration. There are three noteworthy findings. First, while the propensity to migrate increases in educational attainment, cont...

  18. Sustainable passenger road transport scenarios to reduce fuel consumption, air pollutants and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents passenger road transport scenarios that may assist the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) in achieving lower emissions in both criteria air pollutants (CO, NOx, NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), and PM10) and GHG (greenhouse gas) (CH4, N2O and CO2), while also promoting better mobility and quality of life in this region. We developed a bottom-up model to estimate the historical trends of energy demand, criteria air pollutants and GHG emissions caused by passenger vehicles circulating in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in order to construct a baseline scenario and two mitigation scenarios that project their impact to 2028. Mitigation scenario “eff” considers increasing fuel efficiencies and introducing new technologies for vehicle emission controls. Mitigation scenario “BRT” considers a modal shift from private car trips to a Bus Rapid Transport system. Our results show significant reductions in air pollutants and GHG emissions. Incentives and environmental regulations are needed to enable these scenarios. - Highlights: • More than 4.2 million passenger vehicles in the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) that represent 61% of criteria pollutants and 44% of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. • Emissions of CO, NOx and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in baseline scenario decrease with respect to its 2008 value because emission standards. • Emissions of PM10 and GHG increase in baseline scenario. • Emissions of PM10 and GHG decrease in eff + BRT scenario from year 2020. • Additional reductions are possible with better standards for diesel vehicles and other technologies

  19. The concentration of poverty within metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Aliprantis, Dionissi; Fee, Kyle; Oliver, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Not only has poverty recently increased in the United States, it has also become more concentrated. This Commentary documents changes in the concentration of poverty in metropolitan areas over the last decade. The analysis shows that the concentration of poverty tends to be highest in northern cities, and that wherever overall poverty or unemployment rates went up the most over the course of the decade, the concentration of poverty tended to increase there as well.

  20. Metropolitan Development Districts, Emporia-Lyon County Metropolitan Planning Area, Published in 2003, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Emporia/Lyon County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Metropolitan Development Districts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of...

  1. Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges. Audit Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Office of the State Auditor, Jefferson City.

    This audit report reviews the employment contracts, related compensation, and other benefits provided for the chancellor and other officers of the Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges (KCMCC) in Missouri. The chancellor is allowed to either solicit bids or negotiate for contracted services such as architects, construction managers,…

  2. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on

  3. Public School Segregation in Metropolitan Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Charles T. Clotfelter

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents measures of segregation in public schools for metropolitan areas. It shows that, not only are metropolitan areas very segregated, most of that segregation is due to racial disparities between districts rather than segregative patterns within districts. Metropolitan areas in the South and West tend to have larger districts, and thus feature less fragmentation by school district. Segregation at the metropolitan level appears to vary systematically with size, racial mix, and ...

  4. The use of the electric vehicle in the metropolitan area of Mexico city; Uso de vehiculos electricos en el area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, G. [Centro de Intrumentos, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sheinbaum, C. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A study is performed on the impact that the introduction of the electric vehicle (EV) would have in the environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC) for different penetration scenarios of this technology and the costs of the electric vehicle is analyzed and compared with its counterpart, the gasoline vehicle. The associated emissions of a fleet formed of EV and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) were determined and the emissions reduction of the contaminants considered in the period 1995-2010 produced was analyzed. It was found that the introduction of EV could importantly reduce the carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide and marginally the nitrogen oxides. It was determined that if the EV is massively produced its total cost for its entire useful life would be comparable to the cost of the ICEV. [Espanol] Se realiza un estudio sobre el impacto que tendria la introduccion de vehiculos electricos (VE) en la contaminacion ambiental del area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico (AMCM) para diferentes escenarios de penetracion de esta tecnologia y se analiza el costo de los vehiculos electricos en comparacion con su contraparte de gasolina. Se determinaron las emisiones asociadas a una flota compuesta de VE y vehiculos con motor de combustion interna (VMCI) y se analizo la reduccion que producia en las emisiones de los diferentes contaminantes considerados en el periodo 1995-2010. Se encontro que la introduccion de VE podria reducir de manera importante las emisiones de monoxido de carbono, metano y dioxido de carbono y marginalmente las de oxido de nitrogeno. Se determino que si los VE son producidos masivamente su costo total para toda su vida util seria comparable al correspondiente al de los VMCI.

  5. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brasov Metropolitan Area, Romania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Ionela Rezeanu

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas. However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital.The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval. The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey, based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600. The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method were conducted based on these data.Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences

  6. Seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in the water resources of Granada city metropolitan areas (South of Spain): Pollution of raw drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Navas, Natalia; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Cantarero-Malagón, Samuel; Chica-Rivas, Lucía

    2015-12-01

    This piece of research deals with the monitoring of a group of emerging contaminants (ECs) in the metropolitan area of Granada, a city representative of the South of Spain, in order to evaluate the environmental management of the wastewater system. With that aim, the spatial and seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in groundwater, surface and irrigation water resources from the aquifer "Vega de Granada" (VG) have been investigated for the first time. A set of the most prescribed drugs in Spain (ibuprofen, loratadine, pantoprazole and paracetamol), a pesticide widely used in agriculture (atrazine) and a typical anthropogenic contaminant (caffeine) were included in the study. Water samples were taken from the metropolitan area of the city of Granada inside of the zone of the aquifer, from the downstream of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and from the two main irrigation channels where surface and wastewater are mixed before distribution for irrigation purposes in the crops of the study area. A total of 153 water samples were analyzed through liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) throughout the study that took place over a period of two years, from July 2011 to July 2013. Results demonstrated the occurrence of four of the six target pollutants. Ibuprofen was detected several times, always in both channels with concentration ranges from 5.3 to 20.8 μg/L. The occurrence of paracetamol was detected in rivers and channels up to 34.3 μg/L. Caffeine was detected in all the water resources up to 39.3 μg/L. Pantoprazole was detected twice in the surface water source near to a WWPT ranging from 0.02 to 0.05 μg/L. The pesticide atrazine and the drug loratadine were not detected in any of the water samples analyzed. These results show evidence of poor environmental management of the wastewater concerning the water quality of the aquifer studied. The groundwater sources seem to receive a very continuous input of wastewater

  7. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  8. Emissions of black carbon and co-pollutants emitted from diesel vehicles in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.; Fortner, Edward; Knighton, Berk; Herndon, Scott; Yacovitch, Tara; Floerchinger, Cody; Roscioli, Joseph; Kolb, Charles; Mejia, Jose Antonio; Sarmiento, Jorge; Paramo, Victor Hugo; Zirath, Sergio; Jazcilevich, Aron

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon emitted from freight, public transport, and heavy duty trucks sources is linked with adverse effects on human health. In addition, the control of emissions of black carbon, an important short-lived climate forcing agent (SLCF), has recently been considered as one of the key strategies for mitigating regional near-term climate change. Despite the availability of new emissions control technologies for reducing emissions from diesel-powered mobile sources, their introduction is still not widespread in many urban areas and there is a need to characterize real-world emission rates of black carbon from this key source. The emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and other gaseous and particle pollutants from diesel-powered mobile sources in Mexico were characterized by deploying a mobile laboratory equipped with real-time instrumentation in Mexico City as part of the SLCFs-Mexico 2013 project. From February 25-28 of 2013 the emissions from selected diesel-powered vehicles were measured in both controlled experiments and real-world on-road driving conditions. Sampled vehicles had several emissions levels technologies, including: EPA98, EPA03, EPA04, EURO3-5, and Hybrid. All vehicles were sampled using diesel fuel and several vehicles were measured using both diesel and biodiesel fuels. Additional measurements included the use of a remote sensing unit for the co-sampling of all tested vehicles, and the installation and operation of a Portable Emissions Measurements System (PEMS) for the measurement of emissions from a test vehicle. We will present inter-comparisons of the emission factors obtained among the various vehicle technologies that were sampled during the experiment as well as the inter-comparison of results from the various sampling platforms. The results can be used to

  9. The Income of Central City and Suburban Migrants: A Case Study of the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Robert P.

    1998-01-01

    The demographic and urban literature on the decline of central cities often asserts that the cities’ population losses have been especially heavy for middle and upper income households. Attracting middle and upper income residents, and retaining those who live there currently, is then viewed as a crucial ingredient to rebuilding the tax base and civic life of these cities. This paper examines empirically the income and population of the District of Columbia and surrounding Maryland and Virgin...

  10. Environmental and health impacts of household solid waste handling and disposal practices in third world cities: the case of the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, Kwasi Owusu; Kuitunen, Markku

    2005-11-01

    Inadequate provision of solid waste management facilities in Third World cities results in indiscriminate disposal and unsanitary environments, which threatens the health of urban residents. The study reported here examined household-level waste management and disposal practices in the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. The residents of Accra currently generate large amounts of solid waste, beyond the management capabilities of the existing waste management system. Because the solid waste infrastructure is inadequate, over 80 percent of the population do not have home collection services. Only 13.5 percent of respondents are served with door-to-door collection of solid waste, while the rest dispose of their waste at communal collection points, in open spaces, and in waterways. The majority of households store their waste in open containers and plastic bags in the home. Waste storage in the home is associated with the presence of houseflies in the kitchen (r = .17, p solid waste facilities result in indiscriminate burning and burying of solid waste. There is an association between waste burning and the incidence of respiratory health symptoms among adults (r = .25, p handling and disposal of waste are major causes of environmental pollution, which creates breeding grounds for pathogenic organisms, and the spread of infectious diseases. Improving access to solid waste collection facilities and services will help achieve sound environmental health in Accra. PMID:16334095

  11. Application of nuclear techniques for the assessment of air pollution in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte City, MG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic metals, such as Ni, V, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn and metalloids as As and Se and their compounds are mainly associated with the smaller diameter particulates present in the atmospheric aerosols. This fact is important, principally, when it concerns public health, because this is considered the breathable fraction of particles that can penetrate deeply into the lungs and cause damage to the alveoli. Once in the atmosphere the concentrations of trace metals, in general, show very low levels, thus the determination of the elementary composition of those particles requires the use of appropriate analytical techniques such as Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and X-Rays Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), among others. The main objective of this study was the identification of the generating sources of gross (PM10) and fine (PM2.5) particles present in the atmospheric aerosols of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte. Neutron Activation Analyses by k0-method (k0NAA) combined with energy dispersed by X-ray fluorescence was used to measurement of the concentration of trace elements present in each sample. High levels of particulate concentrations, especially PM2.5, were measured during the sampling period. In general, the air quality varied from Reasonable to Inadequate. The receptor model used to assist in the identification of the main emission sources was the Principal Components Analysis. The results showed that the main elements presents in particulate inhalable matter (PM2.5 and PM10) were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Sc, Si, Ti, W and Zn. The results for multi-variable analyses shown clearly four pollutant sources, these being: vehicular emissions; resuspended soil/asphalt powder; secondary aerosols associated with emission of SO2 and industrial emissions associated with fossil oil burning. (author)

  12. Seismic Microzonation of a New Metropolitan Area of Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kociu, S.; Skrami, J.

    2006-12-01

    With new developments in Albania a new Tirana-Durres metropolitan area, is going to be the most important inhabited region in Albania, where more than 1/3 of the population of the country is concentrated (about 1 million people). Two biggest cities situated at both ends of this area: Tirana (capital) and Durres (biggest port of the country) nowadays are going to be linked together through a narrow corridor of 40km length, as a great metropolitan area. The new developments have to take into consideration the seismic risk reduction of expected strong ground motions for a sustainable development of this area. Durres City (antique name Durrachium), situated at western extremity of metropolitan area, represents one of the oldest cities. During its long history of civilization the city suffered from strong earthquakes. One of the strongest earthquakes was the earthquake of the 1273-year, after which inhabitants of Durres were forced to leave the city and settle at Berat. The latest disastrous earthquake was that of December 17, 1926(M=6.2, Io= IX). Taking into account its tectonic setting, on Adriatic seacoast, there is of interest the experiences got by big Albania-Montenegro earthquake of April 15, 1979 (Ms=6.8, Io=IX+). Tirana City situated at eastern extremity of metropolitan area is characterized by moderate seismic activity, with observed earthquake with magnitude less than M=6.0. As results of seismic microzonation of this area, the expected strong ground motions through spectral characteristics and seismic intensities and expected dynamic soil instabilities are presented: Durres City, situated on Durres bay on Adriatic coast, on very poor thick Quaternary sediments and weathered hills of Tortonian age , represents one of the most dangerous areas of coastal zone in Albania ( with highest expected seismic intensities and PGA values) , with a lot of problems concerning expected seismic strong ground motions and soil instabilities as: -Induced liquefaction phenomena

  13. Sediment contamination of residential streams in the metropolitan kansas city area, USA: Part I. distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and pesticide-related compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J.; Huggins, D.; Welker, G.; Dias, J.R.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Murowchick, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first part of a study that evaluates the influence of nonpoint-source contaminants on the sediment quality of five streams within the metropolitan Kansas City area, central United States. Surficial sediment was collected in 2003 from 29 sites along five streams with watersheds that extend from the core of the metropolitan area to its development fringe. Sediment was analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 3 common polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures (Aroclors), and 25 pesticide-related compounds of eight chemical classes. Multiple PAHs were detected at more than 50% of the sites, and concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 290 to 82,150 ??g/kg (dry weight). The concentration and frequency of detection of PAHs increased with increasing urbanization of the residential watersheds. Four- and five-ring PAH compounds predominated the PAH composition (73-100%), especially fluoranthene and pyrene. The PAH composition profiles along with the diagnostic isomer ratios [e.g., anthracene/(anthracene + phenanthrene), 0.16 ?? 0.03; fluoranthene/(fluoranthene + pyrene), 0.55 ?? 0.01)] indicate that pyrogenic sources (i.e., coal-tar-related operations or materials and traffic-related particles) may be common PAH contributors to these residential streams. Historical-use organochlorine insecticides and their degradates dominated the occurrences of pesticide-related compounds, with chlordane and dieldrin detected in over or nearly 50% of the samples. The occurrence of these historical organic compounds was associated with past urban applications, which may continue to be nonpoint sources replenishing local streams. Concentrations of low molecular weight (LMW; two or three rings) and high molecular weight (HMW; four to six rings) PAHs covaried along individual streams but showed dissimilar distribution patterns between the streams, while the historical pesticide-related compounds generally increased in concentration downstream. Correlations were noted

  14. Evaluation of the volatility basis-set approach for the simulation of organic aerosol formation in the Mexico City metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Tsimpidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New primary and secondary organic aerosol modules have been added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM, for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism based on recent smog chamber studies. The new modelling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach: both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. This new framework with the use of the new volatility basis parameters for low-NOx and high-NOx conditions tends to predict 4–6 times higher anthropogenic SOA concentrations than those predicted with the older generation of models. The resulting PMCAMx-2008 was applied in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA for approximately a week during April 2003 during a period of very low regional biomass burning impact. The emission inventory, which uses as a starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory, is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments. The predicted organic aerosol (OA concentrations peak in the center of Mexico City, reaching values above 40 μg m−3. The model predictions are compared with the results of the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of the Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS observations. The model reproduces both Hydrocarbon-like Organic Aerosol (HOA and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA concentrations and diurnal profiles. The small OA underprediction during the rush-hour periods and overprediction in the afternoon suggest potential improvements to the description of fresh primary organic emissions and the formation of the oxygenated organic aerosols, respectively, although they may also be due to errors in the simulation of dispersion and vertical mixing. However, the AMS OOA data are not specific enough to prove that the model reproduces the organic aerosol

  15. THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF ORADEA - DEVELOPMENT DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Metropolitan Area of Oradea has certain directions of development settled in accordance with the objectives of development assumed by The Local Council of Oradea on 10 March 2015 once with the approval of the strategy for development of Oradea Municipality for the period 2016 – 2020. It is very important for for the Municipality of Oradea to become, by quantifiable arguments in a relatively short period of time a real competitor of the great cities surrounding it or of Timişoara, Cluj-Napoca, Arad and Debrecen. Domains, in which Oradea can excel as a clear differentiator in front of its competitor, are closely related to the local traditional specific and resources. Thus, Oradea proposed to be the capital of Art Nouveau and thermal-ism. The fulfilment of this goal would definitely bring more tourists and obviously additional financial resources to the local budget. At this moment, OMA is prepared in what concerns the hotelier infrastructure and utilities for taking the new tourists. In addition, another important objective regarded at macro level for the entire OMA is the assurance of a security comfort for the citizens of the Municipality of Oradea and implicitly of the neighbouring villages. One of the objectives – Oradea, the safest city – is closely linked to another one which represents the follow-up of some successful beginnings in 2012 with the award Oradea – the green city. In the following period an increase of the surfaces covered with green spaces and recreational areas is being planned for the optimum comfort of the inhabitants and tourists of the OMA. The three main objectives mentioned above must be added to the imperative need of completing the necessary investments for the increase of the quality of life. The infrastructure for the assurance of the quality of health and education is reflected by the completed HURO programme accessed by the executive of OMA.

  16. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Michimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US. The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  17. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas. PMID:26618317

  18. Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mugica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A field study was carried out from 2003 to 2004 with the aim to develop the PM2.5 emission source profiles from light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles, as well as emission source profiles from waste incineration, wood burning, LP gas combustion, and meat broiling. Over 25 chemical species were quantified from the fine particles emitted by the different combustion sources investigated, including organic and elemental carbon, ions, and elements. The OC/TC ratio found in the different PM2.5 profiles was dissimilar as well as the sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, soil species, and trace element content. Consequently, these combustion emission profiles could be used in source reconciliation studies for fine particles.

  19. An access control architecture for metropolitan area wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Friday, Adrian; Wu, Maomao; Schmid, Stefan; Finney, Joseph; Cheverst, Keith; Davies, Nigel

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a novel wireless access point architecture designed to support the development of next generation mobile context-aware applications over metropolitan scale areas. In addition, once deployed, this network will allow ordinary citizens secure, accountable and convenient access to the Internet from their local city and campus environments. The proposed architecture is based on an approach utilising a modified Mobile IPv6 protocol stack that uses packet marking and network leve...

  20. The Role of Great Cities in Romania for the Metropolitan Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Irina POPESCU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the legislation in force, in Romania there are 11 first rank cities that given their size, their importance, the level of services and the economic activity, represent attractions and are subjected to the development pressures. Still, according to the European tendencies, the urban agglomerations tend to approach this type of cooperation regardless the number of the inhabitants. Currently in Romania there are 11 great cities that have developed processes of organizing the metropolitan areas corresponding to them. Among them, two have already created metropolitan areas: Oradea (2001 and Iaşi (2004, both with the assistance of programs financed by USAID.

  1. Radiocarbon-insights into temporal variations in the sources and concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the Los Angeles and Salt Lake City Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czimczik, Claudia; Mouteva, Gergana; Simon, Fahrni; Guaciara, Santos; James, Randerson

    2014-05-01

    Increased fossil fuel consumption and biomass burning are contributing to significantly larger emissions of black carbon (BC) aerosols to the atmosphere. Together with organic carbon (OC), BC is a major constituent of fine particulate matter in urban air, contributes to haze and has been linked to a broad array of adverse health effects. Black carbon's high light absorption capacity and role in key (in-)direct climate feedbacks also lead to a range of impacts in the Earth system (e.g. warming, accelerated snow melt, changes in cloud formation). Recent work suggests that regulating BC emissions can play an important role in improving regional air quality and reducing future climate warming. However, BC's atmospheric transport pathways, lifetime and magnitudes of emissions by sector and region, particularly emissions from large urban centers, remain poorly constrained by measurements. Contributions of fossil and modern sources to the carbonaceous aerosol pool (corresponding mainly to traffic/industrial and biomass-burning/biogenic sources, respectively) can be quantified unambiguously by measuring the aerosol radiocarbon (14C) content. However, accurate 14C-based source apportionment requires the physical isolation of BC and OC, and minimal sample contamination with extraneous carbon or from OC charring. Compound class-specific 14C analysis of BC remains challenging due to very small sample sizes (5-15 ug C). Therefore, most studies to date have only analyzed the 14C content of the total organic carbonaceous aerosol fraction. Here, we present time-series 14C data of BC and OC from the Los Angeles (LA) metropolitan area in California - one of two megacities in the United States - and from Salt Lake City (SLC), UT. In the LA area, we analyzed 48h-PM10 samples near the LA port throughout 2007 and 2008 (with the exception of summer). We also collected monthly-PM2.5 samples at the University of California - Irvine, with shorter sampling periods during regional wildfire

  2. Evaluation of the Volatility Basis-Set Approach for Modeling Primary and Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Pandis, S. N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    Anthropogenic air pollution is an increasingly serious problem for public health, agriculture, and global climate. Organic material (OM) contributes ~ 20-50% to the total fine aerosol mass at continental mid-latitudes. Although OM accounts for a large fraction of PM2.5 concentration worldwide, the contributions of primary and secondary organic aerosol have been difficult to quantify. In this study, new primary and secondary organic aerosol modules were added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (Gaydos et al., 2007), for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism (Carter, 2000; ENVIRON, 2006) based on recent smog chamber studies (Robinson et al., 2007). The new modeling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach (Lane et al., 2007): both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. The emission inventory, which uses as starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory (CAM, 2006), is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments (Robinson et al., 2007). Sensitivity tests where POA is considered as nonvolatile and POA and SOA as chemically reactive are also described. In all cases PMCAMx is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during March 2006. The modeling domain covers a 180x180x6 km region in the MCMA with 3x3 km grid resolution. The model predictions are compared with Aerodyne's Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) observations from the MILAGRO Campaign. References Robinson, A. L.; Donahue, N. M.; Shrivastava, M. K.; Weitkamp, E. A.; Sage, A. M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Lane, T. E.; Pandis, S. N.; Pierce, J. R., 2007. Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging. Science 315, 1259-1262. Gaydos, T. M.; Pinder, R. W.; Koo, B.; Fahey, K. M.; Pandis, S. N., 2007. Development and application of a three- dimensional aerosol

  3. Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the tokyo metropolitan area: Focusing on examples of both Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities in Chiba prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation (TEPCO) after the great east Japan earthquake (11 March 2011) elevated the background level of environmental radiation in Eastern Japan. Around the Tokyo metropolitan area, especially around Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities, the ambient dose equivalent rate has been significantly increased after the accident. Responding to strong requests from citizens, the local governments started to monitor the ambient dose equivalent rate precisely and officially, about 3 months after the accident had occurred. The two cities in cooperation with each other also organised a local forum supported by three radiation specialists. In this article, the activities of the local governments are introduced, with main focus on radiation monitoring and measurements. Topics are standardisation of environmental radiation measurements for ambient dose rate, dose mapping activity, investigation of foodstuff and drinking water, lending survey meters to citizens, etc. Based on the data and facts mainly gained by radiation monitoring, risk management and relating activity have been organised. 'Small consultation meetings in kindergartens', 'health consultation service for citizens', 'education meeting on radiation protection for teachers, medical staffs, local government staffs, and leaders of active volunteer parties' and 'decontamination activity', etc. are present key activities of the risk management and restoration around the Tokyo metropolitan area. (authors)

  4. NOISE POLLUTION OF KONYA METROPOLITAN AREA

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Celalettin; DURSUN, Şükrü; BURDURLU, Yüksel

    1999-01-01

    Novadays, one of the environmental pollution which effects the human health is noise pollution. Researches on this subject result in that noise pollution has become important public health problems recently. In this research study, first comprehensive survey (Hamilton Ankesiyete Test) was performed on 200 people who are in different ages and deal with different jobs. Noise Amplitude were measured at 66 test locations in Konya metropolitan area. The results showed that there are several locati...

  5. A Policy Analysis of Principal Evaluation Instruments in Use in the United States, the State of Missouri, and School Districts in the Kansas City, Missouri Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Maria Bishop; Gaynor, Denise Briscoe; Keith, Stacy Cartmill

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a policy analysis project examining principal evaluation instruments, policies and processes in the fifty United States, the state of Missouri, and 15 Kansas City, Missouri area school districts. Since current research demonstrates that the principal plays a critical role in the success or failure of improvement initiatives,…

  6. Digital data sets describing metropolitan areas in the conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes metropolitan areas in the conterminous United States, developed from U.S. Bureau of the Census boundaries of Consolidated Metropolitan...

  7. Subsurface information for risk-sensitive urban spatial planning in Dhaka Metropolitan City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Andreas; Aziz Patwary, Mohammad Abdul; Bahls, Rebecca; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun; Jabeen, Sarwat

    2016-04-01

    Dhaka Metropolitan City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six- or lower storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing city areas are projected in marshy terrains modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In most areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions within 30 meters. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development Authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Dhaka Metropolitan City area (approx. 1700 km2). Geo-information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, geospatial information in form of a geomorphic map, a digital terrain model and a 3-D subsurface model covering the whole city area have been generated at a scale of 1 : 50000. An extensive engineering geological data base consisting of more than 2200 borehole data with associated Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) and lab data has been compiled. With the field testing (SPT) and engineering geological lab data, the 3-D subsurface model can be parameterized to derive important spatial subsurface information for urban planning like bearing capacity evaluations for different foundation designs or soil liquefaction potential assessments for specific earthquake scenarios. In conjunction with inundation potential evaluations for different flooding scenarios, comprehensive building ground suitability information can be derived to support risk

  8. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy..., Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490—Metropolitan Statistical...

  9. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    Background The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. Methods The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Results Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some

  10. Did suburbanization cause residential segregation? Evidence from U.S. metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Boishampayan Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Population suburbanization has been long held as a cause for increasing racial residential segregation in US metropolitan areas. This paper hypothesizes that rapid suburbanization between 1960 and 2000 has caused an increase in racial residential segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas. Using the 1947 national interstate highway plan as an instrument for suburbanization and decennial Census data from 1960 to 2000, this paper finds that central city population decline (suburbanization) causes r...

  11. NOISE POLLUTION OF KONYA METROPOLITAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin ÖZDEMİR

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Novadays, one of the environmental pollution which effects the human health is noise pollution. Researches on this subject result in that noise pollution has become important public health problems recently. In this research study, first comprehensive survey (Hamilton Ankesiyete Test was performed on 200 people who are in different ages and deal with different jobs. Noise Amplitude were measured at 66 test locations in Konya metropolitan area. The results showed that there are several locations which have noise amplitude value higher than reference limiting values. According to the test results noise pollution map of Konya were drawn.

  12. Place-bound versus footloose firms: wiring metropolitan areas in a policy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geenhuizen, M.; Nijkamp, P.

    2009-01-01

    In the development of modern urban systems, we are facing a shift from central cities as the major location of coordination functions, high-order services and innovative activities, to interconnected nodes at some distance in a larger metropolitan area. However, which cities in the emerging new spat

  13. Multiplex networks in metropolitan areas: generic features and local effects

    CERN Document Server

    Strano, Emanuele; Dobson, Simon; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Most large cities are spanned by more than one transportation system. These different modes of transport have usually been studied separately: it is however important to understand the impact on urban systems of the coupling between them and we report in this paper an empirical analysis of the coupling between the street network and the subway for the two large metropolitan areas of London and New York. We observe a similar behaviour for network quantities related to quickest paths suggesting the existence of generic mechanisms operating beyond the local peculiarities of the specific cities studied. An analysis of the betweenness centrality distribution shows that the introduction of underground networks operate as a decentralising force creating congestions in places located at the end of underground lines. Also, we find that increasing the speed of subways is not always beneficial and may lead to unwanted uneven spatial distributions of accessibility. In fact, for London -- but not for New York -- there is ...

  14. Metropolitan area network support at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in wide area network service offerings, coupled with comparable developments in local area network technology have enabled many research sites to keep their offsite network bandwidth ahead of demand. For most sites, the more difficult and costly aspect of increasing wide area network capacity is the local loop, which connects the facility LAN to the wide area service provider(s). Fermilab, in coordination with neighboring Argonne National Laboratory, has chosen to provide its own local loop access through leasing of dark fiber to nearby network exchange points, and procuring dense wave division multiplexing (DWDM) equipment to provide data channels across those fibers. Installing and managing such optical network infrastructure has broadened the Laboratory's network support responsibilities to include operating network equipment that is located off-site, and is technically much different than classic LAN network equipment. Effectively, the Laboratory has assumed the role of a local service provider. This paper will cover Fermilab's experiences with deploying and supporting a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) infrastructure to satisfy its offsite networking needs. The benefits and drawbacks of providing and supporting such a service will be discussed

  15. Metropolitan area network support at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMar, Phil; Andrews, Chuck; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; Colon, Orlando; Fry, Steve; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Lamore, Donna; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    Advances in wide area network service offerings, coupled with comparable developments in local area network technology have enabled many research sites to keep their offsite network bandwidth ahead of demand. For most sites, the more difficult and costly aspect of increasing wide area network capacity is the local loop, which connects the facility LAN to the wide area service provider(s). Fermilab, in coordination with neighboring Argonne National Laboratory, has chosen to provide its own local loop access through leasing of dark fiber to nearby network exchange points, and procuring dense wave division multiplexing (DWDM) equipment to provide data channels across those fibers. Installing and managing such optical network infrastructure has broadened the Laboratory's network support responsibilities to include operating network equipment that is located off-site, and is technically much different than classic LAN network equipment. Effectively, the Laboratory has assumed the role of a local service provider. This paper will cover Fermilab's experiences with deploying and supporting a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) infrastructure to satisfy its offsite networking needs. The benefits and drawbacks of providing and supporting such a service will be discussed.

  16. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rasuly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs. The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2–11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1–5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan

  17. Regional Disparities and Social Cohesion Policies. The Case of the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSALINA GRUMO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of Regions appears reconfigured by the "reshaping" of national States. Besides, under a sub-regional scale, forms of governance have been launched, redefining a new territoriality. In Italy, the role of the Regions and Cities is more and more important in the decision-making processes of the territories and it is also characterized by the recent establishment of the metropolitan cities, but still not geo-politically defined. There is, in fact, a constitutional reform process through the region's reorganization legislative autonomy and strengthening of local governments. In this context, some areas are characterized by social unrest that includes new forms of poverty, urban malaise and marginalization, due also to the financial and economic crisis whose signs of recovery are still very weak. In the European Union, the programming decisions considered the policy of development and cohesion also at the local scale. The 2014-2020 EU programming cycle, in fact, has defined the main role of metropolitan cities, but also of cities and internal areas. The contribution will analyze Puglia, region of southern Italy, and the metropolitan area of Bari, the regional capital, in order to verify policies concerning the social field, both through "strategic planning" and launching the so-called "smart city" experience. In the metropolitan city, indeed, there is already an orientation towards the "social innovation" to address the issues of social cohesion and inclusion, consistent to sustainable development.

  18. Development of DB on Radiological Terror in a Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the September 11th, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York City, the possibility of a radiological attack has become a prime concern. Many countries are developing measures for preventing against and response to such use a situation. The use of radiological device is very attractive to terrorist because they are relatively easy to obtain and they could cause large scale damage. The damage due to radiological terror can be more severe in a metropolitan area than in a remote area. Therefore metropolitan areas are more susceptible to a radiological dispersal device (RDD). A RDD attack should be prevented before it occurs, but it is not an easy task in a metropolitan area. If a RDD were to explode in a densely populated area, a prompt response would be required to minimize the damage--especially to human life. In order to make proper response measures (i.e., such as how far people should be moved) quick and accurate information about the explosion needs to be provided. This is especially true when considering the effects of radiation on human health and the environment. Such information would include: the type and quantity of radioactive material used is in a radiological attack. Data on atmospheric conditions at the time of the radiological contamination are also required in order to determine the TEDE (Total Effective Dose Equivalent). However, it takes a lot of time to obtain these results. Time is the most crucial factor for those who are trying to determine proper response measures. The best way to decrease the time for needed to obtain these results is to establish a data base that includes a list of the damages obtained from all possible scenarios. The consequences of attack may be easily provided by just clicking a button on an up to date and well maintained data base. This paper will present a risk analysis of a dirty bomb attack on a metropolitan area. The paper will also introduce a data base constructed by the results obtained from this analysis

  19. The concentration of mercury in scalp hair samples of the inhibitants of Jakarta metropolitan city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study of mercury contents in scalp hair samples of the inhibitants of Jakarta metropolitan city has been conducted. In this study 263 hair samples were randomly collected from the inhibitants of various administrative region of Jakarta. The mercury contents of the samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The arithmatic and geometric mean, standard deviations, the median and frequency distribution of mercury in the samples on the basis of sex and area of the samples are given and discussed. (author)

  20. Large eddy simulation of urban features for Copenhagen metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahura

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The large eddy simulations employing the SUBMESO model with the urban soil layer model SM2-U were performed for the model domain covering the Danish Island of Sealand and including the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Monthly and diurnal cycle variability were studied for the net radiation, sensible and storage heat fluxes, surface's temperatures, and others. These were evaluated for selected urban vs. non urban related types of covers/surfaces and urban districts such as city center, high buildings, industrial, and residential. Results showed strong effects of urban features on temporal and spatial variability. They are useful and applicable for verification of numerical weather prediction models and development of urban canopy parameterizations.

  1. Investigation of the climate change within Moscow metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varentsov, Mikhail; Trusilova, Kristina; Konstantinov, Pavel; Samsonov, Timofey

    2014-05-01

    As the urbanization continues worldwide more than half of the Earth's population live in the cities (U.N., 2010). Therefore the vulnerability of the urban environment - the living space for millions of people - to the climate change has to be investigated. It is well known that urban features strongly influence the atmospheric boundary layer and determine the microclimatic features of the local environment, such as urban heat island (UHI). Available temperature observations in cities are, however, influenced by the natural climate variations, human-induced climate warming (IPCC, 2007) and in the same time by the growth and structural modification of the urban areas. The relationship between these three factors and their roles in climate changes in the cities are very important for the climatic forecast and requires better understanding. In this study, we made analysis of the air temperature change and urban heat island evolution within Moscow urban area during decades 1970-2010, while this urban area had undergone intensive growth and building modification allowing the population of Moscow to increase from 7 to 12 million people. Analysis was based on the data from several meteorological stations in Moscow region and Moscow city, including meteorological observatory of Lomonosov Moscow State University. Differences in climate change between urban and rural stations, changes of the power and shape of urban heat island and their relationships with changes of building height and density were investigated. Collected data and obtained results are currently to be used for the validation of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with the purpose to use this model for further more detailed climate research and forecasts for Moscow metropolitan area. References: 1. U.N. (2010), World Urbanization Prospects. The 2009 Revision.Rep., 1-47 pp, United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division., New York. 2. IPCC (2007), IPCC Fourth Assessment Report

  2. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles and fleet averaged emissions. Results indicate that colectivos, particularly CNG-powered colectivos, are potentially significant contributors of NOx and aldehydes in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in US cities. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  3. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA indicate that – in a mole per mole basis – have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  4. The Role of Governmental Policies in Promoting Residential Segregation in the St. Louis Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Dennis R.

    1997-01-01

    Explains how local, state, and federal governments have exacerbated or failed to take steps to reduce residential segregation in the St. Louis (Missouri) metropolitan area since the 1981 Liddell v. Board of Education decision that decided that school board and governmental housing policies had contributed to segregation in the city's schools. (SLD)

  5. Report on FS survey for project of introduction of highly energy-efficient trolley buses into the Mexico Metropolitan Area in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Mexico city eno sho energy gata trolley bus donyu project FS chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Traffic jam and air pollution by automobiles are currently getting severe in the Mexico Metropolitan Area. Trolley buses were introduced for improving the environment more than ten years ago. Vehicles become too old for use, and their energy efficiency is low. In this project, 200 highly energy-efficient trolley buses are introduced to replace old inefficient trolley buses, which results in the improved traffic convenience in the City and enhanced energy efficiency. The new energy-efficient trolley buses are made of energy-efficient control VVVF inverters produced and exported by MELCO (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation), energy-efficient motors by MELMEX (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Mexico), and bodies by MASA which is a major manufacturer of bus bodies. The objective of this research is to analyze the background of introduction of new energy-efficient trolley buses and the effects of the present project. The results of analysis are going to be utilized for future promotion of the Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism. 30 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Assessing the Impacts of Smart Growth Policies on Home Developers in a Bi-state Metropolitan Area: Evidence from the Portland Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Hongwei Dong; John Gliebe

    2012-01-01

    While there are many empirical studies examining the effectiveness of smart growth policies, few of them study the perspective of developers, the major urban space producers in US cities. This article assesses the impacts of smart growth policies on home developers in the Portland bi-state metropolitan area by developing home developer location choice models. The study shows that home developers in the region are sensitive to most smart growth policies being implemented in the region, but the...

  7. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Akihiko Michimi; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis...

  8. Testing Estimates of Housing Cost Differences among US Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Easton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the accuracy of six measures of housing cost differences among US metropolitan areas. Using Census data from 177 metropolitan areas, it tests the measures in two ways. First, it tests the ability of changes in the measures to predict changes in the shelter component of the metropolitan CPI from 1990 to 2000. Second, it tests the ability of the measures themselves to predict a proxy in 2000. A measure based on Fair Market Rents calculated by HUD placed second on the first test but did badly on the second. The housing component of the ACCRA index, a living cost measure frequently used by researchers, performed poorly on both tests. The top performer on both tests was a measure based on the average rent per room for a metropolitan area’s dwellings. Researchers wishing to control for living cost differences among places should consider including it in their living cost index.

  9. Urban Coyotes: Preparing residents of the Greater Washington Metropolitan Area for potential conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Pederson, Shannon Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Coyotes, Canis latrans, are members of the Family Canidae that have expanded their range and now encompass the entire continental United States. While expanding their distribution, they have adapted to an urban lifestyle. Because of their adaptable behavior and opportunistic diet, they have prospered in many major cities, with real consequences for people and their pets. The most recent urban area coyotes have inhabited is the Greater Washington Metropolitan Area. Preparing residents of t...

  10. Spatial (re) development between intrests and identity: pheriphery as a strategic polygon in metropolitan area

    OpenAIRE

    Savcic, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Peripheries with their possibility for new spatial interventions, good infrastructural level and open borders for active grand scale investment represent most vibrant parts of metropolitan areas in light of globalization, new global city concepts and new global geography networking on urban space level. Supports for main urban concepts represented in downtown area (typical mono- functional subjects) in period of global economy were converted in active multitask zones with its o...

  11. The dynamics of the population flows in metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the dynamics of population flows in the corridors of the metropolitan area, based on the example of Poznan. The aim of these studies was to determine the mobile preferences of the population as well as the possibilities for improving the efficiency of the city transport, mainly in aspects related to the road congestion and its reducing by the better use of the existing railway infrastructure as well as other instruments of the transport policy. The results obtained in multi-methods analysis showed, that such solution is likely to be a successful one as an alternative to the road transport and different strategies and solutions, designed in accordance with articulated preferences of the population, may be more effective than large-scale initiatives issued by a superior. The "difficult" heritage of the poorly used or unused railway infrastructure, occurring in many urban areas, can be often successfully adapted to be a solution for the transportation needs of the inhabitants.

  12. From the metropolitan area to the urban sprawl: the patchiness of the territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available  The paper tackles the phenomenon of the urban expansion through two concepts: metropolitan area and sprawl. The first, heir of the rational and positivist tradition of development, would lead to orderly and efficient metropolis; the second, son of the capitalist individualism and of the environmentalist emergency, considers the expanded city as one of the symbols of the process of unlimited appropriation of the space. Between these two concepts there is the short period of last crisis of the city, the two decades from 1970s to 1980s. From this moment the city is emerged acting out towards three main directions: the first is the expulsion of activities considered unessential; the second is the repossession of abandoned parts of the city and their transformation into high quality urban districts; the third is the search for new meanings and new perspectives, with the following marketing actions that appear to be central in the city’s policies. In this process it is interesting to observe that the actions regarded as positive are physically positioned in different places from the negative ones: when one talk about urban rehabilitation the mind runs to downtown or to semi-central urban areas; the same when one talk about actions on the image of the city. The final section of the paper examines the metropolitan area of Naples. The analysis is conducted by a qualitative point of view (in relation to the functional character of the metropolitan area and by a quantitative point of view (in relation to the changes of the population structure over the past 150 years. In this regard, the “analytical metropolitan area” has nothing to do with the potential administrative boundaries.

  13. The Age of Environmental Impasse? Globalization and Environmental Transformation of Metropolitan Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchert Saguas Presas, L.

    2005-01-01

    Metropolitan cities are undergoing a major spatial and environmental transformation. The proliferation of business districts, corporate headquarters and international hotels is prompting a massive verticalization and densification of land use, which is affecting the urban environment and infrastruct

  14. Assessment of the Impact of Metropolitan-Scale Urban Planning Scenarios on the Moist Thermal Environment under Global Warming: A Study of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Using Regional Climate Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Asuka Suzuki-Parker; Hiroyuki Kusaka; Yoshiki Yamagata

    2015-01-01

    Using a high-resolution regional climate model coupled with urban canopy model, the present study provides the first attempt in quantifying the impact of metropolitan-scale urban planning scenarios on moist thermal environment under global warming. Tokyo metropolitan area is selected as a test case. Three urban planning scenarios are considered: status quo, dispersed city, and compact city. Their impact on the moist thermal environment is assessed using wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). Futu...

  15. A CASE STUDY ON CONCENTRATION AND DECENTRALIZATION: BEHAVIOR AND DYNAMIC MECHANISM OF SPATIAL EVOLUTION IN METROPOLITAN AREA, NANJING, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In rapid socio-economic development, the process of concentration and dispersal of various elements tendsto be more dramatic, tremendously influencing the shaping and transformation of the space in metropolitan area. Surveyof spatial concentration and decentralization has thus become a basic method in examining metropolitan spatial evolution.In this research, three elements were selected as the essential indicators of the process: demographic density distribution, employment density distribution and business office location. Performance of these elements in Nanjing City was examined historically. As Nanjing City could be regarded as a representative of metropolitan areas in China, its situation largely suggestes the general characteristics in similar areas of China. Hence based on the investigation of Nanjing City, fourgeneral implications were highlighted. First, metropolitan areas in China are in a violent process and shift ofspatial concentration and decentralization. Second, from now to at ]east the near future, concentration will continue to be the central feature. Third, the landscape of metropolitan areas basically exhibits a dual structure character. The gap in environmentaland ecological qualities among different districts will continue for a long time. Fourth, Central Business District (CBD)is playing an important role in helping to convert the traditionally single-centered city structure into a polycentric one.

  16. Characterization of aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of San Jose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study, was to elaborate a profile of the contamination by private matter and to characterize the aerosols collected in the Metropolitan Area of San Jose (Costa Rica). For that, a campaign of sampling was carried out in three points of the city of San Jose, differentiated by there degree of activity: Center of San Jose (Central Station of Firemen), San Isidro of Coronado -Canton of Vasquez of Coronado- (Municipality) and Escazu (Municipality). Such campaign was carried out from April 4 to July 4, 1996 (transition summer-winter), and in two periods of time of 8 hours: 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. and of 8 p.m. to 4 a.m. The aerosols were collected utilizing Gent Pm-10 samplers, in filters of polycarbonate of 0,4 μm and 8 μm in cascade, with a flow average of 15 L/min., and it determined the composition average of the present aerosols. The concentration of the majority of the anions were obtained by means of ionic chromatography of high resolution, and the main cations by spectrophotometry of atomic absorption with electro thermic atomization. The space-temporary variations of the concentrations were evaluated and their correlation with the meteorologic variable. (S. Grainger)

  17. Reformulated gasolines: The experience of Mexico City Metropolitan Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, H.B.; Jardon, R.T.; Echeverria, R.S. [Centro de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

    1997-12-31

    The introduction of several reformulated gasolines into the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) in the middle 1986 is an example of using fuel composition to improve, in theory, the air quality. However, although these changes have resulted in an important reduction of lead airborne concentrations, a worsened situation has been created. Ozone levels in the atmosphere MCMZ have presented a sudden rise since the introduction of the first reformulated gasoline, reaching in the 1990`s an annual average of 1,700 exceedances to the Mexican Ozone Air Quality Standard (0.11 ppm not to be exceeded 1 hr. a day one day a year). The authors examine the tendency on ozone air quality in MCMZ in relation with the changes in gasoline composition since 1986. The authors also discuss the importance to perform an air quality impact analysis before the introduction of reformulated gasolines in countries where the local economy do not allow to change the old car fleet not fitted with exhaust treatment devices.

  18. Haphazard commercialization: a potential threat to sustainable commercial development in metropolitan cities? The case of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand of urban space for commercial development due to unprecedented population growth has surpassed the planned supply delivered by planning agencies in metropolitan cities of Pakistan. As a corollary to that, conversion of residential land use into various types of commercial activities has sprung up particularly along major roads of planned residential areas and arterial roads of cities. These conversions have proceeded, both with and without official consent, largely in a haphazard manner without following a coherent strategy. This has resulted in acute parking problems, reduction in traffic capacity of roads and resultant increase in congestion, energy use, air and noise pollution, and burden on utility services. Permitting conversion of land use in a haphazard manner seems not only a departure from planning principles but also jeopardizing the spatial structure of cities causing serious environmental repercussions. This paper presents evidence to the above observations through a detailed study of the environmental impact of commercial development in Lahore. The study is based on detailed land use, socio-economic, traffic, and parking surveys in carefully selected sample of three major housing schemes variously located in Lahore. The paper argues that weak development control, out-dated master plan, and inappropriate commercialization policies of the Government have lead to unsustainable pattern of commercial development even in planned residential areas. The findings of the study call for formulation of environmentally friendly commercialization policy. This will also involve redefining basic land use allocation standards and improvements in the design considerations so as to promote sustainable development of commercial areas in metropolitan cities. (author)

  19. From the metropolitan area to the urban sprawl: the patchiness of the territory

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2010-01-01

     The paper tackles the phenomenon of the urban expansion through two concepts: metropolitan area and sprawl. The first, heir of the rational and positivist tradition of development, would lead to orderly and efficient metropolis; the second, son of the capitalist individualism and of the environmentalist emergency, considers the expanded city as one of the symbols of the process of unlimited appropriation of the space. Between these two concepts there is the short period of last crisis o...

  20. Accessibility and transit-oriented development in European metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Papa; L. Bertolini

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how urban form is related to accessibility. In particular, it explores the relationship between Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) and rail-based accessibility in a metropolitan area. The following overarching questions are addressed: Does a TOD-informed urban spatial structu

  1. Simulation of Optical Packet—Switched Metropolitan Area Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炳春; 贾潞华; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces architectures of two types optical packet-switched metropolitan area networks and their media access control protocols.We have designed ralated network simulation systems.With these simulation systems,the characteristics and performanceof the two MANs can be achieved.

  2. The linkage between immigration and internal migration in large metropolitan areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R A; Ellis, M; Reibel, M

    1997-04-01

    "This paper investigates the relationship between the internal migration of native-born workers and flows of immigrants to the United States using the 1980 and 1990 U.S. Census Bureau microsamples.... Based on the estimation of three sets of regression models for five overlapping samples of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States and five mutually exclusive segments of the labor force, this analysis shows that the finding of a significant linkage between internal migration and immigration depends critically on the empirical experiment used. In direct opposition to previous published research, we conclude that net migration of the native born for metropolitan areas is either positively related or unrelated to immigration. Our models show that the net migration loss of unskilled native workers from metropolitan areas is probably a function of those cities' population size rather than immigrant flow to them. We conclude that the net migration loss of native-born workers from large metropolitan areas is more likely the result of industrial restructuring than of competition with immigrants." PMID:12292531

  3. Evaluation on Cultivated Land Resource Ecologi-cal Service Value in Wuhan Metropolitan Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua TANG; Yinghui Ll; Gangqiang CHEN; Lei YU; Sujuan Ll

    2014-01-01

    The land ecosystem service function value contains the gas regulating function value, air purification function value, water conservation value, land conser-vation value, soil nutrient conservation value and maintain biodiversity value. Based on the method of market value and the data of Hubei Statistical yearbook, cultivat-ed land resources of ecosystem service function value is 730 038.69Mil ion in 2007-2009, and 714 774.99 Mil ion in 2010-2012 in Wuhan Metropolitan Area. After three years of development, Wuhan Metropolitan Area of ecological value of cultivated land has increased by about 3.97%. From the point of each composition, the im-portance of gas regulating function of cultivated land resources and water conserva-tion function is the forefront. From the point of spatial distribution, the highest of annual average value of the cultivated land ecological was Huanggang (1.725 bil ion yuan), the lowest was Ezhou (217.868 6 mil ion yuan) in 2010-2012. From the point of space changes, the land ecological value increased only in Qianjiang city, while farmland ecological value in other cities was fal ing The conclusion is of direc-tive significance to the regional land protection policy and the farmland reasonable distribution, for Wuhan Metropolitan Area and other areas.

  4. Monitoring urban growth and detecting land-cover changes on the Istanbul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geymen, Abdurrahman; Baz, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Istanbul is the most populated city of Turkey with a population of around 10.58 M (2000) living on around 5,750 km2. In 1980, the population was only 4.7 M and then it has been more than doubled in only two decades. The population has been increasing as a result of mass immigration. An urbanization process continues and it causes serious increases in urban areas while decreasing the amount of green areas. This rapid, uncontrolled, and illegal urbanization accompanied by insufficient infrastructure has caused degradation of forest and barren lands in the metropolitan area, especially through the last two decades. The watershed basins inside the metropolitan area and the transportation network have accelerated the land-cover changes, which have negative impacts on water quality of the basins. Monitoring urban growth and land cover change will enable better management of this complex urban area by the Greater Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (GIMM). A temporal assessment of land-cover changes of Istanbul has been documented in this study. The study mainly focuses on the acquisition and analysis of Landsat TM and Landsat GeoCover LC satellite images reflecting the significant land-cover changes between the years of 1990 and 2005. Raster data were converted to vector data and used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A database was created for Istanbul metropolitan area to plan, manage, and utilize statistical attribute data covering population, water, forest, industry, and topographic position. Consequently an overlay analysis was carried out and land use/cover changes through years have been detected for the case study area. The capability of Landsat images in determining the alterations in the macro form of the city are also discussed. PMID:17380412

  5. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE IN METROPOLITAN AREAS: ECONOMICS AND REGULATORY ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    Metropolitan agriculture is economically important, especially in the Northeast. While faced with substantial economic and regulatory obstacles, commercial farming in urban areas is surviving and even prospering. In terms of standard models of agriculture in economic development, this is a puzzle. But more detailed, spatial economic models indicate how labor-intensive production of perishable commodities in urbanized areas can make economic sense, especially when coupled with environmental am...

  6. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  7. Spatial variation of temperature and indicative of the urban heat island in Chennai Metropolitan Area, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, Anushiya; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Kumar, Divya Subash

    2016-01-01

    Heat island is the main product of urban climate, and one of the important problems of twenty-first century. Cities in tropical countries suffer extensively due to the urban heat island effect, and urban climate studies are necessary to improve the comfort level and city planning. Chennai is the tropical city; it is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and industrial growth centers in South Asia. The spatial distribution of heat intensity in Chennai Metropolitan Area was studied, and the influence of land use and green cover were analyzed in the present work. Mobile measurements were carried out throughout the study area using a grid network to represent various land use patterns of the city. The study revealed some heat and cool pockets within the city limit; the maximum intensities of temperature were noticed in the central core city and north Chennai, which are distinguished for their commercial centers and densely populated residential areas. In morning time, temperature differences between fringes and central parts of heat packets were in the range of 3-4.5 °C. Land use and green cover play a critical role in microclimate and influences it. Green cover has a significant negative correlation with observed microclimate variations. Thus, the study urges city administration, policy makers, and architects to take up effective mitigation and adaptation strategies in the city to make people more comfortable.

  8. Use of renewable energy in the greater metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is conducted on different renewable energy within the larger metropolitan area, selecting the most suitable for the area and the implementation for distributed generation. A research methodology is practiced type pretending gather the necessary information to make proposals selected of different type of energy. The geography of the greater metropolitan area is studied along with the different existing renewable energy: distributed generation, remote measurement of energy which is one of the elements of the concept of intelligent networks (Smart Grid) in the electricity sector, legislation of Costa Rica regarding the generation of renewable energy and environmental impact. An analysis of economic feasibility is covered for each of the proposals estimating current rates for leading distributors of a future value, concluding with the viability of projects for possible execution of the same. (author)

  9. Residential Segregation,Spatial Mismatch and Economic Growth across US Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Dr Harrison [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Li, Huiping [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the detrimental influence of residential segregation on poor inner-city residents. This study examines the impact of residential segregation on the welfare of populations in US metropolitan areas using economic growth as the indicator. Panel data of US metropolitan areas spanning 25 years, 1980 2005, are used to analyze the effect of segregation on economic growth. The results show that both racial and skill segregation have a negative impact on short and long-term economic growth, which have increased over time. Further, the negative impact of the variables associated with spatial mismatch is also revealed. The results clearly point to the need for mobility policies that favor non-White households and comprehensive strategies that promote economic opportunities in low-resource communities in the US.

  10. Rapid Flood Evaluation Systems in Taiwan Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Dar Guo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological issues in metropolises in Taiwan have become increasingly important because the storm water sewer systems of metropolises are frequently unable to meet the requirements of the existing and future metropolitan development. Typhoons or torrential rains that cause rainfall intensities that exceed the designed capacity of storm water sewers can result in serious flooding. The losses caused by flooding can be reduced if the areas at risk of flooding can be predicted and warnings can be issued to prompt disaster prevention and allow response units and residents to prepare before disasters occur. The primary purpose of this study is to integrate the quantitative precipitation forecasting technologies [1, 2] developed by the Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute to establish a rapid, stable, real-time, and automatic metropolitan area flood estimation system for predictive flooding analysis. The objects of this study are metropolitan areas in Taiwan with storm water sewer systems. The standard capacities of storm water sewer systems throughout Taiwan and the geographic information system (GIS shape files are collected and compiled. Additionally, the potential flooding areas are divided into four levels (high, medium, low, and no flooding and are compared with the rainfall warning values of the Water Resources Agency. The study combines the results of quantitative precipitation forecasts, establishes an information database (MySQL, processes Google Earth KML files, and designs a WEB GIS display interface to construct a system for estimating the flooding possibility (probability in metropolitan areas during typhoons or torrential rains. This study subsequently employs the event of Typhoon Kalmaegi for flooding estimation and display; the estimation results are consistent with the flooding survey data, indicating that the estimations made by the flooding estimation system are correct.

  11. MARKET COMPETITION AND METROPOLITAN-AREA GROCERY PRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Binkley, James K.; John M. Connor

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of 1987 retail grocery prices to supermarket sales concentration across 95 U.S. metropolitan areas. The regression model incorporates a large number of population, retail-cost, and retail competition factors and separate prices by type of grocery item. We find that the concentration-price relationship is sensitive to item type: positive for packaged, branded, dry groceries and unrelated for produce, meat, and dairy product prices. As for market rivalry, we...

  12. Determinants of Population Density Gradient in Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Gershon Alperovich

    1980-01-01

    Urban population density gradients have been traditionally estimated from cross-sectional data. The estimates obtained show a flattening of the gradients through time. Few works have attempted to empirically investigate the determinants of the parameters of the function. In this paper we have specified and estimated a simple model of density gradient which uses pooled cross-sectional and time-series data. The results show that income, size of metropolitan area and a time variable explain well...

  13. Hospital distribution in a metropolitan city: assessment by a geographic information system grid modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Soo; Moon, Kyeong-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Grid models were used to assess urban hospital distribution in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. A geographical information system (GIS) based analytical model was developed and applied to assess the situation in a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 10 million. Secondary data for this analysis were obtained from multiple sources: the Korean Statistical Information Service, the Korean Hospital Association and the Statistical Geographical Information System. A grid of cells measuring 1 × 1 km was superimposed on the city map and a set of variables related to population, economy, mobility and housing were identified and measured for each cell. Socio-demographic variables were included to reflect the characteristics of each area. Analytical models were then developed using GIS software with the number of hospitals as the dependent variable. Applying multiple linear regression and geographically weighted regression models, three factors (highway and major arterial road areas; number of subway entrances; and row house areas) were statistically significant in explaining the variance of hospital distribution for each cell. The overall results show that GIS is a useful tool for analysing and understanding location strategies. This approach appears a useful source of information for decision-makers concerned with the distribution of hospitals and other health care centres in a city. PMID:24893031

  14. Hospital distribution in a metropolitan city: assessment by a geographical information system grid modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Soo Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid models were used to assess urban hospital distribution in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. A geographical information system (GIS based analytical model was developed and applied to assess the situation in a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 10 million. Secondary data for this analysis were obtained from multiple sources: the Korean Statistical Information Service, the Korean Hospital Association and the Statistical Geographical Information System. A grid of cells measuring 1 × 1 km was superimposed on the city map and a set of variables related to population, economy, mobility and housing were identified and measured for each cell. Socio-demographic variables were included to reflect the characteristics of each area. Analytical models were then developed using GIS software with the number of hospitals as the dependent variable. Applying multiple linear regression and geographically weighted regression models, three factors (highway and major arterial road areas; number of subway entrances; and row house areas were statistically significant in explaining the variance of hospital distribution for each cell. The overall results show that GIS is a useful tool for analysing and understanding location strategies. This approach appears a useful source of information for decision-makers concerned with the distribution of hospitals and other health care centres in a city.

  15. ANXIETY AND DEPRESSIVE ILLNESS: CURSE TO METROPOLITAN CITIES AND ROLE OF AYURVEDA

    OpenAIRE

    Kajaria Divya; Chandola H M

    2013-01-01

    Survey says that world is not threatened by spreading communicable diseases but by raising incidences of non-communicable diseases that spoil mind and thereby causing ailment in body. Stress and stress related disorders like mood disorders and personality disorders including anxiety and depression become the major problem of metropolitan cities. Every third individual living in big cities is suffering from stress and related disorder, amazing but it is true that in 21st century when we are ta...

  16. Disparity in the spatial distribution of clinics within a metropolitan city

    OpenAIRE

    Kwang-Soo Lee

    2013-01-01

    A methodology for evaluating and understanding how healthcare agencies are distributed within a city is provided. The study undertaken analysed the disparity in the spatial distribution of clinics within the metropolitan city of Daejeon, South Korea. Address and specialty of clinics in use were collected from five public health centres in 2010. Buffer analysis, hot-spot analysis, and generalized linear models were applied to the data collected. Multivariate analysis was also conducted on data...

  17. Impacts of Shared Autonomous Taxis in a Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Burghout, Wilco; Rigole, Pierre Jean; Andreasson, Ingmar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of potential benefits of a fleet of shared autonomous taxis “aTaxis”, in this paper referred to as Shared Autonomous Vehicles  (SAV)) when replacing private car commuter trips in a metropolitan area. We develop a framework for dynamic allocation of SAVs to passenger trips, empty-vehicle routing and multi-criteria evaluation with regard to passenger waiting time, trip times and fleet size. Using a dynamic representation of current private veh...

  18. Developing a strategy for sustainable tourism. Case study: Constanta metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Isabella Stan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been an interest in stimulating the development role of urban centers in Romania, in the context of regional and spatial planning. The accession of Romania to the European Union and the need to absorb EU funds were the main reasons behind the emergence of the legal framework for the development of metropolitan areas as urban growth poles. Constanta, situated on the Black Sea coast, is an important tourist city of the country which has developed as a center of trade between East and West, with good prospects in terms of sustainable tourism development because it’s the fourth largest port in Europe, has an international airport, inland waterway, and a functional highway. Tourism is an important economic component, which from the perspective of using the dimension of sustainable development - economic sustainability can become a key factor for a balanced metropolitan development. The purpose of this paper is to show the necessity to develop a strategy for tourism in the Constanta Metropolitan Area, strategy which could contribute to achieving a high level of economic and social development, a high standard of living for all its inhabitants.

  19. Modelling constraints on the emission inventory and on vertical diffusion for CO and SO2 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using Solar FTIR and zenith sky UV spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    B. de Foy; W. Lei; Zavala, M; Volkamer, R.; Samuelsson, J.; Mellqvist, J.; B. Galle; Martínez, A.-P.; Grutter, M.; L. T. Molina

    2006-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants in and around urban areas lead to negative health impacts on the population. To estimate these impacts, it is important to know the sources and transport mechanisms of the pollutants accurately. Mexico City has a large urban fleet in a topographically constrained basin leading to high levels of carbon monoxide (CO). Large point sources of sulfur dioxide (SO2) surrounding the basin lead to episodes with high concentrations. An Eulerian grid model (CAMx) and a partic...

  20. Modelling constraints on the emission inventory and on vertical dispersion for CO and SO2 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using Solar FTIR and zenith sky UV spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    B. de Foy; W. Lei; Zavala, M; Volkamer, R.; Samuelsson, J.; Mellqvist, J.; B. Galle; Martínez, A.-P.; Grutter, M.; A. Retama; L. T. Molina

    2007-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants in and around urban areas lead to negative health impacts on the population. To estimate these impacts, it is important to know the sources and transport mechanisms of the pollutants accurately. Mexico City has a large urban fleet in a topographically constrained basin leading to high levels of carbon monoxide (CO). Large point sources of sulfur dioxide (SO2) surrounding the basin lead to episodes with high concentrations. An Eulerian grid m...

  1. Modelling constraints on the emission inventory and on vertical dispersion for CO and SO2 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using Solar FTIR and zenith sky UV spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    B. de Foy; W. Lei; Zavala, M; Volkamer, R.; Samuelsson, J.; Mellqvist, J.; B. Galle; A.-P. Martínez; Grutter, M.; A. Retama; L. T. Molina

    2007-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants in and around urban areas lead to negative health impacts on the population. To estimate these impacts, it is important to know the sources and transport mechanisms of the pollutants accurately. Mexico City has a large urban fleet in a topographically constrained basin leading to high levels of carbon monoxide (CO). Large point sources of sulfur dioxide (SO2) surrounding the basin lead to episodes with high concentrations. An Eulerian grid model (CAMx) and a partic...

  2. PAD TECHNIQUE ON DEFORESTATION SITUATION ON PETROPOLIS’ METROPOLITAN AREA - RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Santos de Alencar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rising and intensification of production’s activities, as industries, the deforestation taxes show to be on an alarming level. It is wide spread known the consequences that deforestation might cause in metropolitan areas. In order to evalue the consequences of this growing phenomenon, is possible to use a role of ambiental impacts evaluations techniques. One of them is the Preliminary Analysis of Danger (PAD, which is based on qualitative and statistics analysis and might be used in association with other ambiental impacts evaluations techniques. It’s goal is to analyze dangers in potential, it’s causes and consequences, in which is also done an associated risk analysis, which the last is the association between the classifications of frequency and severity, and, in the end, it gives suggestions of measures to avoid these dangers (undesired events. In this study, six dangers have been identified, in which none of them present despicable or low risk (0%, 16% present medium or high risk and 66% present critic risk. These datas point out that the deforestation situation might cause dangers with great consequences to Petropolis’ metropolitan area, just as floodings and earth slidings, which higthlights the urgency of management of the area. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/sustinere.2015.20003

  3. First epidemiological report of feline heartworm infection in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; CARRETÓN, Elena; García-Guasch, Laín; Expósito, Jordi; Armario, Belén; Morchón, Rodrigo; Simón, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Background The metropolitan area of Barcelona is the most densely populated metropolitan area on the Mediterranean coast. Several studies have reported the presence of canine heartworm disease in this region; however, there are no published epidemiological data regarding feline heartworm in this region and the prevalence in this species remains unknown. Methods Serum samples from 758 cats living in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain) were collected between 2012 and 2013. To establish t...

  4. Growth in Commuting Distances in French Metropolitan Areas - The case of Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The continuous increase in the average commuting distance that characterizes European and North-American metropolitan areas is mainly the consequence of two developments. On one hand, the number of people living in a metropolitan area but working in another is on the increase. On the other hand, people living and working within the same metropolitan area are increasingly living further and further from their place of work: the 1999 and 1990 French censuses emphasize that the average (intra-me...

  5. Decomposition of Net CO2 Emission in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area of Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Policy-makers have been sharing growing concerns that climate change has significant impacts on human society and economic activates. Knowledge of the influencing factors of CO2 emission is the crucial step to reduce it. In this paper, both CO2 emission and CO2 sink on a city-level of the nine cities in Wuhan Metropolitan Area are calculated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach. Moreover, the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI model was employed to decompose the net CO2 emission from 2001 to 2009. Results showed that (1 the largest amount of CO2 emission comes from energy while the largest amount CO2 sink comes from cropland; (2 economic level (S was the largest positive driving factor for net CO2 emission growth in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, population (P also played a positive driving role, but with very weak contribution; and as negative inhibiting factors, energy structure (E and energy efficiency (C significantly reduced the net CO2 emission.

  6. The Metropolitan Area of the Municipality of Bucharest. Present-Day Features Relating to Some Environmental Issues in an International Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INES GRIGORESCU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of metropolitan areas represents the main characteristic of today’s urban evolution trends. The first initiatives to delimitate and define metropolitan areas have been in the United States since 1910. In Europe, this concept was adopted at the beginning of the1990s when the United States had already had 250 metropolitan areas. Romania adopted the concept of metropolitan area in the late 1990s, namely in 1997 when a study on the Directions, Ways, and Intensities of Development in the Municipality of Bucharest and its Metropolitan Zone. Environmental protection politics appeared. This made public a point of view about the Bucharest metropolitan area, which was legally defined by Law no. 351 of July 6th 2001 regarding the National Territory Management Plan, Section IV – Settlements. But many other limits of this area were also taken into account. The uncontrolled evolution of the Bucharest Metropolitan Area as well as of many other European capital cities can be stopped or stabilized by developing green belts or green areas.

  7. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  8. Traffic Congestion in the Metropolitan City of Kolkata

    OpenAIRE

    Aparajita Chakrabartty; Sudakshina Gupta

    2014-01-01

    There has been rapid urbanisation in the cities of India which has led to an increase in demand for mobility. Public transport has not been able to satisfy the transportation needs of the population leading to rise in vehicle ownership. The huge numbers of private vehicles, heterogeneous traffic and limited road space have led to the problem of congestion on the Indian city roads. The situation is no different in Kolkata. Kolkata has a high population density. The road space in Kolkata is onl...

  9. Environmental impact assessment of urban sprawl in the Braşov Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Cocheci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify the critical areas regarding land use changes in the Brasov Metropolitan area. In order to achieve this, a comparison of built surfaces between the 1981 Topographical Map of Romania and the 2005 and 2011 satellite images of the metropolitan area was realized. The data regarding the increase of built surfaces and the decline in natural and agricultural land, obtained through GIS techniques, has been used as an indicator of environmental impact, along with statistical data such as number of dwellings dynamic or increase in population. The results show a significant increase in built area, especially along the main national roads that enter the city of Brasov. While many residential projects have been realized in the area (especially in the municipalities situated north of Brasov, there are also new industrial parks and commercial facilities which have drastically changed the landscape, leading to environmental quality degradation. In the end, the environmental impact assessment can serve as a basis for drawing policies which should be applied in order to control urban sprawl in the future and reduce its negative environmental effects.

  10. Strategies for development metropolitan areas. Case Study about configuration of the Galati Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Zugravu; Florin Marian Buhociu

    2013-01-01

    Economic and social development of each locality and finally, of human communities that live here, depends increasingly on the ways of their internal organizing but also on becoming closer with social partners in the area(s) concerned. It is increasingly important that each locality (territorial administrative unit, TAU) solve multiple problems of ensuring development conditions through various strategies and policies of cooperation and association. These may represent a real support and vect...

  11. P wave attenuation structure below the Tokyo Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotopoulos, Y.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.; Hirata, N.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Lee, C.

    2010-12-01

    The material properties of the complex subduction zone beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan can be estimated by the seismic attenuation Q-1 of seismic waves observed at local seismic stations. The attenuation of seismic waves is represented by the t* attenuation operator that can be estimated by fitting the observed P wave amplitude spectrum to a theoretical spectrum using an ω2 source model. The waveform data used in this study are recorded at the dense seismic array of the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net). The station network is distributed on five lines with an average spacing of 3 km and in an area with a spacing of 5 km in the central part of Kanto plane. The MeSO-net stations are equipped with a three-component accelerometer at a bottom of a 20-m-deep borehole, signals from which are digitized at a sampling rate of 200 Hz with a dynamic range of 135 dB.The waveforms of 141 earthquakes observed at 226 stations were selected from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) unified earthquake list from January 1st 2010 to August 4th 2010. Only high-quality amplitude spectra of earthquakes with M > 3 were used for the estimation of reliable attenuation parameters. The acceleration waveforms were integrated twice to yield the corresponding displacement vectors, applying a high pass filter to remove the effect of the low-frequency background noise. Taking into account that the majority of the events occurred at depth greater than 30 km a search window of 5 sec starting 1 sec before the P wave arrival was implemented for the creation of the dataset. The t* values were estimated from the amplitude spectra of approximately 33800 P wave waveforms conducting a fast Fourier transform analysis. The Q values for the Tokyo Metropolitan area estimate by this study range from 100 to 500 in the upper 30 km of the crust. A site effect on the attenuation near stations inside a densely populated area is also a possible reason for the large Q variations observed.

  12. Employment income of immigrants in metropolitan areas of Canada, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, R B; Basavarajappa, K G

    1989-09-01

    This paper examines the economic achievements of immigrant groups and compares them with those of the Canadian-born population. Employment income in this study is income for members of the labor force who worked 40 weeks or more, full time, during 1980. The information is from the 1981 Census. The 15 birthplace groups considered in this study are classified into 2 major groups: those from traditional sources and those from non-traditional or new sources. Traditional sources are the US, UK, and Europe. The new sources are Africa, Asia, South and Central America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. More than 1/2 of the immigrants from traditional sources arrived before 1960, whereas more than 1/2 of immigrants from new sources arrived after 1970. The analysis is only for those areas called Census Metropolitan Areas. Results of analysis show that 1) immigrant men and women in metropolitan areas earned 1.9% and 5.9% respectively less than their Canadian-born counterparts; 2) when differences in age and educational attainment were considered, incomes of immigrant men and women were about 7.5% below those of their Canadian-born counterparts; 3) the new immigrant groups earned far less than those of the Canadian-born counterparts; 4) traditional-source immigrants' incomes were equal to or slightly higher than Canadians'; and 5) as length of residence increases, most immigrant groups improve their relative economic position and achieve incomes comparable to Canadians'. The authors discuss the economic adaptation of immigrants in the light of various models: assimilation, Marxist class conflict, ethnic stratification and segmentation, structural pluralism, and structural change. No theory can be applied to the economic adaptation of all types of immigrants. Finally, refugees and sponsored relatives, who are not admitted on the basis of education and occupational need, are likely to have more difficulties than independent immigrants. PMID:12282409

  13. Effects of industrial wastewater reuse for crop production: A case study in Tejgaon metropolitan area of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, S; Banna, L.N.; S. A. Mamun; Farukh, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to identify the benefits, adverse effects, social acceptance and a long term impacts of industrial wastewater reuse in the Tejgaon metropolitan area of Dhaka city. Questionnaire surveys were conducted in the exposed and control sites to collect data on the farmers’ perception and responses regarding agricultural, economic, social and environmental health issues. The most important benefits of wastewater reuse have been found as the availability of wastewater over al...

  14. Evaluation of sludge management alternatives in Istanbul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, M; Erdim, E; Kinaci, C; Akca, L

    2005-01-01

    The main concern of this paper was to predict the sludge quantities generated from 18 wastewater treatment plants, which were stated to be established in the "Istanbul Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage, Sewage Treatment and Disposal Master Plan", 10 of which are in operation at present. Besides this, obtaining the required data to compare various treatment schemes was another goal of the study. Especially, the estimation of the sludge quantity in the case of enhanced primary sedimentation was of importance. Wastewater sludge management strategies were discussed in order to develop suggestions for Istanbul Metropolitan city. Within this context, the wastewater treatment facilities, mentioned in the Master Plan that had been completed by 2000, were evaluated in terms of sludge production rates, locations and technical and management aspects. Disposal alternatives of the wastewater treatment sludge were also evaluated in this study. Using of the dewatered sludge as a landfill cover material seems the best alternative usage. Up to the year of 2040, the requirement of cover material for landfills in Istanbul will be met by the dewatered sludge originated from wastewater treatment plants in the region. PMID:16114625

  15. Gamma-ray and neutron background comparison of US metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray and neutron background surveys were performed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in U.S. cities, including Washington, D.C.; Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri; Chicago, Illinois; Richmond, Virginia; Boston, Massachusetts and Baltimore, Maryland. Measurements covered a range of industrial, residential and commercial areas. Germanium grade gamma-ray data over the energy range of 0.05–3.0 MeV and neutron count rates with unmoderated He-3 sensitivity were recorded as a function of latitude, longitude and elevation in one second intervals. Typical Potassium Uranium Thorium (KUT) backgrounds were seen along with several anomalies. For example, a decrease in the thermal neutron flux in large urban canyons was seen and verified via Monte Carlo simulations. The data were collected to provide natural background models for simulation work. Germanium grade spectroscopy is required, because it provides sufficiently detailed isotopic information of the gamma-ray background. As expected a comparison of the background shows significant differences between the individual cities. - Highlights: • Gamma-ray and neutron background data were collected in several US metropolitan areas. • We examine the differences in the naturally occurring radioactive background. • We discuss the process of deconvolving the background data for use in future simulations. • City models are used in simulations to explain select background anomalies

  16. Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework Policy in the New York Metropolitan Area: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Sandra Lorraine Hawks

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study, "Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework in the New York Metropolitan Area," was conducted to explore the perceptions of knowledge workers who commute to a physical workplace in the New York Metropolitan area (NYMA). In-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen NYMA commuters who are…

  17. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  18. WATER RESOURCES IN THE CONTEXT OF REGIONAL PLANNING. CASE STUDY: CLUJ-NAPOCA METROPOLITAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA OLIVIA CIMPOIEŞ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of water resources is controversial because it reveals the complex needs of the population on a certain territory, depending on the analysis scale. Public utilities or water surfaces in the surrounding rural areas of a city are rarely paid much attention to in comparison to the urban centre, though they could provide comfort attributes, aesthetic value and leisure activities. Is it a matter of social fairness, political orientation or funding accessibility for a community to benefit from the water resources in the vicinity? The present study propos ed to analyse the metropolitan area of Cluj and explain why the distribution of resources varies according to physical conditions, distance or localities’ economic statute.

  19. Metro Cebu: A Metropolitan Area in Need of Coordinative Body

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Glenda R.

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization and rapid increase in population in Metro Cebu brought about increased demand for basic services and infrastructure. The creation of the Metro Cebu Development Council comprising of the four (4) cities and six (6) municipalities in the eastern part of the Cebu Province, as an organizational structure, attempts to address these problems. However, services that require areas larger than a local jurisdiction for cost-effective provisioning like water supply, garbage disposal and sol...

  20. Manifestation of an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP Model on Fire Potential Zonation Mapping in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kumar Chhetri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Even though fewer people die as a result of fire than other natural disasters, such as earthquake, flood, landslide, etc., the average loss of property due to fire is high. Kathmandu Metropolitan City is becoming more vulnerable to fire due to haphazard urbanization and increase in population. To control problems due to fire, systematic studies are necessary, including fire potential mapping and risk assessment. This study applies an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal for generation of fire potential zonation map. The fire potential zonation map is prepared on the basis of available data of land use, fuel stations, and population density. This map shows that 58.04% of the study area falls under low fire potential zone, 32.92% falls under moderate fire potential zone and 9.04% falls under high fire potential zone. The map is also validated through major past fire incidents. The results show that the predicted fire potential zones are found to be in good agreement with past fire incidents, and, hence, the map can be used for future land-use planning.

  1. The Differential Impact of Welfare Reform in Non-metropolitan and Metropolitan Areas of Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Chinnis, Sarah

    1999-01-01

    The state of Virginia has been a leader in the design and implementation of welfare reform measures. State welfare reforms were enacted in 1996 and federal reforms followed shortly after in 1996. Initial decreases in program caseloads and the movement of former recipients from unemployment to employment have led initial reform measures to be widely heralded as successes. Significant concerns remain, however, about the ability of non-metropolitan labor markets to absorb female household hea...

  2. Shopper-Based Mall Equity: A Comparative Study of Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Area in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Zahari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to differentiate the role of generation Y on dimensions of shopper-based mall equity (SBME for two different locations in Malaysia. SBME is the differential effect of mall knowledge on shoppers' responses to a mall's marketing activities. We validated the shopper-based mall equity measure using data generated with mall-intercept surveys in two shopping malls in Malaysia located at Kuantan, Pahang (non-metropolitan area, while Petaling Jaya, Selangor represent metropolitan area (N=564. The data collected then was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, reliability test, descriptive statistics, and t-test. The results from t-test show that the variables i.e. mall awareness, mall environment, mall convenience, mall entertainment, and mall equity have significant difference between two selected malls. However the effect sizes (eta squared were small. Moreover, product/service quality, service quality, and mall loyalty have no significant difference between two malls.

  3. Air quality in the Helsinki metropolitan area in 2011; Ilmanlaatu paeaekaupunkiseudulla vuonna 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkki, M.; Matilainen, L.; Kousa, A.; Myllynen, M.; Niemi, J.; Loukkola, K.

    2012-07-01

    Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY monitors air quality in the Helsinki metropolitan area. In 2011 air quality in the region was most of the time good or satisfactory. The number of hours with poor or very poor air quality was at many monitoring sites smaller than during the previous year. Poor or very poor air quality was in most cases due to spring time street dust. There were no significant long-range transport episodes or other long lasting events of deteriorated air quality. Snow cover that lasted up to the beginning of April and changeable weather restrained resuspension of street dust except for the major roads. The strongest street dust period did not start until the 11th of April, about two weeks later than normally. Intensified cleaning of streets and sprinkling them with dilute solution of calcium chloride have been effective in decreasing the concentrations of thoracic particles, the limit values of which have not been exceeded after 2006. The national 24-hour guideline for thoracic particles was exceeded in busy traffic environments during the street dust period in spring. In 2011 the annual average concentration of nitrogen dioxide no longer exceeded the limit value in the city centre of Helsinki at Mannerheimintie monitoring station. In previous years the limit value has been exceeded also at the Mannerheimintie monitoring station. The limit value was, however, still exceeded at many places in busy street canyons of Helsinki. The limit value should have been achieved by the beginning of 2010. Because this aim was not achieved by the given date, a postponement has been applied for from the EU Commission. The national 24-hour guideline was exceeded during nine months in the street canyon of Maekelaenkatu, during three months in the Helsinki city centre and in February also in many places in the busy traffic areas of the region. The concentrations of fine particles did not exceed the limit value, but the annual guideline based on

  4. Household dust metal levels in The Sao Paulo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study about household dust is being conducted to determine the level of metal contamination in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). The SPMA, with 18 million inhabitants, is one of the largest urban areas of the world, with serious environmental problems, due to the great amount of industries, heavy traffic and the disordered growth of population. The pollutants originate from a multiplicity of indoor and outdoor sources. Indoor sources are originated from residual (hair, skin scales), pets, human activities, construction materials, and furnishings as well as biological material (pollen, insect parts).and outdoor pollution, usually from the urban traffic. The pollutant mixture involved in numerous physical and chemical processes and changes its characteristics with time. Its composition and concentration depend on the strengths of indoor sources, the concentration of pollutants outside and the properties of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. It is well recognized that many metals have chronic effects on humans, in particular toddlers, who are at an higher risk compared to adults because they engage in greater hand to-mouth activity and their neurological systems are still developing. The household dust samples were collected from different localities, using vacuum cleaner, and sieved up to particle size -1; Mn, 119-369 μg g-1; Fe, 372-1464 μg g-1; Ni, 33-85 μg g-1; Cu, 42-303 μg g-1; Zn, 156-1369 μg g-1 and Pb, 26-160 μg g-1. (author)

  5. Climate Change Management Approaches of Cities: A Comparative Study Between Globally Leading and Turkish Metropolitan Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Filiz Karabag

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on climate change policies and action at the national level, but few have studied policies and action at the city level, especially cities in emerging economies. To address this gap, the present study analyzes the management strategies globally leading cities have developed to address climate change and related issues and compares them with the city strategies of one rapidly urbanizing emerging economy, Turkey. In the analysis, the strategic plans of five leading global cities are compared with those of sixteen Turkish cities. While the leading global cities have specific managerial approaches to mitigate climate change, none of the Turkish cities exhibits any comprehensive approach. Furthermore, while leading global cities modify urban services to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, few Turkish cities adjust any services to address this challenge. Some Turkish cities propose an increased use of renewable energy sources and modification in their transportation system, but the focus in these plans is the current daily needs of their inhabitants. The findings of this study suggest several climate change strategies both for Turkish cities and cities in other developing countries.

  6. A study of risk in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara through dense GPS geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Azua, B.; Saldana-Hernandez, F.; Medina de La Pena, H.

    2007-05-01

    Geodesic measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) are used extensively for basic earth science research into natural hazards and seismic risk. In the private sector, GPS technology is additionally used for cadastral and photogrammetric mapping surveys, definition of political-administrative limits, space analysis with thematic cartography, GIS, and land-use planning, with a wide variety of applied social, economic, and political purposes, including conservation of the environment. The city of Guadalajara and its surrounding urban area has expanded greatly in the last three decades as a result of industrial, commercial and housing activity that have substantially changed in their urban morphology. This period of unprecedented growth has occurred primarily in an unplanned and sometimes disarticulated and unbalanced manner, incongruous with the development of the most important city in western Mexico. The Department of Geography of the University of Guadalajara and the Institute of Territorial Information of the State of Jalisco (IITJ) have initiated a study of 89 geodetic sites that are located in the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara to assist in future planning and regulation of urban development, including urban and rural cadastral surveys and the establishment of diverse public services. Our work includes careful examination and evaluation of the quality and distribution of these geodetic sites with regard to anticipated growth of the metropolitan municipalities, and the vulnerability of urban zones to ground subsidence or landslides. Guadalajara is also located in a seismic zone, making precise continuous GPS measurements useful for identifying rates of strain accumulation and aseismic strain events that cannot be measured by seismographs.

  7. Diversidad de arañas (Arachnida: Araneae asociadas con viviendas de la ciudad de México (Zona Metropolitana Spider diversity (Arachnida: Araneae associated with houses in México city (Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Gabriel Durán-Barrón

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La ecología urbana es un área de investigación relativamente reciente. Los ecosistemas urbanos son aquellos definidos como ambientes dominados por el hombre. Con el proceso de urbanización, insectos y arácnidos silvestres aprovechan los nuevos microhábitats que las viviendas humanas ofrecen. Se revisaron arañas recolectadas dentro de 109 viviendas durante los años de 1985 a 1986, 1996 a 2001 y 2002 a 2003. Se cuantificaron 1 196 organismos , los cuales se determinaron hasta especie. Se obtuvo una lista de 25 familias, 52 géneros y 63 especies de arañas sinantrópicas. Se utilizaron 3 índices (ocupación, densidad y estacionalidad y un análisis de intervalos para sustentar la siguiente clasificación: accidentales (índice de densidad de 0-0.9, ocasionales (1-2.9, frecuentes (3.0-9.9 y comunes (10 en adelante. Se comparan las faunas de arañas sinantrópicas de 5 países del Nuevo Mundo.Urban ecology is a relatively new area of research, with urban ecosystems being defined as environments dominated by humans. Insects and arachnids are 2 groups that successfully exploit the habitats offered by human habitations. We analyzed the occurrence and densities of spiders found in houses in México City. We used material collected between 1985 and 2003. We recorded 1 196 spiders from 109 houses. The list includes 25 families, 52 genera and 63 species of synanthropic spiders. Indices of ocupation, density and seasonality, as well as rank analyses were used to make the following classification of synanthropism: accidental (density index 0-0.9, occasional (1-2.9, frequent (3.0-9.9 and common (10 or more. The synanthropic spider faunas of 5 New World countries are compared.

  8. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2011 to 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to 2012. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  9. 1:1,000,000-Scale Metropolitan Statistical Areas - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States and Puerto Rico. The map layer was created from data produced by the U.S. Census Bureau....

  10. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Metropolitan Statistical Areas 201309 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States and Puerto Rico. The map layer was created from data produced by the U.S. Census Bureau....

  11. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2010 and Prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  12. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  13. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor...

  14. Development of evaluation metod of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2012-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of climate change adaptation strategy. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data, we constructed a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software.Based on these flood data , we created flood risk curve, representing the relation ship between damage and exceedbability of flood for the period 1976-2008. Based on the flood risk cruve, we aim to evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause of regional difference in flood risk at Tokyo metropolitan area by considering effect of socio-economic change and climate change

  15. Probabilistic Analysis of Drought Spatiotemporal Characteristics in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wanyuan Cai; Yuhu Zhang; Yunjun Yao; Qiuhua Chen

    2015-01-01

    The temporal and spatial characteristics of meteorological drought have been investigated to provide a framework of methodologies for the analysis of drought in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area (BTHMA) in China. Using the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) as an indicator of drought severity, the characteristics of droughts have been examined. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area was divided into 253 grid-cells of 27 × 27km and monthly precipitation data for the period of 19...

  16. Persistent organochlorines in human breast milk from major metropolitan cities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to understand the current contamination status of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in human breast milk from three metropolitan cities in India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata). Among the OCs analyzed, DDTs were predominant followed by HCHs and PCBs. CHLs and HCB levels were much lower. Contamination patterns were different in human milk found in our previous study in Chennai, a metropolitan city in southern India, indicating region specific exposure routes and variable sources. In comparison with previous data, levels of DDTs and HCHs generally declined with time, implying the effect of various bans and restrictions on their usage. No association between concentrations of OCs and demographic characteristics such as parity and age of mothers was observed which might be due to narrow range of mother's age. Estimated daily intake shows that some infants are exposed to OCs to a greater extent, particularly HCHs than the guideline standard. - Indian infants may be exposed to relatively high levels of DDTs and HCHs through mothers' milk

  17. Urban agriculture in the metropolitan area of Mexico city L’agriculture urbaine dans la métropole de Mexico Agricultura urbana en el área metropolitana de la Ciudad de México

    OpenAIRE

    H. Losada; Rivera, J.; Cortes, J; Vieyra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Mexico City and the rest of the country do not escape from the social and economic inequalities of the present economic model applied worldwide.  Agriculture is a traditional activity in Mexico. This urban productive process has particular features: the predominance of smallholding, the restricted use of physical space, and the use of recycled materials and organic wastes. The population engaged in agriculture is heterogeneous, and includes women and children. There are a couple of production...

  18. Application of nuclear techniques for the assessment of air pollution in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte City, MG; Aplicacao de tecnicas nucleares nos estudos de avaliacao da poluicao do ar da regiao metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucas, Janaina Goncalves

    2009-07-01

    Toxic metals, such as Ni, V, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn and metalloids as As and Se and their compounds are mainly associated with the smaller diameter particulates present in the atmospheric aerosols. This fact is important, principally, when it concerns public health, because this is considered the breathable fraction of particles that can penetrate deeply into the lungs and cause damage to the alveoli. Once in the atmosphere the concentrations of trace metals, in general, show very low levels, thus the determination of the elementary composition of those particles requires the use of appropriate analytical techniques such as Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and X-Rays Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), among others. The main objective of this study was the identification of the generating sources of gross (PM{sub 10}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) particles present in the atmospheric aerosols of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte. Neutron Activation Analyses by k{sub 0}-method (k0NAA) combined with energy dispersed by X-ray fluorescence was used to measurement of the concentration of trace elements present in each sample. High levels of particulate concentrations, especially PM{sub 2.5}, were measured during the sampling period. In general, the air quality varied from Reasonable to Inadequate. The receptor model used to assist in the identification of the main emission sources was the Principal Components Analysis. The results showed that the main elements presents in particulate inhalable matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}) were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Sc, Si, Ti, W and Zn. The results for multi-variable analyses shown clearly four pollutant sources, these being: vehicular emissions; resuspended soil/asphalt powder; secondary aerosols associated with emission of SO{sub 2} and industrial emissions associated with fossil oil burning. (author)

  19. Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly

  20. Twelve-Year Trends of PM10 and Visibility in the Hefei Metropolitan Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available China has been experiencing severe air pollution and previous studies have mostly focused on megacities and a few hot spot regions. Hefei, the provincial capital city of Anhui province, has a population of near 5 million in its metropolitan area, but its air quality has not been reported in literature. In this study, daily PM10 and visibility data in 2001–2012 were analyzed to investigate the air quality status as well as the twelve-year pollution trends in Hefei. The results reveal that Hefei has been suffering high PM10 pollution and low visibility during the study period. The annual average PM10 concentrations are 2~3 times of the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard. PM10 shows fluctuating variation in 2001–2007 and has a slightly decreasing trend after 2008. The annual average visibility range is generally lower than 7 km and shows a worsening trend from 2001 to 2006 followed by an improving trend from 2007 to 2012. Wind speed, precipitation, and relative humidity have negative effects on PM10 concentrations in Hefei, while temperature could positively or negatively affect PM10. The results provide a general understanding of the status and long-term trends of PM10 pollution and visibility in a typical second-tier city in China.

  1. Impact of regional afforestation on climatic conditions in metropolitan areas: case study of Copenhagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stysiak, Aleksander Andrzej; Bergen Jensen, Marina; Mahura, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Like most other places, European metropolitan areas will face a range of climate-related challenges over the next decades that may influence the nature of urban life across the continent. Under future urbanization and climate change scenarios the well-being and comfort of the urban population might become progressively compromised. In urban areas, the effects of the warming climate will be accelerated by combination of Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) and extreme heat waves. The land cover composition directly influences atmospheric variability, and can either escalate or downscale the projected changes. Vegetation, forest ecosystems in particular, are anticipated to play an important role in modulating local and regional climatic conditions, and to be vital factor in the process of adapting cities to warming climate. This study investigates the impact of forest and land-cover change on formation and development of temperature regimes in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area (CPH-MA). Potential to modify the UHI effect in CPH-MA is estimated. Using 2009 meteorological data, and up-to-date 2012 high resolution land-cover data we employed the online integrated meteorology-chemistry/aerosols Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) modeling system to simulate air temperature (at 2 meter height) fields for a selected period in July 2009. Employing research tools (such as METGRAF meteorological software and Geographical Information Systems) we then estimated the influence of different afforestation and urbanization scenarios with new forests being located after the Danish national afforestation plan, after proximity to the city center, after dominating wind characteristics, and urbanization taking place as densification of the existing conurbation. This study showed the difference in temperature up to 3.25°C, and the decrease in the spatial extent of temperature fields up to 68%, depending on the selected scenario. Performed simulations demonstrated

  2. Urban agriculture in the metropolitan area of Mexico city L’agriculture urbaine dans la métropole de Mexico Agricultura urbana en el área metropolitana de la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Losada

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mexico City and the rest of the country do not escape from the social and economic inequalities of the present economic model applied worldwide.  Agriculture is a traditional activity in Mexico. This urban productive process has particular features: the predominance of smallholding, the restricted use of physical space, and the use of recycled materials and organic wastes. The population engaged in agriculture is heterogeneous, and includes women and children. There are a couple of production systems: the suburban, which uses the “chinampa” to produce mainly vegetable and flowers; and the periurban system, which has two sub-systems, the “terraces” producing nopal-vegetable and maize and the “Valleys” producing tuna (fruit and amaranth. The wastes of other systems (straw  and manure are used in these places. The production systems combine pre-hispanic and modern tools, such as the tractor and coa. The products of these sites are sold in tourist areas of ecological importance. These technologies are reproducible, socially inclusive and environmentally friendly, but government support is needed.developing countries, recycling, sub-urban, peri-urban, Opuntia, chinampaMexico et le reste du Mexique n’échappent pas aux inégalités sociales et économiques induites par le modèle économique qui prédomine actuellement dans le monde entier. L’agriculture est une activité traditionnelle au Mexique. Ce processus de production urbain présente des caractéristiques particulières : prédominance de petits lopins de terre, utilisation limitée de l’espace et utilisation de matériaux et de déchets organiques recyclés. La population engagée dans l’agriculture est hétérogène et comprend des femmes et des enfants. Deux systèmes de production cohabitent : le système suburbain qui utilise les « chinampa » pour produire essentiellement des légumes et des fleurs ; et le système périurbain qui comprend deux sous-systèmes : les

  3. The Impact of Green Space Changes on Air Pollution and Microclimates: A Case Study of the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a sustainable urban environment, the increase of green space areas is commonly used as a planning tool and adaptation strategy to combat environmental impacts resulting from global climate change and urbanization. Therefore, it is important to understand the change of green space areas and the derived impacts from the change. This research firstly applied space analysis and landscape ecology metrics to analyze the structure change of the pattern of green space area within the Taipei Metropolitan Area. Then, partial least squares were used to identify the consequences on microclimate and air pollution pattern caused by the changing pattern of green space areas within the districts of the Taipei Metropolitan Area. According to the analytical results, the green space area within Taipei Metropolitan Areas has decreased 1.19% from 1995 to 2007, but 93.19% of the green space areas have been kept for their original purposes. Next, from the landscape ecology metrics analysis, in suburban areas the linkages, pattern parameters, and space aggregation are all improving, and the fragmentation measure is also decreasing, but shape is becoming more complex. However, due to intensive land development in the city core, the pattern has becomes severely fragmented and decentralized causing the measures of the linkages and pattern parameters to decrease. The results from structural equation modeling indicate that the changing pattern of green space areas has great influences on air pollution and microclimate patterns. For instance, less air pollution, smaller rainfall patterns and cooler temperatures are associated with improvement in space aggregation, increasing the larger sized green space patch.

  4. Measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO field campaign: a comparison of results from the T0 and T1 sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Marley

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering were obtained in Mexico City during the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations field campaign in March 2006. A comparison of aerosol absorption and scattering was obtained in Mexico City at site T0 located in the northern part of Mexico City at the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo Laboratories and at site T1 located at the Universidad Tecnológica de Tecamac, 18 miles northwest of T0. Hourly averages of aerosol absorption were similar at both sites, ranging from 6–93 Mm−1 with an average of 31 Mm−1 at T0; and from 2–104 Mm−1 with an average of 19 Mm−1 at T1. Aerosol scattering at T0 ranged from 16–344 Mm−1 with an average of 105 Mm−1; while the scattering values at T1 were lower than T0 ranging from 2–136 with an average of 53 Mm−1. Aerosol single scattering albedos (SSAs were determined at both sites using these data. SSAs at T1 ranged from 0.44–0.90 with an average 0.75 as compared to hose at T0, range 0.51–0.93 with an average of 0.77.

    Broadband UV-B intensity was found to be higher at site T0, with an average of 64 μW/cm2 at solar noon, than at site T1, which had an average of 54 μW/cm2 at solar noon. Comparisons of clear-sky modeled UV-B intensities with the simultaneous UV-B measurements obtained at site T0 and at site T1 for cloudless days indicate a larger diffuse radiation field at site T0 than at site T1. The determination of aerosol scattering Ångstrom coefficient at T0 suggests the larger diffuse radiation is due to the predominance of submicron aerosols at T0 with aerosol scattering of UV-B radiation peaked in the forward direction, leading to the enhancement observed at ground level.

  5. Measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO field campaign: a comparison of results from the T0 and T1 sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, N. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Castro, T.; Salcido, A.; Frederick, J.

    2008-07-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering were obtained in Mexico City during the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations) field campaign in March 2006. A comparison of aerosol absorption and scattering was obtained in Mexico City at site T0 located in the northern part of Mexico City at the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo Laboratories and at site T1 located at the Universidad Tecnológica de Tecamac, 18 miles northwest of T0. Hourly averages of aerosol absorption were similar at both sites, ranging from 6 93 Mm-1 with an average of 31 Mm-1 at T0; and from 2 104 Mm-1 with an average of 19 Mm-1 at T1. Aerosol scattering at T0 ranged from 16 344 Mm-1 with an average of 105 Mm-1; while the scattering values at T1 were lower than T0 ranging from 2 136 with an average of 53 Mm-1. Aerosol single scattering albedos (SSAs) were determined at both sites using these data. SSAs at T1 ranged from 0.44 0.90 with an average 0.75 as compared to hose at T0, range 0.51 0.93 with an average of 0.77. Broadband UV-B intensity was found to be higher at site T0, with an average of 64 μW/cm2 at solar noon, than at site T1, which had an average of 54 μW/cm2 at solar noon. Comparisons of clear-sky modeled UV-B intensities with the simultaneous UV-B measurements obtained at site T0 and at site T1 for cloudless days indicate a larger diffuse radiation field at site T0 than at site T1. The determination of aerosol scattering Ångstrom coefficient at T0 suggests the larger diffuse radiation is due to the predominance of submicron aerosols at T0 with aerosol scattering of UV-B radiation peaked in the forward direction, leading to the enhancement observed at ground level.

  6. Spatio-temporal changes of urban fringe in tokyo metropolitan area

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Toshio; Obara, Norihiro

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we made a point of urban fringe movement as the reflection of urbanisation in Tokyo metropolitan area, and discussed about driving forces on such movement. According to spatio-temporal distribution of agricultural and urban land uses, we could identify urban fringe movement and its sectorial differences, and revealed ten factors of them: land conditions and their improvement, transportation network, the importance of rice farming, accessibility to the metropolitan centre and off...

  7. Observed and Projected Climate Extremities in Chennai Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anushiya, j.; Andimuthu, R.

    2013-12-01

    Analyses of observed climate throughout world revealed some significant changes in the extremes. Any change in the frequency or severity of extreme climate events would have profound impacts on the resilience of nature and society. It is thus very important to analyze extreme events to reliably monitor and detect climate change. Chennai is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and Industrial growth centers in South Asia. Population has grown rapidly in the last 20 years due to its major industrialization and tremendous growth. Already Chennai's day and night time Temperature shows an increasing trend. The past incidence of catastrophic flooding was observed in the city due to heavy rains associated with depressions and cyclonic storm lead floods in major rivers. After 2000, the incidents were reported repeatedly. The effort has made in this study to find the observed climate extremities over the past years and in the future. For observed changes, IMD gridded data set, and station data are used. Future high resolution climate scenarios (0.220x0.220) are developed through RCM using PRECIS. The boundary data have provided by the UK Met office. The selected members are simulated under the A1B scenario (a mid range emission scenario) for a continuous run till 2100. Climate indices listed by Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) by the CLIVAR are considered in this study. The indices were obtained using the software package RClimDex. Kendall's tau based slope estimator has been used to find the significance lavel. The results shows the significant increasing tendency of warm days (TX90P) in the past and in future. The trends in extreme wet days (R99P) are also increased. The growth in population, urban and industrial area, economic activities, depletion of natural resources along with changing climate are forced to develop the infrastructure includes climate friendly policies to adopt and to ensure the

  8. The duration of PM10 concentration in a large metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonati, Giovanni; Cernuschi, Stefano; Giugliano, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Annual ambient PM10 concentration time series recorded between 1991 and 2006 at 13 monitoring stations located within the "critical area" of Milan (Italy), encompassing the city and its metropolitan area, are analysed for the temporal duration of concentration levels. Duration episodes occur when the measured concentration is continuously higher than fixed concentration thresholds. For 20 concentration thresholds, ranging from 10 μg m -3 up to 200 μg m -3 by a 10 μg m -3 step, the total time of exceedance, the number of events of exceedance and the duration of the events of exceedance are evaluated on annual basis. Simple, empirically-derived expressions, formulated in order to describe these features of the observed durations, are presented. Since these formulations are parameterized in terms of the annual average PM10 concentration, they can be used to assess expected exposure to high-concentration levels for future scenarios characterized by lower annual average concentrations. A case-study for Milan urban area is presented, assessing the occurrence of duration episodes at annual PM10 concentration at the compliance level of the PM10 air quality limits, currently not-attained.

  9. To Withstand Loneliness in the Process of Urbanization---Research on the Construction and Planning of Metropolitan Suburban Rural Tourism Scenic Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiyue LlU; Kaiyu Ll; Qianqian TANG; Lei WANG; Yan Ll

    2015-01-01

    The conflicts between rurality and urbanization, tradition and modernity, in-dustry and environmental resource in the rural tourism have become major difficul-ties of its sustainable development in China. This paper analyzed the characteristics and difficult situations of metropolitan suburban rural tourism, put forward four kinds of region-city functions in the development of metropolitan suburban rural tourism, and researched on the construction of rural tourism scenic areas in metropolis sub-urb—"to Withstand Loneliness in the Process of Urbanization"—as the fol owing as-pects :the space organization mode, localization, social organization and manage-ment , the product organization and spatial planning modes and contents.

  10. Effects of land-use type on urban groundwater quality, Seoul metropolitan city, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S.; Yun, S.; Chae, G.; So, C.; Kweon, S.; Lee, P.

    2001-12-01

    The progressive degradation of urban groundwater becomes an important environmental problem encountered in South Korea. This study aims to examine the relationships between land-use type and groundwater quality in Seoul metropolitan city, based on the results of hydrogeochemical monitoring. For this purpose, land-use type was divided into five categories (green zone, housing, agricultural, traffic, and industrialized). The mean concentrations of TDS (total dissolved solids) effectively reflect the degree of anthropogenic contamination and increase in the following order: green zone (152.5 mg/l), then agricultural (380.7 mg/l) and housing (384.2 mg/l), then traffic (457.0 mg/l), and finally industrialized area (554.5 mg/l). Among major dissolved solutes, the concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, HCO3, and Cl increase with increasing TDS. In case of Na and Ca, de-icing salts and sewage are considered as major contamination sources. The corrosion of cements may also increase Ca. Nitrate concentration is characteristically very high in housing and agricultural areas, reflecting the severe contamination from domestic sewage and fertilizer. Sulfate and magnesium are enriched in industrialized area, possibly due to their derivation from industrial facilities. Chlorine ion is considered to be derived from de-chlorination of hydrocarbons as well as de-icing salts. Bicarbonate also increases with increasing TDS, for which cement dissolution and oxidation of organics are considered as source materials. However, enhanced water-rock(or construction materials) interaction also may increase the bicarbonate, because acidic wastewater in urban area is very corrosive. Trace metals and organic compounds generally does not show any distinct pattern of regional variation. However, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn, TCE, and PCE tend to increase locally in industrialized area, whereas high concentrations of Br, Ni, and Cu are found in traffic area. The groundwaters with very high concentrations of Fe, Zn, and

  11. Temporal patterns of emergency calls of a metropolitan city in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Yuan, Ning; Pan, Lin; Jiao, Pengfei; Dai, Weidi; Xue, Guixiang; Liu, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative understanding of human communication behavior, one of the fundamental human activities, is of great value in many practical problems, ranging from urban planning to emergency management. Most of the recent studies have focused on human communication under normal situations. Here, we study the temporal patterns of emergency calls, which is a special kind of human communication activity under emergency circumstances, by analyzing a dataset of emergency call records that collected from a metropolitan city in China during a five year period. We find that most individuals rarely make emergency calls. The distribution of inter-call durations decays as double power law along with an exponential tail. We also discover that, comparing with the normal communication activities, the activity of calling the emergency number shows more significant characteristics of burstiness and memory. We further demonstrate that the behavior of calling the emergency number when people encounter extreme events could be explained by an event-driven memory process.

  12. Transport scenarios in two metropolitan cities in India: Delhi and Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With rising population and increasing migration to the cities, it is expected that the urban population will increase and many more metropolitan cities will arise. Urban transport will also increase due to the high growth in population, travel demand and vehicles. In this paper, we look at the growth in vehicles and travel demand up to 2020, assuming business as usual, high GDP growth and low GDP growth scenarios for Mumbai and Delhi assuming a certain population growth. The consequent energy needs and local and global environment implications are studied. The case studies demonstrate that despite similar population and higher per capita GDP, due to the higher share of public bus transport and suburban railway system, the Mumbai transport results in 60% less energy and emissions compared to Delhi. This picture may change in the future with the introduction of metro in Delhi, but basic differences remain even in 2020, perhaps also due to the different urban design. The vehicle stock increases nearly three times in both cities in 23 years due to the increase in population, migration and economic growth. However, the vehicle ownership per 1000 persons only doubles and is far lower in 2020, even compared to the present world average ownership. Emissions, however, do not rise as much due to the introduction of more efficient vehicles and fuels, such as CNG or battery operated vehicles. The high share of public transport also helps. The effects of various policies, such as urban design, suburban railway system, transport management, control practices, etc. are very important

  13. Clustering Logistics Facilities in a Metropolitan Area via a Hot - Spot Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Önden

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hot spots can be described as the high attraction points. Defining the hot spots and clustering approaches in a metropolitan area helps to provide solutions for balancing the freight flows between the sub-areas in the city center. It also helps to provide solutions for secondary problems, such as traffic congestion and air pollution. The technique assists decision-makers in making inferences about the city’s future and taking precautions for sustainability. In this paper, a geographic information systems (GIS analysis tool, spatial statistics based on the Getis Ord* statistics, is used to illustrate which part of Istanbul has hot spots. The hot spot identification is based on logistics activities at the locations of the logistics facilities. The outputs of the analysis are discussed within the context of logistics costs and environmental effects.Anahtar Kelimeler: Mağaza yeri seçimi, delphi tekniği, makro analiz, mağaza yeri seçim kriterleri .

  14. Assessment of the Impact of Metropolitan-Scale Urban Planning Scenarios on the Moist Thermal Environment under Global Warming: A Study of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Using Regional Climate Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Suzuki-Parker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a high-resolution regional climate model coupled with urban canopy model, the present study provides the first attempt in quantifying the impact of metropolitan-scale urban planning scenarios on moist thermal environment under global warming. Tokyo metropolitan area is selected as a test case. Three urban planning scenarios are considered: status quo, dispersed city, and compact city. Their impact on the moist thermal environment is assessed using wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT. Future projections for the 2070s show a 2–4°C increase in daytime mean WBGT relative to the current climate. The urban scenario impacts are shown to be small, with a −0.4 to +0.4°C range. Relative changes in temperature and humidity as the result of a given urban scenario are shown to be critical in determining the sign of the WBGT changes; however, such changes are not necessarily determined by local changes in urban land surface parameters. These findings indicate that urban land surface changes may improve or worsen the local moist thermal environment and that metropolitan-scale urban planning is inefficient in mitigating heat-related health risks for mature cities like Tokyo.

  15. The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.; Mykleby, P.

    2012-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, changes in the local meteorology, and an increase in thermal pollution into urban water bodies. One mitigation strategy involves manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. As part of this project, we have been characterizing the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), a 16,000 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming. Annually, the TCMA has a modest 2-3°C UHI that is especially apparent in winter when the urban core can be up to 5-6°C warmer than the surrounding countryside. We present an analysis of regional temperature variations from a dense network of sensors located throughout the TCMA. We focus on the diurnal and seasonal

  16. Flood risk analysis in the Tokyo metropolitan area for climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2011-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area is highly vulnerable to flood, because densely populated area is located along mouth of major rivers. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. We aim to evaluate potential flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use change, land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. For this purpose, it is necessary to build up a consistent flood database system, which contains long-term consistent flood data for the past. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data documented in "Statistics of flood", we construct a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software. In this database, each flood record is linked to municipal polygons. By using this flood database, we can refer to a specific flood record for each year at small municipal level. We can also calculate total amount of damage for each flood cause such as innuduation inside the levee, over flow,innunduation by river water. First, we analyze long-term variations of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area based on this flood database. Then, we aim to evaluate influence of socio-economic and climatic change on flood risk variations by comparing flood variations in the past with rainfall data and socio-economic indicators. Finally, we construct a flood risk curve representing exceedance probability for total damage of flood by using past flood data. Based on the flood risk curve, we discuss potential vulnerability to flooding and risk of economic losses in Tokyo metropolitan area for climate change adaptation.

  17. An hourly PM10 diagnosis model for the Bilbao metropolitan area using a linear regression methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Aparicio, I; Hidalgo, J; Baklanov, A; Padró, A; Santa-Coloma, O

    2013-07-01

    There is extensive evidence of the negative impacts on health linked to the rise of the regional background of particulate matter (PM) 10 levels. These levels are often increased over urban areas becoming one of the main air pollution concerns. This is the case on the Bilbao metropolitan area, Spain. This study describes a data-driven model to diagnose PM10 levels in Bilbao at hourly intervals. The model is built with a training period of 7-year historical data covering different urban environments (inland, city centre and coastal sites). The explanatory variables are quantitative-log [NO2], temperature, short-wave incoming radiation, wind speed and direction, specific humidity, hour and vehicle intensity-and qualitative-working days/weekends, season (winter/summer), the hour (from 00 to 23 UTC) and precipitation/no precipitation. Three different linear regression models are compared: simple linear regression; linear regression with interaction terms (INT); and linear regression with interaction terms following the Sawa's Bayesian Information Criteria (INT-BIC). Each type of model is calculated selecting two different periods: the training (it consists of 6 years) and the testing dataset (it consists of 1 year). The results of each type of model show that the INT-BIC-based model (R(2) = 0.42) is the best. Results were R of 0.65, 0.63 and 0.60 for the city centre, inland and coastal sites, respectively, a level of confidence similar to the state-of-the art methodology. The related error calculated for longer time intervals (monthly or seasonal means) diminished significantly (R of 0.75-0.80 for monthly means and R of 0.80 to 0.98 at seasonally means) with respect to shorter periods. PMID:23247520

  18. Changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area Urban Heat Environment with Residential Redevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Je-Woo; Hong, Jinkyu

    2016-04-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the geographical extent of cities has increased around the world. In particular, following three decades of rapid regional economic growth, many Asian megacities have emerged and continue to expand. Short-term urban redevelopment is, therefore, inevitable. However, in this region the microclimatic impacts of urban redevelopment have not been extensively investigated using long-term in-situ observations. In this study, changes in surface sensible heat exchange, heat storage, and anthropogenic heat emissions due to urban residential redevelopment were quantified and analyzed based on a three-year micrometeorological record from the Seoul metropolitan area. The results show that following urban redevelopment of compact high-rise residential buildings, 1) the daily minimum air temperature near the ground surface increased by ˜0.6 K; 2) the ratio between surface sensible heat and net radiation increased by ˜ 9% (summer) to 31% (winter), anthropogenic heat emissions increased by 12 Wm‑2 (spring) to 26 Wm‑2 (summer), and daily maximum heat storage ranged by 35 Wm‑2 (spring) to 55 Wm‑2 (summer), and; 3) there was a transition of local circulation with changes in the surface properties of heat sources and roughness.

  19. Frequency of dermatophytes in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEZZARI Adelina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the distribution of dermatophytes in Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, they were isolated from the skin, hairs and nails samples and retrospectively analyzed from June 1981 to June 1995, in two different institutions in the city of Porto Alegre: (i the Serviço de Micologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul which attends the low income population (low and middle classes and, (ii Laboratório Weinmann, a clinical pathology laboratory which attends predominantly the higher income population (middle and upper classes, both which attend in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. The dermatophyte predominance of Trichophyton rubrum was confirmed (55.33% followed by T. mentagrophytes (21.46%. The data obtained were compared with the existing prevalence data which were collected in the interior of the state over a period of 32 years (1960-1992. T. verrucosum, T. simii, Microsporum persicolor, T. schöenleinii, M. nanum and M. cookei were isolated in the interior and have not been found in the capital so far. On the other side, T. violaceum was, isolated in the capital and has not been found in the interior so far.

  20. Environment, wealth, inequality and the burden of disease in the Accra metropolitan area, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, Kwasi Owusu; Kuitunen, Markku

    2005-06-01

    The study examines environmental problems and adverse impacts on the health of urban households in the Accra metropolitan area, Ghana. Accra is faced with severe inadequacy of urban infrastructure in the face of rapid population growth in the metropolis. More than half of the city's population do not have access to solid waste collection services. Only 39.8% of households have indoor pipe and over 35.0% of households depend on unsanitary public latrines whilst 2.5% do not have access to toilet facilities. Human excrement, garbage and wastewater are usually deposited in surface drains, open spaces and streams in poor neighbourhoods. The resultant poor sanitation has serious health impacts as more than half of reported diseases are related to poor environmental sanitation. The majority of households depend on solid fuels for cooking and this leads to indoor air pollution and high incidence of respiratory infections. Poor households bear a disproportionately large share of the burden of environmental health hazards than their wealthy counterparts, due to their particular vulnerability resulting from inadequate access to environmental health facilities and services. PMID:16134482

  1. An Intelligent Surveillance Platform for Large Metropolitan Areas with Dense Sensor Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus A. Alonso-López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent surveillance platform based on the usage of large numbers of inexpensive sensors designed and developed inside the European Eureka Celtic project HuSIMS. With the aim of maximizing the number of deployable units while keeping monetary and resource/bandwidth costs at a minimum, the surveillance platform is based on the usage of inexpensive visual sensors which apply efficient motion detection and tracking algorithms to transform the video signal in a set of motion parameters. In order to automate the analysis of the myriad of data streams generated by the visual sensors, the platform’s control center includes an alarm detection engine which comprises three components applying three different Artificial Intelligence strategies in parallel. These strategies are generic, domain-independent approaches which are able to operate in several domains (traffic surveillance, vandalism prevention, perimeter security, etc.. The architecture is completed with a versatile communication network which facilitates data collection from the visual sensors and alarm and video stream distribution towards the emergency teams. The resulting surveillance system is extremely suitable for its deployment in metropolitan areas, smart cities, and large facilities, mainly because cheap visual sensors and autonomous alarm detection facilitate dense sensor network deployments for wide and detailed coverage.

  2. An intelligent surveillance platform for large metropolitan areas with dense sensor deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Jorge; Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio; Alonso-López, Jesus A; Smilansky, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent surveillance platform based on the usage of large numbers of inexpensive sensors designed and developed inside the European Eureka Celtic project HuSIMS. With the aim of maximizing the number of deployable units while keeping monetary and resource/bandwidth costs at a minimum, the surveillance platform is based on the usage of inexpensive visual sensors which apply efficient motion detection and tracking algorithms to transform the video signal in a set of motion parameters. In order to automate the analysis of the myriad of data streams generated by the visual sensors, the platform's control center includes an alarm detection engine which comprises three components applying three different Artificial Intelligence strategies in parallel. These strategies are generic, domain-independent approaches which are able to operate in several domains (traffic surveillance, vandalism prevention, perimeter security, etc.). The architecture is completed with a versatile communication network which facilitates data collection from the visual sensors and alarm and video stream distribution towards the emergency teams. The resulting surveillance system is extremely suitable for its deployment in metropolitan areas, smart cities, and large facilities, mainly because cheap visual sensors and autonomous alarm detection facilitate dense sensor network deployments for wide and detailed coverage. PMID:23748169

  3. ANXIETY AND DEPRESSIVE ILLNESS: CURSE TO METROPOLITAN CITIES AND ROLE OF AYURVEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajaria Divya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey says that world is not threatened by spreading communicable diseases but by raising incidences of non-communicable diseases that spoil mind and thereby causing ailment in body. Stress and stress related disorders like mood disorders and personality disorders including anxiety and depression become the major problem of metropolitan cities. Every third individual living in big cities is suffering from stress and related disorder, amazing but it is true that in 21st century when we are talking about genomics and chemical weapons world is destroying by fake thoughts. With the astonishing development in contemporary medicine pathogens are conquered but mind is still beyond the reach of science. Human mind has terrific power that can even endure the whole universe become ill merely by poor thoughts. Ayurveda, the ancient medical science is the world oldest treatise that gives emphasis on management of thoughts for successful management of psychiatric diseases. Ayurveda gives three fold treatment approaches for every disease including both pharmacological as well as non-pharmacological measures. This paper gives the details of management of anxiety and depressive illness through Ayurvedic treatment methodology.

  4. Municipal community gardens in the metropolitan area of Milano. Assessment and planning criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Senes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A community garden (CG can generally be defined as a piece of land gardened collectively by a group of people that grow their produce on shared lots that have been divided into smaller plots. Some gardens are grown collectively, are divided into different plots for individual and family use; CGs are usually located in urban or peri-urban areas. As a growing portion of the urban open space network, CGs are contributing to land preservation, access to open space, and sustainable re-use of vacant land. They promote healthy communities and provide food security for many. In this context, the object of the study are the municipal community gardens (MCGs, a specific typology of CGs provided for land-use planning legislation and practice as an urban service with social function, made available to the community by the municipalities and assigned to be cultivated to citizens (usually seniors/retired people. In particular, the study aimed: i to evaluate the presence of MCGs in the città metropolitana di Milano (the former province of Milano; and ii to define criteria for new MCGs settlement, using existing geo-database and geographical information system to make it replicable in other settings. For the first topic the 133 municipalities of the former province of Milano (excluded the city of Milano were analysed. Only 59 municipalities had presence of MCGs. The average area per capita of MCGs is 0.68 sq.m/inhab. (if we exclude Rodano, an outlier with 35 sq.m/inhab.. An overlay with land use map has permitted to define the relationships between the MCGs and their surrounding territory. The major part of MCGs are included in urban or suburban areas. For the second goal, the land area to be allocated for new MCGs was assessed for each municipality, comparing area of existing MCGs and a minimum required area (calculated on the basis of the inhabitants number. Finally a method was proposed to locate the new MCGs areas. Criteria used to identify suitable areas

  5. Designing a Choice Modelling Survey to Value the Health and Environmental Impacts of Air Pollution from the Transport Sector in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Mia Amalia

    2010-01-01

    Poor air quality in Indonesia's capital city is having a significant impact on residents' health and there is an urgent need to introduce new initiatives to deal with the problem. To help justify investment in such new strategies, a recent EEPSEA study has looked at the value that citizens in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA) place on pollution reduction policies for the transportation sector. The study shows that, although many residents are mistrustful of the government's ability to clean...

  6. Economic and environmental impact analysis of new road network project, connecting the inland metropolitan cities with port city of Karachi in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the developing countries face a lack of infrastructure facilities, where the road transport network is one of them. In this paper, firstly impacts of new road network project connecting with port city and inland metropolitan cities or northwest part of Pakistan are analyzed by using Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. Secondly, for the estimation of economic and environmental impacts of this project, a multi-regional CGE model is proposed. It is found that construction of this project is going to change the industrial structure, especially in production of manufacturing sector, and it will also change the Equivalent Variation (EV). It is also observed that remarkable economic and environmental impacts appeared in the inland metropolitan cities or northwest region than the rest of Pakistan. After analysis of these impacts, it is easy for government to make proper policy for maintaining economic impacts and reducing environmental impacts on national and regional level. (author)

  7. AN ANALYZING OF SOCIAL TRUST IN THE TABRIZ METROPOLITAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Zali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The social capital consists of two fundamental components. Relations and links, norms and trust that facilitate group activities, relations and social networks as components of social capital has been evaluated in Tabriz city. This research has been conducted with descriptive and analytical approach in survey. The statistical society of this research was citizens of Tabriz city and the information has been gathered via face to face referring to homes by cluster sampling. In this research four components like accumulating social relations, symmetrical relations, supporting relations and mediation relations as main components of quality of social relations and structure of relations has been analyzed. The results of this study show that the relational stable degree is low in Tabriz city and accumulating the social relation as one of indices of relational stability has got better status in comparison to other indices. Also based on results of this research the social relations in Tabriz city have got very low adaptability degree. At the end of article according to importance of social capital in social development it has been referred to its role in advancement of programs of social development.

  8. Air quality in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area in 2012; Ilmanlaatu paeaekaupunkiseudulla vuonna 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnio, P.; Matilainen, L.; Loukkola, K.

    2013-09-01

    Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY monitors air quality in the Helsinki metropolitan area. In 2012 air quality in the region was most of the time good or satisfactory. The number of hours with poor or very poor air quality was at all monitoring sites smaller than during the previous year. Poor or very poor air quality was in most cases due to spring time street dust. The 24-hour limit value for thoracic particles was exceeded at the mobile monitoring site near the Keha I ring road. At the permanent monitoring sites the number of days with the 24-hour average concentration above 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} was clearly lower than during the previous years. The national 24-hour guideline for thoracic particles was exceeded at Leppavaara and Keha I monitoring sites during the street dust period and at Keha I monitoring site also in November. The concentrations of fine particles did not exceed the EU limit value or the WHO annual guideline value. The WHO 24-hour guideline was, however, exceeded during 2 to 8 days depending on the monitoring site. The exceedances were mainly caused by long range transport of particles. Besides these, the emissions from traffic and small scale wood burning caused a few exceedances of the WHO 24-hour guideline in ground based inversion situations with low wind speeds. At the Mannerheimintie monitoring station in the city centre of Helsinki the annual average concentration of nitrogen dioxide was lower than in 2011 and clearly below the limit value. The limit value was, however, still exceeded at many places in busy street canyons of Helsinki. The concentration level of the one hour limit value was exceeded seven hours at Mannerheimintie monitoring site and four ours in Vallila. The national 24-hour and/or onehour guideline were exceeded at Mannerheimintie, Vallila, Keha I, Leppavaara, and Tikkurila monitoring sites. The concentrations of ozone were in 2012 lower than in 2011 at most monitoring stations, and they were below the

  9. Climate change and heat waves in Paris and London metropolitan areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousset, B.

    2010-12-01

    Summer warming trends in Western and Central Europe and in Mediterranean regions are increasing the incidence, intensity, and duration of heat waves. Those extreme events are especially deadly in large cities, owing to high population densities, surface characteristics, heat island effects, anthropogenic heat and pollutants. In August 2003, a persistent anticyclone over Western Europe generated a heat wave of exceptional strength and duration with an estimated death toll of 70,000, including 4678 in the Paris region. A series of NOAA-AVHRR satellite thermal images over the Paris and London metropolitan areas, were used to analyze Land Surface Temperature (LST) and its related mortality. In the Paris region, LSTs were merged with land use and cover data to identify risk areas, and thermal indicators were produced at the addresses of ~ 500 elderly people to assess diurnal heat exposure. Results indicate: (i) contrasting night time and daytime heat island patterns related to land use and surface characteristics; (ii) the relation between night-time heat islands and heat waves intensity; (iii) the impact of elevated minimal temperatures on excess mortality, with a 0.5 °C increase doubling the risk of death, (in the temperature range of the heatwave); iv) the correlation between the spatial distribution of highest night-time LSTs and that of highest mortality ratios; and v) the significant impact of urban parks in the partitioning between latent and sensible surface heat fluxes, despite a prior warm and dry spring. Near-real time satellite monitoring of heat waves in urban areas improve our understanding of the LST processes and spatial variability, and of the related heat stress and mortality. These observations provide criteria for warning systems, contingency policies and planning, and climate adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  10. Air quality in the Helsinki metropolitan area in 2010; Ilmanlaatu paeaekaupunkiseudulla vuonna 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkki, M.; Lounasheimo, J.; Niemi, J.; Myllynen, M.; Loukkola, K.

    2011-06-15

    Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY monitors air quality in the Helsinki metropolitan area. In 2010 air quality in the region was most of the time good or satisfactory, but the number of hours with poor or very poor air quality was at many monitoring sites larger than during the previous year. Poor or very poor air quality was in most cases due to spring time street dust. Also long-range transport episodes of fine particles and ozone which originated from field fires in Russia deteriorated air quality, especially in July and August. Due to the rainy and humid weather in spring the street dust period did not start until the 12th of April, which is almost two weeks later than usual. Intensified cleaning of streets and sprinkling them with dilute solution of calcium chloride have been effective in decreasing the concentrations of thoracic particles, the limit values of which have not been exceeded after 2006. The national 24-hour guideline for thoracic particles was, however, exceeded in spring 2010 in the city centre of Helsinki and in busy traffic environments along the main roads. In Toeoeloentulli the guideline was exceeded also in November, when studded tyres were in use. The annual average concentration of nitrogen dioxide exceeded the limit value in the city centre of Helsinki at Mannerheimintie monitoring station in 2010 like in previous years. The annual limit value was also exceeded at the monitoring station of Toeoeloentulli. It is estimated that the annual limit value is exceeded also more widely in busy street canyons of Helsinki. The limit value should have been achieved by the beginning of 2010. This aim was not achieved by the given date and therefore a postponement will be applied for. The national 24-hour guideline was exceeded every month at Toeoeloentulli monitoring station, during four months in the city centre of Helsinki, and in January also at many other monitoring stations in busy traffic environments. The concentrations of

  11. Heavy metal levels of pasture grasses in metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luilo, G. B.; Othman, O. C.

    2003-05-01

    Urban agriculture is becoming an important lucrative activity in Dar es Salaam City even though the city is subject to traffic and industrial pollution pressures. Poor planning has left only limited spaces, particularly road reserves, for cultivation and foraging animals. While there is increasing road traffic no study bas been conducted determine levels of trace metals in pasture grasses. This study, therefore, reports on the levels of cadmium, manganese, lead and zinc of cynodon grasses in road vicinity in the city. Results show that the trace metal levels (ppm ± SDE) in Cynodon grass species were: Cd (0.24 ± 0.06-2.58 ± 0.15), Mn (41.5 ± 13.6-345.0 ± 124.3), Pb (1.15 ± 0.64-25.53 ± 1.29) and Zn (25.97 ± 3.69-95.36 ± 19.61). The mean levels of lead and zinc varied exponentially with distance off the road up to 15 m distance. Lead and zinc levels correlated with average daily traffic in the roads while cadmium and manganese did not. This suggests that lead and zinc in grasses owe their sources from the passing motor vehicles in agreement with other reported studies. It is recommended that pasture grasses in road vicinities must not be used for foraging dairy cattle and goats for public health reasons.

  12. Spatial analysis of the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and social and environmental management issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    with their environmental degradation. Thus, this paper highlights the Rio de Janeiro intra-metropolitan inequalities through a documentation of the direct correlation between the spactial distribution of social segments of the population, infrastructure provision and location of hazardous facilities......This paper hopes to fill this gap by working with the notion of environmental justice and by introducing hydrographical systems as an important level of analysis, together with the municipal and metropolitan scales. In that sense, the environment figures as the basis to correlate social, economical...... and infrastructural data. Through these three levels of spatial analysis it is possible to develop and to support a more comprehensible study of urban development of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. The aim of this study is (a) to develop an alternative spatial analysis leading to a more...

  13. Water needs and women's health in the Kumasi metropolitan area, Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buor, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of water fetching by women and the quality of water during periods of water scarcity on the health of women in the Kumasi metropolitan area. A sample of 210 women drawn using systematic random procedure is used for the study. Formal interview is the main instrument use

  14. Permeability across a metropolitan area: conceptualizing and operationalizing a macrolevel crime pattern theory

    OpenAIRE

    Groff, Elizabeth R.; Ralph B Taylor; David B Elesh; Jennifer McGovern; Lallen Johnson

    2014-01-01

    The intrametropolitan relationship between municipality-level physical environment and crime changes appears to have been overlooked by crime and environment researchers. The current effort focuses on permeability; suggests dynamics whereby permeability affects changing municipality-level crime patterns across a metropolitan area; selects and operationalizes theoretically appropriate permeability indicators; and links permeability to unexpected crime changes. Data are from 355 municipalities ...

  15. Inequality and Police Strength: Conflict Theory and Coercive Control in Metropolitan Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David

    1979-01-01

    One implication of conflict theory is that law enforcement personnel should be most numerous in metropolitan areas where differences in economic resources are greatest. Data from 1960 did not always support this hypothesis, but 1970 data showed that unequal SMSAs were likely to have more law enforcement personnel. (Author/GC)

  16. TASK OF FUNCTIONING ALGORITHM SYNTHESIS OF AUTOMATIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF TRAFFIC MOVEMENT IN METROPOLITAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Getsovich, E.; N. Semchenko; V. Korol

    2009-01-01

    The concept and structure of automatic management system of traffic movement in metropolitan areas is proposed by the authors, where the parameters of road network and efficient information on traffic streams are used as primary data as well as empirical-stochastic approach to simulation and forecast of development of situation.

  17. TASK OF FUNCTIONING ALGORITHM SYNTHESIS OF AUTOMATIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF TRAFFIC MOVEMENT IN METROPOLITAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Getsovich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept and structure of automatic management system of traffic movement in metropolitan areas is proposed by the authors, where the parameters of road network and efficient information on traffic streams are used as primary data as well as empirical-stochastic approach to simulation and forecast of development of situation.

  18. Territories of Integration: The Children of Immigrants in the Schools of the Metropolitan Area of Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortas, Maria Joao

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the responses given in several schools of the 1st Cycle of the Basic Education Level (children aged 6 to 10 years) of the Metropolitan Area of Lisbon relating to the issue of integration of immigrant children and children of immigrant descent. The goal was to establish the relationship between the geographical context where…

  19. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  20. Assessment of heavy metals in street dust in Kathmandu metropolitan city and their possible impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Street dust often contains elevated concentrations of heavy metals and can influence on environment and human health. Therefore, a study on the characteristics of heavy metals in street dusts at different localities was carried out in the metropolitan city of Kathmandu of Nepal. A total of 20 street dusts have been sampled from four sampling sites with various activities or characteristics such as mechanical workshops (MWK), motor parks (MPK), market areas (MKA) and residential areas (RDA) and analyzed for Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. Results showed that street dust samples contained significant levels of the metals studied compared to the values from the control site. The variation in concentration of most of the heavy metals determined decreased in an order represented as MWK>MPK>MKA>RDA>Control. While the RDA and MKA give the same element abundance order as Zn > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd, the MPK and MWK show different abundance order in some elemental contents. In all the street dusts, zinc is the most available and labile element followed by lead. From the place of low activity (RDA) to the place of high activity (MWK), the metal concentrations in street dusts varied from 55.4-419.3 mu g/sup -1/ for Zn, 12.3-116.8 mu g/sup -1/ for Pb, 4.9-86.3 mu /sup -1/ for Ni, 1.4-14.3 mu g/sup -1/ for Cr and 0.3-39.6 mu g/sup -1/ for Cd respectively. Results indicate that the metal pollutants in street dusts could significantly contribute to deteriorate the environmental status of the city of Kathmandu metropolis. (author)

  1. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Street Dust in Kathmandu Metropolitan City and their Possible Impacts on the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Raj Shakya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Street dust often contains elevated concentrations of heavy metals and can influence on environment and human health. Therefore, a study on the characteristics of heavy metals in street dusts at different localities was carried out in the metropolitan city of Kathmandu of Nepal. A total of 20 street dusts have been sampled from four sampling sites with various activities or characteristics such as mechanical workshops (MWK, motor parks (MPK, market areas (MKA and residential areas (RDA and analyzed for Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. Results showed that street dust samples contained significant levels of the metals studied compared to the values from the control site. The variation in concentration of most of the heavy metals determined decreased in an order represented as MWK>MPK>MKA>RDA>Control. While the RDA and MKA give the same element abundance order as Zn > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd, the MPK and MWK show different abundance order in some elemental contents. In all the street dusts, zinc is the most available and labile element followed by lead. From the place of low activity (RDA to the place of high activity (MWK, the metal concentrations in street dusts varied from 55.4-419.3 μg g-1 for Zn, 12.3-116.8 μg g-1 for Pb, 4.9-86.3 μg g-1 for Ni, 1.4-14.3 μg g-1 for Cr and 0.3-39.6 μg g-1 for Cd respectively. Results indicate that the metal pollutants in street dusts could significantly contribute to deteriorate the environmental status of the city of Kathmandu metropolis.

  2. Landslide susceptibility mapping using multi-criteria evaluation techniques in Chittagong Metropolitan Area, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, B.

    2014-01-01

    Landslides are a common hazard in the highly urbanized hilly areas in Chittagong Metropolitan Area (CMA), Bangladesh. The main cause of the landslides is torrential rain in short period of time. This area experiences several landslides each year, resulting in casualties, property damage, and economic loss. Therefore, the primary objective of this research is to produce the Landslide Susceptibility Maps for CMA so that appropriate landslide disaster risk reduction strategies can be developed. ...

  3. Environmental problems and the urban household in Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA) -Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benneh, G.; Songsore, J.; Nabila, J.S.; Amuzu, A.T.; Tutu, K.A.; Yangyuoru, Y. (Univ. of Ghana, Legon (Ghana). Dept. of Geography and Resource Development); McGranahan, G. (Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden))

    1993-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study of household environmental problems in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA), undertaken jointly by the Department of Geography and Resource Development of the University of Ghana and the Stockholm Environment Institute. The study is action oriented, and is intended to enhance the understanding of household environmental problems with a view towards improving them. Past environmental assessments of Accra have emphasised the larger scale problems, which range from marine pollution to ambient air pollution. In time, these large scale problems may indeed become critical, as they continue to undermine the sustainability of the city. Currently, however, it is the problems which GAMA dwellers face in their homes and neighbourhoods which are of primary concern. Given the previous lack of information on household environmental problems, this report concentrates on providing a summary of existing conditions. The problem areas covered include water, sanitation, solid waste, pests and pesticides, food contamination and household air pollution. Special attention is given to issues of environment and health. In addition, the report provides information on the households own views on what needs to be done and by whom, and summarises the institutional context within which household environmental management takes place. Finally, some of the policy implications are discussed briefly. The empirical basis for this study includes a questionnaire survey of 1000 representative households, physical tests of water and air quality among sub-sets of about 200, focus group discussion in selected low-income neighbourhoods, and unstructured interviews with policy makers and implementors. 46 refs, 14 figs, 103 tabs

  4. A Mediterranean case study of flood evolution: the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria Carmen; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Cortès, Maria; Marcos, Raül; Martín-Vide, Juan Pedro; Turco, Marco; Falcón, Lluis

    2016-04-01

    ensemble of regional models (ENSEMBLES project) have been also considered. Flood events have been obtained from newspapers, reports and insurance data. The role played by prevention measures, particularly in the specific case of Barcelona, which has been recognized by UNISDR (United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction) as resilient city in front of floods, is also presented. Results confirm the strong role played by the increase of urban surface (from less than 15% in 1956 to near 40% in 2009) and explore future adaptation measures in the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This work has been supported by the Spanish project HOPE and the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona, and developed by an interdisciplinary team that include experts from hydrology, meteorology, geography, environmental sciences and architecture.

  5. Demand of radiopharmaceutical Fluoride 18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) in the Sao Paulo State metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research presents partial results from the development of a Masters Dissertation for the Post-Graduation in Nuclear Technology Program - IPEN/USP, aiming to study the demand of radiopharmaceutical Fluoride 18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) in the Sao Paulo State metropolitan area, as a subsidiary for the establishment of distribution strategy within the State. This study presented the results of a bibliographic review as well as the market evolution for FDG in Sao Paulo. Studies pointed to a tendency of an increase in the international and national nuclear medicine market; while the United States of America participate in 47% of the world profit, South America shares only 2.5% of the global market. This market will tend to grow in 2006 to 2020 up to 776% for diagnosis and 760% for therapy. Partial results are presented in this study from researching medical centers that use PET in the city of Sao Paulo, as well as companies that commercialize the equipment and the manufacturer center. There is an increase of sales for IPEN's Fluoride 18-FDG and its representation on the total radiopharmaceutical profit surpassed 5.3% in 2003 to 8.2% in 2004. The dissemination of this technology in Brazil is lately being discussed especially due to the acquisition price of the equipment as well as the viability of the resources (Fluoride 18- FDG; implementation strategies of regional cyclotron accelerators) and the question of remuneration of the PET produced exams for health care plans and national health care system (SUS). IPEN is developing yet another study to grasp possible demand for this product in the Southern and Southeastern regions, allowing better view of the necessity of the supplement, and in study the implementation of a new cyclotron in the institute dedicated for the production of Fluoride 18-FDG. (author)

  6. Investigations concerning nuclear energy in the combined production of electricity and heat in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of producing the base load of both electricity and district heat for the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) utilizing nuclear energy has been investigated since 1968. At every stage of the study, it has been concluded that district heating utilizing nuclear power in combined electricity and heat productions is the most economical way of heating the main part of the HMA. The studies have dealt with the economy of energy production and heat transmission as well as nuclear safety. According to the latest results, the optimum of the heat output of a 1000-MW(electric) unit is approximately 800 MW if the plant is situated 50 km away from the heat load center. For further studies and realization of the plans, the cities of the HMA and the state-owned power company, the Imatra Power Company, have formed a common company for the nuclear power plant project

  7. Network Level Carbon Dioxide Emissions From On-road Sources in the Portland OR, (USA) Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Rice, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    To mitigate climate change, governments at multiple levels are developing policies to decrease anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The City of Portland (Oregon) and Multnomah County have adopted a Climate Action Plan with a stated goal of reducing emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. The transportation sector alone accounts for about 40% of total emissions in the Portland metropolitan area. Here we show a new street-level model of on-road mobile CO2 emissions for the Portland, OR metropolitan region. The model uses hourly traffic counter recordings made by the Portland Bureau of Transportation at 9,352 sites over 21 years (1986-2006), augmented with freeway loop detector data from the Portland Regional Transportation Archive Listing (PORTAL) transportation data archive. We constructed a land use regression model to fill in traffic network gaps with traffic counts as the dependent variable using GIS data such as road class (32 categories) and population density. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model was used to estimate transportation CO2 emissions. The street-level emissions can be aggregated and gridded and used as input to atmospheric transport models for comparison with atmospheric measurements. This model also provides an independent assessment of top-down inventories that determine emissions from fuel sales, while being an important component of our ongoing effort to assess the effectiveness of emission mitigation strategies at the urban scale.

  8. Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs in the Seattle, WA Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. K.; Alberti, M.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen loading has been identified as a potential stressor to marine ecosystems of the Puget Sound in the Pacific Northwest, and the Washington State Department of Ecology has estimated that anthropogenic sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to the Sound are 2.7 times higher than natural loads (Mohamedali et al. 2011). The Seattle urban area, situated in the southeast of the Sound, has the largest population in the northwestern US. Heavily urbanized along the coast, the 4 counties comprising the region (Snohomish, King, Pierce, and Kitsap) also include forests and agriculture. Urban and agricultural areas tend to have substantial anthropogenic N loading due to fertilizer application, presence of N-fixing vegetation, N atmospheric deposition, and human and other animal waste. To determine the relative contribution of urban vs. rural agricultural activities to N loads from the Seattle region to the Puget Sound, we used the Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs (NANI) calculator developed by Hong et al. (2011) for the watersheds of this region. The NANI calculator uses nationally available datasets to calculate NANI as the sum of oxidized N deposition, fertilizer application, agricultural N fixation, net food and feed inputs, and net animal and human N consumption. We found that NANI ranged from approximately 100 to 1500 kg m-2 y-1, with some of the highest rates in watersheds with high impervious surface or agricultural areas with N-fixing crops or large fertilizer additions. Many of the agricultural watersheds have intervening low-NANI watershed between themselves and the coast, thus it is likely that agricultural NANI is attenuated before entering the Puget Sound. The urban areas in the region do not have these attenuating watersheds, and so are likely to be the main contributor to the observed total aquatic N yield. This information is helpful for developing policies to reduce N loading to the Sound.

  9. Modelling the emissions from ships in ports and their impact on air quality in the metropolitan area of Hamburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacher, Martin; Karl, Matthias; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). Ships emit not only when sailing on open sea, but also when approaching harbors, during port manoeuvers and at berth to produce electricity and heat for the ship's operations. This affects the population of harbor cities because long-term exposure to PM and NOX has significant effects on human health. The European Union has therefore has set air quality standards for air pollutants. Many port cities have problems meeting these standards. The port of Hamburg with around 10.000 ship calls per year is Germany's largest seaport and Europe's second largest container port. Air quality standard reporting in Hamburg has revealed problems in meeting limits for NO2 and PM10. The amount and contribution of port related ship emissions (38% for NOx and 17% for PM10) to the overall emissions in the metropolitan area in 2005 [BSU Hamburg (2012): Luftreinhalteplan für Hamburg. 1. Fortschreibung 2012] has been modelled with a bottom up approach by using statistical data of ship activities in the harbor, technical vessel information and specific emission algorithms [GAUSS (2008): Quantifizierung von gasförmigen Emissionen durch Maschinenanlagen der Seeschiffart an der deutschen Küste]. However, knowledge about the spatial distribution of the harbor ship emissions over the city area is crucial when it comes to air quality standards and policy decisions to protect human health. Hence, this model study examines the spatial distribution of harbor ship emissions (NOX, PM10) and their deposition in the Hamburg metropolitan area. The transport and chemical transformation of atmospheric pollutants is calculated with the well-established chemistry transport model TAPM (The Air Pollution Model). TAPM is a three-dimensional coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model with a condensed chemistry scheme including

  10. Effect of Asian dust storms on daily mortality in seven metropolitan cities of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyewon; Kim, Ho; Honda, Yasushi; Lim, Youn-Hee; Yi, Seungmuk

    2013-11-01

    The adverse effects of dust storms on health have been a major issue in several countries. A substantial number of studies have found significant associations between dust storms and morbidity such as emergency visits and hospitalizations. However, the results of the studies on the association between dust storms and mortality are inconsistent. In Korea, no study has found statistically significant effect of Asian dust storms on daily mortality. Thus, this study aims to explore the effect of Asian dust storms on daily mortality in Korea during 2001-2009. All analyses were confined to non-accidental mortality. We used generalized additive model with Quasi-Poisson regressions. We considered the lag effect of dust storms up to 7 days and performed subgroup analyses by disease, sex and age. Current day's temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, day of the week, season and time trends were controlled for in a basic model. SO2, NO2 and PM10 levels were also added in the further analyses. Meta-analysis was applied for seven metropolitan cities in Korea to estimate the pooled effects of Asian dust storms. We reported results as excessive mortality by percentage due to Asian dust storms. We found significant positive associations between Asian dust storms and mortality at lag 0 (cardiovascular: 2.91%; 95% CI: 0.13, 5.77, male: 2.74%; 95% CI: 0.74, 4.77 and <65 years: 2.52%; 95% CI: 0.06, 5.04), at lag 2 (male 2.4%; 95% CI: 0.43, 4.4 and <65 years: 2.49%; 95% CI: 0.07, 4.97), at lag 3 (total non-accidental: 1.57%; 95% CI: 0.11, 3.06, male: 2.24%; 95% CI: 0.28, 4.25 and <65 years: 2.43%; 95% CI: 0.01, 4.91) and at lag 5 (cardiovascular: 3.7%; 95% CI: 0.93, 6.54 and male: 2.04%, 95 CI: 0.08, 4.04) in the model which adjusted for NO2 additionally. Other models showed similar significant results except the PM10-adjusted model. This is the first study to show the significant relationship between Asian dust storms and mortality in Korea and to present a pooled effect

  11. A survey of the investigations concerning nuclear district heating in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations concerning the economy and the basic technical solutions of nuclear district heating in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, HMA, are done and a power plant company is founded to realize the plan. However there are difficulties in siting the plant. The coordination of the new power plants in the country has also caused postponement of the HMA project. According to the prognoses for electricity in this country, there is no need for new nuclear power plants before the middle of the 1980's after the two units both at the Loviisa and Olkiluoto power plants. On the basis of studies concerning unit size it has been concluded that the electric output of the next nuclear power unit should be 1000 MW. However, the site of the unit and the exact time of completing it are open. The possibility to locate the plant in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area is an important alternative. (author)

  12. Measures of social segregation in the context of Warsaw, Berlin and Paris metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorczyk Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social segregation is a subject common in contemporary studies of metropolitan areas. Until recently, studies of segregation focused on the distribution of ethnic groups, immigrants, and the poor. Today, they also cover additional indicators such as demographic properties, education, and affiliation with social and professional categories, which can also serve to determine the causes of the segregation (including the self-segregation of the rich. This article aims to point out the measures of segregation that present the segregation levels in the most complete manner, along with their application in the context of three European metropolitan areas: Warsaw, Berlin, and Paris. The first part of the article is a review of the existing approaches to segregation measures, followed by the selection of research method, presentation of the analysis’ results, and evaluation of the applied methods; presenting the opportunities and limitations in research of the social segregation phenomenon.

  13. Assessment of air quality of two metropolitan cities in Pakistan: elemental analysis using INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the assessment of air quality of two cities in Pakistan. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) have been used. In all 26 elements were determined in suspended particulate matter (SPM) and soil samples. The SPM levels from different locations of Rawalpindi and Lahore indicate unhealthy to hazardous air quality much above the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Metrological conditions and nature of soil that contains clay components mainly contribute to the inventory of the SPM clements of these cities. The calculated enrichment factors (EF) also indicate the dominance of the soil components. Contributions of inorganic elements due to heavy traffic with automotive exhaust and other commercial activities in this area have been identified. Areas of Qurtaba Chowk and Bank Square in Lahore in particular showed high EF for lead depicting burning of the automotive fuel and road dust. The accuracy and precision of the work has been maintained through the concurrent use of IAEA Reference Materials. (orig.)

  14. Current target industry analysis: Las Vegas Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second of three reports dealing with the Las Vegas MSA's economic development potential in support of an overall effort to prepare an environmental impact statement for the proposed underground nuclear waste storage facility at Yucca Mountain. The first report provides an assessment of the MSA current business climate for economic growth. This second report draws on that business climate assessment to evaluate the Las Vegas MSA's competitive posture in pursuing business investment in the ''primary'' sector of the economy -- businesses which sell their products or services outside the local marketplace and bring new money back into the area and businesses serving local customers who would otherwise import these products or services from suppliers outside the area. GSO has developed an analytic tool which attempts to model the decision process used by businesses in selecting locations for new or expanded business investment. This computer based model reflects variations in site selection decision making among industries and ownership and management types. The underlying premise of the GSO locational compatibility index (LCI) model is that locational decisions are based more on a process of elimination that on a process of selection. There are many factors, some essential and some desirable, which influence any site selection decision. Multivariate comparative analyses narrow the geographic field to a region, then a group of states, then a state, then a sub-state region, then a community and finally to a specific site. Sometimes these analyses are rational and quantitative. More often, they are at least partially random and intuitive. 2 tabs

  15. Evaluation of background soil and air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations on a hill at the outskirts of a metropolitan city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, S Levent; Saral, Arslan; Güneş, Gülten; Karadeniz, Aykut

    2016-07-01

    Air and soil sampling was conducted inside a forested area for 22 months. The sampling location is situated to the north of a metropolitan city. Average atmospheric gas and particle concentrations were found to be 180 and 28 pg m(-3) respectively, while that of soil phase was detected to be 3.2 ng g(-1) on dry matter, The congener pairs of PCB#4-10 had the highest contribution to each medium. TEQ concentration was 0.10 pg m(-3), 0.07 pg m(-3), 21.92 pg g(-1), for gas, particle and soil phases, respectively. PCB#126 and PCB#169 contributed to over 99% of the entire TEQ concentrations for each medium. Local sources were investigated by conditional probability function (CPF) and soil/air fugacity. Landfilling area and medical waste incinerator, located to the 8 km northeast, contributed to ambient concentrations, especially in terms of dioxin-like congeners. The industrial settlement (called Dilovasi being to the east southeast of 60 km distant) contributed from southeast direction. Further sources were identified by potential source contribution function (PSCF). Sources at close proximity had high contribution. Air mass transportation from Aliaga industrial region (being to the southwest of 300 km distant) moderately contributed to ambient concentrations. Low molecular weight congeners were released from soil body. 5-CBs and 6-CBs were close to equilibrium state between soil/air interfaces. PCB#171 was close to equilibrium and PCB#180 was likely to evaporate from soil, which constitute 7-CBs. PCB#199, representing 8-CBs deposited to soil. 9-CB (PCB#207) was in equilibrium between soil and air phases. PMID:27038903

  16. Spatial Patterns and Temporal Variability of Drought in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Areas in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wanyuan Cai; Yuhu Zhang; Qiuhua Chen; Yunjun Yao

    2015-01-01

    Drought identification and assessment are essential for regional water resources management. In this paper, the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought were evaluated based on monthly precipitation data from 33 synoptic stations during the period of 1960–2010. The percent of normal precipitation was applied to illustrate the driest years in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan areas (BTHMA) (1965, 1997, and 2002). The modified Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) was applied to capture the drou...

  17. Household Location and Schools in Metropolitan Areas with Heterogeneous Suburbs: Tiebout, Alonso, and Government Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Eric A. Hanushek; Kuzey Yilmaz

    2010-01-01

    An important element in considering school finance policies is that households are not passive but instead respond to policies. Household behavior is especially important in considering how households affect the spatial structure of metropolitan areas where different jurisdictions incorporate bundles of advantages and disadvantages. This paper adds richness to existing urban models by incorporating multiple workplace locations, alternative public services by jurisdiction (school qualities), a...

  18. “Job Accessibility, Employment and Job-Education Mismatch in the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona”

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Di Paolo; Anna Matas; Josep Lluís Raymond

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of job accessibility by public and private transport on labour market outcomes in the metropolitan area of Barcelona. Beyond employment, we consider the effect of job accessibility on job-education mismatch, which represents a relevant aspect of job quality. We adopt a recursive system of equations that models car availability, employment and mismatch. Public transport accessibility appears as an exogenous variable in the three equations. Even though it may refl...

  19. The relation between energy consumption and developed land; a model for the metropolitan area of Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda, Jorge; Romano, Yraida; Perez, Claudia; Roca, Josep

    2011-01-01

    The study of the developed land and the energy consumption is part of a main project, which objective is the development of a model for the evaluation of the environmental and energy efficiency of the interaction (mobility) and land use structure (called as 'territorial functionality'), applied to the metropolitan area of Barcelona . One of the most important points of the main project is the modeling of energy consumption, and developed land produced by the territorial functionality. This pa...

  20. BUDEM: An urban growth simulation model using CA for Beijing metropolitan area

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Ying; Shen, Zhenjiang; Du, Liqun; Mao, Qizhi; Gao, Zhanping

    2008-01-01

    It is in great need of identifying the future urban form of Beijing, which faces challenges of rapid growth in urban development projects implemented in Beijing. We develop Beijing Urban Developing Model (BUDEM in short) to support urban planning and corresponding policies evaluation. BUDEM is the spatio-temporal dynamic model for simulating urban growth in Beijing metropolitan area, using cellular automata (CA) and Multi-agent system (MAS) approaches. In this phase, the computer simulation u...

  1. Measures of social segregation in the context of Warsaw, Berlin and Paris metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorczyk Anna; Jaczewska Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Social segregation is a subject common in contemporary studies of metropolitan areas. Until recently, studies of segregation focused on the distribution of ethnic groups, immigrants, and the poor. Today, they also cover additional indicators such as demographic properties, education, and affiliation with social and professional categories, which can also serve to determine the causes of the segregation (including the self-segregation of the rich). This article aims to point out the measures o...

  2. Understanding the issues involved in urban landslide vulnerability in Chittagong metropolitan area, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, B; Rubel, Y. A.

    2013-01-01

    Chittagong Metropolitan Area (CMA) is highly vulnerable to landslide hazard, with an increasing trend of frequency and damage. The major recent landslide events were related to extreme rainfall intensities having short period of time. All the major landslide events occurred as a much higher rainfall amount compared to the monthly average. Moreover rapid urbanization, increased population density, improper landuse, alterations in the hilly regions by illegally cutting the hills, indiscriminate...

  3. Urban Core vs. Suburban Fringe: Asymmetrical Fiscal Effects of Tax and Expenditure Limitations in Metropolitan Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Eremin, Dmitry V

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation assesses the effects of tax and expenditure limitations (TELs) on principal items of revenue, largest components of expenditure and the levels of public debt of local governments serving urban cores and suburban fringes of the largest metropolitan areas in the US. The first part of the dissertation consists of 4 chapters. Chapter 1 examines the formal aspects of TELs; Chapter 2 explores historical evolution of fiscal limits between 1800 and 2009; Chapter 3 examines subs...

  4. Competitiveness of Southern Metropolitan Areas: The Role of New Economy Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dudensing, Rebekka M.; Barkley, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of regional competitiveness is increasingly popular among academics and policymakers as indicated by reports that rank or grade regional economies. Competitiveness in these studies generally is measured by growth rates in population, employment, and per capita income. This paper explores the relationships between New Economy development policies (innovation, entrepreneurship, and human capital development) and changes in competitiveness outcomes for Southern metropolitan areas. Ou...

  5. Leadership credibility - Perceptions of female leaders on credibility in tourism industry in Helsinki metropolitan area

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppila, Kati

    2013-01-01

    This thesis discusses perceptions of female leaders on credibility in tourism industry in Helsinki metropolitan area and it is done between September 2012 - January 2013. The topic was chosen by the author, since she is personally interested in leadership studies and she also thinks that the topic is important and should be researched further. This thesis tries to found out how female leaders feel about leader’s credibility, whether there are differences in leadership credibility between male...

  6. A Methodological Assessment of Immigrants#180; Settlement Patterns and Housing Typologies in Metropolitan Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Emília Malcata Rebelo

    2013-01-01

    The research reported in this chapter fits into recent international researches on therelevance of immigrants for urban and regional sustainability, and on the relationshipbetween immigrants#180; settlements and socio-economic, territorial and dwellingscharacteristics.An innovative methodology is proposed in order to describe settlement and housingtypologies of different groups of immigrants that live in a certain metropolitan area,according to respective demographic, economic, professional a...

  7. Hybrid Wavelength Routed and Optical Packet Switched Ring Networks for the Metropolitan Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Increased data traffic in the metropolitan area network calls for new network architectures. This paper evaluates optical ring architectures based on optical packet switching, wavelength routing, and hybrid combinations of the two concepts. The evaluation includes overall throughput and fairness aspects in both uniform and unbalanced traffic scenarios, for both Poisson and bursty input traffic. Simulations show a trade-off between performance and complexity. Whilst the static wavelength route...

  8. Growth in commuting distances in French polycentric metropolitan areas: Paris, Lyon and Marseille

    OpenAIRE

    AGUILERA A.

    2005-01-01

    It has frequently been suggested in the literature that a polycentric distribution of employment and people shortens commuting distances because people locate within or close to their employment sub-centre (the co-location hypothesis). Having studied the three biggest French metropolitan areas over the past decade it has been established that co-location affects only a minority of inhabitants, of whom there are fewer in 1999 than there were nine years earlier. Indeed, the majority of people l...

  9. Landscape dynamics analysis in Iasi Metropolitan Area (Romania) using remote sensing data

    OpenAIRE

    CÃTÃLIN CÎMPIANU; EMA CORODESCU

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the observation and quantification of land cover changes in Iasi Metropolitan Area during 1993-2009. The analysis is centered upon the built-up space dynamics and includes the detection of its extension directions and the measurement of its structural changes by landscape metrics. In order to obtain the land cover data, some remote sensing images were processed by supervised classification and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDV...

  10. Results of simultaneous radon and thoron measurements in 33 metropolitan areas of Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jing; Bergman, Lauren; Falcomer, Renato; Whyte, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. 222Rn (radon gas) and 220Rn (thoron gas) are the most common isotopes of radon. In order to assess thoron contribution to indoor radon and thoron exposure, a survey of residential radon and thoron concentrations was initiated in 2012 with ∼4000 homes in the 33 census metropolitan areas of Canada. The survey confirmed that indoor radon and thoron concentrations are not correlated and that thoron concent...

  11. Women, sexual rights and HIV in the Kumasi metropolitan area of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu, Evelyn Tawiah

    2007-01-01

    This study is about women, HIV/AIDS and sexual rights in the Kumasi Metropolitan Area in Ghana. The study aimed at discovering the factors that undermine women’s ability to negotiate safe sex and consequently become exposed to HIV infection and the subsequent stigmatisation and discrimination.The study applied ideas generated mainly from the theories of risk, stigmatisation and discrimination and feminist geography to explain its findings. However, some ideas were also utilised from the empow...

  12. Cognitive Dissonance Affecting Consumer Buying Decision Making: A study Based on Khulna Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Tarun Kanti Bose; Sandip Sarker

    2012-01-01

    The theory of “cognitive dissonance” is of great importance in consumer behavior and marketers have lots of interest in analyzing the post purchase behavior of consumers experienced by them. This paper has explored the factors that create cognitive dissonance in consumer buying decision making particularly among the consumer goods purchaser in the Khulna metropolitan area. At first a structured questionnaire has been developed measuring 10 constraints variable. The factors creating cognitive ...

  13. Tendencia de los niveles de plomo en la atmósfera de la zona metropolitana de la Ciudad de México: 1988-1998 Trends in atmospheric concentrations of lead in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City: 1988-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Cortez-Lugo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir las tendencias del plomo atmosférico asociadas a la eliminación paulatina del plomo de la gasolina y el uso de convertidores catalíticos en el auto transporte de la Ciudad de México, de 1988 a 1998. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de series de tiempo que incluye las mediciones atmosféricas de plomo que se obtuvieron, entre 1988 y 1998, de nueve estaciones de la red manual de monitoreo atmosférico de la Ciudad de México. Las intervenciones evaluadas fueron la introducción de gasolina Magnasin, el uso de convertidores catalíticos y el descenso en la concentración de plomo hasta su eliminación total de la gasolina utilizada en los auto transportes. Se describen las tendencias de plomo por monitor, por zona geográfica, utilizando un modelo de regresión que incorpora una estructura de auto-correlación. RESULTADOS: La introducción de gasolina sin plomo y de los convertidores catalíticos se asoció con un descenso en la concentración de plomo atmosférico en 23%, la reducción paulatina del plomo en la gasolina ocasionó una reducción acumulada de 89% en todas las zonas estudiadas. CONCLUSIONES: La introducción de la gasolina sin plomo ha logrado abatir las concentraciones ambientales de este contaminante de una manera importante.OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in airborne lead levels and their association with the control measures implemented from 1988 to 1998 to phase out lead from gasoline that included the introduction of a lead-free gasoline and the use of catalytic converters in automobiles in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data of atmospheric lead levels were obtained from the 9 field stations included in the local air quality monitoring network (RMMA. Trends for airborne lead are shown by monitor, monitoring area and for the entire metropolitan zone. Analysis of data was performed using linear regression models including autocorrelation analysis. The models were validated by standard diagnostic

  14. Legislation and water management of water source areas of São Paulo Metropolitan Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Gregolin Grisotto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the history of occupation in the water source areas in São Paulo Metropolitan Region (hereinafter SPMR and the evolution of the legislation related to this issue, from the point of view of the environmental and water management. A descriptive methodology was used, with searches into bibliographical and documental materials, in order to present the main laws for the protection of the water supply areas of SPMR and environmental and water management. It was possible to observe some progress in the premises of the both legislation and the format proposed for the management of the water source areas. However, such progress is limited due to the lack of a more effective mechanism for metropolitan management. The construction of the metropolitan management in SPMR would enlarge the capacity of integration between municipalities and sectors. The integration between the management of water and the land use management showed to be fundamental for the protection of the water sources. The new law for protection of the water sources, State Law nº 9.866/97, is decentralized and participative, focusing on non-structural actions and integrated management. However, the effective implementation of the law still depends on the harmonization of sectoral public policies, extensive coordination and cooperation among municipalities and the progress in the degree of the commitment of the governments.

  15. Coronary heart disease prevalence and occupational structure in U.S. metropolitan areas: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Ellis-Griffith, Gregory; Nagy, Christine; Peterson, Tina

    2013-05-01

    This research explored the link between coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence and metropolitan-area level occupational structure among 137 metropolitan/micropolitan statistical areas (MMSA) in the United States. Using data from the 2006-2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 2007 County Business Patterns, logistic mixed models were developed to estimate CHD prevalence between MMSAs controlling for individual-level socioeconomic characteristics and various types of occupational structure. Results showed that CHD prevalence was lower in MMSAs where their economy was dominated by 'tourism and resort' and 'the quaternary sector' and higher in MMSAs dominated by 'manufacturing', 'transportation and warehousing', and 'mining'. MMSA-level effects on CHD were found in 'tourism and resort' and 'the quaternary sector' having lower risk and 'mining' having higher risk of CHD. Although these effects prevailed in many MMSAs, some MMSAs did not fit into these effects. Additional analysis indicated a possible link between metropolitan population loss and higher CHD prevalence especially in the coal mining region of the Appalachian Mountains. PMID:23511976

  16. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Age-adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses...

  17. Actual Condition of Quality Control of X-ray Imaging System in Primary Care Institution: focused on Gwangju Metropolitan City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the expanded use of radiation in modern medical practices, the most important issue in regards to efforts to reduce individual exposure dose is quality assurance. Therefore in order to study the present condition of quality assurance, the Gwangju Metropolitan City area was divided into five districts each containing ten hospitals. Four experiments were conducted: a reproducibility experiment for kVp, mA, and examination time (sec) intensity of illumination; half-value layer (HVL) measurement; and beam perpendicularity test matching experiment. The tube voltage reproducibility experiment for all fifty hospitals resulted in a 95.33% passing rate and mA and examination time both resulted in a 77.0% passing rate. The passing rate for intensity of illumination was 86.0% and 52.0% for HVL, which was the lowest passing rate of all four factors. For the beam perpendicularity test matching experiment, generally the central flux is matched to within 1.5.deg. . Of all fifty hospitals 30.0% were beyond 3.deg. . The results of the survey showed that 58% responded that they knew about quality assurance cycle. All fifty respondents stated that they have not received any training in regards to quality assurance at their current place of employment. Although quality assurance is making relative progress, the most urgent issue is awareness of the importance of quality assurance. Therefore, the implementation of professional training focusing on safety management and accurate quality assurance of radiation will reduce the exposure to radiation for radiologists and patients and higher quality imaging using less dosage will also be possible

  18. A survey of online social networking used to support health awareness campaigns in the City of Johannesburg metropolitan municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Eloff

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Department of Health (DoH at the City of Johannesburg metropolitan municipality in South Africa develops various health awareness campaigns aimed at creating awareness of general health risks within the Johannesburg area. According to staff members of the DoH, the resources utilised in the current campaigns fail to reach a sufficiently broad audience and the campaigns struggle to deliver the intended messages. Furthermore, the development and implementation of campaigns are time consuming and costly. Objectives: This research focused on how online social networking (OSN can support health awareness campaigns for the DoH in the Johannesburg region. OSN may be regarded as a tool that will assist the DoH to reach a wider audience, send health-related messages and provide a two-way communication channel. Method: The research used an exploratory research design with a purposive non-probability sample. A survey was used as the data collection instrument. Statistical analysis was performed on the data obtained from the surveys. Results: The results indicate that the DoH can benefit from the use of OSN in health promotion campaigns. The benefits include, but are not limited to, an increase in engagement with the target market, ease of use and reach within the specified audience. Conclusion: Although there are numerous advantages associated with the integration of OSN by the DoH, the DoH needs to develop training and development programmes for OSN to encourage its use by DoH staff members. The main aim of the programmes is to create internal OSN capabilities to support the OSN strategy.

  19. Contrasting impacts of urban forms on the future thermal environment: example of Beijing metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Niyogi, Dev; Tewari, Mukul; Aliaga, Daniel; Chen, Fei; Tian, Fuqiang; Ni, Guangheng

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated impacts of urban forms on the future thermal environment over Beijing, the capital city of China. Beijing is experiencing remarkable urban expansion and is planned to undergo the transformation of urban forms from single-centric (compact-city) to poly-centric city (dispersed-city). Impacts of urban forms on the future thermal environment were compared and evaluated by conducting numerical experiments based on a regional atmospheric model coupled with a single-layer urban canopy model as well as future climate forcing output from a global climate model. Results show that a dispersed city is efficient in reducing mean urban heat island intensity, but produces larger thermal loading and deeper thermal feedback at the regional scale compared to a compact city. Thermal comfort over downtown areas is reduced in compact-city scenario under future climate conditions. Future climate contributes almost 80% of the additional thermal loading over urban areas, with the remaining 20% contributed by urbanization (for both the compact-city and dispersed-city scenarios). The thermal contrast between the two urban forms is dominated by the expected future climate change. This study leads to two complementary conclusions: (i) for developing assessments related to current climate comfort, urban form of the city is important; (ii) for assessing future climate change impacts, the areal coverage of the city and urbanization extent emerges to be more important than the details related to how the urbanization will evolve.

  20. Space-time variations of human capital assets across U.S. metropolitan areas, 1980 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Allen J

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the changing structure of human capital in U.S. metropolitan regions from 1980 to 2000. Data are drawn from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles and from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Intensive empirical investigation leads to three main conclusions. First, forms of human capital in the United States are becoming more oriented to labor tasks that call for cognitive-cultural skills. Second, cognitive-cultural skills are accumulating most intensively in large metropolitan areas. Third, physical or practical forms of human capital are increasingly being relegated to smaller metropolitan areas. That said, important residues of human capital, focused on physical or practical tasks, remain a durable element of the economies of large metropolitan areas. I offer a brief theoretical explanation of these results. PMID:20718119

  1. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  2. Management of groundwater in urban centers: A case study; Greater Dammam Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective management of groundwater resources in urban centers of arid regions is vital for sustainable development and groundwater protection especially with rapid growth of water demands under water stress conditions. Greater Dammam Metropolitan Area is a good example of rapid growing urban center due to comprehensive development and population growth. The water demand has increased by many times during the last three decades. Groundwater from local aquifers namely Dammam and Umm Er Radhuma, supplies more than 85% of the total water demands. The aquifers have been subjected to extensive and increasing groundwater pumping especially during last three decades. Negative impacts such as significant decline in water levels have been experienced in the area. A new groundwater management scheme in terms of improving the long-term water pumping policies is required for protection of the aquifers groundwater productivity. A special numerical simulation model of the multi-aquifer system including Dammam and Umm Er Radhuma aquifers has been developed to assess the behavior of the aquifer system under long term water stresses in Dammam Metropolitan Area. The developed numerical simulation model has been utilized to predict the responses of the aquifer system in terms of decline in terms of water level under different pumping schemes from the two aquifers during the next 30 years. The model results have postulated the importance of Umm Er Radhuma (UER) aquifer as a major water supply source to Dammam Metropolitan Area, as well as potential recharge source of more than 30% of the total water pumped from Dammam aquifer. These findings have been utilized in improving present and future groundwater management and conservation for the study area. Similar techniques can be used to improve the groundwater management in other parts of the country as well as other arid regions. (author)

  3. From groundwater baselines to numerical groundwater flow modelling for the Milan metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Peretti, Lidia; Villa, Federica; Gorla, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    Contamination of major aquifers in highly densely populated areas is a major concern for stakeholders involved in the use and protection of groundwater resources. Sustainable groundwater withdrawal and management, and the identification of trends in groundwater contamination require a careful hydrochemical baseline characterization. This characterization is fundamental to investigate the presence and evolutionary trend of contaminants. In fact, it allows recovering and understanding: the spatial-temporal trend of contamination; the relative age of the contamination episodes; the reasons for anomalous behavior of some compounds during migration to and in the groundwater; the associations with which some contaminants can be found; the different behaviors in phreatic and semi-confined and confined aquifers. To attain such a characterization for the Milan metropolitan area (about 2,500 km2, ca 4.000.000 inhabitants, Lombardy, Italy), we carried out three main activities. (1) Collection of complete and reliable datasets concerning the geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical (over 60,000 chemical analysis since 2003 to 2013) characteristics of the area and of the involved aquifers. This activity was very demanding because the available data are provided by different authorities (Lombardy Region, Provinces, Lombardy Environmental Agency - ARPA Lombardia, public own companies in charge of water system managements) in raw format and with different database standard, which required a large effort of manual verification and harmonization. (2) Completion of a hydrochemical characterization of the metropolitan area aquifers by classical statistical and multivariate statistical analyses, in order to define a baseline both for some major physical chemical characteristics and for the most relevant contaminants. (3) Development of a three dimensional hydrogeological model for the metropolitan area starting from the above listed datasets and existing models. This model will

  4. Urban density and the metabolic reach of metropolitan areas: A panel analysis of per capita transportation emissions at the county-level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergas, Christina; Clement, Matthew; McGee, Julius

    2016-07-01

    We engage a tension in the urban environment literature that positions cities as both drivers of environmental destruction and loci of environmental protection. We argue that the traditional binary view of cities as either harmful or beneficial is too simplistic; we advance a more nuanced understanding of cities to study their internal and external metabolic effects in terms of carbon emissions from on-road transportation at the county-level across the continental United States between 2002 and 2007. First, utilizing satellite imagery from the National Land Cover Database, we create a novel measure of population density by quantifying the number of people per square mile of impervious surface area. Second, we develop a measure of metropolitan adjacency from the rural classifications datasets published by the USDA. In spatial regression models, we find that while higher density reduces emissions, counties that are geographically isolated from metropolitan areas actually have lower per capita emissions, all else equal. We elaborate on the conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of our study in the conclusion. PMID:27194663

  5. Does improving Public Transport decrease Car Ownership? Evidence from the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette; Rouwendal, Jan

    Car ownership is lower in urban areas, which is probably related to the availability of better publict ransport. Better public transport thus may offer the possibility to relieve the many problems (congestion,health, and parking) associated with the presence of cars in urban areas. To investigate...... this issue, wedevelop and estimate a model for the simultaneous choice of a residential area and car ownership. Themodel is estimated on Danish register data for single-earner and dual-earners households in the greaterCopenhagen metropolitan area. We pay special attention to accessibility of the metro...... network whichoffers particularly high quality public transport. Simulations based on the estimated model show that forthe greater Copenhagen area a planned extension of the metro network decreases car ownership by 2-3%.Our results suggest also a substantial increase in the interest for living in areas...

  6. Seismic ground motion and hazard assessment of the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area, southeastern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seismic ground motion of the Greater Accra Metropolitan area has been computed and the hazard zones assessed using a deterministic hybrid approach based on the modal summation and finite difference methods. The seismic ground motion along four profiles located in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area has been modelled using the 1939 earthquake of magnitude 6.5(ML) as the scenario earthquake. Synthetic seismic waveforms from which parameters for engineering design such as peak ground acceleration, velocity and spectral amplifications have been produced along the geological cross sections. From the seismograms computed, the seismic hazard of the metropolis, expressed in terms of peak ground acceleration and peak ground velocity have been estimated. The peak ground acceleration estimated in the study ranges from 0.14 - 0.57 g and the peak ground velocity from 9.2 - 37.1cms-1. The presence of low velocity sediments gave rise to high peak values and amplifications. The maximum peak ground accelerations estimated are located in areas with low velocity formations such as colluvium, continental and marine deposits. Areas in the metropolis underlain by unconsolidated sediments have been classified as the maximum damage potential zone and those underlain by highly consolidated geological materials are classified as low damage potential zone. The results of the numerical simulation have been extended to all areas in the metropolis with similar geological formation. (author)

  7. High Resolution Modeling of Anthropogenic and Biogenic Carbon Dioxide Fluxes From the Portland Oregon Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenhoff, C. L.; Powell, J.; Tran, D.; Rice, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    The future of the North American carbon cycle is heavily dependent on urban ecosystems and their development. Around 75-80% of the current U.S. population is urbanized and this percentage is likely to increase in the future. Despite the lack of national climate policy, cities nationwide are developing their own plans to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The city of Portland OR for example (along with Multnomah County) has in place an ambitious goal of reducing CO2 emissions by 80% by the year 2050. Monitoring and verifying emission reductions will be integral to the successful operation of this and other mitigation policies. To do so requires both the modeling and measurement of CO2 at high spatial and temporal resolution. To this effort we developed gridded inventories of anthropogenic and biogenic fluxes of CO2 from Portland and the surrounding metropolitan region at 1-km resolution and at hourly time steps. Mobile emissions were estimated using traffic count data, a land-use regression model, and the EPA MOVES model. Biogenic fluxes of CO2 were calculated using high resolution remote sensing vegetation maps and the Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-VPRM). This is part of an on-going effort to constrain emission estimates using measurements of CO2 from throughout the region. Here we compare simulated concentrations of CO2 with data available from three sites, representing upwind, downwind, and city center conditions.

  8. An environmental pollution study from multielemental neutron activation analysis of air dust particulates from paper mill and metropolitan cities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a case study of environmental pollution in metropolitan cities and industrial surroundings 33 elements (Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Hf, Hg, Fe, Ga, K, La, Lu, Mn, Mg, Na, P, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Rb, Yb, and Zn) have been determined in ambient air dust particulates by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Samples collected from industrial, commercial and residential areas of Bombay (west coast) and Nagpur (central part) and also from the industrial surroundings of a paper mill located in environment of Assam (in eastern part) were irradiated with thermal neutrons at 1012-1013 n/cm2s for 10 m and 1 d and counted by high resolution gamma spectroscopy. Accuracy of the method was assessed by the analysis of environmental standard reference materials. An attempt has been made to identify the pollutants and their sources of origin in different surroundings. (author). 36 refs., 2 figs

  9. Multi-geohazards of Ende city area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan Supriatman Sutawidjaja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol2no4.20073The Ende City is a steep mountainous area, of which the height of their peaks are above 1500 m asl. It has the limited extent of plain places, without coastal plains. Due to this condition, large parts of the area are vulnerable to mass-movements mainly debris flows, rock-falls and shallow translational and rotational landslides. On the other hand, Flores Island is a segment of the Banda Arc that contains eleven very active volcanoes and numerous inactive volcanic cones. Two of them, Mount Iya and Mount Kelimutu are included to Ende Regency. The northern foot of Mount Iya is only about 1 km away from the southern outskirts of Ende city. But the presence of Mount Meja and Mount Roja as the barrier, and the orientation of the active crater (K2, the highly explosive eruption of Iya Volcano may not directly endanger the city of Ende. Most pyroclastic flows of previous eruptions and other eruptive material emplaced into the sea, but due to a short horizontal distance between Mount Iya and Ende City, the ejected rock fragments can endanger the city of Ende especially its southern parts. A crack has developed around the active crater (K2 of Iya Volcano. It seems that the crack indicates a major weakness within the volcano, which could result in a giant landslide, entering the sea in future eruptions of Iya Volcano. The kinetic energy which is transmitted through the water may probably generate a tsunami. The Ende City also experienced significant damages in the 1992 earthquake. Luckily this city is located on a solid rock instead of alluvial sediments which can potentially undergo liquefaction.  

  10. Life cycle energy and GHG emission within the Turin metropolitan area urban water cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Zappone, Mariantonia; Fiore, Silvia; Genon, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the urban water cycle in the Turin Metropolitan Area (Northwestern Italy), with a focus on quantifying the annual life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The study made use Material Flow Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment methods for a defined urban water cycle system (ATO3) operated by one water utility (SMAT S.p.A.), and examines all main sub-systems of the entire urban water cycle. The study quantified the annual direct and indirect e...

  11. Hybrid Wavelength Routed and Optical Packet Switched Ring Networks for the Metropolitan Area Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord, Martin

    Increased data traffic in the metropolitan area network calls for new network architectures. This paper evaluates optical ring architectures based on optical packet switching, wavelength routing, and hybrid combinations of the two concepts. The evaluation includes overall throughput and fairness...... aspects in both uniform and unbalanced traffic scenarios, for both Poisson and bursty input traffic. Simulations show a trade-off between performance and complexity. Whilst the static wavelength routed optical network is a good solutions for uniform traffic, the proposed hybrid architectures are more...

  12. Landscape dynamics analysis in Iasi Metropolitan Area (Romania using remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÃTÃLIN CÎMPIANU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the observation and quantification of land cover changes in Iasi Metropolitan Area during 1993-2009. The analysis is centered upon the built-up space dynamics and includes the detection of its extension directions and the measurement of its structural changes by landscape metrics. In order to obtain the land cover data, some remote sensing images were processed by supervised classification and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. In the end of the study, a synthetic statistical analysis of the change dynamics is performed at commune level, in order to compare the administrative units by the intensity of land cover dynamics.

  13. USING THE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE USE OF GEO-RESOURCES IN METROPOLITAN AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oswald MARINONI; Andreas HOPPE

    2006-01-01

    Sand and gravel are important raw materials which are needed for many civil engineering projects.Due to economic reasons, sand and gravelpits are frequently located in the periphery of metropolitan areas which are often subject to competing land-use interests. As a contribution to land-use conflict solving, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is applied within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Two AHP preference matrix scenario constellations are evaluated and their results are used to create a land-use conflict map.

  14. Chicago metropolitan area critical infrastructure protection program electric power disruption emergency preparedness drill March 5, 2002 summary and lessons learned.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since January 2000, the Metropolitan Mayors Caucus, the Chicago Department of Environment, and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Critical Infrastructure Protection (now part of the Office of Energy Assurance) have been collaborating on the development and implementation of guidelines that municipal governments can use in preparing for electric power disruptions. On March 5, 2002 Commonwealth Edison (ComEd), the electric company serving the Chicago metropolitan area, held a drill to test its emergency preparedness procedures. ComEd invited three communities in the metropolitan area-Buffalo Grove, Oak Brook, Riverside-to participate in the drill as part of their own emergency planning efforts to respond to electric power disruptions. Although ComEd had held joint exercises with the City of Chicago, this was the first time that a cooperative exercise with the suburban communities was conducted. The Infrastructure Assurance Center of Argonne National Laboratory, under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Assurance helped facilitate the drill in the communities. A series of meetings involving ComEd, community controllers (who helped organize the drill but did not participate directly), and Argonne personnel was held to lay out the ground rules for the drill and determine how it would operate. Attachment 1 gives some of the guidance that was developed

  15. Late Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Metropolitan Areas of the United States and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H Irene; Tang, Tian; Espinoza, Lorena

    2016-05-01

    The majority of persons infected with HIV live in large metropolitan areas and many such areas have implemented intensified HIV testing programs. A national indicator of HIV testing outcomes is late diagnosis of HIV infection (stage 3, AIDS). Based on National HIV Surveillance System data, 23.3 % of persons with HIV diagnosed in 2012 had a late diagnosis in large MSAs, 26.3 % in smaller MSAs, and 29.6 % in non-metropolitan areas. In the 105 large MSAs, the percentage diagnosed late ranged from 13.2 to 47.4 %. During 2003-2012, the percentage diagnosed late decreased in large MSAs (32.2-23.3 %), with significant decreases in 41 of 105 MSAs overall and among men who have sex with men. Sustained testing efforts may help to continue the decreasing trend in late-stage HIV diagnosis and provide opportunities for early care and treatment and potential reduction in HIV transmission. PMID:26542730

  16. Seismic Microzonation Study in Tabriz Metropolitan City for Earthquake Risk Mitigation x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebad Ghanbari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Azerbaijan is the site of convergent plate collisions along the Alpine-Himalayan active mountain belt. Brittle faults in the Azerbaijan area are mostly Cenozoic in or younger. The data presented demonstrate clearly that geological structures are commonly repeated at all scales from outcrop to regional. Several regional earthquakes have been strongly felt and caused damages in and around Tabriz during history. Urban seismic risk is increasing with population growth and encroachment of vulnerable built in environment into areas susceptible seismic hazard. Seismic -hazard assessment an estimate of ground motion at the site of interest, taking into account instrumental and historical earthquake records, information on tectonics, geology, and attenuation characteristics of seismic waves Tabriz is important industrial city of Iran. It has a very high population density about 2.000000 people in area just 90 km2 . The main objective of the Tabriz seismic instrumentation and microzonation study was to carry out and propose new building in Tabriz and suburbs in order to apply these criteria its development programs and determine the potential for damage to existing constructions during earthquake motions, and finally earthquake risk mitigation assessment.

  17. Cities as works in progress: cultural policies at the heart of metropolitan development.

    OpenAIRE

    Miglioretti, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The issue of this research is to analyze to what extent the cultural action is integrated to the metropolization process, in the sense of a reinforcement of the weight of Metropolis as a political stakeholder of globalization. Thus, we will discuss the way culture takes part in the metropolitan strategies in a globalized context, having for consequence to weight on the different imperatives of public action (visibility for public policy, cohesion of urban territories, transparency of public p...

  18. The Nutrition and Dietetics Workforce Needs Skills and Expertise in the New York Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaba, Ann; Shrivastava, Apoorva; Amadi, Chioma; Joshi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an increased demand in the Nutrition and Dietetics field which has fostered credentialing to ensure competent graduates. The objective of this study is to conduct an exploratory analysis to identify nutrition/dietetics workforce needs, skills and expertise in the New York metropolitan area as exemplified in position announcements over a 4 year period. Methods: We recorded position announcements for jobs in nutrition and dietetics from the New York State Registered Dietitian Yahoo group, and the Hunter College Nutrition and Food Sciences student and alumni listserv (NFS-L) over a 4 year period. Keywords were identified using job categories defined by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) compensation and benefits survey. This served as a starting point to enumerate the types of positions that have been posted for the New York metropolitan area in recent years. Results: Four hundred and twelve (412) unique job postings were recorded. Various educational levels, credentials, and skills desired by these employers were identified, assessed, and compared with similar data from the “supply side” reports from AND. Conclusions: The credentials and skills most desired by employers are similar to some of the learning objectives set forth for DPD and DI programs by ACEND, but not entirely congruent. The need for both client/customer focus and computer literacy may be implicit in the standards, but a more overt inclusion of these skills would likely be of benefit to ensure these are inculcated into every program and student. PMID:26755482

  19. Probabilistic Analysis of Drought Spatiotemporal Characteristics in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyuan Cai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The temporal and spatial characteristics of meteorological drought have been investigated to provide a framework of methodologies for the analysis of drought in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area (BTHMA in China. Using the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI as an indicator of drought severity, the characteristics of droughts have been examined. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area was divided into 253 grid-cells of 27 × 27km and monthly precipitation data for the period of 1960–2010 from 33 meteorological stations were used for global interpolation of precipitation using spatial co-ordinate data. Drought severity was assessed from the estimated gridded RDI values at multiple time scales. Firstly, the temporal and spatial characteristics of droughts were analyzed, and then drought severity-areal extent-frequency (SAF annual curves were developed. The analysis indicated that the frequency of moderate and severe droughts was about 9.10% in the BTHMA. Using the SAF curves, the return period of selected severe drought events was assessed. The identification of the temporal and spatial characteristics of droughts in the BTHMA will be useful for the development of a drought preparedness plan in the region.

  20. Gender differences in psychological reactions to Hurricane Sandy among New York Metropolitan Area residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit; Goodwin, Robin; Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2015-06-01

    Hurricane Sandy was a natural disaster of large proportions--a category 3 storm at its peak intensity that struck New York Metropolitan Area on October, 2012. The death and destruction caused by a hurricane can rise numerous of mental health vulnerabilities such as, acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Gender has been identified as one critical variable that can impact vulnerability to adverse effects of trauma, as well as how these reactions are managed. The present research provides an evaluation of gender differences regarding posttraumatic stress symptoms, recollections of national disasters and fears of future negative life events. It also aims to explore information seeking and sources of assistance that were utilized during Hurricane Sandy. An online survey sample of 1,000 people from New York Metropolitan Area completed a battery of self-report questionnaires four weeks after the storm. Results revealed that recollections of national disaster and fear of future events were found to be significantly different among women compared to men. Additionally, women were more inclined toward information seeking through Facebook than men, although no gender differences emerged when examining sources of support. The results indicate that disaster practitioners should tailor gender sensitive interventions. PMID:25428781

  1. MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM FOR WORM DETECTION AND CONTAINMENT IN METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Active worms can cause widespread damages at so high a speed that effectively precludes human-directed reaction, and patches for the worms are always available after the damages have been caused, whichhas elevated them selfto a first-class security threat to Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN). Multi-agent sys-tem for Worm Detection and Containment in MAN (MWDCM) is presented to provide a first-class auto-matic reaction mechanism that automatically applies containment strategies to block the propagation of theworms and to protect MAN against worm scan that wastes a lot of network bandwidth and crashes therouters. Its user agent is used to detect the known worms. Worm detection agent and worm detection correla-tion agent use two-stage based decision method to detect unknown worms. They adaptively study the access-ing in the whole network and dynamically change the working parameters to detect the unknown worms.MWDCM confines worm infection within a macro-cell or a micro-cell of the metropolitan area networks, therest of the accesses and hosts continue functioning without disruption. MWDCM integrates Worm DetectionSystem (WDS) and network management system. Reaction measures can be taken by using Simple NetworkManagement Protocol (SNMP) interface to control broadband access server as soon as the WDS detect theactive worm. MWDCM is very effective in blocking random scanning worms. Simulation results indicatethat high worm infection rate of epidemics can be avoided to a degree by MWDCM blocking the propagationof the worms.

  2. BUDEM: an urban growth simulation model using CA for Beijing metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ying; Shen, Zhenjiang; Du, Liqun; Mao, Qizhi; Gao, Zhanping

    2008-10-01

    It is in great need of identifying the future urban form of Beijing, which faces challenges of rapid growth in urban development projects implemented in Beijing. We develop Beijing Urban Developing Model (BUDEM in short) to support urban planning and corresponding policies evaluation. BUDEM is the spatio-temporal dynamic model for simulating urban growth in Beijing metropolitan area, using cellular automata (CA) and Multi-agent system (MAS) approaches. In this phase, the computer simulation using CA in Beijing metropolitan area is conducted, which attempts to provide a premise of urban activities including different kinds of urban development projects for industrial plants, shopping facilities, houses. In the paper, concept model of BUDEM is introduced, which is established basing on prevalent urban growth theories. The method integrating logistic regression and MonoLoop is used to retrieve weights in the transition rule by MCE. After model sensibility analysis, we apply BUDEM into three aspects of urban planning practices: (1) Identifying urban growth mechanism in various historical phases since 1986; (2) Identifying urban growth policies needed to implement desired urban form (BEIJING2020), namely planned urban form; (3) Simulating urban growth scenarios of 2049 (BEIJING2049) basing on the urban form and parameter set of BEIJING2020.

  3. Social-ecological perspective in the analysis of protected natural areas of the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socio ecological approach tries to integrate natural sciences and social sciences to study reality from an interdisciplinary perspective. Under this point of view, the article analyses the environmental history in the municipality of Matadepera and studies the socio ecological heritage in Olzinelles valley. Through the two case studies we link socio ecological approach with the improvement of management and conservation of two natural protected areas in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region: Sant Llorenc del Munt i l'Obac Natural Park and Montnegre i el Corredor Park

  4. The Potential of Periurban Areas for the Resilience of Metropolitan Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Colucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present as an organic structure the outcomes from various pieces of research and consulting activities developed over the last few years (2011-2015. Shared topics are: urban-rural partnerships, food planning, metropolitan polices and the territorial resilience of periurban areas. In the first part (the core of the paper the paper underlines critical questions and establishes needs so as to move towards a new approach to development processes in periurban areas. The paper uses some key concepts to present the main outcomes: 1. Understanding complexity (multiscales in space and dynamics (multiscales in time; 2. Identifying all the resources and opportunities; 3. Crosscutting and multi-issues. In the second part (in the final part the paper proposes the “Ecotone” metaphor to support innovation in the approach to periurban areas. It is a “zone of transition between adjacent ecological systems, having a set of characteristics uniquely defined by space and time scales and by the strength of the interactions between adjacent ecological systems” (Hansen et al, 1992. In these terms, periurban areas may be assumed to be ecotonal zones of transition between urban and rural or natural systems. Using the concept of “ecotonal buffer of transition” to approach the periurban systems it is possible to connect main needs and critical questions underlined to a homogeneous framework and to emphasise on the strategic role that the peri-urban systems play for the future development of metropolitan regions oriented to a improvement of resilience of socio-ecosystems. In the final part the paper focuses on the governace of urban rural partnerships and research perspectives.

  5. Internet of Things (IoT Applicability in a Metropolitan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. D Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoTis defined here as a network of interconnected objects. These objects can include several technological systems. This paper examines the wireless communication systems and IoT sensors. IoT is technically feasible today, allowing people and things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with anything and anyone. IoT privacy is a concern but security solutions exist today to solve these issues. A proposal is made to use secure IoT solutions in supporting the metropolitan needs in San Antonio, Texas.

  6. Internet of Things (IoT) Applicability in a Metropolitan City

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. D Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT)is defined here as a network of interconnected objects. These objects can include several technological systems. This paper examines the wireless communication systems and IoT sensors. IoT is technically feasible today, allowing people and things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with anything and anyone. IoT privacy is a concern but security solutions exist today to solve these issues. A proposal is made to use secure IoT solutions in supporting the metropolitan need...

  7. Multi-geohazards of Ende city area

    OpenAIRE

    Igan Supriatman Sutawidjaja; Sugalang Sugalang

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol2no4.20073The Ende City is a steep mountainous area, of which the height of their peaks are above 1500 m asl. It has the limited extent of plain places, without coastal plains. Due to this condition, large parts of the area are vulnerable to mass-movements mainly debris flows, rock-falls and shallow translational and rotational landslides. On the other hand, Flores Island is a segment of the Banda Arc that contains eleven very active volcanoes and numerous i...

  8. Cancer incidence in Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area, 2000-2004. First five years report from population based cancer registry of Metropolitan Area of Bucaramanga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Eliana Meza Durán

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the most common chronic diseases that cause high morbidity and mortality. In the evaluation of all illnessand its impact on the community, a surveillance system becomes necessary to allows us to know its incidence. Cancersurveillance is achieved by the population-based cancer registry. Methodology: The Population Based Cancer Registry ofMetropolitan Area of Bucaramanga (RPC-AMB collected information from the years 2000 to 2004, in patients with anymalignant cancer the which include both invasive and in situ behavior in addition to reside within this geographical area . TheCancer Registry also collects data on brain and nervous system tumors classified as benign or those that have uncertainbehavior. Basal cell cancers of the skin were included during the two first years as well as all the intraepithelial neoplasm ofthe cervix. Active collections of information at all sources by registry staff were made (Hospitals, Health care institutions,especially oncology centers and Pathology and Hematology Laboratories and some specialist in oncology attention. Theinclusion approaches are verified and collects data on specific sociodemographic information (age, gender, residence, placeof birth, etc. and on the anatomic site of the tumor, the cell type of the cancer, behavior and extension on each individualdiagnosed with cancer. Each case was coded using the International Classification of Diseases Oncology Third Edition (ICDO-3, for topographical and morphological code. The data was entered into a computer with CanReg-4 software that is aconfigurable computer program designed for cancer registration in population-based registries and was provided as aservice by the Descriptive Epidemiology Unit to members of the International Association of Cancer Registries. This softwareprovides the number of cancer cases (frequency and the incidence rates. The quality control included exhaustiveness of thecases and information, verification of the

  9. Using monosaccharide anhydrides to estimate the impact of wood combustion on fine particles in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.; Saarikoski, S. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Niemi, J.V. [HSY Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    The spatiotemporal variation of ambient particles under the influence of biomass burning emissions was studied in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) in selected periods during 2005-2009. Monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs; levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), commonly known biomass burning tracers, were used to estimate the wood combustion contribution to local particulate matter (PM) concentration levels at three urban background sites close to the city centre, and at three suburban sites influenced by local small-scale wood combustion. In the cold season (October-March), the mean MAs concentrations were 115-225 ng m{sup -3} and 83-98 ng m{sup -} {sup 3}at the suburban and urban sites, respectively. In the warm season, the mean MAs concentrations were low (19-78 ng m{sup -3}), excluding open land fire smoke episodes (222-378 ng m{sup -}3{sup )}. Regionally distributed wood combustion particles raised the levels over the whole HMA while particles from local wood combustion sources raised the level at suburban sites only. The estimated average contribution of wood combustion to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) ranged from 18% to 29% at the urban sites and from 31% to 66% at the suburban sites in the cold season. The PM measurements from ambient air and combustion experiments showed that the proportions of the three MAs can be utilised to separate the wildfire particles from residential wood combustion particles. (orig.)

  10. [Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women under Monitoring in Pre Distinct Prenatal Services: The Metropolitan Area and the Rural Environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Caroline San Severino; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine differences in some nutritional aspects of pregnant women assisted at prenatal care services in a country town and in a metropolitan area. Methods Pregnant women received prenatal care in the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), metropolitan area, and Paula Cândido (PC), a country town. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) containing socioeconomic information and information about eating habits was applied. In addition,weight and height were measured on the occasion of the visits and the women were ask to give their prepregnancy weight for subsequent BMI calculation. Data were analyzed according to region and trimester of pregnancy using the SPSS software version 15.0, the t-test to compare averages and the chi-square test of independence, with the level of significance set at 5%. Results 240 pregnant women were included, 90 fromthe country town and 150 from themetropolitan area. Of these,most weremarried (BH = 56.6%; PC = 46.6%) and did not work outside the home (BH = 54.0%; PC = 84.4%). They predominantly had 3-4 meals/ day during the 1st and 2nd quarters (BH = 54.0 and 46%; PC = 66.7 and 63.3%, respectively) and had 5-6 meals/day during Q3 in BH (44%). There was significant weight gain only in the 1st quarter (BH: 58,0%; PC: 53.3%). Weight gain versus eating habits was significant for the variables "lunch or dinner away from home" for the 1st quarter in BH (p = 0.006), "How many times they consume milk" in the 1 st quarter in PC (p = 0.03), and "How many times they consume junk food" in the 3rd quarter in BH (p = 0.009). Conclusions Pregnant woman showed proper eating habits in both regions despite the prevalence of pregestational overweight in BH and a low level of education and income, especially in the country town, an indicator that may be unfavorable for the nutrition of pregnant women during this period. Studies of association between eating habits and newborn health will provide more information about nutrition during pregnancy. PMID

  11. Evaluating the Effects of I-35W Bridge Collapse on Road-Users in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Region

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Xie; David Levinson

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of I-35W bridge collapse on road-users in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan area. We adopted the seven-County travel demand model developed in previous research, re-calibrated it against July 2007 loop detector traffic data, and used this model to carry out an evaluation of economic loss incurred by increased travel delay in alternative scenarios before and after the bridge collapse. We concluded that the failure of the I-35W bridge resulted in an economic...

  12. Mapping air pollution by biological monitoring in the metropolitan Tel Aviv area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Aya; Potchter, Oded; Omer, Itzhak; Fireman, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Conventional environmental monitoring is not surrogate of personal exposure. In contrast, biomonitoring provides information on the presence of substances in the human body, making it highly relevant to the assessment of exposure to toxic substances. Induced sputum (IS) is a noninvasive technique for detecting inflammation and reflecting particulate matter content in the airways. In this study, we mapped particulate matter dispersion in metropolitan Tel Aviv by both biomonitoring techniques employing IS samples and by environmental monitoring. All adults referred to the Pulmonary Lab for respiratory symptom evaluation in 2007 and in 2009 were enrolled. Pulmonary function tests were performed by conventional methods. Particulate size distribution in IS was analyzed, and maps of air pollution were created. Biomonitoring was more informative and enabled mapping of wider areas. Integration of biomonitoring and environmental monitoring should be considered in forming public health policy on containment of airborne particles of toxic substances. PMID:26600473

  13. Multidisciplinary Pediatric Obesity Clinic via Telemedicine Within the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, Wendy; Whitley, Margaret; Izadpanah, Nilufar; Kim, Sion L; Ponturo, Don

    2016-03-01

    Telemedicine has been shown to be effective for rural populations, but little is reported on pediatric obesity care via telemedicine in urban settings. This study aims to assess feasibility and acceptability of multidisciplinary pediatric obesity care via telemedicine within the same metropolitan area in terms of information technology, coordination, patient care, and clinical outcomes. All project notes and communications were reviewed to extract key lessons from implementation. Patient and Provider Satisfaction Questionnaires were conducted to assess overall satisfaction; baseline and follow-up information were collected from chart reviews to evaluate clinical outcomes. Based on the questionnaires, 93% of responding patients (n = 28) and 88.3% of referring providers (n = 17) felt satisfied with the appointment. Chart review indicated a trend for decreased or stabilized body mass index and blood pressure (n = 32). Implementation of telemedicine for tertiary multidisciplinary pediatric obesity care in urban settings is both feasible and acceptable to patients and health care providers. PMID:26187610

  14. Health heat stress in the Porto Metropolitan Area – a matter of temperature or inadequate adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro, Ana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to understand the negative outcomes for human health during hot weather in a Mediterranean urban environment. Examining seasonal variations of thermal comfort in Porto, by Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET, and comparing expected and observed daily mortality (all causes and morbidity (all causes, respiratory and circulatory diseases, suggests that in southern Europe, people’s adaptation techniques for reducing heat stress and associated health risks need to be developed much further. Research already done in Porto shows that social and economic vulnerability must be included alongside with individual characteristics, like age, gender or genetics, when defining the thresholds above which negative health impacts begin to become severe. Findings from Porto show that a climate risk map is needed for every metropolitan area, with sufficient detail to give locally appropriate temperature thresholds taking into account both the local climate and the socio-economic conditions of every sector of the urban environment.

  15. Sensitivity analyses of OH missing sinks over Tokyo metropolitan area in the summer of 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chatani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OH reactivity is one of key indicators which reflect impacts of photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. An observation campaign has been conducted in the summer of 2007 at the heart of Tokyo metropolitan area to measure OH reactivity. The total OH reactivity measured directly by the laser-induced pump and probe technique was higher than the sum of the OH reactivity calculated from concentrations and reaction rate coefficients of individual species measured in this campaign. And then, three-dimensional air quality simulation has been conducted to evaluate the simulation performance on the total OH reactivity including "missing sinks", which correspond to the difference between the measured and calculated total OH reactivity. The simulated OH reactivity is significantly underestimated because the OH reactivity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and missing sinks are underestimated. When scaling factors are applied to input emissions and boundary concentrations, a good agreement is observed between the simulated and measured concentrations of VOCs. However, the simulated OH reactivity of missing sinks is still underestimated. Therefore, impacts of unidentified missing sinks are investigated through sensitivity analyses. In the cases that unknown secondary products are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, they tend to suppress formation of secondary aerosol components and enhance formation of ozone. In the cases that unidentified primary emitted species are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, a variety of impacts may be observed, which could serve as precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA and significantly increase SOA formation. Missing sinks are considered to play an important role in the atmosphere over Tokyo metropolitan area.

  16. Sensitivity analyses of OH missing sinks over Tokyo metropolitan area in the summer of 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ishii

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OH reactivity is one of key indicators which reflect impacts of photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. An observation campaign has been conducted in the summer of 2007 at the heart of Tokyo metropolitan area to measure OH reactivity. The total OH reactivity measured directly by the laser-induced pump and probe technique was higher than the sum of the OH reactivity calculated from concentrations and reaction rate coefficients of individual species measured in this campaign. And then, three-dimensional air quality simulation has been conducted to evaluate the simulation performance on the total OH reactivity including "missing sinks", which correspond to the difference between the measured and calculated total OH reactivity. The simulated OH reactivity is significantly underestimated because the OH reactivity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and missing sinks are underestimated. When scaling factors are applied to input emissions and boundary concentrations, a good agreement is observed between the simulated and measured concentrations of VOCs. However, the simulated OH reactivity of missing sinks is still underestimated. Therefore, impacts of unidentified missing sinks are investigated through sensitivity analyses. In the cases that unknown secondary products are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, they tend to suppress formation of secondary aerosol components and enhance formation of ozone. In the cases that unidentified primary emitted species are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, a variety of impacts may be observed, which could serve as precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA and significantly increase SOA formation. Missing sinks are considered to play an important role in the atmosphere over Tokyo metropolitan area.

  17. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Bucaramanga metropolitan area, 2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe, Claudia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Population-based cancer registries (PBCRs make possible to estimate the burden of this condition.Aim: To estimate cancer incidence and mortality rates in the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area (BMA during 2003-2007.Methods: Incident cases of invasive cancer diagnosed during 2003-2007 were identified from the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area PBCR (BMA-PBCR. Population counts and mortality were obtained from the Colombian National Administrative Department of Statistics (NADS. We estimated total and cancer-specific crude incidence and mortality rates by age group and sex, as well as age-standardized (Segi’s world population incidence (ASIR[W] and mortality (ASMR[W] rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using CanReg4 and Stata/IC 10.1.Results: We identified 8,225 new cases of cancer excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (54.3% among women. Of all cases, 6,943 (84.4% were verified by microscopy and 669 (8.1% were detected only by death certificate. ASIR(W for all invasive cancers was 162.8 per 100,000 women and 177.6 per 100,000 men. Breast, cervix, colorectal, stomach and thyroid were the most common types of cancer in women. In men, the corresponding malignancies were prostate, stomach, colorectal, lung and lymphoma. ASMR(W was 84.5 per 100,000 person-years in women and 106.2 per 100,000 person-years in men. Breast and stomach cancer ranked first as causes of death in those groups, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, mortality rates in our region are higher than national estimates possibly due to limited effectiveness of secondary prevention strategies. Our work emphasizes the importance of maintaining high-quality, nationwide PBCRs.

  18. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Bucaramanga metropolitan area, 2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Janeth Uribe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Population-based cancer registries (PB­CRs make possible to estimate the burden of this condition. Objetive: To estimate cancer incidence and mortality rates in the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area (BMA during 2003-2007. Methods: Incident cases of invasive cancer diagnosed during 2003-2007 were identified from the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area PBCR (BMA-PBCR. Population counts and mortality were obtained from the Colombian National Administrative De­partment of Statistics (NADS. We estimated total and cancer-specific crude incidence and mortality rates by age group and sex, as well as age-standardized (Segi’s world population incidence (ASIR[W] and mortality (ASMR[W] rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using CanReg4 and Stata/IC 10.1. Results: We identified 8,225 new cases of cancer excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (54.3% among women. Of all cases, 6,943 (84.4% were verified by microscopy and 669 (8.1% were detected only by death certificate. ASIR(W for all invasive cancers was 162.8 per 100,000 women and 177.6 per 100,000 men. Breast, cervix, colorectal, stomach and thyroid were the most common types of cancer in women. In men, the corresponding malignancies were prostate, stomach, colorectal, lung and lymphoma. ASMR(W was 84.5 per 100,000 person-years in women and 106.2 per 100,000 person-years in men. Breast and stomach cancer ranked first as causes of death in those groups, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, mortality rates in our region are higher than national estimates possibly due to limited effectiveness of secondary prevention strategies. Our work emphasizes the importance of maintaining high-quality, nationwide PBCRs.

  19. The metropolitan area as a knee-jerk response to the multilevel governance and its derived national public decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Daniel DUMITRICĂ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper objectifies the first part of a larger projects aiming at establishing a public decision-making map pertaining to the negative externalities in the framework of the economic approach of subsidiarity in the multilevel governance (the case of Romania. The first part of the larger research project refers to testing whether the economic theory of the European Union multilevel governance, with its core consisting in the subsidiarity principle, puts more pressure on the national public decisions (more specifically those related to specific market failures, though it interferes with all state’s functions and their specific decisions.Our research thesis begins by establishing whether the relationship between the local political elites and public governance at the level of towns and communes is considered a very straight forward, even obvious relationship. The political parties, by means of the publicly and democratically-elected officials (mayors and local council-members, make the most important decisions concerning public affairs (i.e. pertaining to a market failure examined by a second stage of the project.In an attempt to modernize the Romanian administrative system, to make public administration more dynamic, flexible and pro-active, the local political leaders decided the development of a new type of structure, the metropolitan area. The metropolitan areas, due to the constraints of the law, were established as associative organizations, composed of several administrative-territorial units.The paper at hand presents the establishment of the metropolitan areas in Romania as a political decision to associate towns and communes, in view of gaining access to better-performance instruments for local economic development. The emergence of the metropolitan areas in our country is strongly connected with the local political elites, the local political actors representing, in fact, the engine of the metropolitan structures and regional

  20. Assessing Natural Background Levels of aquifers in the Metropolitan Area of Milan (Lombardy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni; Frattini, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/CE) requires Member States to evaluate the status of groundwater bodies in order to reach a good water quality for human consumption. One of the preliminary steps for defining the status of groundwater bodies consists in the definition and evaluation of the so-called Natural Background Levels (NBL). The NBL or Baseline level can be defined as "the range of concentration of a given element, isotope or chemical compound in solution, derived entirely from natural, geological, biological or atmospheric sources, under conditions not perturbed by anthropogenic activity" (Edmund and Shand, 2009). The qualitative analysis for a large area (ca 4500 Km2) of the Po Plain around the Milan Metropolitan area (Lombardy, Italy) is presented in this study. Despite the aquifers in the Milan metropolitan area are an incredible groundwater resource for a very large population (3.195.629 inhabitants in the metropolitan area, data at November 2014) and a highly industrialized area, a groundwater baseline characterization is still missing. In order to attain the hydro-geochemical characterization a complete geodatabase was built (120.655 chemical samples from 1980 to 2014). This database has been explored by classical and multivariate statistical analyses to provide relationships among the more influential lithological, hydrogeological and hydro-chemical variables. Finally, the NBLs of different chemical species which may be anthropogenic sensitive (Na, Cl, K, NO3, SO4, NH4, As, Fe, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn) and for multiple aquifer bodies (phreatic, semi-confined and confined aquifer) are evaluated. Two different approaches are applied: the Pre-Selection method (BRIDGE, 2006) and the Component-Separation method. The first one (PS) consists in the exclusion of samples from the available dataset that could indicate human activities then deriving the NBL as the 90th percentile of the remaining data. The second one (CS) consists in the fitting of

  1. 1990年代以来日本大都市圈的结构变化%Changes in Spatial Structure of Japanese Metropolitan Areas Since 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    日野正辉; 刘云刚

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present a general view of changes in spatial structures of Japanese metropolitan areas after the 1990s based on previous studies. Discontinuation of suburban expansion and recovery of inner area population have been observed in the Tokyo metropolitan area since the 1990s. Both the collapse of land myth and the continuous decrease in land price during the 1990s were pointed out as major factors directly contributing to these phenomena. The land myth which kept the land value increasing had induced vigorous investments in land since the post-war rapid economic growth period. This movement had been busted in the collapse of bubble economy of the late 1980s. As a result, the amount of land supplies in the inner part of Japanese metropolitan areas became increased, and the construction of affordable condominiums became active significantly. On the other hand, the trend of low birthrate weakened the inner-to-suburb residential migration in metropolitan areas according to life cycle. Increasing number of aged residents prefer condominiums in the inner areas to detached houses in suburbs because of convenience in living without depending on automobiles. In fact, there were many senior citizens who migrated from suburbs to inner areas. On the contrary, the residential areas without adjacency to the convenient public transportation system in outer suburbs tend to become less popular among all generation, thus the population in such areas began to decrease. Furthermore, the similar phenomena are also seen in provincial metropolitan areas. Population in such areas is predicted to decrease in the near future. Therefore, some of major provincial cities have already proposed "compact city planning" policies to regulate new suburban development and improve public transportation systems by providing both train and bus services in the inner areas.%基于既有研究综述了1990年代以来日本大都市圈的发展动态.1990年代初期,东京都市圈郊区

  2. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO2 in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the Δ14C in ginkgo leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO2 (fossil fuel CO2) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO2 were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO2 ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO2 in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO2 over total CO2 in atmosphere), 13.9 ± 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  3. Procesos de transformación urbana en la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires: una mirada sobre el avance de la ciudad-negocio Processes of urban renewal in the area of Metropolitan Buenos Aires: a look through the advance of business-city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Girola

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo propone una exploración comparativa de dos procesos de mutación urbana que tienen lugar en áreas centrales y periféricas de la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. En el contexto de la centralidad se concentrará la atención en torno a la transformación de la zona portuaria de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires a través de la denominada operación Puerto Madero; en el ámbito de la periferia se focalizará en el surgimiento de las urbanizaciones cerradas localizadas en el eje norte del Gran Buenos Aires. Para llevar adelante el objetivo de este artículo se recurrió a la noción de paisaje urbano. De este modo, en la primera sección se reconstruirán dos dinámicas diferenciales de constitución de paisajes urbanos nuevos. En el segundo apartado se analizarán los casos propuestos como productos de procesos de recualificación anclados en las estrategias de la cultura-naturaleza y en la producción de seguridad. El artículo se nutre de un trabajo de campo etnográfico en desarrollo en cada uno de los escenarios urbanos mencionados.The main objective of this article is to analyze two processes of urban renewal from a comparative perspective, one in a downtown area of Metropolitan Buenos Aires and the other on the periphery of Buenos Aires. The first case focuses on the transformation of Puerto Madero, and in the second case, attention is brought to bear on the gated urban areas located in Greater Buenos Aires. Both cases are analyzed through the concept of urban landscape. A comparative analysis enables certain characteristics to be reflected upon which have been adopted by these new urban phenomena, characteristics which are related to urban recycling processes based on complementary culture/nature strategies, and the production of security. This article is based on a fieldwork carried out in these urban spaces.

  4. Comparison of pesticide concentrations in streams at low flow in six metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, L.A.; Nowell, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the effect of urban development on pesticide concentrations in streams under low-flow conditions, water samples were collected at stream sites along an urban land use gradient in six environmentally heterogeneous metropolitan areas of the United States. In all six metropolitan areas, total insecticide concentrations generally increased significantly as urban land cover in the basin increased, regardless of whether the background land cover in the basins was agricultural, forested, or shrub land. In contrast, the response of total herbicide concentrations to urbanization varied with the environmental setting. In the three metropolitan areas with predominantly forested background land cover (Raleigh-Durham, NC, USA; Atlanta, GA, USA; Portland, OR, USA), total herbicide concentrations increased significantly with increasing urban land cover. In contrast, total herbicide concentrations were not significantly related to urban land cover in the three remaining metropolitan areas, where total herbicide concentrations appeared to be strongly influenced by agricultural as well as urban sources (Milwaukee-Green Bay, WI, USA; Dallas-Fort Worth, TX, USA), or by factors not measured in the present study, such as water management (Denver, CO, USA). Pesticide concentrations rarely exceeded benchmarks for protection of aquatic life, although these low-flow concentrations are likely to be lower than at other times, such as during peak pesticide-use periods, storm events, or irrigation discharge. Normalization of pesticide concentrations by the pesticide toxicity index - an index of relative potential toxicity - for fish and cladocerans indicated that the pesticides detected at the highest concentrations (herbicides in five of the six metropolitan areas) were not necessarily the pesticides with the greatest potential to adversely affect aquatic life (typically insecticides such as carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and fipronil). ?? 2008 SETAC.

  5. Dense wavelength division multiplexing devices for metropolitan-area datacom and telecom networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCusatis, Casimer M.; Priest, David G.

    2000-12-01

    Large data processing environments in use today can require multi-gigabyte or terabyte capacity in the data communication infrastructure; these requirements are being driven by storage area networks with access to petabyte data bases, new architecture for parallel processing which require high bandwidth optical links, and rapidly growing network applications such as electronic commerce over the Internet or virtual private networks. These datacom applications require high availability, fault tolerance, security, and the capacity to recover from any single point of failure without relying on traditional SONET-based networking. These requirements, coupled with fiber exhaust in metropolitan areas, are driving the introduction of dense optical wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) in data communication systems, particularly for large enterprise servers or mainframes. In this paper, we examine the technical requirements for emerging nextgeneration DWDM systems. Protocols for storage area networks and computer architectures such as Parallel Sysplex are presented, including their fiber bandwidth requirements. We then describe two commercially available DWDM solutions, a first generation 10 channel system and a recently announced next generation 32 channel system. Technical requirements, network management and security, fault tolerant network designs, new network topologies enabled by DWDM, and the role of time division multiplexing in the network are all discussed. Finally, we present a description of testing conducted on these networks and future directions for this technology.

  6. Delineating Urban Fringe Area by Land Cover Information Entropy—An Empirical Study of Guangzhou-Foshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has caused many environmental problems, such as the heat island effect, intensifying air pollution, pollution from runoff, loss of wildlife habitat, etc. Accurate evaluations of these problems demand an accurate delineation of the spatial extent of the urban fringe. Conceptual and analytical ambiguity of the urban fringe and a general lack of consensus among researchers have made its measurement very difficult. This study reports a compound and reliable method to delineate the urban fringe area using a case study. Based on the 'fringe effect' theory in landscape ecology, the existing land cover information entropy model for defining the urban fringe is renewed by incorporating scale theory, cartography and urban geography theory. Results show that the urban fringe area of Guangzhou and Foshan metropolitan area covers an area of 2031 km2, and it occupies over 31% of the total study area. Result evaluation by industry structure data shows satisfactory correspondence with different land cover types. This paper reports the method and outcome of an attempt to provide an objective, repeatable and generally applicable method for mapping its spatial extent from remote sensing imageries, and could be beneficial to relevant urban studies and urban fringe management projects.

  7. Thermal comfort implications of urbanization in a warm-humid city: the Colombo Metropolitan Region (CMR), Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel, R. [Moratuwa Univ., Dept. of Architecture, Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we analyze the historic trends in thermal comfort (measured in terms of Temperature-Humidity Index [THI] and Relative Strain Index [RSI]) in the Sri Lankan primate city of Colombo and correlate them with land cover changes in the region. Land cover is calculated from time-series aerial photographs in terms of 'hard' cover (buildings, paved areas and roads) and 'soft' cover (trees, green areas and waterbodies). The period selected for analysis includes pre-rapid (up to 1977) and rapid urban phases (1978 onwards) in the city. Contemporary Sri Lanka's urbanization is peculiar in that mid to late 20th century urban rates (approx. 22% of the population) had remained virtually unchanged till the economy was liberalized in 1977, but have recently intensified (currently at about 35%). This offers a unique window of opportunity to look at the thermal comfort transition consequent to urbanization. Since many tropical cities are at a similar stage of demographic transition, lessons from Colombo may generally be applicable to other tropical developing cities as well. An increasing trend in thermal discomfort-particularly at night-is seen especially at the suburban station and it correlates well with hard land cover changes. The study also brings out the relative importance of land cover in city center vs. rural areas (e.g. hard cover has more effect on thermal discomfort in city center than in rural areas). Based on these findings, we postulate an outline for a climate-sensitive urban design policy for tropical cities. (Author)

  8. Chemical Associations of Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Nickel and Zinc in Household Dust of Kathmandu Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dust samples were collected from roadside houses of seven major locations in Kathmandu metropolitan area and trace element compositions was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Results show significant concentrations of Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd in the test household dusts as compared to the undisturbed (control) area. The mean concentrations of all the studied locations were found to be 76.2 mg/kg for Zn, 40.6 mg/kg for Pb, 29.9 mg/kg for Cr, 23.9 mg/kg for Ni and 8.2 mg/kg for Cd, respectively. Increase in these trace metals in the dust can most likely be attributed to rapid urbanization, increased vehicle emissions to the atmosphere and other anthropogenic sources. Elevated Zn abundance in household dust probably originates from traffic sources. Besides, enrichment factor reveals that the household dust was most severely affected by Cd in almost all the locations. Also, correlations between metal levels in dust samples for all the metals were investigated. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the place and role of the re-introduced South African Police Service Railway Police Unit in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan municipality / Mkhacani Godfrey Maluleke

    OpenAIRE

    Maluleke, Mkhacani Godfrey

    2010-01-01

    The study: "Evaluation of the re-introduced South African Police Service Railway Police Unit in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality" reflects on the significant developmental initiatives that have taken place in the rail environment as a result of the re-introduction of the South African Police Service Railway Police Unit (SAPSRPU). The research focused on the place and role of the SAPSRPU in the context of crime combating and prevention in the railway network of the ...

  10. Comparing the Physiological, Socio-economic and Nutritional Status among Male and Female Undergraduate College Students of Metropolitan City of Kolkata

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the present days, increasing trend of eating disorders are noticed among college students (both male and female) which can disturb their overall physiological and health status. It is more prevalent in metropolitan cities, like Kolkata. But, the existing literature about the physiological and nutritional status of the undergraduate college students of Kolkata is insufficient. Aim: Thus, the objective of this small-scale cross-sectional study is to report and compare the prevale...

  11. Spatio-Temporal Population Distribution and Evacuation Modeling for Improving Tsunami Risk Assessment in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, Sergio; Aubrecht, Christoph; Wegscheider, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Lisbon, Portugal, is subject to significant risk of tsunami, and was hit by a very destructive earthquake-triggered tsunami during daytime in 1755. The Regional Plan for Territorial Management for the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (PROT), under discussion, includes a tsunami hazard map, showing that significant urbanized areas may be at risk of inundation. In order to consider the time dependence of population exposure to tsunami threats, we map and analyze the spatio-temporal population distri...

  12. Application of mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements for the investigation of megacity air pollution emissions: the Paris metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Drewnick, F.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meleux, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Beekmann, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2014-01-01

    For the investigation of megacity emission development and the impact outside the source region, mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements were carried out in the Paris metropolitan area between 1 July and 31 July 2009 (summer conditions) and 15 January and 15 February 2010 (winter conditions) in the framework of the European Union FP7 MEGAPOLI project. Two mobile laboratories, MoLa and MOSQUITA, were deployed, and here an overview of these measurements and an investigation of the applicability of such measurements for the analysis of megacity emissions are presented. Both laboratories measured physical and chemical properties of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles as well as gas phase constituents of relevance for urban pollution scenarios. The applied measurement strategies include cross-section measurements for the investigation of plume structure and quasi-Lagrangian measurements axially along the flow of the city's pollution plume to study plume aging processes. Results of intercomparison measurements between the two mobile laboratories represent the adopted data quality assurance procedures. Most of the compared measurement devices show sufficient agreement for combined data analysis. For the removal of data contaminated by local pollution emissions a video tape analysis method was applied. Analysis tools like positive matrix factorization and peak integration by key analysis applied to high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer data are used for in-depth data analysis of the organic particulate matter. Several examples, including a combination of MoLa and MOSQUITA measurements on a cross section through the Paris emission plume, are provided to demonstrate how such mobile measurements can be used to investigate the emissions of a megacity. A critical discussion of advantages and limitations of mobile measurements for the investigation of megacity emissions completes this work.

  13. Evaluation of radon activity in soil gas at Curitiba - metropolitan area and coastal region of Parana, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Janine N.; Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson; Schwarzbach, Vinicius; Schlottag, Thalyta C., E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: flavia_delclaro@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the results of Rn-222 and Rn-220 measurements in soil gas at the city of Curitiba, Metropolitan Area and Parana Coastal Region developed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of Federal University of Technology, Parana (UTFPR). The survey was performed using the AlphaGUARD instant radon detector (SAPHYMO) associated with gas probe, filter vessels and air pump (AlphaPUMP) following the recommendation of User Manual for soil gas measurements and practice protocols developed by CDTN. Each test consisted of three main steps: background evaluation, total activity measurement of Rn-222 and Rn-220 isotopes in soil gas and static activity measurements (with disconnected AlphaPUMP) of soil gas accumulated within the cavity of AlphaGUARD ionization chamber. Specific activity levels of Rn-222 and Rn-220 were obtained by theoretical decay curves fitting to the set of experimental data using scientific graphing and data analysis software Origin 6.1. Obtained Rn-222 concentrations in soil gas varied from 26.0 ± 8.2 kBq/m³ to 38.7 ± 7.7 kBq/m³ and the average values of Rn-220 were found in a range of 18.8 ± 7.4 kBq/m³ and 142±67 kBq/m³. It has to be noted that found activity of Rn-222 isotope in soil gas of studied locations of Parana is below 50 kBq/m³, which is the maximum radon activity level established by some European countries for classification of high-risk soil. Despite the high levels of Rn-220 activity in soil gas, this does not represent the health risk for the population since the half-life of Rn-220 is short (54.5 seconds). (author)

  14. Evaluation of radon activity in soil gas at Curitiba - metropolitan area and coastal region of Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the results of Rn-222 and Rn-220 measurements in soil gas at the city of Curitiba, Metropolitan Area and Parana Coastal Region developed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of Federal University of Technology, Parana (UTFPR). The survey was performed using the AlphaGUARD instant radon detector (SAPHYMO) associated with gas probe, filter vessels and air pump (AlphaPUMP) following the recommendation of User Manual for soil gas measurements and practice protocols developed by CDTN. Each test consisted of three main steps: background evaluation, total activity measurement of Rn-222 and Rn-220 isotopes in soil gas and static activity measurements (with disconnected AlphaPUMP) of soil gas accumulated within the cavity of AlphaGUARD ionization chamber. Specific activity levels of Rn-222 and Rn-220 were obtained by theoretical decay curves fitting to the set of experimental data using scientific graphing and data analysis software Origin 6.1. Obtained Rn-222 concentrations in soil gas varied from 26.0 ± 8.2 kBq/m³ to 38.7 ± 7.7 kBq/m³ and the average values of Rn-220 were found in a range of 18.8 ± 7.4 kBq/m³ and 142±67 kBq/m³. It has to be noted that found activity of Rn-222 isotope in soil gas of studied locations of Parana is below 50 kBq/m³, which is the maximum radon activity level established by some European countries for classification of high-risk soil. Despite the high levels of Rn-220 activity in soil gas, this does not represent the health risk for the population since the half-life of Rn-220 is short (54.5 seconds). (author)

  15. Enviro-HIRLAM in Studies of Urban and Aerosol Impacts on Metropolitan Areas: Science-Education Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mazeikis, Adomas; Gonzalez-Aparicio, Iratxe; Ivanov, Sergey; Palamarchuk, Julia

    2014-05-01

    To attract more perspective young scientists (and especially, MSc and PhD students) for advanced research and development of complex and modern modelling systems, a specific approach is required. It should allow within a short period of time to evaluate personal background levels, skills, capabilities, etc. To learn more about new potential science-oriented developers of the models, it is often not enough to look into the personal resume. Thus, a special event such as Young Scientist Summer School (YSSS) can be organized, where young researchers could have an opportunity to attend not only relevant lectures, but also participate in practical exercises allowing to solidify lecture materials. Here, the practical exercises are presented as independent small-scale (having duration of up to a week) research projects or studies oriented on specific topics of YSSS. Developed approach was tested and realized during 2008 and 2011 YSSS events held and organized in Zelenogorsk, Russia (by NetFAM et al.; http://netfam.fmi.fi/YSSS08) and Odessa, Ukraine (by MUSCATEN et al.; http://atmos.physic.ut.ee/~muscaten/YSSS/1info.html), respectively. It has been refined for the new YSSS (Jul 2014) to be organized by the COST Action EuMetChem. The main focus of all these YSSSs was/is on the integrated modelling of meteorological and chemical transport processes and impact of chemical weather on numerical weather prediction and climate modelling. During previous YSSSs some of such projects - "URBAN: The Influence of Metropolitan Areas on Meteorology", "AEROSOL: The Impact of Aerosols Effects on Meteorology", and "COASTAL: The Coastal & Cities Effects on Meteorology" - were focused on evaluation of influence of metropolitan areas on formation of meteorological and chemical fields above urban areas (such as Paris, France; Copenhagen, Denmark, and Bilbao, Spain) and surroundings. The Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (Enviro-HIRLAM) was used and modifications were made taking

  16. Strategic development goals of the metropolitan area of Belgrade in the context of European physical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Stojkov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the importance of Belgrade has for known reasons seriously deteriorated. For future development under the new circumstances it is therefore necessary to define several primary strategic goals. In this article the most important ones are presented, namely: new definition and positioning of the metropolitan region in relation to the European, macro-regional and regional hinterland or its position and role/function in the framework of Europe and the Balkans; establishment of efficient and sustainable transport infrastructure and adequate inclusion in the European transport system; deconcentrated concentration and restructuring; improving and placing economic structures for increasing economic competitiveness of the metropolitan region; protection and improving natural givings, cultural specifics and strengthening the metropolitan identity, as well as profiling the Belgrade metropolitan region with specialised economic activities, especially service activities oriented towards south-eastern Europe.

  17. Dreptul la oraș – generația a IV-a de drepturi ale omului metropolitan (The Right to city – the IVth generation of rights for the metropolitan man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Virginia ANTONESCU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The right to city begins to be recently consecrated by academic research, presenting several links with the “sustainable development” paradigm. UN documents see our contemporary world as an “urban global world”, confronted with issues as chronic poverty, lack of access to basic urban services, insufficient democratic participation to main decisions regarding the urban management. This new right can be regarded as derived from solidarity rights as the right to a healthy, clean, durable environment, as well as the right to continuous improvement of life quality, but also, it can be seen as a special, distinct kind of human right. Right to have clean, sustainable cities can be recognized, at national, regional, international levels, to individuals, to local groups (as the metropolitan inhabitants of one city or to nations (having at their disposal a collective new right to own prosperous, sustainable cities, as effect of their right to economic development. We consider the right to city as being a dynamic right, in full process of exploration and consecration within academic research, more than necessary for understanding an urban globalized world characterized by proliferation of metropolises, towns, cities, megalopolises that demand new juridical approaches.

  18. Analytical considerations in the use of capture-recapture to estimate prevalence: case studies of the estimation of opiate use in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Salvany, A; Hartnoll, R L; Maguire, A; Brugal, M T; Albertín, P; Caylà, J A; Casabona, J; Suelves, J M

    1998-10-15

    Capture-recapture, an indirect method widely used to estimate undetected populations, has been criticized because it causes problems due to a lack of compliance with several important assumptions and model selection strategies. This paper expands on the problems encountered when applying this methodology to drug abuse estimations, specifically the prevalence of opiate use in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain, in 1993. Three samples of opiate users (from hospital emergency rooms, treatment centers, and prisons) were available in the area studied; an additional sample (mortality data) was analyzed for the city of Barcelona. Log-linear models that provided a good fit were considered, to which further model selection strategies were applied. A total of 3,207 unique individuals aged 15-44 years were identified in the three samples from the greater Barcelona area; the mortality sample from the city of Barcelona contained an additional 83 individuals. Heterogeneity was observed in different age, sex, and residence area subgroups. Population estimates differed widely according to the log-linear model chosen. Minimum Akaike's information criterion model and saturated model estimates were used to produce population prevalence rates. The main problems the authors encountered in this study were related to population definition, source heterogeneity, and assessment of an adequate model, a problem associated with sample size. PMID:9786228

  19. An evaluation of monk parakeet damage to crops in the metropolitan area of Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Senar, J. C.; Domènech, J.; L. Arroyo; Torre, I.; Gordo, O.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated damage to commercial crops caused by the monk parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus, in the Baix Llobregat agricultural area (1,024 ha) bordering the city of Barcelona, Spain. Average crop loss was 0.4% for tomatoes, 28% for corn, 9% for red plums, 36% for round plums, 37% for pears, 17% for persimmons, and 7% for quinces. Our data show that the potential damage to crops by monk parakeets in this invaded area is now a reality. As a wait–and–see approach is likely to be a more costly stra...

  20. Housing Booms and City Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Edward L. Glaeser; Joshua D. Gottlieb; Kristina Tobio

    2012-01-01

    Popular discussions often treat the great housing boom of the 1996-2006 period as if it were a national phenomenon with similar impacts across locales, but across metropolitan areas, price growth was dramatically higher in warmer, less educated cities with less initial density and higher initial housing values. Within metropolitan areas, price growth was faster in neighborhoods closer to the city center. The centralization of price growth during the boom was particularly dramatic in those met...

  1. Seismic Observations in the Taipei Metropolitan Area Using the Downhole Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win-Gee Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Underlain by soft soils, the Taipei Metropolitan Area (TMA experienced major damage due to ground-motion amplification during the Hualien earthquake of 1986, the Chi-Chi earthquake of 1999, the Hualien earthquake of 2002 and the Taitung earthquake of 2003. To study how a local site can substantially change the characteristics of seismic waves as they pass through soft deposits below the free surface, two complementary downhole seismic arrays have been operated in the TMA, since 1991 and 2008. The accelerometer downhole array is composed of eight boreholes at depths in excess of 300 meters. The downhole array velocity sensor collocated with accelerometer composed of four boreholes at depths up to 90 meters. The integrated seismic network monitors potential earthquakes originating from faults in and around the TMA and provides wide-dynamic range measurement of data ranging in amplitude from seismic background noise levels to damage levels as a result of shaking. The data sets can be used to address on the response of soft-soil deposits to ground motions. One of the major considerations is the nonlinear response of soft soil deposits at different levels of excitation. The collocated acceloerometer and velocity sensors at boreholes give the necessary data for studies of non-linearity to be acquired. Such measurements in anticipation of future large, damaging earthquakes will be of special importance for the mitigation of earthquake losses.

  2. Diversity of Bacterial Communities of Fitness Center Surfaces in a U.S. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public fitness centers and exercise facilities have been implicated as possible sources for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial community residing on the surfaces in these indoor environments is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the overall bacterial ecology of selected fitness centers in a metropolitan area (Memphis, TN, USA utilizing culture-independent pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from the skin-contact surfaces (e.g., exercise instruments, floor mats, handrails, etc. within fitness centers. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacter and Actinobacteria, with a total of 17 bacterial families and 25 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human and environmental origin (including, air, dust, soil, and water. Additionally, we found the presence of some pathogenic or potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Micrococcus. Staphylococcus was found to be the most prevalent genus. Presence of viable forms of these pathogens elevates risk of exposure of any susceptible individuals. Several factors (including personal hygiene, surface cleaning and disinfection schedules of the facilities may be the reasons for the rich bacterial diversity found in this study. The current finding underscores the need to increase public awareness on the importance of personal hygiene and sanitation for public gym users.

  3. Greenhouse Gas Implications of Urban Sprawl in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Ala-Mantila

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Suburban households living in spacious detached houses and owing multiple cars are often seen as main culprits for negative greenhouse consequences of urban sprawl. Consequently, the effects of sprawl have been mostly studied from the viewpoints of emissions from home energy consumption and private driving. Little attention has been paid to the changes in other consumption. In this paper, urban sprawl is linked to the proliferation of semi-detached and detached housing, described as a low-rise lifestyle, at the expense of apartment house living i.e., high-rise lifestyle. We analyze differences between the low-rise and the high-rise lifestyles and their environmental effects in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, taking into account all consumption activities. Environmental effects are assessed by combining greenhouse gas intensities from a consumption-based environmentally-extended input-output (EE I-O model with expenditure data. Then these carbon footprints are further elucidated with regression analysis. We find that low-rise lifestyles causes approximately 14% more emissions than high-rise lifestyles. However, the relative contributions of emissions from different sources, whether direct or indirect, are almost equal for both. Furthermore, when controlling the level of expenditure, the differences between the two lifestyles unexpectedly disappear and in certain cases are even reversed. We believe that our consumption-based approach facilitates the understanding of sprawling lifestyles and offers important insights for sustainable policy-design and urban planning.

  4. Income, social stratification, class, and private health insurance: a study of the Baltimore metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, C; Parsons, P E

    1996-01-01

    Most studies of inequalities and access to health care have used income as the sole indicator of social stratification. Despite the significance of social theory in health insurance research, there are no empirical studies comparing the ability of different models of social stratification to predict health insurance coverage. The aim of this study is to provide a comparative analysis using a variety of theory-driven indicators of social stratification and assess the relative strength of the association between these indicators and private health insurance. Data were collected in a 1993 telephone interview of a random digit dialing sample of the white population in the Baltimore Metropolitan Statistical Area. Indicators of social stratification included employment status, full-time work, education, occupation, industry, household income, firm size, and three types of assets: ownership, organizational, and skill/credential. The association between social stratification and private health insurance was strongest for those having higher household incomes, having attained at least a bachelor's degree, and working in a firm with more than 50 employees, followed by being an owner or manager, and by being employed. The addition of education and firm size improved the prediction of the household income model. The authors conclude that studies of inequalities in health insurance coverage can benefit from the inclusion of theory-driven indicators of social stratification such as human capital, labor market segmentation, and control over productive assets. PMID:8906444

  5. Trace metals analysis of hair samples from students in metropolitan area high school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hair samples from junior high school students in metropolitan areas of Taichung, Taiwan were tested for a total of 13 elements, Al, Ag, Br, Cl, Cr, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Se, and Zn by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to establish seasonal variations, gender and environmental exposures. The seasonal variations of hairs in 39 healthy students (18 males and 21 females; age 13.3 ± 0.4 years; height, 158.0 ± 4.1 cm; weight, 53.4 ± 5.7 kg) were collected at 1.5-month intervals for 1 year starting from late August, 2008. The concentrations of the above elements varied from 103 to 10-2 μg g-1 at different sampling times. A quantified index of agreement (AT) was introduced to help classify the elements. A smaller AT indicated highly consistent quantities of specific metals in the hair while a larger AT indicated increased fluctuation, i.e., less agreement. The different ATs in various hair samples were discussed. The concentrations of these elements are compared with the data in the literature. (author)

  6. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.

    2003-12-01

    Introduction: After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (MEXT) has started a five-year program titled as Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas (abbreviated to Dai-dai-toku in Japanese) since 2002. The project includes four programs: I. Regional characterization of the crust in metropolitan areas for prediction of strong ground motion. II. Significant improvement of seismic performance of structure. III. Advanced disaster management system. IV. Investigation of earthquake disaster mitigation research results. We will present the results from the first program conducted in 2002 and 2003. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion: A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of ground motion response, which includes a source process, an effect of propagation path, and near surface response. The new five-year project was aimed to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The 1923 Kanto Earthquake is one of the important targets to be addressed in the project. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This project focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3) Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties We have conducted a series of seismic reflection and refraction experiment in the Kanto region. In 2002 we have completed to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso peninsula (112 km) and the

  7. Agricultural and green infrastructures: The role of non-urbanised areas for eco-sustainable planning in a metropolitan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are part of agricultural and green infrastructures that provide ecosystem services. Their role is fundamental for the minimization of urban pollution and adaptation to climate change. Like all natural ecosystems, NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl. The regulation of sprawl is a key issue for land-use planning. We propose a land use suitability strategy model to orient Land Uses of NUAs, based on integration of Land Cover Analysis (LCA) and Fragmentation Analysis (FA). With LCA the percentage of evapotranspiring surface is defined for each land use. Dimensions and densities of NUAs patches are assessed in FA. The model has been developed with Geographical Information Systems, using an extensive set of geodatabases, including orthophotos, vectorial cartographies and field surveys. The case of the municipality of Mascalucia in Catania metropolitan area (Italy), characterized by a considerable urban sprawl, is presented. - Highlights: → Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are crucial for land planning and pollution minimization. → NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl in Catania metropolitan areas (Italy). → NUAs can be characterized by Land Cover and Fragmentation analysis. → Results from analysis are used in a Land Use Suitability Strategy Model (LUSSM). → By LUSSM application seven new prospective land uses for NUAs are proposed. - Characterization of non-urbanised areas in metropolitan regions is crucial for land-use planning aimed at environmental pollution minimization.

  8. Agricultural and green infrastructures: The role of non-urbanised areas for eco-sustainable planning in a metropolitan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Greca, Paolo; La Rosa, Daniele [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Martinico, Francesco, E-mail: fmartinico@dau.unict.it [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Privitera, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are part of agricultural and green infrastructures that provide ecosystem services. Their role is fundamental for the minimization of urban pollution and adaptation to climate change. Like all natural ecosystems, NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl. The regulation of sprawl is a key issue for land-use planning. We propose a land use suitability strategy model to orient Land Uses of NUAs, based on integration of Land Cover Analysis (LCA) and Fragmentation Analysis (FA). With LCA the percentage of evapotranspiring surface is defined for each land use. Dimensions and densities of NUAs patches are assessed in FA. The model has been developed with Geographical Information Systems, using an extensive set of geodatabases, including orthophotos, vectorial cartographies and field surveys. The case of the municipality of Mascalucia in Catania metropolitan area (Italy), characterized by a considerable urban sprawl, is presented. - Highlights: > Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are crucial for land planning and pollution minimization. > NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl in Catania metropolitan areas (Italy). > NUAs can be characterized by Land Cover and Fragmentation analysis. > Results from analysis are used in a Land Use Suitability Strategy Model (LUSSM). > By LUSSM application seven new prospective land uses for NUAs are proposed. - Characterization of non-urbanised areas in metropolitan regions is crucial for land-use planning aimed at environmental pollution minimization.

  9. Analysis of the seasonal and inter-annual variations, and long-term trends of ozone in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassmany Hernández Paniagua, Iván; Clemitshaw, Kevin C.; Mendoza, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Since 1993, high-precision and high-frequency measurements of ambient O3 have been recorded at 5 sites within the metropolitan area of Monterrey, the third largest city in Mexico. O3was measured by the Integral Environmental Monitoring System of the Nuevo Leon State Government using commercially available, conventional UV photometry instrumentation (precision better than ±1 ppb). The datasets exhibit variations on differing time-scales of minutes to hours, with evidence of seasonal cycles and inter-annual variability. The O3 diurnal cycles vary with length of daylight, which influences its formation and loss via photochemistry. No apparent influence is observed in the amplitudes of O3 diurnal cycles recorded during weekdays with higher emissions from fossil fuel combustion than at weekends, although larger amplitudes occur at sites with polluted air from industrial areas. Seasonal cycles are driven by the variation in solar radiation and changes in emissions of primary precursors, VOCs and NOX. Maximum O3 mixing ratios were recorded in spring, and minimum values in winter, with a secondary trough during summer due to the advection of clean air masses from the Gulf of Mexico. The largest spring maxima are recorded downwind of an industrial area likely due photochemical processing of VOCs and NOx, with the lowest recorded in a highly populated area due to reaction of O3 and NO. At all sites, decreasing seasonal amplitudes were observed during 1993-1998, followed by persistent increases from 1998 to 2014. Wind sector analyses were carried out by splitting the wind direction into 8 categories (45°). At all sites, the highest O3 mixing ratios were recorded from the E and SE sectors, with lowest values recorded in air masses from the W and NW. Wind sector analysis of primary precursors (such as VOCs, CO, NOX) reveal that sources are dominated by emissions from industrial regions in Monterrey and surrounding areas. The largest annual growth rates for the E and SE

  10. The influence of coyotes on an urban Canada goose population in the Chicago metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Justin L.; /Ohio State U.

    2007-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have become common in many urban areas, often creating nuisance problems for human residents. The presence of urban geese has raised concerns about the spread of disease, increased erosion, excessive noise, eutrophication of waterways, and general nuisance problems. Goose populations have grown due to an increase in urbanization resulting in an abundance of high quality food (urban grass) and suitable nesting sites, as well as a decrease in some predators. I monitored nest predation in the Chicago suburbs during the 2004 and 2005 nesting seasons using 3 nest monitoring techniques to identify predators: video cameras, plasticine eggs, and sign from nest using a classification tree analysis. Of 58 nests monitored in 2004 and 286 in 2005, only raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) were identified as nest predators. Raccoons were responsible for 22-25% of depredated nests, but were rarely capable of depredating nests that were actively defended by a goose. Coyotes were responsible for 75-78% of all Canada goose nest depredation and were documented killing one adult goose and feeding on several others. The coyote is a top-level predator that had increased in many metropolitan areas in recent years. To determine if coyotes were actively hunting geese or eggs during the nesting season, I analyzed coyote habitat selection between nesting and pre-nesting or post-nesting seasons. Coyote home ranges (95% Minimum Convex Polygon) were calculated for 19 coyotes to examine third order habitat selection related to goose nest abundance. A 100 m buffer (buffer habitat) was created and centered on each waterway edge and contained 90% of all nests. Coyotes showed selection for habitats during all seasons. Buffer habitat was the top ranked habitat in both pre-nesting and nesting seasons, but dropped to third ranked in post-nesting season. Habitat selection across seasons was compared using a repeated measures MANOVA. Habitat selection

  11. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Ryu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban–rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3 episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ. Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the

  12. Disaggregate demand for conventional and alternative fuelled vehicles in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoglou, Dimitrios

    The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, it offers insight on how households' car-ownership behaviour is affected by urban form and availability of local-transit at the place of residence, after controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Second, it addresses the importance of vehicle attributes, household and individual characteristics as well as economic incentives and urban form to potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Data for the empirical analyses of the aforementioned research activities were obtained through an innovative Internet survey, which is also documented in this thesis, conducted in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton. The survey included a retrospective questionnaire of households' number and type of vehicles and a stated choices experiment for assessing the potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Established approaches and emerging trends in automobile demand modelling identified early on in this thesis suggest a disaggregate approach and specifically, the estimation of discrete choice models both for explaining car ownership and vehicle-type choice behaviour. It is shown that mixed and diverse land uses as well as short distances between home and work are likely to decrease the probability of households to own a large number of cars. Regarding the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles, while vehicle attributes are particularly important, incentives such as free parking and access to high occupancy vehicle lanes will not influence the choice of hybrids or alternative fuelled vehicles. An improved understating of households' behaviour regarding the number of cars as well as the factors and trade-offs for choosing cleaner vehicles can be used to inform policy designed to reduce car ownership levels and encourage adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies in urban areas. Finally, the Internet survey sets the ground for further research on implementation and evaluation of this data collection method.

  13. Venture capital in New England secondary cities

    OpenAIRE

    Carole Carlson; Prabal Chakrabarti

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, venture capital has been one of the major drivers of the U.S. economy. This article examines venture capital investment in secondary cities, cities outside of the 40 largest U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), including New England secondary cities, and identifies factors that may explain how certain smaller cities attract venture capital.

  14. Application of mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements for the investigation of megacity air pollution emissions: the Paris metropolitan area

    OpenAIRE

    S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller; F. Drewnick; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meleux, F.; U. Baltensperger; M. Beekmann; Borrmann, S.

    2014-01-01

    For the investigation of megacity emission development and the impact outside the source region, mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements were carried out in the Paris metropolitan area between 1 July and 31 July 2009 (summer conditions) and 15 January and 15 February 2010 (winter conditions) in the framework of the European Union FP7 MEGAPOLI project. Two mobile laboratories, MoLa and MOSQUITA, were deployed, and here an overview of these measurements and an investigation ...

  15. The urban subcentros, the land use and CO2 production: analyst of the Metropolitan area of Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Núñez, Carlos Andrés; Marmolejo Duarte, Carlos Ramiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new definition of sub-centers. Density of workers is complemented with the observation of four approaches for the analysis of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area. These four approaches are the urban lands paterns (based on CORINE land cover information), the mobility of workers (from data of the Spanish Census), electric consumption (from information of the electric companies) and the estimated CO2 production. Consequently, the urban structure will be defined based on these ...

  16. Lacrimal Cytokines Assessment in Subjects Exposed to Different Levels of Ambient Air Pollution in a Large Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Monique; Bonatti, Rodolfo; Mônica V. MARQUEZINI; Garcia, Maria L. B.; Ubiratan P Santos; Alfésio L F Braga; Alves, Milton R.; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Monteiro, Mário L. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution is one of the most environmental health concerns in the world and has serious impact on human health, particularly in the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes. However, ocular hazardous effects to air pollutants are scarcely found in the literature. Design Panel study to evaluate the effect of different levels of ambient air pollution on lacrimal film cytokine levels of outdoor workers from a large metropolitan area. Methods Thirty healthy male workers, ...

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING UNDERSTANDING AND APPLICATIONS OF BRANDED HOUSING PROJECT MARKETING AROUND THE ISTANBUL METROPOLITAN AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Polat, Selcuk; FERMAN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Marketing is a quite crucial topic for success in the current competitive environment. Efficient and effective marketing practices will allow the companies to grow and to be more successful. Companies can gain competitive advantage by developing various marketing strategies. The objective of this study is to research the factors affecting the understanding and applications of ‘branded housing project marketing’ around the Istanbul metropolitan area. Branding and market positioning depend on f...

  18. The Built Environment and Walking Activity of the Elderly: An Empirical Analysis in the Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Zhang; Yuan Li; Qixing Liu; Chaoyang Li

    2014-01-01

    Policies and interventions involving the built environment have become a promising opportunity for the promotion of walking as a sustainable transportation mode. Among voluminous literature, few studies were found that examined the association between the built environment and walking among the elderly in China. This study investigated the relationship between the built environment and the walking activity of the elderly based on data collected in Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China. The resul...

  19. Evaluating the equity effects of road-pricing in the European urban context - The Madrid Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Di Ciommo, Floridea; Lucas, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The paper identifies the potential spatial and social impacts of a proposed road-pricing scheme for different social groups in the Madrid Metropolitan Area (MMA). We appraise the accessibility of different districts within the MMA in terms of the actual and perceived cost of using the road infrastructure ‘before’ and ‘after’ implementation of the scheme. The appraisal framework was developed using quantitative survey data and qualitative focus group discussions with residents. We then simulat...

  20. Earthquake Risk Information and Risk Aversive Behavior: Evidence from a Survey of Residents in Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuo Kawawaki

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between provision of earthquake risk information and residents' willingness to pay (WTP) for disaster risk reduction by the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), using questionnaire survey data on the purchase of earthquake insurance in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, Japan. Degree of disaster risk aversion and subjective probability of loss are estimated as parameters of expected utility function in a discrete choice model. The results suggest that when more pr...

  1. Communication Externalities on the Knowledge-based Firms in Metropolitan Areas: Case Study of China and Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuaki Hamaguchi; Yoshihiro Kameyama

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides some evidence on communication style that serves as the contact tool and its related external economies to knowledge-intensive production and innovation within the emerging high-technology based industrial clusters in metropolitan areas of China and Korea. Our unique data-set from questionnaire survey enables us to examine the firms' behavior of communication regarding the choice of communication mode, how often, with whom, and for what purpose. Such analysis provides insi...

  2. Study of the demand for radiopharmaceutical 18F-FDG in the metropolitan regions of Sao Paulo and adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Medicine in Brazil and worldwide has developed distinction with diagnosis techniques that allow metabolic research of the disease, changing in a significant fashion the patient's outcome. This innovative technology leads expectations from specific fields up to society itself. This research studied the use of 18F-FDG radiopharmaceutical in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and adjacent areas, as well as the recent trade structure and the difficulties that should be overcome with the increase of the 18F-FDG demand. This research counted on the analysis of the international radiopharmaceutical trade and the main changes that have been happening in this area in Brazil during the past few years. Interviews were performed with professionals within the area of nuclear medicine and data has been collected through questionnaire sent to the consuming centers of the radiopharmaceutical in the region covered in this research. The interviews expressed the opinions of the interviewees concerning transformations in this field and future tendencies and the information obtained from the survey was the basis of complementation of the use of radiopharmaceutical on equipment such as Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Positron Emission Tomography I Computer Tomography (PET/CT). The major use of 18F-FDG has been used for oncology diagnosis with equipment such as PET and PEC/CT. This use shall grow in the next years, maybe expanding to other specialties such as neurology and cardiology. Although nowadays restricted to the cities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, there is a possibility of expansion to other diagnosis modalities in other states of the country that are starting to structure the production of the radioisotope. The recent change in the constitution permitting the production and commerce of short half-life radioisotopes also contributes to the increase the interest of private funding of this sector in which

  3. Bryophytes use like atmospheric indicators of heavy metals in the metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in species of frequent and abundant bryophytes in the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV). The concentration of the studied metals was determined in two different seasons (cold-dry and warm-humid) in 11 sites of the MATV, 7 of them classified as urban areas, 2 as transition areas and 2 as protected natural areas. Only epiphyte organisms found to a superior height of 100 cm of the floor were considered and the species determination was realized in the Sciences Faculty of the Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, while the processing of the samples was carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The samples processing consisted on separating the bryophytes of the bark of the trees, later on each one of the samples was washed, milled and homogenized, at the end they were subjected to a digestion process accelerated by microwaves. The concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in the bryophytes was determined applying the X-rays Fluorescence technique, using a spectrometer Tx-2000 Ital-Structures, with a detector type Si (Li), a tube of Mo (40 kV, 30 m A) with 17,4 keV like excitement energy. Each sample was analyzed six times with a counting time of 500 seconds. Additionally enrichment factors were obtained using reference soils considered as not impacted by anthropogenic activities. With the obtained results space and temporary differences were established through descriptive statistic, also the enrichment factor to infer the possible origin of the metals was calculated, as well as the sites that could represent a risk for the health. The species more frequent and abundant were F. ciliaris and L. angustata, presenting the following tendency in their metals concentration Fe>Ti>Mn>Zn>Pb>V ≅ Cu>Cr, being observed that the temporality is a factor that influences in the metals concentration and that in general F. ciliaris

  4. The Area and Population of Cities: New Insights from a Different Perspective on Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Rozenfeld, Hernán D.; Diego Rybski; Xavier Gabaix; Makse, Hernán A.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of the population of cities has attracted a great deal of attention, in part because it sharply constrains models of local growth. However, to this day, there is no consensus on the distribution below the very upper tail, because available data need to rely on the "legal" rather than "economic" definition of cities for medium and small cities. To remedy this difficulty, in this work we construct cities "from the bottom up" by clustering populated areas obtained from high-reso...

  5. Evaluating the Environmental Performance of Urban Parks in Mediterranean Cities: An Example from the Barcelona Metropolitan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés-Franzi, Marc; Saurí-Pujol, David; Domene, Elena

    2006-11-01

    In a context of increasing urban sprawl and water scarcity common to other Mediterranean cities, this article focuses on the urban parks in the Region of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) to examine how these parks are distributed in this region and to assess whether their design and management follow criteria adapted to Mediterranean environmental conditions, especially in what concerns water use. In order to evaluate the environmental performance of these parks, we selected four factors possibly influencing the adoption of park management practices at the local scale: urban density, population size of the municipality, municipal income per capita, and political orientation of the city council. After determining the location and area of urban parks in the region, we correlated these four explanatory factors with several management tasks extracted from two different samples of parks (one of 315 parks and another of 125 parks) and a survey of 86 city councils. Results show that, in general, urban parks were more frequent in large, dense, and left/green municipalities but that environmentally sound practices were more common in small and low-density municipalities. We conclude that changes in certain practices (especially the substitution of high water demanding species) could improve significantly the environmental performance of public spaces in large urban areas with Mediterranean climates. Our observations may be pertinent for other cities interested in the provision of environmental public goods such as parks that necessitate water for irrigation.

  6. Waste management options for discarded newspaper in the Helsinki metropolitan area life cycle assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbo, H.; Laukka, J.; Myllymaa, T.; Koskela, S.; Tenhunen, J.; Seppaelae, J.; Jouttijaervi, T.; Melanen, M.

    2005-07-01

    Consumption and the amount of wastes are constantly increasing and therefore the waste management solutions have an increasing impact on the ecology and costs of the life cycle of a product. In an optimal situation the environmental impacts of a waste management solution are as few as possible and this is achieved with as low costs as possible. Searching and comparing the most appropriate waste management solutions demands systematic and case- specific studies. The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) and the University of Helsinki carried out in 2002 - 2004 a joint project called 'Life cycle approach to sustainability of waste management - a case study on newspaper (LCA-WASTE)', financed by the National Technology Agency of Finland (Tekes). In the project, the ecology and costs of different waste management alternatives for newspaper were studied. This report describes the process and results of the life cycle assessment performed in the study. Five waste management alternatives for discarded newspaper in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) were formulated and assessed. The whole life cycle of newspaper, comprising forestry, manufacturing of newsprint, printing, waste recovery and treatment, transportations and by-products (in this study energy from waste), was included in the product system. Process-specific data from the facilities in operation, data from pilot studies and also databases were used in the life cycle inventory (LCI) phase. In order to assess the potential environmental impacts of the waste management alternatives, the inventory data were interpreted with three LCIA models, namely DAIA, Eco-indicator 99 and EPS 2000, in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase. The results of the economic assessment are not reported here. The combined assessment of the ecology and costs is reported in the publication: Myllymaa et al. 2005. A method for implementing life cycle surveys of waste management alternatives' environmental and cost

  7. Land-use Effect on Stream Organic Matter Composition in Two Metropolitan Areas in USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, S.; Kaushal, S.; Amon, R. M.; Brinkmeyer, R.

    2011-12-01

    Urbanization is a form of land-use change that is increasing in coastal watersheds and may affect the quantity and quality of organic carbon delivered to streams and coastal ocean. Here, we examine the changes in optical and isotopic characteristics of organic matter in streams (Gwynns Fall and Buffalo Bayou) draining Baltimore and Houston Metropolitan Areas (USA), relative to nearby less affected forested watersheds. A summer longitudinal sampling in Gwynns Fall along a rural-urban gradient showed increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fluorescent protein to humic ratio but a decrease in specific UV absorption (SUVA). Parallel Factor modeling shows dominance of terrestrial component of DOC, and the ratio of an unknown component to the component of humic substance was high in urban watersheds and it was positively correlated impervious surface cover (an index of urbanization). Incubation experiments with leaves and stream algae suggest origin of decayed leaf leachate of this component. Conversely, DOM in Buffalo Bayou showed higher intensity of protein-like fluorescence, and the intensity increased longitudinal along a rural-urban gradient but decreased from low-flows to a flooding event. The difference in fluorescent organic matter composition between the two streams probably reflected different management of wastewater in watersheds. Surface sediment collected at sites of sub-watersheds of Gwynns Fall showed changes in particle size, elemental and isotopic composition with land use. Sediment incubations showed that higher temperature (due to urban heat island effect) enhanced loss of labile organic matter and release of refractory organic matter into stream water. Release of reactive soluble phosphorus, loss of nitrogen and reduction of sulfate also occurred at high incubating temperatures, along with mineralization of sediment organic matter. Bed sediment collected along Buffalo Bayou displayed a longitudinal decrease in N-15, probably reflecting the

  8. Monitoring and behavior of unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, José Alexander; Landaverde, José; Landaverde, Reynaldo López; Tejnecký, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Field monitoring and laboratory results are presented for an unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic. The pyroclastic belongs to the latest plinian eruption of the Ilopango Caldera in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, and is constantly affected by intense erosion, collapse, slab failure, sand/silt/debris flowslide and debris avalanche during the rainy season or earthquakes. Being the flowslides more common but with smaller volume. During the research, preliminary results of rain threshold were obtained of flowslides, this was recorded with the TMS3 (a moisture sensor device using time domain transmission) installed in some slopes. TMS3 has been used before in biology, ecology and soil sciences, and for the first time was used for engineering geology in this research. This device uses electromagnetic waves to obtain moisture content of the soil and a calibration curve is necessary. With the behavior observed during this project is possible to conclude that not only climatic factors as rain quantity, temperature and evaporation are important into landslide susceptibility but also information of suction-moisture content, seepage, topography, weathering, ground deformation, vibrations, cracks, vegetation/roots and the presence of crust covering the surface are necessary to research in each site. Results of the field monitoring indicates that the presence of biological soil crusts a complex mosaic of soil, green algae, lichens, mosses, micro-fungi, cyanobacteria and other bacteria covering the slopes surface can protect somehow the steep slopes reducing the runoff process and mass wasting processes. The results obtained during the assessment will help explaining the mass wasting problems occurring in some pyroclastic soils and its possible use in mitigation works and early warning system. PMID:27186500

  9. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and ``excess`` human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all ``non-external`` causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM{sub 15}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub 4}{sup =}, for 63{sup 4} locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  10. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess'' human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external'' causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO[sub 4][sup =], Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM[sub 15], PM[sub 2.5] and SO[sub 4][sup =], for 63[sup 4] locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  11. Underground Water Consumption and Public Health risks, in Metropolitan Suburbs in an Emerging City, Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Kwaku D. Kessey; Afia N. Nyarko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Urbanisation has become a common development phenomenon in emerging countries, as urban population growth rate is high in those countries. Consequently, demand for urban utilities, especially fresh water, exceeds supply. To address the challenge of inadequate fresh water supply in homes, for household use, many property owners extract underground water in residential areas, by drilling wells. They drink, cook, bath and do their laundry from that source of water. Although that practic...

  12. Impacts of Tanneries on Quality of Groundwater in Pallavaram, Chennai Metropolitan City

    OpenAIRE

    K.Ramesh,; V.Thirumangai

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out with the objective of determining the extent of groundwater pollution caused by tanning industries and solid waster dumpsite in Pallavaram area located south of Chennai (Madras), which is a town of number of small and large scale leather industries. About 22 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for the concentration of physio-chemical parameters and trace ions during September 2011 and January 2012. Ca-Mg-Cl and Na-Cl are the major ...

  13. Impacts of Tanneries on Quality of Groundwater in Pallavaram, Chennai Metropolitan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Ramesh,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective of determining the extent of groundwater pollution caused by tanning industries and solid waster dumpsite in Pallavaram area located south of Chennai (Madras, which is a town of number of small and large scale leather industries. About 22 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for the concentration of physio-chemical parameters and trace ions during September 2011 and January 2012. Ca-Mg-Cl and Na-Cl are the major water types in this area. It is inferred that, total hardness falls in hard to very hard category. The water quality index rated as poor to very poor quality except few samples. The study reveals that the concentration of major ions and chromium are exceeding the permissible limit. Groundwater is unsuitable for human consumption as it contains higher concentration of major ions and chromium. Tannery uses a large number of chemicals during the process of discharging toxic wastes into open drains and municipality solid waste dumpsite to the nearby land is the major reasons deterioration of water quality in this area. Contamination of groundwater causes water scarcity for domestic purpose of this study is to highlight the impact of tannery effluent on groundwater

  14. Spatial and Temporal Hot Spots of Aedes albopictus Abundance inside and outside a South European Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Mattia; Filipponi, Federico; D'Alessandro, Antonello; Screti, Alessia; Neteler, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Solimini, Angelo; Della Torre, Alessandra; Caputo, Beniamino

    2016-06-01

    Aedes albopictus is a tropical invasive species which in the last decades spread worldwide, also colonizing temperate regions of Europe and US, where it has become a public health concern due to its ability to transmit exotic arboviruses, as well as severe nuisance problems due to its aggressive daytime outdoor biting behaviour. While several studies have been carried out in order to predict the potential limits of the species expansions based on eco-climatic parameters, few studies have so far focused on the specific effects of these variables in shaping its micro-geographic abundance and dynamics. The present study investigated eco-climatic factors affecting Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural sites in Rome (Italy), which was colonized in 1997 and is nowadays one of the most infested metropolitan areas in Southern Europe. To this aim, longitudinal adult monitoring was carried out along a 70 km-transect across and beyond the most urbanized and densely populated metropolitan area. Two fine scale spatiotemporal datasets (one with reference to a 20m circular buffer around sticky traps used to collect mosquitoes and the second to a 300m circular buffer within each sampling site) were exploited to analyze the effect of climatic and socio-environmental variables on Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics along the transect. Results showed an association between highly anthropized habitats and high adult abundance both in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural areas, with "small green islands" corresponding to hot spots of abundance in the metropolitan areas only, and a bimodal seasonal dynamics with a second peak of abundance in autumn, due to heavy rains occurring in the preceding weeks in association with permissive temperatures. The results provide useful indications to prioritize public mosquito control measures in temperate urban areas where nuisance, human-mosquito contact and risk of local arbovirus transmission are likely higher

  15. Spatial and Temporal Hot Spots of Aedes albopictus Abundance inside and outside a South European Metropolitan Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Manica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is a tropical invasive species which in the last decades spread worldwide, also colonizing temperate regions of Europe and US, where it has become a public health concern due to its ability to transmit exotic arboviruses, as well as severe nuisance problems due to its aggressive daytime outdoor biting behaviour. While several studies have been carried out in order to predict the potential limits of the species expansions based on eco-climatic parameters, few studies have so far focused on the specific effects of these variables in shaping its micro-geographic abundance and dynamics. The present study investigated eco-climatic factors affecting Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural sites in Rome (Italy, which was colonized in 1997 and is nowadays one of the most infested metropolitan areas in Southern Europe. To this aim, longitudinal adult monitoring was carried out along a 70 km-transect across and beyond the most urbanized and densely populated metropolitan area. Two fine scale spatiotemporal datasets (one with reference to a 20m circular buffer around sticky traps used to collect mosquitoes and the second to a 300m circular buffer within each sampling site were exploited to analyze the effect of climatic and socio-environmental variables on Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics along the transect. Results showed an association between highly anthropized habitats and high adult abundance both in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural areas, with "small green islands" corresponding to hot spots of abundance in the metropolitan areas only, and a bimodal seasonal dynamics with a second peak of abundance in autumn, due to heavy rains occurring in the preceding weeks in association with permissive temperatures. The results provide useful indications to prioritize public mosquito control measures in temperate urban areas where nuisance, human-mosquito contact and risk of local arbovirus transmission are

  16. Dynamics and origin of atmospheric CH4 in a Polish metropolitan area characterized by wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Seasonal variations in CH4 concentration and δ13C value in urban air are pronounced. • Spatial distribution of CH4 indicate the areas of dominant methane fluxes. • The dominant flux was biogenic methane from man-made sewage irrigation fields. • Combustion and gas leakage sources showed minor impact. • CH4 and CO2 characteristics are governed by diverse processes. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the natural and anthropogenic input of methane (CH4) to the urban atmosphere of Wrocław (South West Poland). The study is based on the combined use of quantitative (measurement of concentrations) and qualitative analyses (analysis of stable carbon isotopic compositions). Air samples were collected every three weeks in 2011 from 15 sampling points distributed evenly over the city area. The methane concentration varied from 1859 ppb to 7691 ppb, with a mean annual value of 2096 ppb. Carbon isotopic composition of methane δ13C(CH4) varied from −61.5‰ to −37.8‰ with average of −48.1‰. The dominant CH4 source was biogenic, namely, the methane produced at sewage irrigation fields (man made biogenic emissions) and local wetlands (natural biogenic input). During the growing season emitted CH4 spread to considerable distances, depending on the prevailing meteorological conditions. During the cold period, biogenic input was negligible and other anthropogenic sources (biomass burning and city network gas) of methane could be observed

  17. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Metropolitan Statistical Areas 201309 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States and Puerto Rico. The map layer was created from data produced by the U.S. Census Bureau....

  18. Bacterial Composition of Biofilms Collected From Two Service Areas in a Metropolitan Drinking Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development and succession of bacteria were examined by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries generated from various biofilms within a metropolitan water distribution system. Biofilms were obtained from off-line devices using polycarbonate coupons from annular reactors incubated for ...

  19. Comparison of Collection Schemes of Municipal Solid Waste Metallic Fraction: The Impacts on Global Warming Potential for the Case of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kari Heiskanen; Timo Kuusiola; Maaria Wierink

    2012-01-01

    In this research article the sustainability of different practices to collect the metal fraction of household waste in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland is examined. The study is carried out by calculating and comparing the greenhouse gas reduction potential of optional practices for collecting the metal fraction of household waste in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. In order to locate the greenhouse gas reduction potential of the separate collection of the metallic fraction of ...

  20. New Geophysical and Geotechnical Data on Quaternary Layers in the Metropolitan Area of Bucharest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin Balan, Stefan; Ritter, Joachim; Bala, Andrei; Rohn, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Bucharest, the capital of Romania, with approximately 2.5 million inhabitants, is considered after Istanbul the second-most earthquake-endangered metropolis in Europe. It is identified as a natural disaster hotspot by a global study of the World Bank and the Columbia University (Dilley et al., 2005). Four major earthquakes with moment-magnitudes between 6.9 and 7.7 hit Bucharest in the last 70 years. The most recent destructive earthquake of 4th March 1977, with a moment magnitude of 7.4, caused about 1.500 casualties in the capital alone. All disastrous earthquakes are generated within a small epicentral area - the Vrancea region - about 150 km northeast of Bucharest. Thick unconsolidated sedimentary layers in the area of Bucharest amplify the arriving seismic shear-waves causing severe destruction. Thus, disaster prevention and mitigation of earthquake effects is an issue of highest priority for Bucharest and its population. An international research project was initiated and recently finished - NATO SfP Project 981882: Site-effect analyses for the earthquake-endangered metropolis Bucharest, Romania. This project had the target to fill gaps in knowledge concerning seismic and geotechnical parameters in the shallow (h Physics, Bucharest, Romania and the Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Germany. The main objective was earthquake risk mitigation and better seismic safety of Bucharest City. Ten 50 m deep boreholes were successfully drilled and studied in detail. The values of the mean weighted seismic velocities computed in the present study are within a narrow range as others obtained by seismic in situ measurements. vs30 values below 360 m/s indicate intermediate soil as near-surface material which tends to amplify earthquakes waves. This means that the near-surface layer and its elastic properties are crucial for understanding the seismic hazard imposed to Bucharest City. The elastic and dynamic parameters from geotechnical measurements at samples from the first 6

  1. Seasonality in the daytime and night-time intensity of land surface temperature in a tropical city area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanlade, Ayansina

    2016-07-01

    Variations in urban land surface temperature (LST) links to the surrounding rural areas result to urban heat island (UHI), which is a global problem challenging both cities in develop and developing countries. Satellite data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), covering the period between 2002 and 2013 were analysed to examine seasonal variability in the daytime and night-time intensity of urban heat island (UHI), using Lagos metropolitan city of Nigeria as a case study. Contribution index (CI) and landscape index (LI) were used to estimate the LST contributions from non-urban and urban areas to UHI and assess the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and LST. The LI showed that both non-urban and urban areas contribute greatly to strengthen the intensity of LST during the daytime (with LI0.90), while R(2) were very low in the night-time especially during dry season. The study indicates that reduction in vegetal cover in Lagos urban areas altered the terrestrial thermal and aerodynamic processes hence resulted in an intensification of UHI in the metropolitan city. PMID:27017074

  2. Wet precipitation of major ions, polonium-210, and organic carbon in a metropolitan city, Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, G.; Kim, G.

    2011-12-01

    An extensive survey of chemical constituents in precipitation including dissolved organic carbon, dissolved nitrogen, major ions, trace elements, and radionuclides was conducted in a representative urban environment of Seoul over one-year period from 2009 to 2010. The sources for these chemical species were apportioned by applying principal component analysis (PCA) in association with commonly acknowledged key tracers, such as Na, K, Ca, and V. The fossil fuel combustion (especially coal) was shown to be the dominant source for most constituents being investigated, with biomass burning being recognized as another significant source. With the aid of air mass backward trajectory analyses, we concluded that the primary fraction of the chemical species in our precipitation samples originated locally in Korea, albeit the frequent long-range transport from the eastern and northeastern China might contribute substantially. Overall, our study suggests the significant role of human activities in altering the atmospheric environment of Seoul and presumably most urban areas around the world, highlighting its profound environmental implications, such as health risks posed by excessive polonium-210, enhanced rainwater acidity from organic acids, and radiative forcing by organic aerosols.

  3. Heavy Metal Concentration in Some Common Spices Available at Local Market as Well as Branded Spicy in Chittagong Metropolitan City, Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhangshu Kumer Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to evaluate some metal concentration of spicy from local market of Chittagong metropolitan city, Bangladesh. Total 30 spicy samples of red chili or chili red, coriander, turmeric were collected from five different spot (Khatungonj, Chakbazar, Muradpur, Baluchora, Amanbazar under Chittagong metropolitan city and metal as Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Fe concentration was measured. Metal concentration in red chili, coriander, turmeric were found as increasing order as CuKhatungonj>Muradpur>Baluchora>Amanbazar, Khatungonj>Chakbazar>Amanbazar>Muradpur>Baluchora,Khatungonj>Chakbazar>Baluchora>Amanbazar>Muradpur,Khatungonj>Chakbazar>Muradpur>Amanbazar>Baluchora,Khatungonj>Chakbazar> Baluchora >Amanbazar>Muradpur respectively. So, Spicy of Khatungonj was the highly contaminated with metal followed by chakbazar spicy and least metal concentrated spicy was in Amanbazar at Chittagong city. According to WHO (World Health Organization, Cr and Fe concentrations exceeded the permissible limit of heavy metals in spicy but other metal concentrations was within tolerable limit. The current research’s findings will convey a strong message for the government body, policy maker to establish rules and regulation in order to protect food chain contamination, environment pollution and will be helpful for public awareness. An immediate attention from the concerned authorities is required in order to protect food chain contamination and environment pollution.

  4. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  5. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  6. [Epidemiology of allergic diseases in the Tampico-Ciudad Madero- Altamira metropolitan area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Nava, F; Govea Gómez, C

    1992-01-01

    There is a need to know the epidemiology behavior of health problem, with the purpose of creating the supporting basis for all action to its concern. In the cities Tampico, Madero and Altamira, a systematic exploration of the prevalent situation of allergic disorders did not exist: now, there is a study of 730 people selected at random, by means of questionnaire including 55 items applied to the population as a whole that live in the different zones of this area. It has been found that 54% show an allergic illness, it must be observed that in 66% of them a familial allergic history existed, whereas 45% has seasoning crisis environmental-related. PMID:1514011

  7. Inhalable Particulate Matter Measurements (Pm2.5 In The Metropolitan Area Of Valle De Aburrá. Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Helena Zapata Sanchez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the Metropolitan Area of Valle de Aburrá (Colombia, which is characterized by being a narrow valley with thermal inversion problems, and is located in the Andes mountain range. The study was conducted by the National University of Colombia in the Air Quality Monitoring Network, in agreement with the environmental authority in the area (Metropolitan Area of Valle de Aburrá. The aim was to optimize the monitoring of air quality in the urban areas of Valle de Aburrá for inhalable particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5 during the period January- December 2013, as it is the critical pollutant monitored in the area. Values of annual average concentrations and maximum daily concentrations obtained in each month are presented in this study, also the daily and weekly cycles for each monitoring station. These concentrations were compared to the Colombian daily and annual standard for PM2.5, equal to 50.0 g/m3 and 25 g/m3 respectively. It is worth highlighting the behavior of the decrease during evening times of the diurnal cycle of PM2.5, it can be explained partly because the atmosphere in the evening is generally unstable favoring greater dilution of pollution.

  8. Desperately Seeking Sustainability: Urban Shrinkage, Land Consumption and Regional Planning in a Mediterranean Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation has expanded in the Mediterranean region as a result of a variety of factors, including economic and population growth, land-use changes and climate variations. The level of land vulnerability to degradation and its growth over time are distributed heterogeneously over space, concentrating on landscapes exposed to high human pressure. The present study investigates the level of land vulnerability to degradation in a shrinking urban area (Rome, Italy at four points in time (1960, 1990, 2000 and 2010 and it identifies relevant factors negatively impacting the quality of land and the level of landscape fragmentation. A multi-domain assessment of land vulnerability incorporating indicators of climate quality, soil quality, vegetation quality and land management quality was carried out based on the Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA framework. The highest rate of growth in the level of land vulnerability was observed in low-density suburban areas. The peri-urban mosaic formed by coastal woodlands and traditional cropland preserved high-quality land with a stable degree of vulnerability over time. Evidence suggests that the agro-forest mosaic surrounding Mediterranean cities act as a “buffer zone” mitigating on-site and off-site land degradation. The conservation of relict natural landscapes is a crucial target for multi-scale policies combating land degradation in suburban dry regions.

  9. The contribution of urbanization to recent extreme heat events and white roof mitigation strategy in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingna

    2015-04-01

    The UHI effect can aggravate summertime heat waves and strongly influence human comfort and health, leading to greater mortality in metropolitan areas. Many geo-engineering technological strategies have been proposed to mitigate climate warming, and for the UHI, increasing the albedo of artificial urban surfaces (rooftops or pavements) has been considered a lucrative and effective way to cool cities. The objective of this work is to quantify the contribution of urbanization to recent extreme heat events of the early 21st century in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area, using the mesoscale WRF model coupled with a single urban canopy model and actual urban land cover datasets. This work also investigates a simulation of the regional effects of white roof technology by increasing the albedo of urban areas in the urban canopy model to mitigate the urban heat island, especially in extreme heat waves. The results show that urban land use characteristics that have evolved over the past ~20 years in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area have had a significant impact on the extreme temperatures occurring during extreme heat events. Simulations show that new urban development has caused an intensification and expansion of the areas experiencing extreme heat waves with an average increase in temperature of approximately 0.60°C. This change is most obvious at night with an increase up to 0.95°C, for which the total contribution of anthropogenic heat is 34%. We also simulate the effects of geo-engineering strategies increasing the albedo of urban roofs. White roofs reflect a large fraction of incoming sunlight in the daytime, which reduced the net radiation so that the roof surface keep at a lower temperature than regular solar-absorptive roofs. Urban net radiation decreases by approximately 200 W m-2 at local noon because of high solar reflectance of white roofs, which cools the daytime urban temperature afer sunrise, with the largest decrease of almost -0.80

  10. Suburbanization: A Post World War II Phenomenon in the Athens Metropolitan Area, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Rontos, Kostas; Mavroudis, Christos; Georgiadis, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    This article studies the phases of urban development in Athens, the biggest metropolitan center of the country, in combination with the development of the Greek economy during the post world war II era, by applying techniques suggested by the theory of spatial cycle. Before application, an extended reference to the theoretical background will be presented, so that a comprehensive view of the spatial cycle hypothesis is established. Á short historical analysis of the Greek economy will also be...

  11. Effects of a power shortage in the Tokyo metropolitan area on awareness of nuclear power generation and power savings behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shutdown of a number of nuclear power stations of the Tokyo Electric Power Company in the summer of 2003 caused a power shortage problem in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. To examine the effects of the power shortage, in September 2003 a survey was conducted in the service areas of the Kansai Electric Power Company (Kansai region) and the Tokyo Electric Power Company (Kanto region). This survey was part of a wider opinion survey begun in 1993 concerning nuclear power generation. The results of the September 2003 survey are as follows: The degree of recognition of the power shortage problem in the Metropolitan area was high, with 40% of respondents in the Kansai region and nearly 70% in the Kanto region understanding that the shortage was caused by the shutdown of several nuclear power station. The overall awareness of nuclear power generation was little affected in both the Kansai and Kanto regions, though the sense of a shortage of the generating capacity had been raised slightly. Once respondents knew about the power shortage problem, they estimated the likelihood of an occurrence of large-scale service interruption to be low, nearly at an even chance, and they had been only slightly worried about it, essentially viewing the problem optimistically. In the Kanto region, where public relations activities for power savings had been actively pursued, the frequency of experiencing exposure to such public relations activities was remarkably higher than in the Kansai region. The relation between exposure to public relations activities for power savings and power savings behavior was analyzed using quantification method II. Analysis results suggest that public relations activities for power savings in the Kanto region had the effect of urging power savings behavior. However, the difference in the rate of putting power savings behavior into practice was small between the Kanto and Kansai regions, indicating that public relation activities for power savings in the Kanto

  12. A low cost Mobile Network System for monitoring climate and air quality of urban areas at high resolution: a preliminary application in Florence (IT) metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibari, Camilla; Moriondo, Marco; Matese, Alessandro; Sabatini, Francesco; Trombi, Giacomo; Zaldei, Alessandro; Bindi, Marco

    2013-04-01

    The combination of the "Heat island effect" coupled with higher frequencies of extreme events (e.g. heat waves) due to climate change is of great concern for human health in urban areas. Anomalies of summer 2003, mentioned as possible typical climate for the near future summers (Schär et al., 2004), caused about 7,000 deaths in Italy and over 35,000 in the whole Europe. Furthermore, more than 50% of world's population is living in urban areas and, given the unprecedented urbanization rate that is expected in the next future, cities will likely be exposed to a growing environmental pressure in the following decades. Accordingly, climate monitoring of urban areas is gradually becoming a key element of planning that cannot be disregarded for an efficient public health management and for the development of a city scale Heat Waves Warning System tool, which is based on meteorological forecast of both air temperatures and humidity at a synoptic scale (Pascal et al., 2006). Building on these premises, a low cost Mobile Weather Station (MWS), to be placed on urban public transport, has been assembled. This mobile station logs every minute both meteorological variables (i.e. temperature and air humidity) and air quality parameters (i.e. atmospheric CO2 concentration and noise detection); the geographical position of each MWS's measurement is also recorded thanks to the built-in GPS antenna. The system, equipped with a data logger for data storage based on the open-source hardware platform Arduino, can also transmit data in real time via GPRS. The quality of meteorological and environmental data acquired by MWS was evaluated both on pre-existing steady meteorological stations of the metropolitan area of Florence (Petralli et al., 2010), and on professional research-grade data logger (Campbell CR800), logging air temperature in a non-aspirated shield by means of sensors at fast (thermocouple) and slower (digital) time response. Two prototypes of stations were thus designed

  13. Persistent Organic Pollutants and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soil from the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta-García, Sandra Teresa; Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles Catalina; Carrizalez-Yáñez, Leticia; Varela-Silva, José Antonio; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia Guadalupe; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Guzmán-Mar, Jorge Luis; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE), and four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, and lead) in outdoor surface soils (50 samples) collected from the metropolitan area of Monterrey in Mexico. Total PBDEs levels ranged from 1.80 to 127 µg/kg, with mean total PBDEs level of 14.2 ± 21.5 µg/kg (geometric mean ± standard deviation). For PCBs, the mean total level in the studied soils was 23.5 ± 20.2 µg/kg (range 4.0-65.5 µg/kg). An important finding in our study was that all soil samples (100 %) had detectable levels of the metabolite p,p'-DDE. Moreover, the mean total DDT level (∑p'p-DDT and p'p-DDE) was approximately 132 ± 175 µg/kg. The mean levels for arsenic, cadmium, and lead in soil were 5.30 ± 1.35 (range 1.55-7.85) mg/kg, 2.20 ± 1.20 (range 0.65-6.40) mg/kg, and 455 ± 204 (range 224-1230) mg/kg, respectively. Our study has several limitations, the most notable of which is the small sample of soils evaluated. However, this screening study provided concentration data for the occurrence of POPs and four heavy metals in soil from the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and taking into consideration that soil is an important pathway of exposure for people, a biomonitoring program for the surveillance of the general population in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon is deemed necessary. PMID:26577448

  14. Cost-Benefit Analysis applied to the natural gas program for vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburra Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the evaluation of the natural gas program for vehicles applied in Metropolitan Area of the Aburra Valley. By using the Cost- Benefit Analysis method, four cost variables were identified: private, fiscal, gas tax, and conversion tax; and three types of benefits: private, fiscal and social. For the environmental social benefit estimation the benefit transfer technique was employed, carrying out meta-analysis function estimation. The cost-benefit net outcome is positive and favors the program application in the study site; in real terms the total profits are about COP$ 803265 million for the complete eight year period it took place (2001- 2008).

  15. Estimated atmospheric emissions from biodiesel and characterization of pollutants in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre-RS

    OpenAIRE

    Elba C. Teixeira; Mattiuzi, Camila D. P.; Sabrina Feltes; Flavio Wiegand; Eduardo R.R. Santana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to estimate emissions of some pollutants (CO, NOX, HC, SOX, and PM) in diesel fleet due to the addition of biodiesel in different blends, as well as to assess atmospheric pollutant concentrations in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre (MAPA). The methodology was based on inventories from mobile sources based on US EPA's technical report. Regarding air quality the following parameters were determined: PM10, PM2.5, CO, NOX, O3, SO2, HC and PAHs. The result...

  16. Multielement neutron activation analysis of human scalp hair a local population survey in the Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applying instrumental neutron activation analysis, multielement analysis of human hair was carried out to elucidate the levels of various trace element concentrations in hair of local population in the Tokyo metropolitan area. 202 hair samples were collected from the inhabitants classified by sex and five age groups. Using several combinations of irradiation time, cooling time and counting time, forty elements were quantitatively analyzed. The method of analysis for data including samples under detection limit is discussed, assuming that the frequency distribution of trace element contents in hair is log-normal. (author)

  17. Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M.; Gabersek, S.; Gartland, L.

    1997-05-01

    Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, thus they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typical roofs in the United States are dark, which creates a potential for savings energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. In this report, the authors make quantitative estimates of the impact of roof color by simulating prototypical buildings with light- and dark-colored roofs and calculating savings by taking the differences in annual cooling and heating energy use, and peak electricity demand. Monetary savings are calculated using local utility rates. Savings are estimated for 11 U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in a variety of climates.

  18. A mobile X-POL weather radar for hydrometeorological applications in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Filho, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first mobile X-band dual-polarization Doppler weather radar termed MXPOL operated by the Laboratory of Hydrometeorology (LABHIDRO) of the University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. It is used in graduate and under graduate courses, real-time monitoring and nowcasting of severe weather in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP). It is one of the first of its kind to be used operationally to provide real-time high spatial resolution polarimetric data. MXPOL is an impo...

  19. Public-health impact of outdoor air pollution for 2nd air pollution management policy in Seoul metropolitan area, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Leem, Jong Han; Kim, Soon Tae; Kim, Hwan Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Air pollution contributes to mortality and morbidity. We estimated the impact of outdoor air pollution on public health in Seoul metropolitan area, Korea. Attributable cases of morbidity and mortality were estimated. Methods Epidemiology-based exposure-response functions for a 10 μg/m3 increase in particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) were used to quantify the effects of air pollution. Cases attributable to air pollution were estimated for mortality (adults ≥ 30 years), respiratory a...

  20. The Area and Population of Cities: New Insights from a Different Perspective on Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Rozenfeld, Hernan; Gabaix, Xavier; Makse, Hernan A

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of the population of cities has attracted a great deal of attention, in part because it sharply constrains models of local growth. However, to this day, there is no consensus on the distribution below the very upper tail, because available data need to rely on the "legal" rather than "economic" definition of cities for medium and small cities. To remedy this difficulty, in this work we construct cities "from the bottom up" by clustering populated areas obtained from high-resolution data. This method allows us to investigate the population and area of cities for urban agglomerations of all sizes using clustering methods from percolation theory. We find that Zipf's law (a power law with exponent close to 1) for population holds for cities as small as 12,000 inhabitants in the USA and 5,000 inhabitants in Great Britain. In addition the distribution of city areas is also close to a Zipf's law. We provide a parsimonious model with endogenous city area that is consistent with those findings.

  1. Genotoxic effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, evaluated by Helix aspersa (Mueller, 1774)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianistcki, M. [Laboratorio de Genetica Toxicologica, Department of Biology, ULBRA, Av. Farroupilha 8001, Pr. 14/Sala 218, Bairro Sao Jose, CEP 92425-900 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Dallarosa, J. [Laboratorio de Ecologia, UFRGS (Brazil); Sauer, C.; Teixeira, C.E. [Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler, FEPAM, RS (Brazil); Silva, J. da, E-mail: juliana.silva@ulbra.b [Laboratorio de Genetica Toxicologica, Department of Biology, ULBRA, Av. Farroupilha 8001, Pr. 14/Sala 218, Bairro Sao Jose, CEP 92425-900 Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to biomonitor metropolitan areas of Porto Alegre (Brazil) for PAHs associated with atmospheric particles and check their effects on the DNA of the land mollusk Helix aspersa. The sampling sites are located in an urban area with heavy traffic: (i) Canoas, (ii) Sapucaia do Sul, and (iii) FIERGS/Porto Alegre. The samples were collected during a continuous period of 24 hours during 15 days using Stacked Filter Units (SFU) on polycarbonate filters (two separated size fractions: PM{sub 10-2.5} and PM{sub <2.5}). The concentrations of 16 major PAHs were determined according to EPA. Comet assay on H. aspersa hemolymph cells was chosen for genotoxicity evaluation. This evaluation shows that, in general, the smaller PM-size fractions (PM{sub <2.5}) have the highest genotoxicity and contain higher concentrations of extractable organic matter. In addition, associations between chemical characteristics and PM carcinogenicity tend to be stronger for the smaller PM-size fractions. - DNA damage in H. aspersa exposed to atmospheric particulate in Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre demonstrated association with PAHs in the fine filter (PM{sub <2.5}).

  2. Genotoxic effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, evaluated by Helix aspersa (Mueller, 1774)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to biomonitor metropolitan areas of Porto Alegre (Brazil) for PAHs associated with atmospheric particles and check their effects on the DNA of the land mollusk Helix aspersa. The sampling sites are located in an urban area with heavy traffic: (i) Canoas, (ii) Sapucaia do Sul, and (iii) FIERGS/Porto Alegre. The samples were collected during a continuous period of 24 hours during 15 days using Stacked Filter Units (SFU) on polycarbonate filters (two separated size fractions: PM10-2.5 and PM). The concentrations of 16 major PAHs were determined according to EPA. Comet assay on H. aspersa hemolymph cells was chosen for genotoxicity evaluation. This evaluation shows that, in general, the smaller PM-size fractions (PM) have the highest genotoxicity and contain higher concentrations of extractable organic matter. In addition, associations between chemical characteristics and PM carcinogenicity tend to be stronger for the smaller PM-size fractions. - DNA damage in H. aspersa exposed to atmospheric particulate in Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre demonstrated association with PAHs in the fine filter (PM).

  3. Corrosion restraint synergism evaluation of polyurethane duplex coating system: a case study for various anthropogenic and metropolitan sites of karachi city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polyurethane duplex coating system (Electrogalvanized Mild Steel/Etch Primer/Epoxy-Polyamide Primer/Polyurethane Topcoat System) was studied to ascertain preservation of electrogalvanized mild steel (EGMS) at various anthropogenic and metropolitan sites of Karachi city while accelerated salt spray test was also carried out for reference. Performance of coating system was examined by visual morphological inspection, gloss measurements, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and by oxygen-carbon ratio techniques. Measured data was statistically analyzed through principal component analysis and explained a variance of 99.59 % when two components were considered. SEM micrographs have depicted that anthropogenic and metropolitan sites testing had induced sever depletion of coating surface features as compared to accelerated salt spray testing which may be probably due to the salt-laden winds of Karachi coastal city and corrosive constituents incorporated in atmospheres from industrial and automobiles exhaust. These results were also coinciding with other findings of EDX and FTIR spectroscopy techniques. Comparison of these results on EGMS with our previous study of polyurethane coating system applied on mild steel, revealed earlier photodegradation of the polyurethane coating systems applied on mild steel in anthropogenic sites exposure testing i.e. oxygen/carbon ratios were higher for the coating systems applied on mild steel as established by Energy dispersive X-ray analysis. (author)

  4. A comparison between developed and developing countries in terms of urban land use change effects on nitrogen cycle: Paris and São Paulo metropolitan areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardoto, Gabriela; Svirejeva-Hopkin, Anastasia; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Urbanization is considered one of the most powerful and characteristic anthropogenic forces on Earth in the 21st century. Although, currently, cities occupy only about 2 percent of the Earth's land surface, they are home to over 50 percent of the world's population. While in cities of some developed countries, urban population might stabilize or even slightly decrease, its rate of growth in developing countries is faster than in the industrialized nations. Such increase is accompanied by growing energy production, increased food demand, expanding transportation and industrialization. Although agricultural production is by far the largest cause of the doubling in the amount of reactive nitrogen entering the biospheric cycle compared to pre-industrial conditions, nowadays more than half of the crops produced in rural areas are consumed in urban zones. Having in mind that there is a clear global trend towards urbanization and growing urban areas, the objective of this study was to compare major nitrogen fluxes between a mega city situated in a developing country (São Paulo Metropolitan Area - SPMA) in Brazil with one of the largest city of highly industrialized Europe (Paris Metropolitan Area - PMA). We make the first step in producing a detailed N mass balance for the SPMA and PMA in order to estimate the magnitude of major fluxes across the urban landscape and see how N cycling vary among urban system components. This effort may help to highlight differences between developing and developed areas and subsidize the formulation of public policies towards reduction of N related pollution of recipient systems. The N mass balance showed the SPMA as a net source of nitrogen, emitting in total about 93.5 Gg of N per year, or about 4750 g of N per capita. Most N inputs to the SPMA are directly related to food consumption, N in wastewater and landfills. These fluxes are quite amendable to management efforts to reduce N input to the receiver component of the urban ecosystem

  5. Drivers of land cover and land use changes in St. Louis metropolitan area over the past 40 years characterized by remote sensing and census population data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaitijiang, Maitiniyazi; Ghulam, Abduwasit; Sandoval, J. S. Onésimo; Maimaitiyiming, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we explored the spatial and temporal patterns of land cover and land use (LCLU) and population change dynamics in the St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area. The goal of this paper was to quantify the drivers of LCLU using long-term Landsat data from 1972 to 2010. First, we produced LCLU maps by using Landsat images from 1972, 1982, 1990, 2000, and 2010. Next, tract level population data of 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 were converted to 1-km square grid cells. Then, the LCLU maps were integrated with basic grid cell data to represent the proportion of each land cover category within a grid cell area. Finally, the proportional land cover maps and population census data were combined to investigate the relationship between land cover and population change based on grid cells using Pearson's correlation coefficient, ordinary least square (OLS), and local level geographically weighted regression (GWR). Land cover changes in terms of the percentage of area affected and rates of change were compared with population census data with a focus on the analysis of the spatial-temporal dynamics of urban growth patterns. The correlation coefficients of land cover categories and population changes were calculated for two decadal intervals between 1970 and 2010. Our results showed a causal relationship between LCLU changes and population dynamics over the last 40 years. Urban sprawl was positively correlated with population change. However, the relationship was not linear over space and time. Spatial heterogeneity and variations in the relationship demonstrate that urban sprawl was positively correlated with population changes in suburban area and negatively correlated in urban core and inner suburban area of the St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area. These results suggest that the imagery reflects processes of urban growth, inner-city decline, population migration, and social spatial inequality. The implications provide guidance for sustainable urban

  6. State and Metropolitan Area Impacts of the Offshore Outsourcing of Business Services and IT

    OpenAIRE

    Kroll, Cynthia A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact at the metropolitan level of increasing trade in white-collar economic activities. The paper first refines the definition of white-collar occupations at-risk to offshoring. Applying this definition to the national job base shows that close to 15 million people, or 11.7% of the employed labor force, are in white-collar occupations at-risk to offshoring. While not all of these jobs will be offshored, the number of jobs is of similar order of magnitude to the manu...

  7. Green and cool roofs to mitigate urban heat island effects in the Chicago metropolitan area: evaluation with a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A.; Conry, P.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Hellmann, J. J.; Chen, F.

    2016-06-01

    The effects of urban heat islands (UHIs) have a substantial bearing on the sustainability of cities and environs. This paper examines the efficacy of green and cool roofs as potential UHI mitigation strategies to make cities more resilient against UHI. We have employed the urbanized version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (uWRF) model at high (1 km) resolution with physically-based rooftop parameterization schemes (conventional, green and cool), a first-time application to the Chicago metropolitan area. We simulated a hot summer period (16–18 August 2013) and assessed (i) UHI reductions for different urban landuse with green/cool roofs, (ii) the interaction of lake breeze and UHI, and (iii) diurnal boundary layer dynamics. The performance of uWRF was evaluated using sensible heat flux and air temperature measurements from an urban mini-field campaign. The simulated roof surface energy balance captured the energy distribution with respective rooftop algorithms. Results showed that daytime roof temperature reduced and varied linearly with increasing green roof fractions, from less than 1 °C for the case of 25% green roof to ∼3 °C during peak daytime for 100% green roof. Diurnal transitions from land to lake breeze and vice versa had a substantial impact on the daytime cycle of roof surface UHI, which had a 3–4 hour lag in comparison to 2 m UHI. Green and cool roofs reduced horizontal and vertical wind speeds and affected lower atmosphere dynamics, including reduced vertical mixing, lower boundary layer depth, and weaker convective rolls. The lowered wind speeds and vertical mixing during daytime led to stagnation of air near the surface, potentially causing air quality issues. The selection of green and cool roofs for UHI mitigation should therefore carefully consider the competing feedbacks. The new results for regional land-lake circulations and boundary layer dynamics from this study may be extended to other urbanized areas, particularly to coastal

  8. Cause or Consequence?: Suburbanization and Crime in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargowsky, Paul A.; Park, Yoonhwan

    2009-01-01

    Inner-city crime is a motivating factor for middle-class flight. Therefore, crime is a cause of suburbanization. Movement of the middle and upper classes to the suburbs, in turn, isolates the poor in central-city ghettos and barrios. Sociologists and criminologists have argued that the concentration of poverty creates an environment within which…

  9. The land-use of Bandung, its density, overcrowded area and public facility toward a compact city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramita, B.

    2016-04-01

    The concept of a compact city has been introduced since 1973. It is a utopian vision largely driven by a desire to see more efficient uses of resources. In 1980s, the reconfiguration of the physical urban form of metropolitan areas was increasingly debated by both theorists and practitioners. Recently, the concept of a compact city has been more focused on developed countries in which the population tends to decrease. However, in Asia, except Japan which contains many dense cities, it has become a concept which promotes relatively high residential density with mixed land uses, though rather only in population and density. This paper addresses the land-use of Bandung that having the density over 14,000 people/km2, which has been so much potential toward a compact city. Somehow, unprepared ness of urban planning and regulation, the city seemed overwrought to serve its inhabitants. This condition is shown from the demographic condition, especially population density in Bandung based on its sub areas of the city (SWK). The stack of public facilities in a certain district has led the concentration of density and activity, which finally raising the slum and overcrowded settlement. Finally, this paper explores the implications of land use management and describes challenges faced and possible approaches, especially in land-use management strategies to be implemented in Bandung.

  10. AMBIENT HYDROCARBONS IN THE HOUSTON METROPOLITAN AREA DURING TEXAQS 2000: AN IDENTIFICATION OF UNUSUAL FEATURES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KLEINMAN, L.I.; DAUM P.H.

    2004-11-01

    Houston's ozone problem has been linked to the occurrence of very high light olefin concentrations. We have analyzed the DOE G-1 aircraft hydrocarbon data set to provide additional information on the geographic distribution and prevalence of air samples with high olefin concentration as well as an identification of other compounds which contribute to the high hydrocarbon reactivity in Houston. In order to identify high concentrations we need a definition of normal. For that purpose we use aircraft samples collected during a 1999 aircraft based field campaign in Philadelphia relying on the circumstance that the frequency distributions of NO{sub x} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} in Philadelphia are nearly the same as in Houston. Comparison is made also with hydrocarbons collected in Phoenix which exhibit nearly the same NO{sub x} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} frequency distribution as the other 2 cities, but in spite of that similarity have a much lower hydrocarbon reactivity. As in other studies we find that there is a subset of Houston hydrocarbon samples with very high OH-reactivity due to elevated concentrations of ethylene, propylene and less often butenes, including 1,3 butadiene. Although these samples stand out as being qualitatively different we present evidence that ethylene and propylene are significantly elevated in at least half of the Houston samples, covering a wide geographic area apart from the Ship Channel region. Frequency distributions for these compounds are log normal suggesting that Houston's atmosphere is a single entity rather than separate industrial and urban areas. The comparison between Houston and Philadelphia also identifies C{sub 2}-C{sub 5} alkanes, n-hexane, and benzene as having elevated concentrations. Emission reductions of these less reactive compounds sufficient to yield the concentrations observed in Philadelphia would have a minor effect on the most reactive samples, but about a 20% effect on samples with more typical (median

  11. LCA of road infrastructure in Mexico City.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales Carreon, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a major problem in metropolitan areas and Mexico City is no exception. Located in a pollutant-trapping valley, Mexico City (one of the largest cities in the world) is famous for its size, its history, and the warmth of its people. Nev

  12. Comparative study of bird communities in green areas of the Porto Alegre metropolitan region, South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fischer Barcellos dos Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to compare the bird richness and composition among different urban green areas in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre. Data on the composition of species in 14 green areas were collected from the literature. Similarity analysis (Jaccard’s was used to compare the areas in relation to bird composition. We used multiple regression analysis in addition to the stepwise method in order to establish whether bird richness in the urban green areas was influenced by the following factors: dimension, variety of habitats, area and distance of the nearest neighbor. Our data compilation registered 224 bird species in the consulted areas. Jaccard’s analysis showed that larger green areas are more similar in their composition of bird species than smaller ones. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated positive correlations between bird richness and the analyzed factors (except for distance between areas. We concluded that, despite the importance of small green areas to certain bird species, larger ones with higher habitat heterogeneity are able to support significant bird richness, and that these areas are important to the maintenance of many bird species in urban areas.

  13. Studying the Multilingual City: A GIS-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselinova, Ljuba Nikolova; Booza, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Work in two distinct disciplines, urban geography and sociolinguistics, readily points out the multiethnic and multilingual character of metropolitan areas. However, there is still demand for studies which establish the language structure of modern cities. For the purposes of this pilot study, we focus on the Detroit Metropolitan Area (DMA),…

  14. Polycentric Metropolitan Form: Application of a ‘Northern’ Concept in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Romein; Otto Verkoren; Ana María Fernandez

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid 20th century, large urban areas in advanced economies have experienced a fundamental transformation from relatively compact monocentric cities towards more extended polycentric metropolitan areas. By now, it is being commented repeatedly, but not investigated systematically that the concept of polycentricity is also adequate to characterise recent metropolitan dynamics in Latin-America.This paper aims to present a few key-issues for a future research agenda into polycentricity i...

  15. 2000~2010年南京都市区人口空间变动特征研究%The Features of Population Redistribution of Nanjing Metropolitan Area in 2000-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾文; 张小林; 向梨丽; 王亚华

    2016-01-01

    illustrates that a polycentric structure has been formed initial-ly in Nanjing metropolitan area, but the population still concentrates to the main center prominently, which is different from other Chinese cities. Both the polycentric and monocentric models have good fitting results re-flects that the polycentric structure is not ripe yet compared with western cities. The analysis of population spa-tial variability reflects that the population heterogeneity has increased and population distribution is more and more complicated, both of which illustrate that the metropolitan area has been developing to a higher stage. On the basis of keeping the urban center livable and efficient through moderate aggregation, guiding people mov-ing to the suburb and making the city form ripe polycentric structure may be the optimal way to develop the large cities of China in the future.

  16. Trends in primary surgical and radiation therapy for localized breast cancer in the detroit metropolitan area 1973-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this report is to describe trends in primary surgical and radiation therapy for localized breast cancer from 1973 through 1992 among residents of the Detroit Metropolitan area. Methods and Materials: Data on surgical and radiation therapy procedures for women with local stage breast cancer were obtained from the population-based Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System (MDCSS). Results: Women age 75 years and older were treated less aggressively than younger women (< age 75) as evidenced by higher rates of simple mastectomy or no treatment among older women. Younger women (< age 75) were more likely to have had optimal breast conservation therapy which consisted of partial mastectomy, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), and radiation therapy, than were women who were older than 75. Partial mastectomy has increased proportionally from 4% of all breast cancer surgeries in the time period 1973 to 1977, to 39% of all surgeries from 1988 through 1992. Conclusion: A marked difference in surgical treatment of breast cancer exists for younger vs. older women. Despite changes in surgical treatment trends for breast cancer, a large proportion of women who are candidates for conservative therapy continue to undergo mastectomy

  17. An Analytic Network Process approach for siting a municipal solid waste plant in the Metropolitan Area of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés-Beltrán, Pablo; Pastor-Ferrando, Juan Pascual; García-García, Fernando; Pascual-Agulló, Amadeo

    2010-05-01

    In this paper the Analytic Network Process (ANP) is applied to select the best location for the construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) plant in the Metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain). Selection of the appropriate MSW facility location can be viewed as a complex multicriteria decision-making problem that requires an extensive evaluation process of the potential MSW plant locations and other factors as diverse as economic, technical, legal, social or environmental issues. The decision-making process includes the identification of six candidate MSW plant sites and 21 criteria grouped into clusters for the construction of a network. Two technicians of the Metropolitan Waste Disposal Agency acted as decision makers (DMs). The influences between the elements of the network were identified and analyzed using the ANP multicriteria decision method. Two different ANP models were used: one hierarchy model (that considers AHP as a particular case of ANP) and another network-based model. The results obtained in each model were compared and analyzed. The strengths and weaknesses of ANP as a multicriteria decision analysis tool are also described in the paper. The main findings of this research have proved that ANP is a useful tool to help technicians to make their decision process traceable and reliable. Moreover, this approach helps DMs undertake a sound reflection of the siting problem. PMID:20080331

  18. Looking for the role of nature experiences in planning and decision making: a perspective from the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija Faehnle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Public experiences of everyday environments influence well-being and quality of life and effective planning for these environments can promote social sustainability. This article discusses how residents’ values related to urban nature areas are as important as ecological and technical issues and can inform urban nature planning and decision making. We first provide a generic review of residents’ values and meanings regarding urban nature. We then outline practices for obtaining data on these values and meanings and present examples from the Helsinki (Finland Metropolitan Area. The article concludes with a discussion of the challenges that nature experiences bring to planning and decision making and highlights why and how insights generated as a result of residents’ participation should be included in the knowledge base for planning decisions.

  19. A modelling system for predicting urban air pollution: model description and applications in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a modelling system for evaluating the traffic volumes, emissions from stationary and vehicular sources, and atmospheric dispersion of pollution in an urban area. The dispersion modelling is based on combined application of the urban dispersion modelling system (UDM-FMI) and the road network dispersion model (CAR-FMI). The system includes also a meteorological preprocessing model and a statistical and graphical analysis of the computed time series of concentrations. The modelling system contains a method, which allows for the chemical interaction of pollutants, originating from a large number of urban sources. This paper presents an overview of the modelling system and its application for estimating the NOx and NO2 concentrations in the Helsinki metropolitan area in 1993. A companion paper addresses comparison of model predictions with the results of an urban measurement network. This modelling system is an important regulatory assessment tool for the national environmental authorities. (author)

  20. The contribution of vehicular emission to the atmospheric concentrations of carbon compounds in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M.; Fornaro, A.; Miranda, R.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Freitas, E. D.; LAPAt-Laboratorio de Analise dos Processos Atmosfericos

    2013-05-01

    It is recognized that megacities have regional and global effects on climate, and that aerosols and Green House Gases (GHG) constitute the principal tracer of those effects. Such is the case in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), one of the largest mega-cities in the world. MASP has a population of almost 20 million inhabitants. The main source of air pollution is the transport sector. In this region, there are approximately 6.5 million passenger cars and commercial vehicles: 85% light duty, 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (diesel + 3% bio-diesel) and 12% motorcycles. Of the light duty vehicle, approximately 55% burn a mixture (v/v) of 78% gasoline with 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), 4% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), 38% flexible fuel vehicles capable of burning both gasohol as hydrated ethanol, and 2% use diesel. In average 50% of the fuel used in MASP is ethanol what brings the necessity of more studies to understand the formation of photochemical oxidants and secondary particles. According to the São Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency, 97% of carbon monoxide (CO), 85% of hydrocarbons (HC), 82% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 36% of sulfur dioxide emitted, and 36% of all inhalable particulate matter (PM10) are emitted by the vehicular fleet. Concerning particles, 75% of the Fine Particle Concentration is related to the burning of fuel, mainly diesel. The fine particles are composed of Organic Carbon (40%), Black Carbon (30%), ions (15%) and metals. It is known that the soot is warming the climate and is important to the radiative balance. Another important driver to the radiative balance, the CO2 is mainly emitted by the transport sector, which is responsible for 57% of its emission. A comprehensive project under development has the objective of determine the role of MASP as the source of gaseous and particle compounds to the atmosphere of the region and in a mesoscale perspective. The project with funding from the São Paulo

  1. Mountain Land Use Planning of Metropolitan Suburbs: the Case of the Jinyun Mountain and Its Surrounding area, Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jingan; WEI Chaofu; XIE Deti

    2005-01-01

    Open space of metropolitan suburbs in mountain region, has been increasingly becoming the coupling mosaic structure of industrial actions and landscape behaviors. However, the local governments, when making land use planning, often aim at economic development, and rarely refer to the coordination of compatibilities and conflicts between industrial actions and landscape behaviors in the mosaic structure. In this study land use in the Jinyun Mountain and its surrounding area, Chongqing is adjusted by gray multi-objective programming approach and local-level decision-making process to cope with conflicts between objectives for human welfare and objectives for landscape conservation. The results indicate that: 1) the compatibilities and conflicts among different behavior characters and different landscape types result in the compatibilities of landscape to human behavior; 2) a land use planning in the study area is produced based on the sustainable land use and social-eco development, which pays more attention to the resources and environment constraints and economic objectives, and follows the distribution law of rare resources; 3) in the study area, cultivated land of 1,207.27 ha can meet the demands for food and byproducts by the residents there, orchard land and forestland of 632.55 ha, 2,276.61 ha, respectively can provide enough space for the local people to improve their living structure and meet their demands for recreational activities, and urban residential land, rural residential land, mining land and transportation land of 1,107.60 ha, 120.27 ha, 162.48 ha, 100.91 ha, respectively can satisfy the resident's economic development and infrastructures; 4) the equilibrium among industrial actions, landscape accessibility and ecological conservation can be obtained by analyzing the possible impacts of human activities on landscape ecological process in open space of metropolitan suburbs in mountain areas.

  2. Evaluation of multielement in serum of healthy population of the metropolitan area of the state of Rio de Janeiro by TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of multielemental concentrations in physiological fluids is of considerable interest in clinical chemistry. Since it has been established this levels in human serum can be utilized as indicators for several pathological conditions. The multielement composition determination in human serum is important for the investigation of their role in human physiology and metabolism. From this research, more detailed studies on the health of individuals living in the metropolitan region of the state of Rio de Janeiro can be realized in order to improve the quality of life of these individuals. We studied three hundred and sixty healthy volunteers (162 males and 198 females) aged 18 to 60 years old. All the serum samples had been collected of people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. The measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline at the Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a monochromatic beam with maximum energy of 20 keV for the excitation and an Ultra-LEGe detector with resolution of 148 eV at 5.9 keV. Standards solutions with Vanadium and Galium (Internal standards) were prepared for the calibration system. It was possible to determine the elemental concentrations of the following eleven elements: Na, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. (author)

  3. Evaluation of multielement in serum of healthy population of the metropolitan area of the state of Rio de Janeiro by TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: c.canellas@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.br [Instituto Estadual de Hematologia Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu, E-mail: roberta@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Bellido, Alfredo Victor B., E-mail: alfredo@ien.gov.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2013-07-01

    The determination of multielemental concentrations in physiological fluids is of considerable interest in clinical chemistry. Since it has been established this levels in human serum can be utilized as indicators for several pathological conditions. The multielement composition determination in human serum is important for the investigation of their role in human physiology and metabolism. From this research, more detailed studies on the health of individuals living in the metropolitan region of the state of Rio de Janeiro can be realized in order to improve the quality of life of these individuals. We studied three hundred and sixty healthy volunteers (162 males and 198 females) aged 18 to 60 years old. All the serum samples had been collected of people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. The measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline at the Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a monochromatic beam with maximum energy of 20 keV for the excitation and an Ultra-LEGe detector with resolution of 148 eV at 5.9 keV. Standards solutions with Vanadium and Galium (Internal standards) were prepared for the calibration system. It was possible to determine the elemental concentrations of the following eleven elements: Na, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. (author)

  4. Predictors of cadmium and lead concentrations in the blood of residents from the metropolitan area of Athens (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellari, Aikaterini; Karavoltsos, Sotirios; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Dedoussis, George; Chrysohoou, Christina; Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael

    2016-10-15

    The Cd and Pb blood contents of healthy adult subjects who are non-occupationally exposed and living in the metropolitan area of Athens (Greece) have not been assessed thus far. Additionally, Greeks rank first among EU27 in terms of smoking habits. To fill the existing gap, we aimed to evaluate the predictors and propose reference values (RVs) of the Cd (CdB) and Pb (PbB) blood concentrations in residents of the metropolitan area of Athens (Greece). Age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, educational status and nutritional habits were used as variables, with an emphasis on smoking. CdB and PbB determinations were performed directly by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the appropriate dilution of the samples with Triton-X-100. The RVs of CdB and PbB proposed for the general adult population of the Metropolitan area of Athens, Greece (upper limit of the 95% CI of the 95th percentile of the distribution of values), were 2.3 and 88μgL(-1) (P95: 1.8 and 77μgL(-1); 95% CI (P95): 1.5-2.3 and 70-88μgL(-1)), respectively. Males had a higher median CdB (0.69μgL(-1)) than females (0.55μgL(-1)). Subjects aged <40years had a lower median CdB (0.51μgL(-1)) than the elderly (≥60years; 0.60μgL(-1)). The CdB in smokers (1.2μgL(-1)) was almost threefold higher than in non-smokers (0.46μgL(-1)). The PbB levels were higher in males (31μgL(-1)) than females (20μgL(-1)). Subjects aged <40years had a lower median PbB (17μgL(-1)) than the elderly (≥60years; 32μgL(-1)). A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the predictor variables for the CdB levels were the standardized beta weight, smoking, age, alcohol consumption, and intake of leafy vegetables, whereas for the PbB levels they were sex and age. PMID:27295597

  5. Evolution of industrial wastewater pollution in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area; Evolucion de la contaminacion industrial en las aguas residuales del area metropolitana de Barcelona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantecon Pascual, R.

    2005-07-01

    The Environmental Agency of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area has full powers regarding sewerage. Industrial wastewater emptied into the public sewer system has been monitored and analysed since 1988. the data showing the evolution of the pollution in industrial wastewater are presented, broken down by activities and parameters. These data are based on the analysis of 14,528 samples taken during 19,555 inspections of 5,655 factories. It was found that there has been a gradual improvement in the quality of the effluents. Failure to meet the requirements concerning one or more of the physico-chemical parameters fell from 71% to 39% of the samples analysed. (Author)

  6. 基于RS与GIS重庆都市区土地利用/覆盖变化过程及预测分析%The Process and Prediction of Land Use/Cover Changes Based on RS and GIS in Metropolitan Area of Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔次芬; 李月臣; 简太敏

    2012-01-01

    With the support of GIS and RS technology and the research methods of the dynamic degree of the land use/cover changes,transfer matrix and the Markov process,this paper studies the TM data of two periods(1997 and 2006) from urban Chongqing and predicts the analysis and evolution situation of dynamic process of the land use/cover changes of urban Chongqing in future.And this study provides not only basis of land planning,management and decision,but a source of reference for sustainable development of land resources in this area.The research results reveal that the type of land use of urban district is mainly arable and forest land from 1997 to 2006,the sum of which is more than 70%.The maximum number of transferred land is arable which decrease 506.67 km2.Then with the use of Markov process,land use is inspected and predicted.From 2006 to 2024,the predicted results show that arable area decreases from 62.24% in 2006 to 52.46% in 2024,while construction land area increases from 8.99% in 2006 to 15.91% in 2024.Differently,the area change of forest,grass and water is relatively little.%以重庆都市区为例,借助GIS和RS技术,运用土地利用/覆盖类型的动态度、转移矩阵和马尔柯夫过程研究方法,以重庆都市区1997年和2006年两期的TM数据作为研究对象,对重庆都市区近年来土地利用/覆盖的动态过程分析和未来土地利用/覆盖演变趋势进行了预测。为重庆都市区的土地规划、管理和决策提供依据,同时也为该区土地资源可持续发展提供借鉴。结果表明:1997—2006年间,都市区土地利用类型主要以耕地和林地为主,两者之和占总面积的70%以上;转移数量最大的是耕地,其面积净减少506.67km2,主要转化林地和建设用地;用马尔柯夫过程对2006年土地利用进行检验与预测,总体误差范围在卡方检验范围之内;2006—2024年的预测结果耕地面积百分比从2006年的62.24%降低到2024年的52.46%;

  7. Flood risk analysis for metropolitan areas – a case study for Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Q.

    2014-01-01

    In Shanghai, the main threat to the city’s safety is a typhoon induced storm surge in combination with a high astronomic tide in the Huangpu River. Historical flood events have shown that the weakness of the floodwall, with potential overtopping and breaching along the Huangpu River and its branches, has caused great economic damage and loss of life. In order to better understand flood risk in the city, flood risk analysis at the local city level is strongly required. With climate change, lan...

  8. Courses Studied by New York Librarianship Students Affect Their Perceived Readiness for Employment. A Review of: Creel, S. L., & Pollicino, E. B. (2012). Practitioners’ & LIS students’ perceptions on preparedness in the New York metropolitan area. Education for Information, 29, 53-69. doi: 10.3233/EFI-2010-0911

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsty Thomson

    2012-01-01

    Objective – To investigate whetherlibrarianship students felt ready to enter theworkforce, and whether practitioners feltrecent graduates were suitably prepared.Design – Survey.Setting – A university in New York City, andschool and public librarians working in theNew York metropolitan area.Subjects – 55 MLS students, 167 school librarypractitioners, and 181 public librarypractitioners.Methods – Students surveyed practitionersabout new graduates’ readiness to work aslibrarians. The students al...

  9. High resolution of anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of 12 heavy metals in the three biggest metropolitan areas, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Zhu, C.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of typical toxic heavy metals from anthropogenic sources have received worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. An integrated inventory of anthropogenic emissions of twelve HMs (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) in the three biggest metropolitan areas, including Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region and Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, are developed for 1980-2012 by combining with detailed activity data and inter-annual dynamic emission factors which are determined by S-shaped curves on account of technology progress, economic development, and emission control. The results indicate total emissions of twelve HMs in the three metropolitan regions have increased from 5448.8 tons in 1980 to 19054.9 tons in 2012, with an annual average growth rate of about 4.0%. Due to significant difference in industrial structures and energy consumption compositions, remarkable distinctions can be observed with respect to source contributions of total HM emissions from above three metropolitan areas. Specifically, the ferrous metal smelting sector, coal combustion by industrial boilers and coal combustion by power plants are found to be the primary source of total HM emissions in the BTH region (about 34.2%), YRD region (about 28.2%) and PRD region (about 24.3%), respectively. Furthermore, we allocate the annual emissions of these heavy metals in 2012 at a high spatial resolution of 9 km × 9 km grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). The peak of HM emissions are mainly distributed over the grid cells of Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan, Shijiazhuang, Handan and Baoding in the BTH region; Shanghai, Suzhou, Wuxi, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Ningbo in the YRD region; Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Foshan in the PYD region, respectively. Additionally, monthly emission profiles are established in order to further identify

  10. Epidemiological aspects of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a periurban area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. A. Passos

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in a periurban area of the municipality of Sabará in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH, an area until then considered free of the disease, a cross sectional survey was undertaken in 1990. The survey of the population consisted of 1119 interviews and 881 clinical examinations using Montenegro's skin test (MST. A low prevalence (3.7% of positive MST was encountered. The disease had been occuring in the area for about 20 years in the form of sporadic cases. The predominant species of sandfly both in domestic areas and nearby areas of secondary vegetation was Lutzomyia whitmani. A canine survey of delayed hypersensitivity to the antigen P10,000 identified only one dog with a positive reaction out of 113 examined. The transmission of ACL in MRBH was confirmed. The occurrence of the disease in women, children and individuals with no contact with forest areas as well as the presence of potential vector species in the domiciliar environment, suggests the transmission of the disease in this environment.

  11. The Built Environment and Walking Activity of the Elderly: An Empirical Analysis in the Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Policies and interventions involving the built environment have become a promising opportunity for the promotion of walking as a sustainable transportation mode. Among voluminous literature, few studies were found that examined the association between the built environment and walking among the elderly in China. This study investigated the relationship between the built environment and the walking activity of the elderly based on data collected in Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China. The results suggest that abundant sidewalks, dense bus stops, easily accessible commercial establishments, and ample green land space are potentially effective to enhance walking among the elderly, albeit to varied degrees. The compact urban form, which is considered as walkability in the western context, may not necessarily play a positive role in Zhongshan’s context. The findings provide insights into the policy-making to promote sustainable transportation modes and the design of interventions on health promotion of the elderly in China.

  12. Regional monitoring of metals in the Munich metropolitan area: Comparison of biomonitoring (standardized grass culture) with deposition and airborne particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Munich metropolitan area a close association of lead (Pb) and antimony (Sb) impacts with traffic was observed in 1992 and 1993. The intercorrelation of both metals was found by samples of standardised grass cultures and was reflected by deposition sampling, too. With respect to location-specific variations, however, both methods revealed differing gradients of Pb and Sb concentrations with increasing distance from traffic. It appeared that Sb variations according to traffic implications were particularly well indicated by means of biomonitoring, while Pb variations were not indicated adequately. As a result, a special qualification of grass to selectively collect metals on airborne dust according to particle sizes was suggested. Further investigations on the correlations between metal biomonitoring, metal deposition and airborne metals in 1994 - 1996 corroborated method-specific sampling features. They in turn showed that one interference is the individual prevalence of the metals on different particle sizes. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the traffic parameters in a metropolitan area by fusing visual perceptions and CNN processing of webcam images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Alberto; Giordano, Daniela; Spampinato, Concetto

    2008-06-01

    This paper proposes a traffic monitoring architecture based on a high-speed communication network whose nodes are equipped with fuzzy processors and cellular neural network (CNN) embedded systems. It implements a real-time mobility information system where visual human perceptions sent by people working on the territory and video-sequences of traffic taken from webcams are jointly processed to evaluate the fundamental traffic parameters for every street of a metropolitan area. This paper presents the whole methodology for data collection and analysis and compares the accuracy and the processing time of the proposed soft computing techniques with other existing algorithms. Moreover, this paper discusses when and why it is recommended to fuse the visual perceptions of the traffic with the automated measurements taken from the webcams to compute the maximum traveling time that is likely needed to reach any destination in the traffic network. PMID:18541508

  14. Evaluation of chloride mass balance of pore water as an indicator of groundwater recharge to the Monterrey Metropolitan Area, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Lagarde, Laura; Pasten, Ernesto; Mora, Abrahan; Mahlknecht, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Monterrey Metropolitan Area in Nuevo Leon, Mexico, is the third largest metropolitan area and one of the most important industrial sites of Mexico. Groundwater constitutes 40% of the water supply to this urban area. This supply is under constant stress due to the population increase. The unsaturated zone at six sites along two cross-sections was characterized to evaluate the potential of chloride concentration as an indicator of recharge. The selected sites include the range of topographic elevations, vegetation, and annual precipitation of the study area. In each site, boreholes up to 5 m deep were drilled and soil was sampled every 0.5 m. The grain size of each soil sample was determined and pore water extracted to determine the water content percentage, and the chloride, sulfate and nitrate concentration of the pore water. The undersaturated zone consists of alluvial deposits with an average gravel and sand content greater than 60% for all but one of the sampling sites. The pore water content varies from 0.4 to 25% by weight with a decreasing trend as depth increases in areas with agriculture. Sulfate has the highest anion concentration in the pore waters, ranging from 42 to 45,000 mg/L and no apparent distribution pattern along the soil profile columns. Chloride concentration ranges from 8 to 3600 mg/L with an increase in concentration below 1.5 m depth in all the profiles. Chloride and sulfate concentrations with depth are directly correlated suggesting a common input, possibly dissolution-precipitation of evaporite minerals from nearby outcrops or an anthropogenic input. Hence, it is unlikely that chloride behaves as a conservative ion. As a result, its concentration is not likely to be a good indicator of groundwater recharge. Finally; the nitrate concentration ranges from 2 to 96 mg/L nitrate, without a clear pattern along the soil profiles. Low concentration of nitrate in the soil profiles below agricultural areas may suggest denitrification as suggested

  15. A high resolution 3D velocity model beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area by MeSO-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2015-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes devastating mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating serious loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 23,000 fatalities and 95 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. We have launched the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions since 2012. We analyze data from the dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), which has 296 seismic stations with spacing of 5 km (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and estimated the velocity structure and the upper boundary of PSP (Nakagawa et al., 2010). The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) has activated seismicity also in Kanto region, providing better coverage of ray paths for tomographic analysis. We obtain much higher resolution velocity models from whole dataset observed by MeSO-net between 2008 and 2015. A detailed image of tomograms shows that PSP contacts Pacific plate at a depth of 50 km beneath northern Tokyo bay. A variation of velocity along the oceanic crust suggests dehydration reaction to produce seismicity in a slab, which may related to the M7+ earthquake. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters of MEXT, Japan and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  16. Validation of Walk Score® for Estimating Neighborhood Walkability: An Analysis of Four US Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Melly

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood walkability can influence physical activity. We evaluated the validity of Walk Score® for assessing neighborhood walkability based on GIS (objective indicators of neighborhood walkability with addresses from four US metropolitan areas with several street network buffer distances (i.e., 400-, 800-, and 1,600-meters. Address data come from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5–11 years and their families participating in YMCA-administered, after-school programs located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the US (n = 733. GIS data were used to measure multiple objective indicators of neighborhood walkability. Walk Scores were also obtained for the participant’s residential addresses. Spearman correlations between Walk Scores and the GIS neighborhood walkability indicators were calculated as well as Spearman correlations accounting for spatial autocorrelation. There were many significant moderate correlations between Walk Scores and the GIS neighborhood walkability indicators such as density of retail destinations and intersection density (p < 0.05. The magnitude varied by the GIS indicator of neighborhood walkability. Correlations generally became stronger with a larger spatial scale, and there were some geographic differences. Walk Score® is free and publicly available for public health researchers and practitioners. Results from our study suggest that Walk Score® is a valid measure of estimating certain aspects of neighborhood walkability, particularly at the 1600-meter buffer. As such, our study confirms and extends the generalizability of previous findings demonstrating that Walk Score is a valid measure of estimating neighborhood walkability in multiple geographic locations and at multiple spatial scales.

  17. Tri-Cities Index of Innovation and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Richard A.; Scott, Michael J.; Butner, Ryan S.

    2011-01-17

    In 2001 and 2004, the Economic Development Office of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory published companion reports to the Washington Technology Center Index studies that provided additional information on the Tri-Cities (Kennewick-Richland-Pasco) area of the state, its technology businesses, and important advantages that the Tri-Cities have as places to live and do business. These reports also compared the Tri-Cities area to other technology-based metropolitan areas in the Pacific Northwest and nation along critical dimensions known to be important to technology firms. This report updates the material in these earlier reports, and highlights a growing Tri-Cities metropolitan area.

  18. Identification of critical areas by air pollution in the metropolitan area del Valle de Aburra, to support decision making in environmental management and territorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnosis of the air resources for the Aburra Valley Metropolitan Area (AMVA) is presented. This evaluation was made by the Energy Environment Economy Modeling and Analysis Research Group in the framework of the POMCA project. A management and territorial ordering plan for the Medellin river basin. For the development of this diagnosis it was necessary to carry out an integrated analysis of some air pollution measurements, results from emissions and in missions models and to take into account different time scales and objectives from several previous studies. One of the main results obtained from the integrated analysis was the characterization of seven areas with specific air pollution problems considering one or various pollutants such as: ozone (O3), Carbon dioxide (CO), Total particles (TSP) and particulate matter 10 (MP10). The results were supported in a geographical information system allowing the development of a system of indicators for the management of these areas.

  19. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO{sub 2} in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the {Delta}{sup 14}C in ginkgo leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.H.; Hong, W. [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no Yuseong, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Park, G., E-mail: junghun@kigam.re.kr [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no Yuseong, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, K.S.; Lee, K.H.; Kim, Y.E.; Kim, J.K.; Choi, H.W.; Kim, G.D.; Woo, H.J. [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no Yuseong, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO{sub 2} (fossil fuel CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The {Delta}{sup 14}C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO{sub 2} ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO{sub 2} over total CO{sub 2} in atmosphere), 13.9 {+-} 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  20. The Impact of Climate Change on Air Quality and Respiratory Disease: Maryland/DC Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushiva, A.; Strong, S. B.; Babin, S. M.; Paxton, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Ground level ozone, or tropospheric ozone, forms smog and becomes directly harmful to humans by exacerbating respiratory conditions, primarily asthma (Knowlton et al. 2004). As climate change progresses, increased ozone concentrations emerge as a major public health concern (Gardiner et al. 2011). Increasing ground level ozone concentrations have been directly correlated with rising temperatures (Patz et al. 2005). The projected increase in ozone concentration caused by climate induced temperature change is 1-2 ppb in 2020 and 2-7 ppb in 2050, with associated temperature increases of 1-2 degrees Fahrenheit and 2-5.5 degrees Fahrenheit, respectively (UCS, 2011). Those with existing respiratory conditions, children and the elderly, and those who spend a significant amount of time outdoors are the most sensitive to ground level ozone pollution (Schlink et al. 2006). In Maryland, there would be approximately 68,894 occurrences of acute respiratory symptoms associated with a 2 ppb climate penalty in 2020, and the total costs for health impacts associated with this would be approximately $133,398,027 (UCS, 2011). In their 2011 "State of the Air" report, the American Lung Association rated the Washington/Baltimore/Northern Virginia region as one of the 25 most ozone polluted regions nationwide (ALA, 2011). We examine asthma hospital admissions data for the Maryland/DC metropolitan region between 2005 and 2010 and identify possible correlations with the reported ozone measurements provided by the EPA (CASTNET). We examine trends between the archived temperatures from NCEP reanalysis data, the EPA ozone data, and reported asthma cases. We utilize these trends to investigate the future impact of changes in ozone concentration based on the IPCC AR4 and SRES emissions scenarios and attempt to quantify the financial burden of its implications. Visualizations from this data can serve as important educational and planning tools for decision makers in the Maryland, DC, and

  1. Comparing ozone metrics on associations with outpatient visits for respiratory diseases in Taipei Metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reported cumulative 6-day (lag 0–5 days) relative risks (RR) and confidence intervals (CI) of daily outpatient visits for total respiratory disease (RD), asthma, and chronic airway obstruction not otherwise classified (CAO) associated with three ozone metrics (daily 1-h maximum (O3,1hmax), 8-h average maximum (O3,8hmax), 24-h average (O3,24havg)), and an alternative oxidant indicator (Ox) in Taipei Metropolitan, using distributed lag non-linear models after controlling for potential confounders. The Ox showed the strongest association with outpatient visits for total RD (RR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.11) and asthma (RR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.39) in the cold season. The O3,24havg appeared to be the optimal ozone metric associating with total RD than O3,1hmax and O3,8hmax based on model selection. In conclusion, outpatient visits for total RD associated with ozone vary with ozone metrics, disease and season. -- Highlights: ► The health risk of ozone varied by RD type and by the ozone metrics applied. ► O3,24havg was a better metric to associate with outpatient visits of total RD. ► Ox most correlated with outpatient visits for total RD in the cold season. -- The O3,24havg was a better metric than O3,1hmax and O3,8hmax to associate with outpatient visits of total respiratory diseases

  2. [Migrants from bordering countries in the labor force of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, 1980-1996].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguid, A

    1997-04-01

    Data from the 1991 Argentine census indicate that migrants from neighboring countries at that date were maintaining patterns of entry into the labor force of Buenos Aires consistent with past tendencies. Migrants tended to be employed in less skilled manufacturing industries, construction, commerce, and domestic work, often filling positions rejected by the native population because of low wages and poor working conditions. Profound changes in the Argentine economy since 1991 have included rising unemployment and underemployment and a loss of productive jobs in industry and construction. A comparison of the occupational structure of migrants from neighboring countries and of the total population for the years 1980, 1991, and 1996 demonstrates that important changes in sectorial employment have occurred among both the native and immigrant populations, with the immigrant population increasingly relegated to ever smaller sectors of the labor market offering less attractive employment. Nearly half of the 841,697 persons immigrating in 1991 from countries bordering Argentina settled in the Buenos Aires metropolitan region, comprising 42.8% of foreigners in the metropolitan area and 3.7% of the total regional population. Of the population from border countries residing in Buenos Aires, 43% are Paraguayan, 28% Uruguayan, 15% Bolivian, 12% Chilean, and 2% Brazilian. The unemployment rate in Buenos Aires fluctuated between 4% and 6% during 1974-92, but it rose to 10.6% in 1993 and then to 18% in 1996. The underemployment rate rose from 4.6% in 1983 to 8.2% in 1993 and 12.6% in 1996. PMID:12321683

  3. The effect of metropolitan-area mortgage delinquency on health behaviors, access to health services, and self-rated health in the United States, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charters, Thomas J; Harper, Sam; Strumpf, Erin C; Subramanian, S V; Arcaya, Mariana; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-07-01

    The recent housing crisis offers the opportunity to understand the effects of unique indicators of macroeconomic conditions on health. We linked data on the proportion of mortgage borrowers per US metropolitan-area who were at least 90 days delinquent on their payments with individual-level outcomes from a representative sample of 1,021,341 adults surveyed through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) between 2003 and 2010. We estimated the effects of metropolitan-area mortgage delinquency on individual health behaviors, medical coverage, and health status, as well as whether effects varied by race/ethnicity. Results showed that increases in the metropolitan-area delinquency rate resulted in decreases in heavy alcohol consumption and increases in exercise and health insurance coverage. However, the delinquency rate was also associated with increases in smoking and obesity in some population groups, suggesting the housing crisis may have induced stress-related behavioral change. Overall, the effects of metropolitan-area mortgage delinquency on population health were relatively modest. PMID:27261531

  4. Simulation of Optical Packet-Switched Metropolitan Area Network%光包交换城域网的系统仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炳春; 贾潞华; 王春华; 黄肇明; 阎晓光

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces architectures of two types optical packet-switched metropolitan area networks and their media accesscontrol protocols. We have designed related network simulation systems. With these simulation systems, the characteristics and per-formance of the two MANs can be achieved.

  5. Contribution to fractal Analysis of cities : A Study of metropolitan Area of Milan

    OpenAIRE

    Rabino Giovanni; Matteo Caglioni

    2014-01-01

    La présentation de l'analyse fractale de l'aire métropolitaine de Milan part de la description historique de l'évolution du processus d'urbanisation de la ville, de manière à pouvoir mettre en évidence des zones précises, homogènes du point de vue historique, qui seront analysées dans la suite par le biais de la technique fractale. L'analyse fractale de la ville de Milan est menée selon trois approches : l'étude du périmètre de la ville, qui utilise la méthode de la dilatation pour extraire l...

  6. Contribution to fractal Analysis of cities : A Study of metropolitan Area of Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabino Giovanni

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available La présentation de l'analyse fractale de l'aire métropolitaine de Milan part de la description historique de l'évolution du processus d'urbanisation de la ville, de manière à pouvoir mettre en évidence des zones précises, homogènes du point de vue historique, qui seront analysées dans la suite par le biais de la technique fractale. L'analyse fractale de la ville de Milan est menée selon trois approches : l'étude du périmètre de la ville, qui utilise la méthode de la dilatation pour extraire le périmètre et l'analyse de corrélation pour calculer sa dimension fractale ; l'étude de la surface urbanisée dans son ensemble, qui utilise l'analyse de corrélation, de dilatation et du quadrillage ; l'étude de certaines zones de la ville qui ont été décrites dans la première partie de la présentation ; les résultats sont présentés avec une attention particulière au rapport entre la valeur de la dimension fractale et le contexte urbain pour lequel elle est calculée, ainsi qu'à la comparaison des dimensions fractales des différentes zones urbaines prises en considération.

  7. EXAMINING URBAN EXPANSION USING MULTI-TEMPORAL LANDSAT IMAGERY: A CASE STUDY OF THE MONTREAL CENSUS METROPOLITAN AREA FROM 1975 TO 2015, CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Lingfei; Zhao, He; Li, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Urban expansion, particularly the movement of residential and commercial land use to sub-urban areas in metropolitan areas, has been considered as a significant signal of regional economic development. In 1970s, the economic centre of Canada moved from Montreal to Toronto. Since some previous research have been focused on the urbanization process in Greater Toronto Area (GTA), it is significant to conduct research in its counterpart. This study evaluates urban expansion process in Montréal ce...

  8. Intestinal Parasites of Owned Dogs and Cats from Metropolitan and Micropolitan Areas: Prevalence, Zoonotic Risks, and Pet Owner Awareness in Northern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic ...

  9. Non-equilibrium dynamic simulation of spatial evolution of the polycentric structure in metropolitan areas of China%中国大都市多中心空间演化过程的非均衡动态模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛领; 翁谨

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s, cities in China have experienced a period of rapid growth in economy. In face of the increasing complexity of the urban sprawl, many big cities are planning to build new towns to avoid over-intensive population and infrastructure construction and to ease the pressure on urban centers. Some findings show that the rapid increase of the share of service industries in the local economy can raise the probability of the emergence of subcenters. This paper builds a mathematic model of spatial structure of metropolitan commerce based on the theory of New Economic Geography in old and new center scenarios. By using agent-based modeling and out-of-equilibrium simulation, the spatial structure of subcenters can be observed dynamically in different scenarios. Dynamic simulations show that: (1) Population growth in metropolitan area is conducive to subcenters which implies the commercial centers emerged in the suburban areas were mostly subjected to population pilot policy. (2) The continuous growth of demand scale and capacity depend on the formation of the polycentric structure in metropolitan areas. The capacity of consumptions has great impact on agglomeration of subcenters. (3) The greater the gap of commercial fixed input between the new and old centers is, the more imbalanced urban space distribution would be presented. It is more likely to form the core-periphery structure. If the fixed cost is reduced continuously in suburban areas, it is beneficial for the formation of subcenters and the core-periphery structure of metropolitan areas could be changed gradually. (4) Transportation is a double-edged sword. Commerce and business tend to gather in the place with location advantages, and continuous improvements in traffic condition between old and new centers in metropolitan areas will accelerate the spatial concentration in the old center. The probability of the emergence of subcenters decreases with the increase of the distance to the city center, which

  10. Uranium, radon-222 and polonium-210 in drinking waters from metropolitan area of Recife, PE, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is only scarce information on the presence of radionuclides in water for public consumption in Brazil. A recently issued federal regulation requires that waters from public supplies be screened to determine their content of alpha and beta emitters. In order to comply with this requirement the present work was carried out with the purpose of determining the concentration of natural uranium, 222 Rn and 210 Po in water supplies in the metropolitan region of Recife, Brazil. The analyses were performed in 17 points of supply of superficial water and 94 points of groundwater supply. The concentrations of uranium were determined by the fluorimetric method, whereas the liquid scintillation method was used to determine the concentration of 222 Rn. Polonium-210, on the other hand, was determined by alpha spectrometry, following its spontaneous deposition on copper disks. The water analyzer presented uranium concentrations varying from 35.3 to 1146.5 mBq/L for superficial resources and from 20.2 to 919.15 mBq/L for underground sources. The concentration of uranium in superficial water showed significant correlation with some parameters such as conductivity, alkalinity and total hardness, as well as, with the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Cl, K, SO4 and Mn. No correlation, however, was shown with the concentrations of Fe, NO2 and NO3. The concentrations of 222 Rn varied from 5.3 to 83.7 Bq/L in the groundwater analyzer. Radon concentration was not measured in superficial water due to the high emanation rate of radon in open air conditions. As far as 210 Po is concerned, the analyses showed concentrations ranging from 210 Po did not show and correlation with physico-chemical parameters. The average concentrations of uranium and 210 Po in superficial water were of 44.7 mBq/L, respectively. These values correspond to effective doses of 5.8 x 10-4 mSv/yr and 4.5 x 10-2 mSv/yr, for uranium and 210 Po, respectively. The average values for the concentrations of uranium, 222 Rn and

  11. The response of hydrophobic organics and potential toxicity in streams to urbanization of watersheds in six metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, W.L., Jr.; Goodbred, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in streams along a gradient of urban land-use intensity in and around six metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh - Durham, North Carolina; and Denver - Fort Collins, Colorado, in 2003; and Dallas - Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee - Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Portland, Oregon, in 2004 to examine relations between percent urban land cover in watersheds and the occurrence, concentrations, and potential toxicity of hydrophobic compounds. Of the 142 endpoints measured in SPMD dialysates, 30 were significantly (alpha = 0.05) related to the percent of urban land cover in the watersheds in at least one metropolitan area. These 30 endpoints included the aggregated measures of the total number of compounds detected and relative toxicity (Microtox?? and P450RGS assays), in addition to the concentrations of 27 individual hydrophobic compounds. The number of compounds detected, P450RGS assay values, and the concentrations of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were significantly related to percent urban land cover in all six metropolitan areas. Pentachloroanisole, the most frequently detected compound, was significantly related to urban land cover in all metropolitan areas except Dallas - Fort Worth. Petrogenic PAHs and dibenzofurans were positively related to percent urban land cover in Atlanta, Raleigh - Durham, Denver, and Milwaukee - Green Bay. Results for other endpoints were much more variable. The number of endpoints significantly related to urban land cover ranged from 6 in Portland to 21 Raleigh-Durham. Based on differences in the number and suite of endpoints related to urban intensity, these results provide evidence of differences in factors governing source strength, transport, and/or fate of hydrophobic compounds in the six metropolitan areas studied. The most consistent and significant results were that bioavailable, aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists increase in streams as basins become

  12. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shana; Nikulina, Valentina; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Morton, Cory; Newsome, Valerie; Gunn, Alana; Hoefinger, Heidi; Aikins, Ross; Smith, Vivian; Barry, Victoria; Downing, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion) of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846) of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group. PMID:26690813

  13. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Harris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846 of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results: While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion: Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group.

  14. 区域尺度城市增长时空动态模型及其在京津唐都市圈应用%Simulating dynamic urban expansion at regional scale in Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Metropolitan Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡文慧

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic urban expansion simulation at regional scale is one of the important research methodologies in Land Use/Cover Change (LUCC) and global environmental change influenced by urbanization. However, previous studies indicate that the single urban expansion simulation for future scenarios at local scale cannot meet the requirements for characterizing and interpreting the interactive mechanisms of regional urbanization and global environmental change. This study constructed a regional Dynamic Urban Expansion Model (Reg-DUEM) suitable for different scenarios by integrating the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Cellular Automaton (CA) model. Firstly we analyzed the temporal and spatial characteristics of urban expansion and acquired a prior knowledge rules using land use/cover change datasets of Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan metropolitan area. The future urban expansion under different scenarios is then simulated based on a baseline model, economic models, policy models and the structural adjustment model. The results indicate that Reg-DUEM has good reliability for a non-linear expansion simulation at regional scale influenced by macro-policies. The simulating results show that future urban expansion patterns from different scenarios of the metropolitan area have the tremendous spatio-temporal differences. Future urban expansion will shift quickly from Beijing metropolis to the periphery of Tianjin and Tangshan city along coastal belt.

  15. Driving Forces of the Changes of Land Use/Cover in Metropolitan Area of Chongqing in 8 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong De-fang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the driving forces of land use/cover changes in typical regions is helpful to understanding the interactive mechanism between land use/cover system and physical and socio-economic factors. The paper selected the metropolitan area of Chongqing as study area and 28 factors from 1998 to 2005 are selected to find the driving forces of the land use/cover changes in the study area. The principal component analyses (PCA and stepwise regression are applied in the paper. The result suggested that the farmland, unable land and water area in the study area reduced in the study period, while other types increased; the main driving forces of LUCC in this area are the Socio-economic factors, such as agricultural development and structure, economic development, technological advances in agriculture, population, living standards, constructive investment and food security; besides, temperature, precipitation and other natural factors also have certain, relatively smaller, impact on regional LUCC. The changes of farmland were mainly affected by living standard, the increasing of population and the need for food security. The changes of gardens are mainly effected by the increasing of population. The changes of forest were driven by the development of regional economy, the construction investments, the development and structure adjusting of agriculture. The driving forces of grassland changes were mainly the climatic factors. The changes of water related to the construction investments and the advancement of agricultural technology. The changes of urban land have a close relation with the development of regional economy. The increasing of population gave effects to the changes of unable land.

  16. Delimitating central areas of cities based on road density: a case study of Guangzhou City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingnian; Lu, Xueqiu

    2009-10-01

    The central area of a city is an important functional unit in many urban studies. It is a region where business concentrates and municipal facilities densely distribute. Traditionally, statistics of economic and social phenomena can be used to delimitate their boundaries. However, traditional methods based on economic and social investigation are labor-intensive and sometimes inaccurate. Alternatively, road networks acting as a kind of infrastructure reflect the association of locations. Thus the concentration of road networks indicates the congestion of social-economic activities and municipal facilities to some extent. Based on density analysis of road networks, the area where roads densely distribute is recognized as the central area of a city. Taking Guangzhou City as an example, the road network was studied on a set of spatial scopes, and the central area was delimitated and analyzed. Results showed that the road-density-based delimitation had to be adjusted according to the road system, and the delimitated area was consistent to the real central area to some extent. Since road data is much accessible, road-based method is useful and practical when short of socialeconomic data.

  17. Which Estimates of Metropolitan-Area Jobs Growth Should We Trust?

    OpenAIRE

    Elvery, Joel; Vecchio, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The earliest available source of metro-area employment numbers is the initial estimates of State and Metro-Area Employment, Hours, and Earnings (SAE) from the Current Employment Statistics program, but these figures are subject to large revisions. We show how large those revisions are for six metro areas and the four states in the Fourth Federal Reserve District. We also compare the precision of the initial estimates to the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), which is less timely...

  18. Urbanization of the Tokyo metropolitan area and its thermal condition using LANDSAT MSS and NOAA-6/AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T.; Seya, K.; Nishikawa, H.; Tsubomatsu, M.; Tanaka, S.; Sugimura, T.; Nakayama, Y.

    The environmental changes of the following items are discussed by analysing LANDSAT MSS and NOAA-6/AVHRR data: (1) On the development of golf courses (2) On the reclamation along the shoreline of Tokyo Bay (3) On the thermal distribution around Tokyo Bay, Among the above items, two the most distinctive during last decade are the reclamation of Tokyo Bay and the development of residential area in the suburbs. Though many golf courses are recognized in this area, these golf courses mostly were developed about ten years ago. Finally, it is noted that the thermal distribution of this area corresponds well with the city ground surface condition.

  19. The disasters administration in the metropolitan area, of the Aburra Valley - An analysis of the CLEPAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a preliminary analysis of eight workshops developed with the local committees for disasters prevention on the Aburra Valley. No one of these committees has at this moment a clear and coherent policies for disasters prevention that make possible to establish administration and community procedures according to the national laws. As a result they do not have specific goals to achieve a permanent action. In most of cases is missing an organized structure to articulate all the different agencies and employees involved. The committees do not have a periodical prepared meetings schedule, what they do is just making emergency reunions to answer to calamity situations. Even though all the cities have a responsible officials staff for emergency management, they have others priorities so the prevention disasters work is left on a second level. In the second part of this article are presented some theoretical elements about disasters and are developed some legal aspects that support the policies related to this topic

  20. Motorways in Metropolitan Areas: The Northwestern Growth of Florence and the Urban Use of Motorway A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Cutini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent urban growth of Florence was mainly oriented northward, thus determining the urbanization of the flatland and the inclusion within a unique conurbation of a number of pre-existing urban nuclei. Over time, the congestion of the inner core has caused more and more prominent activities to shift towards this developing area, which is today one of the most attractive parts of the whole settlement, counterbalancing the representativeness and the touristic attractiveness of the historic center of Florence. This paper is concerned with the use of space syntax in order to reconstruct the genesis of the configurational geography of Florence. Configurational values at different dates will be cross-referenced with vehicular traffic data, so as to pinpoint the actual inclusion of the motorway A1, touching Florence on its western side, within the urban grid of Florence and its influence in the distribution of local traffic flows. Aside from this case study, this method can be extended to the general issue of the management of motorways in metropolitan areas. More in general, this approach is proposed as a suitable tool for interconnecting spatial issues and traffic questions, so as to concur in bridging the gap between urban design, focused on the morphologic features of blocks and buildings, and transport analysis, strictly concerned with the distribution of movement flows on the street network.

  1. Severe Weather Caused by Heat Island and Sea Breeze Effects in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Vemado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP is one of the most populated regions of the planet with one of the largest impervious regions as well. This research work aims to characterize MASP heat island (HI effect and its interaction with the local sea breeze (SB inflow in rainfall amounts and deep convection. The combined SB-HI produces direct circulation over the MASP and produces severe weather and socioeconomic impacts. All SB-HI episodes between 2005 and 2008 are identified and analyzed with surface and upper air measurements, weather radar, and satellite data. The current work indicates that intense SB-HI episodes are related to air and dew point temperatures above 30°C and 20°C, respectively, right after the passage of the SB front over MASP. Results indicate that the precipitation related to SB-HI episodes is up to 600 mm or about four times higher than that in rural or less urbanized areas in its surroundings. Measurements indicate that 74% of SB-HI episodes are related to NW winds in earlier afternoon hours. Moving cold fronts in southern Brazil tend to intensify the SB-HI circulation in MASP. A conceptual model of these patterns is presented in this paper.

  2. Effect of the air pollution by heavy metals in the tree leaves in the metropolitan area of Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaves of two tree species: Juniperus sp and Ligustrum sp were studied as indicators of pollution heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) in the atmosphere of the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley. Bio markers of catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol, proteins and pigments were measured in order to determine the effects to atmospheric stress caused by heave metals during two periods in the year (December 2012 and May 2013). Metals were quantified in dry deposit and tissue on trees tissue leaves using the technique of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy respectively. The results show greater response of enzyme inhibition in Juniperus sp. species, with decreased protein content and increased lipid peroxidation at sites with higher content of metals in tissue belonging to urban areas with increased industrial activity and traffic flow. In dry deposit bioavailability factor of metals was Fe>Mn> Zn> Cu>Pb for the first time of sampling and Fe>Mn> Cu> Zn>Pb for the second sampling period. (Author)

  3. Metropolitanization and Forest Recovery in Southern Brazil: a Multiscale Analysis of the Florianópolis City-Region, Santa Catarina State, 1970 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra R. Baptista

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the contexts of globalization and the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, I present a multiscale analysis of anthropogenic landscape dynamics in the Florianópolis city-region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Drawing on field research conducted between 2000 and 2004 and a review of the literature, I examined Brazilian demographic and agricultural census data for the period of 1970 to 1995-1996. I hypothesized that economic restructuring, new institutional arrangements, and the valuation of environmental amenities and ecosystem services have contributed to forest recovery trends and thus a forest transition in the city-region. My results indicate that along with rapid urbanization, in-migration, socioeconomic polarization, and segregation, the city-region has experienced the contraction of private agricultural land area, expansion of protected areas, recovery of forests, and conversion of coastal plain ecosystems to built environments. Future analyses of forest transition dynamics should consider the spatial configurations of socioeconomic inequality in city-regions.

  4. Estimated atmospheric emissions from biodiesel and characterization of pollutants in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba C. Teixeira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to estimate emissions of some pollutants (CO, NOX, HC, SOX, and PM in diesel fleet due to the addition of biodiesel in different blends, as well as to assess atmospheric pollutant concentrations in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre (MAPA. The methodology was based on inventories from mobile sources based on US EPA's technical report. Regarding air quality the following parameters were determined: PM10, PM2.5, CO, NOX, O3, SO2, HC and PAHs. The results showed a decrease for emissions PM, CO, and HC, and a slight increase for NOX. The characterization of atmospheric pollutants in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre showed that they are influenced by mobile sources, particularly diesel vehicles. The diagnosis of ratios analysis that was applied to facilitate the identification of sources of PAHs, indicated an influence of diesel oil.O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar as emissões de alguns poluentes (CO, NOX, HC, SOX e MP na frota diesel devido à adição de biodiesel em diferentes misturas, bem como avaliar as concentrações de poluentes atmosféricos na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre (MAPA. A metodologia foi fundamentada em inventários de fontes móveis baseados em relatórios técnicos da US EPA. Em relação à qualidade do ar foram determinado os seguintes parâmetros: PM10, MP2,5, CO, NOX, O3, SO2, HC e HPAs. Os resultados mostraram uma diminuição das emissões de PM, CO e HC e um ligeiro aumento de NOX. A caracterização dos poluentes atmosféricos na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre mostrou que eles são influenciados por fontes móveis, principalmente, por veículos a diesel. A análise de diagnóstico das razões, que foi aplicada para facilitar a identificação das fontes de HPAs, indicou influência de óleo diesel.

  5. Impact of migration origin on individual protection strategies against sexual transmission of HIV in Paris metropolitan area, SIRS cohort study, France.

    OpenAIRE

    Kesteman, Thomas; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Costagliola, Dominique; Massari, Véronique; Chauvin, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of migration and country or region of origin on sexual behaviours and prevention of the sexual transmission of HIV has been scarcely studied in France. The objective of this study was to evaluate if and how individual attitudes of prevention towards HIV infection are different according to country or region of origins in Paris area, France. Methods 3006 individuals were interviewed in the Paris metropolitan area in 2010. Outcome variables were (i) the intention of the in...

  6. Canine Fecal Contamination in a Metropolitan Area (Milan, North-Western Italy): Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Evaluation of Health Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Aurelio Zanzani; Anna Rita Di Cerbo; Alessia Libera Gazzonis; Marco Genchi; Laura Rinaldi; Vincenzo Musella; Giuseppe Cringoli; Maria Teresa Manfredi

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy). Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS...

  7. Multicultural parents and pedagogical partnership. Parents' views on municipal daycare in the metropolitan area. : "We learn from each other, everywhere and in every kind of situations."

    OpenAIRE

    Paloheimo, Rea

    2009-01-01

    This final project links to the Moniku project: Social empowerment in multicultural early childhood education in the metropolitan area. The aim of this study is to produce new and important information about pedagogical partnership and to offer concrete proposals on how to develop it. The focus group is the small ethnic minorities within municipal daycare services in the capital area. Qualitative research methods were used in the study: specifically I have used semi-structured th...

  8. The Poor Rural Areas That Must Support The City of the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wimberley

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cities have exported poverty to rural areas, yet we forget that cities do not exist in nature. Sociologists and others often seem to forget that. Cities are a product of social behavior. Neither do cities exist in self-sustained vacuums unto themselves. Cities are dependent and interdependent with rural areas and through forms of social interaction that link people living in urban and rural areas. While cities are a product of social behavior, they are dependent upon natural resources. It is from rural areas that the natural resources which sustain cities are produced and extracted.

  9. Background radiation in the Sydney metropolitan area scientific reality and public perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very little information if any, is available to the public about the ubiquitous nature of low-level background radiation -both from terrestrial and cosmic sources - in our highly urbanised or predominantly agrarnian societies. Public perception has naively accepted that the combustion of precious oxygen by air breathing engines is both natural and societally acceptable. Little thought has been given to the fact that on the one planet known to be able to sustain life based on oxygen, this is a recipe for disaster. On the other hand, since the evolution or creation of our universe, billions of tonnes of radioactive material within the crust of planet earth together with radiation from the thermonuclear powers station of the solar system, the sun, have sustained life, assisted in its evolution and, through photosynthesis and energy deposition, have ensured its propagation. In this on-going student project, employing wide-band, sensitive scintillation radiation detectors, careful statistical analysis and an understanding of the physics of radium-uranium decay chain and the production of radon gas and its daughter products, fluctuation in the radiation fields of large cities is clearly demonstrated. The work is usually carried out by the author and his final year thesis and students have great educational value for the public, civic authorities, school teachers, the media and political decision makers

  10. Kitchen Food Waste Inventory for Residential Areas in Baghdad City

    OpenAIRE

    Salam Bash AlMaliky; Zainab AlKhayat

    2012-01-01

    An inventory and generation rate for the kitchen food waste were determined in residential areas across Baghdad, Iraq as a first step towards more developed and sustainable solid waste management system. The study was based on collecting data from 20 families from 20 different locations across the city for the period from November, 2011 through June, 2012, regarding their total weekly food purchases and wastes in addition to other relevant social information in order to determine statistical ...

  11. Consumption of Advanced Internet Services in the Enterprises Sector: the Spread of Telework in the Metropolitan Area of Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos MACÍA ARCE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the pillars of the technological revolution that began in the seventies was the development of the Internet. This network has evolved in such a way that it now forms a complex structure that radically changed the social and economic dynamics at the end of century XX. Nowadays, new technologies allow anything from communication and information exchange to the realization of complex financial transactions, all from anywhere in the world and almost instantaneously. In spite of the widespread use of the Internet, there are still territories and inhabitants, mostly emplaced in remote rural areas, who live outside of this technological revolution. By contrast, urban areas enjoy a privileged position in the dissemination of the information society by concentrating most of the telecommunications infrastructure and monopolize the most qualified people. But there are many disparities in terms of diffusion of new technologies and these will transfer, in turn, to the enterprise sector which is the subject of this research. The differences in the use of new technologies and more specifically the use of advanced services on the Internet are related to the sector where the population is employed and its level of training. One of the advanced services offered by the Network is teleworking. Nowadays there are companies that offer their employees the opportunity to develop their professional activities outside their headquarters, using their homes as an alternative or call centers enabled with computers and Internet access. The purpose of this research is the study of the consumption of Internet advanced services by companies in the metropolitan area of Madrid, analyzing the spread of telework in more detail,a potential offered by new technologies and which may modify the current pattern of mobility in the main urban areas because it is from here where big companies are guiding the global economy.

  12. Development of a thermal hydraulic modelling of ground water of the Malm in the Munich metropolitan area; Entwicklung einer thermisch-hydraulischen Grundwassermodellierung des Malm im Grossraum Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dussel, M.; Lueschen, E.; Thomas, R. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Angewandte Geophysik, Hannover (DE)] (and others)

    2011-10-24

    The mutual potential influence of geothermal duplicates and the scientific investigation of the relationship between seismic and hydraulic parameters are investigated in the joint research project 'Geothermal characterization of fractured karst limestone aquifers in the Munich metropolitan area'. Thirteen doublets and triplets being in production or sunk illustrate the great geothermal potential and provide important data on the development of a thermal-hydraulic modeling of the reservoir. 3D seismic Unterhaching, 3D structural model, hydrogeological model and a high-resolution 3D temperature model form the basis of the numerical modeling. Different seismic signatures, seismic attributes and variations in the interval velocities characterize the ground geophysically, and were interpreted under consideration of geological and hydrogeological background information as well as borehole measurements in terms of hydraulically conductive homogeneous areas. For the Munich metropolitan area, the numerical modeling is a decision aid for the future optimized and sustainable hydrothermal utilization of the Malm aquifer.

  13. Infrastructure Assisted Data Dissemination for Vehicular Sensor Networks in Metropolitan Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erman-Tüysüz, Aysegül; Schwartz, Ramon S.; Dilo, Arta; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul; Daher, Robil; Vinel, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Sensor Networks (VSNs) are an emerging area of research that combines technologies developed in the domains of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) and Wireless Sensor Networks. Data dissemination is an important aspect of these networks. It enables vehicles to share relevant sensor data ab

  14. Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Wahlgren

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Commuting by bicycle could contribute to public health, and route environments may influence this behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the potential associations between appraisals of the overall route environment as hindering or stimulating for bicycle commuting, with both perceptions of commuting route environmental factors in a suburban area and background factors. Methods: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions and appraisals of their route environments in the suburban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable whether the overall route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and environmental factors (e.g., exhaust fumes, speeds of motor vehicles, greenery, as well as background factors (sex, age, education, income as predictor variables. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that in suburban areas, the factors aesthetics, greenery and bicycle paths seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting. On the other hand, flows of motor vehicles, noise, and low “directness” of the route seem to be hindering factors. A comparison of these results with those obtained from an inner urban area points to the importance of studying different types of built-up areas separately.

  15. Simulation of Land-Cover Change in Taipei Metropolitan Area under Climate Change Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change causes environment change and shows up on land covers. Through observing the change of land use, researchers can find out the trend and potential mechanism of the land cover change. Effective adaptation policies can affect pattern of land cover change and may decrease the risks of climate change impacts. By simulating land use dynamics with scenario settings, this paper attempts to explore the relationship between climate change and land-cover change through efficient adaptation polices. It involves spatial statistical model in estimating possibility of land-cover change, cellular automata model in modeling land-cover dynamics, and scenario analysis in response to adaptation polices. The results show that, without any control, the critical eco-areas, such as estuarine areas, will be destroyed and people may move to the vulnerable and important economic development areas. In the other hand, under the limited development condition for adaptation, people migration to peri-urban and critical eco-areas may be deterred

  16. Heavy Precipitation impacts and emergency planning - developing applicable strategies for a metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschker, Thomas; Glade, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Heavy rainfall in central Europe is one of the assumed effects of climate change, which occurs with large seasonal and regional differences in its magnitude. The extent of loss depends on natural parameters (e.g. topography and vegetation) as well as on socio-economic factors like urbanized and industrialized areas and population density. Dangerous cascade effects appear, if critical infrastructure like the electrical power supply is affected. In some cases mudflows and flash floods cause inundated or undercut roads and cause a high demand for fast and effective assistance of the authorities. The civil protection in Germany is based on a federal system with a bottom-up command-structure and responsibility to the local community. Commonly this responsibility is taken by the fire brigades and civil protection units of the community or district. After heavy rainfall in an urban area, numerous incidents and emergency calls appearing at a time are overstressing the human and technical resources of the fire brigades within the local authority frequently. In this study, a method of comprehensive evaluation of meteorological data and the operation data from local fire brigades shall be developed for the Rhine-Main-Area in order to identify particular affected spots of heavy rain and bundle resources of the fire brigades. It is to be found out if the study area contains regions with a particularly high exposure to heavy rain and high application numbers of the fire department and whether there is a relationship of rainfall and frequency of use. To evaluate particular local effects on the fire brigades capability, a brief analysis of the meteorological data provided by the German Meteorological Service (DWD) as well as the evaluation of the incident data of the affected fire brigades, is used to frame a realistic approach. In particular fire brigade operation data can be used accordingly to describe the intensity of the aftermath when heavy precipitation strikes a certain

  17. The comparative study of pressing and extrusion like processes of construction ceramic products in the Metropolitan Area of Cucuta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work studies the principal variables of control in the manufacturing process of construction pieces of the Metropolitan Area of San Jose de Cucuta by extrusion and pressing techniques for its forming. The investigation was taken out using clayey samples of the two principal geological formations of the region where the raw material is taken for processing at an industrial level. The clayey samples milling was made by dry means as well as by moisture means and its particle size was measured. Subsequently the forming process was taken over by using an hydraulic press and extruder with vacuum system , both equipment s at laboratory scale, the pieces shaped were dry and firing between 980 degree centigrade and 1180 degree centigrade at the end of the process the tests were made to determine water absorption, contraction and mass loss at the pieces firing. The study results left to see that the extrusion technique allowed a faster vitrification for the region's clay in comparing with the pressing technique, the contractions of drying and firing are less marked on the pressing techniques with standard deviations much lower than in extrusion. (Author) 13 refs.

  18. Impact of the mobile phone on junior high-school students' friendships in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sugiura, Hitomi

    2005-04-01

    The proportion of having keitai (Japanese mobile phone) has increased rapidly in young children. To research how junior high school students use their own keitai and to examine the impact of using it on their psychology, especially on their friendship, we recruited 651 students, grade 8, from five public junior high schools in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Each student participant completed a questionnaire that we had created. The response rates were 88.8% (n = 578) for participants. The proportion of having their own keitai was 49.3% (n = 285) and that of not having it was 50.7% (n = 293). We found that they used it much more frequently for e-mail than as a phone. Most of them exchanged e-mails between schoolmates, and more than a half of them exchanged e-mails more than 10 times a day. Sociable students estimated that their own keitai was useful for their friendship. But they experienced some insecurity or started staying up late at night engaged in e-mail exchanges, and they thought that they could not live without their own keitai. Our findings suggest that keitai having an e-mail function play a big part in the junior high-school students' daily life, and its impact on students' friendships, psychology, or health should be discussed among students to prevent keitai addiction. PMID:15938651

  19. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Stock, W.D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)], E-mail: w.stock@ecu.edu.au; Hedderson, T. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar {delta}{sup 15}N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha{sup -1} a{sup -1} since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  20. Housing transformations Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area. The passage from Neo-liberalism to Urban Neo-development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo del Río

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic recovery that followed the 2001/02 crisis in Argentina came with a relevant improvement in a number of social and economic indicators, related among other reasons to the design of public policies aimed at recuperating employment levels and the productive matrix. In this context, the “construction – public works” tandem became a central topic in the agenda, and Real Estate expansion was widely assessed as a positive outcome by macro-economic standards. However, this process was not exempt of contradictions, as can be seen in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, where it is possible to observe a set of concurring tendencies resulting from the hybridization of the urban neo-liberalization still present and the recent expansion of urban neo-developmentalism. As a result, the expansion of State-led de-commodification of goods and services aimed at social reproduction, coexists with a persisting process of socially regressive housing space production, together with an intense commodification of existing housing, associated with a growing financializationof “bricks”.

  1. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genaro G. Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA, Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men; no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men; no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31–4.60. Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60.

  2. Climate threats, water supply vulnerability and the risk of a water crisis in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (Northeastern Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Nicholas P.; Ramírez, Aldo I.; Aguilar-Barajas, Ismael; Magaña-Rueda, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    This paper evaluates the risk of a water crisis - a substantial, sudden reduction in water supply - in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA), posed by climate threats and the vulnerability of its water supply system. Our analysis of long-term precipitation, water supply and water availability data reveals that the MMA is highly vulnerable to recurring periods of exceptionally low precipitation and scarce surface water availability. We identify two episodes in the recent past (1998 and 2013) when the MMA water supply system almost collapsed as reservoirs neared depletion in the face of abnormally dry weather. Furthermore our climate projections point to warmer and drier future conditions for the region and consequently, heightened climate threats. We conclude that the risk of a water crisis in the MMA is substantial and probably will increase due to climate change. This establishes a clear and pressing need for a comprehensive package of adaptation measures to mitigate the consequences of a water crisis should one occur as well as to reduce the likelihood of such an event.

  3. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar δ15N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha-1 a-1 since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa

  4. Comprehensive assessment of toxic metals in urban and suburban street deposited sediments (SDSs) in the biggest metropolitan area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of toxic metals, i.e. As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr, in urban and suburban SDSs were investigated comparatively in the biggest metropolitan area of China, Shanghai. Results showed that all of the metals except As were accumulated greatly, much higher than background values. Geo-accumulation index indicated that metal contamination in urban SDSs was generally heavier than that in suburban SDSs. Potential ecological risk index demonstrated that overall risks caused by metals were considerable. Cd contributed 52% to the overall risk. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that in urban SDSs, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu and Cr were related to traffic and industry; coal combustion led to elevated levels of Hg; soil parent materials controlled As contents. In suburban SDSs, Pb, Cu, As and Cd largely originated from traffic pollution; Zn, Ni and Cr were associated with industrial contaminants; Hg was mainly from domestic solid waste. - Sources and contamination characteristics of toxic metals in urban and suburban SDSs were different due to the varied levels of human activity intensity.

  5. Distinguishing the race-specific effects of income inequality and mortality in U.S. metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuru-Jeter, Amani M; Williams, T; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, the association between income inequality and mortality has been fairly consistent. However, few studies have explicitly examined the impact of race. Studies that have either stratified outcomes by race or conducted analyses within race-specific groups suggest that the income inequality/mortality relation may differ for blacks and whites. The factors explaining the association may also differ for the two groups. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression analysis was used to examine associations between study variables. We used three measures of income inequality to examine the association between income inequality and age-adjusted all-cause mortality among blacks and whites separately. We also examined the role of racial residential segregation and concentrated poverty in explaining associations among groups. Metropolitan areas were included if they had a population of at least 100,000 and were at least 10 percent black. There was a positive income inequality/mortality association among blacks and an inverse association among whites. Racial residential segregation completely attenuated the income inequality/mortality relationship for blacks, but was not significant among whites. Concentrated poverty was a significant predictor of mortality rates in both groups but did not confound associations. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25618984

  6. Applying multivariate clustering techniques to health data: the 4 types of healthcare utilization in the Paris metropolitan area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lefèvre

    Full Text Available Cost containment policies and the need to satisfy patients' health needs and care expectations provide major challenges to healthcare systems. Identification of homogeneous groups in terms of healthcare utilisation could lead to a better understanding of how to adjust healthcare provision to society and patient needs.This study used data from the third wave of the SIRS cohort study, a representative, population-based, socio-epidemiological study set up in 2005 in the Paris metropolitan area, France. The data were analysed using a cross-sectional design. In 2010, 3000 individuals were interviewed in their homes. Non-conventional multivariate clustering techniques were used to determine homogeneous user groups in data. Multinomial models assessed a wide range of potential associations between user characteristics and their pattern of healthcare utilisation.We identified four distinct patterns of healthcare use. Patterns of consumption and the socio-demographic characteristics of users differed qualitatively and quantitatively between these four profiles. Extensive and intensive use by older, wealthier and unhealthier people contrasted with narrow and parsimonious use by younger, socially deprived people and immigrants. Rare, intermittent use by young healthy men contrasted with regular targeted use by healthy and wealthy women.The use of an original technique of massive multivariate analysis allowed us to characterise different types of healthcare users, both in terms of resource utilisation and socio-demographic variables. This method would merit replication in different populations and healthcare systems.

  7. [Bacteriological evaluation of goat milk and cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Viviana; Gallo, Leslie; Quesada, Carlos; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2008-06-01

    In the last years, there has been an increase in the production, industrialization and consumption of goat's milk and derivate products, including cheese, worldwide. Nevertheless, in Costa Rica there is no study of these products, reason why the objective of this work was to determine the microbiological characteristics of goat's milk and fresh cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, in order to evaluate its impact in the economical field and as a potential risk for Public Health. A total of 25 raw goat's milk samples, obtained by manual milking from 5 different producers tested in five different dates and 15 cheese samples, elaborated with pasteurized milk, commercially available and coming from three different producers were analyzed. The study included the analysis of spoilage bacteria (total aeobic count and lactic bacteria count), indicators of hygiene (total coliforms), fecal contamination (fecal coliforms), manipulation (Staphylococcus aureus) and pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp). High results were obtained for the total aerobic count and lactic bacteria count of the milk and cheese samples, showing a reduced shelf life. Total coliforms, in limits beyond the established ones by the Costa Rican legislation for human consumption raw milk, were found in 100% of milk samples, as well as for fecal coliforms in 76% of them. All cheese samples, except one, were negative for these indicators, suggesting good manufacturing practices. S. aureus counts were low and both Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not isolated from samples analyzed. PMID:18833996

  8. Who Will Use Pre-Trip Traveler Information and How Will They Respond? Insights from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS is able to make the transportation system safer, smoother, and more sustainable. The research and practice of pre-trip traveler information (PTI, an indispensable component of ITS, is very limited in China. With data collected from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China, this empirical study revealed the socio-demographics of potential PTI users and feasible travel responses in daily trips under PTI. Young-and-middle-aged, influential, and motorized males were the most potential PTI users, while unemployed young females the least. Among the motorized potential users who habitually traveled by car, the high-income sub-group was least likely to shift travel modes under PTI. The younger white-collar or blue-collar had a lower propensity to shift to bicycle, but the younger blue-collar workers were more likely to shift to walking. The low income preferred to shift to bus rather than elevated light rail due to the difference of travel cost. The findings will facilitate our understanding of the market segments and effects of PTI, improve the system design and implementation strategy, and help address urban traffic and environmental issues throughout China.

  9. Household, Personal and Environmental Correlates of Rural Elderly’s Cycling Activity: Evidence from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is an important form of active transport and physical activity to provide substantial health benefits to the elderly. Among voluminous physical activity-related literature, few studies have investigated the correlates of active transport of the rural elderly in China. This study was the first attempt to investigate the impact of the household, personal, and environmental attributes on rural elderly’s cycling activity with data collected in 102 rural neighborhoods of Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China. The negative binomial regression models suggest that, all else being equal, living in a neighborhood with low proportion of elderly population (over 60, abundant bike lanes, and a compact urban form related to high density and mixed development, are associated with the increase of frequency and duration of the rural elderly’s cycling trips. The models also detect that attitude towards cycling and household bicycle and motorized vehicle ownership are strongly related to cycling trips of the rural elderly in Zhongshan. The findings provide insights for transportation and public health agencies, practitioners, and researchers into the effective design of interventions from the prospective of attitudes, social and built environment on health promotion of the rural elderly in China.

  10. Co-benefit analysis of an air quality management plan and greenhouse gas reduction strategies in the Seoul metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assesses the co-benefits of an air quality management plan and CO2 emission control measures in the Seoul metropolitan area. This co-benefit analysis includes NOx, PM10 and CO2 emission reductions and cost estimations, yielding cost-effectiveness values for each of the measures. It has been found that fuel switching from BC-oil to LNG, CNG bus operation are most cost effective in NOx and PM10 emission reduction. For CO2 emission reduction, landfill gas reuse and fuel switching were the most effective option. The correlation of cost-effectiveness analysis indicated that fuel switching and CNG bus operation were the most cost effective option to reduce NOx and CO2, PM10 and CO2 emissions at the same time. Based on cost effectiveness and co-benefit analysis, this study developed an alternative scenario of emission reduction measures through optimization in order to achieve both air quality improvements and CO2 reduction targets at the minimum cost. These integrated environmental strategies make it possible to reduce 10.3 Mt of CO2 emissions, which is beyond the target of the CO2 reduction strategy, and achieve air quality improvement targets together and at a lower cost than the CO2 emission reduction and air quality improvement measures combined.

  11. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMAs), Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.-K.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J.-H.; Ban, S.-J.; Park, J.-H.

    2014-07-01

    Plant functional type (PFT) distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and particulate matter (PM) simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs). This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Pennsylvania State Meso-scale Model (MM5)/the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN)/the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)/the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from a performance check of CTM predictions, we consecutively assessed the effects of PFT area deviations on the MEGAN BVOC and CTM O3 predictions, and we further considered the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT data sets considered were (1) the Korean PFT, developed with Korea-specific vegetation database; (2) the CDP PFT, adopted from the community data portal (CDP) of US National Center for Atmospheric Research in the United States (NCAR); (3) MODIS PFT, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Although the CMAQ performance check reveals that all of the three different PFT data sets are applicable choices for regulatory modeling practice, noticeable primary data (i.e., PFT and Leaf Area Index (LAI)) was observed to be missing in many geographic locations. Based on the assessed effect of such missing data on CMAQ O3 predictions, we found that this missing data can cause spatially increased bias in CMAQ O3. Thus, it must be resolved in the near future to obtain more accurate biogenic emission and chemistry transport modeling results. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf

  12. Determination of particle size and content of metals in the atmosphere of ZMCM (Metropolitan Zone of Mexico City)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inside the breathable fraction of the atmosphere of Mexico City, the presence of metals in suspended particles, is determined and quantified. The detection was carry out simultaneously in three places of the city, using collectors of the type stacking filter unit (SFU) which allow the separation of particles according to its size. The SFU detectors allow the separation in two size: 'Gross' mass from 2.5 to 1.5 μm and 'fine' mass for particles smallest than 2.5 μm. The analysis of the samples was fulfilled by means of PIXE method. Samples were irradiated with a proton beam, and based in the X-ray spectra the elements were identified and quantified, which allow to establish the temporal behavior of the concentrations per element for gross mass and fine mass in each one of the places of sampling. (Author)

  13. Epidemiological profile of snakebite accidents in a metropolitan area of northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Polianna L M M; Silva Junior, Geraldo B; Jacinto, Camilla N; Lima, Caroline B; Lima, Juliana B; Veras, Maria do Socorro B; Daher, Elizabeth F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of snakebite accidents reported by the toxicological assistance center in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Database information on snakebite accidents was analyzed regarding the period from January 2003 to December 2011. A total of 1063 cases were found. The accidents occurred during the rainy months (March, April and May), in urban areas (52.3%), affecting individuals younger than 50 years and predominantly among males (70.7%). The lower limbs were the most frequently affected body area (33.7%). Most accidents involved non-venomous snakes (76.1%). The genus Bothrops was the main one involved in venomous accidents (83%). It is expected that this study can be used as the substrate to improve healthcare surveillance and implementing better measures for the treatment of this population. PMID:24037290

  14. The Distribution of Population in a Contemporary Metropolitan Area: The Case of Orange County [A Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Shunfeng

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the population distribution in a rapid development area - Orange County in 1980. The population density gradients are estimated with a polycentric model as well as with a monocentric model. The paper shows that the polycentric model of population distribution fits Orange County better than the monocentric model, and that the population in Orange County is more dispersed than in Los Angeles County. It is found that Downtown Los Angeles has a significant influence on the pop...

  15. Desperately Seeking Sustainability: Urban Shrinkage, Land Consumption and Regional Planning in a Mediterranean Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Salvati; Agostino Ferrara; Ilaria Tombolini; Roberta Gemmiti; Andrea Colantoni; Luigi Perini

    2015-01-01

    Land degradation has expanded in the Mediterranean region as a result of a variety of factors, including economic and population growth, land-use changes and climate variations. The level of land vulnerability to degradation and its growth over time are distributed heterogeneously over space, concentrating on landscapes exposed to high human pressure. The present study investigates the level of land vulnerability to degradation in a shrinking urban area (Rome, Italy) at four points in time (1...

  16. Protected Areas in the Slovak Carpathians as a Contested Resource Between Metropolitan and Mountain Stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Meessen, Heino; Švajda, Juraj; Kohler, Thomas; Fabriciusová, Vladimíra; Galvánek, Dobromil; Buraľ, Miroslav; Káčerová, Marcela; Kadlečík, Ján

    2016-01-01

    In Eastern Europe’s westernmost mountain region, the Carpathians, the Slovak State Nature Conservancy is preserving a unique biodiversity in line with directives of the European Union. This is being done in large protected areas (LPAs). In this paper, we discuss current challenges of LPA management with a particular focus on contradictions between local people’s views and nationally to internationally determined sectoral planning strategies. We take stock of the benefits LPAs offer local popu...

  17. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMA, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-K. Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant functional type (PFT distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and PM simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs. This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic VOC emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. Also, this paper attempts to provide important implications for biogenic emissions modeling studies for CTM simulations. MM5-MEGAN-SMOKE-CMAQ model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from MEGAN biogenic emissions analysis with three different sources of PFT input data, US EPA CMAQ O3 simulation results were evaluated by surface O3 monitoring datasets and further considered on the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT datasets considered were "(1KORPFT", developed with a region specific vegetation database; (2 CDP, adopted from US NCAR; and (3 MODIS, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf trees (BT are the most significant contributor, followed by needleleaf trees (NT, shrub (SB, and herbaceous plants (HB to the total biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs. In addition, isoprene from BT and terpene from NT were recognized as significant primary and secondary BVOC species in terms of BVOC emissions distributions and O3-forming potentials in the study domain. Multiple regression analyses with the different PFT data (δO3 vs. δPFTs suggest that KORPFT can provide reasonable information to the framework of MEGAN biogenic emissions modeling and CTM O3 predictions. Analyses of the CMAQ performance statistics suggest that deviations of BT areas can significantly affect CMAQ isoprene and O3 predictions. From further evaluations of the

  18. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMA), Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.-K.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J.-H.; Ban, S.-J.; Park, J.-H.

    2013-09-01

    Plant functional type (PFT) distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and PM simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs). This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic VOC emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. Also, this paper attempts to provide important implications for biogenic emissions modeling studies for CTM simulations. MM5-MEGAN-SMOKE-CMAQ model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from MEGAN biogenic emissions analysis with three different sources of PFT input data, US EPA CMAQ O3 simulation results were evaluated by surface O3 monitoring datasets and further considered on the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT datasets considered were "(1)KORPFT", developed with a region specific vegetation database; (2) CDP, adopted from US NCAR; and (3) MODIS, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf trees (BT) are the most significant contributor, followed by needleleaf trees (NT), shrub (SB), and herbaceous plants (HB) to the total biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). In addition, isoprene from BT and terpene from NT were recognized as significant primary and secondary BVOC species in terms of BVOC emissions distributions and O3-forming potentials in the study domain. Multiple regression analyses with the different PFT data (δO3 vs. δPFTs) suggest that KORPFT can provide reasonable information to the framework of MEGAN biogenic emissions modeling and CTM O3 predictions. Analyses of the CMAQ performance statistics suggest that deviations of BT areas can significantly affect CMAQ isoprene and O3 predictions. From further evaluations of the isoprene and O

  19. Isolation of filamentous fungi from public telephones of the Metropolitan region of the city of Recife, PE, Brazil Isolamento de fungos filamentosos em telefones públicos da região Metropolitana da cidade do Recife, PE, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Paiva Coutinho; Marilene da Silva Cavalcanti; Francisco Cordeiro Neto

    2007-01-01

    Fungi can inhabit our organism without causing any harm, but they show themselves when the immunological system is compromised. In this study, a survey of the occurrence of filamentous fungi was carried out in public telephones of the Metropolitan Region of the City of Recife, PE, Brazil. This showed the public phones as a possible mean of transmission of fungal diseases among humans. Samples from the environment, audios, speakers and keyboards were taken at the airport, mall, subway and bus ...

  20. Approaches to teaching high school students about environmental protection in the Greater Bielsko-Biała Metropolitan Area (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczewska-Popowycz Natalia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to assess the level of knowledge about local environmental protection among high school students in Bielsko-Biała and the surrounding areas. This sort of knowledge is part of the curriculum and is covered in various natural science school courses, such as geography, biology, chemistry, and social sciences. Various laws and regulations mandate that ecology is part of the secondary education curriculum – “Podstawa programowa kształcenia ogólnego” (2002, 2008 a, b. The Bielsko-Biała area is known for its valuable natural resources and natural attractions. It is home to twelve protected natural areas, including: two sanctuaries, two scenic landscape parks, four nature and landscape complexes, two unique endangered ecosystems, and two protected Natura 2000 areas, as well as 62 natural landmarks. The present paper presents results of a study that was conducted by means of a survey of Bielsko-Biała’s high school students with respect to their knowledge about these protected natural areas. The results of the study revealed that the vast majority of the students do not take an interest in environmental protection issues. Moreover, the high school students displayed unsatisfactory knowledge about the protected natural areas around their city. The survey revealed that the study subjects were unable to identify the types of natural protected areas surrounding their city, let alone list or name the specific sanctuaries or natural landmarks. These disappointing findings generalize for both the students who live in Bielsko-Biała, and those who live in the distant northern provinces of the region. The results of the study stress the need for field trips and other programs aimed at advancing students’ knowledge in this area. The need to incentivize teachers to organize field trips and other events of this kind is also highlited.

  1. The Natural Background Gamma Radiation Exposure in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mary Feild

    Measurements of the natural background radiation have been made at numerous places throughout the world. Very little work in this field has been done in developing countries. In Mexico the natural radiation to which the population is exposed has not been assessed. This dissertation represents a pioneer study in this environmental area. The radiation exposure which occupants within buildings receive as a result of naturally occurring radionuclides present in construction materials is the principal focus. Data were collected between August 1979 and November 1980. Continuous monitoring was done with TLDs placed on site for periods of 3 to 6 months. The instrumentation used for "real-time" measurements was a portable NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. In addition, radiometric measurements were performed on construction materials commonly used in Mexican homes. Based on TLD readings taken within 75 dwellings, the typical indoor exposure for a resident of the study area is 9.2 (mu)Rh('-1). The average reading of the 152 indoor scintillometer surveys was 9.5 (mu)Rh('-1), the outdoor reading 7.5 (mu)Rh('-1). Results of one-way and multi-way analyses of the exposure data to determine the effect due to building materials type, geologic subsoil, age of dwelling, and elevation are also presented. The results of 152 indoor scintillometer surveys are described.

  2. Chemical and physical characterization of traffic particles in four different highway environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enroth, Joonas; Saarikoski, Sanna; Niemi, Jarkko; Kousa, Anu; Ježek, Irena; Močnik, Griša; Carbone, Samara; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Rönkkö, Topi; Hillamo, Risto; Pirjola, Liisa

    2016-05-01

    Traffic-related pollution is a major concern in urban areas due to its deleterious effects on human health. The characteristics of the traffic emissions on four highway environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area were measured with a mobile laboratory, equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation. Concentration gradients were observed for all traffic-related pollutants, particle number (CN), particulate mass (PM1), black carbon (BC), organics, and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2). Flow dynamics in different environments appeared to be an important factor for the dilution of the pollutants. For example, the half-decay distances for the traffic-related CN concentrations varied from 8 to 83 m at different sites. The PM1 emissions from traffic mostly consisted of organics and BC. At the most open site, the ratio of organics to BC increased with distance to the highway, indicating condensation of volatile and semi-volatile organics on BC particles. These condensed organics were shown to be hydrocarbons as the fraction of hydrocarbon fragments in organics increased. Regarding the CN size distributions, particle growth during the dilution was not observed; however the mass size distributions measured with a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), showed a visible shift of the mode, detected at ˜ 100 nm at the roadside, to a larger size when the distance to the roadside increased. The fleet average emission factors appeared to be lower for the CN and higher for the NO2 than ten years ago. The reason is likely to be the increased fraction of light-duty (LD) diesel vehicles in the past ten years. The fraction of heavy-duty (HD) traffic, although constituting less than 10 % of the total traffic flow, was found to have a large impact on the emissions.

  3. Analysis of long-term climate change on per capita water demand in urban versus suburban areas in the Portland metropolitan area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandvash, G. Hossein; Chang, Heejun

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the impacts of long-term climate variability and change on per capita water demand in urban and suburban service areas that have different degrees of development density in the Portland metropolitan area, USA. Together with historical daily weather and water production data, socioeconomic data such as population and unemployment rate were used to estimate daily per capita water demand in the two service areas. The structural time series regression model results show that the sensitivity of per capita water demand to both weather and unemployment rate variables is higher in suburban areas than in urban areas. This is associated with relatively higher proportional demand by the residential sector in the suburban area. The estimated coefficients of the historical demand model were used to project the mid-21st century (2035-2064) per capita water demand under three climate change scenarios that represent high (HadGEM2-ES), medium (MIROC5), and low (GFDL) climate changes. Without climate adaptation, compared to the historical period between 1983 and 2012, per capita water demand is projected to increase by 10.6% in the 2035-2064 period under the HadGEM2-ES in suburban areas, while per capita demand is projected to increase by 4.8% under the same scenario in urban areas. Our findings have implications for future urban water resource management and land use planning in the context of climate variability and change. A tight integration between water resource management and urban planning is needed for preparing for climate adaptation in municipal water planning and management.

  4. Methodology for the characterization of wooden fuels of the Valle de Aburra metropolitan area, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study illustrates the way to perform protocols, collect samples, and conduct laboratory analyses in order to characterize the physical properties of wood used in the industrial sector of the Valle de Aburra metropalitan area and the gains obtained by characterizing the properties of the most frequently used woods. In this investigation some of the most important sampling parameters are presented, such as taking samples in piles or accumulations of waste, handling of these samples in the laboratory and others of great importance such as the ignition point. the proposed methodology is based upon some of the international astm coal norms, for the similarity it has with wood and for the lack of information on sampling this type in wood

  5. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  6. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  7. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  8. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  9. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  10. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  11. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  12. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  13. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  14. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  15. Respiratory findings among ironworkers: results from a clinical survey in the New York metropolitan area and identification of health hazards from asbestos in place at work.

    OpenAIRE

    Fischbein, A; Luo, J C; Rosenfeld, S; Lacher, M; Miller, A; Rosenbaum, A

    1991-01-01

    Diseases associated with asbestos are prevalent in the construction trades primarily as the result of the previously widespread use of insulation materials containing asbestos in the building industry. Workers in metal related trades, who are employed at construction sites, but who do not routinely use such materials in their work, may also be at risk for asbestos hazards. To assess such risk, a clinical survey was conducted on 869 ironworkers from the New York metropolitan area. A high preva...

  16. Impact of a fixed price system on the supply of institutional long-term care: a comparative study of Japanese and German metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Keiko; Kawahara, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Background The need for institutional long-term care is increasing as the population ages and the pool of informal care givers declines. Care services are often limited when funding is controlled publicly. Fees for Japanese institutional care are publicly fixed and supply is short, particularly in expensive metropolitan areas. Those insured by universal long-term care insurance (LTCI) are faced with geographically inequitable access. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a fixed ...

  17. Characterisation of the CTX-M-15-encoding gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from the Barcelona metropolitan area: plasmid diversity and chromosomal integration

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Alicia; González-López, Juan José; Miró, Elisenda; Alonso-Tarrés, Carles; Mirelis, Beatriz; Larrosa, María Nieves; Bartolomé, Rosa María; Andreu, Antonia; Navarro, Ferran; Johnson, James R.; Prats, Guillem

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The localisation and genetic organisation of blaCTX-M-15 were studied in 37 CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected from 2005 to 2008 within the Barcelona metropolitan area. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based replicon typing and Southern hybridisations were used to identify the blaCTX-M-15 location. The genetic environment was analysed by PCR mapping and sequencing, and transferability of blaCTX-M-15 was evaluated by conjugation and transformation as...

  18. Setting Priorities for Urban Forest Planning. A Comprehensive Response to Ecological and Social Needs for the Metropolitan Area of Rome (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Capotorti; Barbara Mollo; Laura Zavattero; Ilaria Anzellotti; Laura Celesti-Grapow

    2015-01-01

    Urban forests represent key elements of green infrastructure and provide essential ecosystem services in both the ecological and social spheres. Therefore, forestation planning plays a decisive role in the sustainable development strategies of metropolitan areas and addresses the challenge of maintaining biodiversity while improving human health and well-being. The aim of this work is to present a methodological approach that can be used to identify priorities in urban forest planning and can...

  19. Impact of travel mode shift and trip distance on active and non-active transportation in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Hérick de Sá; Parra, Diana C.; Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in urban mobility play a major role in transforming metropolitan areas into healthier places. This study quantified the impact of changes in travel mode shift and trip distance on active and non-active transportation of working age adult population of São Paulo. Methods and findings: Through different scenarios, we estimated the daily time spent in transportation per inhabitant (divided in active and non-active transportation time) and the proportion of inhabitants accu...

  20. Surface-water hydrologic data for the Houston metropolitan area, Texas, water years 1990?95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneck-Fahrer, Debra A.; Liscum, Fred; East, Jeffrey W.

    2003-01-01

    Most of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta was leveed, drained, and converted to agricultural use by the 1930s. Land-surface elevations have since subsided by more than 20 feet in some areas. Subsidence increases the likelihood of levee failure and flooding, which, in turn, jeopardizes water delivery and water quality in the Delta. This is of major concern because the Delta supplies water to two-thirds of California. Previous research has shown that oxidation of peat soils is the primary cause of subsidence in the Delta. Therefore, a possible strategy for remedying this situation is to convert drained agricultural fields back to wetlands, which are flooded at least part of the year. Rehabilitation of wetlands would promote the growth of peat, thereby mitigating and possibly reversing subsidence. This report describes a study that evaluated this strategy. In three experimental enclosures or ponds, carbon inputs were measured in the form of plant biomass and outputs in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. Each of the ponds received one of the following water treatments: seasonally flooded, seasonally flooded and irrigated, or permanently flooded. Land-surface elevation, ground-water levels, and soil and air temperature also were measured. This report presents the data collected during the initial phase of the study, which ran from November 1992 through September 1995.