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Sample records for city heart study

  1. Alcohol consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation in men and women: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, KJ; Tolstrup, JS; Friberg, J;

    2005-01-01

    incident atrial fibrillation among 16,415 women and men enrolled in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. We ascertained use of beer, wine, and spirits individually at up to 3 study visits with a structured questionnaire. We identified cases of atrial fibrillation by routine study ECGs and a validated...

  2. Hypercholesterolaemia and risk of coronary heart disease in the elderly: impact of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Allan; Jensen, Jan Skov; Scharling, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population and interventional studies have shown that high plasma-cholesterol is a risk factor of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, in most of the studies elderly people were excluded. AIM: This paper assesses whether the effect of total plasma-cholesterol on the risk of incident...... associated with high plasma-cholesterol declines with age. This finding should be considered in future recommendations of plasma-cholesterol levels in elderly people without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease....... CHD decreases with age in a healthy population. METHODS: Within the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1981-1983, 4647 men and 5829 women, aged 40-93 years, underwent a cardiovascular health examination including measurement of plasma-cholesterol. The cohort was followed with respect to incident CHD until...

  3. Reduced lung function and risk of atrial fibrillation in the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, P; Friberg, J; Scharling, H;

    2003-01-01

    one second (FEV1) and risk of first episode of AF in a prospective study. Data from 13,430 males and females without previous myocardial infarction, who participated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, were analysed. New AF was assessed at re-examination after 5 yrs and by hospital admission for AF...... predicted compared with FEV1 > or = 80% after adjustment for sex, age, smoking, blood pressure, diabetes and body mass index. The risk of AF hospitalisation was 1.3-times higher for FEV1 between 60-80% and 1.8-times higher for FEV1 < 60% compared with FEV1 > or = 80%, when additional adjustment was made for...

  4. Self-reported stress and risk of stroke: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Nielsen, Naja; Boysen, Gudrun;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lay people often mention stress as one of the most important risk factors for stroke. Stress might trigger a cerebrovascular event directly or could be associated with higher levels of blood pressure or an unfavorable lifestyle. To examine these possibilities, we analyzed...... the association between self-reported stress frequency and intensity and risk of stroke. METHODS: Data from the second examination, 1981 to 1983, of participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were analyzed with Cox regression after a mean of 13 years of follow-up. A total of 5604 men and 6970 women were...... included, and 929 first-ever strokes occurred, of which 207 (22%) were fatal within 28 days after onset of symptoms. The stress frequency categories were never/hardly ever, monthly, weekly, or daily. The stress intensity categories were never/hardly ever, light, moderate, or high. RESULTS: Subjects...

  5. Association of chronic mucus hypersecretion with FEV1 decline and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease morbidity. Copenhagen City Heart Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J; Prescott, E; Lange, P

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronic mucus hypersecretion, and FEV1 decline, and subsequent hospitalization from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We used data from The Copenhagen City Heart Study on 5,354 women and 4,081 men 30 to 79 yr of age with...

  6. Metabolic Syndrome according to Three Definitions in Hammam-Sousse Sahloul Heart Study: A City Based Tunisian Study

    OpenAIRE

    Imen Boumaiza; Asma Omezzine; Meriem Romdhane; Jihène Rejeb; Lamia Rebhi; Lobna Bouacida; Souhir Neffati; Nabila Ben Rejeb; Ahmed Ben Abdelaziz; Ali Bouslama

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major risk factor of CVD. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of the MetS, its components, and its different profiles according to NCEP-ATP III 2001, IDF 2005, and JIS 2009 definitions in Hammam-Sousse Sahloul Heart Study (HSHS). Study Design. The study involved 1121 participants (364 men and 757 women; sex-ratio  =  0.48; mean age  =  47.49 ± 16.24 years) living in Hammam Sousse city, located in the east of Tunisia. Methods. ...

  7. Long-term physical activity in leisure time and mortality from coronary heart disease, stroke, respiratory diseases, and cancer. The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Peter; Lange, Peter; Scharling, Henrik;

    2006-01-01

    , total-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, body mass index, education, income, and forced expiratory volume in 10.78 (% predicted). RESULTS: Adjusted relative risks (95% confidence interval) for coronary heart disease were...... was in both sexes associated with significantly lower mortality from coronary heart disease, cancer and all-causes. The same tendency was found for stroke and respiratory diseases, but the associations did not reach statistical significance.......BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to describe the associations between different levels of long-term physical activity in leisure time and subsequent causes of deaths. DESIGN: The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective cardiovascular population study of 19 329 men and women aged 20...

  8. Long-Term Survival after Stroke: 30 Years of Follow-Up in a Cohort, the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, G.; Marott, J.L.; Gronbaek, M.;

    2009-01-01

    died before the end of 2007. The National Register of Causes of Death provided cause of death. Survival in stroke patients was compared with survival in participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study who did not suffer a stroke, and with survival in the general Danish population. Cox regression...... analyses adjusting for age and gender were used to compare survival in six consecutive 4-year periods starting with 1978-1982. Results: Of 2,051 patients with first-ever stroke 1,801 died during follow-up. Causes of death were cerebrovascular disease in 37%, other cardiovascular diseases in 28%, cancer...

  9. Alcohol consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation in men and women: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, Kenneth J; Tolstrup, Janne S; Friberg, Jens;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship of the full range of alcohol consumption with risk of incident atrial fibrillation has been inconsistent in previous, mainly case-control studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective cohort study, we studied the association between self-reported alcohol use...... nationwide registry of all hospitalizations. A total of 1071 cases occurred during follow-up. Among both women and men, alcohol consumption throughout the moderate range was not associated with risk of atrial fibrillation. However, consumption of 35 or more drinks per week among men was associated...... not attenuate the association (hazard ratio 1.63; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.31). CONCLUSIONS: Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of atrial fibrillation, at least among men. This relationship does not appear to be related to the adverse effects of heavy drinking on coronary heart disease or blood...

  10. Tissue Doppler echocardiography in persons with hypertension, diabetes, or ischaemic heart disease: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Sogaard, Peter; Pedersen, Sune A;

    2009-01-01

    was evaluated in 1036 participants by both conventional echocardiography and colour TDI. Peak systolic (s') and early diastolic (e') velocities, longitudinal displacement (LD), and the ratio of mitral inflow E-wave to e' (E/e') were measured. TDI revealed significantly impaired parameters of systolic.......001] compared with controls [n = 533; LD 11.4 (+/-SD 2.0 mm); E/e' 9.0 (x/SD 1.3)]. This pattern remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, heart rate, and the results of conventional echocardiography. CONCLUSION: In the general population, persons with hypertension, diabetes, or IHD...

  11. Trends and determinant factors for population blood pressure with 25 years of follow-up: results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate within-population trends in population blood pressure (BP) over 25 years and to identify important determinants for a changing population BP. DESIGN: Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective longitudinal epidemiological study. The study population (15 5...

  12. Metabolic Syndrome according to Three Definitions in Hammam-Sousse Sahloul Heart Study: A City Based Tunisian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Boumaiza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a major risk factor of CVD. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of the MetS, its components, and its different profiles according to NCEP-ATP III 2001, IDF 2005, and JIS 2009 definitions in Hammam-Sousse Sahloul Heart Study (HSHS. Study Design. The study involved 1121 participants (364 men and 757 women; sex-ratio  =  0.48; mean age  =  47.49 ± 16.24 years living in Hammam Sousse city, located in the east of Tunisia. Methods. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, lipids levels, glycemia, insulinemia, and body mass index were measured. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS16.0. Results. The percentage of participants who had MetS defined according to NCEP ATP III, IDF 2005, and JIS 2009 definitions was respectively, 29.5%, 38.4%, and 39.6%. With regard to gender, the prevalence of MetS is higher in men than in women according to IDF 2005 definition (38.5% men versus 38.3% women, P=0.961 and according to JIS 2009 definition (41.8% men versus 38.6% women, P=0.307, whereas, according to NCEP ATP III definition, the prevalence of MetS is higher in women than in men (30% versus 28.6%, P=0.627. The prevalence of MetS increased with increasing age according to the three definitions (P<0.001 and peaked in the oldest age group (≥70 years according to IDF 2005 and JIS 2009. Furthermore, a significant difference in the prevalence of MetS components according to gender was observed. Indeed, the abdominal obesity is the most frequent MetS compound in women group, but hypertension and low HDL-C are the most frequent in men. In addition, according to the three definitions, the most frequent MetS profile in our study is “higher waist circumference, hypertension, and low HDL-C.” Conclusion. The high prevalence of MetS is a serious public health problem in Hammam-Sousse Sahloul community. Higher waist circumference, hypertension, and low HDL-C were the most

  13. Amount and type of alcohol and periodontitis in the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Johanne; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Grønbaek, Morten;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the association between alcohol consumption and periodontitis assessed as clinical attachment loss (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP) in a cross-sectional design.......The aim of this study was to study the association between alcohol consumption and periodontitis assessed as clinical attachment loss (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP) in a cross-sectional design....

  14. Morbidity and Mortality in 7,684 Women According to Personal Hair Dye Use: The Copenhagen City Heart Study followed for 37 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F.; Schnohr, Peter; Børge G. Nordestgaard

    2016-01-01

    Background Permanent hair dye contains aromatic amines which are carcinogenic, and can cause allergic skin reactions. In the long term personal use of hair dye might therefore influence both morbidity and mortality. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that personal use of hair dye in women is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the general population. Methods We included 7,684 women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with information on the use of personal hair dye. We asse...

  15. The relationship between body mass index and periodontitis in the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Johanne; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Grønbaek, Morten;

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is hypothesized to involve immunoinflammatory alterations, and the condition has been related to increased susceptibility to periodontitis. The present study analyzed the association between overweight/obesity and periodontitis assessed as clinical attachment loss (AL) and bleeding on pro...

  16. Markers of inflammation and hemodynamic measurements in obesity: Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla; Asferg, Camilla Lundegaard; Jensen, Jan S;

    2009-01-01

    ) > or =30 kg/m2, free of major cardiovascular diseases, not taking BP-lowering or lipid-lowering drugs (n = 487; women = 51.1%; median (5th to 95th percentile) age = 62 years (36-80)). The cardiovascular study included measurements of traditional and new risk factors, including ankle brachial BP index...... was to investigate the relationship between two markers of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen, and blood pressure (BP) and other hemodynamic variables in obese subjects. METHODS: From a large cardiovascular study based in the general population, we selected subjects with a body mass index (BMI...

  17. Combined analysis of six lipoprotein lipase genetic variants on triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and ischemic heart disease: cross-sectional, prospective, and case-control studies from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittrup, HH; Andersen, RV; Tybjærg-Hansen, A;

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Genetic variants in lipoprotein lipase may affect triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of T(-93)G, G(-53)C, Asp9Asn, Gly188Glu, Asn291Ser, and Ser447Ter lipoprotein....... SETTING: The study was performed in the Danish general population (the Copenhagen City Heart Study). PARTICIPANTS: IHD was angina pectoris or myocardial infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Triglycerides, HDL, and IHD were the main outcome measures. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, triglycerides varied...... by genotype with 1.27 mmol/liter in women and 1.22 mmol/liter in men. HDL cholesterol varied by genotype with 0.49 mmol/liter in women and 0.60 mmol/liter in men. Prospectively, 9Asn (with -93G) heterozygotes and homozygotes combined vs. noncarriers had a hazard ratio for IHD of 1.6 [95% confidence interval...

  18. Sex-specific increase in the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (The Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Jens; Scharling, Henrik; Gadsbøll, Niels;

    2003-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently encountered cardiac arrhythmia. It is a risk factor for stroke and premature death. We studied the temporal changes in the prevalence of AF from 1976 to 1994 in a random population aged 50 to 89 years. The prevalence of AF, diagnosed from electrocar...

  19. Lung function and risk of fatal and non-fatal stroke. The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T; Prescott, E; Lange, P;

    2001-01-01

    adjustment for potential confounders: sex, age, smoking, inhalation, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, physical activity in leisure time, education, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment. RESULTS: We found an inverse association between FEV1 and risk of first-time stroke....... For each 10% decrease in FEV1 in percentage of expected, the relative risk (RR) increased 1.05 (95% CI : 1.00-1.09, P = 0.03). This represents an approximately 30% higher risk of stroke in the group of people with the lowest lung function as compared to the group with the highest lung function...... function groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that reduced lung function measured in percentage of predicted FEV1 is a predictor of first-time stroke and fatal stroke independent of smoking and inhalation. The high risk of fatal first-ever stroke in the group of people with low lung function may...

  20. Speed and duration of walking and other leisure time physical activity and the risk of heart failure: a prospective cohort study from the Copenhagen City Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Askelund Saevereid

    Full Text Available AIM: Physical activity (PA confers some protection against development of heart failure (HF but little is known of the role of intensity and duration of exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective cohort study of men and women free of previous MI, stroke or HF with one or more examinations in 1976-2003, we studied the association between updated self-assessed leisure-time PA, speed and duration of walking and subsequent hospitalization or death from HF. Light and moderate/high level of leisure-time PA and brisk walking were associated with reduced risk of HF in both genders whereas no consistent association with duration of walking was seen. In 18,209 subjects age 20-80 with 1580 cases of HF, using the lowest activity level as reference, the confounder-adjusted hazard ratios (HR for light and moderate/high leisure-time physical activity were 0.75 (0.66-0.86 and 0.80 (0.69-0.93, respectively. In 9,937 subjects with information on walking available and 542 cases of HF, moderate and high walking speed were associated with adjusted HRs of 0.53 (0.43-0.66 and 0.30 (0.21-0.44, respectively, and daily walking of ½-1 hrs, 1-2 and >2 hrs with HR of 0.80 (0.61-1.06, 0.82 (0.62-1.06, and 0.96 (0.73-1.27, respectively. Results were similar for both genders and remained robust after exclusion of HF related to coronary heart disease and after a series of sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Speed rather than duration of walking was associated with reduced risk of HF. Walking is the most wide-spread PA and public health measures to curb the increase in HF may benefit from this information.

  1. The relationship of hip joint space to self reported hip pain. A survey of 4.151 subjects of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: the Osteoarthritis Substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, Kjeld;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the effect of pelvic orientation on measurements of hip joint space widths (JSW) in cadaver pelvic radiographs, thereby validating the pelvic radiographs of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: The Osteoarthritis Substudy (CCHS III) cohort of 4.152 subjects, and (2) to...... significantly associated to self reported pain in or around the hip joint in both sexes. CONCLUSION: Measurements of minimum hip JSW did not seem to be significantly influenced by varying spatial orientation of the pelvis during X-ray recordings. An inclusion criteria of minimum JSW< or =2.0 mm designating...

  2. Fibrinogen and albumin levels and risk of atrial fibrillation in men and women (the Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, Kenneth Jay; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Friberg, Jens;

    2006-01-01

    Cross-sectional and limited prospective evidence has suggested that inflammatory markers may predict for the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). In a prospective cohort study, we studied the risk of incident AF among 8,870 women and men free of cardiovascular disease enrolled in the Copenhagen City...... with a higher risk of AF, with a multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio for the highest versus lowest quartiles of 1.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94 to 4.17) among men and 2.14 (95% CI 1.15 to 3.96) among women. The albumin levels were inversely associated with the risk of AF among women (hazard ratio 0...... levels of albumin were prospectively associated with a higher risk of AF, even accounting for their relation with the risk of cardiovascular disease. These findings support the hypothesis that inflammation contributes to the etiology of AF....

  3. Resting heart rate is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality after adjusting for inflammatory markers: The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Marott, Jacob L; Allin, Kristine H;

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the association between resting heart rate (RHR) and markers of chronic low-grade inflammation. Also, to examine whether elevated resting heart rate is independently associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population, or whether elevated RHR...... is merely a marker of chronic low-grade inflammation. Methods and results: A group of 6518 healthy subjects from the the Danish general population were followed for 18 years during which 1924 deaths occurred. Subjects underwent assessment of baseline RHR, conventional cardiovascular risk factors, high......-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and fibrinogen. RHR was associated with hsCRP and fibrinogen in uni- and multivariate models (p cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in univariate models - HR (95%CI) (1.21 (1.14-1.29) and 1...

  4. Jungle in the heart of the city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejska, Magdalena; Czerniak-Czyzniak, Marta

    2015-04-01

    Lessons of nature can be an interesting adventure for students if we allow them to actively participate in such activities. Students must engage in educational activities but thanks to them they also better absorb more knowledge and abilities. These types of activities also require proper preparation of the teacher, who should first get to know the area and next prepare a plan for the trip and also define objectives, tasks and issues that confront students. By providing such training for teachers, you can show various methods and forms of work, which allow to use the resources of the local environment. The area of the Vistula River is such an amazing place in Warsaw (capital of Poland). The phenomenon of this place is its wildness in the heart of the city. Fortunately, urbanization has not destroyed its wildness. Teachers are encouraged to use these unique resources in working with students. During the training they receive information and tools that help them to carry out such activities. Outdoor activities give possibility for cross subjects integration that is essential in modern teaching because in this place the content of different subjects complement each other. During these classes students gain not only the theoretical knowledge but also a comprehensive knowledge and intelligently learn the world around us and experience the processes occurring in the natural environment and cultural heritage. Interesting outdoor activities affect the growth of motivation of young people and affect their interest in natural subjects. During outdoor activities they observe the processes and phenomena in the natural place of their occurrence. Such activities can be treated both as providing the general overview for certain topics as well as its deepening. Students during an outdoor activity acquire abilities and improve practical skills. Also important is the ability to pursue educational goals. Observing the environment, students learn the culture of communing with nature

  5. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism (C677T), hyperhomocysteinemia, and risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease and venous thromboembolism: prospective and case-control studies from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jeppe; Juul, Klaus; Grande, Peer;

    2004-01-01

    for sex, age, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), fibrinogen, triglycerides, body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and factor V Leiden genotype. Finally, in case-control studies odds ratios for ischemic heart disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease...

  6. Long-term prognosis of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap in the Copenhagen City Heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Çolak, Yunus; Ingebrigtsen, Truls Sylvan;

    2016-01-01

    focus on individuals with asthma-COPD overlap. METHODS: We assigned participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study into six subgroups: healthy never-smokers, ever-smokers without asthma and COPD, those with asthma with low cumulated smoking exposure and no airflow limitation, those with COPD, those...... ratio of less than 0·7, without any restrictions regarding smoking. We investigated the course of FEV1 decline for 18 years and risk of admission to hospital due to exacerbations or pneumonias and respiratory and all-cause mortality for 22 years. We analysed FEV1 decline in the six groups using a linear......-onset asthma was 49·6 mL (3·0) per year, higher than the decline in asthma-COPD overlap with early-onset asthma (p=0·0001), the decline of 39·5 mL (2·5) per year in COPD (p=0·003), and the decline in healthy never-smokers (pratios for hospital admissions due to exacerbations of asthma or COPD...

  7. Smoking Thickens Heart Wall, Leading to Heart Failure: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160932.html Smoking Thickens Heart Wall, Leading to Heart Failure: Study ... 13, 2016 TUESDAY, Sept. 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking leads to heart failure by causing thickened heart ...

  8. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism (C677T), hyperhomocysteinemia, and risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease and venous thromboembolism: prospective and case-control studies from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jeppe; Juul, Klaus; Grande, Peer;

    2004-01-01

    for sex, age, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), fibrinogen, triglycerides, body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and factor V Leiden genotype. Finally, in case-control studies odds ratios for ischemic heart disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease...... from the general population were followed for 23 years. Second, 2125 whites with ischemic heart disease and 836 whites with ischemic cerebrovascular disease were compared with 7568 controls from the general population. Plasma homocysteine was elevated 25% in homozygotes versus noncarriers (P ...Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with ischemic cardiovascular disease (ICD) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). We tested the hypothesis that methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T homozygosity with hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with ICD and VTE. First, 9238 randomly selected whites...

  9. Glycated haemoglobin and the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, K; Jensen, M T; Galatius, S;

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a considerably elevated risk of developing serious health problems including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Long-term elevated levels of blood glucose in nondiabetic individuals may also be associated with increased risk of CVD. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the relationships between glycated haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c) ) and CVD, DM and all-cause mortality....

  10. Morbidity and Mortality in 7,684 Women According to Personal Hair Dye Use: The Copenhagen City Heart Study followed for 37 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Permanent hair dye contains aromatic amines which are carcinogenic, and can cause allergic skin reactions. In the long term personal use of hair dye might therefore influence both morbidity and mortality. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that personal use of hair dye in women is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the general population. Methods We included 7,684 women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with information on the use of personal hair dye. We assessed the risk of cancer, skin diseases, other morbidities, and mortality during a median follow-up of 27 years (range 0–37). Results The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for malignant melanoma in women with versus without personal use of hair dye was 2.07 (95% confidence interval 1.25–3.42). There was no increased risk of other cancer types. For other skin diseases and other major causes of morbidity we found no differences between the two groups, except for a minor excess of digestive diseases and increased risk of Parkinson’s disease among women using hair dye. Finally, we found no difference in all-cause mortality comparing women using personal hair dye or not. After correction for multiple comparisons, none of the results remained significant. However, in sensitivity analysis the excess risk of malignant melanoma remained increased with a hazard ratio of 2.58 (95%CI 1.33–5.03) among users of personal hair dye. Conclusions Personal use of hair dye does not have major influences on morbidity and mortality. Our finding of a 2-fold risk of malignant melanoma in women using hair dye is hypothesis generating. PMID:26986063

  11. Prioritizing action on health inequities in cities: An evaluation of Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) in 15 cities from Asia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Amit; Kano, Megumi; Dagg, Kendra Ann-Masako; Mori, Hanako; Senkoro, Hawa Hamisi; Ardakani, Mohammad Assai; Elfeky, Samar; Good, Suvajee; Engelhardt, Katrin; Ross, Alex; Armada, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Following the recommendations of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (2008), the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (HEART) to support local stakeholders in identifying and planning action on health inequities. The objective of this report is to analyze the experiences of cities in implementing Urban HEART in order to inform how the future development of the tool could support local stakeholders better in addressing health inequities. The study method is documentary analysis from independent evaluations and city implementation reports submitted to WHO. Independent evaluations were conducted in 2011-12 on Urban HEART piloting in 15 cities from seven countries in Asia and Africa: Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Mongolia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Local or national health departments led Urban HEART piloting in 12 of the 15 cities. Other stakeholders commonly engaged included the city council, budget and planning departments, education sector, urban planning department, and the Mayor's office. Ten of the 12 core indicators recommended in Urban HEART were collected by at least 10 of the 15 cities. Improving access to safe water and sanitation was a priority equity-oriented intervention in 12 of the 15 cities, while unemployment was addressed in seven cities. Cities who piloted Urban HEART displayed confidence in its potential by sustaining or scaling up its use within their countries. Engagement of a wider group of stakeholders was more likely to lead to actions for improving health equity. Indicators that were collected were more likely to be acted upon. Quality of data for neighbourhoods within cities was one of the major issues. As local governments and stakeholders around the world gain greater control of decisions regarding their health, Urban HEART could prove to be a valuable tool in helping them pursue the goal of health equity.

  12. Vital exhaustion as a risk factor for ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in a community sample. A prospective study of 4084 men and 5479 women in the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Holst, Claus; Grønbaek, Morten;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vital exhaustion, a psychological measure characterized by fatigue and depressive symptoms, has been suggested to be an independent risk factor for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) but the generality of the phenomenon remains in question. The aim of this study is to describe prevalence...... for biological, behavioural, and socioeconomic risk factors did not substantially affect the association for IHD but attenuated the association with all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Measures of fatigue and depression were common symptoms in this population sample and convey increased risk of IHD and of all...

  13. Importance of light smoking and inhalation habits on risk of myocardial infarction and all cause mortality. A 22 year follow up of 12 149 men and women in The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Scharling, H; Osler, M;

    2002-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and all cause mortality associated with light smoking and inhalation habits in men and women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with follow up of MI and all cause mortality through record linkage. SETTING: The Copenhagen City Heart...... Study, a cardiovascular study based on a sample of the general population established in 1976. PARTICIPANTS: 6505 women and 5644 men followed up until 1998 for first MI and for death from all causes. Main results: During follow up 476 women and 872 men suffered a MI whereas 2305 women and 2883 men died...... with higher RR found in women than in men. The study emphasises the importance of recognising that even very limited tobacco consumption has detrimental health effects....

  14. Is the demand-control model still a usefull tool to assess work-related psychosocial risk for ischemic heart disease? Results from 14 year follow up in the Copenhagen City Heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Kristensen, Tage S; Jensen, Gorm;

    2010-01-01

    To test the usefulness of the Demand-Control Model as predictor for ischemic heart disease (IHD).......To test the usefulness of the Demand-Control Model as predictor for ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  15. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C;

    1999-01-01

    recruited from the Copenhagen City Heart Study and were without cardiovascular risk factors, chronic diseases, or medication and without cardiovascular events during 5 to 12 years before and 3 to 5 years after admission. The specificity, that is, the probability of displaying a negative test result......BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...

  16. Heart disease mortality in cities of Latin America and in cities and regions of England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, P

    1969-01-01

    Death rates from heart disease in cities and regions of England and Wales, based on death certificates for 1963, are compared with death rates from the same causes in 10 Latin American cities, San Francisco, USA, and Bristol, England, derived from the Inter-American Investigation of Mortality which obtained histories and clinical records of fatal illnesses for the years 1962-64 by a sampling method. Death rates in Bristol derived from the 2 sources showed an agreement close enough to justify comparisons between official rates for England and Wales and the data for the Latin American cities.Comparing standardized death rates for males in the Latin American cities with those for the corresponding populations in the English conurbations and cities, the ratio for coronary disease was found to be 0.4; for other degenerative heart disease it was 1.0; for hypertensive heart, 2.2; for other heart disease, 1.5. The corresponding ratios for females were: 0.55, 1.0, 3.0, and 1.7, respectively. When the hospital regions of England and Wales were included, a geographical pattern could be seen, particularly for males, the highest rates for coronary and degenerative heart disease being found in northern England and the lowest rates in central and western cities of Latin America. For hypertensive and other heart disease the pattern was different.Standardized sex ratios for total heart disease mortality at ages from 45 to 74 years in 30 countries are largely affected by the proportions of deaths attributed to arteriosclerotic and degenerative disease but they suggest that geography, country of origin and possibly climate are also factors that differentially affect the sexes and, in consequence, affect the sex ratios. PMID:5306625

  17. Association of the waist-to-height ratio with cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents: The three cities heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robespierre C Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the best anthropometric index in rela-tion to cardiovascular disease risk factors among children and adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional school-based study was conducted among a random sample of 3179 students, aged 6 to 18 years, in three large cities in Brazil. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10% and 5%, respectively. In relation to the students in the lower quartile (Q1 of the distribution of subscapular skinfold, the students in the upper quartile (Q4 presented a 2.0 times higher risk (odds ratio of having elevated total cholesterol levels. Overweight and obese students had a 3.3 times higher risk of having elevated sys-tolic blood pressure, and a 1.9 times higher risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure than other students. The less active students presented a 1.58 times higher risk of having waist-to-height ratio (WHtR above the upper tertile (Q3. WHtR mean values was 0.46 (SE 0.00 presented the largest area under the curve (AUC [0.613 (CI995%:0.578-0.647] for high total cholesterol levels, [0.546 (CI995%: 0.515-0.578] for low HDL-C levels, and [0.614 (CI95%: 0.577-0.651] for high LDL-C levels, while body mass index presented the largest AUC [0.669 (CI95%: 0.64-0.699] for increased diastolic blood pressure followed by the waist circum-ference for increased systolic blood pressure [0.761 (CI95%: 0.735-0.787]. Conclusions: WHtR is considered as a simple and accurate anthropometric parameter that identifies youth with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, WHtR above 0.44 was indicative of risk factors in children and adolescents. These findings can be applied in future preventive strategies against CVDs, and screening pro-grams.

  18. Rheumatic heart disease among school children in Addis Ababa City: awareness and adequacy of its prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oli, K; Porteous, J

    1999-07-01

    One of the objectives of this large scale cross-sectional study of school children of the Addis Ababa city was to assess the status of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) prophylaxis among rheumatic heart disease patients identified during the survey. Awareness about the presence of the illness in those affected and reasons for poor coverage, when detected, were also assessed. Sixty of the 9388 school children surveyed were found to have rheumatic heart disease. On interviewing parents of the children with rheumatic heart disease, ten acknowledged being informed of their children's cardiac illness. Of these parents, 15% (or 9/60) had some idea that their children had heart disease related to some form of infection. However, only two of the nine (22%) children whose parents had some idea about their disease were on regular monthly benzathine penicillin prophylaxis in the previous 12 months preceding the interview. Three (33%) of the nine children had six or fewer injections in the 12 months preceding the interview. The remaining 4 parents (44%) reported that their children took treatment that included injections only at the time of initial diagnosis several years earlier and had not had any follow up since then. Their reasons for not seeking medical care for their children included lack of information on prophylaxis, inability to pay for the treatment and distance of the health facilities. The lack of awareness and the extremely low rate of regular prophylaxis, therefore, highlight the need for an urgent control programme that takes active case detection, treatment access and health education into consideration. PMID:11957312

  19. Brain and heart disease studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of important studies completed during the past year using the Donner 280-crystal positron ring tomograph are summarized in this article. Using rubidium-82, images of a brain tumor and an arteriovenous malformation are described. An image demonstrating methionine uptake in a patient with schizophrenia and an image reflecting sugar metabolism in the brain of a man with Alzheimer's disease are also included. Uptake of rubidium-82 in subjects before and after exercise is being investigated. The synthesis of new radiopharmaceuticals and the development of a new synthesis for C-taurine for use in the study of metabolism in the human heart are also being studied

  20. Heart Failure After Heart Attack Tied to Cancer Risk in Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159804.html Heart Failure After Heart Attack Tied to Cancer Risk in Study Preliminary finding ... News) -- People who develop heart failure after a heart attack may also face a higher risk of cancer, ...

  1. Relation of Serum Adiponectin Levels to Number of Traditional Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and All-Cause Mortality and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (from the Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Soren; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sune H;

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin exerts anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects and appears to protect against arteriosclerosis. Accordingly, an association between low concentrations of plasma adiponectin and cardiovascular (CV) disease has been demonstrated in several studies. In contrast, elevated plasma...... or nonfatal myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke (n = 502). High adiponectin was inversely associated with an increasing number of traditional CV risk factors (p...

  2. Radiographic case definitions and prevalence of osteoarthrosis of the hip: a survey of 4 151 subjects in the Osteoarthritis Substudy of the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, Kjeld;

    2004-01-01

    frequently than men (p cut-off JSW value of 2.0 mm was applied regardless of other radiographic features of OA, prevalences of hip OA ranged from 4.4% to 5.3% in subjects > or = 60 years of age. The radiographic discriminator with the strongest association with self-reported hip pain...... of the current study were to establish an accurate and workable radiographic definition of OA in hip joints and to examine the association of OA (thus defined) with self-reported pain. METHODS: Radiographic features of hip OA were classified in pelvic radiographs of 3 807 subjects (1448 males and 2 359 females......) according to the OA classifications of Kellgren and Lawrence (1957) and Croft (1990), and according to minimum joint space width (JSW) of 2.0 mm regardless of other radiographic features of OA. The relationships between these radiographic discriminators and self-reported hip pain were investigated. RESULTS...

  3. The distribution and inter-relationships of radiologic features of osteoarthrosis of the hip. A survey of 4151 subjects of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: the Osteoarthrosis Substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, Kjeld;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of sex, age and individual physical and occupational factors on the distribution of radiographic features of hip joint osteoarthritis (OA), and to determine the inter-relationships between the primary radiographic OA discriminator......-relationships and correlations to age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and occupational exposure to repeated lifting. RESULTS: Overall, subchondral sclerosis, cysts and osteophytes were more frequently recorded in male hip joints compared to female hip joints, while a decrease in minimum JSW by age was more pronounced...... and progressive in women after the fifth decade compared to men. Applying logistic regression analyses, only age was found to be significantly associated to pathologically reduced minimum JSW (cut off value set at < or =2.0 mm), and the presence of osteophytes and subchondral cysts in both sexes (P...

  4. Stress and life dissatisfaction are inversely associated with jogging and other types of physical activity in leisure time--The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, P; Kristensen, T S; Prescott, E;

    2005-01-01

    The associations between physical activity in leisure time with special focus on jogging and the level of mental stress and life dissatisfaction were studied in 12 028 randomly selected men and women aged 20-79 years. The associations were similar in men and women; thus, results are given...... for pooled data. The odds ratios (ORs) are presented as adjusted for sex, age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, education and income. With increasing physical activity in leisure time, there was a decrease in high level of stress, between sedentary persons and joggers, OR=0.30 (95% confidence...... interval (CI) from 0.16 to 0.56). With increasing physical activity there was also a decrease in life dissatisfaction, between sedentary persons and joggers, OR=0.30 (95% CI from 0.18 to 0.52). Although there was a dose-response effect between physical activity and psychosocial well-being the most...

  5. Stress and life dissatisfaction are inversely associated with jogging and other types of physical activity in leisure time--The Copenhagen City Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnohr, P; Kristensen, T S; Prescott, E; Scharling, H

    2005-04-01

    The associations between physical activity in leisure time with special focus on jogging and the level of mental stress and life dissatisfaction were studied in 12 028 randomly selected men and women aged 20-79 years. The associations were similar in men and women; thus, results are given for pooled data. The odds ratios (ORs) are presented as adjusted for sex, age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, education and income. With increasing physical activity in leisure time, there was a decrease in high level of stress, between sedentary persons and joggers, OR=0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.16 to 0.56). With increasing physical activity there was also a decrease in life dissatisfaction, between sedentary persons and joggers, OR=0.30 (95% CI from 0.18 to 0.52). Although there was a dose-response effect between physical activity and psychosocial well-being the most pronounced difference with regard to the level of stress and dissatisfaction was seen between the group with low and the group with moderate physical activity, e.g., 2-4 h of walking per week. In conclusion, we recommend that increased well-being should be a key argument in future campaigns for increased leisure-time physical activity. PMID:15773865

  6. Flood Insurance Study, City of Park City, Utah, Summit County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1987-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Park City, Summit County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain man...

  7. Study on Classification of City Poster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Peizhi

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes the city poster design as the research object, analysis of 2007 to 2014 World each main city posters to convey the theme and types. This paper studies on city image poster as samples, the literatures relevant to"literature survey"collec-tion, sorting, and use"content analysis on the classification of samples for method", the 700 sample cluster analysis, to explore the form and pattern of city image poster convey. The main results are:city image poster style can be divided into four types of"cultural diversity transmission type","inner emotional exchange type","sensory impressions spread type","the city appearance display type".

  8. Ambient air pollution and hospitalization for congestive heart failure among elderly people in seven large US cities; Pollution atmospherique ambiante et hospitalisations pour insuffisance cardiaque congestive chez les personnes agees dans sept grandes villes des Etats-Unis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.D.; Naumova, E.N.; Munasinghe, R.L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is the temporal associations between the urban atmospheric pollution, in particular the carbon monoxide, and the hospitalization for congestive heart failure in elderly people, in seven large US cities. (A.L.B.)

  9. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8......,670 participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark) were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work-related stress, social network, vital exhaustion, and sleep medication and were followed in nationwide registries until 2007, with less than 0.2% loss to follow-up. Almost one...

  10. How to Study the City on Instagram

    OpenAIRE

    Boy, John D.; Uitermark, Justus

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Instagram as a data source for use by scholars in urban studies and neighboring disciplines and propose ways to operationalize key concepts in the study of cities. These data can help shed light on segregation, the formation of subcultures, strategies of distinction, and status hierarchies in the city. Drawing on two datasets of geotagged Instagram posts from Amsterdam and Copenhagen collected over a twelve-week period, we present a proof of concept for how to explore and visuali...

  11. The risk factors profile of coronary heart disease in dyslipidemic patients : Results from a survey in 13 cities in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmani Kalim

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD has significantly increased and has been associated to the high mortality rate in Indonesia. One important CHD risk is the abnormal lipid profile or dyslipidemia, but there are other risk factors that has been associated with CHD in Western population. In Indonesia, data on CHD risk factors are very limited and usually only available as hospital-based data. The aim of this study is to analyze the CHD risk profile in the private clinical practice setting and to determine the factors affecting CHD in  dyslipidemic patients in Indonesia. This study is a cross-sectional survey which targeted physicians in 13 cities in Indonesia who regularly treat patients with dyslipidemia. The majority of dyslipidemic patients in clinical practice setting was the CHD high-risk group. Age, Iow HDL-C and hypertension were the most common risk factors. The prevalence of the risk factors and the proportion of dyslipidemic patients which belongs to the high risk group were comparable to the result of US (L-TAP study. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 42-7Keywords : Coronary Heart Disease, risk factors, dyslipidemia, clinical practice

  12. Digital Connectedness in the Framingham Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Caroline S; Hwang, Shih‐Jen; Nieto, Kenneth; Valentino, Maureen; Mutalik, Karen; Massaro, Joseph M.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Murabito, Joanne M

    2016-01-01

    Background New avenues of data collection such as eHealth and mobile technology have the potential to revolutionize the way large populations can be assessed and managed outside of standard research and clinical settings. Methods and Results A digital connectedness survey was administered within the Framingham Heart Study from 2014 to 2015. The exposure was usage of the Internet, email, cell phones, and smartphones in relation to demographic and cardiovascular disease risk factors; all result...

  13. How to Study the City on Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, John D; Uitermark, Justus

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Instagram as a data source for use by scholars in urban studies and neighboring disciplines and propose ways to operationalize key concepts in the study of cities. These data can help shed light on segregation, the formation of subcultures, strategies of distinction, and status hierarchies in the city. Drawing on two datasets of geotagged Instagram posts from Amsterdam and Copenhagen collected over a twelve-week period, we present a proof of concept for how to explore and visualize sociospatial patterns and divisions in these two cities. We take advantage of both the social and the geographic aspects of the data, using network analysis to identify distinct groups of users and metrics of unevenness and diversity to identify socio-spatial divisions. We also discuss some of the limitations of these data and methods and suggest ways in which they can complement established quantitative and qualitative approaches in urban scholarship. PMID:27336728

  14. How to Study the City on Instagram.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Boy

    Full Text Available We introduce Instagram as a data source for use by scholars in urban studies and neighboring disciplines and propose ways to operationalize key concepts in the study of cities. These data can help shed light on segregation, the formation of subcultures, strategies of distinction, and status hierarchies in the city. Drawing on two datasets of geotagged Instagram posts from Amsterdam and Copenhagen collected over a twelve-week period, we present a proof of concept for how to explore and visualize sociospatial patterns and divisions in these two cities. We take advantage of both the social and the geographic aspects of the data, using network analysis to identify distinct groups of users and metrics of unevenness and diversity to identify socio-spatial divisions. We also discuss some of the limitations of these data and methods and suggest ways in which they can complement established quantitative and qualitative approaches in urban scholarship.

  15. Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Agutter, Paul S; Loukas, Marios; Benninger, Brion; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Namdar, Husain; Ghabili, Kamyar; Khalili, Majid; Tubbs, R Shane

    2013-08-20

    Leonardo da Vinci's detailed drawings are justly celebrated; however, less well known are his accounts of the structures and functions of the organs. In this paper, we focus on his illustrations of the heart, his conjectures about heart and blood vessel function, his experiments on model systems to test those conjectures, and his unprecedented conclusions about the way in which the cardiovascular system operates. In particular, da Vinci seems to have been the first to recognize that the heart is a muscle and that systole is the active phase of the pump. He also seems to have understood the functions of the auricles and pulmonary veins, identified the relationship between the cardiac cycle and the pulse, and explained the hemodynamic mechanism of valve opening and closure. He also described anatomical variations and changes in structure and function that occurred with age. We outline da Vinci's varied career and suggest ways in which his personality, experience, skills and intellectual heritage contributed to these advances in understanding. We also consider his influence on later studies in anatomy and physiology.

  16. Antidepressant No Help to Heart Failure Patients: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159604.html Antidepressant No Help to Heart Failure Patients: Study Depression ... 2016 TUESDAY, June 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The antidepressant Lexapro may not help heart failure patients suffering ...

  17. Climate Change Management Approaches of Cities: A Comparative Study Between Globally Leading and Turkish Metropolitan Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Filiz Karabag

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on climate change policies and action at the national level, but few have studied policies and action at the city level, especially cities in emerging economies. To address this gap, the present study analyzes the management strategies globally leading cities have developed to address climate change and related issues and compares them with the city strategies of one rapidly urbanizing emerging economy, Turkey. In the analysis, the strategic plans of five leading global cities are compared with those of sixteen Turkish cities. While the leading global cities have specific managerial approaches to mitigate climate change, none of the Turkish cities exhibits any comprehensive approach. Furthermore, while leading global cities modify urban services to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, few Turkish cities adjust any services to address this challenge. Some Turkish cities propose an increased use of renewable energy sources and modification in their transportation system, but the focus in these plans is the current daily needs of their inhabitants. The findings of this study suggest several climate change strategies both for Turkish cities and cities in other developing countries.

  18. STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG THE HEART MERIDIAN,CARDIAC REFERRED PAIN AND THE HEART

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONGPeijing; ZHUBing

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:The referred pain of the somatic structure,a response of the visceralgia,is often seen in clinic.But ist underlying mechanisms are poorly understood.It is interested that cardiac referred pain ofter appears along the running course of the Heart Meridian(HM),while acupuncture of the acupoints of HM can effectively relieve cardiac pain.In the present study,the neural basis of the relationship among the HM,cardiac referred pain and the heart is investigated by using tri-labeling technique.Methods:Wistar rats are used in the present study.Three fluorescent dyes,fast blue(FB),propidium lodide(PI) and bibenzimide(Bb)are respectively injected into the pericardial sac,the left and right medial-middle band (HM) or lateral sides[rung Meridian(LM),used for control] of the rat forearms.Results:Examination of the sections of the dorsal ganglions shows that more doubly labeled neurons are found in the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglions of C8-T3 nerve segments from HM and the heart,while fewer double-labeled neurons found from LM and the heart.The facts provide direct evidence for existence of dichotomizing fibers of the ganglion neurons.There exists a relative specific connection between the HM and the heart.It also provides a morphological explanation for cardiogenic referred pain and for the specific interrelation between the heart Meridian and the heart of traditional Chinese medicine.

  19. Genome-wide association studies and resting heart rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revolutionized the search for genetic variants regulating resting heart rate. In the last 10 years, GWASs have led to the identification of at least 21 novel heart rate loci. These discoveries have provided valuable insights into the mechanisms...... and pathways that regulate heart rate and link heart rate to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. GWASs capture majority of genetic variation in a population sample by utilizing high-throughput genotyping chips measuring genotypes for up to several millions of SNPs across the genome in thousands...... of individuals. This allows the identification of the strongest heart rate associated signals at genome-wide level. While GWASs provide robust statistical evidence of the association of a given genetic locus with heart rate, they are only the starting point for detailed follow-up studies to locate the causal...

  20. Isolated heart models: cardiovascular system studies and technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnickova, Veronika; Novakova, Marie; Provaznik, Ivo

    2015-07-01

    Isolated heart model is a relevant tool for cardiovascular system studies. It represents a highly reproducible model for studying broad spectrum of biochemical, physiological, morphological, and pharmaceutical parameters, including analysis of intrinsic heart mechanics, metabolism, and coronary vascular response. Results obtained in this model are under no influence of other organ systems, plasma concentration of hormones or ions and influence of autonomic nervous system. The review describes various isolated heart models, the modes of heart perfusion, and advantages and limitations of various experimental setups. It reports the improvements of perfusion setup according to Langendorff introduced by the authors.

  1. Associations of heart failure with sleep quality: The rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Zuurbier (Lisette); A.I. Luik (Annemarie); M.J.G. Leening (Maarten); A. Hofman (Albert); R. Freak-Poli (Rosanne); O.H. Franco (Oscar); B.H. Stricker; H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractStudy Objectives: The prevalence of sleep disturbances and heart failure increases with age. We aimed to evaluate the associations of incident heart failure and cardiac dysfunction with changes in sleep quality. Methods: This prospective population-based study was conducted in the Rotter

  2. STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG THE HEART MERIDIAN,CARDIAC REFERRED PAIN AND THE HEART

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Peijing; ZHU Bing

    2002-01-01

    @@ Purpose: The referred pain of the somatic structure, a response of the visceralgia, is often seen in clinic. But its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. It is interested that cardiac referred pain often appears along the running course of the Heart Meridian (HM), while acupuncture of the acupoints of HM can effectively relieve cardiac pain. In the present study, the neural basis of the relationship among the HM, cardiac referred pain and the heart is investigated by using tri-labeling technique.

  3. Study the relationship between adiponectin and coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Hui Yang; Li-Xin Zhao; Yan-Hong Lu; Xiao-Jun Li; Jun Shi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study whether adiponectin in serum of patients with coronary heart disease is reduced, and compare with the test results in total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), blood glucose (GLU), C-reactive protein (CRP). Method: We selected 80 cases of coronary heart disease patients as the experimental group, 50 healthy subjects as control group. The coronary heart disease group compared with the control group, we know the changes of adiponectin in coronary heart disease group and compared coronary heart disease group with control group in test results of blood lipid, blood glucose, C-reactive protein. Results: Adiponectin in coronary heart disease group was (0.47±0.09) mg/L, which decreased significantly comparing to control group’s level (t=-18.4, P<0.001), HDL-C in coronary heart disease group was (1.24±0.04) mmol/L, which decreased significantly comparing to control group’s level (t=-27.67, P<0.001). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: The level’s adiponectin in patients of coronary heart disease dropped, which lead to hypoadiponectinemia, Hypoadiponectinemia may be one of the risk factors of coronary heart disease.

  4. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C;

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...... in healthy subjects without disease, was 1.0 when using as criterion for significant ST-segment deviation a horizontal or descending ST-segment depression of >0.20 mV or ST-segment elevation >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring, and acceptable, for example, 0.95, when using as criterion a horizontal...

  5. Study on Public Interest in City Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付樯; 周立军

    2014-01-01

    Public interest is the key point of city planning, which has a significant effect on the level of city planning. This paper discussed the public interest in city planning, which is advantageous to improve the level of city planning.%公共利益是城市规划的关键点,对城市规划水平有重要作用。本文探讨了城市规划中的公共利益,有利于城市规划水平的提高。

  6. Characteristics and outcomes for right heart endocarditis: six-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tom Kai Ming; Oh, Timothy; Voss, Jamie; Pemberton, James

    2014-07-01

    Right heart endocarditis makes up 5-10% of all infective endocarditis involving valvular, congenital and artificial structures. Given the limited literature in this area, we reviewed the characteristics, management and outcomes of this condition in this retrospective cohort study. Thirty-five patients with right heart endocarditis admitted to Auckland City Hospital during 2005-2010 were followed-up for 3.4+/-2.5 years. In-hospital mortality was 11.4% (4), all occurring in those treated medically (20.0% (4) vs 0.0% (0), P=0.119). Surgical intervention was independently associated with reduced long-term mortality (HR 0.078, 95%CI 0.010-0.609, P=0.015) in multivariate analysis, while concurrent left heart endocarditis predicted both in-hospital mortality (HR 11.0, 95%CI 1.18-102, P=0.027) and long-term mortality (HR 3.20, 95%CI 1.03-9.92, P=0.044). Our study showed that surgical intervention and concomitant left heart endocarditis are positive and negative prognostic factors for outcomes after right heart endocarditis.

  7. Study of City Landscape Heritage Using Lidar Data and 3d-City Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinowicz, P.; Czynska, K.

    2015-04-01

    In contemporary town planning protection of urban landscape is a significant issue. It regards especially those cities, where urban structures are the result of ages of evolution and layering of historical development process. Specific panoramas and other strategic views with historic city dominants can be an important part of the cultural heritage and genius loci. Other hand, protection of such expositions introduces limitations for future based city development. Digital Earth observation techniques creates new possibilities for more accurate urban studies, monitoring of urbanization processes and measuring of city landscape parameters. The paper examines possibilities of application of Lidar data and digital 3D-city models for: a) evaluation of strategic city views, b) mapping landscape absorption limits, and c) determination protection zones, where the urbanization and buildings height should be limited. In reference to this goal, the paper introduces a method of computational analysis of the city landscape called Visual Protection Surface (VPS). The method allows to emulate a virtual surface above the city including protection of a selected strategic views. The surface defines maximum height of buildings in such a way, that no new facility can be seen in any of selected views. The research includes also analyses of the quality of simulations according the form and precision of the input data: airborne Lidar / DSM model and more advanced 3D-city models (incl. semantic of the geometry, like in CityGML format). The outcome can be a support for professional planning of tall building development. Application of VPS method have been prepared by a computer program developed by the authors (C++). Simulations were carried out on an example of the city of Dresden.

  8. Trends in stroke incidence. The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T; Prescott, E; Grønbaek, M;

    1997-01-01

    at least one of the two first examinations as well as the total cohort including nonresponders. Subjects between 45 and 84 years of age were followed from March 1, 1976 until March 1, 1993. Changes in age-specific stroke incidence were calculated by means of Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS......: For subjects aged 45 to 64 years, no significant trends were observed, with an annual incidence rate ratio of 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 1.03) and 1.04 (95% CI, 0.99 to 1.08) for men and women, respectively. In subjects aged 65 to 84 years a significant decrease in stroke incidence was found...... there has been a decline in incidence of stroke in men and women aged 65 to 84 years that was significant only in men, whereas no changes were found for persons aged 45 to 64 years....

  9. Receptor binding studies of the living heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Receptors form a class of intrinsic membrane proteins (or glycoproteins) defined by the high affinity and specificity with which they bind ligands. Many receptors are associated directly or indirectly with membrane ion channels that open or close after a conformational change of the receptor induced by the binding of the neurotransmitter. Changes in number and/or affinity of cardiac neurotransmitter receptors have been associated with myocardial ischemia and infarction, congestive heart failure, and cardiomyopathy as well as diabetes or thyroid-induced heart muscle disease. These alterations of cardiac receptors have been demonstrated in vitro on membrane homogenates from samples collected mainly during surgery or postmortem. The disadvantage of these in vitro binding techniques is that receptors lose their natural environment and their relationships with the other components of the tissue

  10. The Analysis of Social Ecology and Physical Development Process of Cities (Towns Case Study: Alvand City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmati Ahmad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims the analysis of immigration influence on Alvand city resident's economical and living situation and its subsequent effects on Alvand city's social structure and its ecology and even its adjacency to industrial Alborz city. This analysis focuses on Alvand city's physical development using the software techniques such as GIS and using population data resulted from immigration which effects its physical development. We have increasingly witnessed the job-looking based immigrations since 1966 to 2006 which appeared differently in social, physical and spatial structure. This alternation and newly different situation has been seen apparently. The president's economic situation and immigration issue which considered as the most essential factor resulting in the ecology movements concerning Alvand city's circumstances. Such a factor could be seen in cultural varieties in Alvand city. This study also analyzes the ecological factors such as the immigration, economical situation, ecological movements and its influence on physical development using the descriptive and correlational methods to prove whether there is a logical relation among varieties providing that this statement is confirmed, this relation will be able to describe and explain the correlations in the different forms. The results show that immigration has influenced the spatial distribution of social groups and physical development of Alvand city.

  11. Flood Insurance Study, City of Sandy City, Utah, Salt Lake County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1994-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Sandy City, Salt Lake County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plai...

  12. New York City watershed case study

    OpenAIRE

    Government of New York City

    2006-01-01

    Metadata only record Due to degradation of New Your City's water source areas, their water has dropped below EPA standards. The cost of developing a filtration plant was estimated along with the cost of restoring the watershed's natural purification abilities. The cost of restoring the watershed's natural purification ability was found to be a fraction of what it would cost to construct and maintain a filtration plant. The city is now using funds to purchase and halt development, compensat...

  13. City regions geoscience in Wales : scoping study

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, A.M.; Boon, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Several individuals from the public and private sector in Wales contributed to the initial consultation process and their assistance is gratefully acknowledged. We would particularly like to thank Cardiff Council, Newport City Council, City and County of Swansea Council, Neath Port Talbot Council, Rhondda Cynon Taf Council, Torfaen County Borough Council, Caerphilly County Borough Council, Atkins Global, Parsons Brinkerhoff, Welsh Water, Celtic Ltd, Natural Resources Wales, and...

  14. The Heart of the City: Continuity and Complexity of an urban design concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuccaro Marchi , L.

    2013-01-01

    The “Heart of the City” theme is proposed by the MARS group as title of the 8th Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM), held in Hoddesdon, England, from the 7th to the 14th of July 1951. Two opposite urban conditions are considered by Sert, President of CIAM, as main issues which the H

  15. Adherence to self-care in patients with heart failure in the HeartCycle study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stut W

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wim Stut,1 Carolyn Deighan,2 John G Cleland,3 Tiny Jaarsma4 1Philips Research Europe, Eindhoven, the Netherlands; 2The Heart Manual Department, NHS Lothian, Edinburgh, UK; 3National Heart and Lung Institute, Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospitals Imperial College, London, UK; 4Department of Social and Welfare studies, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel online education and coaching program to promote self-care among patients with heart failure. In this program, education and coaching content is automatically tailored to the knowledge and behavior of the patient. Patients and methods: The evaluation of the program took place within the scope of the HeartCycle study. This multi-center, observational study examined the ability of a third generation telehealth system to enhance the management of patients recently (<60 days admitted to the hospital for worsening heart failure or outpatients with persistent New York Heart Association (NYHA Functional Classification III/IV symptoms. Self-reported self-care behavior was assessed at baseline and study-end by means of the 9-item European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior scale. Adherence to daily weighing, blood pressure monitoring, and reporting of symptoms was determined by analyzing the system’s database. Results: Of 123 patients enrolled, the mean age was 66±12 years, 66% were in NYHA III and 79% were men. Self-reported self-care behavior scores (n=101 improved during the study for daily weighing, low-salt diet, physical activity (P<0.001, and fluid restriction (P<0.05. Average adherence (n=120 to measuring weight was 90%±16%, to measuring blood pressure was 89%±17% and to symptom reporting was 66%±32%. Conclusion: Self-reported self-care behavior scores improved significantly during the period of observation, and the objective evidence of adherence to daily weight and blood pressure measurements was

  16. Strategic Planning Approaches for Creating Resilient Cities: A Case Study on Hangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Dan; Hua; Chen

    2015-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, the population in China will be increasingly urbanized – focusing the sustainability challenge on cities and raising new challenges to address the urban resilience capacity. During the past two decades, China’s urban policies are state institution-directed, growth-oriented, and land-based, imposing unprecedented challenges on sustainability. Strengthening the capacity of cities to manage resilience appears to be a key factor for cities to effectively pursue sustainable development. The aim of this paper is to explore strategic planning approaches for creating resilient cities in China through a study on Hangzhou City in an integrated framework. Firstly, the paper gives a systematic insight into the structure of Hangzhou City. Secondly, the development trajectory of the urban system is analyzed to understand how the past has shaped the present and to get a broader perspective on its evolution. Thirdly, scenario planning is conducted to explore the adaptive capacity of Hangzhou City under different future conditions. At last, having analyzed the past, present, and future of the urban system, the paper discusses the strategies for resilient planning, which helps to identify factors and trends that might enhance or inhabit the adaptability.

  17. Assessing Landscape Ecological Risk in a Mining City: A Case Study in Liaoyuan City, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Peng; Minli Zong; Yi'na Hu; Yanxu Liu; Jiansheng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Landscape ecological risk assessment can effectively identify key elements for landscape sustainability, which directly improves human wellbeing. However, previous research has tended to apply risk probability, measured by overlaying landscape metrics to evaluate risk, generally lacking a quantitative assessment of loss and uncertainty of risk. This study, taking Liaoyuan City as a case area, explores landscape ecological risk assessment associated with mining cities, based on probability of ...

  18. Place of Convergence, Capital of Myth, and City Chasing Sea:A Study on Urban Identity of Lianyungang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As one of the series of studies on the City Master Plan of Lianyungang (2008-2030), the study on the urban identity of Lianyungang City summarizes the context and the theories of urban identity, analyzes the basic components, influential factors, and current situations of urban identity of Lianyungang, clarifies the objectives of shaping the urban identity of the city, and puts forward a series of elements that are important for strengthening the urban identity of the city, such as city brands, city events, and perception spaces, etc. This paper is a synthesis of this study.

  19. Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M. [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    1996-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

  20. Genome-wide association study of electrocardiographic and heart rate variability traits: the Framingham Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Guo, Chao-Yu; Wang, Thomas J.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Levy, Daniel; Larson, Martin G.

    2007-01-01

    Background Heritable electrocardiographic (ECG) and heart rate variability (HRV) measures, reflecting pacemaking, conduction, repolarization and autonomic function in the heart have been associated with risks for cardiac arrhythmias. Whereas several rare monogenic conditions with extreme phenotypes have been noted, few common genetic factors contributing to interindividual variability in ECG and HRV measures have been identified. We report the results of a community-based genomewide associati...

  1. Heart rate distribution and predictors of resting heart rate after initiation of beta-blocker treatment in patients with coronary artery disease: REsults of Sympathetic Evaluation And Research of China(RESEARCH) study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ying-xin; LI Yue-ping; GAO Fei; MA Han-ying; WANG Zhi-jian; HAN Hong-ya; SHEN Hua

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of heart rate as secondary prevention strategies for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is emphasized by multiple guidelines.However,limited information is available on the heart rate distribution and the change patterns of resting heart rate when initiating beta-blocker therapy among Chinese patients with CAD.Methods The REsults of Sympathetic Evaluation And Research of China (RESEARCH) study is a multi-centre,prospective,observational study involving 147 centers in 23 cities across China.All eligible beta-blocker naive patients were prescribed with metroprolol succinate.Initial dosage and target heart rate were selected at the discretion of their physicians in charge according to their usual institutional practice.The heart rate distribution and the change patterns of resting heart rate after initiation of beta-blocker therapy were observed.Results The majority of patients (63.6%) were prescribed with 47.5 mg metroprolol succinate.At baseline,there were only 17.4% of patients whose heart rate was less than 70 beats per minute,and the proportion reached 42.5% and 79.1%,one month and two months after initiation of beta-blockers,respectively.Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that baseline heart rate (B=0.900,SE=0.006,t=141.787,P<0.0001) and the dosage (B=-0.007,SE=0.002,t=-3.242,P=0.001) were independent predictors of resting heart rate 2 months after beta-blocker therapy.Conclusions Resting heart rate is not optimally controlled in a broadly representative cohort of Chinese outpatients with CAD even after initiation of β-blocker therapy,and baseline heart rate and the dosage of beta-blocker are both independent predictors of resting heart rate after β-blocker therapy.

  2. Turkish Heart Study: lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahley, R W; Palaoğlu, K E; Atak, Z; Dawson-Pepin, J; Langlois, A M; Cheung, V; Onat, H; Fulks, P; Mahley, L L; Vakar, F

    1995-04-01

    We examined the plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and selected apolipoproteins in approximately 9,000 men and women from six different regions of Turkey with markedly different diets, ranging from an Aegean coast diet high in olive oil (plasma cholesteryl ester fatty acids enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids) to an inland Anatolian diet high in meat and dairy products (plasma cholesteryl esters enriched in saturated fatty acids). The rural population consuming an olive oil-rich diet had the lowest plasma cholesterol levels (men, 149 mg/dl; women, 150 mg/dl). The urban populations of Istanbul and Adana had higher plasma cholesterol levels (men, 202 and 184 mg/dl, respectively; women, 181 and 190 mg/dl, respectively). Affluent men had the highest cholesterol levels (207 mg/dl). The low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels tended to parallel the total cholesterol levels (highest for Istanbul men at 136 mg/dl and lowest for Aegean coast men and women at approximately 100 mg/dl). Strikingly, the Turkish people were found to have very low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) (mean values for all six regions: men, 34-38 mg/dl; women, 37-45 mg/dl) and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratios that were high (mean values for all six regions: men, 4.5-5.5; women, 3.9-5.0). The low HDL-C levels appear to be caused, at least in part, by a genetic factor. Triglyceride levels also tended to be high in Turkish men (approximately 120-150 mg/dl) and women (approximately 90-110 mg/dl). Thus, even though the total plasma cholesterol levels are not excessively elevated in comparison to those in other populations, the presence of low HDL-C or low HDL-C coupled with mildly elevated triglyceride levels may represent a significant risk factor for heart disease in the Turkish population. Affluence and higher education were associated with higher cholesterol levels. Lack of physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption also tended to be associated with a

  3. RESEARCH ON IMAGO SPACE OF VALLEY CITY--A Case Study of Lanzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Cai-hong; YANG Yong-chun; ZHANG Cong-guo

    2004-01-01

    Currently domestic researches on urban imago space concentrate in a few cities that lie in the advanced region,such as Beijing,Guangzhou,Wuhan,etc.,but in so far as those cities that lie in the northwest inland region,the research of this aspect is still few.In order to supplement a special example to the urban imago space theory and to validate former theory,this article studied the Lanzhou urban imago space.During the course of researching,authors adopted some investigating methods,such as visiting on the spot,photograph identification method and sketch map identification method etc.Using investigated data,this paper made an elementary research on urban imago space of Lanzhou,which is a typical valley city in the western China.The result of study indicated that the urban imago space of Lanzhou takes Xiguan Cross as its center (Lanzhou involves four districts of Chengguan,Qilihe,Anning and Xigu).In the process of recognition of urban imago space,the Huanghe (Yellow) River and mountains beside the city are the dominant factors and the main nodes of cognition.So the urban imago space of Lanzhou is quite different from that of plain cities.Interviewee did well in the spatial structure map,which was made up of mountainous land,river and main trunk roads,the group structure took profound impression on people.

  4. Analysis urban life quality, case study residents of Rostamabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ali Reza poor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main issues raised about sustainable development and the quality of human life. Life quality, economic, social, physical, biological, cultural and political advocacy. City Rostamabad Narmashir city center, which is located in the South East province. Based on the material provided above, the present study is the evaluation of quality of life in the city Rostamabad. The purpose of this studies the physical aspects of quality of life, economic, social and Rostamabad is in the city. Research question is: subjective quality of life of residents in the city Rostamabad (Narmashir How so? This study is a descriptive analysis. Data collection methods include observation, enterprise statistics, and library resources, and Inventory. Quality of Life Questionnaire research tool households. They Collection data by, correlations Statistical tests, Binomial T test, Wilcoxon, and one sample T- test were analyzed. Findings indicated the objective quality of life of city residents Rostamabad is desirable and less desirable in some areas. The results showed the following subjective satisfaction with the quality of this type of service, cost, access time, and so is low. The subjective quality of life in the next few social good and is close to the average. While the have become more favorable for quality of life in all three dimensions of economic, social, and spatial - ecological status of the city.

  5. Emergency Service Location Study for Kyrenia City in Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Siamidoudaran, Meisam

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Considering the attractiveness of one of the cities in Cyprus, known as Kyrenia, among tourists due to its historical buildings and touristic environment, it is crucial to protect the area from fire. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify suitable locations for a fire station which has been achieved through applying the Quantum Geographic Information Systems (QGIS) software and Python Programming Language. In this thesis, a detailed study was conducted for the city of K...

  6. Development of the Jackson Heart Study Coordinating Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Wilson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The public health burden caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD continues to adversely affect individuals in terms of cost, life expectancy, medical, pharmaceutical and hospital care. This burden has been excessive in the case of African Americans. The objective of this paper is to chronicle the procedures and processes that were implemented in the development of the Jackson Heart Study Coordinating Center. The Jackson Heart Study (JHS is a population-based investigation of traditional and emerging risk factors that predict progression to CVD among African Americans. In response to the struggle against CVD, the Jackson Heart Study has convened a professional, technical, and administrative staff with specific competence in the operation of a coordinating center to handle the wide variety of areas related to CVD studies. The Jackson Heart Study Coordinating Center (JHSCC was created to assure validity of the JHS findings and provide the resources necessary to meet comprehensive statistical needs (planning, implementing and monitoring data analysis; data management (designing, implementing and managing data collection and quality control, and administrative support. The JHSCC began with a commitment to support study functions in order to increase participant recruitment, retention and safety, meet regulatory requirements, prepare progress reports, and facilitate effective communication with the community and between all JHS centers. The JHSCC facilitates the efforts of the JHS scientists through the development and implementation of the study protocol. The efforts of the JHSCC have resulted in the successful preparation of scientific reports and manuscripts for publication and presentation of study findings and results. In summary, the JHSCC has emerged as an effective research mechanism that serves as the driving force behind the Jackson Heart Study activities.

  7. Development of the Jackson Heart Study Coordinating Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Jenkins, Brenda W; Addison, Clifton C; Young, Lavon; Anugu, Pramod; Wilson, Gregory; Sarpong, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    The public health burden caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to adversely affect individuals in terms of cost, life expectancy, medical, pharmaceutical and hospital care. This burden has been excessive in the case of African Americans. The objective of this paper is to chronicle the procedures and processes that were implemented in the development of the Jackson Heart Study Coordinating Center. The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is a population-based investigation of traditional and emerging risk factors that predict progression to CVD among African Americans. In response to the struggle against CVD, the Jackson Heart Study has convened a professional, technical, and administrative staff with specific competence in the operation of a coordinating center to handle the wide variety of areas related to CVD studies. The Jackson Heart Study Coordinating Center (JHSCC) was created to assure validity of the JHS findings and provide the resources necessary to meet comprehensive statistical needs (planning, implementing and monitoring data analysis); data management (designing, implementing and managing data collection and quality control), and administrative support. The JHSCC began with a commitment to support study functions in order to increase participant recruitment, retention and safety, meet regulatory requirements, prepare progress reports, and facilitate effective communication with the community and between all JHS centers. The JHSCC facilitates the efforts of the JHS scientists through the development and implementation of the study protocol. The efforts of the JHSCC have resulted in the successful preparation of scientific reports and manuscripts for publication and presentation of study findings and results. In summary, the JHSCC has emerged as an effective research mechanism that serves as the driving force behind the Jackson Heart Study activities. PMID:19543408

  8. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  9. Thromboembolism and mechanical heart valves : A randomized study revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntze, CEE; Blackstone, EH; Ebels, T

    1998-01-01

    Background. This study was designed to revise and substantiate previous inferences, based on short-term follow-up, about differences in the incidence of anticoagulant-related events after heart valve replacement among patients who had been randomly assigned to receive either a Bjork-Shiley, Edwards-

  10. In-vitro calcification study of polyurethane heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boloori Zadeh, Parnian; Corbett, Scott C; Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid

    2014-02-01

    Tri-leaflet polyurethane heart valves have been considered as a potential candidate in heart valve replacement surgeries. In this study, polyurethane (Angioflex(®)) heart valve prostheses were fabricated using a solvent-casting method to evaluate their calcification resistance. These valves were subjected to accelerated life testing (continuous opening and closing of the leaflets) in a synthetic calcification solution. Results showed that Angioflex(®) could be considered as a potential material for fabricating prosthetic heart valves with possibly a higher calcification resistance compared to tissue valves. In addition, calcification resistance of bisphosphonate-modified Angioflex(®) valves was also evaluated. Bisphosphonates are considered to enhance the calcification resistance of polymers once covalently bonded to the bulk of the material. However, our in-vitro results showed that bisphosphonate-modified Angioflex(®) valves did not improve the calcification resistance of Angioflex(®) compared to its untreated counterparts. The results also showed that cyclic loading of the valves' leaflets resulted in formation of numerous cracks on the calcified surface, which were not present when calcification study did not involve mechanical loading. Further study of these cracks did not result in enough evidence to conclude whether these cracks have penetrated to the polymeric surface.

  11. Wife Battering: a Prospective Study in Sanandaj City, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    A Ghazizadeh

    2003-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of domestic physical violence against women and its associated factors in Sanandaj city, Iran, during the year 2000, this study was conducted. Random sampling of 1000 married women resident in Sanandaj city was conducted and underwent a standard interview as well as completed a 23-part questionnaire. 15 % and 38 % of the women had been assaulted by their husbands during the past year or in their marriage, respectively between 1 and 11 or more occasions. Economic pr...

  12. Heart rate awareness in patients with chronic stable heart failure. A multi-center observational study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, D

    2014-08-23

    We assessed adherence to European Society of Cardiology heart rate guidelines (i.e. heart rates less than 70bpm) in patients with chronic stable heart failure. We also investigated the percent of patients on target doses of rate controlling drugs.

  13. A comparison of mortality rates in three prospective studies from Copenhagen with mortality rates in the central part of the city, and the entire country. Copenhagen Center for Prospective Population Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L B; Vestbo, J; Juel, K;

    1998-01-01

    Copenhagen City Heart Study, whereas mortality rates in the Glostrup Population Studies were similar to rates for the whole country. The mortality rates among participants were lower than in the whole sample, and differences existed in relation to region and selection criteria of the cohorts. The Copenhagen...... Male Study, where only employed men were included, showed the lowest mortality rates, and higher rates were found in the study from the central part of the City (the Copenhagen City Heart Study) compared to the study from the suburbs (the Glostrup Population Studies). The difference between mortality...... rates in the cohorts and in Copenhagen City decreased with increasing age. The SMR converged towards 1.00 with increasing observation time. In conclusion, high participation rates were found in all three studies, resulting in SMR values for participants only slightly lower than in the source population...

  14. Assessing Landscape Ecological Risk in a Mining City: A Case Study in Liaoyuan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape ecological risk assessment can effectively identify key elements for landscape sustainability, which directly improves human wellbeing. However, previous research has tended to apply risk probability, measured by overlaying landscape metrics to evaluate risk, generally lacking a quantitative assessment of loss and uncertainty of risk. This study, taking Liaoyuan City as a case area, explores landscape ecological risk assessment associated with mining cities, based on probability of risk and potential ecological loss. The assessment results show landscape ecological risk is lower in highly urbanized areas than those rural areas, suggesting that not only cities but also natural and semi-natural areas contribute to overall landscape-scale ecological risk. Our comparison of potential ecological risk in 58 watersheds in the region shows that ecological loss are moderate or high in the 10 high-risk watersheds. The 35 moderate-risk watersheds contain a large proportion of farmland, and the 13 low-risk watersheds are mainly distributed in flat terrain areas. Our uncertainty analyses result in a close range between simulated and calculated values, suggesting that our model is generally applicable. Our analysis has good potential in the fields of resource development, landscape planning and ecological restoration, and provides a quantitative method for achieving landscape sustainability in a mining city.

  15. Frequency and changes in trends of leading risk factors of coronary heart disease in women in the city of Novi Sad during a 20-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Dušica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround/Aim. From 1984 to 2004 the city of Novi Sad participated through its Health Center “Novi Sad” in the international Multinational MONItoring of Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease (MONICA project, as one of the 38 research centers in 21 countries around the world. The aim of this study was to determine frequency and changes of trends in leading risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD and to analyze the previous trend of movement of coronary event in women in Novi Sad during a 20- year period. Methods. In 2004, the fourth survey within MONICA project was conducted in the city of Novi Sad. The representative sample included 1,041 women between the age of 25 and 74. The prevalence of risk factors in CHD such as smoking, high blood pressure, elevated blood cholesterol, elevated blood glucose and obesity was determined. Also, indicators of risk factors and rates of coronary events in women were compared with the results from MONICA project obtained in previous three screens, as well as with the results from other research centres. χ2-test, linear trend and correlartion coefficient were used in statistical analysis of results obtained. Results. It was observed that during a 20-year period covered by the study, the prevalence of the leading risk factors for the development of CHD in the surveyed women was significantly increasing and in positive correlation with the values of linear trend. Also, the increase of morbidity rates and mortality rates of coronary event were in positive correlation. The decrease was only recorded in the period from 1985-1989 (the implementation of the intervention programme. Conclusion. Upon analysing the increase in prevalence of leading risk factors of CHD and significant increase in the rates of coronary event, we can conclude that health status of women in Novi Sad during a 20-year period was deteriorating.

  16. A study on the normal heart volume of Korean adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac volume mensuration by the roentgenological method was carried out in healthy 220 Korean adolescent, 116 males and 104 females. Predicted heart volume (PHV) and relative heart volume (RHV) were obtained from the following formulae: PHV = K X Broad diameter X Long diameter X Greatest horizontal depth RHV = PHV (total volume in ml)/body surface area (meter squared) The constant, K, represents the product of an ellipsoid area factor and a correction factor for magnification of the cardiac image. Therefore, K value used in this study is 0.42 for 200 cm and 150 cm of the focal-film distance in posterior-anterior and lateral views, respectively. The broad diameter was measured from the junction of the right atrium and the diaphragm to the junction of the pulmonary artery and left atrial appendage. The long diameter was taken from the junction of the superior vena cava and right atrium to the cardiac apex. The greatest horizontal depth of the heart was measured on lateral view. Body surface area was obtained by use of the Du Bolis nomogram. The results were as follows: 1. Predicted roentgenological heart volumes at 16 years to 20 years of age was 449 ± 11.1 ml in makes and 418 ± 7.7 ml in females. It increased with advantage age and height, but was not significantly influenced by changes in body weight in both sexes. 2. Relative heart volume at 16 years to 20 years was 275 ± 5.6 ml/m2 in males, 327 ± 4.1 ml/m2 in females. It increased with advantage age and height, but was not significantly influenced by changes in body weight in both sexes. 3. Roentgenological mensuration was a simple and reliable method in determining the cardiac volume.

  17. Anatomy studies for an artificial heart. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the interval from February of 1972 through December of 1977, studies were conducted relating to the anatomical feasibility of implanting a total artificial heart system. These studies included both the calf as an experimental animal as well as the ultimate human recipient of the artificial heart system. Studies with the calf included definition of the thoracic anatomy relative to the size, shape, and vascular connections for implanting the blood pump. To test the animal's tolerance to an implanted engine system, mockups of the thermal converter were implanted chronically in various locations within the calf. No problems developed in retroperitoneal or intraperitoneal implants ranging from 8 to 15 months. A study to determine accelerations experienced by an abdominally implanted thermal converter was performed in calves. Under the most severe conditions, accelerations of a maximum of 34 Gs were experienced. The largest effort was devoted to defining the human anatomy relative to implanting an artificial heart in the thorax. From a number of data sources, including cadavers as well as living patients, a quantitative, statistical analysis of the size and shape of the male thorax was obtained. Finally, an in vivo study of a functional intrathoracic compliance bag in a calf demonstrated the feasibility of this method

  18. Studies of Genes Involved in Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar K. Ghosh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease (CHD affects the intricate structure and function of the heart and is one of the leading causes of death in newborns. The genetic basis of CHD is beginning to emerge. Our laboratory has been engaged in identifying mutations in genes linked to CHD both in families and in sporadic cases. Over the last two decades, we have employed linkage analysis, targeted gene sequencing and genome wide association studies to identify genes involved in CHDs. Cardiac specific genes that encode transcription factors and sarcomeric proteins have been identified and linked to CHD. Functional analysis of the relevant mutant proteins has established the molecular mechanisms of CHDs in our studies.

  19. Level of education and risk of heart failure: a prospective cohort study with echocardiography evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Heitmann, Merete; Prescott, Eva;

    2011-01-01

    without known myocardial infarction or CHF examined in 1976–78, 1981–83, 1991–94, and 2001–03 in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we studied the effect of education on CHF incidence. During a median follow-up of 21 years (range 0–31), 2190 participants were admitted to hospital for CHF. Age......-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for intermediary (8–10 years) and high level of education (>10 years) with low (....75 (0.67–0.85) and 0.61 (0.50–0.73). In a random subset of the population examined with echocardiography in 2001–03 (n = 3589), education was associated with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, LV dilatation, reduced LV ejection fraction, and severe diastolic dysfunction (P for trend, all

  20. The Performance of the Smart Cities in China—A Comparative Study by Means of Self-Organizing Maps and Social Networks Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Lu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart cities link the city services, citizens, resource and infrastructures together and form the heart of the modern society. As a “smart” ecosystem, smart cities focus on sustainable growth, efficiency, productivity and environmentally friendly development. By comparing with the European Union, North America and other countries, smart cities in China are still in the preliminary stage. This study offers a comparative analysis of ten smart cities in China on the basis of an extensive database covering two time periods: 2005–2007 and 2008–2010. The unsupervised computational neural network self-organizing map (SOM analysis is adopted to map out the various cities based on their performance. The demonstration effect and mutual influences between these ten smart cities are also discussed by using social network analysis. Based on the smart city performance and cluster network, current problems for smart city development in China were pointed out. Future research directions for smart city research are discussed at the end this paper.

  1. Estimating vehicle emissions from road transport, case study: Dublin City

    OpenAIRE

    Achour, Hussam; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani; Carton, James

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is becoming a very important issue for the transportation sector, particularly car emissions in urban areas, and there is much interest in evaluating the actual level of emissions. In this paper, a case study of a standard driving cycle in the urban area of Dublin city is presented. On-road, speed-time data was extracted by an on-board diagnostic tool, and saved into a data acquisition package. Firstly, the driving cycle was established for the urban area of the city; one car tr...

  2. Early complications of stenting in patients with congenital heart disease : a multicentre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gameren, Menno; Witsenburg, Maarten; Takkenberg, Johanna J. M.; Boshoff, Derize; Mertens, Luc; van Oort, Anton M.; de Wolf, DanieL; Freund, Matthias; Sreeram, Narayanswani; Bokenkamp, Regina; Talsma, Melle D.; Gewillig, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Aims Stenting has become an established interventional cardiology procedure for congenital heart disease. Although most stent procedures are completed successfully, complications may occur. This multicentre study evaluated early complications after stenting in patients with congenital heart disease,

  3. Coronary heart disease clinical manifestation and risk factors in Japanese immigrants and their descendents in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amato Reynaldo Vicente

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a difference exists in coronary heart disease clinical manifestations and the prevalence of risk factors between Japanese immigrants and their descendents in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of coronary artery disease clinical manifestations and the prevalence of risk factors, comparing 128 Japanese immigrants (Japanese group with 304 Japanese descendents (Nisei group. RESULTS: The initial manifestation of the disease was earlier in the Nisei group (mean = 53 years, a difference of 12 years when compared with that in the Japanese group (mean = 65 years (P<0.001. Myocardial infarction was the first manifestation in both groups (P = 0.83. The following parameters were independently associated with early coronary events: smoking (OR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.35-3.77; P<0.002; Nisei group (OR = 10.22; 95% CI = 5.64-18.5; P<0.001; and female sex (OR = 5.04; 95% CI = 2.66-9.52; P<0.001. CONCLUSION: The clinical presentation of coronary heart disease in the Japanese and their descendents in the city of São Paulo was similar, but coronary heart disease onset occurred approximately 12 years earlier in the Nisei group than in the Japanese group.

  4. Smoking and Ischemic Heart Disease Disparities Between Studies, Genders, Times, and Socioeconomic Strata

    OpenAIRE

    Leistikow, Bruce N

    2009-01-01

    Large, unexplained, but possibly related disparities exist between heart disease risks observed in differing genders, educational levels, times, and studies. Such heart disease disparities might be related to cumulative tobacco smoke damage (smoke load) disparities that are overlooked in standard assessments of point smoking status. So, I reviewed possible relationships between smoke load and heart disease levels across genders, educational strata, years, and leading studies. Smoker heart dis...

  5. Integrated Sustainability Monitoring of 58 EU-Cities : A Study of European Green Capital Award Applicant Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoeteman, B.C.J.; Van der Zande, M.; Smeets, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the result of a monitoring study of Telos, Tilburg University, the Netherlands, including 58 European Green Capital Award (GCA) applicant cities. Its purpose is to investigate (causes of) differences in sustainability performance between EU cities and possible interlink ages between th

  6. Study on Promotion of City Public Security and Improvement of City Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>1. Problems existing in city publicsecurity The city public security (CPS) refers tothe security guarantee provided and led by governments for the people, property,as well as important lifeline systems of

  7. Flood Insurance Study, City of Logan, Utah, Cache County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1984-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Logan, Cache County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study will be used to convert Logan to the regular program of flood insurance by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Local and regional planners will use this study in their efforts to promote sound flood plain management.

  8. Comparative study on cerebral injury after open heart surgery in patients with congenital and rheumatic heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong; XIAO Ying-bin; CHEN Lin; ZHONG Qian-jin; WANG Xue-feng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To comparatively study the different effects of open heart surgery on brain tissues of patients with congenital and rheumatic heart disease. Methods: Forty patients with congenital heart disease (CHD, CHD group, n=20) or rheumatic heart disease (RHD, RHD group, n=20) underwent on-pump (cardiopulmonary bypass, CPB) heart-beating open heart surgery. Blood samples before CPB, and 20 minutes, 1 hour, 24 hours and 7 days after CPB were collected, and the levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and protein S-100b in the plasma were determined with enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. All the patients were examined with electroencephalogram (EEG) before and 1 week after operation. The changes of NSE, S-100b and EEG compared to verify the difference of postoperative cerebral injury between CHD cases and RHD cases. Results: The plasma level of S-100b increased significantly 20 minutes after CPB and was still higher than the preoperative level at 24 hours after operation in both groups (P<0.01). The plasma level of NSE increased more significantly in the CHD group than in the RHD group 20 minutes after CPB and it returned to the normal level 24 hours after CPB in the CHD group but remained at a high level in the RHD group (P<0.01). The levels of NSE and S-100b returned to the normal levels on the 7th day after CPB. Abnormal EEG was found in 75% of the patients in the CHD group and 60% in the RHD group. Conclusions: On-pump heart-beating open heart surgery can cause certain cerebral injury in the patients with CHD or RHD. The injury was more severe and recovered more quickly in the CHD group than in the RHD group.

  9. Urban transformation and social change in a Libyan city: an anthropological study of Tripoli

    OpenAIRE

    Elbendak, Omar Emhamed

    2008-01-01

    This PhD thesis is a study of urban transformation in a Libyan city. The case study focuses on the city of Tripoli, the capital of Libya. It is at the same time an old city as well as a modern city, and can be identified as a major world city. Libya has experienced one of the highest rates of urbanisation in the last few decades. Libya’s rate of urbanisation is 88%, putting it higher than that of all other African cities and, indeed, some European cities as well. The research explores the urb...

  10. Signs of inflammation in different types of heart valve disease : The VOCIN study

    OpenAIRE

    Wallby, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Heart valve dysfunction is a relatively common condition in the population, whereas significant heart valve disease is more unusual. The cause of different types of heart valve disease depends on which valve is concerned. Rheumatic heart valve disease, has for a long time been considered to constitute a post-inflammatory condition. During the 1990s it was also shown that the so-called non-rheumatic or degenerative tricuspid aortic stenosis, comprised signs of inflammation. In this study, 118 ...

  11. STUDY OF WASTE IN THE CITY OF ITABUNA-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josessira Galy Farias Barreto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil the expansion of cities eventually endanger the quality of life and the environment, as occurred without adequate urban and environmental planning which contributed to the increased generation of construction waste. With this research we intended to contribute to the analysis of impacts to the environment and quality of life that cause construction waste in city Itabuna. This study consists of a field survey of exploratory and descriptive nature, aimed at identifying areas of irregular deposition and discarded materials for the construction industry as well as scoring alternatives to minimize the impacts resulting from irregular depositions. It was found that although the recycling of construction and demolition waste are a favorable solution to mitigate environmental impacts due to irregular depositions in the city, there is a need to highlight the importance of education, in order to clarify and teach the public how deal with RCD's about the generation, deposition, transport and disposal, making a structured and efficient within the actions of the government, for change of habit and culture in the city of Itabuna regarding these types of waste and its implications.

  12. Flood Insurance Study, City of Manti, Utah, Sanpete County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1987-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Manti, Sanpete County, Utah and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound floodplain management. Minimum floodplain manageme...

  13. Flood Insurance Study City of Duchesne, Utah, Duchesne County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1988-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Duchesne, Duchesne County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain m...

  14. Flood Insurance Study, City of Salina, Utah, Sevier County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1986-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Salina, Sevier County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain manag...

  15. Flood Insurance Study, City of St. George, Utah, Washington County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1998-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of St. George, Washington County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1964 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1971. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood pla...

  16. Flood Insurance Study, City of Draper, Utah, Salt Lake County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1994-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Draper, Salt Lake County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain ma...

  17. Flood Insurance Study, City of Midvale, Utah, Salt Lake County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1994-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Midvale, Salt Lake County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to established [sic] actuarial flood insurance rates and to assist the community in its efforts to promote sound floodplain management. Minimum flo...

  18. Flood Insurance Study, City of Murray, Utah, Salt Lake County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1994-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Murray, Salt Lake County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain ma...

  19. Flood Insurance Study, City of Richfield, Utah, Sevier County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1986-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of Richfield, Sevier County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood plain ma...

  20. CEP action area studies : City of Yellowknife fleet review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The City of Yellowknife maintains a fleet of vehicles and equipment used for public service. Yellowknife's Community Energy Plan (CEP) has a goal to reduce Yellowknife's fleet fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20 per cent within 10 years. This report examined current fuel consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet based on available data and examined options to reduce fleet fuel consumption. It also quantified the reduction in fuel consumption, GHG emissions, as well as the financial impacts of various options. An overview of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of vehicles and equipment was first provided, as well as calculated annual values for fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and energy consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet. Two fleet management case studies were presented. Fuel-efficient vehicles on the market that could provide an opportunity to replace some of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of light vehicles, and bylaw vehicles with fuel-efficient vehicles were discussed. These vehicles include hybrid vehicles, smart cars, compressed natural gas vehicles, and compressed-air vehicles. Equipment maintenance for tires, preventive, synthetic oils, and driver training programs were discussed. Anti-idling campaigns and technologies were also examined. The report concluded with a discussion of renewable fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol blended gasoline. Fleet fuel consumption, GHG and financial impacts were provided for each chapter heading. It was concluded that if all of the measures identified in the report were implemented, an overall decrease in GHG emissions of approximately 15 per cent would be achieved. 15 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  1. Building Collaborative Health Promotion Partnerships: The Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton C. Addison

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Building Collaborative Health Promotion Partnerships: The Jackson Heart Study. Background: Building a collaborative health promotion partnership that effectively employs principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR involves many dimensions. To ensure that changes would be long-lasting, it is imperative that partnerships be configured to include groups of diverse community representatives who can develop a vision for long-term change. This project sought to enumerate processes used by the Jackson Heart Study (JHS Community Outreach Center (CORC to create strong, viable partnerships that produce lasting change. Methods: JHS CORC joined with community representatives to initiate programs that evolved into comprehensive strategies for addressing health disparities and the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This collaboration was made possible by first promoting an understanding of the need for combined effort, the desire to interact with other community partners, and the vision to establish an effective governance structure. Results: The partnership between JHS CORC and the community has empowered and inspired community members to provide leadership to other health promotion projects. Conclusion: Academic institutions must reach out to local community groups and together address local health issues that affect the community. When a community understands the need for change to respond to negative health conditions, formalizing this type of collaboration is a step in the right direction.

  2. Rationale and study design of a cross sectional study documenting the prevalence of Heart Failure amongst the minority ethnic communities in the UK: the E-ECHOES Study (Ethnic - Echocardiographic Heart of England Screening Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Freemantle Nick; Davies Michael; Davis Russell; Gill Paramjit S; Lip Gregory YH

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Heart failure is an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Studies to date have not established the prevalence heart failure amongst the minority ethnic community in the UK. T'he aim of the E-ECHOES (Ethnic - Echocardiographic Heart of England Screening Study)is to establish, for the first time, the community prevalence and severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and heart failure amongst the South Asian and Black African-Caribbean ethn...

  3. Living with an unfixable heart: a qualitative study exploring the experience of living with advanced heart failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Marie

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Nurses working with patients with advanced heart failure need knowledge that will help us to help patients cope with their situations of chronic illness. However, our knowledge bank is deficient due to the scarcity of inquiry that takes the affected person\\'s point of view as its central focus. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe patients\\' experiences of living with advanced heart failure. METHODS: The study sample (N=9) consisted of male (N=6) and female (N=3) patients with advanced (NYHA classes III-IV) heart failure. The design was qualitative and open unstructured interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim during 2006. RESULTS: Four main themes emerged: Living in the Shadow of Fear; Running on Empty; Living a Restricted life; and Battling the System. The experience of living with advanced heart failure was described as a fearful and tired sort of living characterised by escalating impotence and dependence. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that there may be an illogical but enduring ethos of \\'cure\\' pervading health care worker\\'s attitudes to advanced heart failure care. This mindset might be working to hinder the application of additional or alternative therapies, which might better palliate the physical and psychosocial distress of patients.

  4. Do patients with suspected heart failure and preserved left ventricular systolic function suffer from “diastolic heart failure” or from misdiagnosis? A prospective descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Caruana, L; Petrie, M.C.; Davie, A.P.; McMurray, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterise the clinical features of patients with suspected heart failure but preserved left ventricular systolic function to determine if they have other potential causes for their symptoms rather than being diagnosed with 'diastolic heart failure.' DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Outpatient based direct access echocardiography service. PARTICIPANTS: 159 consecutive patients with suspected heart failure referred by general practitioners. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES...

  5. STUDY OF AQUATIC ANGIOSPERMIC PLANTS OF ANAND CITY, GUJARAT, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. PATEL1 AND N. K. PATEL2

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the taxonomic study of Aquatic Angiosperms growing throughout the Anand city. The plants are listed along with their brief taxonomic account of each species with current nomenclature, vernacular name, family and uses. The  collected plants are systematically observed during present work, During my study I observed various aquatic angiospermic plants such as   Ceratophyllum demersum, Colocasia esculenta, Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Nymphoides indicum, Ludwigia repens, Polygonum orientale, Typha elephantina, Lemna perpusilla, Spirodella polyrrhiza, Xanthium indicum, Phyllanthus reticulatus, Cynodon dactylon, Hydrilla verticillata were very common. Whereas Nymphaea nouchali, Polygonum barbatum, Scirpus articulatus were very rare in the study area.

  6. Place Marketing. Cluj-Napoca City Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tudor LAZĂR

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, places have become like businesses. Forces such as globalization and the new 21st century technology lead to the mobility of the resources. In this newly created situation places found themselves in a position of competing with each other. In order to face this competition places incorporate new concepts such as “marketing” into their development strategies. Concepts such as ‘place competition’, ‘distinguish and competitive advantages of the place’, ‘the brand of the place’ and ‘co-branding’ are key aspects discussed in this paper regarding the case of Cluj-Napoca. In this study we focus on elaborating this key aspects of place marketing from the citizens’ perception. We asked the citizens about their perception concerning: the most representative city brands, the importance of these brands in promoting the city’s image, the differences between their city and others and their perception towards the existence of place competition.

  7. Wife Battering: a Prospective Study in Sanandaj City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ghazizadeh

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of domestic physical violence against women and its associated factors in Sanandaj city, Iran, during the year 2000, this study was conducted. Random sampling of 1000 married women resident in Sanandaj city was conducted and underwent a standard interview as well as completed a 23-part questionnaire. 15 % and 38 % of the women had been assaulted by their husbands during the past year or in their marriage, respectively between 1 and 11 or more occasions. Economic problems were the most frequent cause of domestic quarrel, while there was a significant association between the husband’s educational level and the violence against their wives (P=0.001.The physical violence against housewives was significantly more frequent than the employed ones .The husbands job was also significantly associated with their violence The existence of child or daughter in the family had a preventive role in domestic physical violence against women. Logit Regression Model for prediction of physical violence against women (Y during the marriage was: "Y=0.014- 0.029 woman’s age +0.199 numbers of children -0.238 man’s education +0.589 woman’s job ". This study confirms for Sanandaj city of Iran, the high frequency of physical violence against women by their husbands. Cultural education and supportive measures are essential to control that. Screening protocol for the detection of domestic violence in family planning Health Care System is recommended.

  8. Zero emission city. Preliminary study; Null-Emissions-Stadt. Sondierungsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenbach, N.; Enseling, A.; Werner, P.; Flade, A.; Greiff, R.; Hennings, D.; Muehlich, E.; Wullkopf, U.; Sturm, P.; Kieslich, W.; Born, R.; Grossklos, M.; Hatteh, R.; Mueller, K.; Ratschow, A.; Valouch-Fornoff, C.

    2002-10-01

    The idea of a 'zero emission city' is investigated by the Institut Wohnen und Umwelt on behalf of the Federal Minister of Education and Research. After describing the current situation and defining the key parameters of a 'zero emission city', settlement structures, power supply, production processes and transportation are analyzed and linked with the communal action level to obtain a framework for research, activities and actions. The study ends with recommendations for a research programme 'zero emission city'. (orig.) [German] Die von den Staedten der Industrielaender ausgehenden Emissionen stellen im Hinblick auf die globalen Belastungen wie z.B. Treibhauseffekt, Ozonabbau und Versauerung das Hauptproblem dar. Aus diesem Grunde bietet es sich an, den Gedanken der 'Null-Emissions-Stadt', der Vision einer moeglichst emissionsfreien Stadt, aufzugreifen und auf seine Tragfaehigkeit fuer innovative Handlungsmodelle forschungsstrategisch zu ueberpruefen. Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung hat das Institut Wohnen und Umwelt beauftragt, in einer Sondierungsstudie dieser Fragestellung nachzugehen. Nach der Festlegung der Ausgangsbedingungen und Eckpunkte der Vision 'Null-Emissions-Stadt' und der Analyse der vier Handlungsfelder Siedlungsstrukturen, Energieversorgung, Produktionsprozesse (Kreislaufwirtschaft) und Verkehr werden diese aufgegriffen und mit der kommunalen Handlungsebene verknuepft und zu einem Forschungs-, Handlungs- und moeglichen Aktionsrahmen zusammengefuegt. Die Studie schliesst mit Hinweisen fuer die Gestaltung eines Forschungsprogramms 'Null-Emissions-Stadt'. (orig.)

  9. Armstrong City: A Permanent Settlement for Exo-Planetary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspon, J.

    Development of a permanent placement lunar base is the next fundamental step in an international program to explore and settle other planets within our solar system. While technical, operational, managerial and long-term issues must be considered, the establishment of a lunar facility can serve the preliminary needs of manned civilization in space. Numerous issues become apparent in the consideration of the activation of a lunar base. Specific and realistic determinations must be made about various types of interests in addition to the general conjectures given above. These activities include: - Spacecraft landings and vehicle systems - Crew selection, supplies and habitability - Power production and distribution - Risk management - Science and lunar activities - Base planning and configurations - Integrated operations and maintenance - Management. The development and activation of a lunar colony will require careful consideration to the future of space activities and operations in near Earth space. A lunar city, which we call Armstrong city, is defined by its own unique natural environment, available technology, realistic objectives, and common sense. Armstrong City, a preliminary first lunar base, will most probably be serving as an extended "division" of Earth's space exploration offices. The reasons are very simple and practical. -First, the costs of maintaining a permanent space facility will be lower in the long run than the costs of a series of short duration, rotating manned bases, -Second, studies in long-term space habitation can effectively be carried out in relative safety, -Third, the initial tasks which need to be done will define and establish methodologies and issues for development of future extraterrestrial base concepts, and -Fourth, the complexities of the initial facilities necessary to sustain the citizens can be tempered through developing local resources and reproducible research. In order to bring about development of Armstrong City, four

  10. Developing Carbon Budgets for Cities: Phoenix as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, M. R.; Baker, L. A.; Koerner, B. A.; Grimm, N. B.

    2008-12-01

    Studies have shown that cities can alter regional carbon dynamics through changing ecosystem productivity, overall carbon cycling rate, and total carbon storage in vegetation and soils. Furthermore, people in urban regions import a large amount of carbon in food and fuel, as well as release an exceptional amount of CO2 into the atmosphere. Numerous studies have attempted to quantify some sources and sinks of carbon in urban areas, although a complete carbon budget for a city that accounts for total inputs, outputs, and storage within the ecosystem has yet to be fully accomplished. One challenge is associated with attaining the data necessary to accurately account for all carbon dynamics in these heterogeneous and complex ecosystems. Our goal was to estimate a budget for the Phoenix metropolitan area while developing methodology to calculate carbon dynamics in urban systems that can be applied to cities across the US. Only with comparable carbon budgets for multiple cities will we finally begin to understand the influence of urbanization on carbon dynamics. Our analysis shows when calculating certain variables like transportation emissions, results can vary radically (up to 250%) depending on the data source and methodology implemented (i.e. bottom-up vs. top-down). A common assumption is that productivity and carbon storage will increase with urbanization in arid systems due to water and nutrient inputs, as well as changes in vegetation structure; however, our results indicated that this may not actually be the case in Phoenix where a large number of residents design landscapes to conserve water. Even if all urban expansion was dedicated to landscapes designed for carbon sequestration and storage, vegetation and soils will unlikely have a large effect on the C budget without significant changes in transportation and lifestyle choices.

  11. Cities, Towns and Villages, Published in 2010, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Heart of Georgia Altamaha RC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010....

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF CORONARY SINUS IN HUMAN CADAVERIC HEARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manoranjitham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The coronary sinus is a dilated venous channel opening into the right atrium of the heart. The coronary venous system has gained importance in recent years for electrophysiological procedures like arrhythmia ablation, biventricular pacing and implantation of cardiac pacemakers. The present study aims to study the formation and tributaries of coronary sinus and also the morphology of thebesian valve. Materials and Methods: 30 formalin fixed cadaveric hearts available in the department of Anatomy, Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital, Perambalur, Tamil nadu, was used for the study. The formation and tributaries of coronary sinus were noted. The length of coronary sinus in millimeters was measured from the union of great cardiac vein and left marginal vein upto the opening of the coronary sinus in the right atrium with vernier calipers. The width of the coronary ostium in the right atrium was measured in millimeters with vernier calipers. Results: In 93.33% specimens the coronary sinus was formed by the union of great cardiac vein and left marginal vein. In 3.33% specimens it was formed by the union of great cardiac vein and posterior vein of left ventricle, and in 3.33% specimens it was formed by the union of great cardiac vein and oblique vein of left atrium. The left marginal vein was absent in 2 specimens and small cardiac vein was absent in 1 specimen. The mean length of coronary sinus was 54.98 + 12.2mm. The mean width of coronary sinus ostium was 9.35 + 3.24mm. The Thebesian valve was present in 93.33% specimens and it was semilunar in shape. Conclusion: The knowledge of coronary sinus anatomy will be helpful during electrophysiological procedures.

  13. Dyspnoea and worsening heart failure in patients with acute heart failure : results from the Pre-RELAX-AHF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metra, Marco; Teerlink, John R.; Felker, G. Michael; Greenberg, Barry H.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Ponikowski, Piotr; Teichman, Sam L.; Unemori, Elaine; Voors, Adriaan A.; Weatherley, Beth Davison; Cotter, Gad

    2010-01-01

    Although dyspnoea is the most common cause of admission for acute heart failure (AHF), more needs to be known about its clinical course and prognostic significance. The Pre-RELAX-AHF study randomized 232 subjects with AHF to placebo or four doses of relaxin and evaluated early (6-24 h Likert scale)

  14. Automated selection of areas of interest in dynamic studies and camera-cinematograpy of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in heart investigations using the first transit principle and the steady-state procedure for radionuclide scanning. Progress in the first transit principle relies on automated selection of areas of interest. A procedure has been developed which automatically performs the evaluation of the areas corresponding to the right heart, the lungs, and the left heart. A different procedure has been built up for dynamic lung studies with Xe-133 (Radiospirometry), which principally can be applied to any other organ investigation. R-wave time averaged procedures of the heart in steady state can be performed in direct or indirect manner. A direct procedure is described that leads eventually to a cinematographic presentation of the heart kinetics on the computer display. The analysis yields an exact outline of heart ventricles and auricles as prerequisite for determination of ejection fractions and clinically relevant data of the heart function

  15. Incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease in the adult health study sample, 1958 - 78

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 16,000 study subjects in the Adult Health Study sample who had received examination at least once during the 20 years (1958 - 78) in Hiroshima or Nagasaki and were found to have neither stroke nor coronary heart disease (CHD) at the initial examination were studied for the incidence of stroke and CHD and the relationship of these to atomic bomb radiation exposure. Their secular trends were also studied. Findings suggestive of a relationship between stroke and radiation exposure among Hiroshima females were first discovered for the years 1969 - 73, that is, 24 - 28 years after A-bomb exposure. In general, this association is supported by the present analysis. Stroke incidence continued to decrease during the present report's period of observation. Analysis by type showed that cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage both decreased, but the decrease of the latter is especially remarkable. The trend to decrease is observed in both sexes and in both cities. A relationship between CHD and radiation exposure was, as noted for stroke, first observed only in Hiroshima females for the years 1969 - 73, but from this analysis it appears that the trend began earlier and the association is getting stronger with the passage of time. Analysis by type showed myocardial infarction (MI), but not angina pectoris, to be related to radiation exposure. The incidence rate for CHD, especially for MI, was almost constant during the observation period, it being 1.2/1,000 person-years on the average. Comparing by sex, the incidence rate was constant in males. In females, the pattern varied with time. There appear to be no between-city differences in secular trends - essentially constant. (author)

  16. A Pathological Study of the Epidemiology of Atherosclerosis in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Rodríguez-Saldaña

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the frequency and patterns of association of cardiovascular risk factors with atherosclerosis in five different arterial territories at post-mortem in Mexico City. Methods. We obtained five arterial territories arteries (circle of Willis, coronary, carotid, renal, and aorta of 185 men and women 0 to 90 years of age who underwent autopsy at the Medical Forensic Service of Mexico City. We determined the prevalence and extent of atherosclerotic lesions by histopathology according to the classification of the American Heart Association as early (types I–III and advanced (types IV–VI, and according to the degree of stenosis and correlated with cardiovascular risk factors. Results. Atherosclerotic lesions were identified in at least one arterial territory in 181 subjects (97.8%, with involvement of two ore more territories in 178 subjects (92.2%. Advanced lesions were observed in 36% and 67% of subjects under 15 and between 16 and 35 years, respectively. Any degree of atherosclerosis was associated with the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, overweight, obesity, and smoking, and to a greater extent with the presence of two or more risk factors (P<0.001. However, emerging and advanced athersoclerosis was observed in 53% and 20% people with no risk factors. Conclusions. The study shows a high prevalence of atherosclerosis in all age groups and both sexes. There is considerable development of atherosclerotic disease in subjects without known risk factors.

  17. Providing a Model for Measuring the Sustainable Development in Cities (Case Study: Mashhad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Javaher Ghalam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This applied study collects descriptive information by Delphi survey method as well as investigating in the field of significant correlation or lack of correlation of main hypotheses which have also the sub-hypotheses. The Main hypothesis is to have a significant correlation between the indicators of urbanization in Mashhad city and the sustainable development. Statistical sampling is done randomly and by using Cochran's formula. In this study, Kolmogorov and Smirnov test has been used in order to determine significant correlation between the independent and dependent variables and also the sub-hypotheses test by Pearson correlation coefficient method has been used. Moreover, in this study the factor analysis based on new and advanced method of structural equation (Partial Least Squares PLS has been used in order to analyze and investigate the important coefficients and factors, estimate the coefficients of independent variables and even determine the effectiveness of each of the independent variables on each other. As a result of this research a significant correlation between the urbanization indicators and sustainable development is calculated and finally the suggestions are provided in order to continue and develop this study.

  18. Ischemic heart disease and primary care: identifying gender-related differences. An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Real Jordi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-related differences are seen in multiple aspects of both health and illness. Ischemic heart disease (IHD is a pathology in which diagnostic, treatment and prognostic differences are seen between sexes, especially in the acute phase and in the hospital setting. The objective of the present study is to analyze whether there are differences between men and women when examining associated cardiovascular risk factors and secondary pharmacological prevention in the primary care setting. Methods Retrospective descriptive observational study from January to December of 2006, including 1907 patients diagnosed with ischemic heart disease in the city of Lleida, Spain. The clinical data were obtained from computerized medical records and pharmaceutical records of medications dispensed in pharmacies with official prescriptions. Data was analyzed using bivariate descriptive statistical analysis as well as logistic regression. Results There were no gender-related differences in screening percentages for arterial hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipemia, and smoking. A greater percentage of women were hypertensive, obese and diabetic compared to men. However, men showed a tendency to achieve control targets more easily than women, with no statistically significant differences. In both sexes cardiovascular risk factors control was inadequate, between 10 and 50%. For secondary pharmaceutical prevention, the percentages of prescriptions were greater in men for anticoagulants, beta-blockers, lipid-lowering agents and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers, with age group variations up to 10%. When adjusting by age and specific diagnoses, differences were maintained for anticoagulants and lipid-lowering agents. Conclusion Screening of cardiovascular risk factors was similar in men and women with IHD. Although a greater percentage of women were hypertensive, diabetic or obese, their management of risk

  19. A Study of Eimeria Species in Sheep in Mosul City

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    M. H. Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to diagnose and study species of Eimeria in sheep in Mosul city from beginning of September2009 to end May 2010, as well as to determine the percentage and intensity of infection of Eimeria species. Five hundredfecal samples of sheep with different ages were collected from different areas of the Mosul city. The results showed that totalpercentage of Emeria infection was 63.6%. The variations in percentage of infection were recorded according to month ofstudy. Highest percentage was recorded in March being 89.2% and the lowest in September 25.9%. The species E. ovinarecorded the highest infection rate 86.7%, while the species E. granulosa represented lowest infection rate 10%. Moreover theintensity of infection was higher in young ages and lower in adult. The results were detected that indoor sheep infection withhigh parasitic infection 69.9% whereas outdoor animals have an infection rate 25.3%. The morphological characters of oocystswere varied according to species of Eimeria has been studied. Fifty of intestinal and abomasal samples from both slaughteredin shops butchery in Mosul city and dead animals were examined to detect Eimeria infection, and results show that infectionpercentage was 56.4% in intestine of slaughtered animals and 36.3% in dead animal. Moreover no infection of Eimeria weredetected in abomasums in both slaughtered and dead animals. The oocysts of (E. parva, E.pallida and E. ovinoidalis detectedat more than 5000 oocysts per gram of intestinal contents. The intestinal secraping stained with Giemsa stain reveals thepresence of different developmental stages of parasites in wall of intestine. The histopathological sections of intestine revealedthe different pathological changes concerning of Eimeria infection.

  20. Study on Global Warming and Fuel Conservation in Surat City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Bansal, Hormaz Garda, Ghanshyam Padmani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study reveals that though middle and upper middle class of people in Surat city are aware of global warming, contributory reasons and containment measures, yet remain insensitive in terms of practices. The paper points to the need to increase their collective consciousness and responsiveness to this issue through intense awareness campaigns and rallies to promote measures as pooling of vehicles, cycling, hybrid cars and efficient rapid public transport systems through institution of measures at individual, community and government levels to ameliorate hindrances to the adoption of environment friendly practices as reported in the observations.

  1. Divorce and death: forty years of the Charleston Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarra, David A; Nietert, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Forty years of follow-up data from the Charleston Heart Study (CHS) were used to examine the risk for early mortality associated with marital separation or divorce in a sample of more than 1,300 adults assessed on several occasions between 1960 and 2000. Participants who were separated or divorced at the start of the study evidenced significantly elevated rates of early mortality, and these results held after adjusting for baseline health status and other demographic variables. Being separated or divorced throughout the CHS follow-up window was one of the strongest predictors of early mortality. However, the excess mortality risk associated with separation or divorce was completely eliminated when participants who had ever experienced a marital separation or divorce during the study were compared with all other participants. These findings suggest that a key predictor of early death is the amount of time people live as separated or divorced. It is possible that the mortality risk conferred by marital dissolution is due to dimensions of personality that predict divorce as well as a decreased likelihood of future remarriage.

  2. Widening access to cardiovascular healthcare: community screening among ethnic minorities in inner-city Britain – the Healthy Hearts Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Inessa

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Britain is concentrated in inner-city areas such as Sandwell, which is home to a diverse multi-ethnic population. Current guidance for CVD risk screening is not established, nor are there specific details for ethnic minorities. Given the disparity in equitable healthcare for these groups, we developed a 'tailored' and systematic approach to CVD risk screening within communities of the Sandwell locality. The key anticipated outcomes were the numbers of participants from various ethnic backgrounds attending the health screening events and the prevalence of known and undiagnosed CVD risk within ethnic groups. Methods Data was collected during 10 health screening events (September 2005 and July 2006, which included an assessment of raised blood pressure, overweight, hyperlipidaemia, impaired fasting glucose, smoking habit and the 10 year CVD risk score. Specific features of our approach included (i community involvement, (ii a clinician who could deliver immediate attention to adverse findings, and (iii the use of an interpreter. Results A total of 824 people from the Sandwell were included in this study (47% men, mean age 47.7 years from community groups such as the Gujarati Indian, Punjabi Indian, European Caucasian, Yemeni, Pakistani and Bangladeshi. A total of 470 (57% individuals were referred to their General Practitioner with a report of an increased CVD score – undetected high blood pressure in 120 (15%, undetected abnormal blood glucose in 70 (8%, undetected raised total cholesterol in 149 (18%, and CVD risk management review in 131 (16%. Conclusion Using this systematic and targeted approach, there was a clear demand for this service from people of various ethnic backgrounds, of whom, one in two needed review from primary or secondary healthcare. Further work is required to assess the accuracy and clinical benefits of this community health screening approach.

  3. An Empirical Study of the School Zone Law in Three Cities in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownsberger, William N.; Aromaa, Susan

    This study of the 1989 Massachusetts' School Anti-Drug law reviewed 443 drug dealing cases in three cities. After selecting cities and drug dealing cases, researchers reviewed District Attorney case files and extracted selected data items (primarily from police reports). They mapped incident locations, schools, and parks in the cities; computed…

  4. Right heart in septic shock: prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ratender Kumar; Kumar, Sudeep; Nadig, Sreevatsa; Baronia, Arvind Kumar; Poddar, Banani; Azim, Afzal; Gurjar, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Background The right heart often receives less attention during echocardiography. The situation is no different in septic shock. We prospectively investigated the echocardiographic indices of the right heart in septic shock adult patients. Methods Septic shock ICU patients within 24 h of admission were subjected to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) as per the 2005 guidelines from the American Society of Echocardiography. Results Eighty-eight septic shock patients (M:F = 52:36) underwent TT...

  5. Informal Caregivers' Experiences and Needs When Caring for a Relative With Heart Failure: An Interview Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gusdal, A. K.; Josefsson, K.; Adolfsson, E. T.; Martin, L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Informal caregivers play an important role for persons with heart failure in strengthening medication adherence, encouraging self-care, and identifying deterioration in health status. Caring for a relative with heart failure can affect informal caregivers' well-being and cause caregiver burden. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore informal caregivers' experiences and needs when caring for a relative with heart failure living in their own home. Methods: The...

  6. THE STUDY OF PREVALENCE AND CLINICAL PROFILE OF VALVULAR HEART DISEASES IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Radha Krishnan; Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Valvular heart disease is still a common causes of mortality and morbidity in India and rheumatic heart disease is still far more frequent. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence and clinical profile of rheumatic and non - rheumatic valvular heart dise ase in patients attending to Government General Hospital, Kakinada. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 100 Adult patients with valvular abnormalities attending to the Medicine and Cardiol...

  7. Presenting features of newly diagnosed rheumatic heart disease patients in Mulago Hospital: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Mondo, Charles; Musoke, Charles; Kayima, James; Freers, Jurgen; Zhang, Wanzhu; OKELLO, Emmy; Kakande, Barbara; Nyakoojo, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) continues to cause gross distortions of the heart and the associated complications of heart failure and thromboembolic phenomena in this age of numerous high-efficacy drugs and therapeutic interventions. Due to the lack of contemporary local data, there is no national strategy for the control and eradication of the disease in Uganda. This study aimed to describe the presenting clinical features of newly diagnosed patients with RHD, with particular re...

  8. Study on Visualization of Virtual City Model Based on Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Baoxuan; BIAN Fuling; ZUO Xiaoqing; WANG Fangxiong

    2005-01-01

    With the rapid development of computer graphics, distributed-computing and Internet, it is possible to achieve Internet-based virtual city.This paper dwells on the method of the terrain and its feature modeling and complex entity modeling in the virtual city.Then, discusses the method for Internet-based virtual city 3D visualization and the design of the Browser/Server architecture of the system of virtual city in the network environment.Finally, Java and Java 3D are used to show an experiment example, and the related conclusion about Internet-based virtual city 3D displaying and the client-side interactive operation is given.

  9. The Prognostic Value of Non-Linear Analysis of Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure—A Pilot Study of Multiscale Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Lwun Ho; Chen Lin; Yen-Hung Lin; Men-Tzung Lo

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: The influences of nonstationarity and nonlinearity on heart rate time series can be mathematically qualified or quantified by multiscale entropy (MSE). The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of parameters derived from MSE in the patients with systolic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with systolic heart failure were enrolled in this study. One month after clinical condition being stable, 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram was recording. MSE as well as oth...

  10. Implementation Of The Local Minimum Wage In Malang City (A Case Study in Malang City 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhea Candra Dewi Candra Dewi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wage system in a framework of how wages set and defined in order to improve the welfare of worker. The Indonesian government attempt to set a minimum wage in accordance with the eligibility standard of living. The study intend to analize the policy of Local Minimum Wage in Malang City in 2014, its implementation and constraining factors of those Local Minimum Wages. The research uses interactive model analysis as introduced by Miles and Hubermann [6] that consist of data collection, data reduction, data display, and conclusion. Constraining factors seen at the respond given by relevant actors to the policy such as employer organizations, worker unions, wage councils, and local government. Firstly, company as employer organization does not use wage scale system as suggested by the policy. Secondly, lack of communication forum between company and worker union sounds very high. Thirdly, inability of small and big companies to pay minimum standard wages. Lastly, disagreement and different opinion about wage scale applied between local wage council, employer organization and workers union that often occurs in tripartite communication forum.     Keywords: Employers Organization, Local Minimum Wage, Local Wage Council, Policy Implementation, Tripartite Communication forum, Workers Union.

  11. Visit-to-visit variability of blood pressure and coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure and mortality: A cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Whittle, Jeff; Lynch, Amy I.; Colantonio, Lisandro D.; Simpson, Lara M.; Einhorn, Paula T.; Levitan, Emily B.; Whelton, Paul K; Cushman, William C.; Louis, Gail T.; Davis, Barry R.; Oparil, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Variability of blood pressure (BP) across outpatient visits is frequently dismissed as random fluctuation around a patient’s underlying BP. Objective: Examine the association between visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) on cardiovascular disease and mortality outcomes. Design Prospective cohort study Setting Post-hoc analysis of the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). Participants 25,814 ALLHAT participants. Measurements VVV of SBP was defined as the standard deviation (SD) across BP measurements obtained at 7 visits conducted from 6 to 28 months following ALLHAT enrollment. Participants free of cardiovascular disease events during the first 28 months of follow-up were followed from the month 28 study visit through the end of active ALLHAT follow-up. Outcomes included fatal coronary heart disease or non-fatal myocardial infarction, all-cause mortality, stroke and heart failure. Results There were 1194 cases of fatal CHD or non-fatal MI, 1948 deaths, 606 cases of stroke and 921 cases of heart failure during follow-up. After multivariable adjustment including mean SBP, the hazard ratio comparing participants in the highest versus lowest quintile of SD of SBP (≥14.4 mmHg versus <6.5 mmHg) was 1.30 (1.06–1.59) for fatal coronary heart disease or non-fatal myocardial infarction, 1.58 (1.32–1.90) for all-cause mortality, 1.46 (1.06–2.01) for stroke, and 1.25 (0.97–1.61) for heart failure. Higher VVV of DBP was also associated with cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Limitations Long-term outcomes were not available. Conclusions Higher VVV of SBP is associated with increased cardiovascular disease and mortality risk. Future studies should examine whether reducing VVV of BP lowers this risk. Primary funding source National Institutes of Health PMID:26215765

  12. Study on the correlativity of earthquake's impact on cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘华; 赵凤新; 高孟潭

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction With rapid development and advancement of economy and society, lots of city groups or city belts with ex-tra-large cities as their centers have been formed in China. The regions these city groups lie in usually havewell-developed economy, dense population, and are regional politics and culture centers. Some groups lie in theregions with high level of earthquake activity, such as the Surrounding Capital City Group with the centers of Bei-jing and Tianjin. Once a large earthquake occurs, its influence will spread to very extensive region and its disasterwill be tremendous too. So earthquake resistance and disaster mitigation of city group will be very significant issue.The cities in a group have close distance with each other; they can carry out unified preparation for disaster as onewhole and reduce the heavy load of single city before an earthquake, and have an advantage of prompt mutual-aidafter an earthquake because of close distance. It is especially significant to mitigate the lose of lives. One importantprecondition is that all the cities in one group cannot be exposed to the same level of destroy during one earth-quake. So the division of city group in the region with dense cities distribution shall be very significant to theemergent mutual-aid in early time after a large earthquake. For this goal, the characteristics and correlativity ofearthquake′s impact on cities in one group need to clearly be considered. The cities with similar features and strongcorrelativity of historical earthquake influence have large chance to suffer same level destroy during the futurestrong earthquake and are disadvantage to provide mutual-aid and shall not be divided into one group.

  13. Study of electromagnetic radiation pollution in an Indian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, A K

    2012-11-01

    Electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phone towers is a form of environmental pollution and is a new health hazard, especially to children and patients. The present studies were taken to estimate the microwave/RF pollution by measuring radiation power densities near schools and hospitals of Chandigarh city in India. The cell phone radiations were measured using a handheld portable power density meter TES 593 and specific absorption rates were estimated from the measured values. These values of electromagnetic radiation in the environment were compared with the levels at which biological system of humans and animals starts getting affected. The values were also compared with the international exposure limits set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The highest measured power density was 11.48 mW/m(2) which is 1,148% of the biological limit. The results indicated that the exposure levels in the city were below the ICNIRP limit, but much above the biological limit.

  14. Shifting corporate geographies in global cities of the South: Mexico City and Johannesburg as case studie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parnreiter, Christof

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global city research links the expansion of advanced producer services in major cities to the internationalisation of real estate markets as well as to the spread of (mainly high-rise office complexes. This research, however, has based its findings mainly on cases of the Global North. This paper examines, based on Grant and Nijman’s (2002 suggestion that the “internal spatial organisation of gateway cities in the less-developed world” reflects “the city’s role in the global political economy”, which patterns occur in two metropoles of the Global South. In addition to this, the analysis focuses especially on the driving forces behind the changes in corporate geographies. The analysis is placed in Mexico City and Johannesburg and based on real estate market data (offices as well as background documents on urban development. The outcome shows that in these cities, local transformation processes of the real estate market and office space location are indeed considerably shaped by global market dynamics. However, the findings also indicate that there is no clear scale dependence of the territorial form. In order to comprehensively understand the changes in the corporate geographies therefore, it is necessary to direct more attention to local and national dynamics. The restructuring of the built environment in both cities can only be grasped fully by considering the particular role of local and national governments. This additional entry point to an understanding of shifting corporate geographies helps to put recent dynamics of global capitalism and politics of urban neoliberalism in perspective.

  15. HEART RETRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of patients with transplanted heart is continuously increasing; therefore, the number of patients requiring heart retransplantation grows. Analysis of the results of published studies focused on safety of cardiac retransplantation and risk factors for adverse events in perioperative, early and late postoperative periods is presented in our review. The results of published studies suggest that heart retransplantation is the main radical treatment option for cardiac allograft dysfunction, but the results of heart retransplantation are slightly worse than those of primary cardiac transplantation. On the other hand, the favorable long-term prognosis after heart retransplantation should be expected in carefully selected recipients. 

  16. THE STUDY OF PREVALENCE AND CLINICAL PROFILE OF VALVULAR HEART DISEASES IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Krishnan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Valvular heart disease is still a common causes of mortality and morbidity in India and rheumatic heart disease is still far more frequent. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence and clinical profile of rheumatic and non - rheumatic valvular heart dise ase in patients attending to Government General Hospital, Kakinada. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 100 Adult patients with valvular abnormalities attending to the Medicine and Cardiology Units of Government General Hospital, Kakinada from Nov 2011 - May 2013 were studied. C linical history including various symptoms, past history of rheumatic fever, followed by systemic examination was done. A detailed cardiovascular examination with relevant investigations and evaluation was done. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: The most common cause of acquired valvular heart disease is Rheumatic Heart Disease. Mitral valve involvement is the most common valve involvement with Mitral regurgitation as the most common valvular lesion. Mitral stenosis is the most common valvular lesion amon g rheumatic valvular heart disease. The most common complaint is breathlessness and the most common complication is Congestive heart failure. Multi valvular lesion is the most common valve involvement in patients presenting with congestive heart failure an d infective endocarditis. Patients having atrial fibrillation are noted to have mitral stenosis more commonly. Mitral stenosis is the valve abnormality commonly noted in patients presenting with haemoptysis, respiratory tract infection and chorea. Left sid ed hemiplegia is common in patients with acquired valvular heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: Though the incidencen of rheumatic valvular disease is decreased in modern era, still continuing in our country. The analysis of the present study gives us insight into the various types of presentation of acquired valvular heart disease and to increase awareness besides early detection of valvular diseases clinically. It also helps in planning of

  17. [Histoautoradiographic study of the heart in experimental myocardial ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhova, A N; Shliapnikov, V N

    1979-01-01

    Autoradiographic examinations of the heart muscle in experimental myocardial necroses using 3H-thymidine, revealed a high DNA synthesis in the connective tissue cells in the zone of necrosis in the acute period of infarction and its subsequent decrease. Deviations from this regularity were observed when relapses of necrosis developed. The activation of DNA synthesis occurred to a lesser extent in stromal cells of the periinfarction and remote zones of the heart. Muscle cells incorporated 3H-thymidine extremely rarely. When myocardial infarction was combined with aterosclerosis, relapses of necrosis occurred frequently, and morphological changes in many arteries and veins were accompanied by 3H-thymidine incorporation into the nuclei of the endothelium, smooth cells and adventitial cells. Inhibition of DNA synthesis in connective tissue cells of various heart zones was observed in cases of combined myocardial infarction and aterosclerosis and hypertension.

  18. Heart rate variability as predictor of nonresponse to mirtazapine in panic disorder : a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaap, BR; Boshuisen, ML; van Roon, AM; den Boer, JA

    2002-01-01

    Using spectral analysis of heart rate, several studies have shown that panic disorder patients are characterized by a reduced heart rate variability (HRV), indicative of abnormalities in autonomous nervous system (ANS) function. We recently reported that patients with panic disorder, who did not res

  19. Effect of repeated intracoronary injection of bone marrow cells in patients with ischaemic heart failure the Danish stem cell study - congestive heart failure trial (DanCell-CHF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, A.C.; Møller, Jacob Eifer; Thayssen, P.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that myocardial regeneration may be achieved by a single intracoronary bone marrow derived stem cell infusion in selected patients with ischaemic heart disease. The effect is uncertain in patients with chronic ischaemic heart failure and it is not known whether...... repeated infusions would have additional positive effects. AIMS: To assess whether two treatments of intracoronary infusion of bone marrow stem cells, administered 4 months apart, could improve left ventricular (LV) systolic function in patients with chronic ischaemic heart failure. METHODS: The study......, NYHA class improved (pstem cell treatment in patients with chronic ischaemic heart failure Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7...

  20. Intramuscular fat and physical performance at the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therkelsen, Kate E; Pedley, Alison; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S; Murabito, Joanne M

    2016-04-01

    Intramuscular fat may mediate associations between obesity and physical disability. We examined the associations between muscle attenuation, a proxy for intramuscular fat, and physical function. Paraspinous muscle computed tomography attenuation was obtained on a Framingham Heart Study subgroup (n = 1152, 56 % women, mean age 66 years). Regressions modeled cross-sectional associations between muscle attenuation and mobility disability, grip strength, and walking speed with standard covariates; models additionally adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Separate models investigated associations between VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and physical function. Per 1 standard deviation decrement in muscle attenuation (i.e., more muscle fat), we observed 1.29 (95 % CI = 1.11, 1.50; p = 0.0009) increased odds of walking speed ≤1 m/s in women and men. This persisted after separate BMI and VAT adjustments (p < 0.02). In men, there was a 1.29 kg (95 % CI = 0.57, 2.01; p = 0.0005) decrement in grip strength, which persisted after BMI and VAT adjustments (p ≤ 0.0004). For VAT and SAT, similar associations were not observed. Intramuscular fat is associated with increased odds of walking speed ≤1 m/s in both sexes and lower grip strength in men. There were no similar associations for VAT and SAT, highlighting the specificity of intramuscular fat in association with physical function. PMID:26899132

  1. Comorbid Depression and Heart Failure: A Community Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhautesh Dinesh Jani

    Full Text Available To examine the association between depression and clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF in a community cohort.HF patients in Minnesota, United States completed depression screening using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 between 1st Oct 2007 and 1st Dec 2011; patients with PHQ-9≥5 were labelled "depressed". We calculated the risk of death and first hospitalization within 2 years using Cox regression. Results were adjusted for 10 commonly used prognostic factors (age, sex, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum sodium, ejection fraction, blood urea nitrogen, brain natriuretic peptide, presence of diabetes and ischaemic aetiology. Area under the curve (AUC, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI and net reclassification improvement (NRI compared depression as a predictor against the aforementioned factors.425 patients (mean age 74, 57.6% males were included in the study; 179 (42.1% had PHQ-9≥5. The adjusted hazard ratio of death was 2.02 (95% CI 1.34-3.04 and of hospitalization was 1.42 (95% CI 1.13-1.80 for those with compared to those without depression. Adding depression to the models did not appreciably change the AUC but led to statistically significant improvements in both the IDI (p = 0.001 and p = 0.005 for death and hospitalization, respectively and NRI (for death and hospitalization, 35% (p = 0.002 and 27% (p = 0.007 were reclassified correctly, respectively.Depression is frequent among community patients with HF and associated with increased risk of hospitalizations and death. Risk prediction for death and hospitalizations in HF patients can be improved by considering depression.

  2. Effect of heart rate on the hemodynamics of bileaflet mechanical heart valves' prostheses (St. Jude Medical) in the aortic position and in the opening phase: A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandardoost, Mehdi; Fradet, Guy; Mohammadi, Hadi

    2016-03-01

    To date, to the best of the authors' knowledge, in almost all of the studies performed around the hemodynamics of bileaflet mechanical heart valves, a heart rate of 70-72 beats/min has been considered. In fact, the heart rate of ~72 beats/min does not represent the entire normal physiological conditions under which the aortic or prosthetic valves function. The heart rates of 120 or 50 beats/min may lead to hemodynamic complications, such as plaque formation and/or thromboembolism in patients. In this study, the hemodynamic performance of the bileaflet mechanical heart valves in a wide range of normal and physiological heart rates, that is, 60-150 beats/min, was studied in the opening phase. The model considered in this study was a St. Jude Medical bileaflet mechanical heart valve with the inner diameter of 27 mm in the aortic position. The hemodynamics of the native valve and the St. Jude Medical valve were studied in a variety of heart rates in the opening phase and the results were carefully compared. The results indicate that peak values of the velocity profile downstream of the valve increase as heart rate increases, as well as the location of the maximum velocity changes with heart rate in the St. Jude Medical valve model. Also, the maximum values of shear stress and wall shear stresses downstream of the valve are proportional to heart rate in both models. Interestingly, the maximum shear stress and wall shear stress values in both models are in the same range when heart rate is St. Jude Medical valve model when heart rate is >90 beats/min (up to ~40% growth compared to that of the native valve). The findings of this study may be of importance in the hemodynamic performance of bileaflet mechanical heart valves. They may also play an important role in design improvement of conventional prosthetic heart valves and the design of the next generation of prosthetic valves, such as percutaneous valves. PMID:26786673

  3. Effect of heart rate on the hemodynamics of bileaflet mechanical heart valves' prostheses (St. Jude Medical) in the aortic position and in the opening phase: A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandardoost, Mehdi; Fradet, Guy; Mohammadi, Hadi

    2016-03-01

    To date, to the best of the authors' knowledge, in almost all of the studies performed around the hemodynamics of bileaflet mechanical heart valves, a heart rate of 70-72 beats/min has been considered. In fact, the heart rate of ~72 beats/min does not represent the entire normal physiological conditions under which the aortic or prosthetic valves function. The heart rates of 120 or 50 beats/min may lead to hemodynamic complications, such as plaque formation and/or thromboembolism in patients. In this study, the hemodynamic performance of the bileaflet mechanical heart valves in a wide range of normal and physiological heart rates, that is, 60-150 beats/min, was studied in the opening phase. The model considered in this study was a St. Jude Medical bileaflet mechanical heart valve with the inner diameter of 27 mm in the aortic position. The hemodynamics of the native valve and the St. Jude Medical valve were studied in a variety of heart rates in the opening phase and the results were carefully compared. The results indicate that peak values of the velocity profile downstream of the valve increase as heart rate increases, as well as the location of the maximum velocity changes with heart rate in the St. Jude Medical valve model. Also, the maximum values of shear stress and wall shear stresses downstream of the valve are proportional to heart rate in both models. Interestingly, the maximum shear stress and wall shear stress values in both models are in the same range when heart rate is valve model when heart rate is >90 beats/min (up to ~40% growth compared to that of the native valve). The findings of this study may be of importance in the hemodynamic performance of bileaflet mechanical heart valves. They may also play an important role in design improvement of conventional prosthetic heart valves and the design of the next generation of prosthetic valves, such as percutaneous valves.

  4. Clean Cities Case Study: Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary is the second in a new series called''Alternative Fuel Information Case Studies,'' designed to present real-world experiences with alternative fuels to fleet managers and other industry stakeholders

  5. Megacity Radiative Forcing: A Mexico City Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S. C.; Dubey, M. K.; Chylek, P.; Mazzoleni, C.; Zhang, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Horowitz, L.

    2006-12-01

    We assess the radiative forcing budget of the largest megacity in North America, Mexico City. While particular aspects of the regional environmental impacts of cities on their surroundings have been thoroughly investigated, e.g., air quality and acid rain, relatively little effort has been focused on the net radiative impact of a megacity on global climate. The range of radiative impacts from a megacity covers many spatial and temporal scales from short-term regional-scale effects due to aerosols and relatively short-lived gases (O3) to long-term global-scale impacts due to long-lived trace gases (e.g., CH4, CO2). In this study we use both bottom-up and top-down approaches to evaluate these radiative forcings. From the bottom up we utilize emission inventories and the Model for Ozone And Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART-2) chemistry-aerosol model. From the top down we use observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), and in situ aerosol single scattering albedo measurements collected during the Megacity Initiative-Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. We also explore the radiative impact of various emission control strategies that focus on improving urban air quality. We show that the warming by greenhouse gases like CO2 and ozone can be moderated or exacerbated by aerosols depending on their optical properties. As the size and number of megacities increase and clean air regulations are implemented, metrics such as the net radiative forcing may become increasingly important in comparing the impact of urban centers and assessing pollution abatement policies.

  6. Bridging the gap in heart failure prevention: rationale and design of the Nurse-led Intervention for Less Chronic Heart Failure (NIL-CHF) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrington, Melinda J; Stewart, Simon; de Courten, Barbora

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The primary objective of the Nurse-led Intervention for Less Chronic Heart Failure (NIL-CHF) Study is to develop a programme of care that cost-effectively prevents the development of chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods NIL-CHF is a randomized controlled trial of a hybrid, home- and clinic-...

  7. A genome-wide association study of pulmonary function measures in the Framingham Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemma B Wilk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (FEV(1/FVC is a measure used to diagnose airflow obstruction and is highly heritable. We performed a genome-wide association study in 7,691 Framingham Heart Study participants to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with the FEV(1/FVC ratio, analyzed as a percent of the predicted value. Identified SNPs were examined in an independent set of 835 Family Heart Study participants enriched for airflow obstruction. Four SNPs in tight linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 4q31 were associated with the percent predicted FEV(1/FVC ratio with p-values of genome-wide significance in the Framingham sample (best p-value = 3.6e-09. One of the four chromosome 4q31 SNPs (rs13147758; p-value 2.3e-08 in Framingham was genotyped in the Family Heart Study and produced evidence of association with the same phenotype, percent predicted FEV(1/FVC (p-value = 2.0e-04. The effect estimates for association in the Framingham and Family Heart studies were in the same direction, with the minor allele (G associated with higher FEV(1/FVC ratio levels. Results from the Family Heart Study demonstrated that the association extended to FEV(1 and dichotomous airflow obstruction phenotypes, particularly among smokers. The SNP rs13147758 was associated with the percent predicted FEV(1/FVC ratio in independent samples from the Framingham and Family Heart Studies producing a combined p-value of 8.3e-11, and this region of chromosome 4 around 145.68 megabases was associated with COPD in three additional populations reported in the accompanying manuscript. The associated SNPs do not lie within a gene transcript but are near the hedgehog-interacting protein (HHIP gene and several expressed sequence tags cloned from fetal lung. Though it is unclear what gene or regulatory effect explains the association, the region warrants further investigation.

  8. Sustainable Development Strategy for the Global City: A Case Study of Sydney

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Hu

    2015-01-01

    Global cities, the command and control centres of the integrated world economy, are facing a sustainability paradox of greater global competition and greater environmental pressure. This study explores the policy approaches to the sustainability paradox by integrating environmental sustainability and economic competitiveness into the development strategy for “the global city†, based on a case study of Sydney. Dissecting Sustainable Sydney 2030 , the strategy to guide the City’s developm...

  9. Urban sustainable development (Case study Darreh Shahr city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim Ali Shaei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Appraisement and report of cities sustainable development have started in some counties especially in the developed countries,for some years and their main goal is investigating the sustainability or unsustainability of development of cities. According to the investigation of varying parts ofcity and its comparison with country average, it is found that most of socialeconomic and environmental indices are low in comparison with the average valueof the country. Keeping the livestock, low per capita of green area, problems of potable water, weakness of thegarbage collection system, incompetence in wastewater disposal, constructions,air pollution, urban traffic and etc. are the problems of this city making unstable environmental, social and economic conditions of Dahreshar city. Basedon the lack of clarification of all aspects of a sustainable city andimpossibility of presenting the definite solutions to achieve the sustainablecity, there are some solutions to achieve the urban sustainable development ofDahreshar city such as: Increasing urban use density, reduction of reliance oncars in transportation (especially personal cars, modification of citymanagement system, protection and renovation of natural systems around city,reduction of resources consumption to decline the pollutions. It seems that thebasic cause of unsustainability of Dahreshar is dedicated to weakness of citymanagement, and urban management review if presented for its solution (e.g. definiteauthority, plans, goals and executive methods and etc.

  10. CLINICAL STUDY OF CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE IN INFANTS IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep V.Harshangi; Laxmi Nagaraj Itagi; Venkatesh Patil; Vijayanath.V

    2013-01-01

    Congenital heart disease are primarily disease of neonates, infants and children. The burden of CHD in India is likely to be enormous due to very high birth rate. The reported incidence is 8-10/ 1000 live births. Objective was to know the pattern of clinical presentation of various congenital heart disease in 0-1 year age group. To study the different form of cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease in present cases. 50 cases of CHD proven by 2D echocardiography were studied for 2 ye...

  11. Study to elevator inspection market in Deyang city, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Yimou

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe and identify the characteristic of elevator inspection market in Deyang city, Sichuan province, China. To describe the market by using PEST analysis, which stands for P( political), E( economy), S( social), T( technology). In order to indentify the characteristic of elevator inspection market in Deyang city, interviewing methods will be applied in this thesis to collect primary data. Scattered distribution of elevator owner is the first characteris...

  12. Study of air pollution in Buenos Aires city. Appendix 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work performed since 1993 on the study of the elemental profile of Buenos Aires atmosphere is presented. Both aerosol direct sampling and biomonitors have been used and the samples have been analyzed mainly by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Due to problems with XRF, Anodic Stripping Voltammetry has been chosen for lead determination and Ion Chromatography for soluble anions. For aerosol direct sampling, analytical and sampling methods are described, as well as the sampling campaigns. Experiments have been performed for studying differences between day/night elemental concentrations along the week and a possible seasonal dependence. Some results of mass concentrations and others from INAA are presented. Sampling with the 'Gent sampler' began during August 1994 at an urban residential area of the city. The results of mass concentrations for the first 28 pairs of samples are shown together with some INAA results, as this is the only technique used for the analysis. Lichens and tree bark were the chosen biomonitors. Sampling and analytical methods by INAA are exposed, presenting some of the results that have been obtained. The participation in the aerosol analysis for the Ushuaia Global Atmospheric Watch Station is also commented. (author)

  13. Electric Power Demand Forecasting: A Case Study of Lucknow City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Bhardwaj and R.C. Bansal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of forecasting identifies the urgent need for special attention in evolving effective energy policies to alleviate an energy famine in the near future. Since power demand is increasing day by day in entire world and it is also one of the fundamental infrastructure input for the development, its prospects and availability sets significant constraints on the socio-economic growth of every person as well as every country. A care full long-term power plan is imperative for the development of power sector. This need assumes more importance in the state of Uttar Pradesh where the demand for electrical energy is growing at a rapid pace. This study analyses the requirement of electricity with respect to the future population for the major forms of energy in the Lucknow city in Uttar Pradesh state of India. A model consisting of significant key energy indicators have been used for the estimation. Model wherever required refined in the second stage to remove the effect of auto-correlation. The accuracy of the model has been checked using standard statistical techniques and validated against the past data by testing for ‘expost’ forecast accuracy.

  14. Image and Reputation of Yalova City: A Study on Yalova University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Kızıl

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the image of a country and city has become a core competitive asset for the government and local authorities and this core competitive asset plays a critical role for domestic and foreign tourists, businessmen, residents of the city, neighbouring cities, investors, entrepreneurs and also the university students. Based on the competitive asset of city image and reputation, the perception needs an effort from a marketing perspective in order to improve the strategies for enhancing quality of life. The aim of this research is to evaluate the city image of Yalova from the eye of Yalova university students. For this purpose, image perception of students on the advantages of city, abstract image elements and residents of the city have been investiageted. The data of research have been collected through the questionnaire methodology. This study is run on 200 students as the research sample. In light of the results of the survey, the overall image perception of students about Yalova city and its residents are determined to be at medium level. Location of Yalova has a very positive perception, while intercity transportation, nature and weather conditions have a positive perception. The city is considered as peaceful, safe and clean, but expensive. Residents of Yalova are evaluated as peaceful. It is also found that, infrastructures and superstructures enhancing the Yalova city image should be improved.

  15. Studying Tourism Indicators In Iran (Case Study: Khoramabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Garavand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Now tourism industry is one of the greatest World Industries from point of view development and with attention to be use financial sources and involved persons with that. This industry, has third rank in financial and commercial classifications and including more than 7 percent of whole world exports, also it influence gross national product in all countries; so that increase rate of gross national product 2billion $ in all world nations. Tourism industry important to stress tow important ways: first, the dynamic familiarity with other cultures, nations, races, tribes, dialects and …; second, it provides sources of income and foreign exchanges from an economic point of view. The different world countries fallowed attraction of tourists because of that they have various facilities and various attractions.Iran is ranked as one of the 10 top attractive countries in the world but Iran was place 114th ranking of the countries in terms of attracting tourists (World Economic Forum, 2011, tourism receipts is ranked as 77th, and the number of international tourists arrivals ranked as place 70th (UNWTO, 2009.So, the aim of this research is, studying main indicators in tourism location in order to improving their qualify. This research is qualitative. Also was used the "Descriptive/ Explanatory" through contain analysis. The research method are phenomenological, conceptual and constructive theory in field of tourism industry in context of Iran, Which eventually is bound to lead to the development of tourism industry in Iran. The strategy of this research is qualitative method by using case study in the area of tourism industry in fabric of Iran. So, was introduced touristic-historical building. Then according to visitor comments was ranked. At finally was used T-Test method in order to analyzing hypothesis.

  16. Diurnal variations in arousal: a naturalistic heart rate study in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Roeyers, Herbert; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Deboutte, Dirk

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest an altered circadian regulation of arousal in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as measured by activity, circadian preference, and sleep-wake patterns. Although heart rate is an important measure to evaluate arousal profiles, to date it is unknown whether 24-h heart rate patterns differentiate between children with and without ADHD. In this study, 24-h heart rate data were collected in 30 non-medicated children with ADHD (aged 6-11) and 30 sex-, class-, and age-matched normal controls in their naturalistic home and school setting, during 5 days. Simultaneously, 24-h activity patterns were registered. Confounding effects of demographic variables (e.g., age, sex, BMI, pubertal stage) and comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems on heart rate levels were additionally assessed. Longitudinal analysis showed that heart rate levels were overall higher in the ADHD group (p children with ADHD showed higher activity levels during daytime (especially early afternoon), but not during nighttime (p children with ADHD as compared to controls, with higher heart rate levels in the ADHD group. Nighttime tachycardia in this group could not be explained by nighttime activity levels or comorbid externalizing/internalizing problems. Further research on autonomic functioning in ADHD is recommended because of the major impact of higher resting heart rate on health outcomes.

  17. Beta-2-Adrenergic Receptor Methylation Influences Asthma Phenotype in The School Inner City Asthma Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and inner city residents suffer a disproportionately high rate of asthma diagnosis and asthma morbidity. The School Inner City Asthma Study investigates the school classroom based environmental exposures that may lead to asthma morbidity in inner city school children with asthma. Within this cohort, we investigated the role of methylation at the promoter region of the beta-2-adrenergic receptor in relation to asthma morbidity. We found th...

  18. Smoking influences the association between apolipoprotein E and lipids: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoussé, L; Myers, R H; Coon, H; Arnett, D K; Province, M A; Ellison, R C

    2000-08-01

    Apolipoprotein E allele 4 (apo epsilon4) and smoking each have been associated with an unfavorable lipid profile. We used data collected on 1,472 subjects in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study to assess whether smoking interacts with apo epsilon4 to influence the levels of plasma lipids. We dichotomized smoking and apo epsilon4 and used analysis of covariance to estimate the means of lipids. Smokers had lower body mass index, were younger, and consumed less fruits and vegetables. Among individuals without apo epsilon4, comparing nonsmokers with smokers, mean low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) was 129.3 and 134.4 mg/dL, respectively, for women and 126.1 and 127.6 mg/dL, respectively, for men. Among subjects with an apo epsilon4 allele, corresponding means were 132.0, and 152.9 mg/dL, respectively, for women and 131.3 and 137.3 mg/dL, respectively, for men (Pfor interaction <0.001 for women and 0.11 for men). A similar interaction was observed for total cholesterol among women (P = 0.02). This study shows a statistically significant effect modification of the relation of apo epsilon4 to LDL and total cholesterol by smoking among women. Smoking may enhance genetic susceptibility to an unfavorable lipid profile among subjects with apo epsilon4. PMID:10984105

  19. Depression and the usefulness of a disease management program in heart failure : insights from the COACH (Coordinating study evaluating Outcomes of Advising and Counseling in Heart failure) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, T.; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Hillege, H.L.; Veeger, N.J.; Sanderman, R.; van Veldhuisen, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to study the possible role of depressive symptoms in the effectiveness of a disease management program (DMP) in heart failure (HF) patients. BACKGROUND: Disease management programs are recommended in current HF guidelines, but certain patient groups, such as those with depres

  20. Depression and the Usefulness of a Disease Management Program in Heart Failure Insights From the COACH (Coordinating study evaluating Outcomes of Advising and Counseling in Heart failure) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Hillege, Hans L.; Veeger, Nic J.; Sanderman, Robbert; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to study the possible role of depressive symptoms in the effectiveness of a disease management program (DMP) in heart failure (HF) patients. Background Disease management programs are recommended in current HF guidelines, but certain patient groups, such as those with depressi

  1. A comparative study of contractility of the heart ventricle in some ectothermic vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Kharin; Dmitry Shmakov

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze contractility of the heart ventricle in selected reptilian and amphibian species having the same ventricular excitation pattern. Systolic time intervals and indices of contractility of the heart ventricle were measured in anaesthetized frogs, snakes, and tortoises by use of polycardiography. The electromechanical delay was significantly shorter in tortoises compared with the other two species. The isovolumetric contraction time in frogs was approximate...

  2. Hemodynamic Correlates of Abnormal Aortic Root Dimension in an Adult Population: The Strong Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    de Simone, Giovanni; Roman, Mary J.; De Marco, Marina; Bella, Jonathan N; Izzo, Raffaele; Lee, Elisa T.; Devereux, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated the relationship of aortic root dimension (ARD) with flow output and both peripheral and central blood pressure, using multivariable equations predicting ideal sex‐specific ARD at a given age and body height. Methods and Results We measured echocardiographic diastolic ARD at the sinuses of Valsalva in 3160 adults (aged 42±16 years, 61% women) from the fourth examination of the Strong Heart Study who were free of prevalent coronary heart disease, and we compared measure...

  3. The HLA Class II Associations with Rheumatic Heart Disease in South Indian Patients: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bajoria, Divya; Menon, Thangam

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) occurs in 30-45% of the patients with rheumatic fever (RF) and it leads to chronic valvular lesions. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) might confer a susceptibility to RHD. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalent HLA class II DR/DQ allelic types which were associated with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in a small group of south Indian patients and to compare them with those in the control subjects.

  4. A study of the first heart sound spectra in normal anesthetized cats: possible origins and chest wall influences.

    OpenAIRE

    Fazzalari, N L; Mazumdar, J; Ghista, D. N.; Allen, D G; de Bruin, H

    1984-01-01

    Heart sound recordings were taken from cats. The heart sounds were recorded directly from the chest wall and through an esophageal tube. The phono transducer and the esophageal tube were both placed over the base of the heart. Ultrasound M-mode, or motion-mode, recordings were taken to study the mitral valve dynamics. After analogue to digital conversion, electrocardiogram gated first heart sounds of each phono record were analyzed by the fast Fourier transform to obtain a frequency spectrum....

  5. Emotional and cognitive changes during and post a near fatal heart attack and one-year after: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Lane; Richard Godfrey

    2010-01-01

    This case study reports on changes in emotions before and during an unexpected heart rate in a young, apparently healthy male with a life-long history of exercise in the absence of family history of heart problems. He completed the Brunel Mood Scale (Terry et al. , 2003) to assess emotions before, during, and after the heart attack, and also describing his thoughts during these periods. Results indicate he experienced unpleasant emotions in the build up to the heart attack, feelings he attrib...

  6. Defective support network: a major obstacle to coping for patients with heart failure: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Mangolian Shahrbabaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart failure as a chronic disease poses many challenges for a patient in his or her everyday life. Support in various aspects of life positively affects coping strategies and influences the well-being and health outcomes of heart failure patients. Inadequate support may lead to a worsening of symptoms, increased hospital readmissions, psychological disorders, and a reduced quality of life. Objective: This study explored obstacles to coping related to support for heart failure patients as viewed by the patients themselves and their family members and caregivers. Design: This qualitative study was conducted using content analysis. The 20 Iranian participants included 11 patients with heart failure, three cardiologists, three nurses, and three family members of heart failure patients selected through purposive sampling. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the Lundman and Graneheim qualitative content analysis method. Results: During data analysis, ‘defective support network’ developed as the main theme along with four other categories of ‘inadequate family performance’, ‘inadequate support by the healthcare team’, ‘distorted societal social support’, and ‘inadequate welfare support’. Conclusion: The findings of the current study can assist health authorities and planners in identifying the needs of patients with heart failure so as to focus and plan on facilitating their coping as much as possible by obviating the existing obstacles.

  7. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  8. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  9. Primary culture of avian embryonic heart forming region cells to study the regulation of vertebrate early heart morphogenesis by vitamin A

    OpenAIRE

    Cakstina, Ieva; Riekstina, Una; Boroduskis, Martins; Nakurte, Ilva; Ancans, Janis; Zile, Maija H; Muiznieks, Indrikis

    2014-01-01

    Background Important knowledge about the role of vitamin A in vertebrate heart development has been obtained using the vitamin A-deficient avian in ovo model which enables the in vivo examination of very early stages of vertebrate heart morphogenesis. These studies have revealed the critical role of the vitamin A-active form, retinoic acid (RA) in the regulation of several developmental genes, including the important growth regulatory factor, transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGFβ2), involved...

  10. Prevalence of Heart Failure and Atrial Fibrillation in Minority Ethnic Subjects: The Ethnic-Echocardiographic Heart of England Screening Study (E-ECHOES)

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Paramjit S; Melanie Calvert; Russell Davis; Michael K Davies; Nick Freemantle; Lip, Gregory Y. H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data exists on the prevalence of heart failure amongst minority groups in the UK. To document the community prevalence and severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation, amongst the South Asian and Black African-Caribbean groups in the UK. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a cross-sectional study recruiting from September 2006 to July 2009 from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, UK. 10,902 eligible subjects invited, 5,408 par...

  11. A comparative study for the echo cardiographic, radiologic and electrocardiographic presentation of the sport heart hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the three most important non-invasive methods - X-ray pictures, electrocardiography and echo cardiography - were compared as to their ability to evaluate the physiological heart enlargement as a result of physical training. Important also was the study of the value of ultrasonic cardiographs. The subjects used were 162 athletes, 36 patients with cardiovascular diseases, and 22 non-athletic control persons. Radiologically the changes in the total size of the heart were determined. For the question of the adapting reaction of the heart because of athletic training the weight-related heart volume is more meaningful than the absolute value. Electrocardiographically it is not possible to come up with any statistically significant statements about the physiological heart enlargement using the Sokoloff-Lyon indexes. Echo cardiographically the regulative heart enlargements can be differentiated into myocardial hypertrophy or ventricular dilation. As a result of this a line can be drawn between physiological and pathological changes. Female athletes show qualitatively, but not quantitatively, the same adapting reaction. The synopsis of the three procedures shows that echo cardiography and radiology show better results than does electrocardiography. Together the methods complement each other in their diagnostic power. (orig./TRV)

  12. Remote noninvasive allograft rejection monitoring for heart transplant recipients: study protocol for the novel evaluation with home electrocardiogram and remote transmission (NEW HEART study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doering Lynn V

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute allograft rejection is a major cause of early mortality in the first year after heart transplantation in adults. Although endomyocardial biopsy (EMB is not a perfect "gold standard" for a correct diagnosis of acute allograft rejection, it is considered the best available test and thus, is the current standard practice. Unfortunately, EMB is an invasive and costly procedure that is not without risk. Recent evidence suggests that acute allograft rejection causes delays in ventricular repolarization and thereby increases the cellular action potential duration resulting in a longer QT interval on the electrocardiogram (ECG. No prospective study to date has investigated whether such increases in the QT interval could provide early detection of acute allograft rejection. Therefore, in the Novel Evaluation With Home Electrocardiogram And Remote Transmission (NEW HEART study, we plan to investigate the potential benefit of daily home QT interval monitoring to predict acute allograft rejection. Methods/design The NEW HEART study is a prospective, double-blind, multi-center descriptive research study. A sample of 325 adult heart transplant recipients will be recruited within six weeks of transplant from three sites in the United States. Subjects will receive the HeartView™ ECG recorder and its companion Internet Transmitter, which will transmit the subject's ECG to a Core Laboratory. Subjects will be instructed to record and transmit an ECG recording daily for 6 months. An increase in the QTC interval from the previous day of at least 25 ms that persists for 3 consecutive days will be considered abnormal. The number and grade of acute allograft rejection episodes, as well as all-cause mortality, will be collected for one year following transplant surgery. Discussion This study will provide "real world" prospective data to determine the sensitivity and specificity of QTC as an early non invasive marker of cellular rejection in

  13. The Framingham Heart Study, on its way to becoming the gold standard for Cardiovascular Genetic Epidemiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquish Cashell E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Framingham Heart Study, founded in 1948 to examine the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in a small town outside of Boston, has become the worldwide standard for cardiovascular epidemiology. It is among the longest running, most comprehensively characterized multi-generational studies in the world. Such seminal findings as the effects of smoking and high cholesterol on heart disease came from the Framingham Heart Study. At the time of publication these were novel cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, now they are the basis of treatment and prevention in the US. Is the Framingham study now on it's way to becoming the gold standard for genetic epidemiology of CVD? Will the novel genetic findings of today become the health care standards of tomorrow? The accompanying articles summarizing the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS give the reader a first glimpse into the possibilities.

  14. Pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism, lipoprotein(a) levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, P.R.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Steffensen, R.;

    2008-01-01

    predicts elevated lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) in the general population. DESIGN: We used a cohort study of the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City Heart Study, including 10,276 individuals of which 860 and 1,781 developed MI...

  15. A Hospital-Based Study on Causes Peculiar to Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hafizullah

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: We sought to determine the frequency of the risk factors for congestive cardiac failure (CCF in a tertiary care hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan. Methods: This retrospective, observational study was conducted in the department of cardiology, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar, from March 2005 to September 2007. Relevant information regarding the risk factors of CCF was recorded on questionnaires, devised in accordance with the objectives of the study. Results: This study recruited 1019 patients with an established diagnosis of CCF on the basis of clinical findings and pertinent investigations. The study population comprised 583 (57.12% men and 436 (42.78% women. The patients’ age ranged from 6 years to 82 years with a mean age of 48.5 years and a mode of age of 45 years. The distribution of the causative factors of CCF was as follows: ischemic heart disease in 38.56%; hypertension in 26.30%; dilated cardiomyopathies in 10.10%; obstructive and restrictive cardiomyopathies in 5.39%; valvular heart diseases in 9.32%; congenital heart diseases like ventricular septal defects and atrial septal defects in 4.41% and 0.58%, respectively; constrictive pericarditis in 1.07%; pericardial effusion in 0.68%; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary hypertension in 1.47%; thyrotoxicosis in 0.68%; complete heart block in 0.29%; and Paget’s disease in 0.09% of the cases.Conclusion: Ischemic heart disease, hypertension, cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, and congenital heart disease were the major contributors to CCF in our patients.

  16. Spatial Planning and High-tech Development A comparative study of Eindhoven city-region, the Netherlands and Hsinchu City-region, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ju Huang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available High-tech development—which lies at the very heart of the processes of economic growth—has been recognised by many developed and developing countries as a strategic instrument to enhance and sustain their competitiveness in the global economic network. Although the concept of high-tech development differs between countries, many share the underlying assumption that the core of high-tech development is to create a sound environment where innovation thrives. This ideology implies a definite spatial dimension. As a result, various spatial strategies have been formulated and implemented to support high-tech development. This has had intentional and unintentional effects on the economy, society and space.Numerous studies have been devoted to exploring, analysing and theorising this global phenomenon. However, there has been less attention given to the role spatial planning may play in the process of high-tech development and to the factors that shape the spatial planning approaches to high-tech development in a particular place. The major objectives of this research are to advance the knowledge of the role of spatial planning in the process of high-tech development, and to establish an analytical framework that helps reveal the major institutional factors that shape spatial planning mechanisms for dealing with the spatial issues of high-tech development in different places. This contributes to the field of high-tech spatial policies transfer and lesson-drawing.In order to explore the major factors that shape the practices of spatial planning in hightech development, a comparative approach is applied in this research. The Eindhoven city-region in the Netherlands and the Hsinchu city-region in Taiwan are selected as case study areas. Both city-regions can be recognised as success stories of high-tech development not only on a national scale but also on a global scale, despite the fact that they apply different approaches. In the Eindhoven city

  17. Sustainable event tourism: Case study city of Pula, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina Grzinic; Nikola Vojnovic

    2014-01-01

    Modern tourism expands through cultural experience, which is reflected in economic, ecological and socio-cultural effects on destinations. Event tourism is a growing market segment and represents a challenge for all destination stakeholders. As the largest town in the Croatian part of Istria, the City of Pula represents a valid basis for the development of event tourism due to its coastal geography and rich cultural and historical heritage from antique, medieval and new age periods. The festi...

  18. Environmental Study on Discharged Wastewater of Albourz Industrial City

    OpenAIRE

    E Yassini; M Hedayati

    2005-01-01

    The treatment facility of Albourz Industrial City was established in 1999 at the southeast of Albourz Mountain with an area of 200,000 square meters. Currently, 40,000 cubic meters of industrial wastes are treated daily utilizing biological method of activated sludge up to the second phase without chlorination in this treatment facility. Then, the discharged wastes are directed toward the lower agricultural lands. The environmental status of the region was investigated by testing the impact o...

  19. A Multilevel Regression Model for Geographical Studies in Sets of Non-Adjacent Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Marí-Dell'Olmo

    Full Text Available In recent years, small-area-based ecological regression analyses have been published that study the association between a health outcome and a covariate in several cities. These analyses have usually been performed independently for each city and have therefore yielded unrelated estimates for the cities considered, even though the same process has been studied in all of them. In this study, we propose a joint ecological regression model for multiple cities that accounts for spatial structure both within and between cities and explore the advantages of this model. The proposed model merges both disease mapping and geostatistical ideas. Our proposal is compared with two alternatives, one that models the association for each city as fixed effects and another that treats them as independent and identically distributed random effects. The proposed model allows us to estimate the association (and assess its significance at locations with no available data. Our proposal is illustrated by an example of the association between unemployment (as a deprivation surrogate and lung cancer mortality among men in 31 Spanish cities. In this example, the associations found were far more accurate for the proposed model than those from the fixed effects model. Our main conclusion is that ecological regression analyses can be markedly improved by performing joint analyses at several locations that share information among them. This finding should be taken into consideration in the design of future epidemiological studies.

  20. Heart MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  1. Therapeutic patient education in heart failure: do studies provide sufficient information about the educational programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Maria Grazia; Jourdain, Patrick; De Andrade, Vincent; Domenke, Aukse; Desnos, Michel; d'Ivernois, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Therapeutic patient education programmes on heart failure have been widely proposed for many years for heart failure patients, but their efficiency remains questionable, partly because most articles lack a precise programme description, which makes comparative analysis of the studies difficult. To analyse the degree of precision in describing therapeutic patient education programmes in recent randomized controlled trials. Three major recent recommendations on therapeutic patient education in heart failure inspired us to compile a list of 23 relevant items that an 'ideal' description of a therapeutic patient education programme should contain. To discover the extent to which recent studies into therapeutic patient education in heart failure included these items, we analysed 19 randomized controlled trials among 448 articles published in this field from 2005 to 2012. The major elements required to describe a therapeutic patient education programme were present, but some other very important pieces of information were missing in most of the studies we analysed: the patient's educational needs, health literacy, projects, expectations regarding therapeutic patient education and psychosocial status; the educational methodology used; outcomes evaluation; and follow-up strategies. Research into how therapeutic patient education can help heart failure patients will be improved if more precise descriptions of patients, educational methodology and evaluation protocols are given by authors, ideally in a standardized format.

  2. Experiences of Patients Living With Heart Failure: A Descriptive Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Alvin Chuen Wei; Tan, Khoon Kiat; Huang Gan, Juvena Chew; Wang, Wenru

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences, needs, and coping strategies of patients living with heart failure in Singapore. A descriptive qualitative design was used. A purposive sample of 15 informants was recruited from two cardiology wards of a tertiary public hospital in Singapore. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with a semistructured interview guideline that was developed based on a review of the literature and a pilot study. Content analysis was adopted to analyze the data, and four main categories were identified: perceived causes, manifestations, and prognosis; enduring emotions; managing the condition; and needs from health care professionals. The informants were overwhelmed with the experience of living with heart failure due to the disruptive and uncertain nature of the condition. This study offers health care professionals practical and useful suggestions when providing holistic care for patients with heart failure. PMID:25724928

  3. NMR Study of Damage on Isolated Perfused Rat Heart Exposed to Ischemia and Hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗雪春; 闫永彬; 张日清; 王小寅; 范礼理

    2001-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia is the most common and primary cause of myocardium damage. Numerous conventional techniques and methods have been developed for ischemia and reperfusion studies. However, because of damage to the heart sample, most of these techniques can not be used to continuously monitor the full dynamic course of the myocardial metabolic pathway. The nuclear magnetic resonnance (NMR) surface coil technique, which overcomes the limitations of conventional instrumentation, can be used to quantitatively study every stage of the perfused heart (especially after perfusion stoppage) continuously, dynamically, and without damage under normal or designed physiological conditions at the molecular level. In this paper, 31p-NMR was used to study the effects of ischemia and hypoxia on isolated perfused hearts. The results show that complete hypoxia caused more severe functional damage to the myocardial cells than complete ischemia.

  4. [Prevalence of congenital heart diseases in Koranic schools (daara) in Dakar: a cross-sectional study based on clinical and echocardiographic screening in 2019 school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodian, M; Ngaïdé, A A; Mbaye, A; Sarr, S A; Jobe, M; Ndiaye, M B; Kane, A D; Aw, F; Gaye, N D; Ba, F G; Bah, M B; Tabane, A; Dioum, M; Diagne, D; Diao, M; Diack, B; Sarr, M; Kane, A; Bâ, S A

    2015-02-01

    Congenital heart diseases are one of the major cardiovascular diseases in developing countries. Most prevalence studies were based on clinical examination of children with echocardiographic confirmation of suspected cases and underestimate its prevalence. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of congenital heart disease in "daara" (Koranic schools) in the city of Dakar and its suburbs on the basis of clinical examination and Doppler echocardiography in school children. This cross-sectional survey was carried out from 9(th) August to 24(th) December 2011, and included a population of 2019 school children aged 5 to 18 years in 16 selected "daaras" under the Academic Inspectorate of Dakar and its suburbs. Anamnestic, clinical and echocardiographic data were recorded in a validated questionnaire. A p heart diseases were detected being a prevalence of 8.9 per 1 000 (95 % CI: 1.8 to 7.9). This included 6 cases of inter-atrial septal aneurysm, 5 cases of peri-membranous ventricular septal defects, 4 cases of patent ductusarteriosus and 3 cases of tetralogy of Fallot. Factors correlated with the presence of congenital heart disease were ageless than 8 (p rheumatic valvular disease, a prevalence of 4.9 per 1 000 (95% CI: 2.4 to 9.1). Our study shows a high prevalence of congenital heart diseases, which is almost identical to the WHO estimates and that ultrasound screening is more sensitive than clinical screening. Reducing the prevalence of these diseases requires implementation of appropriate policies, focusing on awareness and early detection. PMID:25516291

  5. Particle Image Velocimetry Study of Pulsatile Flow in Bi-leaflet Mechanical Heart Valves with Image Compensation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yubing; Yeo, Tony Joon Hock; Zhao, Yong; Hwang, Ned H. C.

    2006-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is an important technique in studying blood flow in heart valves. Previous PIV studies of flow around prosthetic heart valves had different research concentrations, and thus never provided the physical flow field pictures in a complete heart cycle, which compromised their pertinence for a better understanding of the valvular mechanism. In this study, a digital PIV (DPIV) investigation was carried out with improved accuracy, to analyse the pulsatile flow field ...

  6. Heart rate changes during partial seizures: A study amongst Singaporean patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Shih-Hui

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Studies in Europe and America showed that tachycardia, less often bradycardia, frequently accompanied partial seizures in Caucasian patients. We determine frequency, magnitude and type of ictal heart rate changes during partial seizures in non-Caucasian patients in Singapore. Methods Partial seizures recorded during routine EEGs performed in a tertiary hospital between 1995 and 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. All routine EEGs had simultaneous ECG recording. Heart rate before and during seizures was determined and correlated with epileptogenic focus. Differences in heart rate before and during seizures were grouped into 4 types: (1 >10% decrease; (2 -10 to +20% change; (3 20–50% increase; (3 >50% increase. Results Of the total of 37 partial seizures, 18 were left hemisphere (LH, 13 were right hemisphere (RH and 6 were bilateral (BL in onset. 51% of all seizures showed no significant change in heart rate (type 2, 22% had moderate sinus tachycardia (type 3, 11% showed severe sinus tachycardia (type 4, while 16% had sinus bradycardia (type 1. Asystole was recorded in one seizure. Apart from having more tachycardia in bilateral onset seizures, there was no correlation between side of ictal discharge and heart rate response. Compared to Caucasian patients, sinus tachycardia was considerably less frequent. Frequency of bradycardia was similar to those recorded in the literature. Conclusions Significant heart rate changes during partial seizures were seen in half of Singaporean patients. Although sinus tachycardia was the most common heart rate change, the frequency was considerably lower compared to Caucasian patients. This might be due to methodological and ethnic differences. Rates of bradycardia are similar to those recorded in the literature.

  7. Cognition and Incident Coronary Heart Disease in Late Midlife: The Whitehall II Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Manoux, Archana; Sabia, Severine; Kivimaki, Mika; Shipley, Martin J.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Marmot, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cognitive function in midlife predicts incident coronary heart disease (CHD), followed up over 6 years. Data on 5292 (28% women, mean age 55) individuals free from CHD at baseline were drawn from the British Whitehall II study. We used Cox regression to model the association between cognition…

  8. City of Klamath Falls, Oregon Geothermal Power Plant Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Brown, PE; Stephen Anderson, PE, Bety Riley

    2011-07-31

    The purpose of the Klamath Falls project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a combined thermal distribution system and power generation facility. The city of Klamath Falls operates a geothermal district heating system which would appear to be an attractive opportunity to install a power generation system. Since the two wells have operated reliably and consistently over many years, no new sources or resource exploration would be necessary. It appears that it will cost more to construct, operate, maintain and amortize a proposed geothermal facility than the long?term value of the power it would produce. The success of a future project will be determined by whether utility power production costs will remain low and whether costs of construction, operations, or financing may be reduced. There are areas that it would be possible to reduce construction cost. More detailed design could enable the city to obtain more precise quotes for components and construction, resulting in reduction in contingency projections. The current level of the contingency for uncertainty of costs is between $200,000 and $300,000. Another key issue with this project appears to be operation cost. While it is expected that only minimal routine monitoring and operating expenses will occur, the cost of water supply and waste water disposal represents nearly one quarter of the value of the power. If the cost of water alone could be reduced, the project could become viable. In addition, the projected cost of insurance may be lower than estimated under a city?wide policy. No provisions have been made for utilization of federal tax incentives. If a transaction with a third-party owner/taxpayer were to be negotiated, perhaps the net cost of ownership could be reduced. It is recommended that these options be investigated to determine if the costs and benefits could be brought together. The project has good potential, but like many alternative energy projects today, they only work economically if the

  9. Study of Muncipal Solid Waste Management Scenario of Kadapa City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.P.Hari Prasad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Municipal Solid Waste management constitutes a serious problem in many third world cities. Most cities do not collect the totality of wastes generated and of the wastes collected, only a fraction received proper disposal. The insufficient collection and inappropriate disposal of solid wastes represent a source of water, land and air pollution and poses risks to human health and the environment. Over the next several decades globalization, rapid urbanization and economic growth in the developing world tend to further deteriorate this situation. Items that we no longer need or don’t have any further use are falling in the category of waste and we tend to throw them away. In early days people were not facing such big problems of disposals because of availability of space and natural materials but now a day’s congestion in cities and use of non-biodegradable materials in our day life create many problems. It is directly deals with our hygiene and psychology. So, proper management of solid waste has become unavoidable. Two decades of economic growth since 1990 has changed the composition of India wastes. The quantity of MSW generated in India is increasing rapidly due to increasing population and change in lifestyles. Land is scarce and public health and environment resources are precious. The current SWM crisis in India should be approached holistically; while planning for long term solutions, focus on the solving the present problems should maintained. Solid waste Management, its impacts on public health and environment and prospects for the future should further researched. The findings should be disseminated into the public knowledge domain more effectively. The present paper deals with various topics related with solid waste such as it quantity, performance of solid waste management in Kadapa Municipal Corporation, future generation trends in KMC, deficiencies in the present Municipal Solid Waste management system and also keys to reduce it

  10. Study on City Environment, Safety and Health from the Viewpoint of Ecological Risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Qian-liang

    2011-01-01

    Urban ecological risk analysis is a relatively new study field.Rapid industrial moderni ation and urbanization have significantly improved the living standards of the city.However, as environmental, safety and health issues are causing widespread concern, these problems have potential serious threat on ecosystems and human health.So how to solve many problems arising from city has become a key to sustainable development of human civilization.The present article analyzed the major problems that the city confronts and pointed out the main measures from the aspects of urban environment, safety and health.

  11. Functional Study of the Heart using MRI and Multi-slice CT (MSCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Sh. Akhlaghpour

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: By using newer imaging techniques (MRI and MSCT, it is possible to perform functional studies of the heart including, wall mo-tion, chamber volume evaluation, and myocardial mass and wall thickness. While MRI had recently been introduced as the gold standard method for the morphological and functional studies of the heart, recent advances in the number of detectors, rotation time, and reconstruction protocols made Multislice CT (MSCT another new application for functional studies of the heart too. Ordinary raw data for coro-nary CT angiography is sufficient for these functional studies. Apart from the point that which technique is to be used to get a standard and reproducible meas-urement, a proper imaging strategy is necessary. To use MSCT, various softwares are available for these studies. By the use of these two modalities, valvular evaluations are also possible as addressed in many recent publications. In this article the strategy for functional study of the heart is presented and some case studies are also discussed.

  12. SUSTAINABLE EVENT TOURISM: CASE STUDY CITY OF PULA, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Grzinic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern tourism expands through cultural experience, which is reflected in economic, ecological and socio-cultural effects on destinations. Event tourism is a growing market segment and represents a challenge for all destination stakeholders. As the largest town in the Croatian part of Istria, the City of Pula represents a valid basis for the development of event tourism due to its coastal geography and rich cultural and historical heritage from antique, medieval and new age periods. The festival and event organisers in Pula use historical and cultural themes in order to develop annual attractions by which they draw in tourists and brand the destination. In this paper, the hypothesis is set on the lack of benefits from event organisation in the destination (the City of Pula in the ecological, economic and socio-cultural senses. In resolving of research problems with authorised representatives of local boards Arena, Monte Zaro and Stinjan, standardised, semi-structured and problem-centred interviews were conducted for the purposes of contribution to research relative to sustainability and responsibility of events in tourism.

  13. Cross Innovation approach and the creative industries: a case study in the city of Lisbon, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Mendes Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the cultural diversity of Europe, and the inextricable link between culture and creativity, creative industries also represent a great asset and a source of global competitive advantage. In this regard the EU launched the project Cross Innovation, aimed at identifying and sharing innovative experiences among the participating cities, and more specifically seeking to identify how the creative industries can interact with other industries in other sectors. This project was taken part by 11 European cities such as Amsterdam, Berlin, Birmingham, Stockholm, Linz, Lisbon, Pilsen, Vilnius, Warsaw, Rome and Tallinn. The purpose of this article is to describe the process performed in Europe and show that this can be used by other cities and even other regions to leverage the innovation process using the potential of the creative industry. It was utilized a documentary research on the project (reports, websites, documents submitted by respondents and there was performed a field study, with personal interviews with those responsible for the agencies involved in the project (Town Hall, University of Lisbon, companies, including others in one of the participant cities: the city of Lisbon, in Portugal. When researching the results of this project, specifically in the city of Lisbon, it is seen that there was learning in the sense of how the city can arrange a mediation policy from this process of rapprochement between the sectors of the economy of a region and Creative Industries, and the results in terms of knowledge generation are visible.

  14. Evaluating Pillar Industry's Transformation Capability: A Case Study of Two Chinese Steel-Based Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhidong Li

    Full Text Available Many steel-based cities in China were established between the 1950s and 1960s. After more than half a century of development and boom, these cities are starting to decline and industrial transformation is urgently needed. This paper focuses on evaluating the transformation capability of resource-based cities building an evaluation model. Using Text Mining and the Document Explorer technique as a way of extracting text features, the 200 most frequently used words are derived from 100 publications related to steel- and other resource-based cities. The Expert Evaluation Method (EEM and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP techniques are then applied to select 53 indicators, determine their weights and establish an index system for evaluating the transformation capability of the pillar industry of China's steel-based cities. Using real data and expert reviews, the improved Fuzzy Relation Matrix (FRM method is applied to two case studies in China, namely Panzhihua and Daye, and the evaluation model is developed using Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE. The cities' abilities to carry out industrial transformation are evaluated with concerns expressed for the case of Daye. The findings have policy implications for the potential and required industrial transformation in the two selected cities and other resource-based towns.

  15. Strategies to Reduce the Harmful Effects of Extreme Heat Events: A Four-City Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalonne L. White-Newsome

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme heat events (EHEs are becoming more intense, more frequent and longer lasting in the 21st century. These events can disproportionately impact the health of low-income, minority, and urban populations. To better understand heat-related intervention strategies used by four U.S. cities, we conducted 73 semi-structured interviews with government and non-governmental organization leaders representing public health, general social services, emergency management, meteorology, and the environmental planning sectors in Detroit, MI; New York City, NY; Philadelphia, PA and Phoenix, AZ—cities selected for their diverse demographics, climates, and climate adaptation strategies. We identified activities these leaders used to reduce the harmful effects of heat for residents in their city, as well as the obstacles they faced and the approaches they used to evaluate these efforts. Local leaders provided a description of how local context (e.g., climate, governance and city structure impacted heat preparedness. Despite the differences among study cities, political will and resource access were critical to driving heat-health related programming. Upon completion of our interviews, we convened leaders in each city to discuss these findings and their ongoing efforts through day-long workshops. Our findings and the recommendations that emerged from these workshops could inform other local or national efforts towards preventing heat-related morbidity and mortality.

  16. Strategies to reduce the harmful effects of extreme heat events: a four-city study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L; McCormick, Sabrina; Sampson, Natalie; Buxton, Miatta A; O'Neill, Marie S; Gronlund, Carina J; Catalano, Linda; Conlon, Kathryn C; Parker, Edith A

    2014-02-13

    Extreme heat events (EHEs) are becoming more intense, more frequent and longer lasting in the 21st century. These events can disproportionately impact the health of low-income, minority, and urban populations. To better understand heat-related intervention strategies used by four U.S. cities, we conducted 73 semi-structured interviews with government and non-governmental organization leaders representing public health, general social services, emergency management, meteorology, and the environmental planning sectors in Detroit, MI; New York City, NY; Philadelphia, PA and Phoenix, AZ-cities selected for their diverse demographics, climates, and climate adaptation strategies. We identified activities these leaders used to reduce the harmful effects of heat for residents in their city, as well as the obstacles they faced and the approaches they used to evaluate these efforts. Local leaders provided a description of how local context (e.g., climate, governance and city structure) impacted heat preparedness. Despite the differences among study cities, political will and resource access were critical to driving heat-health related programming. Upon completion of our interviews, we convened leaders in each city to discuss these findings and their ongoing efforts through day-long workshops. Our findings and the recommendations that emerged from these workshops could inform other local or national efforts towards preventing heat-related morbidity and mortality.

  17. Leptin, not adiponectin, predicts hypertension in the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla Lundegaard; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Flyvbjerg, Allan;

    2010-01-01

    blood pressure (DBP) > or = 90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication. Using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fibrinogen, and glucose, and with leptin and adiponectin included...... women and 300 men who were normotensive in the third CCHS examination, which was performed in 1991-1994. RESULTS: Between the third and the fourth CCHS examination, which was performed in 2001-2003, 254 had developed hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or = 140 mm Hg, or diastolic...

  18. The Prognostic Value of Non-Linear Analysis of Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure—A Pilot Study of Multiscale Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yi-Lwun; Lin, Chen; Lin, Yen-Hung; Lo, Men-Tzung

    2011-01-01

    Aims The influences of nonstationarity and nonlinearity on heart rate time series can be mathematically qualified or quantified by multiscale entropy (MSE). The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of parameters derived from MSE in the patients with systolic heart failure. Methods and Results Patients with systolic heart failure were enrolled in this study. One month after clinical condition being stable, 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram was recording. MSE as well as other standard parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were assessed. A total of 40 heart failure patients with a mea age of 56±16 years were enrolled and followed-up for 684±441 days. There were 25 patients receiving β-blockers treatment. During follow-up period, 6 patients died or received urgent heart transplantation. The short-term exponent of DFA and the slope of MSE between scale 1 to 5 were significantly different between patients with or without β-blockers (p = 0.014 and p = 0.028). Only the area under the MSE curve for scale 6 to 20 (Area6–20) showed the strongest predictive power between survival (n = 34) and mortality (n = 6) groups among all the parameters. The value of Area6–2021.2 served as a significant predictor of mortality or heart transplant (p = 0.0014). Conclusion The area under the MSE curve for scale 6 to 20 is not relevant to β-blockers and could further warrant independent risk stratification for the prognosis of CHF patients. PMID:21533258

  19. The prognostic value of non-linear analysis of heart rate variability in patients with congestive heart failure--a pilot study of multiscale entropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Lwun Ho

    Full Text Available AIMS: The influences of nonstationarity and nonlinearity on heart rate time series can be mathematically qualified or quantified by multiscale entropy (MSE. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of parameters derived from MSE in the patients with systolic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with systolic heart failure were enrolled in this study. One month after clinical condition being stable, 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram was recording. MSE as well as other standard parameters of heart rate variability (HRV and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA were assessed. A total of 40 heart failure patients with a mea age of 56±16 years were enrolled and followed-up for 684±441 days. There were 25 patients receiving β-blockers treatment. During follow-up period, 6 patients died or received urgent heart transplantation. The short-term exponent of DFA and the slope of MSE between scale 1 to 5 were significantly different between patients with or without β-blockers (p = 0.014 and p = 0.028. Only the area under the MSE curve for scale 6 to 20 (Area(6-20 showed the strongest predictive power between survival (n = 34 and mortality (n = 6 groups among all the parameters. The value of Area(6-2021.2 served as a significant predictor of mortality or heart transplant (p = 0.0014. CONCLUSION: The area under the MSE curve for scale 6 to 20 is not relevant to β-blockers and could further warrant independent risk stratification for the prognosis of CHF patients.

  20. A prospective cohort study of quality of life and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Mikkelsen, Stine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To examine the role of self-rated quality of life, as a whole, on the risk of developing ischemic heart disease. Methods: Information on self-rated quality of life and covariates was obtained from 4497 people from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort. The study population, consisting of both men...... and women aged 31-33 years at baseline, was followed for registration of ischemic heart disease in national registers. Two different follow-up periods were examined. Results: Using a follow-up of 13 years, the basis-adjusted hazard ratio among women who rated their quality of life as poor was 2.93 (95% CI...... were insignificant. All hazard ratios among men were below two and none were statistically significant. Conclusions: Among women, the risk for ischemic heart disease was two to four times greater for those who rated their quality of life as poor or good, than for women with the most positive rating...

  1. COLONIAL AND TRADITIONAL URBAN SPACE IN JAVA: A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF TEN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNARYO Rony Gunawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of morphological studies of cities in Java tended to place the elements of traditional urban space such as Alun-alun, Mosque, Palace and Market as the main elements of city. Other elements such as the colonial urban space Resident Office, Fort, Church, Park and so on are often considered separately or placed as a complementary part. Through a morphological study  by exploring ten cities in Java, I found both elements of traditional and colonial urban space were set in a unique and various pattern. There are some findings indicating that the elements of colonial urban space significantly influence the city structure as well as those of the traditional ones. Therefore, understanding the urban space form in Java should include and put elements of both of traditional and colonial urban space as an integral part.

  2. Urban Growth Scenarios of a Future MEGA City: Case Study Ahmedabad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, A.; Kraus, V.; Steinnocher, K.

    2016-06-01

    The study of urban areas and their development focuses on cities, their physical and demographic expansion and the tensions and impacts that go along with urban growth. Especially in developing countries and emerging national economies like India, consistent and up to date information or other planning relevant data all too often is not available. With its Smart Cities Mission, the Indian government places great importance on the future developments of Indian urban areas and pays tribute to the large-scale rural to urban migration. The potentials of urban remote sensing and its contribution to urban planning are discussed and related to the Indian Smart Cities Mission. A case study is presented showing urban remote sensing based information products for the city of Ahmedabad. Resulting urban growth scenarios are presented, hotspots identified and future action alternatives proposed.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of the boundary layer height on idealised cities (model study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schayes, G. [Univ. of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Grossi, P. [Joint Research Center, Ispra (Italy)

    1997-10-01

    The behaviour of the typical diurnal variation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over cities is a complex function of very numerous environmental parameters. Two types of geographical situations have been retained: (i) inland city only surrounded by uniform fields, (ii) coastal city, thus influenced by the sea/land breeze effect. We have used the three-dimensional Thermal Vorticity-mode Mesoscale (TVM) model developed jointly by the UCL (Belgium) and JRC (Italy). In this study it has been used in 2-D mode allowing to perform many sensitivity runs. This implies that a kind of infinitely wide city has been effectively stimulated, but this does not affect the conclusions for the ABL height. The sensibility study has been performed for two turbulence closure schemes, for various assumptions for the ABL height definition in the model, and for a selected parameter, the soil water content. (LN)

  4. Validation of the Framingham Heart Study and CHARGE-AF Risk Scores for Atrial Fibrillation in Hispanics, African-Americans, and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Eric; Kargoli, Faraj; Aagaard, Philip; Hoch, Ethan; Di Biase, Luigi; Fisher, John; Gross, Jay; Kim, Soo; Krumerman, Andrew; Ferrick, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    A risk score for atrial fibrillation (AF) has been developed by the Framingham Heart Study and Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE)-AF consortium. However, validation of these risk scores in an inner-city population is uncertain. Thus, a validation model was built using the Framingham Risk Score for AF and CHARGE-AF covariates. An in and outpatient electrocardiographic database was interrogated from 2000 to 2013 for the development of AF. Patients were included if their age was >45 and original risk equations: non-Hispanic white AUC = 0.712 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.694 to 0.731), African-American AUC = 0.733 (95% CI 0.716 to 0.751), and Hispanic AUC = 0.740 (95% CI 0.723 to 0.757). For the CHARGE-AF, 45,571 patients met inclusion criteria, of which 4,512 developed AF. Non-Hispanic white AUC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.652 to 0.694), African-American AUC = 0.706 (95% CI 0.685 to 0.727), and Hispanic AUC = 0.711 (95% CI 0.691 to 0.732). Calibration analysis showed qualitative similarities between cohorts. In conclusion, this is the first study to validate both the Framingham Heart Study and CHARGE-AF risk scores in both a Hispanic and African-American cohort. All models predicted AF well across all race and ethnic cohorts. PMID:26589820

  5. Bogalusa Heart Study: a long-term community study of a rural biracial (Black/White) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, G S

    2001-11-01

    The Bogalusa Heart Study, a long-term population study with a continued relationship with a community, addresses the problem of capacity building in minority health research. The study was originally funded as a Specialized Center of Research-Arteriosclerosis (SCOR-A) by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI). These centers were to conduct research on atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and complications of cardiovascular-renal disease as the major causes of deaths in the United States. From earlier research on atherosclerosis, we became interested in the underlying characteristics in early life that would eventually lead to clinical morbidity and mortality from heart disease. An observation at autopsy showed the degree of atherosclerotic involvement in human aortas, from young to older individuals (Figure 1). For example, at age 40 years, marked individual variability occurred in the severity and involvement with atherosclerotic disease. Some individuals showed very little disease, while almost 70% of the surface was diseased in others. Further studies on arterial wall matrix showed aortas from young individuals varied with the extent of disease and its chemical composition. This background stimulated an interest in studying children for early clinical evidence of major adult heart diseases. The Bogalusa Heart Study was begun in 1972 as an epidemiology study of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents; it eventually evolved into observations of young adults. Bogalusa, LA, is a biracial (black/white) rural community 70 miles north of New Orleans, comparable to many other communities in southeastern United States.

  6. Short term Heart Rate Variability to predict blood pressure drops due to standing: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    G. Sannino; Melillo, P; Stranges, S; De Pietro, G; Pecchia, L

    2015-01-01

    Background Standing from a bed or chair may cause a significant lowering of blood pressure (ΔBP), which may have severe consequences such as, for example, falls in older subjects. The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model to predict the ΔBP due to standing in healthy subjects, based on their Heart Rate Variability, recorded in the 5 minutes before standing. Methods Heart Rate Variability was extracted from an electrocardiogram, recorded from 10 healthy subjects during the 5 m...

  7. Advanced chronic heart failure : A position statement from the Study Group on Advanced Heart Failure of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metra, Marco; Ponikowski, Piotr; Dickstein, Kenneth; McMurray, John J. V.; Gavazzi, Antonello; Bergh, Claes-Hakan; Fraser, Alan G.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Pitsis, Antonis; Mohacsi, Paul; Boehm, Michael; Anker, Stefan; Dargie, Henry; Brutsaert, Dirk; Komajda, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Therapy has improved the survival of heart failure (HF) patients. However, many patients progress to advanced chronic HF (ACHF). We propose a practical clinical definition and describe the characteristics of this condition. Patients that are generally recognised as ACHF often exhibit the following c

  8. Looking at public spaces in contemporary Rome: an anthropological perspective on the study of cities

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Postiglione

    2013-01-01

    Through the presentation of two case studies this paper aims to engage the theoretical debate on the persistence of public space in the contemporary city, and focuses the attention on the way people practice these spaces and on the policies which are regulating their uses. Starting from the description of different ways in which some urban spaces in Rome (Italy) are used by two different communities of people, one mainly composed by immigrants and the other by young city users, and the divers...

  9. Explaining Critical Success Factors for CRM Strategy (Case Study: SMEs in Zahedan Industrial City)

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Reza Kamalian; Noormohammad Ya'ghoubi; Fataneh Baharvand

    2013-01-01

    This study explains critical success factors (CSFs) for Customer Relationship Management (CRM) strategy in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) located in Zahedan industrial city. Research population consists of industrialists and professionals in Zahedan industrial city. Because of small population size, data obtained by the entire population; i.e. 54 companies. In order to measure variables, two researcher-made questionnaires for CRM strategy and CSFs were used. Form validity and conte...

  10. Protein supplements consumption: a comparative study between the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, A., Lupo C., Alesi M., Spina S., Raccuglia M., Thomas E., Paoli A.. Palma A.; Mammina, C.; Thomas, E.; Ciulla, F.; Pupella, U; Gagliardo, F; BELLAFIORE, M; Battaglia, G.; De Paoli, A; Palma, A.(Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas – LIP, Lisboa, Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    Background Protein supplements are extensively used among commercial gym users and athletes. Although demographic information amongst such consumption has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study is to compare protein supplement consumption in commercial gym users, both from the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire has been administered to 561 subjects. 207 from the city centre (CC) and 354 from the suburbs (SB) of Palermo, Italy. Protein ...

  11. Profile and risk factors for congenital heart defects: A study in a tertiary care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abqari, Shaad; Gupta, Akash; Shahab, Tabassum; Rabbani, MU; Ali, S Manazir; Firdaus, Uzma

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children representing a major global health burden. It is thus important to determine their prevalence and spectrum and identify risk factors associated with the development of heart defects. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in the Department of Pediatrics and Center of Cardiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India, from February 2014 to August 2015. All patients referred with complaints or clinical examination suggestive of CHDs were further evaluated with echocardiography. On Echocardiography, patients having CHDs were included as cases and those having a normal echocardiographic study were included as controls. Healthy controls were also included. 400 cases and 400 controls were thus identified; preterms having patent ductus arteriosus and patent foramen ovale and those with acquired heart defects were excluded. Risk factors among cases and controls were further studied. Results: Acyanotic heart defects were 290 (72.50%) of the total heart defects, whereas the contribution of cyanotic heart defects was 110 (27.50%). Out of all CHDs, ventricular septal defect was the most common lesion with contribution of 152 (38%) cases, whereas among the cyanotic heart defects, Tetralogy of Fallot was the most common lesion (18% of total cases). Out of the total 400 cases, 261 were males (65.25%). On univariate analysis, paternal age (odds ratio, OR, 2.01), bad obstetric history (OR, 2.65), antenatal febrile illness (OR, 4.12), and advanced maternal age (OR, 3.28) were found to increase the risk of CHD whereas intake of multivitamin (OR, 3.02) was found to be protective. The risk factors were further analyzed with multivariate logistic regression analysis and all the above factors were found to be significantly associated. Conclusion: We noted that the profile of CHD in our population was similar

  12. Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Heart Turkish Version Study: cross-cultural adaptation, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Serap; Savci, Sema; Keskinoğlu, Pembe; Akdeniz, Bahri; Özpelit, Ebru; Özcan Kahraman, Buse; Karadibak, Didem; Sevinc, Can

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Individuals with cardiac problems avoid physical activity and exercise because they expect to feel shortness of breath, dizziness, or chest pain. Assessing kinesiophobia related to heart problems is important in terms of cardiac rehabilitation. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia Swedish Version for the Heart (TSK-SV Heart) is reliable and has been validated for cardiac diseases in the Swedish population. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, parallel-form validity, and exploratory factor analysis of the TSK for the Heart Turkish Version (TSK Heart Turkish Version) for evaluating kinesiophobia in patients with heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods This cross-sectional study involved translation, back translation, and cross-cultural adaptation (localization). Forty-three pulmonary arterial hypertension and 32 heart failure patients were evaluated using the TSK Heart Turkish Version. The 17-item scale, originally composed for the Swedish population, has four factors: perceived danger for heart problem, avoidance of exercise, fear of injury, and dysfunctional self. Cronbach’s alpha (internal consistency) and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess the questionnaire’s reliability. Results of the patients in the 6-minute walk test, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Nottingham Health Profile were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation analysis with the TSK Heart Turkish Version to indicate the convergent validity. Results Cronbach’s alpha for the TSK Heart Turkish Version was 0.75, indicating acceptable internal consistency. Although exploratory factor analysis showed a different subgroup distribution than the original questionnaire, the model was acceptable for the four-factor model hypothesis. Therefore, the questionnaire was rated as reliable. Conclusion These results supported the reliability of the TSK Heart Turkish Version. Since the acceptable four-factor model fits the subgroups and

  13. Foundations for Health Promotion with Youth: A Review of Observations from the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents findings from the Bogalusa Heart Study that describe the early natural history of coronary artery disease and hypertensive cardiovascular disease, noting the benefits of early, regular, comprehensive school health education. A discussion of cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking, oral contraception, drinking, and diet…

  14. Prevalence of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction in the general population; The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mosterd (Arend); A.W. Hoes (Arno); M.C. de Bruyne (Martine); D.T. Linker (David); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); J.W. Deckers (Jaap); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To determine the prevalence of heart failure and symptomatic as well as asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 5540 participants of the Rotterdam Study (age 68.9+/-8.7 years, 2251 men) aged

  15. Predictors of arrhythmic sudden cardiac death in heart failure patients in the CARE-HF study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uretsky, B.; Cleland, J.G.F.; Freemantle, N.;

    2006-01-01

    Topic(s):Rsynchronisation therapy   Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has become an important modality to improve symptoms, exercise performance, and survival in patients with severe heart failure and left ventricular dyssynchrony. The CARE-HF study showed that CRT reduced mortality in syst...

  16. Evaluation of Newer Risk Markers for Coronary Heart Disease Risk Classification A Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavousi, Maryam; Elias-Smale, Suzette; Rutten, Joost H. W.; Leening, Maarten J. G.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Maat, Moniek P. M.; Leebeek, Frank W. G.; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Lindemans, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; van der Lugt, Aad; van den Meiracker, Anton H.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Whether newer risk markers for coronary heart disease (CHD) improve CHD risk prediction remains unclear. Objective: To assess whether newer risk markers for CHD risk prediction and stratification improve Framingham risk score (FRS) predictions. Design: Prospective population-based study.

  17. Troponin I in acute decompensated heart failure : insights from the ASCEND-HF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felker, G. Michael; Hasselblad, Vic; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Armstrong, Paul W.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Metra, Marco; McMurray, John J. V.; Butler, Javed; Heizer, Gretchen M.; Dickstein, Kenneth; Massie, Barry M.; Atar, Dan; Troughton, Richard W.; Anker, Stefan D.; Califf, Robert M.; Starling, Randall C.; O'Connor, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prognostic importance of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in a cohort of patients enrolled in the ASCEND-HF study of nesiritide in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Circulating troponins are a prognostic marker in patients with ADHF. Contemporary assays with greater sensitivity requ

  18. Adiponectin: an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease in men in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our aim was to determine whether plasma adiponectin levels were an independent predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured in 3,188 male and female participants from cycle 6 of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 57 years in both men and women; BMI:...

  19. Perceived Vulnerability to Heart Disease in Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A Qualitative Interview Study

    OpenAIRE

    Frich, Jan C; Ose, Leiv; Malterud, Kirsti; Fugelli, Per

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE Knowledge about the ways patients perceive their vulnerability to disease is important for communication with patients about risk and preventive health measures. This interview study aimed to explore how patients with a diagnosis of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia understand and perceive their vulnerability to coronary heart disease.

  20. How do patients at risk portray candidates for coronary heart disease? A qualitative interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich, J.C.; Malterud, K.; Fugelli, P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore how patients at risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) portray candidates for CHD. DESIGN: Qualitative interview study. SETTING: Norway. SUBJECTS: A total of 20 men and 20 women diagnosed with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) recruited through a lipid clinic. MAIN...

  1. Anterior mediastinal masses in the Framingham Heart Study: Prevalence and CT image characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Araki

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of anterior mediastinal masses is 0.9% in the Framingham Heart Study. Those masses may increase in size when observed over 5–7 years. Investigation of clinical significance in incidentally found anterior mediastinal masses with a longer period of follow-up would be necessary.

  2. A longitudinal study in youth of heart rate variability at rest and in response to stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhibin; Snieder, Harold; Su, Shaoyong; Ding, Xiuhua; Thayer, Julian F.; Treiber, Frank A.; Wang, Xiaoling

    2009-01-01

    Background: Few longitudinal studies have examined ethnic and sex differences, predictors and tracking stabilities of heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and in response to stress in youths and young adults. Methods: Two evaluations were performed approximately 1.5 years apart on 399 youths and you

  3. Heart Failure Therapeutics on the Basis of a Biased Ligand of the Angiotensin-2 Type 1 Receptor Rationale and Design of the BLAST-AHF Study (Biased Ligand of the Angiotensin Receptor Study in Acute Heart Failure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felker, G. Michael; Butler, Javed; Collins, Sean P.; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth A.; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Levy, Phillip D.; Metra, Marco; Ponikowski, Piotr; Soergel, David G.; Teerlink, John R.; Violin, Jonathan D.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Pang, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    The BLAST-AHF (Biased Ligand of the Angiotensin Receptor Study in Acute Heart Failure) study is designed to test the efficacy and safety of TRV027, a novel biased ligand of the angiotensin-2 type 1 receptor, in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). AHF remains a major public health problem, and n

  4. Associations between green space and health in English cities: an ecological, cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honor Bixby

    Full Text Available Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest cities in England. We assessed associations between city green space coverage with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and suicide between 2002 and 2009 using Poisson regression with random effect. After adjustment for age, income deprivation and air pollution, we found that at the city level the risk of death from all causes and a priori selected causes, for men and women, did not significantly differ between the greenest and least green cities. These findings suggest that the local health effects of urban green space observed at the neighbourhood level in some studies do not transfer to the city level. Further work is needed to establish how urban residents interact with local green space, in order to ascertain the most relevant measures of green space.

  5. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Heart Disease KidsHealth > For Kids > Heart Disease Print A A ... chest pain, heart attacks, and strokes . What Is Heart Disease? The heart is the center of the cardiovascular ...

  6. Heart murmurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... The heart has 4 chambers: Two upper chambers (atria) Two lower chambers (ventricles) The heart has valves that close ...

  7. Joint impact of rainfall and tidal level on flood risk in a coastal city with a complex river network: a case study for Fuzhou city, China

    OpenAIRE

    Lian, J. J.; Xu, K.; Ma, C.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal cities are particularly vulnerable to flood under the combined effect of multivariable variables, such as heavy rainfall, high sea level and large waves. For better assessment and management of flood risk the combined effect and joint probability should be considered. This paper aims to study the joint impact of rainfall and tidal level on flood risk by estimating the combined risk degree of flood and the joint flood probability. The area of case study is a typical coastal city...

  8. Physical fitness and telomere length in patients with coronary heart disease: findings from the Heart and Soul Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Krauss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Short telomere length (TL is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD. However, the relationship between physical fitness and TL has not been explored in these patients. METHODS: In a cross sectional study of 944 outpatients with stable CHD, we performed exercise treadmill testing, assessed self-reported physical activity, and measured leukocyte TL using a quantitative PCR assay. We used generalized linear models to calculate mean TL (T/S ratio, and logistic regression models to compare the proportion of patients with short TL (defined as the lowest quartile, among participants with low, medium and high physical fitness, based on metabolic equivalent tasks achieved (METs. RESULTS: 229 participants had low physical fitness (7 METS. Mean ± T/S ratio ranged from 0.86±0.21 (5349±3781 base pairs in those with low physical fitness to 0.95±0.23 (5566±3829 base pairs in those with high physical fitness (p<.001. This association remained strong after adjustment for numerous patient characteristics, including measures of cardiac disease severity and physical inactivity (p = 0.005. Compared with participants with high physical fitness, those with low physical fitness had 2-fold greater odds of having TL in the lowest quartile (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.60-3.55; p<.001. This association was similar after multivariable adjustment (OR 1.94, 95%CI, 1.18-3.20; p = 0.009. Self-reported physical inactivity was associated with shorter TL in unadjusted analyses, but not after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: We found that worse objectively-assessed physical fitness is associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length in patients with CHD. The clinical implications of this association deserve further study.

  9. How Do We Define Congenital Heart Defects for Scientific Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Olsen, Morten Smærup; Johnsen, Søren Paaske;

    2011-01-01

    on CHD may be used: etiology, planning of treatment, or obtain information on outcome, including mortality. For etiology studies, it is important to include terminations of pregnancy as well as all births with CHD. For mortality studies in live births, inclusion of preterm born infants with PDA...

  10. Looking at public spaces in contemporary Rome: an anthropological perspective on the study of cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Postiglione

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the presentation of two case studies this paper aims to engage the theoretical debate on the persistence of public space in the contemporary city, and focuses the attention on the way people practice these spaces and on the policies which are regulating their uses. Starting from the description of different ways in which some urban spaces in Rome (Italy are used by two different communities of people, one mainly composed by immigrants and the other by young city users, and the diverse ways in which their different practices are seen and tolerated, the aim of this paper is to reflect on public spaces. Observing how city users practice public spaces, and analysing the way in which these practices are considered, are particularly exciting perspectives that can offer an interesting vision of the spatial and social reality of the city and of hegemonic relations which govern it.

  11. STUDY ON SPATIAL LANDSCAPE PATTERN OF YANTAI CITY BASED ON RS AND GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Quan-yuan

    2003-01-01

    Influenced by artificial factors, landscape pattern of Yantai City, Shandong Province changes continu-ously. Revealing its landscape pattern and its changing process has a practical significance for the urban development and layout. Zhifu District, Development Zone, Laishan District and Fushan District in Yantai City were selected to study the landscape pattern. Remote sensing technology was used to obtain landscape information of different peri-ods. Under the support of Geographic Information System (GIS), the spatial landscape pattern of Yantai City was an-alyzed and simulated by using various special quantitative analysis models. The analysis shows that built-up area lies in the center of Yantai City, the outside is vegetable land, irrigated land, dry land, garden land and woodland.

  12. A biocompatible flow chamber to study the hemodynamic performance of prosthetic heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wei; Ngwe, Ek Ching; Rubenstein, David A

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to design, fabricate, and characterize a biocompatible flow chamber to study the performance of artificial heart valves. The system consists of a testing fluid chamber and a water chamber (separated by a latex diaphragm), following the design of a left ventricular assist device. Two St. Jude bileaflet mechanical heart valves were placed oppositely in the testing fluid chamber to control flow direction. The flow rate of the testing fluid chamber was set at 5.6 L/min, with a stroke volume of 80 ml. The performance of the system was examined through three-dimensional numerical simulation and in vitro experiments with whole blood and washed platelets. Hemolysis was measured with whole blood using a spectrophotometer. Platelet activation was measured by platelet surface P-selectin expression using flow cytometry. The three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model demonstrated that the flow field in the chamber was laminar and physiological. Results from in vitro experiments indicated that the flow conditions in the chamber did not induce hemolysis or platelet activation with the presence of St. Jude heart valves. Overall, the flow chamber can provide a feasible environment to study the hemodynamic performance of artificial heart valves. PMID:22951894

  13. Heart rate variability and particulate exposure in vehicle maintenance workers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, Robert M; Rosenthal, Frank S

    2004-08-01

    The association between occupational exposure to PM(2.5) and heart rate variability was investigated in a repeated measures, longitudinal study of vehicle maintenance workers occupationally exposed to automobile emissions. Five subjects were monitored for occupational exposure to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) on 6 workdays using an aerosol photometer, validated with side-by-side sampling with a gravimetric method. End-of-day heart rate variability statistics were derived using short-term electrocardiogram recordings for each participant. Workplace carbon monoxide and outdoor, ambient fine particulate matter were also monitored. Regression statistics were used to investigate associations between same-day PM(2.5) levels and heart rate variability statistics using mixed-effects multiple regression of pooled data. No statistically significant associations were observed between occupational PM(2.5) and measures of heart rate variability. A statistically significant increase in total spectral power was associated with ambient PM(2.5) (p < 0.05). The data suggest a threshold below which no degradation in cardiac autonomic control of healthy workers occurs when challenged by occupational PM(2.5) exposure. This study was limited in population, exposure level, and type of particulate exposures. Additional studies are recommended on broader occupational populations.

  14. Heart rate variability and particulate exposure in vehicle maintenance workers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, Robert M; Rosenthal, Frank S

    2004-08-01

    The association between occupational exposure to PM(2.5) and heart rate variability was investigated in a repeated measures, longitudinal study of vehicle maintenance workers occupationally exposed to automobile emissions. Five subjects were monitored for occupational exposure to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) on 6 workdays using an aerosol photometer, validated with side-by-side sampling with a gravimetric method. End-of-day heart rate variability statistics were derived using short-term electrocardiogram recordings for each participant. Workplace carbon monoxide and outdoor, ambient fine particulate matter were also monitored. Regression statistics were used to investigate associations between same-day PM(2.5) levels and heart rate variability statistics using mixed-effects multiple regression of pooled data. No statistically significant associations were observed between occupational PM(2.5) and measures of heart rate variability. A statistically significant increase in total spectral power was associated with ambient PM(2.5) (p < 0.05). The data suggest a threshold below which no degradation in cardiac autonomic control of healthy workers occurs when challenged by occupational PM(2.5) exposure. This study was limited in population, exposure level, and type of particulate exposures. Additional studies are recommended on broader occupational populations. PMID:15238301

  15. Sugar Companies Shifted Focus to Fat as Heart Harm: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar increased, a trade group for the sugar industry -- the Sugar Research Foundation -- commissioned a research review by Harvard ... also served on scientific advisory boards for the sugar industry, the authors of the new study said. Besides ...

  16. Barriers and facilitators to palliative care of patients with chronic heart failure in Germany: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Köberich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite its high prevalence, similar symptoms and symptom burden, people suffering from chronic heart failure receive less palliative care than patients with malignant diseases. Internationally, numerous barriers to palliative care of patients with chronic heart failure are known, however, there are no credible data regarding barriers and facilitators to palliative care of people suffering from chronic heart failure available for Germany. Design and Methods. Tripartite study. First part of this study evaluates health care providers’ (physicians and nurses perceived barriers and facilitators to palliative care of patients with chronic heart failure using a qualitative approach. At least 18 persons will be interviewed. In the second part, based on the results of part one, a questionnaire about barriers and facilitators to palliative care of patients with chronic heart failure will be designed and applied to at least 150 physicians and nurses. In the last part a classic Delphi method will be used to develop specific measures to improve the palliative care for chronic heart failure patients. Expected Impact for Public Health. The results of this study will help to understand why patients with heart failure are seldom referred to palliative care and will provide solutions to overcome these barriers. Developed solutions will be the first step to improve palliative care in patients with heart failure in Germany. In addition, the results will help health care providers in other countries to take action to improve palliative care situations for heart failure patients.

  17. Urban sustainable energy development: A case study of the city of Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriou, Iraklis

    This study explores the role of cities in sustainable energy development through a governance-informed analysis. Despite the leading position of municipalities in energy sustainability, cities have been mostly conceptualized as sites where energy development is shaped by external policy scales, i.e. the national level. A growing body of research, however, critiques this analytical perspective, and seeks to better understand the type of factors and dynamics that influence energy sustainability within a multi-level policy context for urban energy. Given that particular circumstances are applicable across cities, a context-specific analysis can provide insight regarding how sustainable energy development takes place in urban areas. In applying such an analytical perspective on urban energy sustainability, this study undertakes a qualitative case study analysis for the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by looking at four key local policy initiatives relevant to building energy efficiency and solar electricity development at the municipal government and city-wide level. The evaluation of the initiatives suggests that renewable electricity use has increased substantially in the city over the last years but the installed capacity of local renewable electricity systems, including solar photovoltaics, is low. On the other hand, although the city has made little progress in meeting its building energy efficiency targets, more comprehensive action is taken in this area. The study finds that the above outcomes have been shaped mainly by four factors. The first is the city government's incremental policy approach aiming to develop a facilitative context for local action. The second is the role that a diverse set of stakeholders have in local sustainable energy development. The third is the constraints that systemic policy barriers create for solar power development. The fourth is the ways through which the relevant multi-level policy environment structures the city

  18. Positive Affect and Survival in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease : Findings From the Heart and Soul Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Petra W.; Denollet, Johan; de Jonge, Peter; Whooley, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Positive affect can improve survival, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unknown. We sought to evaluate the association between positive affect and mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease and to determine biological and behavioral factors that might e

  19. Depression and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease : Data From The Heart and Soul Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Petra W.; de Jonge, Peter; Na, Bee Ya; Farzaneh-Far, Ramin; Epel, Elissa; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Whooley, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Shortened telomere length has been associated with mortality in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and is considered as an emerging marker of biologic age. Whether depression is associated with telomere length or trajectory has not been evaluated in patients with CHD. Methods: In

  20. Vitamin D biology and heart failure : Clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meems, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, vitamin D biology has been studied more extensively than ever before.. The use of vitamin D supplements is common, and so is determination of plasma vitamin D status. Besides its role in bone homeostasis, vitamin D is thought to be an important player in the development and treat

  1. Studies of citric acid metabolism in heart muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meduski, J.W.

    1950-01-01

    1. The pentabromoacetone method for the determination of citric acid was studied; a modification of the procedure of Natelson, Lugovoy and Pincus was used. 2. Two tissue preparations were obtained. The first by washing with water, the second by washing with water and then with 0.5% sodium bicarbo

  2. Metabolic profiles of biological aging in American Indians: The strong heart family study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jinying; Zhu, Yun; Uppal, Karan; ViLinh T Tran; Yu, Tianwei; Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Jones, Dean; Lee, Elisa T.; Howard, Barbara V.

    2014-01-01

    Short telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with age-related metabolic disorders. Telomere attrition induces profound metabolic dysfunction in animal models, but no study has examined the metabolome of telomeric aging in human. Here we studied 423 apparently healthy American Indians participating in the Strong Family Heart Study. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured by qPCR. Metabolites in fasting plasma were detected by untargeted LC/MS. Associations of L...

  3. Ischemic heart disease risk factors in lead exposed workers: research study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiasvand, Masoumeh; Aghakhani, kamran; Salimi, Ahmad; Kumar, Ranjit

    2013-01-01

    Background Review of other epidemiological studies reveal inconsistent results of relationships between high blood lead level and risk of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. In this study we wanted to find if there is a relationship between blood lead level and these ischemic heart disease risk factors. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in a battery recycling plant, and 497 male workers with the mean age of 41.7 (±6.50) years were recruited from all over the plant (...

  4. Risk Factors For Coronary Heart Disease : A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zodpey Sanjay P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the role of different risk factors in causation of CHD. Objective: To identify the risk factors contributing to the outcome of CHD. Design: Pair matched case-control study. Setting: Government Medical college, Nagpur, India, a tertiary care hospital. Participants: The study included 294 incident cases of CHD diagnosed by standard criteria. Each case was pair matched with one control for age and sex. Controls were selected from subjects attending the hospital for conditions other than CHD. Main Outcome Measure: CHD. Study variable: Socio-economic status (SES, physical inactivity (PI, family history of CHD, type A personality (TAP, cigarette smoking (CS, alcohol consumption (AC, obesity, oral contraceptive use (OC use, diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension (HT and total serum cholesterol TSC. Results: On univariate analysis all the 11 risk factors were significantly associated with CHD. Conditional multiple logistic regression identified significant association of SES (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.28-3.73, PI (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.56-2.62, OC use (OR 3.96, 95% CI 1.11-14.02, obesity (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.15-2.27, DM (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.13-4.13, HT (OR 4.23, 95% CI 2.56-6399, TSC (OR 3.84, 95% CI 2.58-5.72 and CHD. Estimates of attributable risk proportion and population attributable risk proportion for the significant factors confirmed their etiological role and impact of these factors on the development of CHD in this population. Conclusion: This study identified significance of SES, PI, OC use, obesity, DM, HT and TSC in multivariate environment in the outcome of CHD.

  5. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR POTASSIUM IODIDE (KI) DISTRIBUTION IN NEW YORK CITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MOSS, STEVEN

    2005-04-29

    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH), Bureau of Environmental Science and Engineering, Office of Radiological Health (ORH) [as the primary local technical consultant in the event of a radiological or nuclear incident within the boundaries of New York City] requested the assistance of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with the development of a Feasibility Study for Potassium Iodide (KI) distribution in the unlikely event of a significant release of radioactive iodine in or near New York City. Brookhaven National Laboratory had previously provided support for New York City with the development of the radiological/nuclear portions of its All Hazards Emergency Response Plans. The work is funded by Medical and Health Research Association (MHRA) of New York City, Inc., under a work grant by the Federal Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism. This report is part of the result of that effort. The conclusions of this report are that: (1) There is no credible radiological scenario that would prompt the need for large segments of the general population of New York City to take KI as a result of a projected plume exposure to radioiodine reaching even the lowest threshold of 5 rem to the thyroid; and (2) KI should be stockpiled in amounts and locations sufficient for use by first responders/emergency responders in response to any localized release of radioiodine.

  6. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR POTASSIUM IODIDE (KI) DISTRIBUTION IN NEW YORK CITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH), Bureau of Environmental Science and Engineering, Office of Radiological Health (ORH) [as the primary local technical consultant in the event of a radiological or nuclear incident within the boundaries of New York City] requested the assistance of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with the development of a Feasibility Study for Potassium Iodide (KI) distribution in the unlikely event of a significant release of radioactive iodine in or near New York City. Brookhaven National Laboratory had previously provided support for New York City with the development of the radiological/nuclear portions of its All Hazards Emergency Response Plans. The work is funded by Medical and Health Research Association (MHRA) of New York City, Inc., under a work grant by the Federal Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism. This report is part of the result of that effort. The conclusions of this report are that: (1) There is no credible radiological scenario that would prompt the need for large segments of the general population of New York City to take KI as a result of a projected plume exposure to radioiodine reaching even the lowest threshold of 5 rem to the thyroid; and (2) KI should be stockpiled in amounts and locations sufficient for use by first responders/emergency responders in response to any localized release of radioiodine

  7. Study on evaluation of cities' ability reducing earthquake disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张风华; 谢礼立; 范立础

    2004-01-01

    Cities′ ability reducing earthquake disasters is a complex system involving numerous factors, moreover the re-search on evaluating cities′ ability reducing earthquake disasters relates to multi-subject, such as earthquake sci-ence, social science, economical science and so on. In this paper, firstly, the conception of cities′ ability reducingearthquake disasters is presented, and the ability could be evaluated with three basic elements - the possible seis-mic casualty and economic loss during the future earthquakes that are likely to occur in the city and its surround-ings and time required for recovery after earthquake; based upon these three basic elements, a framework, whichconsists of six main components, for evaluating city′s ability reducing earthquake disasters is proposed; then thestatistical relations between the index system and the ratio of seismic casualty, the ratio of economic loss and re-covery time are gained utilizing the cities′ prediction results of earthquake disasters which were made during theninth five-year plan; at last, the method defining the comprehensive index of cities′ ability reducing earthquakedisasters is presented. Thus the relatively comprehensive theory frame is set up. The frame can evaluate cities′ability reducing earthquake disasters absolutely and quantitatively and consequently instruct the decision-makingon reducing cities′ earthquake disasters loss.

  8. Scared to Death? Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease The Heart and Soul Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Elisabeth J.; de Jonge, Peter; Na, Beeya; Cohen, Beth E.; Lett, Heather; Whooley, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Anxiety is common in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), but studies examining the effect of anxiety on cardiovascular prognosis and the role of potential mediators have yielded inconsistent results. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) on subsequ

  9. A comparative study of contractility of the heart ventricle in some ectothermic vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kharin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze contractility of the heart ventricle in selected reptilian and amphibian species having the same ventricular excitation pattern. Systolic time intervals and indices of contractility of the heart ventricle were measured in anaesthetized frogs, snakes, and tortoises by use of polycardiography. The electromechanical delay was significantly shorter in tortoises compared with the other two species. The isovolumetric contraction time in frogs was approximately twofold longer than in reptiles. The pre-ejection period was the longest in frogs and the shortest in tortoises, whereas snakes were intermediate. The ejection time was slightly longer in tortoises compared with the other two species. The greatest isovolumetric contraction index and the smallest myocardial tension index corresponded to the frog and tortoise heart ventricle, respectively. The intrasystolic index in tortoises was significantly greater than in frogs, whereas quite similar to that in snakes. The frog ventricle had lower contractility compared with the reptilian one. Although ventricular contractility tended to be lower in snakes compared with tortoises, this difference was not statistically significant. Possible causes for these differences are discussed. We suppose a large variety in ventricular contractility among amphibian and reptilian species having the same ventricular activation pattern. This variety may be conditioned by heart anatomy, intracardiac shunting, lifestyles, and habitats. It can only be hypothesized that on the average, ventricular contractility is higher in reptiles compared with amphibians and in chelonians compared with snakes.

  10. Dietary magnesium intake and coronary heart disease risk: A study from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Stevanović

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To assess the relationship between dietary magnesium intakeand the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods A conducted case-control study included 290 randomly selected cases (mean age 59.98 +/- 10.03 years with first event of an acute coronary syndrome and 290 selected controls paired by sex, age and region (mean age 59.43 +/- 10.10 years admitted to the same hospitals without any suspicion of coronary disease. A diet was assessed by an interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and magnesium intake was derived from the nutrient database. Results Subjects with coronary heart disease had significantly lower intake of foods containing high levels of magnesium like whole grain (p<0.0001, legumes (p<0.05 and nuts (p<0.05. Lower dietary magnesium intake was found to be positively associated with risk of coronary heart disease (0.027. Conclusion Our findings suggest that dietary intake of magnesium was associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease among Serbian population.

  11. Preliminary study of single contrast enhanced dual energy heart imaging using dual-source CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary applications of single contrast enhanced dual energy heart imaging using dual-source CT (DSCT). Methods: Thirty patients underwent dual energy heart imaging with DSCT, of which 6 cases underwent SPECT or DSA within one week. Two experienced radiologists assessed image quality of coronary arteries and iodine map of myocardium. and correlated the coronary artery stenosis with the perfusion distribution of iodine map. Results: l00% (300/300) segments reached diagnostic standards. The mean score of image for all patients was 4.68±0.57. Mural coronary artery was present in 10 segments in S cases, atherosclerotic plaques in 32 segments in 12 cases, of which 20 segments having ≥50% stenosis, 12 segments ≤50% stenosis; dual energy CT coronary angiography was consistent with the DSA in 3 patients. 37 segmental perfusion abnormalities on iodine map were found in 15 cases, including 28 coronary blood supply segment narrow segment and 9 no coronary stenosis (including three negative segments in SPECD. Conclusion: Single contrast enhanced dual energy heart imaging can provide good coronary artery and myocardium perfusion images in the patients with appropriate heart rate, which has a potential to be used in the clinic and further studies are needed. (authors)

  12. Association Between Toxoplasma gondii Exposure and Heart Disease: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Salcedo-Jaquez, Misael; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Rabago-Sanchez, Elizabeth; Beristain-Garcia, Isabel; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Alvarado-Soto, Ediyair

    2016-01-01

    Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes infections all around the world. Infections with T. gondii are systemic and the parasite can persist in the heart muscle. Very little is known about the impact of T. gondii on patients with heart disease. We determined the association between T. gondii exposure and patients suffering from heart diseases attending in a public hospital in Durango, Mexico; the association of T. gondii exposure with socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics of these patients was also investigated. Methods Through a case-control study, we examined the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in 400 patients with heart diseases and 400 age- and gender-matched controls using enzyme-linked immunoassays. In addition, we analyzed the association of patient characteristics as determined by a standardized questionnaire with T. gondii exposure by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Fifty-five (13.8%) of 400 patients and 32 (8.0%) of 400 controls had anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (odds ratio (OR) = 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15 - 2.90; P = 0.01). High anti-T. gondii IgG levels (> 150 IU/mL) were found in 28 (50.9%) of the 55 positive cases and in 14 (43.8%) of the 32 positive controls (P = 0.51). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 13 (23.6%) of the 55 anti-T. gondii IgG positive patients and in 19 (59.4%) of 32 anti-T. gondii IgG positive controls (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.08 - 0.54; P = 0.0008). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii exposure was positively associated with being born out of Durango State (OR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.40 - 6.13; P = 0.004), and with consumption of alcohol (OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.01 - 4.12; P = 0.04). Conclusions Results obtained in this study indicate that T. gondii infection is associated with heart disease, and suggest that heart disease might be related with a chronic infection. This is the first report of an association of T. gondii exposure with alcohol

  13. Congenital Heart Diseases in the Newborns of Diabetic Mothers: an Echocardiographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahimpour

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the discovery of insulin and current improvement in diabetics care, congenital malformations in diabetics are still more frequent than in the general population. The aim of this study was to identify congenital heart dieases (CHD in the newborns of diabetic mothers (IDMS. Methods: In our prospective study, color doppler echocardiography was performed in 75 consecutive full- term newborns of diabetic mothers by GE Vivid3 echocardiographic device. Newborns were classified into two subgroups according to the type of the mothers’ diabetes: pre-gestational and gestational. They were also those were classified into three subgroups according to their birth weight: appropriate, large and small for gestational age. Data analysis was made by Fisher exact test and Chi-Square test. Results: Forty nine (65% and thirty six (35% of subjects were infants of gestational (IGDM and pre-gestational diabetic mothers (IPDM, respectively. Fifty five Newborns (73% were apropriate, fourteen (19% were large and six (8% were small for gestational age. The most common echocardiographic findings included: patent ductus arteriosus (PDA: 54.7%, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP: 24%, ventricular septal defect (VSD: 4%, atrial septal defect (ASD: 2.7%, transposition of great arteries (TGA: 1.3% and coarctation of the Aorta (COA: 1.3%. Overall incidence of congenital heart diseases was 9.3 after exclusion of PDA and HCMP cases. The incidence of congenital heart diseases was higher in macrosomic than nonmacrosomic infants of diabetic mothers (P<0.001. Congenital heart diseases were more common in infants of pre-gestational than gestational diabetic mothers (P=0.004. Conclusion: Our results showed that diabetic mothers are at increased risk of giving birth to a newborn with congenital heart disease, and transthoracic echocardiography is recommended for all infants of diabetic mothers.

  14. Socialism. Grade Ten, Unit Two, 10.2. Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Helen

    The socialism unit of the tenth grade level of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271) explores a selected history of socialist thought and the theoretical model of socialism. Three case studies of socialism are explored: Great Britain, Sweden, and Israel. The case studies are designed to answer questions concerning…

  15. Research of land reclamation and ecological restoration in the resource-exhausting city : a case study of Huaibei in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eco-city construction is a strong tool which could move a city from traditional industrial civilization to ecological civilization. The city of Huaibet, located in China, has 50 years of coal mining history, and has been listed as a national resource-exhausting city. The city's sustainable development and ecological restoration is encountering extreme challenges. This study used time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in order to study the situation of evolution and distribution of subsidence in the area in Huaibet. The purpose of the study was to provide strategic recommendations to assist Huaibei city transform from a resource-exhausting city to an eco-city. Specifically, the paper discussed the direction of eco-reconstruction in Huaibei such as rural eco-agriculture; wetland park or suburban park; and mine park. It also presented a time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in Huaibet including the subsidence status of the main city of Huaibet and intensive use of land evaluation and land use measures of the main city of Huaibei. Land reclamation and eco-reconstruction of Huaibet was also examined in the paper. It was concluded that based on land use of all aspects of the evaluation area and city's development plan, an integrated tourism with full use of subsidence land could be developed. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  16. Medication compliance and serum lipid changes in the Helsinki Heart Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mäenpää, H; Heinonen, O. P.; Manninen, V

    1991-01-01

    1. To control the bias caused by poor medication compliance in the Helsinki Heart Study three methods were used to measure medication compliance during the total 5 years follow up time: continuous capsule counting, semi-annual urine gemfibrozil analysis and a new method, the digoxin marker at the end of the third and fifth study years. 2. The serum lipid responses to gemfibrozil treatment varied linearly with the level of medication compliance, e.g. the mean change in serum total cholesterol ...

  17. Congenital Heart Diseases in the Newborns of Diabetic Mothers: an Echocardiographic Study

    OpenAIRE

    S Rahimpour; V Modarresi; Behjati, M; MA Behjati

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the discovery of insulin and current improvement in diabetics care, congenital malformations in diabetics are still more frequent than in the general population. The aim of this study was to identify congenital heart dieases (CHD) in the newborns of diabetic mothers (IDMS). Methods: In our prospective study, color doppler echocardiography was performed in 75 consecutive full- term newborns of diabetic mothers by GE Vivid3 echocardiographic device. Newborns were classifie...

  18. Association of psychological risk factors and acute myocardial infarction in China: the INTER-HEART China study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; LI Wei; Koon Teo; WANG Xing-yu; LIU Li-sheng; Salim Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Background Most data about psychological factors relating to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were obtained from studies carried out in western countries. Results from small descriptive cross-sectional studies in China were inconclusive. The aim of this study was to explore possible associations between psychological risk factors and AMI among the Chinese population with a large-scale case-control study.Methods This study was part of the INTER-HEART China study, itself part of the large international INTER-HEART study of cardiovascular risk factors. In this case-control study, 2909 cases and 2947 controls were recruited from 17 cities.Psychological stress, negative life events, depression and controllability of life circumstances were assessed.Results Cases reported more psychological stress at home or work and odds ratios (ORs) were 3.2 (95% CI 2.1-4.9)for permanent stress and 2.1 (95% CI 1.5-2.8) for several periods of stress respectively. More cases experienced depression compared with controls (19.6% vs. 9.3%) and ORs were 2.2 (95% CI 1.9-2.6). Subjects with 1, 2 and 3 or more depressive symptoms had increased risk of AMI by 2.1, 2.2 and 2.6 fold, respectively, i.e., more depressive symptoms were associated with higher risks of AMI (P for trend <0.0001). Women had a greater risk of AMI from depression (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.2-4.0) compared to men (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.6-2.4), P for interaction =0.0364. Negative life events in subjects were associated with increased risk of AMI, OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.4-2.0) for one event and 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.4) for two or more events. High levels of controllability of life circumstances reduced the risk for AMI (OR 0.8, 95%CI 0.7-1 .0).Conclusions Several psychological factors were closely associated with increased AMI risk among Chinese population.Psychological stress had a greater AMI risk in men but depression was more significant among women.

  19. Proliferation concerns in the Russian closed nuclear weapons complex cities : a study of regional migration behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Kristen Lee

    2004-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the legacy of the USSR weapons complex with an estimated 50 nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons cities containing facilities responsible for research, production, maintenance, and destruction of the weapons stockpile. The Russian Federation acquired ten such previously secret, closed nuclear weapons complex cities. Unfortunately, a lack of government funding to support these facilities resulted in non-payment of salaries to employees and even plant closures, which led to an international fear of weapons material and knowledge proliferation. This dissertation analyzes migration in 33 regions of the Russian Federation, six of which contain the ten closed nuclear weapons complex cities. This study finds that the presence of a closed nuclear city does not significantly influence migration. However, the factors that do influence migration are statistically different in regions containing closed nuclear cities compared to regions without closed nuclear cities. Further, these results show that the net rate of migration has changed across the years since the break up of the Soviet Union, and that the push and pull factors for migration have changed across time. Specifically, personal and residential factors had a significant impact on migration immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but economic infrastructure and societal factors became significant in later years. Two significant policy conclusions are derived from this research. First, higher levels of income are found to increase outmigration from regions, implying that programs designed to prevent migration by increasing incomes for closed city residents may be counter-productive. Second, this study finds that programs designed to increase capital and build infrastructure in the new Russian Federation will be more effective for employing scientists and engineers from the weapons complex, and consequently reduce the potential for emigration of

  20. Study on ultrasound evaluation of carotid atherosclerosis and its predicting value for coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-Hui Jian; Li-Fen Xu; Tie-Jun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the ultrasound features of carotid atherosclerosis and its predicting value for coronary heart disease.Methods: A total of 55 cases of patients with coronary heart disease were selected as coronary heart disease group, 55 cases of healthy subjects were selected as control group, carotid artery ultrasound was used to detect intima-media thickness and judge the degree of coronary artery lesion, and plasma was collected to detect blood lipid metabolism indicators (FFA, LDL-C and HDL-C) and inflammation indicators (CCL21, CCR7, sCD40L, MFG-E8 and IL-10). Results:Carotid artery IMT of CHD group was significantly higher than that of control group, and the more the number of coronary artery lesions, the higher the IMT; plasma FFA, LDL-C, CCL21, CCR7 and sCD40L content of CHD group were higher than those of control group, and HDL-C, MFG-E8 and IL-10 content as well as HDL-C/LDL-C ratio were lower than those of control group; blood lipid metabolism indicators and inflammation indicators of coronary heart disease patients with different IMT were different, and the thicker the IMT, the higher the plasma FFA, LDL-C, CCL21, CCR7 and sCD40L content, the lower the HDL-C, MFG-E8 and IL-10 content as well as HDL-C/LDL-C ratio. Conclusion:Carotid artery IMT of patients with coronary heart disease significantly thickens and can assess the number of coronary artery lesions, blood lipid metabolism and degree of inflammation.

  1. Electrophysiological and structural remodeling in heart failure modulate arrhythmogenesis. 2D simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Gomez

    Full Text Available Heart failure is operationally defined as the inability of the heart to maintain blood flow to meet the needs of the body and it is the final common pathway of various cardiac pathologies. Electrophysiological remodeling, intercellular uncoupling and a pro-fibrotic response have been identified as major arrhythmogenic factors in heart failure.In this study we investigate vulnerability to reentry under heart failure conditions by incorporating established electrophysiological and anatomical remodeling using computer simulations.The electrical activity of human transmural ventricular tissue (5 cm × 5 cm was simulated using the human ventricular action potential model Grandi et al. under control and heart failure conditions. The MacCannell et al. model was used to model fibroblast electrical activity, and their electrotonic interactions with myocytes. Selected degrees of diffuse fibrosis and variations in intercellular coupling were considered and the vulnerable window (VW for reentry was evaluated following cross-field stimulation.No reentry was observed in normal conditions or in the presence of HF ionic remodeling. However, defined amount of fibrosis and/or cellular uncoupling were sufficient to elicit reentrant activity. Under conditions where reentry was generated, HF electrophysiological remodeling did not alter the width of the VW. However, intermediate fibrosis and cellular uncoupling significantly widened the VW. In addition, biphasic behavior was observed, as very high fibrotic content or very low tissue conductivity hampered the development of reentry. Detailed phase analysis of reentry dynamics revealed an increase of phase singularities with progressive fibrotic components.Structural remodeling is a key factor in the genesis of vulnerability to reentry. A range of intermediate levels of fibrosis and intercellular uncoupling can combine to favor reentrant activity.

  2. Original article What does it mean to live after heart transplantation? The lived experience of heart transplant recipients. A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cierpka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite significant improvements in physical state after heart transplantation, the majority of adult patients struggle with continuous psychological distress. The aim of the study was to explore the lived experiences of adult heart transplant recipients in order to understand the inner background of these difficulties. Participants and procedure Unstructured, in-depth interviews, based on the Life Story Interview of D. P. McAdams, were performed with 8 adults, aged between 50 and 60 years, who had undergone heart transplantation a year before the research was conducted. Interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using narrative methods. Results The central themes of the patients’ lived experience were the illness itself and the feeling of being very different from others and from oneself remembered in the past – the times before the transplantation. The experienced discordance between their inner world and the expectations to get better presented by other people (the family, health care workers, etc. implies that these patients struggle with others’ lack of understanding and therefore suffer from a lack of effective psychological support. Conclusions This study shows that the life stories of patients after heart transplantation are in fact stories of their illness and the consequences it brought. It seems important to take this into consideration when constructing rehabilitation programmes for these patients in order to offer them the most effective support possible.

  3. The relation of ambulatory heart rate with all-cause mortality among middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Korshøj

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between average 24-hour ambulatory heart rate and all-cause mortality, while adjusting for resting clinical heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness, occupational and leisure time physical activity as well as classical risk factors. A group of 439 middle-aged male workers free of baseline coronary heart disease from the Belgian Physical Fitness Study was included in the analysis. Data were collected by questionnaires and clinical examinations from 1976 to 1978. All-cause mortality was collected from the national mortality registration with a mean follow-up period of 16.5 years, with a total of 48 events. After adjustment for all before mentioned confounders in a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, a significant increased risk for all-cause mortality was found among the tertile of workers with highest average ambulatory heart rate compared to the tertile with lowest ambulatory heart rate (Hazard ratio = 3.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-8.44. No significant independent association was found between resting clinic heart rate and all-cause mortality. The study indicates that average 24-hour ambulatory heart rate is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality independent from resting clinic heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness, occupational and leisure time physical activity and other classical risk factors among healthy middle-aged workers.

  4. Experimental and clinical studies of fast three-dimensional MR imaging of the heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Shuhei [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-07-01

    MRI has been utilized since its inception to study the anatomy and physiology of the heart. However, the sensitivity of MRI to motion has always posed a major challenge in imaging this organ. The purpose of this study was to develop a 3D MP-RAGE technique for the heart, and to apply it clinically. In the experimental study, data acquisition timing was discussed by normal volunteers. Changes in magnetization recovery time affected imaging contrast very little in the phantom study. Fourteen adults and 21 children were examined. In the adults, MP-RAGE images were rated as high in quality in the visual estimation. In the quantitative estimation, the images provided almost the same anatomical information as those of cine MRI. In the children, MP-RAGE was useful for cases of partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, particularly in the evaluation of abnormal pulmonary veins. The 3D MP-RAGE technique was useful in imaging the heart because it was possible to obtain continuous views in the same cardiac cycle and to reconstruct views from any direction after the examination. (author)

  5. On Asian City Study%谈亚洲城市研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍江; 王才强; 沙永杰

    2012-01-01

    As an opening introduction of the series of Asian City Study, this article analyzes briefly about the needs and aims of Asian city study, and by looking at Shanghai and Singapore in Asian context, raises new issues of urban planning and design confronted by Asian cities under current Asian urbanization background.%本文是"亚洲城市研究"专栏的开场文章——说明亚洲城市研究对上海和其他中国城市,以及对亚洲其他国家城市的意义,通过简要分析两个典型亚洲城市,上海和新加坡的发展经验与面临的挑战,提出城市规划和设计领域面临的一系列新问题。

  6. Pulsatile flow in the aorta of the LVAD supported heart studied using particle image velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyedi, Zahra

    Currently many patients die because of the end-stage heart failure, mainly due to the reduced number of donor heart transplant organs. Studies show that a permanent left ventricular assist device (LVAD), a battery driven pump which is surgically implanted, increased the survival rate of patients with end-stage heart failure and improved considerably their quality of life. The inlet conduit of the LVAD is attached to the left ventricle and the outflow conduit anastomosed to the ascending aorta. The purpose of LVAD support is to help a weakened heart to pump blood to the rest of the body. However LVAD can cause some alterations of the natural blood flow. When your blood comes in contact with something that isn't a natural part of your body blood clots can occur and disrupt blood flow. Aortic valve integrity is vital for optimal support of left ventricular assist LVAD. Due to the existence of high continuous transvalvular pressure on the aortic valve, the opening frequency of the valve is reduced. To prevent the development of aortic insufficiency, aortic valve closure during LVAD implantation has been performed. However, the closed aortic valve reduces wash out of the aortic root, which causes blood stagnation and potential thrombus formation. So for this reason, there is a need to minimize the risks of occurring blood clot, by having more knowledge about the flow structure in the aorta during LVAD use. The current study focuses on measuring the flow field in the aorta of the LVAD assisted heart with two different types of aortic valve (Flat and Finned) using the SDSU cardiac simulator. The pulsatile pump that mimics the natural pulsing action of the heart also added to the system. The flow field is visualized using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Furthermore, The fluid mechanics of aorta has been studied when LVAD conduit attached to two different locations (proximal and distal to the aortic valve) with pump speeds of 8,000 to 10,000 revolutions per minute (RPM

  7. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Clifton Addison; Gregory Wilson; Lavon Young; Regina Fields; Clevette Woodberry; Marinelle Payton

    2015-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson ...

  8. Prepregnancy diabetes and offspring risk of congenital heart disease - A nationwide cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Øyen, Nina; Diaz, Lars J.; Leirgul, Elisabeth; Boyd, Heather A.; Priest, James; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Quertermous, Thomas; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Background—Maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the causal mechanism is poorly understood. We further investigated this association in a Danish nationwide cohort. Methods and Results—In a national cohort study, we identified 2 025 727 persons born from 1978 to 2011; among them were 7296 (0.36%) persons exposed to maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus. Pregestational diabetes melli...

  9. Indirect narration : a case study of Conrad's Heart of darkness and Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majda Šavle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Conrad's narrative style bas influenced many writers, including F. Scott Fitzgerald. The objective of my study on verbs used in discourse in Conrad's Heart of Darkness and Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby was to confirm  the speculation  that besides Conrad's innovative technique of indirect narration there were other techniques (such as careful selection of imagistic detail Fitzgerald learned from Conrad.

  10. Morphological study of human heart and placenta in the first trimester of prenatal period of ontogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Ogly L.V.

    2008-01-01

    Probability of abnormal development is high in certain periods when the increased sensitiveness of embryo and fetus takes place. Influence of damaging factors as maternal infection and, consequently, fetal infection is a reason of abnormal development. Morphological characteristics of heart and placenta were studied during the first trimester of prenatal period of ontogenesis. 17 embryos, fetuses and placenta of 4-12 weeks were used. Abortions were made according to medical statements or mate...

  11. The challenge to detect heart transplant rejection and transplant vasculopathy non-invasively - a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Helber Uwe; Schroeder Stephen; Aebert Hermann; Burgstahler Christof; Usta Engin; Kopp Andreas F; Ziemer Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiac allograft rejection and vasculopathy are the main factors limiting long-term survival after heart transplantation. In this pilot study we investigated whether non-invasive methods are beneficial to detect cardiac allograft rejection (Grade 03 R) and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. Thus we compared multi-slice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with invasive methods like coronary angiography and left endomyocardial biopsy. Methods 10 asymptomatic lon...

  12. The prevalence of adulthood overweight and obesity in Tehran: findings from Urban HEART-2 study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar; Mehdi JAFARI; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kalantari, Naser; ASADI-LARI, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: To estimate and compare prevalence of overweight and obesity among adult people across the 22 districts of Tehran in 2011. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using data on 47,406 women and 47,525 men aged≥ 15 years from a large population-based survey (Urban HEART-2). Age-standardized prevalence (ASP) of overweight (25≤BMI

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Case Control Study To Assess Association Between Periodontal Infection And Coronary Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Mohitey; Rahul Redasani

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of adult mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Well known risk factors independently or combined are involved in both atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Recent data have shown that viral and bacterial infections may also contribute to acute thromboembolic events; hence a case control study was carried out. Aims and Objective: To investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease, i...

  14. Screening for Rheumatic Heart Disease among Peruvian Children: A Two-Stage Sampling Observational Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest Spitzer; Jorge Mercado; Fabian Islas; Martina Rothenbühler; Reto Kurmann; Fabian Zürcher; Peter Krähenmann; Nassip Llerena; Peter Jüni; Pedro Torres; Thomas Pilgrim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of the study was to evaluate the implications of different classifications of rheumatic heart disease on estimated prevalence, and to systematically assess the importance of incidental findings from echocardiographic screening among schoolchildren in Peru. METHODS We performed a cluster randomized observational survey using portable echocardiography among schoolchildren aged 5 to 16 years from randomly selected public and private schools in Arequipa, Peru....

  15. Association between dietary patterns and coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Lina; LI Fei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ou, Zejin; Xu, Dingli; Tan, Wanlong; Dai, Meng

    2015-01-01

    The associations of dietary patterns with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk remain unclear. Thereby, a meta-analysis was conducted to examine potential relations between dietary patterns and CHD. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched up to March 2014 for eligible prospective cohort studies regarding the relationships between common dietary patterns and CHD. Random-effects models were applied to calculate the summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) for the highest versus the lowest category...

  16. Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Soteriades Elpidoforos S; Kales Stefanos N; Christoudias Stavros G; Christiani David C

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. Methods We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51 male firefighters who died of on-duty trauma; and 310 male firefig...

  17. Heart Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 A heart transplant gives a patient with congenital heart disease the opportunity to have a normal heart with ... pulmonary artery and left atrium. In patients with congenital heart disease, the surgeon may simultaneous transplant the lungs and ...

  18. Heart Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the signal causes the heart to contract and pump blood. Heart block occurs if the electrical signal is ... degree heart block limits the heart's ability to pump blood to the rest of the body. This type ...

  19. A CORRELATION STUDY BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL LIPID PARAMETERS AND HS - CRP IN CORONARY HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaswamy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD is the most common form of heart disease. Changes in lifestyle, decreased physical activity, dietary modifications etc., in indian population is considered to be the major risk factor. By 2020 it is estimated that it will be th e major cause of death in the world. High sensitivity CRP (hs - CRP test measures very small amounts of CRP in the blood and is helpful even in healthy individuals to assess their potential risk for heart ailments. The hs - CRP levels are directly proportiona l to extent source of CHD which indicates that the hs - CRP has positive correlation with the disease burden. Hence the present study was undertaken. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was done by taking two groups controls and cases between the ages 25 - 60 year s. Fasting blood samples were collected and analysed for estimation of triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL - cholesterol, HDL - cholesterol and hs - crp levels. RESULT: Serum levels of cholesterol, TG, LDL - C, and hs - CRP (p - value 0.0001 were significantly increased and HDL - C (p - value 0.0002 was significantly decreased in cases as compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: It is seen that hs - CRP level is significantly elevated in cases (MI patients than the normal controls. So the present study shows a significant a nd positive correlation with conventional lipid profile parameters.

  20. Facilitators and Threats to the Patient Dignity in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Diseases: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Rabori, Roghayeh Mehdipour

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patient’s dignity is an important issue which is highlighted in nursing It is an issue that is highly dependent on context and culture. Heart disease is the most common disease in Iran and the world. Identification of facilitator and threatening patient dignity in heart patients is vital. This study aimed to explore facilitator and threatening patient dignity in hospitalized patients with heart disease. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was performed in 2014 in Kerman, Iran. 20 patients admitted to coronary care units and 5 personnel were selected using purposeful sampling in semi-structured and in depth interviews. Researchers also used documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneously with data collection Results: Three central themes emerged: a) Care context which includes human environment and physical environment, b) Holistic safe care including meeting the needs of patients both in the hospital and after discharge, c) Creating a sense of security and an effective relationship between patient and nurse, including a respectful relationship and account the family in health team. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that care context is important for patient dignity as well as physical environment and safe holistic care. PMID:26793729

  1. Facilitators and Threats to the Patient Dignity in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Diseases: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Borhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patient’s dignity is an important issue which is highlighted in nursing It is an issue that is highly dependent on context and culture. Heart disease is the most common disease in Iran and the world. Identification of facilitator and threatening patient dignity in heart patients is vital. This study aimed to explore facilitator and threatening patient dignity in hospitalized patients with heart disease. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was performed in 2014 in Kerman, Iran. 20 patients admitted to coronary care units and 5 personnel were selected using purposeful sampling in semi-structured and in depth interviews. Researchers also used documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneously with data collection Results: Three central themes emerged: a Care context which includes human environment and physical environment, b Holistic safe care including meeting the needs of patients both in the hospital and after discharge, c Creating a sense of security and an effective relationship between patient and nurse, including a respectful relationship and account the family in health team. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that care context is important for patient dignity as well as physical environment and safe holistic care.

  2. A Comparative Study of Anomaly Detection Techniques for Smart City Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena

    2016-06-13

    In many countries around the world, smart cities are becoming a reality. These cities contribute to improving citizens' quality of life by providing services that are normally based on data extracted from wireless sensor networks (WSN) and other elements of the Internet of Things. Additionally, public administration uses these smart city data to increase its efficiency, to reduce costs and to provide additional services. However, the information received at smart city data centers is not always accurate, because WSNs are sometimes prone to error and are exposed to physical and computer attacks. In this article, we use real data from the smart city of Barcelona to simulate WSNs and implement typical attacks. Then, we compare frequently used anomaly detection techniques to disclose these attacks. We evaluate the algorithms under different requirements on the available network status information. As a result of this study, we conclude that one-class Support Vector Machines is the most appropriate technique. We achieve a true positive rate at least 56% higher than the rates achieved with the other compared techniques in a scenario with a maximum false positive rate of 5% and a 26% higher in a scenario with a false positive rate of 15%.

  3. A Comparative Study of Anomaly Detection Techniques for Smart City Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena

    2016-01-01

    In many countries around the world, smart cities are becoming a reality. These cities contribute to improving citizens' quality of life by providing services that are normally based on data extracted from wireless sensor networks (WSN) and other elements of the Internet of Things. Additionally, public administration uses these smart city data to increase its efficiency, to reduce costs and to provide additional services. However, the information received at smart city data centers is not always accurate, because WSNs are sometimes prone to error and are exposed to physical and computer attacks. In this article, we use real data from the smart city of Barcelona to simulate WSNs and implement typical attacks. Then, we compare frequently used anomaly detection techniques to disclose these attacks. We evaluate the algorithms under different requirements on the available network status information. As a result of this study, we conclude that one-class Support Vector Machines is the most appropriate technique. We achieve a true positive rate at least 56% higher than the rates achieved with the other compared techniques in a scenario with a maximum false positive rate of 5% and a 26% higher in a scenario with a false positive rate of 15%. PMID:27304957

  4. A Comparative Study of Anomaly Detection Techniques for Smart City Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Garcia-Font

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries around the world, smart cities are becoming a reality. These cities contribute to improving citizens’ quality of life by providing services that are normally based on data extracted from wireless sensor networks (WSN and other elements of the Internet of Things. Additionally, public administration uses these smart city data to increase its efficiency, to reduce costs and to provide additional services. However, the information received at smart city data centers is not always accurate, because WSNs are sometimes prone to error and are exposed to physical and computer attacks. In this article, we use real data from the smart city of Barcelona to simulate WSNs and implement typical attacks. Then, we compare frequently used anomaly detection techniques to disclose these attacks. We evaluate the algorithms under different requirements on the available network status information. As a result of this study, we conclude that one-class Support Vector Machines is the most appropriate technique. We achieve a true positive rate at least 56% higher than the rates achieved with the other compared techniques in a scenario with a maximum false positive rate of 5% and a 26% higher in a scenario with a false positive rate of 15%.

  5. Potential of Hybrid Computational Phantoms for Retrospective Heart Dosimetry After Breast Radiation Therapy: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moignier, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.moignier@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Derreumaux, Sylvie; Broggio, David; Beurrier, Julien [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Chea, Michel; Boisserie, Gilbert [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Service de Radiotherapie, Paris (France); Franck, Didier; Aubert, Bernard [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Mazeron, Jean-Jacques [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Service de Radiotherapie, Paris (France)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Current retrospective cardiovascular dosimetry studies are based on a representative patient or simple mathematic phantoms. Here, a process of patient modeling was developed to personalize the anatomy of the thorax and to include a heart model with coronary arteries. Methods and Materials: The patient models were hybrid computational phantoms (HCPs) with an inserted detailed heart model. A computed tomography (CT) acquisition (pseudo-CT) was derived from HCP and imported into a treatment planning system where treatment conditions were reproduced. Six current patients were selected: 3 were modeled from their CT images (A patients) and the others were modelled from 2 orthogonal radiographs (B patients). The method performance and limitation were investigated by quantitative comparison between the initial CT and the pseudo-CT, namely, the morphology and the dose calculation were compared. For the B patients, a comparison with 2 kinds of representative patients was also conducted. Finally, dose assessment was focused on the whole coronary artery tree and the left anterior descending coronary. Results: When 3-dimensional anatomic information was available, the dose calculations performed on the initial CT and the pseudo-CT were in good agreement. For the B patients, comparison of doses derived from HCP and representative patients showed that the HCP doses were either better or equivalent. In the left breast radiation therapy context and for the studied cases, coronary mean doses were at least 5-fold higher than heart mean doses. Conclusions: For retrospective dose studies, it is suggested that HCP offers a better surrogate, in terms of dose accuracy, than representative patients. The use of a detailed heart model eliminates the problem of identifying the coronaries on the patient's CT.

  6. A Qualitative Study of Smoking Behaviors among Newly Released Justice-Involved Men and Women in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Pamela; Bachman, Lauren; Rucker, A Justin

    2016-05-01

    Long-term effects of cigarette smoking result in an estimated 443,000 deaths each year, including approximately 49,400 deaths due to exposure to secondhand smoke. Tobacco is a major risk factor for a variety of chronic health problems, including certain cancers and heart disease. In this article, authors present qualitative findings derived from individual interviews with men and women who were incarcerated in New York state and New York City. Participants were 60 racially and ethnically diverse men and women ages 21 through 60 (M = 46.42, SD = 6.88). Of the participants interviewed, 91.7 percent released from a smoke-free correctional facility resumed cigarette smoking and 8.3 percent remained abstinent. Daily consumption ranged from smoking four cigarettes to 60 cigarettes. The four themes that emerged from the study were (1) lifetime exposure to cigarette smoking influences smoking behavior; (2) cigarettes help relieve stress and are pleasurable; (3) there is a relationship between access, availability, and relapse; and (4) smoking cessation strategies are available. Negative influences from participants' families and peers, stressful housing situations, and mandated programs emerged from this study as key challenges to abstaining from smoking cigarettes. Involving family members and partners in smoking cessation interventions could influence newly released justice-involved men and women not to resume cigarette smoking and possibly maintain long-term abstinence.

  7. 1H-MRS study of brain metabolic disorder in patients with cyanosed congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the metabolic alteration in the brain of patients with cyanosed congenital heart disease (CCHD) by using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and discover the pathophysiology of chronic hypoxic brain, which will help to diagnose and treat this disease completely. Methods: Twenty-five patients with CCHD and 25 controls were performed PRESS 1H-MRS and MRI. The areas under the resonance of metabolites were measured, the ratios of the other metabolites to Cr were calculated and compared. Results: In patients with CCHD, the mean value of NAA/Cr was significantly lower than that in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: 1H-MRS can detect brain metabolic changes in patients with cyanosed congenital heart disease in vivo noninvasively and can detect the metabolism disorder of the energy and amino acid, so the pathophysiology of this disease can be understood

  8. Semantic Framework of Internet of Things for Smart Cities: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningyu; Chen, Huajun; Chen, Xi; Chen, Jiaoyan

    2016-09-14

    In recent years, the advancement of sensor technology has led to the generation of heterogeneous Internet-of-Things (IoT) data by smart cities. Thus, the development and deployment of various aspects of IoT-based applications are necessary to mine the potential value of data to the benefit of people and their lives. However, the variety, volume, heterogeneity, and real-time nature of data obtained from smart cities pose considerable challenges. In this paper, we propose a semantic framework that integrates the IoT with machine learning for smart cities. The proposed framework retrieves and models urban data for certain kinds of IoT applications based on semantic and machine-learning technologies. Moreover, we propose two case studies: pollution detection from vehicles and traffic pattern detection. The experimental results show that our system is scalable and capable of accommodating a large number of urban regions with different types of IoT applications.

  9. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness: the Case Study of Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In several urban contexts, the definition of a new development process is arising and it is focused on the use and the application of new technologies in different areas of the urban system. Such new development process is aimed at increasing life quality and local communities wellness and at promoting the creation of a more efficient and more sustainable urban system, as well as at making it more competitive. The issue of the reorganization of metropolitan areas is combined with such process, following the recent approval of the Delrio Law that establishes the Metropolitan City in Italy, as government authority of the metropolitan areas. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness are the three topics of this paper, which aim is the description of the most innovative politics and initiatives adopted in the Metropolitan City of Florence that is proposed as a case study where such topics are combined.

  10. Semantic Framework of Internet of Things for Smart Cities: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningyu; Chen, Huajun; Chen, Xi; Chen, Jiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the advancement of sensor technology has led to the generation of heterogeneous Internet-of-Things (IoT) data by smart cities. Thus, the development and deployment of various aspects of IoT-based applications are necessary to mine the potential value of data to the benefit of people and their lives. However, the variety, volume, heterogeneity, and real-time nature of data obtained from smart cities pose considerable challenges. In this paper, we propose a semantic framework that integrates the IoT with machine learning for smart cities. The proposed framework retrieves and models urban data for certain kinds of IoT applications based on semantic and machine-learning technologies. Moreover, we propose two case studies: pollution detection from vehicles and traffic pattern detection. The experimental results show that our system is scalable and capable of accommodating a large number of urban regions with different types of IoT applications. PMID:27649185

  11. Semantic Framework of Internet of Things for Smart Cities: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningyu; Chen, Huajun; Chen, Xi; Chen, Jiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the advancement of sensor technology has led to the generation of heterogeneous Internet-of-Things (IoT) data by smart cities. Thus, the development and deployment of various aspects of IoT-based applications are necessary to mine the potential value of data to the benefit of people and their lives. However, the variety, volume, heterogeneity, and real-time nature of data obtained from smart cities pose considerable challenges. In this paper, we propose a semantic framework that integrates the IoT with machine learning for smart cities. The proposed framework retrieves and models urban data for certain kinds of IoT applications based on semantic and machine-learning technologies. Moreover, we propose two case studies: pollution detection from vehicles and traffic pattern detection. The experimental results show that our system is scalable and capable of accommodating a large number of urban regions with different types of IoT applications. PMID:27649185

  12. The role of local government in redressing neighbourhood disadvantage: A case study from Penrith City Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Prior

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of disadvantage in specific neighbourhoods is a widespread characteristic of many Australian cities. A broad range of policies and programs which utilize integrated forms of governance have been designed and implemented to redress this. Within the state of New South Wales, Australia, local governments have been identified as being amongst the most effective drivers for these integrated governance approaches. Utilizing a case study of the Penrith Neighbourhood Renewal Program, this paper explores recent attempts by Penrith City Council to develop a framework to redress neighbourhood disadvantage, firstly by establishing an integrated governance framework for the program, and secondly by transforming the council’s operational structure.

  13. Open-Heart surgery and cerebrovascular accident: retrospective study at King Khalid University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroke after coronary by-pass grafting (CABG) is often disabling. The incidence of ischemic stroke may approach 3% to 5%. Several risk factors have been identified including previous history of stroke, prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time, and postoperative atrial fibrillation. Objective was to determine the incidence and risk factors of neurological deficit after open heart surgery. Retrospective study was done during the period 1992-1995 at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. There were 350 patients who were subjected to (CABG), 10 patients (2.8%) found to suffer from cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) following open-heart surgery. In 8 patients, the complaint lasted more than 24 hours (stroke), while 2 patients developed transient ischemic attacks (TIA). Five factors were found to be associated with increased risk of post cardiac surgery CVA. These factors are postoperative atrial fibrillation, carotid bruit, past history of heart failure, past history of CVA and smoking. The authors concluded that it is necessary to start a prospective study to verify the area of improvement with regards to technique, selection of patients and mode of perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) Arabia. (author)

  14. Individually Coded Telemetry: a Tool for Studying Heart Rate and Behaviour in Reindeer Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudas T

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test the performance of a silver wire modified version of the coded telemetric heart rate monitor Polar Vantage NV™ (PVNV and to measure heart rate (HR in a group of captive reindeer calves during different behaviour. The technical performance of PVNV HR monitors was tested in cold conditions (-30°C using a pulse generator and the correlation between generated pulse and PVNV values was high (r = 0.9957. The accuracy was tested by comparing the HR obtained with the PVNV monitor with the standard ECG, and the correlation was significant (r = 0.9965. Both circadian HR and HR related to behavioural pattern were recorded. A circadian rhythm was observed in the HR in reindeer with a minimum during night and early morning hours and maximum at noon and during the afternoon, the average HR of the reindeer calves studied being 42.5 beats/min in February. The behaviour was recorded by focal individual observations and the data was synchronized with the output of the HR monitors. Running differed from all other behavioural categories in HR. Inter-individual differences were seen expressing individual responses to external and internal stimuli. The silver wire modified Polar Vantage NV™ provides a suitable and reliable tool for measuring heart rate in reindeer, also in natural conditions.

  15. Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Heart Turkish Version Study: cross-cultural adaptation, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acar S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Serap Acar,1 Sema Savci,1 Pembe Keskinoğlu,2 Bahri Akdeniz,3 Ebru Özpelit,3 Buse Özcan Kahraman,1 Didem Karadibak,1 Can Sevinc4 1School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 2Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, 4Department of Chest Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, İzmir, Turkey Purpose: Individuals with cardiac problems avoid physical activity and exercise because they expect to feel shortness of breath, dizziness, or chest pain. Assessing kinesiophobia related to heart problems is important in terms of cardiac rehabilitation. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia Swedish Version for the Heart (TSK-SV Heart is reliable and has been validated for cardiac diseases in the Swedish population. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, parallel-form validity, and exploratory factor analysis of the TSK for the Heart Turkish Version (TSK Heart Turkish Version for evaluating kinesiophobia in patients with heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension.Methods: This cross-sectional study involved translation, back translation, and cross-cultural adaptation (localization. Forty-three pulmonary arterial hypertension and 32 heart failure patients were evaluated using the TSK Heart Turkish Version. The 17-item scale, originally composed for the Swedish population, has four factors: perceived danger for heart problem, avoidance of exercise, fear of injury, and dysfunctional self. Cronbach’s alpha (internal ­consistency and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess the questionnaire’s reliability. Results of the patients in the 6-minute walk test, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Nottingham Health Profile were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation analysis with the TSK Heart Turkish Version to indicate the convergent validity.Results: Cronbach’s alpha for the TSK Heart Turkish Version was 0.75, indicating acceptable internal

  16. Sustainable urban energy planning: The case study of a tropical city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sustainable energy planning of tropical cities with hybrid energy technologies competes on economic and environmentally issues. ► We examine variations in the level of energy production. ► The energy planning of cities involves the exportation of pollutants and/or importation of external energy. - Abstract: The urbanization of modern societies has imposed to the planners and decision-makers a more precise attention to facts not considered before. Several aspects, such as the energy availability and the deleterious effect of pollution on the populations, must be considered in the policy decisions of cities urbanization. The current paradigm presents centralized power stations supplying a city, and a combination of technologies may compose the energy mix of a country, such as thermal power plants, hydroelectric plants, wind systems and solar-based systems, with their corresponding emission pattern. A goal programming multi-objective optimization model is presented for the electric expansion analysis of a tropical city, and also a case study for the city of Guaratinguetá, Brazil, considering a particular wind and solar radiation patterns established according to actual data and modeled via the time series analysis method. Scenarios are proposed and the results of single environmental objective, single economic objective and goal programming multi-objective modeling are discussed. The consequences of each dispatch decision, which considers pollutant emission exportation to the neighborhood or the need of supplementing electricity by purchasing it from the public electric power grid, are discussed. The results revealed energetic dispatch for the alternatives studied and the optimum environmental and economic solution was obtained

  17. Analysis on death status of pregnant women with heart disease in Shanghai city from 1991 to 2010%上海市1991~2010年妊娠合并心脏病死亡情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 杜莉; 秦敏; 朱丽萍

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨妊娠合并心脏病孕产妇在系统保健管理中的经验和教训,为进一步降低孕产妇死亡率提供科学依据.方法:对上海市1991 ~2010年52例妊娠合并心脏病死亡的临床资料、死亡个案和评审结果进行回顾性分析.结果:①1991~ 2000年全市妊娠合并心脏病死亡占孕产妇死亡总数的7.02%,2001 ~ 2010年呈现逐步上升趋势.②妊娠合并心脏病死亡以先天性心脏病最高(15例,28.8%),其次是风湿性心脏病(7例,13.5%)、重度肺动脉高压和围产期心肌病(各6例、分别占11.5%).③妊娠合并心脏病死亡孕产妇普遍保健意识较差,其中进行治疗、定期随访的仅17例(32.7%);8例已明确告知不宜妊娠仍坚持怀孕.④各临床科室对妊娠合并心脏病的重视度不够,全程监护评估和规范治疗欠缺.结论:提高育龄妇女的孕前和产前保健意识,对妊娠合并心脏病做到早诊断和早治疗;同时临床各科医务人员也应提高对妊娠合并心脏病的诊断和监护水平,进行孕期全程动态评估,从而改善妊娠结局.%Objective; To explore the experiences of system health management for pregnant women with heart disease, provide scientific basis for further reducing maternal mortality. Methods; The clinical data, death case, and evaluation results of 52 pregnant women with heart disease in Shanghai city from 1991 to 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Results; Among the maternal deaths, 7. 02% of them were found with pregnancy combined with heart disease in Shanghai city from 1991 to 2000, and the proportion showed an gradual increasing trend from 2001 to 2010. Among the pregnant women with heart disease, the proportion of pregnant women with congenital heart disease was the highest (15 cases, 28.8%), followed by rheumatic heart disease (7 cases, 13.5%), severe pulmonary hypertension (6 cases, 11.5%), and peripartum cardiomyopathy (6 cases, 11. 5% ) . The health awareness of

  18. Helmet use among users of the Citi Bike bicycle-sharing program: a pilot study in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Basch, Charles E

    2014-06-01

    The use of bicycle helmets to prevent or reduce serious head injuries is well established. However, it is unclear how to effectively promote helmet use, particularly in the context of bicycle-sharing programs. The need to determine rates of helmet use specifically among users of bicycle-sharing programs and understand if certain characteristics, such as time of day, affect helmet use, is imperative if effective promotion and/or legislative efforts addressing helmet use are to be developed. We estimated the prevalence of helmet use among a sample of Citi Bike program users in New York City. A total of 1,054 cyclists were observed over 44 h and across the 22 busiest Citi Bike locations. Overall, 85.3% (95% CI 82.2, 88.4%) of the cyclists observed did not wear a helmet. Rates of helmet non-use were also consistent whether cyclists were entering or leaving the docking station, among cyclists using the Citi Bikes earlier versus later in the day, and among cyclists using the Citi Bikes on weekends versus weekdays. Improved understanding about factors that facilitate and hinder helmet use is needed to help reduce head injury risk among users of bicycle sharing programs.

  19. The Use of Vegetation for Social Housing Renovation: a case study in the city of Palermo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastore, L.; Corrao, R.; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    and thermal comfort. To achieve these goals the social housing complex of Medaglie d’Oro in the city of Palermo was chosen as case study in order to carry out some analyses for the assessment of outdoor comfort parameters of the area. By means of numerical simulations performed with the software ENVI...

  20. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Drinking Purposes Using GIS Modelling (case Study: City of Tabriz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeihouni, M.; Toomanian, A.; Shahabi, M.; Alavipanah, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    Tabriz is the largest industrial city in North West of Iran and it is developing rapidly. A large proportion of water requirements for this city are supplied from dams. In this research, groundwater quality assessed through sampling 70 wells in Tabriz and its rural areas. The purposes of this study are: (1) specifying spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as Chloride, Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH, hardness and sulphate (2) mapping groundwater quality for drinking purpose by employing Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method in the study area using GIS and Geosatistics. We utilized an interpolation technique of ordinary kriging for generating thematic map of each parameter. The final map indicates that the groundwater quality esaeicni from North to South and from West to East of the study area. The areas located in Center, South and South West of the study area have the optimum quality for drinking purposes which are the best locations to drill wells for supplying water demands of Tabriz city. In critical conditions, the groundwater quality map as a result of this research can be taken into account by East Azerbaijan Regional Water Company as decision support system to drill new wells or selecting existing wells to supply drinking water to Tabriz city.

  1. Abusive Head Trauma at a Tertiary Care Children's Hospital in Mexico City. A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia-Pina, Corina A.; Loredo-Abdala, Arturo; Paz, Francisco; Garcia, Sandra G.; Schilmann, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Determine the prevalence, clinical signs and symptoms, and demographic and family characteristics of children attending a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City, Mexico, to illustrate the characteristics of abusive head trauma among this population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of infants and children under 5,…

  2. DIETARY SODIUM INTAKE IN A SAMPLE OF ADULT MALE POPULATION IN SOUTHERN ITALY.Results of the Olivetti Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Strazzullo, P; Venezia, Antonella; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Russo, Ornella; Capasso, Clemente; De Luca, Viviana; Farinaro, Eduardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Galletti, Ferruccio; Rossi, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess dietary habitual sodium intake, the association between daily sodium intake and anthropometric indices, food habits and hypertension in the sample of adult male population participating in the Olivetti Heart Study. Design, Setting and Participants: The study population was composed of 940 men participating in the 2002-04 follow-up examination of the Olivetti Heart Study. Blood pressure, anthropometric indices, biochemical parameters and sodium excre...

  3. Joint impact of rainfall and tidal level on flood risk in a coastal city with a complex river network: a case study for Fuzhou city, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Lian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Coastal cities are particularly vulnerable to flood under the combined effect of multivariable variables, such as heavy rainfall, high sea level and large waves. For better assessment and management of flood risk the combined effect and joint probability should be considered. This paper aims to study the joint impact of rainfall and tidal level on flood risk by estimating the combined risk degree of flood and the joint flood probability. The area of case study is a typical coastal city in China, which has a complex river system. The flood in this city is mainly caused by inundation of river system. In this paper, the combined risk degree of flood is assessed by analyzing the behavior of the complex river network of the city under the combined effect of rainfall and tidal level with diverse return periods. The hydraulic model of the complex drainage network is established using HEC-RAS and verified by comparing the simulation results with the observed data during Typhoon "Longwang". The joint distribution and combined risk probability of rainfall and tidal level are estimated using the optimal copula function. The work carried out in this paper would facilitate assessment of flood risk significantly, which can be referred for the similar cities.

  4. New York City Energy-Water Integrated Planning: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt,V.; Crosson, K. M.; Horak, W.; Reisman, A.

    2008-12-16

    The New York City Energy-Water Integrated Planning Pilot Study is one of several projects funded by Sandia National Laboratories under the U.S. Department of Energy Energy-Water Nexus Program. These projects are intended to clarify some key issues and research needs identified during the Energy-Water Nexus Roadmapping activities. The objectives of the New York City Pilot Project are twofold: to identify energy-water nexus issues in an established urban area in conjunction with a group of key stakeholders and to define and apply an integrated energy and water decision support tool, as proof-of-concept, to one or more of these issues. During the course of this study, the Brookhaven National Laboratory project team worked very closely with members of a Pilot Project Steering Committee. The Steering Committee members brought a breadth of experience across the energy, water and climate disciplines, and all are well versed in the particular issues faced by an urban environment, and by New York City in particular. The first task was to identify energy-water issues of importance to New York City. This exercise was followed by discussion of the qualities and capabilities that an ideal decision support tool should display to address these issues. The decision was made to start with an existing energy model, the New York City version of the MARKAL model, developed originally at BNL and now used globally by many groups for energy analysis. MARKAL has the virtue of being well-vetted, transparent, and capable of calculating 'material' flows, such as water use by the energy system and energy requirements of water technology. The Steering Committee members defined five scenarios of interest, representing a broad spectrum of New York City energy-water issues. Brookhaven National Laboratory researchers developed a model framework (Water-MARKAL) at the desired level of detail to address the scenarios, and then attempted to gather the New York City-specific information

  5. Acute electromyostimulation decreases muscle sympathetic nerve activity in patients with advanced chronic heart failure (EMSICA Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Labrunée

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Muscle passive contraction of lower limb by neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES is frequently used in chronic heart failure (CHF patients but no data are available concerning its action on sympathetic activity. However, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS is able to improve baroreflex in CHF. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effect of TENS and NMES compared to Sham stimulation on sympathetic overactivity as assessed by Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity (MSNA. METHODS: We performed a serie of two parallel, randomized, double blinded and sham controlled protocols in twenty-two CHF patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA Class III. Half of them performed stimulation by TENS, and the others tested NMES. RESULTS: Compare to Sham stimulation, both TENS and NMES are able to reduce MSNA (63.5 ± 3.5 vs 69.7 ± 3.1 bursts / min, p < 0.01 after TENS and 51.6 ± 3.3 vs 56.7 ± 3.3 bursts / min, p < 0, 01 after NMES. No variation of blood pressure, heart rate or respiratory parameters was observed after stimulation. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that sensory stimulation of lower limbs by electrical device, either TENS or NMES, could inhibit sympathetic outflow directed to legs in CHF patients. These properties could benefits CHF patients and pave the way for a new non-pharmacological approach of CHF.

  6. Can Destination Therapy be implemented in children with heart failure? A study of provider perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, Danton S; Lee, Sandra S-J; Ikoku, Alvan A; Rosenthal, David; Magnus, David

    2016-09-01

    DT is an established final therapeutic choice in adult patients with severe heart failure who do not meet criteria for cardiac transplantation. Patients are given VADs, without the prospect of care escalation to transplantation. VADs are now established therapy for children and are currently used as a bridge until transplantation can be performed or heart failure improves. For children who present in severe heart failure but do not meet transplantation criteria, the question has emerged whether DT can be offered. This qualitative study aimed to elicit the perspectives of early adopters of DT at one of the few institutions where DT has been provided for children. Responses were recorded and coded and themes extracted using grounded theory. Interviewees discussed: envisioning of the DT candidate; approach to evaluation for DT; contraindications to choosing DT; and concerns about choosing DT. Providers articulated two frameworks for conceptualizing DT: as a long bridge through resolution of problems that would initially contraindicate transplantation or, alternatively, as a true destination instead of transplantation. True destination, however, may not be the lasting concept for long-term VAD use in children given improvement in prognosis for current medical contraindications and improving VAD technology. PMID:27357389

  7. Relation of ventricular premature complexes to heart failure (from the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities [ARIC] Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sunil K; Simpson, Ross J; Rautaharju, Pentti; Alonso, Alvaro; Shahar, Eyal; Massing, Mark; Saba, Samir; Heiss, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Analogous to rapid ventricular pacing, frequent ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) can predispose over time to cardiomyopathy and subsequent heart failure (HF). We examined the association of frequent VPCs with HF incidence in a population-based cohort, free of HF and coronary heart disease at baseline. At study baseline (1987 to 1989), ≥1 VPC on a 2-minute rhythm electrocardiographic strip was seen in 5.5% (739 of 13,486) of the middle-age (45 to 64 years old at baseline) white and black, men and women of the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities cohort. Incident HF was defined as the first appearance of International Classification of Diseases code 428.x in the hospital discharge record or death certificate through 2005. During an average follow-up of 15.6 years, incident HF was seen in 10% the participants (19.4% of those with VPCs vs 9.4% of those without). The age-, race-, and gender-adjusted hazard ratio of HF for VPCs was 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.59 to 2.24). After multivariable adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratio of HF for those with any VPC versus no VPC was 1.63 (95% confidence interval 1.36 to 1.96). After additional adjustment for incident coronary heart disease as a time-varying covariate, the hazard ratio was 1.71 (95% confidence interval 1.42 to 2.08). Those with a greater frequency of VPCs or complex VPCs had similar rates of HF compared to those with a single VPC and all had rates greater than those with no VPC. In conclusion, in this large population-based cohort, the presence of VPCs was associated with incident HF, independent of incident coronary heart disease.

  8. Sex differences and heritability of two indices of heart rate dynamics: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, Harold; van Doornen, Lorenz J P; Boomsma, Dorret I; Thayer, Julian F

    2007-04-01

    We investigated whether women show larger heart rate variability (HRV) than men after controlling for a large number of health-related covariates, using two indices of HRV, namely respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and approximate entropy (ApEn). In a twin design, the heritability of both indices was examined. The covariation between RSA and ApEn, a measure of heart rate dynamics derived from nonlinear dynamical systems theory, was decomposed into genetic and environmental components. Subjects were 196 male and 210 female middle-aged twins. Females showed larger HRV than men before (ApEn: p RSA: p = .052) and after adjustment for covariates (ApEn: p RSA: p = .015). This sex difference was confirmed by significant intrapair differences in the opposite-sex twin pairs for both ApEn (p RSA (p = .03). In addition to sex, only heart period and age (both p RSA was also influenced by respiration rate and smoking (both p RSA and ApEn, respectively. Oral contraceptive use and menopausal status had no effect on HRV. Genetic model fitting yielded moderate heritability estimates for RSA (30%) and ApEn (40%) for both males and females. The correlation between RSA and ApEn (r = .60) could be attributed to genetic factors (48%), environmental factors (36%) and age (16%). The present study found support for a gender difference in HRV with women having greater HRV than men even after controlling for a large number of potential confounders. Indices of heart rate dynamics derived from nonlinear dynamical systems theory are moderately heritable and may be more sensitive than traditional indices of HRV to reveal subtle sex differences with important implications for health and disease.

  9. Copeptin and risk of incident stroke, coronary heart disease and cardiovascular mortality in older men with and without diabetes: The British Regional Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wannamethee, S. Goya; Welsh, Paul; Lennon, Lucy; Papacosta, Olia; Whincup, Peter; Sattar, Naveed

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between copeptin (a surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin) and incident stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular mortality in older men with and without diabetes. Research design and methods: A prospective study of 3536 men aged 60-79 years followed up for an average 13 years during which there were 437 major CHD events [fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI)], 323 stroke events (fatal and non-fatal) and 497 CVD deaths. Pre...

  10. Role of green structure and ecological services: a case study of bahawalpur city, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cities can make broader contribution to achieve the goals of sustainable development as they are considered major consumers of resources and ecological services. Ecological services provide a range of benefits at local, regional and global levels. Terrestrial ecosystem has different components in urban environment that provides ecological services to its inhabitants. Cities not only benefit from the internal urban ecosystem but also depend upon other ecosystems beyond the city limit. Green structure is an important component in terms of making city more sustainable and habitable. Green structure in urban environment means green infrastructure that is planned and supports sustainable that is planned and supports sustainable urban development. From planning perspective, spatial structure of green space provides a basis for sustainable urban development. In sustainable perspective, green structure more than the sum of green spaces. It is considered as spatial network of open spaces, public and private gardens and parks, sports fields, allotment gardens, woodlands and recreational grounds. Therefore, it is considered as a significant part of built-up environment and major source of ecological services. To structure urban areas of sustainable development, it is necessary to develop a proportion between grey and green cities. Keeping in view, research has been conducted to investigate spatial network of green structure in planned areas of Bahawalpur City of Pakistan. This study analyzes the ecological services generated from the investigated green structures, and helped develop an approach of inter-relation between green environment and urban society. Moreover, strategies for better land-use planning in green and sustainable perspective have been proposed. (author)

  11. Pedestrian Planning in City Centers: a Study of Guimarães and Braga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rubayet Rahaman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available People are walking in cities for different reasons. Some walkers walk for going to work, some are walking for shopping and some are for leisure during day and night hours. Medium sized cities like Braga and Guimarães in Portugal are depending on car for even shorter trips up to 2 kilometers. However, the walkways are allowing people to walk in convenient and safe way including late night environment. The pedestrians feel troublesome to walk on the footpaths because of illegal parking and discontinuation of walkways. Municipality transport plans and master plans do not incorporate pedestrians as a major component. But this egress mode of transportation is very important in medium sized city centers like Guimarães and Braga for the people to enjoy city centers’ activities. This paper focuses on the types of walkers who use the walkways on a regular basis. Usually, people are feeling comfortable to walk when they go to clubs and bars in a group in these small cities especially after work. This paper again tries to focus the varieties of problems on walkways and to present policies that can improve the situation. Municipal master plan and transportation plan have been studied carefully to see the provisions of pedestrian planning options. Field surveys have been conducted both in form of questionnaire and observation during the end of 2009 and results show different patterns of pedestrian behavior as well as evidence that people get different experiences with problems while walking on the walkways in both surveyed towns. Considering the issues of sustainable mobility, this paper also tries to suggest policies to motivate more people to walk especially in the medium-sized cities of Portugal.

  12. Opportunistic mobile air pollution monitoring: A case study with city wardens in Antwerp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Joris; Theunis, Jan; Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Botteldooren, Dick; De Baets, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential of opportunistic mobile monitoring to map the exposure to air pollution in the urban environment at a high spatial resolution. Opportunistic mobile monitoring makes use of existing mobile infrastructure or people's common daily routines to move measurement devices around. Opportunistic mobile monitoring can also play a crucial role in participatory monitoring campaigns as a typical way to gather data. A case study to measure black carbon was set up in Antwerp, Belgium, with the collaboration of city employees (city wardens). The Antwerp city wardens are outdoors for a large part of the day on surveillance tours by bicycle or on foot, and gathered a total of 393 h of measurements. The data collection is unstructured both in space and time, leading to sampling bias. A temporal adjustment can only partly counteract this bias. Although a high spatial coverage was obtained, there is still a rather large uncertainty on the average concentration levels at a spatial resolution of 50 m due to a limited number of measurements and sampling bias. Despite of this uncertainty, large spatial patterns within the city are clearly captured. This study illustrates the potential of campaigns with unstructured opportunistic mobile monitoring, including participatory monitoring campaigns. The results demonstrate that such an approach can indeed be used to identify broad spatial trends over a wider area, enabling applications including hotspot identification, personal exposure studies, regression mapping, etc. But, they also emphasize the need for repeated measurements and careful processing and interpretation of the data.

  13. Methodologies Developed for EcoCity Related Projects: New Borg El Arab, an Egyptian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Antuña-Rozado

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the methodologies described here is to propose measures and procedures for developing concepts and technological solutions, which are adapted to the local conditions, to build sustainable communities in developing countries and emerging economies. These methodologies are linked to the EcoCity framework outlined by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. for sustainable community and neighbourhood regeneration and development. The framework is the result of a long experience in numerous EcoCity related projects, mainly Nordic and European in scope, which has been reformulated in recent years to respond to the local needs in the previously mentioned countries. There is also a particular emphasis on close collaboration with local partners and major stakeholders. In order to illustrate how these methodologies can support EcoCity concept development and implementation, results from a case study in Egypt will be discussed. The referred case study relates to the transformation of New Borg El Arab (NBC, near Alexandria, into an EcoCity. The viability of the idea was explored making use of different methodologies (Roadmap, Feasibility Study, and Residents Energy Survey and Building Consumption Assessment and considering the Residential, Commercial/Public Facilities, Industrial, Services/Utilities, and Transport sectors.

  14. Study of the environmental radiation in Zacatecas City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of detection of environmental radiation in the inner of an office is presented and a comparison of the results is made when the facilities are closed or aired. The used method is based on radiation detection by means of Geiger-Mueller RM 60 and RM 70 detectors with the aid of a personal computer which provides a detection method of radiation in real time. The used method in this study is suggested to detect the variation of radiation in closed or aired environments and as a surveillance system of radiation levels. The obtained results are discussed and they are compared with those obtained in another places. (Author)

  15. International Students Integration Into the City : A Case Study of Jönköping International Business School

    OpenAIRE

    Hanaeus, Amanda; Filipovic, Jelena; Jonsson, Meagan

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of internationalization in universities today is affecting the cities in which they are located. As the integration of international students adds to the ambiance and culture of a city, the authors argue that mutual participation of universities and communities will influence the development of a city. The aim of this thesis is therefore to explore the collaborations between the two, using Jönköping’s International Business School (JIBS) as a case study. In focusing our attenti...

  16. Study Abroad and the City: Bringing the Lessons Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Study abroad's purpose, once conceived primarily as a means for acquiring knowledge in a content area as well as language acquisition, began in the 1980s to be considered a vehicle for helping American students become less "parochial" and better prepared to live and work in a globalized world. To achieve these goals, students must be able to…

  17. A reconnaissance study of radon concentrations in Hamadan city, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, G. K.; Jabarivasal, N.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 (i.e. below the lower limit of detection for the method) to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 108 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concentration - these data augment the very few published studies on indoor radon levels in Iran. The maximum radon concentration in Hamadan occurs during the winter period (January to March) with lower concentrations during the autumn. The effective dose equivalent to the population in Hamadan is estimated from this study to be in the region of 2.7 mSv/y, which is above the guidelines for dose to a member of the public of 1 mSv/y suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1993. This study supports other work in a number of countries that indicates such permeable "surficial" deposits as being of intermediate to high radon potential. In western Iran, the presence of hammered clay floors, the widespread presence of excavated qanats, the textural properties of surficial deposits and human behaviour intended to cope with winds are likely to be important factors influencing radon concentrations in older buildings.

  18. A reconnaissance study of radon concentrations in Hamadan city, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Gillmore

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 (i.e. below the lower limit of detection for the method to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 108 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concentration – these data augment the very few published studies on indoor radon levels in Iran. The maximum radon concentration in Hamadan occurs during the winter period (January to March with lower concentrations during the autumn. The effective dose equivalent to the population in Hamadan is estimated from this study to be in the region of 2.7 mSv/y, which is above the guidelines for dose to a member of the public of 1 mSv/y suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP in 1993. This study supports other work in a number of countries that indicates such permeable "surficial" deposits as being of intermediate to high radon potential. In western Iran, the presence of hammered clay floors, the widespread presence of excavated qanats, the textural properties of surficial deposits and human behaviour intended to cope with winds are likely to be important factors influencing radon concentrations in older buildings.

  19. Studies on heart development in normal and cardiac mutant axolotls, Ambystoma Mexicanum, using cellular and molecular biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) provides and excellent model for studying heart development since it carries a simple recessive cardiac lethal mutation that results in a failure of mutant embryonic myocardium to contract.

  20. Risk Factors of Congenital Heart Diseases: A Case-Control Study in Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghavi-Behzad Mohammad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital heart diseases are of immense importance and also a high prevalence. Contributing factors to developing these defects have not been abundantly studied. Therefore, the current study was conducted aiming at determining the effective factors on Congenital Heart Disease (CHD in newborn infants of Northwest Iran. Methods: A case-control study was carried out in North-West of Iran from 2002 to 2012 and a total of 473 infants entered the study. Required data were obtained through check lists completed by the information of hospital records and interview with mothers of 267 newborn infants with CHD together with medical records of mothers as the case group, and 206 medical records of healthy infants at the same period all together with those of their mothers as the control group. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistical methods, T-test, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, and Multi-variable Logistic Regression Model (OR with 95% CI, using SPSS.19. In the present study, P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Based on the results of univariable analyses, the number of previous cesarean sections, past medical history of diseases, gestational age (GA, fetal weight at birth, diastolic blood pressure, fetal heart rate, pulse rate, fetal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and fetal head circumference at birth have significant relationship with incidence of congenital abnormalities (P<0.05. Family history, past cesarean sections history, past medical history and GA had significant relationship with CHD incidence. Conclusion: Based on the results of present study, in order to control and reduce the cases of CHD, it is crucial to make proper decisions and implement policies for reducing cesarean cases, lowering consanguineous marriages, providing proper pre-marriage counseling, prompt treatment of mothers’ illnesses, improving pregnancy health care and mothers

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HEART FAILURE WITH PRESERVED EJECTION FRACTION VERSUS DECREASED EJECTION FRACTION

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    Chandrashekar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES : To study the socio demographic profile , risk factors , clinical presentation and comorbidies in patients with heart failure. To compare the socio demographic profile , risk factors , clinical presentation and comorbidities in patients with Heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFnEF and Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF. METHODS: The primary study population consisted of 100 cases of adult men and women aged more than 18 years with symptoms of Hea rt failure diagnosed by Framingham’s criteria . The study population was selected from inpatients and outpatients attending Department of Medicine of KIMS hospital between January to December 2012. The study was a hospital based observatory and comparative study. RESULTS: Out of 100 cases included in our study 50% cases had HFrEF & 50% cases had HFnEF as confirmed by echocardiographic parameters. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with respect to age and sex. However the re were significant statistical significant differences between the groups with respect to clinical features , risk factors and co morbidities. Clinical features like oedema , hepatomegaly and rales were common in HFrEF group (P<0.05. Also LVESD & LVEDD wer e increased in patients with HFrEF. Risk factors like prior MI/IHD were more common in patients with HfrEF (P<0.05 . History of hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy were common in patients with HFnEF (P< 0.05. Among the comorbidities: IHD Conduct ion abnormalities were common in HFrEF group. Pericardial effusion was more common in HFnEFgroup.

  2. A reconnaissance study of radon concentration in Hamadan city, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, G. K.; Jabari Vasal, Naghi

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 107.87 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concentration - these data augment the very few published studies on indoor radon levels in Iran. The maximum radon concentration in Hamadan occurs during the winter period (January to March) with lower concentrations during the autumn. The effective dose equivalent to the population in Hamadan is estimated from this reconnaissance study to be in the region of 2.7 mSv/y, which is above the guidelines for dose to a member of the public of 1 mSv/y suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1993, although further work is required to confirm these results. This study supports other work in a number of countries that indicates such permeable 'surficial' deposits as being of intermediate to high radon potential. In western Iran, the presence of hammered clay floors, the widespread presence of excavated qanats to distribute water underground, the textural properties of surficial deposits and human behaviour intended to cope with winds are likely to be important factors influencing radon concentrations in older buildings. Keywords: Radon; health; dwellings; clay floors; alluvial fan; surficial geology; Hamadan; Iran

  3. Analysis of Renal Artery Stenosis in Patients with Heart Failure: A RASHEF Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Zheng; Qin Ma; Li-Hong Zheng; Qiang Yong; Yi-Hua He; Jing-Hua Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Previous data are controversial about the association of renal artery stenosis (RAS) with clinical outcome in patients with heart failure.Definition of RAS in previous studies might not be appropriate.By definition of RAS with renal duplex sonography,we investigated the association of RAS with clinical outcome in patients with heart failure.Methods:In this retrospective study,we identified 164 patients with heart failure (New York Heart Association classification ≥Ⅱ;left ventricular ejection fraction <50%) who had received renal duplex sonography during hospital stay.RAS was defined as renal-aortic ratio ≥3.5 or a peak systolic velocity ≥200 cm/s (or both),or occlusion of the renal artery.Categorical data of patients were compared using the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test.Cox proportional hazards regression modeling technique was used to investigate the prognostic significance of possible predictors.Results:Finally,143 patients were enrolled.Median follow-up time was 32 months (1-53 months).Twenty-two patients were diagnosed as RAS by renal duplex sonography,including 13 unilateral RAS (3 left RAS,10 right RAS) and 9 bilateral RAS.There were more all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death in patients with RAS than patients without RAS.By multivariate analysis,RAS was a significant predictor for all-cause death and cardiovascular death (hazard ratio [HR] =4.155,95% confidence interval [CI]:1.546-11.164,P =0.005;and HR =3.483,95% CI:1.200-10.104,P =0.022,respectively).As for composite endpoint events,including death,nonfatal myocardial infarction,ischemic stroke or intracranial hemorrhage,rehospitalization for cardiac failure,and renal replacement therapy,only angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker was significant predictor.RAS was not a significant predictor for composite endpoint events.Conclusions:Our data suggested that RAS is associated with a poorer clinical outcome in patients with heart

  4. Kids in the city study: research design and methodology

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    Kaiwai Hector

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is essential for optimal physical and psychological health but substantial declines in children's activity levels have occurred in New Zealand and internationally. Children's independent mobility (i.e., outdoor play and traveling to destinations unsupervised, an integral component of physical activity in childhood, has also declined radically in recent decades. Safety-conscious parenting practices, car reliance and auto-centric urban design have converged to produce children living increasingly sedentary lives. This research investigates how urban neighborhood environments can support or enable or restrict children's independent mobility, thereby influencing physical activity accumulation and participation in daily life. Methods/Design The study is located in six Auckland, New Zealand neighborhoods, diverse in terms of urban design attributes, particularly residential density. Participants comprise 160 children aged 9-11 years and their parents/caregivers. Objective measures (global positioning systems, accelerometers, geographical information systems, observational audits assessed children's independent mobility and physical activity, neighborhood infrastructure, and streetscape attributes. Parent and child neighborhood perceptions and experiences were assessed using qualitative research methods. Discussion This study is one of the first internationally to examine the association of specific urban design attributes with child independent mobility. Using robust, appropriate, and best practice objective measures, this study provides robust epidemiological information regarding the relationships between the built environment and health outcomes for this population.

  5. Rethinking urban space in cities - A study of parks in Hyderabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinagesh, B.; Markandey, Kalpana

    2016-06-01

    Urban areas being economically diversified attract large streams of migrants making for a burgeoning population. This is more prevalent in the developing countries. The concomitants of this are high density, heavy traffic movement and increased pollution levels. To reduce the stressful life of city dwellers it is important to have open spaces, where one can pursue leisure time activities a few removes from clutter. A public space is a space that is generally open and accessible to people. Roads, public parks, libraries etc, are typically considered public space. The term ‘public space’ is also often misconstrued to mean other things such as ‘gathering place’, which is an element of the larger concept of social space. Hyderabad, the historical city is the capital of Telangana, India and extends from longitude 78o23’ to 78o33’E and latitude of 17o17’ to 17o31’N. It is the second largest city in terms of area and fifth largest in terms of population. It is one of the fastest growing cities in India. There is a huge influx of people from other states in search of better opportunities. The main objectives of the study are; to study the sprawl and changing demographic structure of the city of Hyderabad, to study the accessibility of parks, to study the need for the emergence of a local public sphere. The data base will be mainly on secondary data collected from various government sources. A primary survey will be conducted based on a structured questionnaire. GIS and other mapping techniques will be applied to analyse the data.

  6. An Empirical Study Of Consumer Behavior For Organized Retail Sector In Vadodara City

    OpenAIRE

    Pandya, Dr. Amit R.; Bariya, Kameshvari J.

    2015-01-01

    In this research paper, primary data was collected from respondents of Vadodara city in Gujarat. For this purpose three shopping malls were selected RPG group, Future group and Aditya Birala group. Through this study we have tried to find out consumer behaviour of respondents when they shop through malls. As a part of consumer behaviour, their perceptions, motivation levels and demographic factors were studied. We have also tried to study the reasons for preference of a shopping mall and t...

  7. Development of self-care educational material for patients with heart failure in Japan: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Naoko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Sano, Miho; Seki, Satomi; Kogure, Asuka; Kobukata, Kihoko; Ochiai, Ryota; Wakita, Sanae; Kazuma, Keiko

    2012-06-01

    This study assessed the need for information regarding heart failure and self-care, developed self-care educational material, and investigated the feasibility of the material. A total of 22 hospitalized heart failure patients (mean age: 63 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire. We found that more than 90% of patients desired information, particularly about heart failure symptoms, time to notify healthcare providers, prognosis, and exercise/physical activity. After examining the eight existing brochures for Japanese heart failure patients, we developed self-care educational material. This was based on heart failure guidelines and on the results of our inquiry regarding information needs. Finally, a pilot study was conducted in nine hospitalized heart failure patients (mean age: 57 years). None of the patients had difficulty reading or understanding the educational material. The self-administrated questionnaire survey revealed that comprehension of the following improved after the educational sessions with the material: heart failure symptoms, medication, weighing, sodium intake, and fluid intake (P comprehension. PMID:22339764

  8. Living with the world heritage. An ethnographic study of the ancient city of Nessebar, Bulgaria

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    Luleva Ana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1950s the Ancient city of Nessebar has had the status of national cultural heritage; in 1983 it was inscribed in the World heritage list of UNESCO. The article makes an attempt to study the regimes of using of and living in the city - world cultural heritage in two different political and economic contexts. The pressure of the tourism industry on the value, which was visible even in the years of the late state socialism, became irresistible after 1989 in the context of the liberalised market economy, the interests of the private investors and the accepted as part of the "normal" market order corrupt practices of the institutions that are responsible for the safeguarding and management of the cultural heritage. The ethnographic study argues that intertwined in a Gordian knot around the central question for the residents of the ancient city of Nessebar, viz. the occupation of the city, which has been declared a world heritage site, are issues like trust and distrust in the institutions, the experience of abiding by formal and informal rules for operation with private property, the notions of social justice, local identity, the use of the cultural heritage as symbolic capital by different social actors and its transformation into economic one, with the conflicting interconnection between tourist industry and cultural heritage.

  9. A Case Study on Municipal Solid Waste Management in Salt Lake City

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    S K Maity

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste management is an important social problem throughout the world. In India it takes the shape of alarming dimension which has to be addressed urgently. It includes the collection and disposal ofgarbage, or municipal solid waste, compounded by increasing consumption levels. Among the solid waste generated in Indian cities, Kolkata’s position is second. Bidhannagar or Salt Lake City is a planned satellite township in Kolkata. The problem of municipal solid waste management (MSWM also exists in the urban environment of Salt Lake. Therefore the present study was taken to find out the problems and prospects of Municipal solid waste in this city. A detailed investigation was made comprising the methods of practices associated with sources, quantity generated, collection, transportation, storage, treatment and disposal of Municipal solid waste in Salt Lake City. The relevant data of SWM in Salt Lake was obtained throughquestionnaire, individual field visit, interacting with people and bona fide record of Salt Lake Municipal Corporation. After this case study, it was found that there are several lacunas in existing system of SWM in Salt Lake as comparing with Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling Rules 2000.

  10. Dietary patterns and their association with acute coronary heart disease: Lessons from the REGARDS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2015-01-01

    Shikany et al used data from 17,418 participants in the REGARDS study, a national, population-based, longitudinal study of white and black adults aged ≥ 45 years, enrolled between 2003–2007. They examined 536 acute coronary heart disease events at follow-up (median 5.8 years) in relation to five dietary patterns (Convenience, Plant-based, Sweets, Southern, and Alcohol and Salad). After adjustment for baseline variables, the highest consumers of the Southern pattern experienced a 56% higher ha...

  11. Association of Kidney Disease Measures with Cause-Specific Mortality: The Korean Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yejin Mok; Kunihiro Matsushita; Yingying Sang; Ballew, Shoshana H.; Morgan Grams; Sang Yop Shin; Sun Ha Jee; Josef Coresh

    2016-01-01

    Background The link of low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and high proteinuria to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is well known. However, its link to mortality due to other causes is less clear. Methods We studied 367,932 adults (20–93 years old) in the Korean Heart Study (baseline between 1996–2004 and follow-up until 2011) and assessed the associations of creatinine-based eGFR and dipstick proteinuria with mortality due to CVD (1,608 cases), cancer (4,035 cases), and oth...

  12. POST MORTEM STUDY OF POSTSURGICAL MORTALITY IN SECUNDERABAD CITY

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    Shekhar Rao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Surgery is an essential part of present medical pra ctice and it is one of the important tools of curing many diseases. Surger y is done in elective cases after the diagnosis is promptly made before operating, and in emergency su rgeries an empirical diagnosis is made and after opening moderation is adopted in the procedur e. In spite of all safety precautions adopted, death may result in some cases. Then a question ari ses about the competency and efficiency of the surgeon, investigations, interpretation about the d iagnosis of the disease and the management of the case. To answer these questions we need to do a Pathological (Clinical autopsy than a medico- legal autopsy. The scope of the present study was o nly to find which of the surgeries resulted in most of the fatal outcomes and try to determine the underlying causes it has its own limitations. Deciding about the occurrence of Medical Negligence and fixation of responsibility is beyond the scope of this study. AIMS : To know the incidence of surgical postoperative d eaths of Gandhi Hospital, Secunderabad [A.P], during year 2006. RESULTS : The incidence of surgical death in this group of population is about 1.5%. Most number of c ases involved was males and belongs to 22-45 year age group. 75% of deaths occurred in Males of this group as compared to females who were 25% of the total study population, however it was n ot statistically significant. 86.6% of the surgeries with fatal outcome were done in emergency conditions and rest was done on elective basis. Study also shows that the main anatomical lo cations involved are the head and neck region 48.3% which resulted in most number of postsurgical mortality. CONCLUSIONS : The frequency of death occurring after emergency surgeries is more t han that of elective surgeries probably indicating that in emergency surgeries there was so me hastiness in selecting the cases for surgery, presence of co - morbid conditions and

  13. Sociological Investigating of the Authoritarian Personality (Case Study: Isfahan City

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    Vahid Ghasemi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   The main questions to answer in this article are that “What are the possible explanations of the formation of the authoritarian personality? How is an authoritarian personality born and where are its roots?” We used from F. scale. The original F. scale was to contain 38 items and 9 key dimensions of authoritarian personality: Conventionalism, Authoritarian Submission, Authoritarian Aggression, Anti- interception, Superstition and Stereotype, Power and ‘toughness’, Destructiveness and Cynicism, Projective, heightened concerns about sex. This scale defined by Adorno at al. in 1950.   The purpose of this research is to find out the level of tendency toward authoritarianism and to study the impact of variables like age, group membership, socialization of power (family structure, education system and mass media, level of education, income and occupation on authoritarianism. In this survey study a sample of 368 citizens of Isfahan (18years old and over have been interviewed.   The results indicate that a significant and reserve relationship has been found between age, group membership, education system and mass media and tendency toward authoritarianism. A significant and direct relationship exists between family structure, level of education, income and occupation and tendency toward authoritarianism.

  14. Manual restraint and shows of force: the City-128 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Len; Van Der Merwe, Marie; Paterson, Brodie; Stewart, Duncan

    2012-02-01

    Manual restraint is used to manage disturbed behaviour by patients. This study aimed to assess the relationship of manual restraint and show of force to conflict behaviours, the use of containment methods, service environment, physical environment, patient routines, staff characteristics, and staff group variables. Data from a multivariate, cross-sectional study of 136 acute psychiatric wards in England were used to conduct this analysis. Manual restraint was used less frequently on English acute psychiatric wards (0.20 incidents per day) than show of force (0.28 incidents per day). Both were strongly associated with the proportion of patients subject to legal detention, aggressive behaviours, and the enforcement of treatment and detention. Medical, nursing, and security guard staff provision were associated in different ways with variations in the use of these coercive interventions. An effective ward structure of rules and routines was associated with less dependence on these control methods. Training for manual restraint should incorporate the scenarios of attempted absconding and enforcement of treatment, as well as violent behaviour. Attempts to lessen usage of these interventions could usefully focus on increasing the availability of medical staff to patients, reducing reliance on security guards and establishing a good ward structure. PMID:21733054

  15. A STUDY OF CLINICAL PROFILE OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AMONG SOUTH INDIAN WOMEN IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

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    Lokesh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Our study was done to study in detail the clinical profile of cases admitted with ischemic heart diseases in women at ICCU VIMS Bellary . Objectives : are. (1 To study the clinical profile of ischemic heart diseases in women. ( 2 To identify the influence of well - defined risk factors in wome n with ischemic heart diseases. (3 To identify if there are any risk factors specific to wom en with ischemic heart diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Ours is a clinical , prospective , observational and open study. The study subjects were women admitted in Intensive Coronary Care Unit of Vijayanagara institute of medical sciences hospital , Bellary with signs and symptoms suggestive of ischemic heart diseases. After obtaining a detailed history and clinical examinati on the patients were subjected to relevant investigations. The complete data was collected in specially designed case recording form and transferred into a Master chart which is then subjected to statistical analysis. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION : We studied 100 cases of ischemic heart diseases in women , out of which 82 patients presented with Acute MI , 14 patients with Unstable angina and 4 patients with stable angina , most of which were observed in post - menopausal women. Prognosis was good in patients who recei ved intensive care within 6 hours of onset of symptoms. Chest pain was the most common symptom of presentation. CONCLUSION : Our study had highlighted the fact that ischemic heart disease no longer remains gender neutral and has been found to be a principle killer in women and they suffer from IHD on account of preventable diseases like hypertension , diabetes mellitus , obesity. KEYWORDS : Ischemic heart disease ; Hypertension ; Acute MI ; Unstable angina.

  16. Heart Rate Variability and Wavelet-based Studies on ECG Signals from Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, K.; Goel, R.; Champaty, B.; Samantray, S.; Tibarewala, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    The current study deals with the heart rate variability (HRV) and wavelet-based ECG signal analysis of smokers and non-smokers. The results of HRV indicated dominance towards the sympathetic nervous system activity in smokers. The heart rate was found to be higher in case of smokers as compared to non-smokers ( p 90 % was achieved. The wavelet decomposition of the ECG signal was done using the Daubechies (db 6) wavelet family. No difference was observed between the smokers and non-smokers which apparently suggested that smoking does not affect the conduction pathway of heart.

  17. Characterization of the elastic displacement demand: Case study - Sofia city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the study on the seismic site response in a part of the metropolitan Sofia are discussed. The neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure has been used to compute realistic synthetic waveforms considering four earthquake scenarios, with magnitudes M = 3.7, M = 6.3 and M = 7.0. Source and site specific ground motion time histories are computed along three investigated cross sections, making use of the hybrid approach, combining the modal summation technique and the finite differences scheme. Displacement and acceleration response spectra are considered. These results are validated against the design elastic displacement response spectra and displacement demand, recommended in Eurocode 8. The elastic response design spectrum from the standard pseudo-acceleration, versus natural period, Tn, format is converted to the Sa - Sd format. The elastic displacement response spectra and displacement demand are discussed with respect to the earthquake magnitude, the seismic source-to-site distance, seismic source mechanism, and the local geological site conditions. (author)

  18. Multicenter randomized trial of cell therapy in cardiopathies – MiHeart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tura, Bernardo R; Martino, Helena F; Gowdak, Luis H; dos Santos, Ricardo Ribeiro; Dohmann, Hans F; Krieger, José E; Feitosa, Gilson; Vilas-Boas, Fábio; Oliveira, Sérgio A; Silva, Suzana A; Bozza, Augusto Z; Borojevic, Radovan; de Carvalho, Antonio C Campos

    2007-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death in the world. Current treatments have not been able to reverse this scenario, creating the need for the development of new therapies. Cell therapies have emerged as an alternative for cardiac diseases of distinct causes in experimental animal studies and more recently in clinical trials. Method/Design We have designed clinical trials to test for the efficacy of autologous bone marrow derived mononuclear cell therapies in four different cardiopathies: acute and chronic ischemic heart disease, and Chagasic and dilated cardiomyopathy. All trials are multicenter, randomized, double-blind and placebo controlled. In each trial 300 patients will be enrolled and receive optimized therapy for their specific condition. Additionally, half of the patients will receive the autologous bone marrow cells while the other half will receive placebo (saline with 5% autologous serum). For each trial there are specific inclusion and exclusion criteria and the method for cell delivery is intramyocardial for the chronic ischemic heart disease and intracoronary for all others. Primary endpoint for all studies will be the difference in ejection fraction (determined by Simpson's rule) six and twelve months after intervention in relation to the basal ejection fraction. The main hypothesis of this study is that the patients who receive the autologous bone-marrow stem cell implant will have after a 6 month follow-up a mean increase of 5% in absolute left ventricular ejection fraction in comparison with the control group. Discussion Many phase I clinical trials using cell therapy for cardiac diseases have already been performed. The few randomized studies have yielded conflicting results, rendering necessary larger well controlled trials to test for efficacy of cell therapies in cardiopathies. The trials registration numbers at the NIH registry are the following: Chagasic cardiomyopathy (NCT00349271), dilated cardiomyopathy (NCT

  19. Multicenter randomized trial of cell therapy in cardiopathies – MiHeart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Sérgio A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death in the world. Current treatments have not been able to reverse this scenario, creating the need for the development of new therapies. Cell therapies have emerged as an alternative for cardiac diseases of distinct causes in experimental animal studies and more recently in clinical trials. Method/Design We have designed clinical trials to test for the efficacy of autologous bone marrow derived mononuclear cell therapies in four different cardiopathies: acute and chronic ischemic heart disease, and Chagasic and dilated cardiomyopathy. All trials are multicenter, randomized, double-blind and placebo controlled. In each trial 300 patients will be enrolled and receive optimized therapy for their specific condition. Additionally, half of the patients will receive the autologous bone marrow cells while the other half will receive placebo (saline with 5% autologous serum. For each trial there are specific inclusion and exclusion criteria and the method for cell delivery is intramyocardial for the chronic ischemic heart disease and intracoronary for all others. Primary endpoint for all studies will be the difference in ejection fraction (determined by Simpson's rule six and twelve months after intervention in relation to the basal ejection fraction. The main hypothesis of this study is that the patients who receive the autologous bone-marrow stem cell implant will have after a 6 month follow-up a mean increase of 5% in absolute left ventricular ejection fraction in comparison with the control group. Discussion Many phase I clinical trials using cell therapy for cardiac diseases have already been performed. The few randomized studies have yielded conflicting results, rendering necessary larger well controlled trials to test for efficacy of cell therapies in cardiopathies. The trials registration numbers at the NIH registry are the following: Chagasic cardiomyopathy (NCT00349271

  20. Vitamin C and Heart Health: A Review Based on Findings from Epidemiologic Studies

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    Melissa A. Moser

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is a powerful dietary antioxidant that has received considerable attention in the literature related to its possible role in heart health. Although classical vitamin C deficiency, marked by scurvy, is rare in most parts of the world, some research has shown variable heart disease risks depending on plasma vitamin C concentration, even within the normal range. Furthermore, other studies have suggested possible heart-related benefits to vitamin C taken in doses beyond the minimal amounts required to prevent classically defined deficiency. The objective of this review is to systematically review the findings of existing epidemiologic research on vitamin C and its potential role in cardiovascular disease (CVD. It is well established that vitamin C inhibits oxidation of LDL-protein, thereby reducing atherosclerosis, but the cardiovascular outcomes related to this action and other actions of vitamin C are not fully understood. Randomized controlled trials as well as observational cohort studies have investigated this topic with varying results. Vitamin C has been linked in some work to improvements in lipid profiles, arterial stiffness, and endothelial function. However, other studies have failed to confirm these results, and observational cohort studies are varied in their findings on the vitamin’s effect on CVD risk and mortality. Overall, current research suggests that vitamin C deficiency is associated with a higher risk of mortality from CVD and that vitamin C may slightly improve endothelial function and lipid profiles in some groups, especially those with low plasma vitamin C levels. However, the current literature provides little support for the widespread use of vitamin C supplementation to reduce CVD risk or mortality.

  1. Vitamin C and Heart Health: A Review Based on Findings from Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Melissa A; Chun, Ock K

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin C is a powerful dietary antioxidant that has received considerable attention in the literature related to its possible role in heart health. Although classical vitamin C deficiency, marked by scurvy, is rare in most parts of the world, some research has shown variable heart disease risks depending on plasma vitamin C concentration, even within the normal range. Furthermore, other studies have suggested possible heart-related benefits to vitamin C taken in doses beyond the minimal amounts required to prevent classically defined deficiency. The objective of this review is to systematically review the findings of existing epidemiologic research on vitamin C and its potential role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is well established that vitamin C inhibits oxidation of LDL-protein, thereby reducing atherosclerosis, but the cardiovascular outcomes related to this action and other actions of vitamin C are not fully understood. Randomized controlled trials as well as observational cohort studies have investigated this topic with varying results. Vitamin C has been linked in some work to improvements in lipid profiles, arterial stiffness, and endothelial function. However, other studies have failed to confirm these results, and observational cohort studies are varied in their findings on the vitamin's effect on CVD risk and mortality. Overall, current research suggests that vitamin C deficiency is associated with a higher risk of mortality from CVD and that vitamin C may slightly improve endothelial function and lipid profiles in some groups, especially those with low plasma vitamin C levels. However, the current literature provides little support for the widespread use of vitamin C supplementation to reduce CVD risk or mortality. PMID:27529239

  2. 77 FR 65001 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: The Jackson Heart Study (JHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... allows continued assessment of subclinical coronary disease, left ventricular ] dysfunction, progression... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request: The Jackson Heart... Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will publish...

  3. 78 FR 5188 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: The Jackson Heart Study (JHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... coronary disease, left ventricular dysfunction, progression of carotid atherosclerosis and left ventricular... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request: The Jackson Heart... 1995, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), the National Institutes of Health...

  4. Study of foetal heart rate patterns in pregnancy with intra-uterine growth restriction during antepartum period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To evaluate foetal heart rate pattern during antepartum period in pregnancies suffering from intra-uterine growth restriction. Methods: The case control study was conducted at the Alzahra Hospital, Tabriz, Iran from April 2008 to April 2011. It comprised 100 pregnancies with intra-uterine growth restriction and 92 normal pregnancies. The foetal heart rate pattern including basal heart rate, beat-to-beat variation, non-stress test (NST) result and acceleration and deceleration patterns of the heart rate were determined in both groups during the antepartum period. Findings were compared between the two groups and their relation with pregnancy-foetal outcomes was specified in the case group. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the foetus mean basal heart rate in the two groups (p <0.960). Frequency of cases with non-reactive non-stress test in the Cases was significantly higher than Controls (p <0.005). The difference in heart rate acceleration was also not statistically significant (p <0.618). Frequency of cases with low birth weight and caesarian was non-significantly but borderline higher among the Cases (p <0.081 and 0.060, respectively). Conclusion: Abnormal foetal heart rate pattern is more common in pregnancies marked by intra-uterine growth restriction and is directly associated with worse pregnancy/foetal outcomes. (author)

  5. Engineered heart tissues and induced pluripotent stem cells: Macro- and microstructures for disease modeling, drug screening, and translational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzatzalos, Evangeline; Abilez, Oscar J; Shukla, Praveen; Wu, Joseph C

    2016-01-15

    Engineered heart tissue has emerged as a personalized platform for drug screening. With the advent of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, patient-specific stem cells can be developed and expanded into an indefinite source of cells. Subsequent developments in cardiovascular biology have led to efficient differentiation of cardiomyocytes, the force-producing cells of the heart. iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) have provided potentially limitless quantities of well-characterized, healthy, and disease-specific CMs, which in turn has enabled and driven the generation and scale-up of human physiological and disease-relevant engineered heart tissues. The combined technologies of engineered heart tissue and iPSC-CMs are being used to study diseases and to test drugs, and in the process, have advanced the field of cardiovascular tissue engineering into the field of precision medicine. In this review, we will discuss current developments in engineered heart tissue, including iPSC-CMs as a novel cell source. We examine new research directions that have improved the function of engineered heart tissue by using mechanical or electrical conditioning or the incorporation of non-cardiomyocyte stromal cells. Finally, we discuss how engineered heart tissue can evolve into a powerful tool for therapeutic drug testing.

  6. Case-control study of factors associated with chronic Chagas heart disease in patients over 50 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Araújo Silva

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A case-control study on chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD was carried out between 1997 and 2005. Ninety patients over 50 years of age were examined for factors related to (CCHD. Fourty-six patients (51.1% with Chagas heart disease (anomalous ECG were assigned to the case group and 44 (48.9% were included in the control group as carriers of undetermined forms of chronic disease. Social, demographic (age, gender, skin color, area of origin, epidemiological (permanence within an endemic zone, family history of Chagas heart disease or sudden death, physical strain, alcoholism, and smoking, and clinical (systemic hypertension variables were analyzed. The data set was assessed through single-variable and multivariate analysis. The two factors independently associated with heart disease were age - presence of heart disease being three times higher in patients over 60 years of age (odds ratio, OR: 2.89; confidence interval of 95%: 1.09-7.61 - and family history of Chagas heart disease (OR: 2.833, CI 95%: 1.11-7.23. Systemic hypertension and gender did not prove to hold any association with heart disease, as neither did skin color, but this variable showed low statistical power due to reduced sample size.

  7. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of oral levosimendan and its metabolites in patients with severe congestive heart failure: a dosing interval study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põder, Pentti; Eha, Jaan; Sundberg, Stig; Antila, Saila; Heinpalu, Marika; Loogna, Imbrit; Planken, Ulle; Rantanen, Satu; Lehtonen, Lasse

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of oral levosimendan in patients with severe congestive heart failure. This was a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Oral levosimendan 2 to 8 mg daily or placebo was administered to 25 patients with New York Heart Association class III-IV congestive heart failure for 4 weeks. Pharmacodynamic variables consisted of heart rate-corrected electromechanical systole, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The pharmacokinetics of levosimendan and its metabolites, OR-1855 and OR-1896, was assessed. The 4- to 8-mg daily doses of oral levosimendan showed moderate inotropic effects. Blood pressure remained unchanged with all doses. A moderate increase in heart rate was observed except with the 2-mg dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters of the metabolites increased linearly with the dose (P < or = .002 for Cmax and AUC0-8h for both treatment groups). It was concluded that oral levosimendan has inotropic and chronotropic effects in patients with severe congestive heart failure. Plasma concentrations of its metabolites increase dose dependently.

  8. EMOTIONAL AND COGNITIVE CHANGES DURING AND POST A NEAR FATAL HEART ATTACK AND ONE-YEAR AFTER: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This case study reports on changes in emotions before and during an unexpected heart rate in a young, apparently healthy male with a life-long history of exercise in the absence of family history of heart problems. He completed the Brunel Mood Scale (Terry et al. , 2003 to assess emotions before, during, and after the heart attack, and also describing his thoughts during these periods. Results indicate he experienced unpleasant emotions in the build up to the heart attack, feelings he attributed at the time to frustration to achieve fitness goals. He maintained an exercise regime prior to having a heart attack, a finding consistent with previous research suggesting that early diagnosis, although vital for survival, is not likely to be identified among seemingly healthy individuals. During the heart attack, he experienced a rapid emotional change characterised by a rapid increase in anger coupled with thoughts of needing to survive. The intensity of emotions and regulation strategies employed before and during the heart attack provide insight this experience, and we suggest future research should investigate emotional change during adverse conditions

  9. An Application Domain Extension to CityGML for immovable property taxation: A Turkish case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çağdaş, Volkan

    2013-04-01

    It is generally acknowledged that immovable property taxes are one of the main revenue sources for local government. The literature emphasizes that the administration of property taxes needs well-developed inventories or registers that provide complete and accurate records of the taxed properties and their legal-economic attributes. This requirement is generally fulfilled by Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) in which the coordinate exchange and sharing of geo-spatial data is provided by separate registers/information systems such as: cadastral systems, building and address registers. Recently, the Open Geospatial Consortium presented a core component of a 3D SDI in the form of an international domain standard for representing, storing and exchanging 3D city models. The CityGML allows the semantic and 3D geometrical representation of physical objects but does not deal with the legal and administrative aspects of the city objects which are required for the process of property taxation. This paper outlines the development of an Application Domain Extension (ADE) for the immovable property taxation domain that expands the CityGML data model with the legal and administrative concepts defined in Turkish Law. The study shows that this ADE could be a 3D national data model for municipal information systems and facilitate a more efficient taxation process, as well as providing data for urban planning, facility management and other municipal services.

  10. A Study on the Implementation of Visualization for a Virtual City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Long; ZHOU Jing-lun; LIU Xi-chun; ZHENG Min

    2006-01-01

    With the development in network communication, the research and application of "virtual city" has become an important discussion item. The crucial point lies on how to set up a virtual visual model of city on Internet; it is the organic integration of computer science, information science, geosciences and system science. This text summarizes the basic conception of "digital earth/the virtual fictitious city", and probes into the technology of combining with Web on the basis of 2DVR, 3DVR and GIS. It develops the new emulation mode of the virtual urban system and key technology while developing the scheme wholly. This paper offers the interactive methods of the virtual world and outside world. The method of using the panorama, three dimensional model and active server pages technology to realize interactive network virtual city roam is studied and a running example is given. Using the system we can offer the visual brand-new technical support for urban planning, traffic for tourism, etc.

  11. An analysis of LULC change detection using remotely sensed data; A Case study of Bauchi City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauchi is one of the cities in the north eastern part of Nigeria that has witnessed tremendous expansion as a result of rapid urbanization. For the past decade, the city has been known to be relatively small both in size and population. But today, Bauchi is one of the fastest growing cities in northern Nigeria. Therefore, it is paramount to detect the nature and magnitude of these changes in order to determine its direction of future expansion. To achieve that, Remotely Sensed data from Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 were utilized for the purpose of LULC change detection in Bauchi city. Landsat 7 image of 2003 and Landsat 8 image of 2013 were obtained for the purpose of the study. Three change detection algorithms were used to detect areas of change. They include supervised, unsupervised and post classification comparison. While the unsupervised classification was found to be less effective, the supervised classification produced good results with overall accuracies of 93.5% and 89.7% for the 2003 and 2013 respectively. Finally, ''from-to'' change was obtained using the post classification comparism

  12. A prospective population study of resting heart rate and peak oxygen uptake (the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Nauman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We assessed the prospective association of resting heart rate (RHR at baseline with peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak 23 years later, and evaluated whether physical activity (PA could modify this association. BACKGROUND: Both RHR and VO(2peak are strong and independent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the association of RHR with VO(2peak and modifying effect of PA have not been prospectively assessed in population studies. METHODS: In 807 men and 810 women free from cardiovascular disease both at baseline (1984-86 and follow-up 23 years later, RHR was recorded at both occasions, and VO(2peak was measured by ergospirometry at follow-up. We used Generalized Linear Models to assess the association of baseline RHR with VO(2peak, and to study combined effects of RHR and self-reported PA on later VO(2peak. RESULTS: There was an inverse association of RHR at baseline with VO(2peak (p<0.01. Men and women with baseline RHR greater than 80 bpm had 4.6 mL.kg(-1.min(-1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 6.3 and 1.4 mL.kg(-1.min(-1 (95% CI, -0.4 to 3.1 lower VO(2peak at follow-up compared with men and women with RHR below 60 bpm at baseline. We found a linear association of change in RHR with VO(2peak (p=0.03, suggesting that a decrease in RHR over time is likely to be beneficial for cardiovascular fitness. Participants with low RHR and high PA at baseline had higher VO(2peak than inactive people with relatively high RHR. However, among participants with relatively high RHR and high PA at baseline, VO(2peak was similar to inactive people with relatively low RHR. CONCLUSION: RHR is an important predictor of VO(2peak, and serial assessments of RHR may provide useful and inexpensive information on cardiovascular fitness. The results suggest that high levels of PA may compensate for the lower VO(2peak associated with a high RHR.

  13. Surrounding greenness, proximity to city parks and pregnancy outcomes in Kaunas cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazuleviciene, Regina; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; Vencloviene, Jone; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Uždanaviciute, Inga; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that green space can improve the health and well-being of urban residents. However, there has been no consistent evidence of the effect of city parks on reproductive health. We investigated whether surrounding greenness levels and/or distance to city parks affect birth outcomes. This study was based on 3292 singleton live-births from the Kaunas birth cohort, Lithuania (2007-2009), who were enrolled in the FP7 PHENOTYPE project study. Residential surrounding greenness level was ascertained as average of satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within buffers of 100 m, 300 m, and 500 m of each maternal home and distance to a city park was defined as distance to boundaries of the nearest city park. For each indicator of green space exposure, linear or logistic regression models were constructed to estimate change in birth outcomes adjusted for relevant covariates. An increase in distance to a city parks was associated with an increase in risk of preterm birth and decrease of gestational age. We found a statistically significant association between low surrounding greenness and term low birth weight. After assessing effect modification based on the low surrounding greenness (NDVI-5001000 m), we found increased risks for low birth weight (OR 2.23, 1.20-4.15), term low birth weight (OR 2.97, 1.04-8.45) and preterm birth (OR 1.77, 1.10-2.81) for subjects with low surrounding greenness and farther distance from a park. Both higher surrounding greenness level and proximity to park have beneficial effects on pregnancy outcomes. A beneficial park effect on foetal growth is most apparent in the environment with low surrounding greenness level. Further investigation is needed to confirm this association. PMID:25757723

  14. Beautiful city

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino

    2009-01-01

    Proponents of the City Beautiful movement advocated for sizable public investments in monumental spaces, street beautification, and classical architecture. Today, economists and policymakers see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract people and jobs to cities. But past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisure amenities for urban growth and development. In this article, Jerry Carlino uses a new data set on the number of leisure tourist ...

  15. City Beautiful

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino; Saiz, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The City Beautiful movement, which in the early 20th century advocated city beautification as a way to improve the living conditions and civic virtues of the urban dweller, had languished by the Great Depression. Today, new urban economic theorists and policymakers are coming to see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract population, especially the highly skilled and their employers. However, past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisur...

  16. AN ANATOMICAL STUDY OF CORONARY ARTERY DOMINANCE IN HUMAN CADAVERIC HEARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: With ever increasing incidence of coronary heart disease, a thorough study of the coronary arteries is the need of time. AIM: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the coronary dominance pattern which will help the cardiac physicians and surgeons for better diagnosis and management of coronary arte ry disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study undertaken in the Department of Anatomy, Assam Medical College included 75 perinatal and 15 adult cadaveric human hearts which were preserved in 10% formaldehyde solution after simple dissecting procedure and the dominance was noted. RESULTS: In the present study, out of total of 90 cases the right coronary dominance was found to be present in 58 cases (64.44%.This included 34(60.71% males and 24(70.59% females. Total cases of left coronary dominance were fo und to be 22(24.45%. Among these, 15(26.79% were males and 7(20.59% were females. Finally 10(11.11% co - dominant cases were found, of which 7 cases (12.50% were males and 3 cases (8.82% were females. CONCLUSION : Thus the study revealed that most of th e cases were having right coronary predominance. KEYWORDS : Coronary arteries, Dominance .

  17. Progenitor cells from the heart : in vitro study of CMPC and EPDC behavior

    OpenAIRE

    van Oorschot, A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disorders are currently the leading cause of death in the Western world. Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the main contributors to ischemic heart disease. After ischemia, cardiomyocytes die and are replaced by fibrous scar tissue while in the remaining cardiomyocytes hypertrophy is induced. This leads to a declined heart function and will result in death due to heart failure. Without taking heart transplantation into consideration, the current therapies to treat patients af...

  18. Evaluation of new secondary organic aerosol models for a case study in Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Dzepina, K.; Volkamer, R. M.; S. Madronich; Tulet, P; Ulbrich, I. M; Q. Zhang; C. D. Cappa; P. J. Ziemann; Jimenez, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent field studies have found large discrepancies in the measured vs. modeled SOA mass loadings in both urban and regional polluted atmospheres. The reasons for these large differences are unclear. Here we revisit a case study of SOA formation in Mexico City described by Volkamer et al. (2006), during a photochemically active period when the impact of regional biomass burning is minor or negligible, and show that the observed increase in OA/ΔCO is consistent with results from several groups...

  19. A study of lip print patterns among adults of Sebha city, Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Wali Peeran; Naveen Kumar, P G; Khaled Awidat Abdalla; Faiza Abdelkader Ahmed Azaruk; Shahnavaz Manipady; Fatma Mojtaba Alsaid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lip print patterns are individualistic and unique and can be used for identification of individuals. Objectives: The objective of this study was to find out the different types of lip patterns, know the most common one and to know whether it has any gender predilection among adults of Sebha city. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 adults aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Lip prints were recorded and analyzed for lip print patterns. Statistical analysis was carried ...

  20. Flood Insurance Study, City of South Salt Lake, Utah, Salt Lake County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1994-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of South Salt Lake, Salt Lake County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood...

  1. Predictive Value of Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Risk Assessment in Cohort of Shiraz Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ ZibaeeNezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Risk assessment for fast growing burden of cardiovascular diseases is very important and dif- ficult. As a response to this challenge, in particular, genetic risk factors which potentially modify risk, we conducted a survey of primary data registry of Shiraz Heart Study on integration and application of family history data in prevention of cardiovascular disorders.Method: This study is a longitudinal cohort project to be extended from subpopulations of different job groups to the community.Results: Parental family history of MI, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia (HPL, hypertension (HTN was reported more frequently among females than males. Histories of MI, DM, HPL, and HTN in both parents were respectively positive in 2.6%, 2%, 4.6%, and 7.9 % of the participants. Odd ratios (OR for risk of MI from family history of MI were 2.7; risk of DM from family history of DM 4.5; risk of HPL from family history of HPL 2.04; and risk of HTN from family history HTN 4.7. Also, family history of MI modifies risk of HPL (OR=1.7, P<0.0001; and family history of DM modifies risk of HPL (OR=2.04, P<0.0001.Conclusion: Our primary result shows potent application of family history data in risk assessment of cardiovascular outcome. In particular, HTN appears as a silent and leading risk modifier. In regard to the course of continuing Shiraz Heart Study integration of family history of risk factors crucial in public health we suggest to adopt a network of electronic health records from the “Health House” to the “Heart House”.

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Case Control Study To Assess Association Between Periodontal Infection And Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Mohitey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of adult mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Well known risk factors independently or combined are involved in both atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Recent data have shown that viral and bacterial infections may also contribute to acute thromboembolic events; hence a case control study was carried out. Aims and Objective: To investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease, in patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. Material and Methods: 150 patients, 75 with AMI and 75 with CHD were included in the study. Data on hypertension, diabetes, smoking status and alcohol consumption were recorded. AMI patients were clinically examined 3-4 days after admission to the coronary care unit. Clinical examination of CHD patients was carried out during the hospital stay. All teeth excluding third molars were studied and clinical data were recorded regarding Plaque Index, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, Gingival Index, Gingival Bleeding Index, Probing Depth and Clinical Attachment Loss. Results: Percentage of sites exhibiting bleeding on probing and the number of sites with more probing depth were significantly higher among AMI patients than those with CHD (P=0.05 and p=0.001 respectively.There was abundant plaque and debris around all tooth surfaces in AMI patients (p=0.001. Conclusion: Overall result of this case control study showed an association between periodontitis and acute myocardial infarction.

  3. Internationalization Process and strategies of a startup service company, A case study of HeartMath Scandinavia AB

    OpenAIRE

    Okonkwo, Ikechukwu; Oluduro, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Date: September, 2009 Title: Internationalization Process and Strategies of a Start-up Service Company, a case study of HeartMath Scandinavia AB Course: Business Administration Program: Master Thesis EFO704 Authors: Francis Oladele Oluduro, Ikechukwu Ifediora Okonkwo Supervisor: Nyström Sven-Åke Problem: What is HeartMath AB’s strategy in their internationalization process? Purpose: The aim of this thesis is to investigate the real life processes and strategies that companies adopt ...

  4. Diabetes and mitochondrial oxidative stress: A study using heart mitochondria from the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Dario Loureiro; Palmeira, Carlos Marques; Seiça, Raquel; Dias, José; Mesquita, José; Moreno, Antonio Joaquim; Santos, Maria Sancha

    2003-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, induced by diabetic hyperglycemia, contributes to the development of several cardiopathologies. The susceptibility of diabetic hearts to oxidative stress, induced in vitro by ADP-Fe2+ in mitochondria, was studied in 12-month-old Goto-Kakizaki rats, a model of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, and normal (non-diabetic) Wistar rats. In terms of lipid peroxidation the oxidative damage was evaluated on heart mito...

  5. Ageing, menopause, and ischaemic heart disease mortality in England, Wales, and the United States: modelling study of national mortality data

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidya, Dhananjay; Becker, Diane M.; Bittner, Vera; Mathias, Rasika A.; Ouyang, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To use changes in heart disease mortality rates with age to investigate the plausibility of attributing women’s lower heart disease mortality than men to the protective effects of premenopausal sex hormones. Design Modelling study of longitudinal mortality data with models assuming (i) a linear association between mortality rates and age (absolute mortality) or (ii) a logarithmic association (proportional mortality). We fitted models to age and sex specific mortality rates in the c...

  6. Effects of Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition in Hyperuricemic Heart Failure Patients: The EXACT-HF Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givertz, Michael M.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Redfield, Margaret M.; Deswal, Anita; Haddad, Haissam; Butler, Javed; Tang, W.H. Wilson; Dunlap, Mark E.; LeWinter, Martin M.; Mann, Douglas L.; Felker, G. Michael; O’Connor, Christopher M.; Goldsmith, Steven R.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.; Saltzberg, Mitchell T.; Margulies, Kenneth B.; Cappola, Thomas P.; Konstam, Marvin A.; Semigran, Marc J.; McNulty, Steven E.; Lee, Kerry L.; Shah, Monica R.; Hernandez, Adrian F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress may contribute to heart failure (HF) progression. Inhibiting xanthine oxidase in hyperuricemic HF patients may improve outcomes. Methods and Results We randomized 253 patients with symptomatic HF, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40%, and serum uric acid levels ≥9.5 mg/dL to receive allopurinol (target dose, 600 mg daily) or placebo in a double-blind, multicenter trial. The primary composite endpoint at 24 weeks was based on survival, worsening HF, and patient global assessment. Secondary endpoints included change in quality of life, submaximal exercise capacity, and LVEF. Uric acid levels were significantly reduced with allopurinol compared to placebo (treatment difference, −4.2 [−4.9, −3.5] mg/dL and −3.5 [−4.2, −2.7] mg/dL at 12 and 24 weeks, respectively, both P<0.0001). At 24 weeks, there was no significant difference in clinical status between the allopurinol- and placebo-treated patients (worsened 45% vs. 46%, unchanged 42% vs. 34%, improved 13% vs. 19%, respectively; P=0.68). At 12 and 24 weeks, there was no significant difference in change in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire scores or 6-minute walk distances between the 2 groups. At 24 weeks, LVEF did not change in either group or between groups. Rash occurred more frequently with allopurinol (10% vs. 2%, P=0.01), but there was no difference in serious adverse event rates between the groups (20% vs. 15%, P=0.36). Conclusions In high-risk HF patients with reduced ejection fraction and elevated uric acid levels, xanthine oxidase inhibition with allopurinol failed to improve clinical status, exercise capacity, quality of life, or LVEF at 24 weeks. PMID:25986447

  7. Multi-hazard risk assessment using GIS in urban areas: a case study for the city of Turrialba, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westen, van Cees J.; Montoya, Lorena; Boerboom, Luc; Badilla Coto, Elena

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the UNESCO sponsored project on “Capacity Building for Natural Disaster Reduction” a case study was carried out on multi-hazard risk assessment of the city of Turrialba, located in the central part of Costa Rica. The city with a population of 33,000 people is located in an area,

  8. A Study of the Characteristics of Reading Programs in Federal, State, and City-County Penal Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilty, Ted K.

    This study investigated the characteristics of reading programs offered to inmates of federal, state, and city/county penal institutions. The total number of institutions that responded to a questionnaire sent by the investigator was: federal, 27 (100% response); state, 426 (68% response); and city/county, 675 (16% response). Findings are reported…

  9. Is Climate Chang Responsible to Recent Urban Flooding in Devloping Cities in Africa? A Case study of Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Semu; Raschid-Sally, Liqa; Gebremichael, Mekonnen

    2013-04-01

    Cities in Africa show extraordinary expansion of the built environment and imperviousness of the surface condition. Addis Ababa is a case in point, where over the priod of 1984 to 2002, the city asphalted area has increased from 4.72 sq.km (1984) to 27.7 sq.km (2002). Similarly the paved area has expanded five fold from the original 11.1 sq.km, whilst the built environment expanded from 60.1 to 212.7 sq.km. Using hydrological modeling, we demonstrated due to the surface condition change, runoff generation potential has shown significant increase from 28% (in 1984) to 45% (in 2002), showing over 60% change in the runoff volume. The changing condition of the surface is increasing anabtedly, worsening the flooding condition. Similarly, climate change study shows likely increase of precipitation in and around Addis Ababa by about 13 to 17% and comparative increase in flooding. Unlike many cities in Europe, cities in developing countries are confronted with impact emanating from climate change as well as surface condition change. The impact of flooding caused due to the expansion of built environment is found to be more significant in the short term that the climate change, however, the climate change may dominate the long term future of flooding pattern as cities mature towards 2050. Therefore, It is important to view the impacts expansion of built environment and climate change in tandem in future time horizon since the dominance of the impact is different in different temporal scale. In the case of Addis Ababa, we strongly present the following four suggesions: i) the city adminstration re-estabilish the abandoned flood and drainage department of the city as the main flood regulatory and management body working in tandem with Addis Ababa Roads Authority, Water Supply and Sanitation Authority and Urban Planning Authority; ii) The old design guidlines for palnning and design of urban drainage system is not working any more (assumed stationarity condition), we suggest

  10. Lung function and airway obstruction: associations with circulating markers of cardiac function and incident heart failure in older men-the British Regional Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wannamethee, S.G.; Shaper, A. G.; Papacosta, O.; LENNON, L; Welsh, P.; Whincup, P H

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The association between lung function and cardiac markers and heart failure (HF) has been little studied in the general older population. We have examined the association between lung function and airway obstruction with cardiac markers N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and risk of incident HF in older men. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective study of 3242 men aged 60-79 years without prevalent HF or myocardial infarction followed up for an ...

  11. Lung function and airway obstruction: associations with circulating markers of cardiac function and incident heart failure in older men-the British Regional Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wannamethee, Goya; Shaper, Gerald; Papacosta, Olia; Lennon, Lucy; Welsh, Paul; Whincup, Peter,

    2016-01-01

    Aims The association between lung function and cardiac markers and heart failure (HF) has been little studied in the general older population. We have examined the association between lung function and airway obstruction with cardiac markers N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and risk of incident HF in older men. Methods and results Prospective study of 3242 men aged 60–79 years without prevalent HF or myocardial infarction followed up for a...

  12. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda W. Campbell Jenkins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jackson Heart Study (JHS is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1 an enrichment curriculum; (2 a learning community; (3 quarterly seminars; and (4 a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1 Applied Biostatistics; (2 Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3 Social Epidemiology; (4 Emerging Topics; and (5 Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs.

  13. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W; Addison, Clifton; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Fields, Regina; Woodberry, Clevette; Payton, Marinelle

    2016-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1) an enrichment curriculum; (2) a learning community; (3) quarterly seminars; and (4) a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1) Applied Biostatistics; (2) Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3) Social Epidemiology; (4) Emerging Topics; and (5) Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs. PMID:26703701

  14. Epidemiological Study of Ascariasis in Hamadan City , West of Iran, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fallah

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common intestinal parasite in the world. Various studies has indicated the high prevalence of this parasite in Iran, specially in the west parts of Iran. The epidemiological study of intestinal parasitic infection is prerequisite for planning of control programs. The Hamadan province is one of the most tourist attraction regions of Iran and providing a safe environment for travelers is the main aim of regional authorities. A mass chemotherapy for Ascariasis performed in rural areas of Hamadan province for a five years period but, no any intervention was done for control of this parasite in the Hamadan city. Therefore, an epidemiological study of Ascariasis in this town was necessary. A cross sectional study carried out by cluster random sampling in Hamadan and 580 stool specimens collected from different parts of city. The stools were examined by formalin ether concentration technique for ova and parasites and intensity of infection was determined by quantitative modified Stoll method. Mean infection rate of Ascariasis was 19.5%. The Farhangian suburb (northern part had higher infection rate than other parts(28.5% and central parts of city showed lower infection rate(12.7%. The highest infection rate were found in the 31-40 years age group (33.8% and in the females(23.9%.In view of intensity, 59.3% of infections were moderate and 48.3% had low intensity. No any high intensity were found. Mean egg per gram(epg were 7129 and 48.7% of eggs were infertile. This study indicated that , prevalence of Ascaris in Hamadan city is considerable at present and a suitable intervention, like health education and selective chemotherapy is necessary to decrease the infection.

  15. Heart Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Incredible Machine Bonus poster (PDF) The Human Heart Anatomy Blood The Conduction System The Coronary Arteries The ... of the Leg Vasculature of the Torso Heart anatomy illustrations and animations for grades K-6. Heart ...

  16. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT STUDIES OF PM-2.5 IN TWO CZECH CITIES: POSSIBLE USES IN HEALTH STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerosol and gas phase air pollutant measurements were made in two cities during an ongoing air pollution-health outcome study in the Czech Republic. Teplice, located in northwestern Bohemia, was selected because the local population was exposed to high air pollution levels. Prac...

  17. Interorganizational networks in public transport: a multicase study in different cities of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mendes Lübeck

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes the expansion of the debate on inter-organizational networks for conducting a study of exploratory and qualitative in a group of transportation companies passenger-pole and three cities of a metropolitan region of Rio Grande do Sul The goal is understand how the passenger carriers in the cities analyzed, operate in a network. For this, we used the model proposed by Marcon and Moinet (2001, which ranks the inter-organizational relationships, and model and Balestrin Vershoore (2006, which deals with benefits in interorganizational networks. To achieve the objective of this study were collected through interviews with managers of transport companies and document analysis, using the technique of content analysis a posteriori. The results of these tests have drawn the picture of the performance of carriers in the network in the cities studied. We developed a report of cases crossed that define the possible inter-relationships as formal and horizontal, between the main benefits of network operation, there was the implementation of electronic ticketing system and gains in representation before public interaction.

  18. Cohort Profile: The Framingham Heart Study (FHS): overview of milestones in cardiovascular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Connie W; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2015-12-01

    The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) has conducted seminal research defining cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and fundamentally shaping public health guidelines for CVD prevention over the past five decades. The success of the Original Cohort, initiated in 1948, paved the way for further epidemiological research in preventive cardiology. Due to the keen observations suggesting the role of shared familial factors in the development of CVD, in 1971 the FHS began enroling the second generation cohort, comprising the children of the Original Cohort and the spouses of the children. In 2002, the third generation cohort, comprising the grandchildren of the Original Cohort, was initiated to additionally explore genetic contributions to CVD in greater depth. Additionally, because of the predominance of White individuals of European descent in the three generations of FHS participants noted above, the Heart Study enrolled the OMNI1 and OMNI2 cohorts in 1994 and 2003, respectively, aimed to reflect the current greater racial and ethnic diversity of the town of Framingham. All FHS cohorts have been examined approximately every 2-4 years since the initiation of the study. At these periodic Heart Study examinations, we obtain a medical history and perform a cardiovascular-focused physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiography, blood and urine samples testing and other cardiovascular imaging studies reflecting subclinical disease burden.The FHS has continually evolved along the cutting edge of cardiovascular science and epidemiological research since its inception. Participant studies now additionally include study of cardiovascular imaging, serum and urine biomarkers, genetics/genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and social networks. Numerous ancillary studies have been established, expanding the phenotypes to encompass multiple organ systems including the lungs, brain, bone and fat depots, among others. Whereas the FHS was originally conceived and designed to study the

  19. Explaining Critical Success Factors for CRM Strategy (Case Study: SMEs in Zahedan Industrial City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Reza Kamalian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explains critical success factors (CSFs for Customer Relationship Management (CRM strategy in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs located in Zahedan industrial city. Research population consists of industrialists and professionals in Zahedan industrial city. Because of small population size, data obtained by the entire population; i.e. 54 companies. In order to measure variables, two researcher-made questionnaires for CRM strategy and CSFs were used. Form validity and content validity of questionnaires were confirmed by experts and confirmatory factor analysis test, respectively. The reliability of both questionnaires was proved by Cronbach's alpha coefficient which was higher than 0.7. This study is a correlation-type. Structural equation with AMOS 18 software was used to test research hypothesis. Results of path analysis and structural equation modeling indicated appropriate goodness of fit for research model. They also showed that people, process, technology and culture (CSFs have a significant positive impact on CRM strategies.

  20. Assessment and analysis of indices of urban sustainable development in small cities (case study of Soran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Irandegani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available density and villagers migrate to the cities attention and emphasis was planning to strengthen and grow small towns. The study by researchers in different countries shows that small towns are one of the most successful examples of settlement in the area of sustainable development. Soran and the social and physical areas of urban sustainability indicators in urban areas is presented. The research method of this study is survey method and the data has been obtained from the questionnaire. The results of findings show that in terms of urban sustainability indices, the city of Soran has not a desirable situation in relation to the medium of urban system but it is in the same state in terms of more social, economic and physical indices in relation to urban system of country which it is noticeable clearly.

  1. Understanding Human Perception of Building Categories in Virtual 3d Cities - a User Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutzauer, P.; Becker, S.; Niese, T.; Deussen, O.; Fritsch, D.

    2016-06-01

    Virtual 3D cities are becoming increasingly important as a means of visually communicating diverse urban-related information. To get a deeper understanding of a human's cognitive experience of virtual 3D cities, this paper presents a user study on the human ability to perceive building categories (e.g. residential home, office building, building with shops etc.) from geometric 3D building representations. The study reveals various dependencies between geometric properties of the 3D representations and the perceptibility of the building categories. Knowledge about which geometries are relevant, helpful or obstructive for perceiving a specific building category is derived. The importance and usability of such knowledge is demonstrated based on a perception-guided 3D building abstraction process.

  2. QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS HOSPITALIZED WITH HEART FAILURE: A NOVEL TWO QUESTIONNAIRE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. N. Hatmi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a common disease with high health care costs and high mortality rate Knowledge of the health-related quality of life (QOL outcomes of HF may guide decision making and be useful in assessing new therapies for population. Yet little is known about QOL of HF patients in Iran. Objectives: To assess health related QOL of patients with HF with two different instrument and to correlate these two measures and to assess the role of relevant factors. Analytic cross sectional study was conducted involving 230 adult patients hospitalized with HF, demographic data and health -related quality of life were determined by interview; for assessing of quality of life was used SF-36 and Minnesota questionnaires. Simple random sampling from ward patients list choose patients. Patients had no other man diseases that affected their quality of life. Results: 118 female (53.3% and 112 male (48.7% with mean age of 51.4 +/-13.18 were collected. 61 patients (26.5% were smoker and 100 patients (43.5% had positive familial hearth disease history. Quality of life in some subscale: Physical functioning, Role physical and vitality, and Minnesota scare affected from patients age. Male patients had better quality of life than female in Minnesota scale and physical functioning, body pain, general health, vitality and emotional well-being. Duration of diagnosis affected Minnesota scale and role physical. Positive familial heart disease history affected physical functioning. Iranian patients have worse quality of life than other patients. This shows patients age, sex, duration of diagnosis, smoking and positive familial hearth disease history affected quality of life in heart failure patients.

  3. Dyspnea on exertion in patients of heart failure as a consequence of obesity: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikampady, Savitri Vasudev

    2013-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) is the inability of the heart to fill with or pump out enough blood to meet the body's needs. It is not one single disease, but rather a group of signs and symptoms caused by many different disease processes that have weakened the heart over time and left it unable to pump blood efficiently. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders are few of such disease processes responsible for conditions in HF. Even though, the co-morbidities mentioned above are well-established in the present system of medicine, its association with respiratory risk on obese patients especially in HF, still needs to be explored. The aim of this study is to determine the presence of dyspnea on exertion (DOE) in patients of HF as a consequence of obesity. Strategies to prevent the risk of HF, which would complement the current approaches aimed at Ayurvedic perspective especially, the obesity, its related comorbidities and contributors in the form of information on life-style leading to obesity needs to be focused. An ethical clearance for the project from the same institute was obtained on 101 patients of HF. All patients with ejection fraction informed about the project and their written consent was obtained followed by filling the Case Report Form (CRF). Their recent reports of left ventricular ejection fraction were attached along with details of 6 min hall walk test. Analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, IBM version-17.0. The significant outcomes on lifestyles of HF related to co-morbidities were found. PMID:24250124

  4. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement

  5. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement

  6. Sociology, psychology, and the theoretical legacy of the Kansas City studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, V W

    1994-12-01

    The theoretical impact of the Kansas City Studies stems from issues ignored as much as from those addressed. The largest concerted gerontological investigation of its day had a profound influence on the field through publications and through students trained through the studies. The studies advanced the search for "normal" aging but did not initially adequately address diversity. However, over time, investigators were forced to recognize diversity in their data. They contributed to viewing aging in a life course perspective, an advance over previous emphases on "the aged." The studies adopted and furthered a highly individualistic understanding of aging, while the sociological analyses from the studies lacked an adequate conceptualization of social structure.

  7. Nesiritide, Renal Function, and Associated Outcomes During Hospitalization for Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Results From the Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide and Decompensated Heart Failure (ASCEND-HF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Vincent M.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Stebbins, Amanda; Hasselblad, Vic; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Califf, Robert M.; Gottlieb, Stephen S.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Starling, Randall C.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; McMurray, John J.; Dickstein, Kenneth; Voors, Adriaan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background-Contradictory results have been reported on the effects of nesiritide on renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. We studied the effects of nesiritide on renal function during hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure and associated outcomes. Methods

  8. Beta-Blockade With Nebivolol in Elderly Heart Failure Patients With Impaired and Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Data From SENIORS (Study of Effects of Nebivolol Intervention on Outcomes and Rehospitalization in Seniors With Heart Failure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Boehm, Michael; Anker, Stefan D.; Babalis, Daphne; Roughton, Michael; Coats, Andrew J. S.; Poole-Wilson, Philip A.; Flather, Marcus D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives In this pre-specified subanalysis of the SENIORS (Study of Effects of Nebivolol Intervention on Outcomes and Rehospitalization in Seniors With Heart Failure) trial, which examined the effects of nebivolol in elderly heart failure (HF) patients, we explored the effects of left ventricular

  9. Diasporic media in multicultural cities: a comparative study on Korean media in Vancouver and Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Sherry S. Yu

    2012-01-01

    In multicultural cities, what are the opportunities and challenges for creating an interculturally inclusive media system, as a means of enhancing multicultural citizenship and cultural literacy among all members of society? This study explores the rapidly growing, yet understudied, Korean media sector in Vancouver and Los Angeles. The passage of Korea’s new election law in 2009, which extends voting rights to overseas Koreans, is likely to intensify the connection between the home country an...

  10. Knowledge and Practice of Personal Hygiene and Sanitation: A Study in Selected Slums of Dhaka City

    OpenAIRE

    Shayela Farah; Mohoshina Karim; Nasreen Akther; Meherunnessa Begum; Nadia Begum

    2015-01-01

    Background: : Slum dwellers are likely to be among the most deprived people in urban areas. Poor hygiene practices and inadequate sanitary conditions play major roles in the increased burden of communicable diseases within developing countries like ours. Objective: To assess the knowledge and practice about personal hygiene and environmental sanitation in selected slums of Dhaka city. Materials and method: This cross sectional study was conducted in purposively selected urban slum are...

  11. HIV prevalence and diabetes prevalence among tuberculosis patients in Antananarivo city: a descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Rakotonirina; Herilala Razanakoto; Laurence Rasolofomanana; Lala Rasoamialy-Sola Razanakolona

    2014-01-01

    Background: In developing countries, HIV infection is the main disease leads to tuberculosis (TB) active. Each tuberculosis (TB) patient of TB diagnosis and treatment centers in Antananarivo city should receive HIV serology counseling. The TB-diabetes association is rarely considered. In general population in Madagascar HIV was 0.37% in 2010 and Diabetes affects about 3% of the population. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection and diabetes among TB patients. Methods: ...

  12. Public, private and voluntary agencies in solid waste management : a study in Chennai city.

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores equity, accountability and environmental concerns in solid waste management in Chennai city. Through the study of the urban local body, a private agency and a civil society organisation engaged in this activity, the paper highlights issues related to effectiveness and equity, role of the urban poor in this service, and the relevance of an effective policy framework. In the context of increasing private sector participation in public service provision, and global awareness ...

  13. New Climatic Indicators for Improving Urban Sprawl: A Case Study of Tehran City

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel M. Costa; José L. Calvo-Rolle; Orosa, José A.; Abdolazim Ghanghermeh; Gholamreza Roshan

    2013-01-01

    In the modern world, the fine balance and delicate relationship between human society and the environment in which we exist has been affected by the phenomena of urbanisation and urban development. Today, various environmental factors give rise to horizontal dispersion, spread and growth of cities. One of the most important results of this is climatic change which is directly affected by the urban sprawl of every metropolis. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between the va...

  14. Characterization and Aerobic Biological Treatment of MSW: A Case Study of Hyderabad City

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Safar Korai; Rasool Bux Mahar; Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) generated in Hyderabad city for its suitability to make compost product through AB (Aerobic Biological) treatment. Assessment of MSW regarding its generation rate, quantification and characterization decides its suitability for composting process. Three AB treatment reactors R1 (natural air circulation and manually mixed reactor), R2 (compressed air circulation and manually mixed reactor) and R3 (compressed air circulation and...

  15. STUDY OF DEPRESSION AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS OF DIFFE RENT PATHIES IN NANDED CITY, MAHARASHTRA .

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu; Inamdar; Mohammed; Saleem; Gadekar; Sonkar; Doibale

    2013-01-01

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences / Volume 2/ Issue 22/ June 3, 2013 Page 3978 STUDY OF DEPRESSION AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS OF DIFFE RENT PATHIES IN NANDED CITY, MAHARASHTRA . P. C. Sahu 1 , I. F. Inamdar 2 , Mohammed Ubaidulla 3 , Saleem Tambe 4 , Gadekar R.D 5 , V. K. Sonkar 6 , M. K. Doibale 7 . 1. Post Graduate Student, Department of Community Medi cine, Dr. Shankarrao Chavan Gov...

  16. An Electromechanical Left Ventricular Wedge Model to Study the Effects of Deformation on Repolarization during Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is a major and costly problem in public health, which, in certain cases, may lead to death. The failing heart undergo a series of electrical and structural changes that provide the underlying basis for disturbances like arrhythmias. Computer models of coupled electrical and mechanical activities of the heart can be used to advance our understanding of the complex feedback mechanisms involved. In this context, there is a lack of studies that consider heart failure remodeling using strongly coupled electromechanics. We present a strongly coupled electromechanical model to study the effects of deformation on a human left ventricle wedge considering normal and hypertrophic heart failure conditions. We demonstrate through a series of simulations that when a strongly coupled electromechanical model is used, deformation results in the thickening of the ventricular wall that in turn increases transmural dispersion of repolarization. These effects were analyzed in both normal and failing heart conditions. We also present transmural electrograms obtained from these simulations. Our results suggest that the waveform of electrograms, particularly the T-wave, is influenced by cardiac contraction on both normal and pathological conditions.

  17. Multi-wave cohort study of sedentary work and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Simone Visbjerg; Hannerz, Harald; Hansen, Aase Marie;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate whether sedentary work is a distinct risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD) when the effect of occupational sitting is disentangled from that of occupational physical activity. METHODS: Data on occupational sitting time and several covariates were...... derived from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (DWECS) conducted every five years from 1990-2005 among the active Danish population. This study was designed as a multi-wave longitudinal study including participants employed at entry. Respondents were followed in national registers, first for death...... or hospital treatment due to IHD and second for purchase of medication that may prevent IHD from (re)occurring serving as a proxy for IHD. RESULTS: During 145 850 person-years of follow-up, 510 cases of fatal and non-fatal IHD occurred. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and socioeconomic...

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection and ischemic heart disease: could experimental data lead to clinical studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaldone, Davide G; Fagoonee, Sharmila; Hickman, Ingrid; Altruda, Fiorella; Saracco, Giorgio M; Pellicano, Rinaldo

    2016-12-01

    Despite the remarkable advances made in primary prevention and treatment, ischemic heart disease (IHD) remains the leading cause of death and a significant cause of disability in developed countries. Since traditional cardiovascular risk factors failed to predict all cases of IHD, there is an intensive research to explore other potential etiologic factors. Among these, numerous studies have considered the theoretical link between IHD and chronic infections, including Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Considering that epidemiologic studies have produced conflicting results, due to geographical variations of IHD and H. pylori prevalence as well as heterogeneity of study designs, an alternative way to analyze this topic is to assess if consistency for a biological plausibility exists. In this review we critically analyzed the experimental data on this topic, to assess whether their results could lead future clinical studies. PMID:27603552

  19. Demographic dynamics and sustainable social infrastructure: a case study of Dehradun city by using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A perusal of the demographic and socio-economic structure of cities population reflects the sustainable development and quality of social infrastructure of the city. Urban activities and growth are constantly putting pressure on an already burdened environment and infrastructure. Sustainable development is an approach economic planning that attempts to foster economic growth while preserving the quality of the environment future generations. The application of Spatial technology and combining the Socio Economic Indicators provide the dynamic Cities Environment. The analysis of indicators by these tools provides the insight into things which the city is facing in the present scenario, which areas require immediate attention and where the focus Sustainable development should. The analysis provides the Sustainability of the City in the term of local environment and Cities Sustain. Development in context of Global Environment. The Spatial technology provide the Synoptic overview of city thus giving the three dimensional aspect of study. The Satellite Imagery provides current status of city which otherwise take very long by conventional methods and combining it with latest socio-economic data provides updated picture of infrastructure. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) in creating a tabular database and linking it with a geographic, database and converting the data into spatial form by which maps can be generated, proves the advantage and usefulness of GIS in this kind of studies. (author)

  20. Strategic Study on Integration of Port and City Development in Rizhao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Chengjun; Zhao Gaozheng

    2007-01-01

    agglomeration of the Yangtze Delta(UAYD),one of the most developed regions of China,has witnessed an increasing prevalence in building ecological cities when the ecological cities are pursued by many modem cities,and great achievements have been made in this regard.It is inevitable,however,that certain problems exist during the construction of ecological city,which include but not limited to non-harmonious development of urbancomplex ecosystem,and the difficulty in quantifying eco-city construction or incomplete quantification in assessing the construction of present and future eco-city.Based onthe analysis onsocial-economic conditions and regional conditions of the UAYD.this paper attempts to Set up an index system of eco-cities combining witth local characteristics.and to adopt the indices of eco-city,urban harmony,and eco-city colligate to evaluate the ecological level,urban harmonious development and eco-city construction of cities within the UAYD.Results indicate that among 15 cities in UAYD,Suzhou City ranks the highest in terms of eco-city construction,whereas Nantong ranks relatively lower,sustainable eco-city construction is possible only when cities are developed in every respect of harmony.

  1. Competitive service centers location in the cities with aim to reduce traffic (Case study: Health centers location in the city if Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Moradi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Distribution of goods and services in cities is of utmost importance. Selecting appropriate venues for different service centers in a city not only enables the citizens to access these services much more easily, but also reduces the traffic load caused by trips made to reach them. Unfortunately, the lack of a correct urban planning has led to inappropriate formation of many cities around the world in terms of the locations assumed for different service centers. Since the private sector has been given the responsibility to construct most of these centers, changing their current locations may be restricted due to legal obligations. Therefore, it seems necessary for the government to construct new service centers with high competitive facilities to attract customers and to compete with those built by the private sector. In this paper, the selection of appropriate locations to construct new service centers has been studied. Such locations have been selected in a way to fulfill goals such as rapid and easy accessibility for the customers and reduction of traffic drawbacks caused by the related trips. In this regard, a model for service centers with restricted capacity has been designed and a parallel simulated annealing algorithm has been proposed to solve it. Finally, the proposed algorithm has been utilized to locate the health centers around the city of Isfahan and its efficiency has been investigated. The findings highlight the accuracy and speed of the proposed algorithm in location of the health centers of Isfahan.

  2. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin--a valid marker of alcoholism in population studies? Results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, M; Becker, U; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) was analyzed by a modified radioimmunoassay test in a random population sample of 400 individuals, and results were compared with reported alcohol intake derived from a structured questionnaire. Among the 180 men, the test was found to be acceptable...... with respect to detecting harmful alcohol intake (> 35 beverages/week) and alcohol intake above the recommended level (21 beverages/week), although the positive predictive values were low. Among the 220 women, the test was invalid with low predictive values. CDT was compared with other known markers of high...... alcohol intake, and it was observed that CDT had higher sensitivity and specificity than AST and short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (sMAST) in men, whereas the positive and negative predictive values were low in all tests. A combination of CDT and AST proved to be a better marker of both harmful...

  3. Diabetes, Glycemic Control, and New-Onset Heart Failure in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease Data from the Heart and Soul Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melle, Joost P.; Bot, Marisica; De Jonge, Peter; De Boer, Rudolf A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Whooley, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE- Diabetes is a predictor of both coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure. It is unknown to what extent the association between diabetes and heart failure is influenced by other risk factors for heart failure. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- We evaluated the association of diabetes and

  4. Diabetes, glycemic control, and new-onset heart failure in patients with stable coronary artery disease : data from the heart and soul study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melle, J.P.; Bot, M.; de Jonge, P.; de Boer, R.A.; van Veldhuisen, D.J.; Whooley, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetes is a predictor of both coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure. It is unknown to what extent the association between diabetes and heart failure is influenced by other risk factors for heart failure. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We evaluated the association of diabetes and A

  5. Depressive Symptoms, Health Behaviors, and Subsequent Inflammation in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease : Prospective Findings From the Heart and Soul Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivis, Hester E.; de Jonge, Peter; Penninx, Brenda W.; Na, Bee Ya; Cohen, Beth E.; Whooley, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Depression has been associated with inflammation in patients with coronary heart disease. However, it is uncertain whether depressive symptoms lead to inflammation or vice versa. Method: The authors evaluated 667 outpatients with established coronary heart disease from the Heart and Soul

  6. Self-awareness of heart failure in the oldest old–an observational study of participants, ≥ 80 years old, with an objectively verified heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Selan, Suzana; Siennicki-Lantz, Arkadiusz; Berglund, Johan; Fagerström, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the primary reasons for hospitalisation among elderly individuals with heart failure (HF) is poor self-care. Self-awareness of having HF may be a key-element in successful self-care. The prevalence of self-awareness of HF, and how it is affected by age-and HF-related factors, remains poorly understood. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of self-awareness of HF in participants, ≥ 80 years of age, and to investigate the association between this self...

  7. Clinical evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging in coronary heart disease: The CE-MARC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sculpher Mark

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several investigations are currently available to establish the diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD. Of these, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR offers the greatest information from a single test, allowing the assessment of myocardial function, perfusion, viability and coronary artery anatomy. However, data from large scale studies that prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multi-parametric CMR for the detection of CHD in unselected populations are lacking, and there are few data on the performance of CMR compared with current diagnostic tests, its prognostic value and cost-effectiveness. Methods/design This is a prospective diagnostic accuracy cohort study of 750 patients referred to a cardiologist with suspected CHD. Exercise tolerance testing (ETT will be preformed if patients are physically able. Recruited patients will then undergo CMR and single photon emission tomography (SPECT followed in all patients by invasive X-ray coronary angiography. The order of the CMR and SPECT tests will be randomised. The CMR study will comprise rest and adenosine stress perfusion, cine imaging, late gadolinium enhancement and whole-heart MR coronary angiography. SPECT will use a gated stress/rest protocol. The primary objective of the study is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CMR in detecting significant coronary stenosis, as defined by X-ray coronary angiography. Secondary objectives include an assessment of the prognostic value of CMR imaging, a comparison of its diagnostic accuracy against SPECT and ETT, and an assessment of cost-effectiveness. Discussion The CE-MARC study is a prospective, diagnostic accuracy cohort study of 750 patients assessing the performance of a multi-parametric CMR study in detecting CHD using invasive X-ray coronary angiography as the reference standard and comparing it with ETT and SPECT. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN77246133

  8. Epidemiological study of congenital heart defects in children and adolescents: analysis of 4,538 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Itiro Miyague

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency and prevalence of congenital heart defects in a tertiary care center for children with heart diseases. METHODS: We carried out an epidemiological assessment of the first medical visit of 4,538 children in a pediatric hospital from January 1995 to December 1997. All patients with congenital heart defects had their diagnoses confirmed at least on echocardiography. The frequency and prevalence of the anomalies were computed according to the classification of sequential analysis. Age, weight, and sex were compared between the groups of healthy individuals and those with congenital heart defects after distribution according to the age group. RESULTS: Of all the children assessed, 2,017 (44.4% were diagnosed with congenital heart disease, 201 (4.4% with acquired heart disease, 52 (1.2% with arrhythmias, and 2,268 (50% were healthy children. Congenital heart diseases predominated in neonates and infants, corresponding to 71.5% of the cases. Weight and age were significantly lower in children with congenital heart defects. Ventricular septal defect was the most frequent acyanotic anomaly, and tetralogy of Fallot was the most frequent cyanotic anomaly. CONCLUSION: Children with congenital heart defects are mainly referred during the neonatal period and infancy with impairment in gaining weight. Ventricular septal defect is the most frequent heart defect.

  9. New-generation Migrant Workers’ Urban Adaptation: A Case Study of Jianggan District in Hangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei; SU; Bo; LI; Jianyi; HUANG; Zhimei; LI; Jiamiao; ZENG

    2015-01-01

    New-generation migrant workers are the " elite" among migrant workers,and whether they can really adapt to the city is one of the real problems to be urgently solved during China’s new urbanization,related to the success of new urbanization construction. From the perspective of livelihood capital,this paper uses the measuring indicators in line with the new-generation migrant workers’ livelihood characteristics,to analyze the typical characteristics and causes of new-generation migrant workers’ urban adaptation in Jianggan District of Hangzhou City based on field survey data. In the study,it is found that the new-generation migrant workers’ urban adaptation characteristics are focused on life adaptation,work adaptation and cultural adaptation,but the adaptation in the three areas is not good and there is a big room for improvement.

  10. Studies on the bioaccumulation of polonium-210 in the fishes of Trichirappalli city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentration of 210Po were determined in the muscle of fishes collected from Trichirappalli city. The highest 210Po content were found in the fish Ayeelai (Corvphane hippurus) 8.7 Bq/kg and Kelanga (Eliops saurus) 4.2 Bq/kg. The minimum 210Po activity was found in fish Sangara 0.60 Bq/kg (Lautinus campecharus) and Mrigal 0.34 Bq/kg (Cirrhimus mrigala). The 210Po concentration high level activity found in the Kauveri water 0.78 mBq/l. The sediment maintained level of 210Po 8.9 Bq/kg. The dosimetry study was also calculated on average consumption of fish by the people from Trichirappalli city. The Ayeelai fish (Corvphane hippurus) recorded higher CEDE from 210Po 681 Sv/y and the results were discussed. (author)

  11. Low-carbon scenario and technologies in modern city --Case study of Shenyang%Low-carbon scenario and technologies in modern city --Case study of Shenyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhu; Geng Yong; Xue Bing; Dong Huijuan

    2011-01-01

    From a multi-dimensional perspective of economic development, carbon dioxide and industrial pollutant emission and resource consumption in the case study of Shenyang, this paper analyzes the resource consumption and environmental impact in the process of urban economic development and low-carbon transition and evaluates the emission reduction potential and scenario of various technologies. The results show that city plays a key role in global low-carbon economic construction, and it is pointed out that emission reduction technology in urban scale can reduce total amount of carbon emission to substantial extent. From the aspect of future development, the input of technology and economic growth pattern should be strengthened so as to realize economic development as well as the total amount reduction of pollutant emission.

  12. Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment at Bed Rock Level: Case Study for the City of Bhubaneswar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanti Rout

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study an updated deterministic seismic hazard contour map of Bhubaneswar (20°12'0"N to 20°23'0"N latitude and 85°44'0"E to 85° 54'0"E longitude one of the major city of India with tourist importance, has been prepared in the form of spectral acceleration values. For assessing the seismic hazard, the study area has been divided into small grids of size 30˝×30˝ (approximately 1.0 km×1.0 km, and the hazard parameters in terms of spectral acceleration at bedrock level, PGA are calculated as the center of each of these grid cells by considering the regional Seismo-tectonic activity within 400 km radius around the city center. The maximum credible earthquake in terms of moment magnitude of 7.2 has been used for calculation of hazard parameter, results in PGA value of 0.017g towards the northeast side of the city and the corresponding maximum spectral acceleration as 0.0501g for a predominant period of 0.05s at bedrock level.

  13. Household hazardous waste quantification, characterization and management in China's cities: a case study of Suzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Binxian; Zhu, Weimo; Wang, Haikun; Zhang, Rongrong; Liu, Miaomiao; Chen, Yangqing; Wu, Yi; Yang, Xiayu; He, Sheng; Cheng, Rong; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    A four-stage systematic tracking survey of 240 households was conducted from the summer of 2011 to the spring of 2012 in a Chinese city of Suzhou to determine the characteristics of household hazardous waste (HHW) generated by the city. Factor analysis and a regression model were used to study the major driving forces of HHW generation. The results indicate that the rate of HHW generation was 6.16 (0.16-31.74, 95% CI) g/person/day, which accounted for 2.23% of the household solid waste stream. The major waste categories contributing to total HHW were home cleaning products (21.33%), medicines (17.67%) and personal care products (15.19%). Packaging and containers (one-way) and products (single-use) accounted for over 80% of total HHW generation, implying a considerable potential to mitigate HHW generation by changing the packaging design and materials used by manufacturing enterprises. Strong correlations were observed between HHW generation (g/person/day) and the driving forces group of "household structure" and "consumer preferences" (among which the educational level of the household financial manager has the greatest impact). Furthermore, the HHW generation stream in Suzhou suggested the influence of another set of variables, such as local customs and culture, consumption patterns, and urban residential life-style. This study emphasizes that HHW should be categorized at its source (residential households) as an important step toward controlling the HHW hazards of Chinese cities. PMID:25022547

  14. New Climatic Indicators for Improving Urban Sprawl: A Case Study of Tehran City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel M. Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world, the fine balance and delicate relationship between human society and the environment in which we exist has been affected by the phenomena of urbanisation and urban development. Today, various environmental factors give rise to horizontal dispersion, spread and growth of cities. One of the most important results of this is climatic change which is directly affected by the urban sprawl of every metropolis. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between the various horizontally distributed components of Tehran city and changes in essential microclimate clusters, by means of the humidex index. Results showed that, when the humidex was calculated for each of the obtained clusters, it was evident that it had increased with time, in parallel with Shannon’s entropy, as a consequence of the average temperature and relative humidity of each cluster. At the same time, results have shown that both temperature and relative humidity of the study area are related with urban sprawl, urbanisation and development, as defined by Shannon’s entropy and, in consequence, with humidex. In consequence, this new concept must be considered in future research works to predict and control urban sprawl and microclimate conditions in cities.

  15. Household hazardous waste quantification, characterization and management in China's cities: a case study of Suzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Binxian; Zhu, Weimo; Wang, Haikun; Zhang, Rongrong; Liu, Miaomiao; Chen, Yangqing; Wu, Yi; Yang, Xiayu; He, Sheng; Cheng, Rong; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    A four-stage systematic tracking survey of 240 households was conducted from the summer of 2011 to the spring of 2012 in a Chinese city of Suzhou to determine the characteristics of household hazardous waste (HHW) generated by the city. Factor analysis and a regression model were used to study the major driving forces of HHW generation. The results indicate that the rate of HHW generation was 6.16 (0.16-31.74, 95% CI) g/person/day, which accounted for 2.23% of the household solid waste stream. The major waste categories contributing to total HHW were home cleaning products (21.33%), medicines (17.67%) and personal care products (15.19%). Packaging and containers (one-way) and products (single-use) accounted for over 80% of total HHW generation, implying a considerable potential to mitigate HHW generation by changing the packaging design and materials used by manufacturing enterprises. Strong correlations were observed between HHW generation (g/person/day) and the driving forces group of "household structure" and "consumer preferences" (among which the educational level of the household financial manager has the greatest impact). Furthermore, the HHW generation stream in Suzhou suggested the influence of another set of variables, such as local customs and culture, consumption patterns, and urban residential life-style. This study emphasizes that HHW should be categorized at its source (residential households) as an important step toward controlling the HHW hazards of Chinese cities.

  16. Improving the City-scale Emission Inventory of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants: A Case Study of Nanjing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, R.; Xie, F.; Wang, H.; Qin, H.; Wu, X.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the improvement of city-scale emission inventory, a high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants for Nanjing is first developed combining detailed source information, and then justified through quantitative analysis with observations. The best available domestic emission factors and unit-/facility-based activity level data were compiled based on a thorough field survey on major emission sources. Totally 1089 individual emission sources were identified as point sources and all the emission-related parameters including burner type, combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of pollution control devices, are carefully investigated and analyzed. Some new data such as detailed information of city fueling-gas stations, construction sites, monthly activity level, data from continuous emission monitoring systems and traffic flow information were combined to improve spatiotemporal distribution of this inventory. For SO2, NOX and CO, good spatial correlations were found between ground observation (9 state controlling air sampling sites in Nanjing) and city-scale emission inventory (R2=0.34, 0.38 and 0.74, respectively). For TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, however, poorer correlation was found due to relatively weaker accuracy in emission estimation and spatial distribution of road dust. The mixing ratios between specific pollutants including OC/EC, BC/CO and CO2/CO, are well correlated between those from ground observation and emission. Compared to MEIC (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China), there is a better spatial consistence between this city-scale emission inventory and NO2 measured by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). In particular, the city-scale emission inventory still correlated well with satellite observations (R2=0.28) while the regional emission inventory showed little correlation with satellite observations (R2=0.09) when grids containing power plants are excluded. It thus confirms the improvement of city-scale emission

  17. Semantic web approach for dealing with administrative boundary revisions: a case study of Dhaka City

    OpenAIRE

    Pervin, Shiuli

    2013-01-01

    Dhaka City is the capital of Bangladesh and boundary revisions of Dhaka city refers to the changes of Dhaka city administrative boundary or jurisdiction over time. Dhaka is growing very fast in terms of population and area. So, government is redefining city boundaries and also making big units into several parts for better city management. Now, the challenge is to deal with these changes of administrative regions that seem to be helpful to match with census record that comes out every ten to ...

  18. The city in the information and communication technology age: a comparative study on path dependecy

    OpenAIRE

    Jonkhoff, Wouter; NIJKAMP Peter

    2001-01-01

    The role of the city in the modem electronic age is rapidly changing. Cities are no longer closed islands of local opportunities, but are open nodal points in a global network environment. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has lifted the traditional physical - geographical constraints which kept cities imprisoned since the early genesis of modem cities. More openness means also more actors in the global economic playing field, so that cities tend to become increasingly compet...

  19. Abdominal obesity and structure and function of the heart in healthy male Koreans: The ARIRANG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jung-Woo; Sung, Joong Kyung; Lee, Jun-Won; Youn, Young Jin; Ahn, Min-Soo; Ahn, Sung Gyun; Yoo, Byung-Su; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Junghan; Koh, Sang Baek; Kim, Jang-Young

    2016-09-01

    Although central obesity is a more powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than general obesity, there is limited information on structural and functional changes of the heart in central obesity. Therefore, we evaluated the association between abdominal obesity and geometric and functional changes of the heart in healthy males. A total of 1460 healthy males aged 40 to 70 years without known CVD from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population were included. All individuals underwent conventional 2-dimensional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging to measure left atrial (LA) and left ventricle (LV) geometry and function. Increasing tertiles of waist circumference (WC) were associated with stepwise increases in LA volume, LV end-diastolic dimension, LV mass to height, deceleration time of E wave, and lower E/A ratio (all P trends 89 cm) to the lowest tertile (obesity may be a stronger predictor than general obesity of geometric and functional changes in the LV and LA. PMID:27684832

  20. Clinical evaluation of the centrifugal pump in open heart surgery: a comparative study of different pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarabe, K; Yoshikai, M; Murayama, J; Hamada, M; Ito, T

    1997-07-01

    The centrifugal pump is now widely used in open heart surgery for its clinical benefits related to the blood elements and the coagulation system. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical performances of and the outcomes offered by 4 types of centrifugal pumps. For each pump, we investigated the effects on the blood elements, coagulation system, complements, and immunoglobulins during open heart surgery. Four types of centrifugal pumps were used: the HPM-15 (Nikkiso Co.), the Capiox (Terumo Co.), the Lifestream (St. Jude Medical Co.), and the BP-80 (Medtronic, BioMedicus Co.). The platelet count, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), antithrombin III (AT III), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), complements (C3, C4, and CH50), and immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM) were measured before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The platelet count was decreased more significantly by the HPM-15 than by any of the other pumps. The other parameters showed no difference among the 4 pumps. In clinical use, each of the 4 types of centrifugal pumps was safe.

  1. Microspectrofluorometric study of monoamines in the auricle of the heart of Protopterus aethiopicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, D W; Stilman, C; Reinhold, C; De Groodt-Lasseel, M H

    1981-01-01

    The auricle of the heart of Protopterus aethiopicus contains large numbers of chromaffin cells, often lying immediately adjacent to the endothelium and displaying a bright blue-white fluorescence characteristic for catecholamines after formaldehyde treatment (Falck and Owman 1965). These results combined with X-ray microanalysis after initial fixation with glutaraldehyde and subsequent treatment with dichromate established that these chromaffin cells are the storage site of primary catecholamines (Scheuermann 1978, 1979, 1980; Scheuermann et al. 1980). The aim of the present pilot study was to demonstrate in these cells noradrenaline (NA) or dopamine (DA), or a mixture of both. The evaluation of the excitation spectra of the catecholamine fluorophore transformed by treatment with HCl vapour (excitation maxima at 320 and 370 nm) and the excitation-peak ratio analysis (peak ratio 370/320 nm = 1.05-1.5; and 320/280 nm greater than 1.5) identify DA as the primary catecholamine stored in these chromaffin cells. The low fading rate of the monoamine fluorescence after acidification confirms the presence of DA. These microspectrofluorometric findings demonstrate that chromaffin cells in the auricle of the Protopterus heart, which are a part of the medullary homologue of the adrenal gland of higher vertebrates, contain a primary catecholamine, namely DA. PMID:7237540

  2. Violence in Advertisements in New York City Subway Stations: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Fullwood, M D; LeBlanc, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Violence has become a public health concern in the United States. Violent visually stimulating content encompasses various techniques such as fear, humor, shock, or violence, to stimulate a response or appeal toward awareness of human emotion. Exposing impressionable youth to violent advertisements can be particularly problematic. This is especially true in places like New York City where violent crime is a prevalent problem. With annual ridership reaching over 1.7 billion in 2014, the New York City subway system is abundant with advertisements. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the frequency and type of violent advertising on the Lexington Avenue/East Side Line in New York City, running through the Bronx and Manhattan to represent the lower and higher median income earning boroughs. There were no statistically different findings in median household income at site of station by number of ads or source of violent. Destruction was the most common form of violence (n = 32, 42.7 %) followed by intent to strike (n = 18, 24 %), showing a weapon (n = 15, 20 %) and horror (n = 10, 13.3 %). Most ads (n = 46, 61.3 %) were found in stations heading uptown toward and through the Bronx, the borough where median household income is lowest, whereas 29 (38.7 %) were found in stations heading downtown. Future studies could focus on additional boroughs and subways lines, and could be collected at multiple points in time to determine of how prevalent violent advertising is throughout New York City and at different time frames. PMID:26518776

  3. Scenario prediction of emerging coastal city using CA modeling under different environmental conditions: a case study of Lingang New City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongjiu; Liu, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The world's coastal regions are experiencing rapid urbanization coupled with increased risk of ecological damage and storm surge related to global climate and sea level rising. This urban development issue is particularly important in China, where many emerging coastal cities are being developed. Lingang New City, southeast of Shanghai, is an excellent example of a coastal city that is increasingly vulnerable to environmental change. Sustainable urban development requires planning that classifies and allocates coastal lands using objective procedures that incorporate changing environmental conditions. In this paper, we applied cellular automata (CA) modeling based on self-adaptive genetic algorithm (SAGA) to predict future scenarios and explore sustainable urban development options for Lingang. The CA model was calibrated using the 2005 initial status, 2015 final status, and a set of spatial variables. We implemented specific ecological and environmental conditions as spatial constraints for the model and predicted four 2030 scenarios: (a) an urban planning-oriented Plan Scenario; (b) an ecosystem protection-oriented Eco Scenario; (c) a storm surge-affected Storm Scenario; and (d) a scenario incorporating both ecosystem protection and the effects of storm surge, called the Ecostorm Scenario. The Plan Scenario has been taken as the baseline, with the Lingang urban area increasing from 45.8 km(2) in 2015 to 66.8 km(2) in 2030, accounting for 23.9 % of the entire study area. The simulated urban land size of the Plan Scenario in 2030 was taken as the target to accommodate the projected population increase in this city, which was then applied in the remaining three development scenarios. We used CA modeling to reallocate the urban cells to other unconstrained areas in response to changing spatial constraints. Our predictions should be helpful not only in assessing and adjusting the urban planning schemes for Lingang but also for evaluating urban planning in coastal

  4. Scenario prediction of emerging coastal city using CA modeling under different environmental conditions: a case study of Lingang New City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongjiu; Liu, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The world's coastal regions are experiencing rapid urbanization coupled with increased risk of ecological damage and storm surge related to global climate and sea level rising. This urban development issue is particularly important in China, where many emerging coastal cities are being developed. Lingang New City, southeast of Shanghai, is an excellent example of a coastal city that is increasingly vulnerable to environmental change. Sustainable urban development requires planning that classifies and allocates coastal lands using objective procedures that incorporate changing environmental conditions. In this paper, we applied cellular automata (CA) modeling based on self-adaptive genetic algorithm (SAGA) to predict future scenarios and explore sustainable urban development options for Lingang. The CA model was calibrated using the 2005 initial status, 2015 final status, and a set of spatial variables. We implemented specific ecological and environmental conditions as spatial constraints for the model and predicted four 2030 scenarios: (a) an urban planning-oriented Plan Scenario; (b) an ecosystem protection-oriented Eco Scenario; (c) a storm surge-affected Storm Scenario; and (d) a scenario incorporating both ecosystem protection and the effects of storm surge, called the Ecostorm Scenario. The Plan Scenario has been taken as the baseline, with the Lingang urban area increasing from 45.8 km(2) in 2015 to 66.8 km(2) in 2030, accounting for 23.9 % of the entire study area. The simulated urban land size of the Plan Scenario in 2030 was taken as the target to accommodate the projected population increase in this city, which was then applied in the remaining three development scenarios. We used CA modeling to reallocate the urban cells to other unconstrained areas in response to changing spatial constraints. Our predictions should be helpful not only in assessing and adjusting the urban planning schemes for Lingang but also for evaluating urban planning in coastal

  5. Study and Constructive Analysis of Deinze’s New City Hall

    OpenAIRE

    LATORRE ZAPLANA, LUIS

    2015-01-01

    [EN] This bachelor’s thesis develops the analysis of the construction works of the New City Hall in Deinze, Belgium. The study includes the organizational plan, the sections of the building general plant, the development of some of the constructive details, a detailed technical study of insulating elements, a comparative study between prefabricated columns and "in situ" built columns and the scheduling of tasks in a Gantt chart. [ES] En este TFG se desarrolla el análisis de las obras de co...

  6. Muscle strength in youth and cardiovascular risk in young adulthood (the European Youth Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Møller, Niels Christian;

    2015-01-01

    from the Danish European Youth Heart Study; a population-based prospective cohort study among boys and girls (n=332) followed for up to 12 years. In youth maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain-gauge dynamometer...... strength in youth (0.17 N/kg) was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI; -0.60 kg/m(2), 95% CI -0.97 to -0.22), triglyceride (-0.09 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.02), diastolic blood pressure (BP) (-1.22 mm Hg, 95% CI -2.15 to -0.29) and a composite cardiovascular risk factor score (-0.61 SD, 95% CI...

  7. Redistribution of heart failure as the cause of death: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Michelle L.; Love, Shelly-Ann; Sorlie, Paul D.; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Antini, Carmen; Metcalf, Patricia A.; Hardy, Shakia; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Shahar, Eyal; Heiss, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure is sometimes incorrectly listed as the underlying cause of death (UCD) on death certificates, thus compromising the accuracy and comparability of mortality statistics. Statistical redistribution of the UCD has been used to examine the effect of misclassification of the UCD attributed to heart failure, but sex- and race-specific redistribution of deaths on coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in the United States has not been examined. Methods We used coarsened exact...

  8. Semantic Framework of Internet of Things for Smart Cities: Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningyu Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the advancement of sensor technology has led to the generation of heterogeneous Internet-of-Things (IoT data by smart cities. Thus, the development and deployment of various aspects of IoT-based applications are necessary to mine the potential value of data to the benefit of people and their lives. However, the variety, volume, heterogeneity, and real-time nature of data obtained from smart cities pose considerable challenges. In this paper, we propose a semantic framework that integrates the IoT with machine learning for smart cities. The proposed framework retrieves and models urban data for certain kinds of IoT applications based on semantic and machine-learning technologies. Moreover, we propose two case studies: pollution detection from vehicles and traffic pattern detection. The experimental results show that our system is scalable and capable of accommodating a large number of urban regions with different types of IoT applications.

  9. Fostering eGovernment as State Social Responsibility (SSR: Case Study of an Australian City Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinara Rao Karna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available           Democracies around the world now face Citizen-apathy. This is a concern now more than ever faced by countries around the globe. eGovernment is undoubtedly a platform to deliberate and enable citizens regain confidence and faith in democratic  processes. Citizens now seek Verifiable, Open, Transparent, Empathetic, Responsive and Sensitive Electronic Democracy and Government (VOTERS EDG, Karna, 2012. Similar to corporate world, there are voices stressing on govenments for the need to understand the stakeholders, their involvement, relationships and responsibilities of a state in eGovernance. Citizens everywhere now demand Verifiable, Open, Transparent, Empathetic, Responsive and Sensitive Electronically Democratic Government as a State Social Responsibity (SSR. Peoples movements and outbursts against authorities with the help of Word of Mouse (Karna, 2012 have established that transparent and open governance is the need of the hour. This paper presents findings of the study conducted in an Australian City Council for preparing the city council for ‘City e-readiness’ to initiate e-Government activities. We propose the idea of ‘Centrality of Citizens’ in context of eGovernment. We further build upon the original concept of deeming eGovernment as ‘State Social Responsibility’ (SSR (Karna, 2010, by governments at all levels.  

  10. The study on LUCC and its human drive factors in Quanzhou City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, JianShun; Zhong, KaiWen; Zhang, JinQian; Chen, SongLin

    2008-10-01

    Based on the 1988 and 2000 remote sensing data and the "3S" technology, we not only attempt to analyze the dynamic change form the structure of quantity and spatial change of Land Use in Quanzhou City, but also use the representatively correlation method to explain the interrelation between this change of Land Use and the social economic factors, by the CANCORR program of SPSS. Furthermore, according to the viewpoint of Humanism, we try to find out the function of the social power factors, the social culture factors which conclude natural view, axiology, dietetically custom, habitation fashion and consumed tropism .etc and the developing industries of local color on the Land Use change. From this research, the result show: 1) the structure of quantity of Land Use change remarkably from county to county, the most reducing quantity of paddy field, dry land and garden plot are separately the county of DeHua, HuiAn and NanAn. And the most driver factor is the developing industries of local color; 2) the type change of Land Use caused by the production value of extractive industry, light industry and the third industry, basic contracture investment, output of tea and fruit, convenient extent of road and income of per farmer and so on in Quanzhou City between 1988 and 2000. In a word, the dynamic change of Land Use impact by more factors we have mentioned, and it's extend is more and more multistage, especially in Quanzhou City. As we study, the dynamic change of Land Use is enslaved to human factors in Quanzhou City.

  11. Reverse logistics system and recycling potential at a landfill: A case study from Kampala City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinobe, J.R., E-mail: joel.kinobe@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology (CEDAT), P.O. Box 7062, Kampala (Uganda); Gebresenbet, G. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Niwagaba, C.B. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology (CEDAT), P.O. Box 7062, Kampala (Uganda); Vinnerås, B. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Quantifies the different waste streams delivered at the landfill. • Evaluates the amount of potential waste products that enters into the reverse cycle. • Drawing out the reverse logistics activities from Kampala City to Kiteezi landfill. • Identify the storage, collection and transportation mechanisms of products to the various destinations; and finally. • The study suggests efficient measures to improve reverse logistics system. - Abstract: The rapid growing population and high urbanisation rates in Sub-Saharan Africa has caused enormous pressure on collection services of the generated waste in the urban areas. This has put a burden on landfilling, which is the major waste disposal method. Waste reduction, re-use and recycling opportunities exist but are not fully utilized. The common items that are re-used and re-cycled are plastics, paper, aluminum, glass, steel, cardboard, and yard waste. This paper develops an overview of reverse logistics at Kiteezi landfill, the only officially recognised waste disposal facility for Kampala City. The paper analyses, in details the collection, re-processing, re-distribution and final markets of these products into a reversed supply chain network. Only 14% of the products at Kiteezi landfill are channeled into the reverse chain while 63% could be included in the distribution chain but are left out and disposed of while the remaining 23% is buried. This is because of the low processing power available, lack of market value, lack of knowledge and limited value addition activities to the products. This paper proposes possible strategies of efficient and effective reverse logistics development, applicable to Kampala City and other similar cities.

  12. Reverse logistics system and recycling potential at a landfill: A case study from Kampala City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Quantifies the different waste streams delivered at the landfill. • Evaluates the amount of potential waste products that enters into the reverse cycle. • Drawing out the reverse logistics activities from Kampala City to Kiteezi landfill. • Identify the storage, collection and transportation mechanisms of products to the various destinations; and finally. • The study suggests efficient measures to improve reverse logistics system. - Abstract: The rapid growing population and high urbanisation rates in Sub-Saharan Africa has caused enormous pressure on collection services of the generated waste in the urban areas. This has put a burden on landfilling, which is the major waste disposal method. Waste reduction, re-use and recycling opportunities exist but are not fully utilized. The common items that are re-used and re-cycled are plastics, paper, aluminum, glass, steel, cardboard, and yard waste. This paper develops an overview of reverse logistics at Kiteezi landfill, the only officially recognised waste disposal facility for Kampala City. The paper analyses, in details the collection, re-processing, re-distribution and final markets of these products into a reversed supply chain network. Only 14% of the products at Kiteezi landfill are channeled into the reverse chain while 63% could be included in the distribution chain but are left out and disposed of while the remaining 23% is buried. This is because of the low processing power available, lack of market value, lack of knowledge and limited value addition activities to the products. This paper proposes possible strategies of efficient and effective reverse logistics development, applicable to Kampala City and other similar cities

  13. Port, city, territory: economic development and urban quality in the case study of Salerno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Annunziata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities are the collective expression of a society and in seaside cities this phenomenon acquires peculiar values, since maritime communities share a unitary identity in the remarkable link with maritime essence, ships and navigation. Maritime urban landscape may be really perceived only from the sea and during navigation, through a dynamic perception able to give its complexity back. Architecture in seaside cities is rooted in the sea itself, which shapes the urban landscape, fosters the cultural evolution, affects social dynamics and makes economy be on the move. The ever rising sea trades, brought about markets’ globalization, fostered port’s development, which, if well run, is still today able to provide new opportunities for sea towns. The approach to an urban planning focused on a “from the sea” perspective suggests to deal with both the port and urban dimensions. Through this kind of approach, the Port may acquire a new leading role in the renewal of urban coastal areas, becoming, thus, the driving force of its (selfdevelopment and, at the same time, of the local urban sustainable development. Rather than being univocal, the relationship between city and port constitutes a quite complex continuous process, which calls for physical and cultural changes, often difficult to deal with and fulfill; a process in which different subjects and resources, often at odds, are involved. In this study approach we will focus on Salerno, where, through the cultural continuity of maritime tradition, the rise of port activities has been matched with an urban vision designed to reshape the urban waterfront (Fig.1. Salerno has identified policies and methods designed to undertake a renewal — along with Administration, Port Authority and Private Citizens — by sharing actions and projects to make waterfront more suitable and “tantalizing”, to improve the quality of urban life and, simultaneously, to take advantage of the potential of these

  14. The T1-T2 study: evolution of aerosol properties downwind of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Doran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of a major atmospheric chemistry and aerosol field program carried out in March 2006, a study was conducted in the area to the north and northeast of Mexico City to investigate the evolution of aerosols and their associated optical properties in the first few hours after their emission. The focus of the T1-T2 aerosol study was to investigate changes in the specific absorption αABS (absorption per unit mass, with unit of m2 g−1 of black carbon as it aged and became coated with compounds such as sulfate and organic carbon, evolving from an external to an internal mixture. Such evolution has been reported in previous studies. The T1 site was located just to the north of the Mexico City metropolitan area; the T2 site was situated approximately 35 km farther to the northeast. Nephelometers, particle soot absorption photometers, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers, and organic and elemental carbon analyzers were used to measure the optical properties of the aerosols and the carbon concentrations at each of the sites. Radar wind profilers and radiosonde systems helped to characterize the meteorology and to identify periods when transport from Mexico City over T1 and T2 occurred. Organic and elemental carbon concentrations at T1 showed diurnal cycles reflecting the nocturnal and early morning buildup from nearby sources, while concentrations at T2 appeared to be more affected by transport from Mexico City. Specific absorption during transport periods was lower than during other times, consistent with the likelihood of fresher emissions being found when the winds blew from Mexico City over T1 and T2. The specific absorption at T2 was larger than at T1, which is also consistent with the expectation of more aged particles with encapsulated black carbon being found at the more distant location. In situ measurements of single scattering albedo with an aircraft and a ground station showed general agreement with column-averaged values derived

  15. The T1-T2 study: evolution of aerosol properties downwind of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Doran

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of a major atmospheric chemistry and aerosol field program carried out in March of 2006, a study was conducted in the area to the north and northeast of Mexico City to investigate the evolution of aerosols and their associated optical properties in the first few hours after their emission. The focus of the T1-T2 aerosol study was to investigate changes in the specific absorption αABS (absorption per unit mass, with unit of m2 g−1 of black carbon as it aged and became coated with compounds such as sulfate and organic carbon, evolving from an external to an internal mixture. Such evolution has been reported in previous studies. The T1 site was located just to the north of the Mexico City metropolitan area; the T2 site was situated approximately 35 km farther to the northeast. Nephelometers, particle soot absorption photometers, photoacoustic absorption photometers, and organic and elemental carbon analyzers were used to measure the optical properties of the aerosols and the carbon concentrations at each of the sites. Radar wind profilers and radiosonde systems helped to characterize the meteorology and to identify periods when transport from Mexico City over T1 and T2 occurred. Organic and elemental carbon concentrations at T1 showed diurnal cycles reflecting the nocturnal and early morning buildup from nearby sources, while concentrations at T2 appeared to be more affected by transport from Mexico City. Specific absorption during transport periods was lower than during other times, consistent with the likelihood of fresher emissions being found when the winds blew from Mexico City over T1 and T2. The specific absorption at T2 was larger than at T1, which is also consistent with the expectation of more aged particles with encapsulated black carbon being found at the more distant location. In situ measurements of single scattering albedo with an aircraft and a ground station showed general agreement with

  16. Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  17. Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. ... disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is ...

  18. Anaemia and long term mortality in heart failure patients: a retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlot, Mette; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Valeur, Nana;

    2010-01-01

    Anaemia has been demonstrated as a risk factor in patients with heart failure over periods of a few years, but long term data are not available. We examined the long-term risk of anaemia in heart failure patients during 15 years of follow-up.......Anaemia has been demonstrated as a risk factor in patients with heart failure over periods of a few years, but long term data are not available. We examined the long-term risk of anaemia in heart failure patients during 15 years of follow-up....

  19. Prevalence and correlates of coronary heart disease: first population-based study in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidan RK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rouba Karen Zeidan,1 Rita Farah,2 Mirna N Chahine,3 Roland Asmar,3 Hassan Hosseini,4,5 Pascale Salameh,6,7 Atul Pathak8 1Doctoral School of Biology Health and Biotechnologies, Toulouse III University, Toulouse, 2Doctoral School of Life and Health Sciences, Paris-Est University, Creteil, France; 3Foundation-Medical Research Institutes, F-MRI®, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Department of Neurology, Henri Mondor Hospital AP-HP, 5EA 4391, Nerve Excitability and Therapeutics, Université Paris-Est, Creteil, France; 6School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, Byblos, 7Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiology Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Hadath, Lebanon; 8Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hypertension, Risk Factors and Heart Failure Unit, Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse, France Background: Lebanon is experiencing a growing epidemic of coronary heart diseases (CHDs, as most low- and middle-income countries currently are. However, this growth can be attenuated if effective preventive strategies are adopted. Purpose: To provide the first national population-based prevalence of CHD and to describe the profile of Lebanese adults with prevalent CHD. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sample across Lebanon. We interviewed residents aged 40 years and older using a questionnaire that captured the presence of CHDs and their risk factors (RFs. Results: Our study showed that 13.4% of the Lebanese population aged ≥40 years suffer from a prevalent CHD. CHD seemed to appear more prematurely than in developed countries, and males seemed to be more subject to CHD than females until a certain age. CHD was associated with older age, male sex, a lower economic situation, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, having a family history of premature cardiovascular diseases, and suffering from diabetes. However, smoking and waist circumference did not seem to have an independent effect on CHD, but rather an effect

  20. Early pregnancy exposure to antihistamines and risk of congenital heart defects : results of two case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedts, Huberdina P. M.; de Jonge, Linda; Bandola, Sarah J. G.; Baardman, Marlies E.; Bakker, Marian K.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P. M.

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: We aimed to study the association between use of antihistamines in early pregnancy and congenital heart defects (CHD) in the offspring. DESIGN: Two case-control studies. SETTING: HAVEN study, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, and Eurocat Northern Netherlands (NNL), Univer

  1. Marital Status, Education, and Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Mainland China: The INTER-HEART Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Bo; Li, Wei; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim

    2012-01-01

    Background We investigated the effects of marital status and education on the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a large-scale case-control study in China. Methods This study was part of the INTER-HEART China case-control study. The main outcome measure was first AMI. Incident cases of AMI and control patients with no past history of heart disease were recruited. Controls were matching by age (±5 years) and sex. Marital status was combined into 2 categories: single and not single. E...

  2. Ranking of psychosocial and traditional risk factors by importance for coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Peter; Marott, Jacob L; Kristensen, Tage S.;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To rank psychosocial and traditional risk factors by importance for coronary heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective cardiovascular population study randomly selected in 1976. The third examination was carried out from 1991 to 1994, and 8882 men...... and women free of cardiovascular diseases were included in this study. Events were assessed until April 2013. Forward selection, population attributable fraction, and gradient boosting machine were used for determining ranks. The importance of vital exhaustion for risk prediction was investigated by C...... was one of the most important risk factors for coronary heart disease, our findings emphasize the importance of including psychosocial factors in risk prediction scores....

  3. The stem-cell application in ischemic heart disease: Basic principles, specifics and practical experience from clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banović Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Longer life duration, different clinical presentations of coronary disease, as well as high incidence of comorbidity in patients with ischemic heart disease have led to an increase in the incidence of ischemic heart failure. Despite numerous and new treatment methods that act on different pathophysiological mechanisms that cause heart failure, and whose aim is to slowdown or stop the progression of this devastating disease, morbidity and mortality in these patients remain high. These facts have firstly led to the introduction of the experimental, and then clinical studies with the application of stem cells in patients with ischemic heart disease. Previous studies have shown that the application of stem cells is a feasible and safe method in patients with acute coronary syndrome, as well as in patients with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy, but the efficacy of these methods in both of the abovementioned clinical syndromes has yet to be established. This review paper outlines the basic principles of treatment of ischemic heart disease with stem cells, as well as the experience and knowledge gained in previous clinical studies.

  4. THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL THERAPY IN DIMINISHING THE EFFECTS OF THE CONGENITAL HEART DEFECT - CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croitoru Ramona

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In ROMANIA, fetal abnormalities are the cause of 20-30% of infant mortality, being second only to prematurity - 53% in 2005. The restriction of the fetal growth represents the main cause for intrauterine fetal death (60-70%, and the second cause of neonatal deaths - 41%. Perinatal mortality is caused by 6 obstetrical complications: prematurity, multiple pregnancy, pregnancy-induced hypertension, uteroplacental apoplexy, placenta praevia, pelvic presentation. The termination of pregnancy for prenatally diagnosed fetal abnormalities is excluded from the perinatal mortality statistics, according to the epidemiological information. The motivation for choosing a physical therapy intervention in the case of the pediatric congenital heart defect is represented by its number of pediatric cases, and by the problems confronted by the medical teams, the professional literature not being always very clear about the situations encountered in the everyday practice. As the number of congenital heart and blood vessels defects is the highest among pediatric cardiovascular pathologies, they represent a field of maximum interest for rehabilitation in pediatric cardiology.Several modern medicine studies show that physical therapy plays an important role in the rehabilitation of cardiovascular patients.Starting from several cases we researched in relation to our theme, but also from the consulted professional literature, we chose this theme to highlight the importance of this malformative syndrome, and the difficulties that can appear during functional rehabilitation.In conclusion, the results obtained after conducting this study allow us to say that our hypotheses, stating that through a correct and complete assessment of the motor potential one can intervene, using physical therapy means, to reestablish a lost function, and by selecting correctly the means and methods based on the extremely complex diagnosis of the case study, one can contribute to the improvement

  5. Understanding Situated Social Interactions: A Case Study of Public Places in the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paay, Jeni; Kjeldskov, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    of a physical place providing an understanding of peoples’ situated social interactions in public places of the city derived through a grounded analysis of small groups of friends socialising out on the town. Informed by this, we describe the design and evaluation of a mobile prototype system facilitating...... these and their situated interactions. In response, this paper addresses the challenge of informing design of mobile services for fostering social connections by using the concept of place for studying and understanding peoples’ social activities in a public built environment. We present a case study of social experience...

  6. The T1-T2 study: evolution of aerosol properties downwind of Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Doran, J.C.; J. C. Barnard; Arnott, W.P.; R. Cary; Coulter, R.; J. D. Fast; Kassianov, E. I.; L. Kleinman; N. S. Laulainen; Martin, T.; G. Paredes-Miranda; M. S. Pekour; Shaw, W. J.; Smith, D.F.; S. R. Springston

    2006-01-01

    As part of a major atmospheric chemistry and aerosol field program carried out in March of 2006, a study was conducted in the area to the north and northeast of Mexico City to investigate the evolution of aerosols and their associated optical properties in the first few hours after their emission. The focus of the T1-T2 aerosol study was to investigate changes in the specific absorption αABS (absorption per unit mass, with unit of m2 g&l...

  7. Valuation of Forest Ecosystem Services and Benefit Sharing:A Case Study of Qingdao City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The forest ecosystem goods and services and the natural capital stocks that produce them make great contribution to national economy and human welfare both directly and indirectly. This paper evaluates the economic value of natural capital stock and the annual output flow of forest ecosystem goods and services taking Qingdao City and its eight districts as case study. The results of the valuation study showed, that the stock value of forest natural capital of Qingdao was RMB 13.46 billion at the end of 2007...

  8. Peer Pressure and Adaptive Behavior Learning: A Study of Adolescents in Gujrat City

    OpenAIRE

    Asma Yunus; Shahzad Khaver Mushtaq; Sobia Qaiser

    2012-01-01

    The study aims at discovering the influences of Peer Pressure on adaptive behavior learning in the adolescents. For the purpose two scales, Adaptive behavior scale (ABS) and Peer Pressure Scale (PPS) were developed to measure both variables. The Sample of the study was purposive in nature and comprised of late adolescents (n=120) i.e. 60 males and 60 females, from Gujrat city. Cronbach alpha was calculated and found to be significant for Peer Pressure Scale(PPS) and its subscales i.e. Belongi...

  9. Dental caries and associated factors among primary school children in Bahir Dar city: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Demilie, Tazebew; Yimer, Mulat; Meshesha, Kassaw; Abera, Bayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries is the most common chronic infectious disease of childhood caused by the interaction of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans and sugary foods on tooth enamel. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among primary school children at Bahir Dar city. Methods A school based cross-sectional study was conducted at Bahir Dar city from October 2013 to January 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select the chil...

  10. The Effects of Job Embeddedness on Organizational Cynicism and Employee Performance: A Study on Sadat City University

    OpenAIRE

    Wageeh Nafei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Using a new construct, Job Embeddedness (JE), from the business management literature, this study examines the effects of JE on Organizational Cynicism (OC) and Employee Performance (EP) at Sadat City University. Research Design/Methodology: Using Mitchell et al., 2001 of JE, the study develops a number of hypotheses and tests them. Out of the 692 questionnaires that were distributed to employees at Sadat City University in Egypt, 400 usable questionnaires were returned, a response r...

  11. Autonomic dysfunction in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy: studies of heart rate variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth; Mehlsen, Jesper;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The presence of autonomic dysfunction in HIV patients is largely unknown. Early studies found autonomic dysfunction in patients with AIDS. Introduction of highly active antiretroviral combination therapy (ART) has dramatically changed the course of the disease and improved prognosis...... and decreased morbidity. At present it is not known whether introduction of ART also has decreased autonomic dysfunction. AIM: To evaluate whether autonomic dysfunction is present in an ART-treated HIV population. METHODS: HIV patients receiving ART for at least 3 years (n = 16) and an age-matched control group...... guidelines and data reported as median (interquartile range). RESULTS: The resting heart rate was higher in HIV patients compared with controls [69 (62-74) versus 57 (52-60); PHIV group compared with the controls...

  12. Multichannel biomagnetic system for study of electrical activity in the brain and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S; Hoenig, E; Reichenberger, H; Abraham-Fuchs, K; Moshage, W; Oppelt, A; Stefan, H; Weikl, A; Wirth, A

    1990-09-01

    The authors designed a multichannel system for noninvasive measurement of the extremely weak magnetic fields generated by the brain and the heart. It uses a flat array of 37 superconducting magnetic field-sensing coils connected to sophisticated superconducting quantum interference devices. To prevent interference from external electromagnetic fields, the system is operated inside a shielded room. Complete sets of coherent data, even from spontaneous events, can be recorded. System performance was evaluated with phantom measurements and evoked-response studies. A spatial resolution of a few millimeters and a temporal resolution of a millisecond were obtained. First results in patients with partial epilepsy and investigations of the cardiac conductive pathway indicate that biomagnetism is now ready for a systematic clinical evaluation. Interpretation of measurements was facilitated by highlighting biomagnetically localized electrical activity in three-dimensional digital magnetic resonance images. PMID:2389043

  13. Psychosocial work environment and risk of ischaemic heart disease in women: the Danish Nurse Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allesøe, Karen; Hundrup, Yrsa Andersen; Thomsen, Jane Frølund;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of work pressure and job influence on the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in women. METHODS: The effect of work pressure and job influence on the 15-year incidence of IHD in women participating in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study was prospectively...... biological and behavioural risk factors for IHD were collected at baseline. RESULTS: During follow-up, 580 participants were hospitalised with IHD. In the fully adjusted model, nurses who reported work pressure to be much too high had a 1.4-fold increased risk of incident IHD (95% CI 1.04 to 1.81) compared...... with nurses who reported work pressure to be suitable. A tendency towards a dose-response effect was found. Age-stratified analysis showed that this effect was significant only among the younger nurses (

  14. Intention of Students in Less Developed Cities in China to Opt for Undergraduate Education Abroad: Does This Vary as Their Perceptions of the Attractions of Overseas Study Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Fan-sing

    2010-01-01

    This study is based on a survey in 2007 of 12,961 senior secondary final year students in seven major cities in China, and shows that students in less developed cities manifest a stronger intention to study abroad than students in better off cities, controlling for students' other demographic characteristics and their major perceived attractions…

  15. Depressive symptoms and white blood cell count in coronary heart disease patients : Prospective findings from the Heart and Soul Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivis, Hester E.; Kupper, Nina; Penninx, Brenda W.; Na, Beeya; de Jonge, Peter; Whooley, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depression has been associated with elevated white blood cell (WBC) count - indicative of systemic inflammation - in cross-sectional studies, but no longitudinal study has evaluated whether depressive symptoms predict subsequent WBC count or vice versa. We sought to evaluate the bidirect

  16. Cardiac rehabilitation program in patients with Chagas heart failure: a single-arm pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The benefit of a cardiac rehabilitation (CR program for patients with Chagas heart failure (CHF remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of CR for CHF patients. METHODS: A single-arm pilot study, including 12 patients with CHF, was performed. Patients participated in an 8-month physical exercise intervention, comprising aerobic, strength, and stretching exercises (3 times per week, 60 minutes per session. Nutritional and pharmaceutical counseling were also performed. Functional capacity (cardiopulmonary exercise test, muscle respiratory strength (manovacuometry, and body composition (anthropometry and skinfolds were evaluated at baseline, and after 4 and 8 months of intervention. Cardiac function (echocardiography, biomarkers (lipid profile, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin and quality of life (Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire were assessed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. RESULTS: Seven of 12 patients included in the study completed the 8-month follow-up period. Only 2 moderate adverse events occurred during the exercise training. Functional capacity improved after 4 months of CR, while left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and respiratory strength improved after 8 months. Patients with right ventricular (RV dysfunction at baseline exhibited an improvement in functional capacity after 4 months, and improvements in left ventricular (LV diastolic pressure, respiratory strength, and quality of life at the end of follow-up. Conversely, those with normal baseline RV function demonstrated LVEF increases that were not observed in patients with RV dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: CR was feasible, safe, and has important clinical benefits for patients with CHF, specifically for cardiac function and muscle respiratory strength.

  17. Acute heart failure in the emergency department: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Andrea; Marchesini, Giulio; Carbone, Giorgio; Cosentini, Roberto; Ferrari, Annamaria; Chiesa, Mauro; Bertini, Alessio; Rea, Federico

    2016-02-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a major public health issue due to high incidence and poor prognosis. Only a few studies are available on the long-term prognosis and on outcome predictors in the unselected population attending the emergency department (ED) for AHF. We carried out a 1-year follow-up analysis of 1234 consecutive patients from selected Italian EDs from January 2011 to June 2012 for an episode of AHF. Their prognosis and outcome-associated factors were tested by Cox proportional hazard model. Patients' mean age was 84, with 66.0% over 80 years and 56.2% females. Comorbidities were present in over 50% of cases, principally a history of acute coronary syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, valvular heart disease. Death occurred within 6 h in 24 cases (1.9%). At 30-day follow-up, death was registered in 123 cases (10.0%): 110 cases (89.4%) died of cardiovascular events and 13 (10.6%) of non-cardiovascular causes (cancer, gastrointestinal hemorrhages, sepsis, trauma). At 1-year follow-up, all-cause death was recorded in 50.1% (over 3 out of 4 cases for cardiovascular origin). Six variables (older age, diabetes, systolic arterial pressure <110 mm/Hg, high NT pro-BNP, high troponin levels and impaired cognitive status) were selected as outcome predictors, but with limited discriminant capacity (AUC = 0.649; SE 0.015). Recurrence of AHF was registered in 31.0%. The study identifies a cluster of variables associated with 1-year mortality in AHF, but their predictive capacity is low. Old age and the presence of comorbidities, in particular diabetes are likely to play a major role in dictating the prognosis. PMID:26506831

  18. Drinking water quality in Pakistan: a case study of Islamabad and Rawalpindi cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally, major cities of Pakistan are facing problems of shortage of municipal water supplies as the water requirements are increasing due to rapid urbanization. The water being supplied to many cosmopolitan cities and towns is generally of poor quality. Microbial contamination of drinking water is responsible for directly or indirectly spreading major infections and parasitic diseases such as Cholera, Typhoid, Dysentery, Hepatitis, Giardiasis, Cryptosporidiosis and Guinea worm. The Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) has launched a major programme of water quality monitoring in the country to document the existing water quality status. The PCRWR has recently completed water quality assessment studies in twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. For monitoring purposes, grids of 2x2 and 3x3 km were established for Islamabad and Rawalpindi respectively. In total, thirty-nine water-sampling points were established. Apart from the groundwater samples, eight samples from surface water sources in Islamabad and one from Rawalpindi were collected. Water samples were collected in 200 ml sterilized containers during July 2001. In both cities, most of water samples except for Simly Reservoir in Islamabad, and Chitti Tanki in Rawalpindi were found fit with respect to color, odor and taste. The average EC values were 0.56 and 0.81 dS m/sup -1/ for Islamabad and Rawalpindi, respectively. The pH of collected samples varied from 7 to 8.3. Arsenic, chloride, chromium, fluoride, nitrate, sodium, and water hardness were within the safe limit. The Lead concentration however, was found within safe limits in only 21% samples. The quality of drinking water in both cities in respect of bacterial contamination was very poor. Only 25% samples in Islamabad and 13% samples in Rawalpindi were found fit for drinking purpose. Water samples collected from the points nearest to the source were free from bacterial contamination. It is concluded that the problem of bacterial

  19. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  20. Causal Attribution, Perceived Benefits, and Morbidity After a Heart Attack: An 8-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affleck, Glenn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed heart attack victims (N=287) seven weeks and eight years after their attack. Explored interrelations among causal attributions for the attack, survivor morbidity, and heart attack recurrence. Found that patients who cited benefits from their misfortune seven weeks after the first attack were less likely to have another attack and had…

  1. Drug therapy in heart failure : studies on prescribing, drug induced problems and compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouvy, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the ageing of the population and increased survival of patients with acute coronary artery disease, an ‘epidemic’ of heart failure is emerging, illustrated by increasing rates of hospitalisations for heart failure and resulting in a considerable increase in the cost of care for these patients

  2. The Study of Chlamydia Pneumoniae DNA in the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell of Coronary Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Tao; Xu Xiang Guang; Zhang Guo Liang; Fang Weihua

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To detection of chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) DNA in the circulating mononuclear cell fractions of coronary heart disease and to investigate the association between infection with chlamydia pneumoniae and coronary heart disease (CHD) and prospectively whether blood -based nested polymerase chain reaction ( nPCR ) is useful in identifying Cpn infection. Methods The peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) Cpn DNA was examined using nPCR technique and confirmed by electrophoresis in 150 patients with CHD. Select 55 patients with clinical suspected CHD but angiography result are normal as control group (CG). Then we conducted a prospective , randomized, double - blind, placebo -controlled study of 6 months of azithromycin and placebo treatment in CHD group. Patients with Cpn DNA positive were then randomized to receive azithromycin or placebo. After treatment blood sample were collected for repeated measurement . Results Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA was detected in 49(32.7% ) of 150persons with CHD and in 1 ( 1.8% ) of 55 persons with control group,odds ratio 26.2, 95% confidence interva13.52 - 194.98. The positivity rates of nPCR in CHD groups were higher than those in control group. 16 cases (29. 1% ) in latent coronary heart diseases(LCHD) group , 19 cases (39.6%) in unstable angina(UAP) group ,and 14 cases (29.9%) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI)group were Cpn positive by nPCR. There were no significant difference among in AMIUAP and LCHD group. There were significiant difference in Cpn DNA negative rates after the azithromycin and the placebo treatment. Conclusions Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in PBMC of a significant proportion of persons with CHD. The potential role of chlamydia pneumoniae in coronary atherosclerosis may therefore be more related to acceleration of disease or systemic effects by persistent infection than to sudden initiation of progressive coronary artery disease by acute infection. The detection of Cpn DNA in PBMC with nPCR may be

  3. Is Heart Rate a Norepiphenomenon in Heart Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensey, Mark; O'Neill, James

    2016-09-01

    There has been an increased focus on heart rate as a target in the management of cardiovascular disease and more specifically in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in recent years with several studies showing the benefit of a lower resting heart rate on outcomes. This review paper examines the pathophysiology behind the benefits of lowering heart rate in heart failure and also the evidence for and against the pharmacological agents available to achieve this. PMID:27457085

  4. Ischemic heart disease in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Niels; Thomsen, Henrik F; Kronborg, Gitte;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are concerns about highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) causing a progressive increase in the risk of ischemic heart disease. We examined this issue in a nationwide cohort study of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and a population-based control...... group. METHODS: We determined the rate of first hospitalization for ischemic heart disease in all Danish patients with HIV infection (3953 patients) from 1 January 1995 through 31 December 2004 and compared this rate with that for 373,856 subjects in a population-based control group. Data on first...... hospitalization for ischemic heart disease and comorbidity were obtained from the Danish National Hospital Registry for all study participants. We used Cox's regression to compute the hospitalization rate ratio as an estimate of relative risk, adjusting for comorbidity. RESULTS: Although the difference...

  5. Cell-cell interaction in blood flow in patients with coronary heart disease (in vitro study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-02-01

    Blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions are one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. We have chosen the method of reconstruction of pulsative blood flow in vitro in the experimental set. Blood flow structure was studied by PC integrated video camera with following slide by slide analysis. Studied flow was of constant volumetric blood flow velocity (1 ml/h). Diameter of tube in use was comparable with coronary arteries diameter. Glucose solution and unfractured heparin were used as the nonspecial irritants of studied flow. Erythrocytes space structure in flow differs in all groups of patients in our study (men with stable angina pectoris (SAP), myocardial infarction (MI) and practically healthy men (PHM). Intensity of erythrocytes aggregate formation was maximal in patients with SAP, but time of their "construction/deconstruction" at glucose injection was minimal. Phenomena of primary clotting formation in patients with SAP of high function class was reconstructed under experimental conditions. Heparin injection (10 000 ED) increased linear blood flow velocity both in patients with SAP, MI and PHP but modulated the cell profile in the flow. Received data correspond with results of animal model studies and noninvasive blood flow studies in human. Results of our study reveal differences in blood flow structure in patients with coronary heart disease and PHP under irritating conditions as the possible framework of metabolic model of coronary blood flow destabilization.

  6. Birth size and coronary heart disease risk score in young adulthood. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Young Adults (ARYA) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, LE; Oren, A; Bots, ML; Gorissen, WHM; Grobbee, DE; Uiterwaal, CSPM

    2006-01-01

    Data of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Young Adults (ARYA) study were used to investigate the association between birth size and the absolute risk for coronary heart disease in healthy young adults. The cohort study comprises 750 (46.9% men) subjects born between 1970 and 1973. Birth characteristics we

  7. Dairy Intake and Coronary Heart Disease or Stroke – a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmeijer, G.W.; Struijk, E.A.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between total dairy intake and dairy subtypes (high-fat dairy, low-fat dairy, milk and milk products, cheese and fermented dairy) with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. METHODS: EPIC-NL is a prospective cohort study among 33,625 D

  8. Low Lymphocyte Ratio as a Novel Prognostic Factor in Acute Heart Failure : Results from the Pre-RELAX-AHF Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milo-Cotter, Olga; Teerlink, John R.; Metra, Marco; Felker, G. Michael; Ponikowski, Piotr; Voors, Adriaan A.; Edwards, Christopher; Weatherley, Beth Davison; Greenberg, Barry; Filippatos, Gerassimos; Unemori, Elaine; Teichman, Sam L.; Cotter, Gad

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that a lower lymphocyte ratio (Ly%) in the white blood cell (WBC) differential count is related to worse outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) and other cardiovascular disorders. Methods: In the Pre-RELAX-AHF study, 234 patients with AHF, sys

  9. Self-reported versus 'true' adherence in heart failure patients : a study using the Medication Event Monitoring System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, M. M. W.; Jaarsma, T.; van Veldhuisen, D. J.; van der Wal, M. H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Adherence to (non)pharmacological treatment is important in heart failure (HF) patients, since it leads to better clinical outcome. Although self-reported and objectively measured medication adherence in HF patients have been compared in previous studies, none of these studies have used an evidence-

  10. Autoradiography study and SPECT imaging of reporter gene HSV1-tk expression in heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan Xiaoli [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 430022 (China)], E-mail: LXL730724@hotmail.com; Liu Ying; He Yong; Wu Tao; Zhang Binqing; Gao Zairong; An Rui [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 430022 (China); Zhang Yongxue [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 430022 (China)], E-mail: zhyx1229@163.com

    2010-04-15

    Aim: To demonstrate the feasibility and optimal conditions of imaging herpes simplex virus 1-thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene transferred into hearts with {sup 131}I-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil ({sup 131}I-FIAU) using autoradiography (ARG) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in animal models. Methods: HSV1-tk inserted into adenovirus vector (Ad5-tk) and adenovirus (Ad5-null) was prepared. Rats or rabbits were divided into a study group receiving intramyocardial injection of Ad5-tk, and a control group receiving Ad-null injection. In the study group of rats, two sets of experiments, time-course study and dose-dependence study, were performed. In time-course experiments, rats were injected with {sup 131}I-FIAU on Days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7, after transfection of 1x10{sup 8} pfu Ad5-tk, to study the feasibility and suitable time course for reporter gene imaging. In dose-dependence study, various titers of Ad5-tk (5x10{sup 8}, 1x10{sup 8}, 5x10{sup 7} and 1x10{sup 7} pfu) were used to determine the threshold and optimal viral titer needed for detection of gene expression. The gamma counts of hearts were measured. The rat myocardium was analyzed by ARG and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). SPECT whole-body planar imaging and cardiac tomographic imaging were performed in the rabbit models. Results: From the ARG images, rats injected with Ad5-tk showed significant {sup 131}I-FIAU activity in the anterolateral wall compared with background signals seen in the control Ad5-null rats. In time-course study, the highest radioactivity in the focal myocardium could be seen on Day 1, and then progressively declined with time. In dose-dependence study, the level of {sup 131}I-FIAU accumulation in the transfected myocardium declined with the decrease of Ad viral titers. From the ARG analysis and gamma counting, the threshold viral titer was 5x10{sup 7} pfu, and the optimal Ad titer was 1x10{sup 8} pfu

  11. Knowledge and Practice of Personal Hygiene and Sanitation: A Study in Selected Slums of Dhaka City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayela Farah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: : Slum dwellers are likely to be among the most deprived people in urban areas. Poor hygiene practices and inadequate sanitary conditions play major roles in the increased burden of communicable diseases within developing countries like ours. Objective: To assess the knowledge and practice about personal hygiene and environmental sanitation in selected slums of Dhaka city. Materials and method: This cross sectional study was conducted in purposively selected urban slum areas of Moghbazar slum, Bashabo slum and T&T slum of Dhaka city during February 2014 to April 2014. Convenient sampling technique was applied. Semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was used and face to face interview was conducted. Total 475 subjects, irrespective of age and sex, were included in this study. Results: Out of 475 respondents, more than fifty percent slum dwellers resided in tin shaded room while 21.7% in ‘kacha’ houses. Sixty six percent of the respondents used to drink water from tube-well and 24% used supplied water provided by the city corporation. The study revealed that near 59% of the respondents used sanitary latrine. About 67% slum dwellers regularly practiced hand washing before taking meal and 59.2% respondents used soap after defecation. About fifty percent respondents brushed their teeth regularly with tooth paste. Regarding personal cleanliness, 81% subjects took bath regularly while 78% washed clothes irregularly. A statistically significant relation was found between washing of hands before meal (p=0.001, washing of hands after defecation (p=0.02, tooth brushing (p=0.001, bathing (p=0.009, washing of cloths (p=0.001, use of footwear (p=0.63 with knowledge of personal hygiene of the slum dwellers. Conclusion: Continuous community hygiene education along with adequate access to water supply and sanitation improves hygiene behaviour and policy makers and health care providers should have definite strategy and implementation.

  12. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in adults: An epidemiological study in eight cities of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is believed to be a common health issue in India, as it is worldwide. However, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence of hypothyroidism in adult population of India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, multi-centre, epidemiological study was conducted in eight major cities (Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Goa, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Kolkata of India to study the prevalence of hypothyroidism among adult population. Thyroid abnormalities were diagnosed on the basis of laboratory results (serum FT3, FT4 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone [TSH]. Patients with history of hypothyroidism and receiving levothyroxine therapy or those with serum free T4 5.50 μU/ml, were categorized as hypothyroid. The prevalence of self reported and undetected hypothyroidism, and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO antibody positivity was assessed. Results: A total of 5376 adult male or non-pregnant female participants ³18 years of age were enrolled, of which 5360 (mean age: 46 ± 14.68 years; 53.70% females were evaluated. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was 10.95% (n = 587, 95% CI, 10.11-11.78 of which 7.48% (n = 401 patients self reported the condition, whereas 3.47% (n = 186 were previously undetected. Inland cities showed a higher prevalence of hypothyroidism as compared to coastal cities. A significantly higher ( P 5.50 μIU/ml. Anti - TPO antibodies suggesting autoimmunity were detected in 21.85% (n = 1171 patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypothyroidism was high, affecting approximately one in 10 adults in the study population. Female gender and older age were found to have significant association with hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism and anti-TPO antibody positivity were the other common observations.

  13. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Terrones-Saldívar, María del Carmen; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Muñoz-Terrones, María Daniela Enriqueta; Gallegos-González, Roberto Oswaldo; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Reyes-Robles, Martha Elena; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Pregnant women were enrolled in the central Mexican city of Aguascalientes. Participants We studied 338 pregnant women who attended prenatal care in 3 public health centres. Primary and secondary outcome measures Women were examined for IgG/IgM antibodies to T. gondii by using commercially available enzyme immunoassays, and an avidity test. Multiple analyses were used to determine the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women. Results Of the 338 pregnant women studied, 21 (6.2%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and 1 (4.8%) of them was also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Avidity of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was high in the IgM-positive sample. Logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic, behavioural and housing variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with white ethnicity (OR=149.4; 95% CI 10.8 to 2054.1; p<0.01), not washing hands before eating (OR=6.41; 95% CI 1.73 to 23.6; p=0.005) and use of latrine (OR=37.6; 95% CI 4.63 to 306.31; p=0.001). Conclusions Results demonstrate that pregnant women in Aguascalientes City have a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this low prevalence indicates that most pregnant women are at risk for a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii exposure found in this study, including food hygiene, may be useful to determine preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. PMID:27371556

  14. Managing the Urban Image. Cities as Scenery for Events: A White Night Event as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENI ATHANASOPOULOU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizing street events in the cities is not something new. Many cultural, social or religious events take place on the streets, whereas many of them have become international events and attract pan-european attention and coverage. Mega cities are organizing festivals and cultural events in order to attract tourists and contribute to local and regional development. This trend has started growing and spreading around Europe. Medium-sized cities are also organising such multi-dimensional public space events. As a case study it is interesting to present a white night event that took place in Kalamata (a medium-sized city in southern Greece, in August 2013. The shops stayed open until 3 in the morning, offering their products at reduced prices and encouraging people to consume. The city center provided the scenery for an alternative massive celebration. Parties were thrown and concerts took place, around the city. Many people from the Kalamata Region visited Kalamata City. The success was unexpected. This article describes what good can come out of the adoption of a successful north-European cultural white night event (in St. Petersburg and elsewhere. The implementation of an interesting idea, adjusted to the local circumstances, is worth to be looked into. The article concludes that urban scenery can play an important role to the organisation and success of such multicultural events.

  15. Remote noninvasive allograft rejection monitoring for heart transplant recipients: study protocol for the novel evaluation with home electrocardiogram and remote transmission (NEW HEART) study

    OpenAIRE

    Doering Lynn V; Hickey Kathleen; Pickham David; Chen Belinda; Drew Barbara J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute allograft rejection is a major cause of early mortality in the first year after heart transplantation in adults. Although endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is not a perfect "gold standard" for a correct diagnosis of acute allograft rejection, it is considered the best available test and thus, is the current standard practice. Unfortunately, EMB is an invasive and costly procedure that is not without risk. Recent evidence suggests that acute allograft rejection causes delay...

  16. Study of Model of Grey Decision Making to Choose Leading Industry of Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinglongZhang; GuangyongChen; WeiGuo; GangXie

    2004-01-01

    The Leading industry influences the economic development of one city. This paper establishes a decision factor system of choosing leading industry of cities, applies related decision theory in Grey System and invents the procedure of choosing leading industry, which achieved a good practical effect. Afterwards, the city Tianmen acclaims the dress industry as Leading Industry in its "The Tenth Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development of City TianMen".

  17. A heat robust city : case study designs for two neighbourhoods in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kleerekoper, L.; Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Van Dorst, M.J.; Hordijk, G J

    2011-01-01

    Urban Heat Islands in cities in the Netherlands are likely to increase due to a predicted climate change and the continuously increasing expansion and densification of cities, In contrast to rural areas cities are warmer because their paved surfaces retain heat, buildings block cooling winds and the lack of vegetation and water reduces evaporation. Although cities are already experiencing problems during periods with warm weather, there are no clear spatial means or strategies available for u...

  18. What makes people stay in or leave shrinking cities? An empirical study from Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Helena GUIMARÃES; Nunes, Luís Catela; Barreira, Ana Paula; Panagopoulos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The relative attractiveness of cities as places to live determines population movements in or out of them. Understanding the appealing features of a city is fundamental to local governments, particularly for cities facing population decline. Pull and push attributes of cities can include economic aspects, the availability of amenities and psychological constructs, initiating a discussion around which factors are more relevant in explaining migration. However, a pull–push approach has been und...

  19. Study of leukocytic hydrolytic enzymes in patients with acute stage of coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavan Vishwas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD is a major killer worldwide. Atherosclerosis, which is the basis of CHD, is believed to be an inflammatory disorder. Though various aspects of atherosclerosis are extensively studied, leukocytic hydrolytic enzymes are not studied very well with respect to CHD. AIM: This study was planned to assess changes associated with leukocytic hydrolases in CHD patients. SETTING AND DESIGN: A tertiary care hospital; case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 106 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 60 patients with unstable angina and 45 healthy controls were included in the study. Acid phosphatase, lysozyme, adenosine deaminase (ADA and cathepsin-G levels were estimated from leukocytes. Reduced glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Statistical comparison of data was done using student′s t-test (unpaired. Correlation difference was calculated by using Pearson correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of acid phosphatase, lysozyme, ADA with lower levels of cathepsin G in leukocytes were observed in CHD group. We also found significantly higher levels of serum MDA with lower concentrations of blood GSH in CHD group. In diabetic CHD group, significantly higher levels of leukocytic acid phosphatase, lysozyme, ADA and serum MDA with lower levels of cathepsin G and blood GSH were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that leukocyte hydrolytic enzymes, mainly acid phosphatase, lysozyme and ADA were more active in CHD patients and may contribute to inflammation related with CHD. Its also indicates that leukocyte cathepsin-G may have antiinflammatory role.

  20. Aortic root compliance influences hemolysis in mechanical heart valve prostheses: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Torsten; Hamilton, Kathrin F; Navalon, Elena Cuenca; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2012-07-01

    Mechanical heart valve prostheses are known to activate coagulation and cause hemolysis. Both are particularly dependent on the leaflet dynamics, which in turn depends on the flow field in the aortic root influenced by the aortic root geometry and its compliance. Compliance reduction of large vessels occurs in aging patients, both in those who have atherosclerotic diseases and those who do not. In this study we investigated the correlation between hemolysis and the compliance of the proximal aorta in a novel, pulsatile in vitro blood tester using porcine blood. Two mechanical heart valves, the St Jude Medical (SJM) bileaflet valve and a trileaflet valve prototype (Triflo) were tested for hemolysis under physiological conditions (120/80 mm Hg, 4.5 l/min, 70 bpm) and using two different tester setups: with a stiff aorta and with a compliant aorta. Valve dynamics were subsequently analyzed via high-speed videos. In the tests with the Triflo valve, the free plasma hemoglobin increased by 13.4 mg/dl for the flexible and by 19.3 mg/dl for the stiff setup during the 3-hour test. The FFT spectra and closing speed showed slight differences for both setups. Free plasma hemoglobin for the SJM valve was up by 22.2 mg/dl in the flexible and 42.7 mg/dl in the stiff setup. Cavitation induced by the higher closing speed might be responsible for this, which is also indicated by the sound spectrum elevation above 16 kHz. PMID:22669587