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Sample records for city formation central

  1. Sequential palynostratigraphy of the Queen City and Weches formations (Middle Eocene Claiborne Group), southeast central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsik, W.C. (MycoStrat Connection, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Palynomorph sequences of several orders of magnitude were found in the Queen City and Weches formations respectively at Six Mile and Burleson bluffs on the Brazos River, Milam and Burleson counties, Texas. The long term development of the subtropical to tropical Claibornian palynoflora included Engelhardtia spp., Friedrichipollis claibornensis, Nudopollis terminalis, Pollenites laesius and Symplocoipollenites spp. Shorter term fluctuations in sea level were reflected by common herbaceous pollen in the Queen City, and common mangrove pollen in the Weches. Paleoenvironments were marginally to fully marine; dinocysts occurred throughout. The Wetzeliella group of dinocysts were present only in the Queen City at Six Mile Bluff. Late Paleocene to Early Eocene pollen, and Early Middle Eocene pollen with last effective occurrences near the Queen City and Weches boundary included Aesculiidites circumstriatus, Annona foveoreticulata and a new species of Platycarya. Five short term warmer-cooler couplet events were represented by successive abundance peaks of Juglandaceae followed by Ulmus; Alnus supports the three upper Ulmus peaks. One deep water event was recorded by an abundance of fresh water Pediastrum at the Queen City and Weches boundary. That boundary event was bracketed by two of the Alnus and Ulmus peaks.

  2. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  3. Earnings inequality and central-city development

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Edwin S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper was presented at the conference "Unequal incomes, unequal outcomes? Economic inequality and measures of well-being" as part of session 4, "Economic inequality and local public services." The conference was held at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on May 7, 1999. The author considers not only the competition between cities, but also the competition between cities and the surrounding areas - the suburbs. He notes that rising income inequality tends to lead to greater income dispa...

  4. The Dynamics of City Formation: Finance and Governance

    OpenAIRE

    J. Henderson; Venables, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    This Paper examines city formation in a country whose urban population is growing steadily over time, with new cities required to accommodate this growth. In contrast to most of the literature there is immobility of housing and urban infrastructure, and investment in these assets is taken on the basis of forward-looking behaviour. In the presence of these fixed assets cities form sequentially, without the population swings in existing cities that arise in current models. Equilibrium city size...

  5. FORMATION MECHANISM AND SPATIAL PATTERN OF URBAN AGGLOMERATION IN CENTRAL JILIN OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Gan; ZHANG Ping-yu; JIAO Bin

    2006-01-01

    Urban agglomeration is made up of cities with different sizes to be linked by traffic network in a given area, and it is an inevitable result when urbanization reaches a certain level. Taking urban agglomerationin central Jilin(UACJ) as an example, this article analyzes the formation mechanism and spatial pattern of urban agglomeration in the less-developed area. First, the dynamics of UACJ has been analyzed from the aspects of geographical condition, economic foundation, policy background, and traffic condition. Then the development process is divided into three stages-single city, city group and city cluster. Secondly, the central cities are identified from the aspects of city centrality, and the development axes are classified based on economic communication capacity. Finally, the urban agglomeration is divided into five urban economic regions in order to establish the reasonable distribution of industries.

  6. Analysis of Leading Cities in Central Europe: Control of Regional Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Csomós György (1974-) (geográfus)

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the characteristic orientations in social science studies focusing on cities is the ranking of cities, as well as the definition of the world's leading cities (world cities, global cities) on the basis of various criteria. Central European countries are given just a minor role in these researches, particularly in comparison with German cities with their considerable economic performance. This analysis compares the large cities of Austria, Germany and the countries of the Vise...

  7. Delimitating central areas of cities based on road density: a case study of Guangzhou City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingnian; Lu, Xueqiu

    2009-10-01

    The central area of a city is an important functional unit in many urban studies. It is a region where business concentrates and municipal facilities densely distribute. Traditionally, statistics of economic and social phenomena can be used to delimitate their boundaries. However, traditional methods based on economic and social investigation are labor-intensive and sometimes inaccurate. Alternatively, road networks acting as a kind of infrastructure reflect the association of locations. Thus the concentration of road networks indicates the congestion of social-economic activities and municipal facilities to some extent. Based on density analysis of road networks, the area where roads densely distribute is recognized as the central area of a city. Taking Guangzhou City as an example, the road network was studied on a set of spatial scopes, and the central area was delimitated and analyzed. Results showed that the road-density-based delimitation had to be adjusted according to the road system, and the delimitated area was consistent to the real central area to some extent. Since road data is much accessible, road-based method is useful and practical when short of socialeconomic data.

  8. Chemical composition of runoff water in Raipur city, central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Balram

    2015-03-01

    Runoff water is an important transporting medium for various pollutants from land to surface water. Several mobiles and stationary sources such as vehicles, steel cement and thermal power plants, cooking, street, construction debris, etc. are emitting effluents in the environment of the central India. The rain runoff water washes out the air as well as land pollutants and flushes out into water bodies. Therefore, rain runoff water pollution in most urbanized and industrialized city of central India, i.e., Raipur during rainy season (May-September 2012) is analyzed statistically using cluster and principal component analysis to assess sources. The cluster analysis grouped runoff water samples into two clusters based on the similarity of runoff water quality characteristics of the total variance. The factor analysis differentiated the diffused sources of runoff water contaminants. The enrichment factors and runoff fluxes of the contaminants are discussed.

  9. Thermal footprints in groundwater of central European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, P.; Menberg, K.; Blum, P.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric thermal pollution in densely populated areas is recognized as a severe problem with consequences for human health, and considerable efforts are being taken to mitigate heat stress in cities. However, anthropogenic activities also influence the thermal environment beneath the ground level, with commonly growing temperatures that affect groundwater ecology and geothermal use efficiency. In our work, we identify the controlling mechanisms for the long-term evolution of such urban heat islands. The shallow groundwater temperatures in several central European cities such as Cologne, Karlsruhe, Munich, Berlin and Zurich were mapped at high spatial and temporal resolution. Thermal anomalies were found to be highly heterogeneous with local hot spots showing temperatures of more than 20°C. Accordingly, these urban regions show a considerable groundwater warming in comparison to undisturbed temperatures of 8-11°C. Examination of potential heat sources by analytical modelling reveals that increased ground surface temperatures and basements of buildings act as dominant drivers for the anthropogenic heat input into the groundwater. The factors are revealed to be case-specific and they may have pronounced local or regional effects. Typical local factors are for example buried district heating networks. In selected cities we find that the average urban heat flux is around one order of magnitude higher than the elevated ground heat flux due to recent climate change. Additionally, such as observed in Zurich, naturally controlled temperature variations can be substantial and they are shown to wash out anthropogenic thermal footprints.

  10. Liquefaction severity map for Aksaray city center (Central Anatolia, Turkey

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    A. Yalcin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Turkey having a long history of large earthquakes have been subjected to progressive adjacent earthquakes. Starting in 1939, the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ produced a sequence of major earthquakes, of which the Mw 7.4 earthquake that struck western Turkey on 17 August 1999. Following the Erzincan earthquake in 1992, the soil liquefaction has been crucial important in the agenda of Turkey. Soil liquefaction was also observed widely during the Marmara and the Düzce Earthquake in 1999 (Sönmez, 2003. Aksaray city center locates in the central part of Turkey and the Tuzgolu Fault Zone passes through near the city center. The fault zone has been generated to moderate magnitude earthquakes. The geology of the Aksaray province basin contains Quaternary alluvial deposits formed by gravel, sand, silt, and clay layers in different thickness. The Tuzgolu Fault Zone (TFZ came into being after the sedimetation of alluvial deposits. Thus, the fault is younger from lithological units and it is active. In addition, the ground water level is very shallow, within approximately 3 m from the surface. In this study, the liquefaction potential of the Aksaray province is investigated by recent procedure suggested by Sonmez and Gokceoglu (2005. For this purpose, the liquefaction susceptibility map of the Aksaray city center for liquefaction is presented. In the analysis, the input parameters such as the depth of the upper and lower boundaries of soil layer, SPT-N values, fine content, clay content and the liquid limit were used for all layers within 20 m from the surface. As a result, the category of very high susceptibility liquefaction class was not observed for the earthquake scenario of Ms=5.2, 4.9% of the study area has high liquefaction susceptibility. The percentage of the moderately, low, and very low liquefied areas are 28.2%, 30.2%, and 36.3%, respectively. The rank of non-liquefied susceptibility area is less than 1%.

  11. Urban Services Delivery and the Poor : The Case of Three Central American Cities, Volume 2. City Reports

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    The present study describes, and quantifies the provision of basic urban services to the poor, in three Central American cities in El Salvador, Honduras, and, Panama. It also identifies priority areas for government intervention, using specialized household surveys to quantify current deficits, and to rank households from poor to rich, using aggregate consumption as the measure of welfare....

  12. The Central Asian Armies Facing the Challenge of Formation

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    Sébastien Peyrouse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the main challenges that Central Asian armies face, that is, the problem of training and formation. Having rapidly increased since 2007, Central Asian military budgets have been able to multiply the purchases of equipment and weapons from foreign partners (Russia, western countries, Israel, China, South Korea, etc.. Money is not enough, however, to get the military institution back on its feet in its most human aspect, that of formation. In fact, the teaching institutions and the training possibilities provided to conscripts and professional soldiers on contract are generally of inadequate quality and impede the overall military capacities of the Central Asian states. This article will examine the main problems of the Central Asian military institutions and will discuss the means that have been implemented by Central Asian governments to reduce the negative impact of difficulties in promoting human capital.

  13. Analysis on Tourism Economic Spatial Relation of Liaoning Central City Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guodong; SUN; Liang; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Through the calculation and analysis of the tourism economic spatial relation,it found that Liaoning central urban agglomeration tourism economic spatial relation has many problems,such as the central city is insufficient,and the low degree of spatial relations. Therefore,this article puts forward the countermeasures,which can provide theoretical and practical reference for Liaoning central urban agglomeration tourism industry layout.

  14. Planning regulations in the USA and their implications on urban design in the central city zone

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    Dinić Milena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 20th century, urban planning of the American cities was founded on the strong capitalist system and vast available land area. After a long period of planning, which was suited for the use of automobiles, nowadays the deficiencies both in the urban structure and social sphere are very obvious. Modern planning is striving to prescribe guidelines for urban design and thus create a continuity of cityscape and emphasize the pedestrian character of the area, particularly in central city zones. Town planning in the USA comprises local regulations which are suited to the needs of individual cities. Particularly important are the implications which certain town planning regulations have on the design of physical structures in the central city zone, which is the research goal of this paper.

  15. Influence of evapotranspiration on thermal comfort in central European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, A.; Kuttler, W.

    2012-04-01

    In future, more and more people will be exposed to the negative thermal effects of urban climate, which will be exacerbated by predicted climate change. In regard to urban climate studies, it is necessary to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies tailored to the problem area and to include them in the local planning process. Urban green spaces or water bodies could help to mitigate the radiation and air temperature. For this purpose eddy-covariance technique has been carried out in Oberhausen (Germany; 51° N, 6° E) between 15 August 2010 and 14 August 2011 to quantify turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes in areas with various types of urban land use. The results show that sensible heat flux (QH) is 20 % higher, latent heat flux (QE) 90 % lower at the urban (URB) site compared to the suburban one (SUB). Furthermore, partition of the turbulent heat fluxes (QH/Q* resp. QE/Q*) clearly depends on plan area density (λP). The human-biometeorological thermal index, the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), demonstrates that green spaces counteract growing thermal stress on city-dwellers due to improving thermal comfort. Aside from the positive effect of shading, inner-city green spaces can only be effective if an adequate water supply is ensured. Otherwise, the positive thermal effects of green spaces resulting from transpiration will be reduced to a minimum or eliminated entirely, which is confirmed by the measured values. Additional planning recommendations for urban planners within cities located at mid-latitudes derived from measuring results are given.

  16. The role of housing policy in the transformation of Central European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Milanović

    1993-01-01

    The article deals with the process of housing privatization and urban revitalization in the transformation of Central European cities. Reforms require extensive privatization of firms as well as land and housing. The process of housing privatization includes changes in ownership, management of the housing stock and a new system of housing finances, which will affect new construction, modernization and rehabilitation of the existing stock and can lead to social and physical changes in cities. ...

  17. A Spatial Model of City Growth and Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Aldous, David; Huang, Bowen

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a model in which city populations grow at rates proportional to the area of their "sphere of influence", where the influence of a city depends on its population (to power \\alpha) and distance from city (to power -\\beta) and where new cities arise according to a certain random rule. A simple non-rigorous analysis of asymptotics indicates that for \\beta > 2\\alpha$ the system exhibits "balanced growth" in which there are an increasing number of large cities, whose populations have t...

  18. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in Isfahan city, central Iran, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Rasool; Sharifi, Forough; Bagherpour, Bahram; Safari, Marzieh

    2016-09-01

    Intestinal parasites are important enteric pathogens. Poverty, low quality of food and water supply and poor sanitation systems are the important factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections. These kinds of infections can be a good index for hygienic and sanitation status of the society. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among humans referred to Dr. Sharifi Clinical Laboratory, Isfahan, Iran, 2014. In this cross sectional study, 652 fecal samples (286 males and 366 females) from humans who had stool examination test from January to August 2014 were chosen. Microscopic examination for parasitic infections has been carried out using wet mount method. Indistinguishable samples underwent trichrome staining method for accurate identification of protozoa. Intestinal parasitic infections were observed in 68 (10.42 %) out of 652 studied humans. Forty eight Blastocystis hominis (7.36 %), thirteen Endolimax nana (1.99 %), nine Giardia lamblia (1.38 %), five Entamoeba coli (0.76 %), four Chilomastix mesnili (0.61 %) and two Iodamoeba butschlii (0.15 %) were the observed protozoa in the studied population. B. hominis, E. nana and C. mesnili were found to be significantly more prevalent in people with loose stool specimen. Considering the helminthic infections, only one case (0.15 %) that was excreted Taenia saginata proglottids has been documented among 652 studied humans. Based on the findings of the present study intestinal parasitic infections in Isfahan city has been dramatically decreased over the past years and shows a good hygienic and sanitation status of the city. PMID:27605766

  19. Peculiar early-type galaxies with central star formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Ge; Qiu-Sheng Gu

    2012-01-01

    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) are very important for understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies.Recent observations suggest that ETGs are not simply old stellar spheroids as we previously thought.Widespread recent star formation,cool gas and dust have been detected in a substantial fraction of ETGs.We make use of the radial profiles of g - r color and the concentration index from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database to pick out 31 peculiar ETGs with central blue cores.By analyzing the photometric and spectroscopic data,we suggest that the blue cores are caused by star formation activities rather than the central weak active galactic nucleus.From the results of stellar population synthesis,we find that the stellar population of the blue cores is relatively young,spreading from several Myr to less than one Gyr.In 14 galaxies with H I observations,we find that the average gas fraction of these galaxies is about 0.55.The bluer galaxies show a higher gas fraction,and the total star formation rate (SFR) correlates very well with the H l gas mass.The star formation history of these ETGs is affected by the environment,e.g.in the denser environment the H 1 gas is less and the total SFR is lower.We also discuss the origin of the central star formation of these early-type galaxies.

  20. A Spatial Model of City Growth and Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Aldous, David

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a model in which city populations grow at rates proportional to the area of their "sphere of influence", where the influence of a city depends on its population (to power \\alpha) and distance from city (to power -\\beta) and where new cities arise according to a certain random rule. A simple non-rigorous analysis of asymptotics indicates that for \\beta > 2\\alpha$ the system exhibits "balanced growth" in which there are an increasing number of large cities, whose populations have the same order of magnitude, whereas for \\beta < 2\\alpha$ the system exhibits "unbalanced growth" in which a few cities capture most of the total population. Conceptually the model is best regarded as a spatial analog of the combinatorial "Chinese restaurant process".

  1. Star Formation in the Central Kiloparsec of Nearby Active Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate star formation (SF) activity in the central kpc of a sample of nearby Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs). AGN activities are expected to either trigger SF via accreting ISM to the central regions of the host galaxies or quench the SF via the energy feedback of the AGNs. To study the AGN-SF relation we select 113 nearby galaxies that host 8 GHz central radio sources. We use 8 GHz radio emission to represent the AGN activity and 8 micron dust emission in the central kpc regions of these galaxies to estimate the SF rate (SFR). The SFR is found to be correlated with the stellar mass for stellar mass greater than 1010 solar mass and looks scattered for stellar mass less than 1010 solar mass. There is no correlation between the specific SFR (SSFR) and the AGN activity for all sources. However, if we exclude the sources with the central stellar mass greater than 1010 solar mass, we find that the 8 GHz radio emission is well correlated with the SSFR. These results suggest that the AGN activity is significant in triggering SF activity only for small galaxies. Besides, we also select about 20 nearby AGN galaxies to investigate the radial variation of their surface specific star formation rate.

  2. Analysis on the Formation Reason of a Dusty Weather in the Midwest of Hulun Buir City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to analyze the formation reason of a dusty weather in the midwest of Hulun Buir City. [Method] By combining the synoptic method with the ecological environment variation, the occurrence and influence of a typical dusty weather which happened in the midwest of Hulun Buir City on May 30, 2006 were analyzed. The occurrence mechanism of dusty weather in the city was elaborated deeply, and the source of dusty weather was put forward from the ecological environment variation angle. ...

  3. The Aalborg case - GPS tracking of 169 young adults in a Danish central city area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Bro, Peter; Knudsen, Anne-Marie

    Recent developments in the global positioning system (GPS) and the global system for mobile communications, or third generation technology (GSM/3G), have enabled an increasingly simple and cost-effective tracking of human activity in urban areas through the use of mobile telephony for the...... was based on a unique sample of movement data gleaned from 169 young adults aged 16 to 20 years. Each person was GPS-tracked over a period of seven days in 2008-2009 to record their movements in and uses of spaces in the central city area of Aalborg, which is Denmark’s fourth-largest city, with 122...

  4. Resolving the Formation of Protogalaxies. II.Central Gravitational Collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Abel, Tom

    2007-10-15

    Numerous cosmological hydrodynamic studies have addressed the formation of galaxies. Here we choose to study the first stages of galaxy formation, including non-equilibrium atomic primordial gas cooling, gravity and hydrodynamics. Using initial conditions appropriate for the concordance cosmological model of structure formation, we perform two adaptive mesh refinement simulations of {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub {circle_dot}} galaxies at high redshift. The calculations resolve the Jeans length at all times with more than 16 cells and capture over 14 orders of magnitude in length scales. In both cases, the dense, 10{sup 5} solar mass, one parsec central regions are found to contract rapidly and have turbulent Mach numbers up to 4. Despite the ever decreasing Jeans length of the isothermal gas, we only find one site of fragmentation during the collapse. However, rotational secular bar instabilities transport angular momentum outwards in the central parsec as the gas continues to collapse and lead to multiple nested unstable fragments with decreasing masses down to sub-Jupiter mass scales. Although these numerical experiments neglect star formation and feedback, they clearly highlight the physics of turbulence in gravitationally collapsing gas. The angular momentum segregation seen in our calculations plays an important role in theories that form supermassive black holes from gaseous collapse.

  5. Star Formation in the Central Regions of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mengchun

    2015-08-01

    The galactic central region connects the galactic nucleus to the host galaxy. If the central black hole co-evolved with the host galaxies, there should be some evidence left in the central region. We use the environmental properties in the central regions such as star-forming activity, stellar population and molecular abundance to figure out a possible scenario of the evolution of galaxies. In this thesis at first we investigated the properties of the central regions in the host galaxies of active and normal galaxies. We used radio emission around the nuclei of the host galaxies to represent activity of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and used infrared ray (IR) emission to represent the star-forming activity and stellar population of the host galaxies. We determined that active galaxies have higher stellar masses (SMs) within the central kiloparsec radius than normal galaxies do independent of the Hubble types of the host galaxies; but both active and normal galaxies exhibit similar specific star formation rates (SSFRs). We also discovered that certain AGNs exhibit substantial inner stellar structures in the IR images; most of the AGNs with inner structures are Seyferts, whereas only a few LINERs exhibit inner structures. We note that the AGNs with inner structures show a positive correlation between the radio activity of the AGNs and the SFRs of the host galaxies, but the sources without inner structures show a negative correlation between the radio power and the SFRs. These results might be explained with a scenario of starburst-AGN evolution. In this scenario, AGN activities are triggered following a nuclear starburst; during the evolution, AGN activities are accompanied by SF activity in the inner regions of the host galaxies; at the final stage of the evolution, the AGNs might transform into LINERs, exhibiting weak SF activity in the central regions of the host galaxies. For further investigation about the inner structure, we choose the most nearby and luminous

  6. Synanthropic trends in urban andextraurban taxocenoses of Sarcophaginae (Diptera in three central european cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Povolny

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to characterize the synanthropic trends in Sarcophaginae of three Central European cities, viz. Brno, Bratislava and Budapest. The polar ordination of both sarcophagine taxa and of their taxocenoses revealed clear-cut trends towards culturophily and synanthropy in the male preconnubial aggregations of Sarchophaginae evidencing that this group of high Diptera represent an excellent model for the study of this phenomenon.

  7. On the long term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air-quality

    OpenAIRE

    P. Huszar; M. Belda; T. Halenka

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air-quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001–2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban e...

  8. Astrocyte scar formation aids central nervous system axon regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark A; Burda, Joshua E; Ren, Yilong; Ao, Yan; O'Shea, Timothy M; Kawaguchi, Riki; Coppola, Giovanni; Khakh, Baljit S; Deming, Timothy J; Sofroniew, Michael V

    2016-04-14

    Transected axons fail to regrow in the mature central nervous system. Astrocytic scars are widely regarded as causal in this failure. Here, using three genetically targeted loss-of-function manipulations in adult mice, we show that preventing astrocyte scar formation, attenuating scar-forming astrocytes, or ablating chronic astrocytic scars all failed to result in spontaneous regrowth of transected corticospinal, sensory or serotonergic axons through severe spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions. By contrast, sustained local delivery via hydrogel depots of required axon-specific growth factors not present in SCI lesions, plus growth-activating priming injuries, stimulated robust, laminin-dependent sensory axon regrowth past scar-forming astrocytes and inhibitory molecules in SCI lesions. Preventing astrocytic scar formation significantly reduced this stimulated axon regrowth. RNA sequencing revealed that astrocytes and non-astrocyte cells in SCI lesions express multiple axon-growth-supporting molecules. Our findings show that contrary to the prevailing dogma, astrocyte scar formation aids rather than prevents central nervous system axon regeneration. PMID:27027288

  9. On the long term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air-quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air-quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The validation of the modeling system's air-quality related outputs using AirBase and EMEP surface measurements showed satisfactory reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In terms of hourly correlations, reasonable values are achieved for ozone (r around 0.5-0.8) and for NO2 (0.4-0.6), but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. EC air-quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. Further

  10. Radon measurement works in Dhaka city and central part of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major source of natural radiation that irradiates the human body is primarily due to inhalation of Radon and its short-lived progeny nuclides. It is well known that exposure of population to high concentration of Radon and its daughters for a long period leads to pathological effects like the respiratory functional changes and the occurrence of lung cancer. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (CR-39) are being used for detection and measurement works of radon and its progeny in Bangladesh. Dhaka the capital of Bangladesh and some areas of the central region of Bangladesh are chosen for the present study to measure the Radon concentration level of the country. Dhaka is one of the most populous cities in Bangladesh as well as in the world. High working levels (WL) were found in some locations of Dhaka city specially in the old part of the city where so many ancient building are established and in some villages of the central part of the country. The aim of the study is to prepare a Radon Map of Bangladesh and the results so far obtained have been presented in the paper. (author)

  11. On the long-term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2016-02-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC). The modeling system's air quality related outputs were evaluated using AirBase, and EMEP surface measurements showed reasonable reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), but the annual cycle of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) is more biased. In terms of hourly correlations, values achieved for ozone and NO2 are 0.5-0.8 and 0.4-0.6, but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. European air quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to

  12. Fragment Formation in Central Heavy Ion Collisions at Relativistic Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Santini, E; Colonna, M; Di Toro, M

    2005-01-01

    We perform a systematic study of the fragmentation path of excited nuclear matter in central heavy ion collisions at the intermediate energy of $0.4 AGeV$. The theoretical calculations are based on a Relativistic Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck ($RBUU$) transport equation including stochastic effects. A Relativistic Mean Field ($RMF$) approach is used, based on a non-linear Lagrangian, with coupling constants tuned to reproduce the high density results of calculations with correlations. At variance with the case at Fermi energies, a new fast clusterization mechanism is revealed in the early compression stage of the reaction dynamics. Fragments appear directly produced from phase-space fluctuations due to two-body correlations. In-medium effects of the elastic nucleon-nucleon cross sections on the fragmentation dynamics are particularly discussed. The subsequent evolution of the primordial clusters is treated using a simple phenomenological phase space coalescence algorithm. The reliability of the approach, format...

  13. Dietary patterns are associated with general and central obesity in elderly living in a Brazilian city

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Lucelia Moreira; Jose Eduardo Corrente; Paulo Jose Fortes Villas Boas; Ana Lucia Anjos Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Objective: dietary pattern evaluation is often used in order to determine wheter a diet is healthy, as well as to predict the onset of diseases. This study aimed to identify dietary patterns, and to examine their associations with general (body mass index) and central (waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio) obesity in community-living elderly in a Brazilian city. Methods: this cross-sectional study included 126 elderly subjects aged 60 or older (57.1% females and mean age 74.2 ± 6.46 y...

  14. Wintertime measurements of aerosol acidity and trace elements in wuhan, a city in central china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.), the pervasive use of soft coal leads to situations where the concentrations of SO2 and particulate matter approach or surpass those historically observed in London. A cooperative investigation of the effects of air pollution upon the lung function of children in five Chinese cities has been developed among China EPA, U.S. EPA and Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. The paper presents initial results of a winter air pollution field study conducted in Wuhan, one of the selected cities. A 2-week intensive ambient aerosol study was conducted in December 1988 in Wuhan (Hubei Province), a city of nearly 2 million located on the Yangtze River in central China (P.R.C.). This is an industrial region where soft coal burning is widespread, and emission controls for vehicles and industrial facilities are minimal. The sampling site was located in one of the civic centers where residential and commercial density is highest. The purpose of this initial intensive study period was to obtain information on the chemical and physical characteristics of the aerosol species in the urban P.R.C. setting. The focus was the composition and acidity of fine particulate material

  15. Organizational support for the formation of the program of economic and social development of Donetsk city

    OpenAIRE

    Anisimov, A.; Dorofeyeva, A.

    2014-01-01

    Article analyzes the organizational structure and the interaction between the participants of the formation of the program of socio-economic development of Donetsk city, systematizes their functions, identifies problems and to substantiates directions of organizational interaction of responsible executives and program coordinators. The main result is the set of regulations and recommendations for the creation of organizational support for the formation of the program of economic and social de...

  16. The Income of Central City and Suburban Migrants: A Case Study of the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Robert P.

    1998-01-01

    The demographic and urban literature on the decline of central cities often asserts that the cities’ population losses have been especially heavy for middle and upper income households. Attracting middle and upper income residents, and retaining those who live there currently, is then viewed as a crucial ingredient to rebuilding the tax base and civic life of these cities. This paper examines empirically the income and population of the District of Columbia and surrounding Maryland and Virgin...

  17. Robustness and Closeness Centrality for Self-Organized and Planned Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Masucci, A Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Street networks are important infrastructural transportation systems that cover a great part of the planet. It is now widely accepted that transportation properties of street networks are better understood in the interplay between the street network itself and the so called \\textit{information} or \\textit{dual network}, which embeds the topology of the street network navigation system. In this work, we present a novel robustness analysis, based on the interaction between the primal and the dual transportation layer for two large metropolis, London and Chicago, thus considering the structural differences to intentional attacks for \\textit{self-organized} and planned cities. We elaborate the results through an accurate closeness centrality analysis in the Euclidean space and in the relationship between primal and dual space. Interestingly enough, we find that even if the considered planar graphs display very distinct properties, the information space induce them to converge toward systems which are similar in t...

  18. Soil Communities of Central Park, New York City: A Biodiversity Melting Pot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, K. S.; Leff, J. W.; Wall, D. H.; Fierer, N.

    2013-12-01

    The majority of earth's biodiversity lives in and makes up the soil, but the majority of soil biodiversity has yet to be characterized or even quantified. This may be especially true of urban soil systems. The last decade of advances in molecular, technical and bioinformatic techniques have contributed greatly to our understanding of belowground biodiversity, from global distribution to species counts. Yet, much of this work has been done in ';natural' systems and it is not known if established patterns of distribution, especially in relation to soil factors hold up in urban soils. Urban soils are intensively managed and disturbed, often by effects unique to urban settings. It remains unclear how urban pressures influence soil biodiversity, or if there is a defined or typical ';urban soil community'. Here we describe a study to examine the total soil biodiversity - Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya- of Central Park, New York City and test for patterns of distribution and relationships to soil characteristics. We then compare the biodiversity of Central Park to 57 global soils, spanning a number of biomes from Alaska to Antarctica. In this way we can identify similarities and differences in soil communities of Central Park to soils from ';natural' systems. To generate a broad-scale survey of total soil biodiversity, 596 soil samples were collected from across Central Park (3.41 km2). Soils varied greatly in vegetation cover and soil characteristics (pH, moisture, soil C and soil N). Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology we characterized the complete soil community from 16S rRNA (Bacteria and Archaea) and 18S rRNA gene sequences (Eukarya). Samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. To compare Central Park to the 57 global soils the complete soil community of the global soils was also characterized using Illumina sequencing technology. All samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. The total measured biodiversity in Central Park was

  19. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Post-Top Lighting at Central Park in New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Michael; Goettel, Russell T.; Kinzey, Bruce R.

    2012-09-30

    A review of five post-top light-emitting diode (LED) pedestrian luminaires installed in New York City's Central Park for possible replacement to the existing metal halide post-top luminaire. This report reviews the energy savings potential and lighting delivered by the LED post-top luminaires.

  20. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-01

    This case study describes how Verizon's Central Office in Garden City, NY, installed a 1.4-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system as an alternative solution to bolster electric reliability, optimize the company's energy use, and reduce costs in an environmentally responsible manner.

  1. Comparison of particulate number concentrations in three Central European capital cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsós, T; Řimnáčová, D; Ždímal, V; Smolík, J; Wagner, Z; Weidinger, T; Burkart, J; Steiner, G; Reischl, G; Hitzenberger, R; Schwarz, J; Salma, I

    2012-09-01

    Number size distributions of atmospheric aerosol particles in the mobility diameter range from 10 to 1000 nm were determined in Budapest, Prague and Vienna for a one-year-long period. Particle number concentrations in various size fractions, their diurnal and seasonal variations, mean size distributions and some properties of new particle formation events were derived and compared. Yearly median particle number concentrations for Budapest, Prague and Vienna were 10.6×10(3), 7.3×10(3) and 8.0×10(3) cm(-3). Differences were linked to the different pollution levels of the cities, and to diverse measurement environments and local conditions. Mean contributions of ultrafine particles (particles with a mobility diameter site also influenced the diurnal variation. Diurnal variation of the mean ratio of ultrafine particles to N(100-1000) clearly revealed the presence and importance of new particle formation and subsequent growth in urban environments. Nucleation frequencies in Budapest and Prague were 27% and 23%, respectively on a yearly time scale. They showed a minimum in winter for both places, while the largest nucleation activity was observed in spring for Budapest, and in summer for Prague. PMID:22819892

  2. Chanco formation, a potential Cretaceous reservoir, central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecione, G.

    1983-07-01

    The Chanco embayment lies 300 km SSW of Santiago, Chile. The sequence within this basin above the metamorphic basement is: Chanco Formation (very clean sandstone), Quiriquina Formation (glauconitic sandstone, rich in organic matter), and Navidad Group (a very good caprock). This section thus contains reservoir, source and caprocks, and is therefore very promising for petroleum investigations. The offshore C-1 well yielded salt-water with gas shows, and two wells drilled onshore yielded shows of gas. The C-1 well lies on a gently-dipping EW-striking anticlinal structure, the presence of which makes the area very prospective.

  3. Environmental parameters of a coral assemblage from the Akerchi Formation (Carboniferous), Adarouch Area, central Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Said, I; Rodríguez, Sergio; Berkhli, M.; Cózar, Pedro; Gómez-Herguedas, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    [EN] Rich assemblages of rugose corals occur in the Tizra, Akerchi and Idmarrach formations (Mississippian) near El-Hajeb City. The Akerchi Formation, approximately 140 m thick, is divided into two members. The upper part of the lower member contains a biostrome 2 to 5 m thick, composed mainly of rugose corals and gigantoproductid brachiopods embedded in marly limestone. Its local thickness increases from southwest to northeast in an outcrop extending for more than one kilometre. ...

  4. Biogeographic patterns in below-ground diversity in New York City's Central Park are similar to those observed globally

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Kelly S.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Barberán, Albert; Bates, Scott Thomas; Betley, Jason; Crowther, Thomas W.; Kelly, Eugene F.; Oldfield, Emily E.; Shaw, E. Ashley; Steenbock, Christopher; Bradford, Mark A.; Wall, Diana H.; Fierer, Noah

    2014-01-01

    Soil biota play key roles in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, however, compared to our knowledge of above-ground plant and animal diversity, the biodiversity found in soils remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we present an assessment of soil biodiversity and biogeographic patterns across Central Park in New York City that spanned all three domains of life, demonstrating that even an urban, managed system harbours large amounts of undescribed soil biodiversity. Despite high variab...

  5. Education Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  6. Biofilm formation in long-term central venous catheters in children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handrup, Mette Møller; Fuursted, Kurt; Funch, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    Taurolidine has demonstrated inhibition of biofilm formation in vitro. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of catheter locking with taurolidine vs heparin in biofilm formation in central venous catheters. Forty-eight children with cancer were randomized to catheter locking by heparin ...

  7. Central role of pyrophosphate in acellular cementum formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Foster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i is a physiologic inhibitor of hydroxyapatite mineral precipitation involved in regulating mineralized tissue development and pathologic calcification. Local levels of PP(i are controlled by antagonistic functions of factors that decrease PP(i and promote mineralization (tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, Alpl/TNAP, and those that increase local PP(i and restrict mineralization (progressive ankylosis protein, ANK; ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase-1, NPP1. The cementum enveloping the tooth root is essential for tooth function by providing attachment to the surrounding bone via the nonmineralized periodontal ligament. At present, the developmental regulation of cementum remains poorly understood, hampering efforts for regeneration. To elucidate the role of PP(i in cementum formation, we analyzed root development in knock-out ((-/- mice featuring PP(i dysregulation. RESULTS: Excess PP(i in the Alpl(-/- mouse inhibited cementum formation, causing root detachment consistent with premature tooth loss in the human condition hypophosphatasia, though cementoblast phenotype was unperturbed. Deficient PP(i in both Ank and Enpp1(-/- mice significantly increased cementum apposition and overall thickness more than 12-fold vs. controls, while dentin and cellular cementum were unaltered. Though PP(i regulators are widely expressed, cementoblasts selectively expressed greater ANK and NPP1 along the root surface, and dramatically increased ANK or NPP1 in models of reduced PP(i output, in compensatory fashion. In vitro mechanistic studies confirmed that under low PP(i mineralizing conditions, cementoblasts increased Ank (5-fold and Enpp1 (20-fold, while increasing PP(i inhibited mineralization and associated increases in Ank and Enpp1 mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Results from these studies demonstrate a novel developmental regulation of acellular cementum, wherein cementoblasts tune cementogenesis by modulating

  8. The formation of music-scenes in Manchester and their relation to urban space and the image of the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    and the image of the city. This image has later been utilised in the branding of Manchester as a creative city. The case is interesting in relation to the current ideals of planning ‘creative cities’ and local cultural scenes. The music scenes cannot be seen as participatory projects and has developed...... and cultural scenes. The study is based on literature-review of music-history, on site visits and an interview with a key stakeholder. It does only sporadically rely on theoretical literature.......The formation of music-scenes in Manchester and their relation to urban space and the image of the city The paper I would like to present derives from a study of the relation between the atmospheric qualities of a city and the formation of music scenes. I have studied Manchester which is a known...

  9. Research on Model of Guiding Rural Residents’ Relatively Centralized Residence——A Case Study of Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expounding the status quo of rural residents’ residence, the thesis notes that influenced by the weak foundation of rural economy, the characteristic of mountain landscape, smallholder consciousness, shortage of capital and other factors, the rural residents in Chongqing City mainly live scattered. In addition to opportunities of the expansion and drive of city, rural market development, rural resources development, rural industrial development, and rural ecological migration, the model of urban development promotion, the model of market development drive, the model of land development drive, the model of rural industry construction and the model of resettlement and reconstruction are advocated in order to guide the rural residents to adopt relative centralized residence. The suggestions concerning guiding rural residents’ relative centralized residence are put forward as follows: firstly, act according to circumstances and conduct scientific planning and design; secondly, propagate extensively and activate famers’ willingness; thirdly, first experiment and exert the exemplary guide; fourthly, perfect policy and guarantee farmers’ benefit; fifthly, strengthen leadership and decrease the risk of centralized residence; sixthly, boost gradually and realize moderate centralized residence.

  10. Mumbai : the bicycle friendly city, bicycle masterplan & design guidelines for central mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Lina

    2011-01-01

    Mumbai – the city of contrasts, is home for more than 20 million people. It is the financial centre and the most modern city in India. As most cities within developing countries Mumbai is striving to imitate the western model of growth and lifestyle to achieve a “developed” status. Motorization, especially private motorized modes, has become prioritized because they are seen as a big part of this development. This neglecting has also led to a significant prejudice against bicycle riding as a ...

  11. Wintertime measurements of aerosol acidity and trace elements in Wuhan, a city in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, J. M.; Lioy, P. J.; Zelenka, M.; Jing, L.; Lin, Y. N.; He, Q. C.; Qian, Z. M.; Chapman, R.; Wilson, W. E.

    A 2-week intensive ambient aerosol study was conducted in December 1988 in Wuhan (Hubei Province), a city of nearly 2 million located on the Yangtze River in central China (P.R.C.). This is an industrial region where soft coal burning is widespread, and emission controls for vehicles and industrial facilities are minimal. The sampling site was located in one of the civic centers where residential and commercial density is highest. An Andersen dichotomous sampler was operated with Teflon membrane filters to collect fine ( dp mass and element determinations. An annular denuder system (ADS) was used to collect fine fraction aerosols for analyses of ionic species including strong acidity (H +). The study was conducted between 18 and 30 December, which was rainless, consistently cool (3-10°C) and overcast, but without fog or acute stagnation. Fine particulate mass (PM, as μ m -3) averaged 139 (range 54-207); coarse PM averaged 86 (range 29-179). Trace element concentrations were also high. Crustal elements (Si, Al, Ca and Fe) were found primarily in the coarse fraction, while elements associated with combustion (S, K, Cl, Zn and Se) were enriched in the fine fraction. The concentrations of arsenic and selenium were evidence of a large source of coal burning, while vanadium levels (associated with fuel oil use) were not especially enriched. Despite the seemingly high PM loadings, ionic concentrations were not especially high. The average composition of soluble fine aerosol species (in neq m -3) were SO 42-: 520 (range 180-980), NO 3-: 225 (range 50-470), Cl -: 215 (range 20-640), and NH 4+: 760 (range 280-1660). A deficit in accountable FP components (total mass compared to the total of ionic plus element masses) as well as the black appearance of collected materials indicate an abundance of carbonaceous aerosol, as high as 100 μ m -3. (total mass compared to the total of ionic plus element masses) as well as the black appearance of collected materials indicate an

  12. A Central Asian city on the Silk Road: ancient and medieval Merv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Herrmann

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available In the 11th century AD, Merv was one of the world's largest and most splendid cities. Today it is a h uge archaeological site, the complexities of which are being unravelled by the International Merv Project (IMP. Here the Director of the IMP charts the succession of cities that have flourished in the Merv oasis and describes the work of the project.

  13. ALPINE MAGMATIC-METALLOGENIC FORMATIONS OF THE NORTHWESTERN AND CENTRAL DINARIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Pamić

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented basic geological, petrologieca1, geochemi-cal and mineral deposit data for five main magmatic-metallogenic formations of the northwestern and central Dinarides: (lThe Permo Triassic rifting related andesite-diorite formations; (2 The Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous accretionary (ophiolite formations; (3 The Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene subduction related basalt-rhyohite formations; (4 The Paleogene collisional granite formations, and (5 The Oligo-cene-Neogene postsubduction andesite formations. All these magmatic-metallogenic formations originated in different geotectonic settings during the Alpine evolution of the Dinaridic parts of thc Tethys and the postorogenic evolution of the Paratethys and the Pannonian Basin, respectively.

  14. Connotation and Discriminationof National Central Cities%国家中心城市的内涵与判别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田美玲; 方世明

    2015-01-01

    国家中心城市是经济全球化的产物,在全球的经济和社会发展中发挥着不可替代的作用,然而关于国家中心城市的内涵与判别标准,目前尚无明确界定.鉴于此,文章在相关文献研究的基础上,系统论述了国家中心城市的基本概念和功能特征,明确了国家中心城市是指那些在全国城镇体系中具有核心控制作用,在全球城市网络体系中具有重要的功能节点作用的特大中心城市;确定了国家中心城市的判别标准,进而构建国家中心城市六元判别指数——经济集聚指数、空间辐射指数、对外开放指数、文化创新指数、管理服务指数和生态保护指数,据此判定了 12 个国家中心城市,排名依次为:北京、上海、广州、重庆、天津、深圳、武汉、南京、成都、杭州、沈阳和大连;最后,根据判别结果,综合分析各项判别指数的得分情况和 12 个国家中心城市的优劣势,并指出今后的建设重点,即要特别加强对所有国家中心城市的管理服务功能建设,整体提升空间辐射水平,保证文化创新水平在稳定中持续增长,进一步加快经济集聚功能、对外开放功能和生态保护功能的建设.%The national central citiesarethe productsof economic globalization.Theyplay an irreplaceable role in the global economy and social development. However, there is no clear definition about the connotation and discriminant standard of national central city. On the basis of related literature research, the paper introduced the concept and functional characteristics of national central city systematically,and made itclear that national central cities are those who have core control effect in nationwide urban system,andhave important node functions in the global urbannetwork system. And then, the paper establishedasix-elements discriminant indexsystemof national central city—economic agglomeration index, space radiation index, opening to the

  15. Land subsidence in major cities of Central Mexico: Interpreting InSAR-derived land subsidence mapping with hydrogeological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Pascal; Arroyo-Domínguez, Norma; Martel, Richard; Calderhead, Angus I.; Normand, Jonathan C. L.; Gárfias, Jaime; Rivera, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    Significant structural damages to urban infrastructures caused by compaction of over-exploited aquifers are an important problem in Central Mexico. While the case of Mexico City has been well-documented, insight into land subsidence problems in other cities of Central Mexico is still limited. Among the cities concerned, we present and discuss the cases of five of them, located within the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB): Toluca, Celaya, Aguascalientes, Morelia, and Queretaro. Applying the SBAS-InSAR method to C-Band RADARSAT-2 data, five high resolution ground motion time-series were produced to monitor the spatio-temporal variations of displacements and fracturing from 2012 to 2014. The study presents recent changes of land subsidence rates along with concordant geological and water data. It aims to provide suggestions to mitigate future damages to infrastructure and to assist in groundwater resources management. Aguascalientes, Celaya, Morelia and Queretaro (respectively in order of decreasing subsidence rates) are typical cases of fault-limited land subsidence of Central Mexico. It occurs as a result of groundwater over-exploitation in lacustrine and alluvial deposits covering highly variable bedrock topography, typical of horst-graben geological settings. Aguascalientes and Toluca show high rates of land subsidence (up to 10 cm/yr), while Celaya and Morelia show lower rates (from 2 to 5 cm/yr). Comparing these results with previous studies, it is inferred that the spatial patterns of land subsidence have changed in the city of Toluca. This change appears to be mainly controlled by the spatial heterogeneity of compressible sediments since no noticeable change occurred in groundwater extraction and related drawdown rates. While land subsidence of up to 8 cm/yr has been reported in the Queretaro Valley before 2011, rates inferior to 1 cm/yr are measured in 2013-2014. The subsidence has been almost entirely mitigated by major changes in the water management

  16. Competitive advantages of Central European cities in the cross-border region Alpe-Adria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Pichler-Milanović

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the competitive advantages of the major cities in the Alpe-Adria region, defined by the authors on the basis of a survey conducted among experts and leading individuals from various fields. First opinions on the international image of cities, international functions, marketing properties and rivals are shown. The next theme is quality of life, researched through housing, urban services, natural and business environments. A chapter about development projects and interurban cooperation follows. In conclusion there are three chapters dealing with directions for improving the supra-national setting and quality of life in the region’s cities, new urban development strategies and directions for improving the supra-national position of Ljubljana.

  17. Galaxy Bulge Formation: Interplay with Dark Matter Halo and Central Supermassive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, B X; Zhao, H S; Xu, Bing-Xiao; Wu, Xue-Bing; Zhao, HongSheng

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple scenario where the formation of galactic bulges was regulated by the dark halo gravity and regulated the growth of the central supermassive black hole. Assuming the angular momentum is low, we suggest that bulges form in a runaway collapse due to the "gravothermal" instability once the central gas density or pressure exceeds certain threshold (Xu & Zhao 2007). We emphasize that the threshold is nearly universal, set by the background NFW dark matter gravity $g_{DM} \\sim 1.2 \\times 10^{-8}{\\rm cm} {\\rm sec}^{-2}$ in the central cusps of halos. Unlike known thresholds for gradual formation of galaxy disks, we show that the universal "halo-regulated" star formation threshold for spheroids matches the very high star formation rate and star formation efficiency shown in high-redshift observations of central starburst regions. The starburst feedback also builds up a pressure shortly after the collapse. This large pressure could both act outward to halt further infall of gas from larger scale...

  18. Tree Canopy Cover Mapping Using LiDAR in Urban Barangays of Cebu City, Central Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejares, J. A.; Violanda, R. R.; Diola, A. G.; Dy, D. T.; Otadoy, J. B.; Otadoy, R. E. S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates tree canopy cover mapping of urban barangays (smallest administrative division in the Philippines) in Cebu City using LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) was used to extract tree canopy cover. Multi-resolution segmentation and a series of assign-class algorithm in eCognition software was also performed to extract different land features. Contextual features of tree canopies such as height, area, roundness, slope, length-width and elliptic fit were also evaluated. The results showed that at the time the LiDAR data was collected (June 24, 2014), the tree cover was around 25.11 % (or 15,674,341.8 m2) of the city's urban barangays (or 62,426,064.6 m2). Among all urban barangays in Cebu City, Barangay Busay had the highest cover (55.79 %) while barangay Suba had the lowest (0.8 %). The 16 barangays with less than 10 % tree cover were generally located in the coastal area, presumably due to accelerated urbanization. Thirty-one barangays have tree cover ranging from 10.59--27.3 %. Only 3 barangays (i.e., Lahug, Talamban, and Busay) have tree cover greater than 30 %. The overall accuracy of the analysis was 96.6 % with the Kappa Index of Agreement or KIA of 0.9. From the study, a grouping can be made of the city's urban barangays with regards to tree cover. The grouping will be useful to urban planners not only in allocating budget to the tree planting program of the city but also in planning and creation of urban parks and playgrounds.

  19. 'Then give him to the crocodiles': violence, State formation, and cultural discontinuity in west central Zambia, 1600-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Binsbergen, van, W.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to explore the extent to which violence can be said to underlie any form of Stae formation in precolonial Africa. This is done by examining the role of violence in State formation in west central Zambia from the 17th century onwards. The chapter shows that State formation in west central Zambia entailed the imposition upon local village communities of a more or less centralized sociopolitical structure, representing a departure from the social organization and i...

  20. FORMATION 2005 Pour L'Afrique SURLA TECHNIQUE DES PETITES CENTRALES HYDRO-ELECTRIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    “Le stage de formation 2005 por l'Afrique sur la technique de petites centrales hydro-electrique”est subventionnte par le Gouvernement Chinois specialement pour les pays en voie de developpement,dans le cadre de l'aide aux pays en voie de developpement.Charge par le Ministere chinois du Commerce,

  1. Determination of potential hazelnut plantation areas based GIS model case study: Samsun city of central Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Esra Sarıoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the few countries in the world with a favourable climate for hazelnut production. In addition, it has the leading position in world hazelnut production and export, supplying about 70% of world’s production. However, hazelnut production exceeds the demand and new some regulations have been enacted to create new land use policies in Turkey. By putting into practice regulations restricting hazelnut plantation areas, a more efficient and productive hazelnut harvest policy could be created. Samsun city is one of the most important hazelnut production centres in Central Black Sea region. The main objective of this study is to determine potential hazelnut areas in Samsun city located Central Black Sea Region according to current regulations using geographic information system technique regarding to support hazelnut policy developers and organizations. According to the criteria dictated by government regulations, potential hazelnut area in Samsun province was determined and 86973 ha of the total area is suitable hazelnut area which is about 9.3% of whole province.

  2. TREE CANOPY COVER MAPPING USING LiDAR IN URBAN BARANGAYS OF CEBU CITY, CENTRAL PHILIPPINES

    OpenAIRE

    Ejares, J. A.; Violanda, R. R.; Diola, A. G.; Dy, D. T.; Otadoy, J. B.; R. E. S. Otadoy

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates tree canopy cover mapping of urban barangays (smallest administrative division in the Philippines) in Cebu City using LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) was used to extract tree canopy cover. Multi-resolution segmentation and a series of assign-class algorithm in eCognition software was also performed to extract different land features. Contextual features of tree canopies such as height, area, roundness, slope, length-width and ell...

  3. Central-local authority relationships and the institutional process of city creation

    OpenAIRE

    Ai, Chi-Han; Elosua, Miguel; Li, Shantong

    2014-01-01

    As one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, China is experiencing the largest scale of urbanisation in human history. More and more land is required to support this massive urbanisation. However, rural land acquisition and compensation to the changes in farmers’ household registration (hukou) are complex issues in the process of urbanisation under the dual land tenure between city and rural areas in China. Furthermore, local government has been under increasing financial pressure af...

  4. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm) sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3) in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m-3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m-3) in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m-3) as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m-3 potassium, 1 μg m-3 magnesium, 2 μg m-3 sodium, and 3 μg m-3 calcium) from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m-3 over these areas. PM1-10 (particulate matter with diameter between 1 and 10 μm) chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m-3 in Texcoco Lake. PM1 ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m-3) and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m-3). The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) is encouraging. At the T0 measurement site, located in the Mexico City urban center, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.5 μg m-3, 3.5 μg m-3, 2.1 μg m-3, and 0.36 μg m-3, respectively. The corresponding predicted values are 3.7

  5. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karydis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3 in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m−3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m−3 in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m−3 as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m−3 potassium, 1 μg m−3 magnesium, 2 μg m−3 sodium, and 3 μg m−3 calcium from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m−3 over these areas. PM1−10 (particulate matter with diameter between 1 and 10 μm chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m−3 in Texcoco Lake. PM1 ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m−3 and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m−3. The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium is encouraging. At the T0 measurement site, located in the

  6. Microstructure characteristics of illite from Chuanlinggou Formation of Changcheng System in Jixian County, Tianjin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Tao; WANG; HeJing

    2007-01-01

    The microstructure charateristics of illite from the Chuanlinggou Formation of Changcheng System (Chch) in Jixian County, Tianjin City has been studied by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The Kübler index of "illite crystallinity" is 0.505°△2θ, which indicates that the host rock is in a middle diagenetic stage. The chemical analyses of EDS for illite studied indicate a heavily absent in interlayer cation and an average chemical formula of K0.57(Al1.80Mg0.42Fe2+0.12)∑=2.34 (Si2.92Al1.08)∑=4O10(OH)2. It is found, from one-dimensional lattice images, that the layers of illite not only stack in a flat way but also in a curving way. A "matting fabric" illite structure results from stacking faults. Combined with SAED analysis the illite studied can be affirmed as 1M illite. The two-dimensional lattice images are obtained from [100] and [110] incidences, whose lattice images have the same d-values but different intersecting angles. The two-dimensional lattice image with [100] incidence is orthogonal to each other, whilst that with [110] incidence is oblique. This paper provides some important structure information of authigenic clay minerals for the well-known mesoproterozoic section of Jixian County.

  7. Age, Stratigraphy, and Correlations of the Late Neogene Purisima Formation, Central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles L.; Barron, John A.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Clark, Joseph C.; Perry, Frank A.; Brabb, Earl E.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    The Purisima Formation is an important upper Miocene and Pliocene stratigraphic unit in central California, cropping out from the coast at Point Reyes north of San Francisco to more extensive exposures in the Santa Cruz Mountains to the south. The fine-grained rocks in the lower parts of the Purisima Formation record a latest Miocene transgressive event, whereas the middle and upper parts of the formation consist of increasingly clastic-rich siltstones and sandstones resulting from uplift of adjacent coastal regions and the Sierra Nevada during Pliocene transgressive and regressive sea-level events. Exposures of the Purisima occur in three different, fault-bounded, structural blocks - the Santa Cruz, Pigeon Point, and Point Reyes tectonic blocks - that complicate correlations and regional age assignments. We summarize and compare published and new biostratigraphic and geochronologic data for various exposures of the Purisima Formation on the basis of mollusks, diatoms, radiometric dating, magnetostratigraphy, tephrochronology, and strontium isotope dating. On the basis of these data, we conclude that the Purisima Formation ranges in age from the latest Miocene (about 7 Ma) to the late Pliocene (about 2.6 Ma). The Purisima Formation of Santa Cruz County, exposed in the sea cliffs from Santa Cruz to Rio del Mar, is here designated a supplementary reference section because it is the most complete and well studied Purisima section in central California.

  8. CHAMBERED HEXACTINELLID SPONGES FROM UPPER TRIASSIC(NORIAN-RHAETIAN? REEFS OF NAYBAND FORMATION IN CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. SENOWBARI-DARYAN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes several chambered hexactinellid sponges, including Casearia iranica n.sp., C. vezvanensis n. sp., C. delijanensis n. sp., Esfahanella magna gen. n. n. sp., and E. parva gen. n. n. sp. from reefs of the Upper Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian Nayband Formation exposed south of the town of Delijan in central Iran. The relative abundance of chambered and non-chambered hexactinellid sponges at this locality - as compared to hypercalcified representatives - highlight the importance of this group of sponges in reef and reefal limestones in central and east Tethys (China, Caucasia, Iran. 

  9. Clinical and Pathological Investigation on Turkey Diseases in North-central City of Jos, Nigeria, 2009-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Babatunde Akanbi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on turkey production and disease is rare in Nigeria, possibly because turkeys are seldom raised commercially. Also, turkeys require intensive husbandry and health care after hatching, which backyard poultry producers hardly provided especially, when raised in a disease endemic environment. In an attempt to document the diseases militating against turkey production in Nigeria, clinical and necropsy records were reviewed from veterinary practices in Jos and the Central Diagnostic Laboratory of the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI, Vom, Nigeria between 2009 - 2014. A total of 306 turkeys from backyard flocks were presented to the Veterinary clinics between 2009-2014 with various health complaints by backyard flock owners. Viral (Pox and Newcastle disease and parasitic (Helminthosis, Coccidiosis and Ectoparasitism diseases were mostly diagnosed. During the same period, 42 samples comprising 25 carcasses and 17 cloacal swabs were submitted for post mortem examination, virus isolation and microbiological test. Colisepticaemia, colibacillosis, pullorum disease, airsacculitis and infectious sinusitis are the main diseases diagnosed at post-mortem examination and microbiological test, while none of the samples were positive for influenza by virus isolation. It was observed that turkey rearing was small-scaled and kept as backyard poultry in North-central Nigeria. It can therefore be concluded from this study that turkeys raised in north-central city of Jos are affected by diseases ranging from viral to bacterial and parasitic, which can adversely affect productivity. This can therefore be improved upon by controlling the diseases mostly affecting turkeys.

  10. Coral microbial community dynamics in response to anthropogenic impacts near a major city in the central Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Maren; Roik, Anna; Porter, Adam; Zubier, Khalid; Mudarris, Mohammed S; Ormond, Rupert; Voolstra, Christian R

    2016-04-30

    Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy. PMID:26763316

  11. Coral microbial community dynamics in response to anthropogenic impacts near a major city in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren

    2016-01-04

    Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy.

  12. QUENCHING OF STAR FORMATION IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY GROUPS: CENTRALS, SATELLITES, AND GALACTIC CONFORMITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We re-examine the fraction of low-redshift Sloan Digital Sky Survey satellites and centrals in which star formation has been quenched, using the environment quenching efficiency formalism that separates out the dependence of stellar mass. We show that the centrals of the groups containing the satellites are responding to the environment in the same way as their satellites (at least for stellar masses above 1010.3 M ☉), and that the well-known differences between satellites and the general set of centrals arise because the latter are overwhelmingly dominated by isolated galaxies. The widespread concept of ''satellite quenching'' as the cause of environmental effects in the galaxy population can therefore be generalized to ''group quenching''. We then explore the dependence of the quenching efficiency of satellites on overdensity, group-centric distance, halo mass, the stellar mass of the satellite, and the stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR) of its central, trying to isolate the effect of these often interdependent variables. We emphasize the importance of the central sSFR in the quenching efficiency of the associated satellites, and develop the meaning of this ''galactic conformity'' effect in a probabilistic description of the quenching of galaxies. We show that conformity is strong, and that it varies strongly across parameter space. Several arguments then suggest that environmental quenching and mass quenching may be different manifestations of the same underlying process. The marked difference in the apparent mass dependencies of environment quenching and mass quenching which produces distinctive signatures in the mass functions of centrals and satellites will arise naturally, since, for satellites at least, the distributions of the environmental variables that we investigate in this work are essentially independent of the stellar mass of the satellite

  13. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the mexico city metropolitan area during the milagro campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karydis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m−3 in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m−3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m−3 in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m−3 as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m−3 potassium, 1 μg m−3 magnesium, 2 μg m−3 sodium, and 3 μg m−3 calcium from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m−3 over these areas. PM1−10 chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m−3 in Texcoco Lake. PM ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m−3 and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m−3. The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium is encouraging. At T0, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.6 μg m−3, 3.6 μg m−3, 2.1 μg m

  14. What controls star formation in the central 500 pc of the Galaxy?

    CERN Document Server

    Kruijssen, J M Diederik; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Murray, Norman; Bally, John; Testi, Leonardo; Kennicutt, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    The star formation rate (SFR) in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ, i.e. the central 500 pc) of the Milky Way is lower by a factor of >10 than expected for the substantial amount of dense gas it contains, which challenges current star formation theories. In this paper, we quantify which physical mechanisms could be causing this observation. On scales larger than the disc scale height, the low SFR is found to be consistent with episodic star formation due to secular instabilities or variations of the gas inflow along the Galactic bar. The CMZ is marginally Toomre-stable when including gas and stars, but highly Toomre-stable when only accounting for the gas, indicating that the condensation of self-gravitating clouds may be limited. On small scales, we find that the SFR in the CMZ is consistent with an elevated critical density for star formation due to the high turbulent pressure - potentially aided by weak magnetic effects and an underproduction of massive stars due to a bottom-heavy IMF. The existence of a uni...

  15. Relationship Between Distribution of Residents’ Travels and Intensity of Mixed Land-use:A Case Study on Central Districts of Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>In recent years,the land-use structure of Guangzhou City has greatly changed along with the expansion of city size and the trans-formation of spatial layout,employment market,and real estate market,influencing in consequence the layouts of housing and employment and then the distribution of residents’ travels.The study on the relationship between the distribution of residents’ travels

  16. Particulate Matter deposition on Quercus ilex leaves in an industrial city of central Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of studies have focused on urban trees to understand their mitigation capacity of air pollution. In this study particulate matter (PM) deposition on Quercus ilex leaves was quantitatively analyzed in four districts of the City of Terni (Italy) for three periods of the year. Fine (between 0.2 and 2.5 μm) and Large (between 2.5 and 10 μm) PM fractions were analyzed. Mean PM deposition value on Quercus ilex leaves was 20.6 μg cm−2. Variations in PM deposition correlated with distance to main roads and downwind position relatively to industrial area. Epicuticular waxes were measured and related to accumulated PM. For Fine PM deposited in waxes we observed a higher value (40% of total Fine PM) than Large PM (4% of total Large PM). Results from this study allow to increase our understanding about air pollution interactions with urban vegetation and could be hopefully taken into account when guidelines for local urban green management are realized. - Highlights: • A quantitative analysis of Particulate Matter deposition on urban Quercus ilex leaves was implemented. • Deposition data were correlated with pollutants sources such as roads and local steel factory, and with epicuticular waxes. • Results provide new insight about the capacity of trees in removing pollutants in urban environment. - This paper is providing useful information on PM deposition on urban vegetation

  17. Latin America & the Caribbean - Urban Services Delivery and the Poor : The Case of Three Central American Cities (Vol. 1 of 2) : Service Delivery and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    The present study describes, and quantifies the provision of basic urban services to the poor, in three Central American cities in El Salvador, Honduras, and, Panama. It also identifies priority areas for government intervention, using specialized household surveys to quantify current deficits, and to rank households from poor to rich, using aggregate consumption as the measure of welfare....

  18. Stratigraphy and depositional environments of Catahoula Formation sandstones and associated facies in south-central Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C.P. (Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg (USA)); Day, L.A. (Geraghty and Miller, Baton Rouge, LA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Surface and subsurface studies of the Catahoula Formation in a seven county area of south-central Mississippi have revealed major problems and misconceptions regarding Neogene stratigraphy and geological mapping in this part of the Gulf basin. The results of these investigations show that the traditional stratigraphic subdivisions of the up-dip Neogene section in Mississippi are invalid, and that the fundamental criteria for defining rock stratigraphic units at the formation rank are nonexistent. Although the base of the Neogene section is reasonably well defined by virtue of its relatively continuous contact with the Bucatunna Formation (Oligocene Vicksburg Group), a mappable bounding sequence above the Catahoula-Bucatunna Formation contact does not exist in the study area. An overall fine-grained interval above the Catahoula Formation appears to wedge out before reaching outcrop. Hence, differentiation between up-dip sandy gravels of the Catahoula and similar facies of the Citronelle Formation is difficult. Further complicating the problem of stratigraphic unit discrimination is the discovery of sandy gravels within the Hattiesburg Formation interval. A subsurface analysis in this study area revealed that the Catahoula Formation, as defined by Day, attains a thickness of 625 ft and has a rough three-tiered stratigraphy: (a) a basal unit composed of sands and subordinate fine-grained facies; (b) a relatively fine-grained middle unit composed of silts and clays with recurrent, discontinuous, sand bodies; and (c) an upper unit composed largely of sand and gravels. This study confirmed that most of these sediments are the product of fluvial channel and associated floodplain deposition. However, in the basal unit deltaic facies appear to be preserved on outcrop in Smith County and perhaps in a mild structural depression in the southwest portion of the study area.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION AND FORMATION MECHANISM OF THE CENTRAL UPLIFT OF THE QIANGTANG BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Fuguang

    2004-01-01

    The Qiangtang basin is located between Kekexili-Jingshajiang suture belt and Bangong-Lujiang suture belt, and is divided into the north part and south part by the central uplift that has no crop out of Mesozoic strata. When the Jinshajiang Ocean was closed, the subducting plate was subducted southward. In the central part of the Qiangtang basin, the cushioning effect of the asthenosphere resulted in the thermal doming of the mantle and subsequent large-scale anatexis. Mantle source materials and antectic materials were upwelled and extruded into the middle crust, leading to the thickening of the middle crust and the heating and weakening of the middle to upper crust, and resulting in the rapid deformation (detachment) and tectonic erosion, and in the isostatic uplifting and the formation of metamorphic core complex. The upwelling of anatectic materials would further enhance the buoyant repercussion, which would combine with the side stress due from extrusion in resulting in the formation of an extensional stress field. The extensional structure and detachment fault are formed under the influence of the losing stabilized gravitation. In the deformation area in both the upper part and the lower part, an extensional deposition area would be formed, and this is the generation of a new basin.The metamorphic core complex of the central uplift is comprised of gneiss, which is itself overlain by non-metamorphic to weakly metamorphic covering strata intersected by faults.

  20. Molecular Gas and Star Formation Properties in the Central and Bar Regions of NGC 6946

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Hsi-An; Koda, Jin; Hirota, Akihiko; Sorai, Kazuo; Kaneko, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the molecular gas and star formation properties in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 using multiple molecular lines and star formation tracers. High-resolution image (100 pc) of $^{13}$CO (1-0) is created by single dish NRO45 and interferometer CARMA for the inner 2 kpc disk, which includes the central region (nuclear ring and bar) and the offset ridges of the primary bar. Single dish HCN (1-0) observations were also made to constrain the amount of dense gas. Physical properties of molecular gas are inferred by (1) the Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) calculations using our observations and archival $^{12}$CO (1-0), $^{12}$CO(2-1) data, (2) dense gas fraction suggested by HCN to $^{12}$CO (1-0) luminosity ratio, and (3) infrared color. The results show that the molecular gas in the central region is warmer and denser than that of the offset ridges. Dense gas fraction of the central region is similar with that of LIRGs/ULIRGs, while the offset ridges are close to the global average of...

  1. Paleotectonic controls on deposition of upper Upper Jurassic La Casita Formation, east-central Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.C.

    1989-03-01

    Surface mapping of the basal Mesozoic La Casita Formation (upper Upper Jurassic) in east-central Chihuahua, Mexico, indicates initial Mesozoic sedimentation occurred in a segmented, interconnected subbasin of the Chihuahua trough. La Casite Formation (1200 m thick) is a tectonostratigraphic unit resting with angular unconformity on the Lower Permian Plomosas Formation. It consists primarily of siliciclastic material with sporadic interbedded limestones. The dominant lithofacies, approximately 1000 m thick, consists of turbiditic sandstone units (10-20 m) alternating with thicker, monotonous shale sequences. In the mapped area (approximately 30 km/sup 2/), flute cast measurements indicate flows from both the northeast (N20/degree/E) and southwest (S58/degree/W). Turbiditic sandstone units appear to pinch out and/or interfinger as they extend from the north and south into the central portion of the area. The initial opening of the Chihuahua trough is often associated with Late Jurassic block faulting, related to development of the ancestral Gulf of Mexico. Synrift depositional sequences of a similar age have been described in southern Coahuila, northern Zacatecas, and western Chiapas, Mexico. The subbasin (graben ) examined here may be ascribed a paleoposition near the western edge of the early Chihuahua trough. The western boundary of the early trough may have comprised a series of these subbasins, forming a cuspate or serrated coastline. Late Jurassic ammonites recovered from this and other localities along the length of the Chihuahua trough suggest that the subbasins were interconnected by means of an eastern continuous seaway.

  2. Seroepidemiology of Human Hydatidosis Using AgB-ELISA Test in Isfahan City and Suburb Areas, Isfahan Province, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa ILBEIGI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to conduct a sero-epidemiological survey in Isfahan City and suburb areas, central Iran to detect the rate of human hydatidosis using ELISA test.Methods: Overall, 635 serum samples were collected from subjects referred to different health centers in urban and rural regions of the city. Sera were analyzed using Ag-B ELISA test. Ten μg/ml antigens, serum dilutions of 1:500 and conjugate anti-human coombs with 1:10000 dilutions were utilized to perform the test. All subjects filled out a questionnaire and an informed consent. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS 18 software. Cut-off was calculated as X+3 SD.Results: Cut-off value was calculated 0.19. Seven cases (1.1% were seropositive for hydatidosis by ELISA test. The sero-prevalence of hydatidosis was 0.27% among females and 2.24% among males (P=0.019. Age group of 60-69 years old, with 2.59% as prevalence had the highest rate of positivity. There was no significant difference as regards age groups, job, residency, contact by dog and literacy. According to job, self-employed people had the highest rate of infection as 3.05%. The sero-prevalence of infection was 1.14% in diploma and 1.13% in illiterates. As regards residency, urban life (1.49% showed no significant difference with rural life.Conclusion: The rate of prevalence in this region showed that necessary cautions should be taken into account to monitor the spread of human hydatidosis in this region. In comparison with other studies, the rate of infection was roughly less than other regions. 

  3. ESCO FORMATION AS ENABLING FACTOR FOR SMART CITIES DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPEAN UNION (UE: SPAIN CASE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Morcillo Bellido

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities have reached a huge magnitude and they represent great potential improvement platforms for wealth, employment and competitiveness creation, but also they involve an enormous amount of complexity that emphasized their future management challenges. Cities evolution could be seen as a strong trend towards the development of more efficient and livable cities that have been called "Smart Cities", where one of key topics is linked to how efficiently scarce resources are managed. This document analyzes the development of Energy Service Companies (ESCO in Spain, as a type of organization preliminary focused on promoting and managing projects related to the efficient use of energy, being their business success linked to energy savings achieved by their clients and getting their revenue from these achieved savings. Outcome of this study expects to provide information of interest to understand the current development of ESCO model projects in Spain as example of what is happening in several major European Union (EU countries in relation to Smart Cities development and subsequence ESCO growth, the important barriers they currently face to grow faster, and to find evidences of how collaboration between organizations could facilitate energy efficiency management, which at the end is linked to a better understanding of the future development of “Smart Cities” initiatives in EU countries.

  4. Bacterial-resistance among outpatients of county hospitals in China: significant geographic distinctions and minor differences between central cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yonghong; Wei, Zeqing; Shen, Ping; Ji, Jinru; Sun, Ziyong; Yu, Hua; Zhang, Tiantuo; Ji, Ping; Ni, Yuxing; Hu, Zhidong; Chu, Yunzhuo; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey antibacterial resistance in outpatients of Chinese county hospitals. A total of 31 county hospitals were selected and samples continuously collected from August 2010 to August 2011. Drug sensitivity testing was conducted in a central laboratory. A total of 2946 unique isolates were collected, including 634 strains of Escherichia coli, 606 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 476 Staphylococcus aureus, 308 Streptococcus pneumoniae, and 160 Haemophilus influenzae. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases were detected in E. coli (42.3% strains), K. pneumoniae (31.7%), and Proteus mirabilis (39.0%). Ciprofloxacin-resistance was detected in 51.0% of E. coli strains. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were sensitive to most antibacterial agents. Less than 8.0% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to carbapenem. For S. aureus strains, 15.3% were resistant to methicillin, and some strains of S. pneumoniae showed resistance to penicillin (1.6%), ceftriaxone (13.0%), and erythromycin (96.4%). β-lactamase was produced by 96.5% of Moraxella catarrhalis strains, and 36.2% of H. influenzae isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Azithromycin-resistant H. influenzae, imipenem-resistant but meropenem-sensitive Proteus, and ceftriaxone- and carbapenem non-sensitive M. catarrhalis were recorded. In conclusion, cephalosporin- and quinolone-resistant strains of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia and macrolide-resistant Gram-positive cocci were relatively prominent in county hospitals. The antibacterial resistance profiles of isolates from different geographical locations varied significantly, with proportions in county hospitals lower than those in their tertiary counterparts in the central cities, although the difference is diminishing. PMID:25708671

  5. Anthropometric correlates of blood pressure among school children in Nagpur city, central India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kishanrao Lone

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: On the basis of emerging evidence, it is now apparent that primary hypertension is detectable in the young and that it occurs commonly. The long-term health risks for hypertensive children and adolescents can be substantial. Early diagnosis of hypertension (HT is an important strategy in its control. Previous studies have documented that hypertension may begin in adolescence, perhaps even in childhood. Aims: To determine the prevalence of hypertension and its correlation with anthropometric variables like height, weight and body mass index (BMI among school-going children in Nagpur city, Central India. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study done in one randomly selected school. Materials and Methods: School-going children aged between 12 and 16 years were included in the study. The weight and height were measured using a standard procedure. Blood pressure measurements were taken by a mercury sphygmomanometer. Hypertension was diagnosed if blood pressure was more than 95 th percentile for the age and height. The distributions of blood pressure by anthropometric characteristics were studied. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean, standard deviation, correlation coefficient and χ2 test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 11.77%. Blood pressure of both genders appears to have positive correlation with anthropometric characteristics. Conclusions: Increase in anthropometric measurements like height, weight and BMI were found to be positively correlated with hypertension among school children in the present study.

  6. Landscape Effects of Land Consolidation Projects in Central China——A Case Study of Tianmen City, Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xiaokun; DAI Bing; CHEN Baiming

    2008-01-01

    The goal of land consolidation in China is still to develop agricultural production. The study of landscapeeffects of land consolidation projects (LCPs) faces many difficulties because of the lack of government's interest anddata. This paper, taking Tianmen City of Hubei Province in Central China as an example, presents a methodology foranalyzing landscape effects of LCPs by GIS and Fragstats3.3. It describes landscape effects with indexes of PatchDensity (PD), Largest Patch Index (LPI), Landscape Shape Index (LSI), Interspersion and Juxtaposition Index (IJI),Aggregation Index (AI), and Shannon's Diversity Index (SHDI), showing more regular shape, simpler structure andless habitat diversity after LCPs. It computes ten landscape indexes of four categories of patches including CultivatedLand, Road, Water Channel, and River and Pond. The indexes show that 1) cultivated land becomes more fragmentalin patch area, less irregular in patch shape and more concentrated in block; 2) the transport capacity of roads and irri-gation and drainage capacity of water channels have been improved; 3) the landscape change of river and pond can besummarized as decreasing scale, more regular shape, reducing connectivity and diversity of the class. LCPs can facili-tate agricultural production as well as protect cultivated land and food security. However, it is doubted that the increaseof cultivated land from LCPs results from the reducing in landscape diversity of water area.

  7. Passive monitoring of atmospheric heavy metals in a historical city of central India by Lepraria lobificans Nyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, D K; Dwivedi, S K

    2010-07-01

    Using an organism living in situ for monitoring is referred as passive monitoring. Lepraria lobificans Nyl., a leprose lichen growing naturally on monuments and buildings in the city Mandav in central India is used for passive monitoring of atmospheric metals. Seven metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Al, Fe, Cu, and Zn) were analyzed. Samples collected from road site exhibit the maximum concentration of Fe, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn. Iron exhibit maximum accumulation both in lichen thallus and the substratum with mean values of 2,195.63 microg g(-1) dry weight. As compared with other growth form of lichens, L. lobificans exhibits the higher accumulation of Fe than foliose and fruticose lichens. On the basis of these results, it can be hypothesized that L. lobificans is an excellent accumulator of different metals. The statistical analysis applied to the element concentration between the metals as well as between the sites by analysis of variance found the difference to be significant at 1% and 5%, respectively. Student-Newman-Keuls test also shows significant difference for iron between the different metals. PMID:19496009

  8. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and paleontology of lower Eocene San Jose formation, central San Juan basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, S.G.; Smith, L.N. (New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Albuquerque (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The lower Eocene San Jose Formation in the central portion of the San Juan basin (Gobernador-Vigas Canyon area) consists of the Cuba Mesa, Regina, Llaves, and Tapicitos Members. Well log data indicate that, from its 100-m thickness, the Cuba Mesa Member thins toward the basin center and pinches out to the northeast by lat. 36{degree}40'N, long. 107{degree}19'W. The Regina Member has the most extensive outcrops in the central basin, and it decreases in sandstone/mud rock ratio to the north. The Llaves and Tapicitos Members occur only at the highest elevations, are thin due to erosion, and are not mappable as separate units. Well log data and 1,275 m of measured stratigraphic section in the Regina, Llaves, and Tapicitos Members indicate these strata are composed of approximately 35% medium to coarse-grained sandstone and 65% fine-grained sandstone and mud rock. Sedimentology and sediment-dispersal patterns indicate deposition by generally south-flowing streams that had sources to the northwest, northeast, and east. Low-sinuosity, sand-bedded, braided( ) streams shifted laterally across about 1 km-wide channel belts to produce sheet sandstones that are prominent throughout the San Jose Formation. Subtle levees separated channel environments from floodplain and local lacustrine areas. Avulsion relocated channels periodically to areas on the floodplain, resulting in the typically disconnected sheet sandstones within muddy overbank deposits of the Regina Member.

  9. Sedimentary characteristics of tide-dominated estuary in Donghetang Formation(Upper Devonian), central Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Donghetang Formation (Upper Devonian) in central Tarim Basin has been thought an important oil and gas reservoir since the abundant oil and gas resources were found in the wells W16, W20, W34, and other fields. However, the sedimentary environment of the Donghetang Formation has been disputed because it suffered from both tidal and fluvial actions and there were not rich fossils in the sandstone. After the authors analyzed sedimentary features by means of drill cores, well logging data, paleosols, and with SEM obseruations, three kinds of sedimentary environments were distinguished: alluvial fan, tide-dominated estuary, and shelf. Particularly, the sedimentary features of tide-dominated estuary were studied in detail. Besides, the authors discussed sedimentary characteristics of the Donghetang Formation which was divided into two fourth-order sequences and five system tracts. At the same time, according to the forming process of five system tracts, the whole vertical evolution and lateral transition of tide-dominated estuary were illustrated clearly. Finally, the reservoir quality was evaluated based on porosity and permeability.

  10. Measurement of non-methane hydrocarbons in Taipei city and their impact on ozone formation in relation to air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ben-Zen; Chang, Chih-Chung; Sree, Usha; Chiu, Konghwa; Lo, Jiunn-Guang

    2006-08-18

    Air pollutants data from semi-continuous measurements at multiple sampling sites in Taipei metropolitan area of Taiwan was obtained by collecting air samples in canisters. The hydrocarbon composition was determined by using GC/MS and GC/FID. The air samples were pre-concentrated onto glass beads prior to separation by PLOT and DB-1 columns of GC. The method showed detection limit of NO2 were measured by UV-differential optical absorption spectroscopy (UV-DOAS), and were utilized to determine the relative importance of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and significant contribution of NO2 in limiting ozone formation. The obtained results suggest that ozone formation in Taipei city is probably limited by the supply of non-methane hydrocarbons. The concentration profile of targeted pollutants was compared to other metropolitan areas to determine air quality and the pollutant sources. PMID:17723619

  11. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  12. Biofilm Formation by Gram-Negative Bacteria on Central Venous Catheter Connectors: Effect of Conditioning Films in a Laboratory Model

    OpenAIRE

    Murga, R.; Miller, J.M.; Donlan, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Human blood components have been shown to enhance biofilm formation by gram-positive bacteria. We investigated the effect of human blood on biofilm formation on the inner lumen of needleless central venous catheter connectors by several gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pantoea agglomerans. Results suggest that a conditioning film of blood components promotes biofilm formation by these organisms in an in vitro system.

  13. Socio-cultural factors influencing insecticide treated bed net utilization in a malaria endemic city in north-central Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jombo GTA; Akosu JT; Mbaawuaga EM; Gyuse AN; Enenebeaku MNO; Okwori EE; Peters EJ; Akpan S; Odey F; Etukumana EA

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the socio-cultural factors influencing the rate of utilization of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) in a malaria endemic city of Makurdi, north central Nigeria. Methods:The study was cross-sectional in nature using systematic sampling method to identify households. Both quantitative and qualitative data was generated from adult women using structured and semi structured questionnaires, and focused group discussions (FGDs) to obtain information on rate and patterns of utilization of ITNs. Information such as age, educational level, marital status, awareness or otherwise of the existence of malaria, and factors influencing rate of ownership and utilization of ITNs were obtained. FGDs were used to obtain qualitative information on rate of utilization of ITNs not captured in the questionnaires. Data obtained was analysed using Epi Info 6 statistical software. Results: Among the respondents interviewed, 97.0%(2 013/2 075) were aware of existence of malaria and 87.0%of these (1 751/2 013) would associate it with mosquitoes. The rate of ownership of any bed net, ITNs and untreated bed nets (UTNs) was 25.1%, 17.0%and 8.3%, respectively. Utilization of ITNs among children was 30.0%(112/373) and UTNs 12.9%(48/373). Positive contributors to ITNs utilization were literacy, enhanced economy, experience of marriage, and being gainfully employed (P<0.05);while negative contributors were ignorance, poverty and some cultural beliefs and values. Conclusions: A more synchronized advocacy should be carried out on the potential benefits of ITNs utilization and sustained. Also ITNs should be made available to the people of the community at minimal or no cost.

  14. Oceanic crust formation in the Egeria Fracture Zone Complex (Central Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Minor, Marine; Gaina, Carmen; Sigloch, Karin; Minakov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse in detail the oceanic crust fabric and volcanic features (seamounts) formed for the last 10 million years at the Central Indian Ridge between 19 and 21 latitude south. Multibeam bathymetry and magnetic data has been collected in 2013 as part of the French-German expedition RHUM-RUM (Reunion hotspot and upper mantle - Reunion's unterer mantel). Three long profiles perpendicular on the Central Indian Ridge (CIR), south of the Egeria fracture zone, document the formation of oceanic crust since 10 million years, along with changes in plate kinematics and variations in the magmatic input. We have inspected the abyssal hill geometry and orientation along conjugate oceanic flanks and within one fracture zone segment where we could identify J-shaped features that are indicators of changes in plate kinematics. The magnetic anomaly data shows a slight asymmetry in seafloor spreading rates on conjugate flanks: while a steady increase in spreading rate from 10 Ma to the present is shown by the western flank, the eastern part displays a slowing down from 5 Ma onwards. The deflection of the anti J-shaped abyssal hill lineations suggest that the left-stepping Egeria fracture zone complex (including the Egeria, Flinders and an un-named fracture zone to the southeast) was under transpression from 9 to 6 Ma and under transtension since 3 Ma. The transpressional event was triggered by a clockwise mid-ocean ridge reorientation and a decrease of its offset, whereas the transtensional regime was probably due to a counter-clockwise change in the spreading direction and an increase of the ridge offset. The new multibeam data along the three profiles reveal that crust on the eastern side is smoother (as shown by the abyssal hill number and structure) and hosts several seamounts (with age estimations of 7.67, 6.10 and 0.79 Ma), in contrast to the rougher conjugate western flank. Considering that the western flank was closer to the Reunion plume, and therefore

  15. Central Role of Maladapted Astrocytic Plasticity in Ischemic Brain Edema Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Feng; Parpura, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Brain edema formation and the ensuing brain damages are the major cause of high mortality and long term disability following the occurrence of ischemic stroke. In this process, oxygen and glucose deprivation and the resulting reperfusion injury play primary roles. In response to the ischemic insult, the neurovascular unit experiences both intracellular and extracellular edemas, associated with maladapted astrocytic plasticity. The astrocytic plasticity includes both morphological and functional plasticity. The former involves a reactive gliosis and the subsequent glial retraction. It relates to the capacity of astrocytes to buffer changes in extracellular chemical levels, particularly K(+) and glutamate, as well as the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The latter involves the expression and activity of a series of ion and water transport proteins. These molecules are grouped together around glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and water channel protein aquaporin 4 (AQP4) to form functional networks, regulate hydromineral balance across cell membranes and maintain the integrity of the BBB. Intense ischemic challenges can disrupt these capacities of astrocytes and result in their maladaptation. The maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke cannot only disrupt the hydromineral homeostasis across astrocyte membrane and the BBB, but also leads to disorders of the whole neurovascular unit. This review focuses on how the maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke plays the central role in the brain edema formation. PMID:27242440

  16. Central role of maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic brain edema formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain edema formation and the ensuing brain damages are the major cause of high mortality and long term disability following the occurrence of ischemic stroke. In this process, oxygen and glucose deprivation and the ensuing reperfusion injury play primary roles. In response to the ischemic insult, the neurovascular unit experiences both intracellular and extracellular edemas; the two processes are interactive closely under the driving of maladapted astrocytic plasticity. The astrocytic plasticity includes both morphologic and functional plasticity. The former involves a reactive gliosis and the ensuing glial retraction. It relates to the capacity of astrocytes to buffer changes in extracellular chemical levels, particularly K+ and glutamate, as well as the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. The latter involves the expression and activity of a series of ion and water transport proteins. These molecules are grouped together around glial fibrillary acidic protein and water channel protein aquaporin 4 to form functional networks, regulate hydromineral balance across cell membranes and maintain the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Intense ischemic challenges can disrupt these capacities of astrocytes and result in their maladaptation. The maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke cannot only disrupt the hydromineral homeostasis across astrocyte membrane and the blood-brain barrier, but also lead to disorders of the whole neurovascular unit. This review focuses on how the maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke plays the central role in the brain edema formation.

  17. Unraveling an antique subduction process from metamorphic basement around Medellín city, Central Cordillera of Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Andres; Juliani, Caetano

    2011-10-01

    In the surroundings of Caldas and El Retiro cities (Colombia) metamorphic rocks derived from basic and pelitic protoliths comprise the Caldas amphibole schist and the Ancón schist respectively. Subordinated metamorphosed granite bodies (La Miel gneiss) are associated to these units, and The El Retiro amphibolites, migmatites and granulites crops out eastwards of these units, separated by shear zones. The Caldas amphibole schist and the Ancón schist protoliths could have been formed in a distal marine reduced environment and amalgamated to the South American continent in an apparent Triassic subduction event. The El Retiro rocks are akin to a continental basement and possible include impure metasediments of continental margin, whose metamorphism originated granulite facies rocks and migmatites as a result of the anatexis of quartz-feldspathic rocks. The metamorphism was accompanied by intense deformation, which has juxtaposed both migmatites and granulite blocks. Afterward, heat and fluid circulation associated with the emplacement of minor igneous intrusions resulted in intense fluid-rock interaction, variations in the grain size of the minerals and, especially, intense retrograde metamorphic re-equilibrium. Thermobarometric estimations for the Caldas amphibole schist indicate metamorphism in the Barrovian amphibolite facies. The metamorphic path is counter-clockwise, but retrograde evolution could not be precisely defined. The pressures of the metamorphism in these rocks range from 6.3 to 13.5 kbar, with narrow temperature ranging from 550 to 630 °C. For the Ancón schist metapelites the P- T path is also counter-clockwise, with a temperature increase evidenced by the occurrence of sillimanite and the cooling by later kyanite. The progressive metamorphism event occurred at pressures of 7.6-7.2 kbar and temperatures of 645-635 °C for one sample and temperature between 500 and 600 °C under constant pressure of 6 kbar. The temperature estimated for these rocks

  18. Inhibition of trihalomethane formation in city water by radiation-ozone treatment and rapid composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humic acid and Fulvic acid in natural water are precursors of carcinogenic THM which is formed during chlorine disinfection in city water processing. The radiation-oxidation process in the presence of ozone is effective to remove the precursors. The THM formation was reduced more than the decrease in TOC by the combination treatment. This is mainly due to a change in the chemical structure of the oxidation products. A composting of radiation disinfected sludge cake for agricultural reuse could be achieved within 3 days primary fermentation in a sewage plant. The rapid fermentation with use of radiation is effective to scale down of a fermentor of composting plant and the process reduces a health risk from the workers as well as final users. (author)

  19. Inhibition of trihalomethane formation in city water by radiation-ozone treatment and rapid composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehisa, M.; Arai, H.; Arai, M.; Miyata, T.; Sakumoto, A.; Hashimoto, S.; Nishimura, K.; Watanabe, H.; Kawakami, W.; Kuriyama, I.

    Humic acid and Fulvic acid in natural water are precursors of carcinogenic THM which is formed during chlorine disinfection in city water processing. The radiation-oxidation process in the presence of ozone is effective to remove the precursors. The THM formation was reduced more than the decrease in TOC by the combination treatment. This is mainly due to a change in the chemical structure of the oxidation products. A composting of radiation disinfected sludge cake for agricultural reuse could be achieved within 3 days primary fermentation in a sewage plant. The rapid fermentation with use of radiation is effective to scale down of a fermentor of composting plant and the process reduces a health risk from the workers as well as final users.

  20. Inhibition of trihalomethane formation in city water by radiation-ozone treatment and rapid composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humic acid and Fulvic acid in natural water are precursors of carcinogenic THM which is formed during chlorine disinfection in city water processing. The radiation-oxidation process in the presence of ozone is effective to remove the precursors. The THM formation was reduced more than the decrease in TOC by the combination treatment. This is mainly due to a change in the chemical structure of the oxidation products. A composting of radiation disinfected sludge cake for agricultural reuse could be achieved within 3 days primary fermentation in a sewage plant. The rapid fermentation with use of radiation is effective to scale down of a fermentor of composting plant and the process reduces a health risk from the workers as well as final users

  1. Graben formation during the Bárðarbunga rifting event in central Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2015-04-01

    On the 16th of August 2014, an intense seismic swarm was detected at the Bárðarbunga caldera (central Iceland), which migrated to the east and then to the northeast during the following days. The swarm, highlighting magma propagation pathway from the caldera, migrated laterally during the following two weeks over 40 km. By the end of August, a volcanic eruption had started along a north-south oriented fissure located ~45 km from the caldera. Here we focus on the near-field deformation related to the dike emplacement in the shallow crust, which generated in few days an 8 km long by 0.8 km wide graben (depression) structure. The new graben extends from the northern edge of the Vatnajökull glacier and to the north to the eruptive fissure. We analyze the temporal evolution of the graben by integrating structural mapping using multiple acquisitions of TerraSAR-X amplitude radar images, InSAR and ground-truth data with GPS and structural measurements. Pixel-offset tracking of radar amplitude images shows clearly the graben subsidence, directly above the intrusion pathway, of up to 6 meters in the satellite line-of-sight direction. We installed a GPS profile of 15 points across the graben in October 2014 and measured its depth up to 8 meters, relative to the flanks of the graben. Field structural observations show graben collapse structures that typically accompany dike intrusions, with two tilted blocks dipping toward the graben axis, bordered by two normal faults. Extensive fractures at the center of the graben and at the graben edges show a cumulative extension of ~8 meters. The formation of the graben was also accompanied by strong seismic activity locally, constraining the time frame period of the main graben formation subsidence. Our results show a rare case of a graben formation captured from space and from ground observations. Such structures are the dominant features along rift zones, however, their formation remain poorly understood. The results also provide

  2. 中国中心城市武汉出台系列政策扩大开放%Central China city issues policies on further opening to outside world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Wuhan,capital city of Central China's Hubei Province, will adopt strong measures with a view to opening to the outside world ,Ruan Chengfa, mayor of the city announced. According to the policy, foreign-invested enterprises can gain as high as RMB600,00 in bonus from the Chinese Government for making additional investment and expanding production in Wuhan.

  3. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    M Batty

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  4. Distributions, sources and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloids in the street dust of a heavily industrialized city of central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of representative street dust samples were collected from a heavily industrialized city, Zhuzhou, in central China, with the aim to investigate the spatial distribution and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloid elements. Concentrations of twelve elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As, Sb, In, Bi, Tl, Ag and Ga) were distinctly amplified by atmospheric deposition resulting from a large scale Pb/Zn smelter located in the northwest fringe of the city, and followed a declining trend towards the city center. Three metals (W, Mo and Co) were enriched in samples very close to a hard alloy manufacturing plant, while Ni and Cr appeared to derive predominantly from natural sources. Other industries and traffic had neglectable effects on the accumulation of observed elements. Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the five metal/metalloids with highest pollution levels and the northwestern part of city is especially affected by heavy metal pollution. -- Highlights: •Large-scale Pb/Zn smelters contributed to elevated trace elements in the street dust. •The hard alloy processing caused the enrichment of a few elements. •Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the most polluted elements. •Northwestern Zhuzhou suffered severe contamination for a range of trace elements. -- Pb/Zn smelting and hard alloy processing operations have caused seriously contamination of trace metal/metalloids in the street dust

  5. Palynostratigraphy of the Nayband Formation, Tabas, Central Iran Basin: Paleogeographical and paleoecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, F.; Hashemi, H.; Borzuee, E.

    2015-11-01

    Reasonably diverse and moderately preserved palynofloras of exclusively terrestrial derivation occur in surface samples of the Nayband Formation, Kamar Macheh Kuh, southeastern Tabas, east-central Iran. No marine palynomorphs encountered in the samples examined. The palynofloras comprise 62 species including radially symmetrical and monolete spores (37 species allocated to 27 genera) and pollen (25 species designated to 19 genera). Of the latter, such bisaccate taxa as Ovalipollis ovalis, Alisporites spp., Falcisporites nuthallensis, the inaperturate Araucariacites australis, and the monosulcate Chasmatosporites major dominate the assemblages. Representatives of such trilete spores as Dictyophyllidites mortonii, Kyrtomisporis laevigatus, and Gleicheiniidites senonicus are essentially abundant in the palynofloras examined. Vertical distribution of miospores allows erection within the Nayband Formation of three informal distinctive stratigraphically successive interval biozones, viz., A. australis-Annulispora folliculosa biozone, Conbaculatisporites sp.-Ricciisporites tuberculatus biozone, and R. tuberculatus-Polypodiisporites polymicroforatus biozone based on the First Observed Occurrence (FOO) and Last Observed Occurrence (LOO) of selected taxa. These are compared with palynozones from ±coeval strata in Iran and elsewhere. Additionally, two non-palyniferous intervals, one at the base (188 m thick) and another (18 m in thickness) at uppermost part of the section studied are identified. Based on the association of such key misopore species as Lunatisporites rhaeticus, O. ovalis (alias pseudoalatus), A. folliculosa, Polycingulatisporites mooniensis, Limbosporites lundbladii, Quadraeculina anellaeformis, R. tuberculatus, Conbaculatisporites sp., P. polymicroforatus, and Striatisaccus novimundi within the Nayband palynofloras, the host strata are assigned to Late Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian). This dating while corroborating previous attempts made with reference to mostly

  6. Stratigraphy, geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic setting of the Mesozoic Nazas Formation, north-central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Claudio

    Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic volcanic-sedimentary sequences that were part of the Mesozoic continental-margin of western North America are exposed in northern and central Mexico. These sequences have been grouped into the Nazas Formation and crop out in the states of Durango, Coahuila, Zacatecas, and San Luis Potosi. The Nazas Formation consists of 2,500 m or more of volcanic and pyroclastic rocks and interbedded clastic sedimentary rocks that were deposited in alluvial fan and fluvial depositional systems that developed in intra-arc basins, mainly fault-bound grabens and topographic depressions within an extending Mesozoic volcanic arc. Major and trace element geochemistry of volcanic rocks suggests that the volcanic suite is calc-alkaline and includes rhyolite, dacite, rhyodacite, andesite, trachyandesite and rare basalt. Pyroclastic rocks are basically air-fall tuffs and volcanic breccias. The sedimentary strata include conglomerate, sandstone, shale, and siltstone, locally red in color. Geochronology (Ar-Ar, K-Ar and Rb-Sr) and field evidence indicate that the age of the Nazas Formation ranges from Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic, but the peak of arc volcanism appears to be Early and Middle Jurassic. The Mesozoic magmatic arc in Mexico has a northwest trend and extends from Sonora to Chiapas. The arc structure is more than 2,000 km long, and possibly up to 150 km wide. The width of the arc is uncertain due to the limited number of surface outcrops, however, it did not extend east into the Gulf of Mexico. Arc-related magmatism began in latest Triassic time, but the peak of arc evolution occurred during the Early and Middle Jurassic. By Oxfordian time, the arc was deeply dissected and eroded, and magmatic activity had ceased. A marine transgression from the Gulf of Mexico covered most of the Nazas arc, depositing the initial sediments of the Oxfordian Zuloaga Limestone in the Mexican Geosyncline. Jurassic crustal extension in the Gulf of Mexico was

  7. Building Nanyang into a Central City in the Han River Basin%谈南阳汉水流域中心城市的建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜汉华

    2015-01-01

    南阳文化底蕴深厚,自然资源丰富,人口众多;南阳人特别有智慧,名人名家多如繁星;南阳曾经是汉水流域历史上出现最早、为时最长的中心城市,在海内外有过巨大的影响。只要南阳市进一步重视人才,擅于聚集南阳和天下人的智慧,找出南阳市突破性发展的正确路径,引进世界遗产的保护理念,完全有条件和襄阳竞争一番,争取引领汉水流域的文化旅游产业,再次率先成为汉水流域的中心城市。%The city of Nanyang boasts profound cultural deposits , abundant natural resources and an enormous pop-ulation.Nanyang is also a place laden with numerous outstanding personages .The city used to be the earliest and longest-lasting central city in the Han River basin , projecting its influence both at home and abroad .As long as Nanyang municipality attaches greater importance to attracting talents , draws on the collective wisdom of all con-cerned , blazes a new trail in achieving frog-leaping development and infuses innovative ideas into the cause of pre-serving and protecting World Heritage sites , it is fully capable of taking the ascendancy in its rivalry with Xiangyang for regional clout and regaining its lead in becoming a central city in the Han River basin whilst spearheading the development of the area ’ s cultural and tourism industries .

  8. Chemical pollution of environment in the cities of Central Siberia: risk for the health of the population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Klimatskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available pollution in cities including the problem of risk assessment. The aim of the study is to determine carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for the health of the population due to chemical contamination of air, water and food in the cities of the Krasnoyarsk region. Material and methods. The research was conducted in the Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Krasnoyarsk region. 5122 samples of air, 4863 samples of water and 6915 samples of food stuff have been analyzed. Concentration of chemical substances was the base on which individual carcinogenesis risk (ICR and population carcinogenic conventional risks (PCCR and non carcinogenic risks [1] have been calculated. In the industrial cities chemical pollution of air, water and food stuff including carcinogenic substances creates carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of morbidity of the population with the reinforcement of the complex impact, “with” which greatly exceeds the maximum acceptable risks. Results. Chemical pollution of environmental facilities in cities of the Krasnoyarsk region produce complex carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks which exceed maximum limit. The greatest shares in structure of complex carcinogenic risks are made in food stuff and water consumption in structure of complex non-carcinogenic risks as a result of air pollution and food stuff pollution. Conclusions. Obtained data could be used to set priorities in preventive measures to preserve health of the population in industrial cities of the Krasnoyarsk region.

  9. Assessment of the risk associated with the gamma-emitting radionuclides from the soil of two cities in Central Karakorum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Northern Areas of Pakistan is known for its relatively higher radioactivity level. No study has been conducted for Nagar, which is located at 2,590 m above sea level (ASL) and Shigar at 2,300 m ASL. Soil samples were collected from the two cities and gamma-emitting radionuclides were assayed using gamma-ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations, average air absorbed dose rate, average annual effective dose and three hazard indices namely the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index and internal hazard index were calculated. The risk to human was estimated using the excess life-time cancer risk for people living in the two cities. (author)

  10. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photography: Exploring the Medieval City of Merv, on the Silk Roads of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Williams

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ancient Merv Project is a collaboration between the Turkmenistan Ministry of Culture, the Ancient Merv State Park and the UCL Institute of Archaeology. It aims to research, protect and conserve the remains of one of the great historic cities of the Silk Roads. This paper explores a new survey of the Islamic city using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to take comprehensive and systematic vertical photographs to assist in the analysis of the medieval cityscape. The background to the research and the application of the technology are presented, together with our initial conclusions.

  11. Ancient and recent clay formation on Mars as revealed from a global survey of hydrous minerals in crater central peaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Vivian Z.; Milliken, Ralph E.

    2015-12-01

    Clay minerals on Mars have commonly been interpreted as the remnants of pervasive water-rock interaction during the Noachian period (>3.7 Ga). This history has been partly inferred by observations of clays in central peaks of impact craters, which often are presumed uplifted from depth. However, combined mineralogical and morphological analyses of individual craters have shown that some central peak clays may represent post-impact, possibly authigenic processes. Here we present a global survey of 633 central peaks to assess their hydrous minerals and the prevalence of uplifted, detrital, and authigenic clays. Central peak regions are examined using high-resolution Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment data to identify hydrous minerals and place their detections in a stratigraphic and geologic context. We find that many occurrences of Fe/Mg clays and hydrated silica are associated with potential impact melt deposits. Over 35% of central peak clays are not associated with uplifted rocks; thus, caution must be used when inferring deeper crustal compositions from surface mineralogy of central peaks. Uplifted clay-bearing rocks suggest the Martian crust hosts clays to depths of at least 7 km. We also observe evidence for increasing chloritization with depth, implying the presence of fluids in the upper portions of the crust. Our observations are consistent with widespread Noachian/Early Hesperian clay formation, but a number of central peak clays are also suggestive of clay formation during the Amazonian. These results broadly support current paradigms of Mars' aqueous history while adding insight to global crustal and diagenetic processes associated with clay mineral formation and stability.

  12. Incidence Of Severe Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase(G6PD) Deficiency In Countryside Villages Of The Central City Of Manisa, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Aim: The primary objective of this study was to determine the incidence of severe G6PD deficiency in selected countryside villages of central city of Manisa in Turkey. Secondarily to inform and protect G6PD deficient people from acute hemolytic crisis and neonatal jaundice by delivery of the updated protective food and drug list prepared in the light of the WHO- G6PD Working Committe reports. Methods: In this study, the incidence of severe G6PD deficiency were screened by Beutler\\'s Fluoresce...

  13. Multi-proxy constraints on sapropel formation during the late Pliocene of central Mediterranean (southwest Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancq, Julien; Grossi, Vincent; Pittet, Bernard; Huguet, Carme; Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Mattioli, Emanuela

    2015-06-01

    The late Pliocene (Piacenzian) in the Mediterranean region was punctuated by short-lived episodes of widespread deposition of organic-rich sedimentary layers known as sapropels. The causes of their formation remain a long-standing debate in the science community, and require disentangling the roles of climatic/oceanographic processes that triggered higher primary productivity or enhanced organic matter preservation. The lack of data, especially of sea temperatures at sufficient temporal resolution, is one of the main challenges to solve this debate. Here, we present new organic geochemistry and micropaleontological data from the late Pliocene at Punta Grande/Punta Piccola sections (southwest Sicily) that allow untangling the mechanisms that favored the formation of two sapropel series (noted S and A) in the central Mediterranean area during this period. Sea surface (SSTs) and subsurface temperatures were estimated using three distinct organic geochemical proxies namely the alkenone unsaturation index (UK‧37), the long-chain diol index (LDI) and the tetraether index (TEX86). Reconstructed SSTs are relatively stable throughout the late Pliocene and ∼4 °C higher than modern Mediterranean SSTs, which is consistent with the climatic conditions inferred for this period from paleoclimate modeling. An increase in SST is, however, recorded by UK‧37 and LDI proxies across each sapropel horizon, supporting that the two sapropel series S and A were formed during warmer climate conditions. The comparison of SST data with variations in accumulation rates of total organic carbon and lipid-biomarkers (alkenones, long-chain alkyl diols, archaeal and bacterial tetraethers), and with changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages, indicates that the studied sapropels might have formed under different environmental conditions. The first series of sapropels (S), deposited between 3.1 and 2.8 Ma, is likely due to a better preservation of organic matter, induced by the development

  14. AGN Feedback, Host Halo Mass and Central Cooling Time: Implications for Galaxy Formation Efficiency and $M_{BH} - \\sigma$

    CERN Document Server

    Main, Robert; Nulsen, Paul; Russell, Helen; Vantyghem, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    We derive X-ray mass, luminosity, and temperature profiles for 45 galaxy clusters to explore relationships between halo mass, AGN feedback, and central cooling time. We find that radio--mechanical feedback power (referred to here as "AGN power") in central cluster galaxies correlates with halo mass, but only in halos with central atmospheric cooling times shorter than 1 Gyr. This timescale corresponds approximately to the cooling time (entropy) threshold for the onset of cooling instabilities and star formation in central galaxies (Rafferty et al. 2008). No correlation is found in systems with central cooling times greater than 1 Gyr. The trend with halo mass is consistent with self-similar scaling relations assuming cooling is regulated by feedback. The trend is also consistent with galaxy and central black hole co-evolution along the $M_{BH} - \\sigma $ relation. AGN power further correlates with X-ray gas mass and the host galaxy's K-band luminosity. AGN power in clusters with central atmospheric cooling ti...

  15. Stratigraphic and laterial variations of source rock attributes of the Pematang Formation, Central Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, B.J. (Texaco Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-07-01

    The Pematang Formation of the Central Sumatra basin has been shown to be the primary, if not the only, source for the basin's 10+ billion bbl of recoverable oil. This lacustrine unit, which is restricted to a series of Paleogene half grabens, typifies the variability present in many rift source rock systems. Differences in organic facies occur both stratigraphically and laterally as a result of a series of complex interactions. The stratigraphic controls on organic facies within the Pematang appear to be (1) the challenging relationship between subsidence and sedimentation, (2) long-term climate trends influencing both lake level and regional vegetation patterns, and (3) the evolution of the lake basins' nutrient pool. These controls result in an increase in both the level of organic enrichment and oil-proneness toward the top of the unit. Superimposed on this pattern are changes in organic matter content and character caused by short-term climatic oscillations. The lateral controls on organic facies can be examined at two different scales: basinal and subbasinal. Basinal variations can be related to (1) different relative subsidence rates among the various subbasins and (2) variations in lake-water chemistry as a result of the nature of the paleodrainage basin. On a subbasinal scale, organic facies appear to be controlled by (1) hydrodynamic processes and circulation and (2) variations in water depth. These lateral variations are manifested in the level of organic enrichment, the proportions of oil- and gas-prone kerogen, and variations in oil composition.

  16. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE ATTITUDE MOTIVES FORMATION TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN OF THE NORTHERN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Ildarovna Busheva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Current issue under the study of problems of positive motivation formation for education of active attitude to physical culture and sports among primary school age children living in the northern city,is the study of students engaged and not engaged in physical culture and sports and main reasons research for passive attitude to the activity. In Surgut, KhMARYugra, 350 pupils were involved in theresearch of the age 710 years from the gymnasium named after Salmanov F.K. Following the procedure of L.I. Lubysheva active and passive attitude motives to primary school age children’s physicalactivity living in the northern city. We have identified 13 motives to the activity and 20 passive motives to the physical activity. During the research two groups of motives were identified reducing 710year old pupils’ motor activity. The first group of motives consists of the lack of organization and equipment; the second group consists of the lack of sports education (lack of physical culture valuecomprehension in human life. Children of primary school age living in the northern city point out various reasons explaining their passivity to the motor activity, physical culture and sports.Eliminating these causes is the first step to the positive motivation formation of physical activity. It requires to combine efforts of educational institutions work, physical education teachers and coachesto encourage healthy lifestyles, sports and recreational activities and students motivation increase to the motor activity, physical culture and sports in their spare time.

  17. Tourist Intensity in Capital Cities in Central Europe: Comparative Analysis of Tourism in Prague, Vienna and Budapest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumbrovská Veronika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban tourism has become a significant phenomenon of tourism over the last decade. the importance of urban tourism has grown mainly due to the development of transport and information technologies. rapid advancement of low cost airlines and reduction of administrative barriers owing to the expansion of the schengen area caused not only the development of a number of urban destinations, including Prague, but also the growth of new source markets. this paper compares the development of urban tourism in Prague with the situation in Vienna and Budapest in the last decade. the aim of the paper is to describe the main trends of tourism development and the geographic distribution of tourism in Prague in comparison with culturally and historically similar cities - Vienna and Budapest. the analysis shows high load of tourism in Prague and its strong concentration in the old city. this causes congestion in the city centre and an extrusion of residential functions by the functions of tourism. As a result, a tourism ghetto has been formed in the centre of Prague and the urban society has been increasingly dualized.

  18. The Formation of New Monetary Policies: Decisions of Central Banks on the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Esther Castro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect that the Great Recession had on monetary policies has led to the profound reorientation of central banks’ actions from 2007 to 2013. The purpose of this work is to analyze the monetary policies applied by the main central banks, mainly the European Central Bank, the Federal Reserve System of USA and the Bank of Japan, in order to raise thoughts on the guidelines that central banks should follow in the future. In the first section the bases of monetary policy before the crisis are described; in the second we explain the change in the orientation of the role of central banks during the crisis; and finally, we synthesize the bases on which the economic debate is taking place on the orientation of future monetary policies. We conclude that, in so far as the inoperativeness of transmission mechanisms still persists, monetary policies will remain in a process of change.

  19. Current denudation rates in dolostone karst from central Spain: Implications for the formation of unroofed caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krklec, Kristina; Domínguez-Villar, David; Carrasco, Rosa M.; Pedraza, Javier

    2016-07-01

    Rock tablets of known weight were buried in the soil of a karst region in Central Spain to evaluate the carbonate weathering during a period of a year. The experiment was conducted at two different soil depths: 5-10 and 50-55 cm from the surface. The parental rock used in the experiment is composed of dolomite and magnesite with variable proportion of accessory minerals and minor elements. Soil mineral and chemical composition as well as its texture was also characterized. Meteorological conditions at the site together with temperature and CO2 in both soil levels were monitored. Sets of tablets were retrieved after 6 and 12 months of the start of the experiment to account for seasonal weathering. Different lithologies do not exhibit significant differences in weathering, although a large inter-sample variability is attributed to variable size and distribution of the porosity. Results show an enhanced weathering during the wet and cold season that accounts for 78 ± 1% of the total annual weathering. Rock tablets examined under scanning electron microscopy prior and after exposure to natural environment show that most of the material lost occurred along cracks, edges or large pores. Although dissolution is a common process, most of the weathering is due to crystal detachment. Rock tablets at the depth of 5-10 cm were weathered 68 ± 1% more than those set at 50-55 cm from the surface. Higher soil moisture and concentration of CO2 were found deeper in the soil, which likely enhanced the dissolution of carbonate. However, physical weathering dominated weight loss of rock tablets at both soil depths; especially at the 5-10 cm level where soil thermal and moisture cycles were more frequent and greater. Denudation rate calculated from the 12 months set provides values of 2.48 ± 1.07 μm/yr and 1.75 ± 0.66 μm/yr at the depths of 5-10 and 50-55 cm, respectively. Since the conditions at the average contact between soil and bedrock are similar to those at the 50-55 cm

  20. On the peritidal cycles and their diagenetic evolution in the Lower Jurassic carbonates of the Calcare Massiccio Formation (Central Apennines)

    OpenAIRE

    Brandano Marco; Corda Laura; Tomassetti Laura; Testa Davide

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows the environmental changes and high-frequency cyclicity recorded by Lower Jurassic shallow-water carbonates known as the Calcare Massiccio Formation which crop out in the central Apennines of Italy. Three types of sedimentary cycle bounded by subaerial erosion have been recognized: Type I consists of a shallowing upward cycle with oncoidal floatstones to rudstones passing gradationally up into peloidal packstone alternating with cryptoalgal laminites and often bounded by desic...

  1. Insights into the dolomitization process and porosity modification in sucrosic dolostones, Avon Park Formation (Middle Eocene), East-Central Florida, U.S.A.

    KAUST Repository

    Maliva,, Robert G.

    2011-03-01

    The Avon Park Formation (middle Eocene) in central Florida, U.S.A., contains shallow-water carbonates that have been replaced by dolomite to varying degrees, ranging from partially replaced limestones, to highly porous sucrosic dolostones, to, less commonly, low-porosity dense dolostones. The relationships between dolomitization and porosity and permeability were studied focusing on three 305-m-long cores taken in the City of Daytona Beach. Stable-isotope data from pure dolostones (mean δ 18O = +3.91% V-PDB) indicate dolomite precipitation in Eocene penesaline pore waters, which would be expected to have been at or above saturation with respect to calcite. Nuclear magnetic log-derived porosity and permeability data indicate that dolomitization did not materially change total porosity values at the bed and formation scale, but did result in a general increase in pore size and an associated substantial increase in permeability compared to limestone precursors. Dolomitization differentially affects the porosity and permeability of carbonate strata on the scale of individual crystals, beds, and formations. At the crystal scale, dolomitization occurs in a volume-for-volume manner in which the space occupied by the former porous calcium carbonate is replaced by a solid dolomite crystal with an associated reduction in porosity. Dolomite crystal precipitation was principally responsible for calcite dissolution both at the actual site of dolomite crystal growth and in the adjoining rock mass. Carbonate is passively scavenged from the formation, which results in no significant porosity change at the formation scale. Moldic pores after allochems formed mainly in beds that experienced high degrees of dolomitization, which demonstrates the intimate association of the dolomitization process with carbonate dissolution. The model of force of crystallization-controlled replacement provides a plausible explanation for key observations concerning the dolomitization process in the

  2. Seismic and core investigation off Panama city, Florida, reveals sand ridge influence on formation of the shoreface ravinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John A.

    2014-10-01

    A high-resolution seismic reflection and vibracore survey was conducted on the inner shelf offshore of Panama City, Florida in April, 2011, to provide seabed characterization for Office of Naval Research acoustic reverberation experiments. The seafloor in this region is part of the MAFLA sand sheet: marine sands up to 5.5 m thick extending from Mississippi to the Florida panhandle. The survey area spanned a transition in sand ridge morphology: northwest of the St. Andrews Bay inlet channel, sand ridges are up to ~4 m tall, but die off southeast of the inlet channel. Analysis of reflection and core data documents a basal reflector beneath the ridges interpreted to be the shoreface ravinement separating estuarine and Pleistocene sediments below from the marine sands above scavenged from the eroded sediments. In the northwest, this surface truncates buried river channels filled with estuarine sediment. In the middle of the survey area, where sand ridges are ~2 m high, the basal reflector is stratigraphically above the channel tops, and the presence of woody fragments in the intervening sand implies that it is relict barrier/estuarine material that has not been reworked into marine sand. In the southeast, where no sand ridges are present, the basal reflector is not observed, but the shoreface ravinement is identified in cores just ~0.4 m below the seafloor; unreworked barrier/estuarine sands are up to ~4 m thick above the channel tops. The stratigraphic progression implies reduced depth of shoreface erosion to the southeast, correlating with the reduction in sand ridge height. It is hypothesized here that sand ridge migration provides an addition to wave erosion in the formation of the shoreface ravinement along the lower shoreface and inner shelf, eroding through net negative bedform climb, and transferring sand to the sand ridges comprising the modern sand sheet.

  3. Sustainable cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed

  4. Observation of aerosol size distribution and new particle formation at a coastal city in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lijuan; Wang, Honglei; Lü, Sheng; Li, Li; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Xiaohan; Tian, Xudong; Tang, Qian

    2016-09-15

    Aerosol number size distribution in the range of 10nm-10μm, trace gases (O3, CO, SO2 and NO2), particular matter (PM: PM2.5 and PM10) and meteorological elements were measured from the 1st to the 31st of May, 2015, in the coastal city of Jiaxing in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). The average number concentration and surface area concentration were 19,639cm(-3) and 427μm(2)cm(-3) during the observation period. The different mode particle concentrations ranked in the order of Aitken mode (12,361cm(-3))>nucleation (4926.7cm(-3))>accumulation (2349.3cm(-3))>coarse mode (1.7cm(-3)). The average concentrations of CO, SO2, NO2, O3, PM2.5 and PM10 were 0.545mgm(-3), 14.7, 35.1, 89.8, 43.5 and 64.6μgm(-3), respectively. Eight precipitation processes and 15 new particle formation (NPF) events (3 NPF events occurred on a rainy day) were observed. Results show that the precipitation process had greater scavenging effects on particles smaller than 120nm and larger than 2μm. The spectral distributions of number concentrations were unimodal at different weather conditions, with peaks at 20nm, 40-60nm, 50-80nm on NPF days, rainy days and normal days. During the NPF events, the formation rate (FR), growth rate (GR), condensational sink (CS), vapor source rate (Q) and condensing vapor concentration (C) were in the range of 4.0-17.0cm(-3)s(-1), 2.2-15.7nmh(-1), 1.5-5.8×10(-2)s(-1), 0.5-7.7×10(6)cm(-3)s(-1) and 3.0-21.5×10(7)cm(-3), with mean values of 9.6cm(-3)s(-1), 6.8nmh(-1), 3.4×10(-2)s(-1), 3.3×10(6)cm(-3)s(-1) and 9.4×10(7)cm(-3), respectively. NPF events normally occurred under clean atmospheric conditions with low PM concentrations but high levels of trace gases. It was also found that SO2 plays an important role in NPF and growth in Jiaxing. PMID:27261424

  5. Air quality forecasting for winter-time PM2.5 episodes occurring in multiple cities in central and southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saide, Pablo E.; Mena-Carrasco, Marcelo; Tolvett, Sebastian; Hernandez, Pablo; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic air quality degradation due to particles occurs in multiple cities in central and southern Chile during the austral winter reaching levels up to 300-800 µg/m3 hourly PM2.5, which can be associated with severe effects on human health. An air quality prediction system is developed to predict such events in near real time up to 3 days in advance for nine cities with regular air quality monitoring: Santiago, Rancagua, Curicó, Talca, Chillan, Los Ángeles, Temuco, Valdivia, and Osorno. The system uses the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model configured with a nested 2 km grid-spacing domain to predict weather and inert tracers. The tracers are converted to hourly PM2.5 concentrations using an observationally based calibration which is substantially less computationally intensive than a full chemistry model. The conversion takes into account processes occurring in these cities, including higher likelihood of episode occurrence during weekends and during colder days, the latter related to increased wood-burning-stove activity for heating. The system is calibrated and evaluated for April-August 2014 where it has an overall skill of 53-72% of episodes accurately forecasted (61-76% for the best initialization) which is better than persistence for most stations. Forecasts one, two, and three days in advance all have skill in forecasting events but often present large variability within them due to different meteorological initializations. The system is being implemented in Chile to assist authority decisions not only to warn the population but also to take contingency-based emission restrictions to try to avoid severe pollution events.

  6. Stratigraphy of the Lower and Middle Triassic Union Wash Formation, east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.; Orchard, Michael J.

    The authors describe the lithology, stratigraphy, and contact relations of the Union Wash Formation at its type locality and at two additional localities: the Cerro Gordo area near the crest of the Inyo Mountians, 25 km southeast of Union Wash, and the Darwin area, another 35 km to the southeast. The descriptions given are largely based on recent work and are intended to supercede previous descriptions of the formation by the authors and their coworkers. In addition, they list new conodont identifications that, together with ammonoids identified by previous workers, constrain the age of the Union Wash Formation in those three areas to Early and Middle Triassic.

  7. The central dark matter content of early-type galaxies: scaling relations and connections with star formation histories

    CERN Document Server

    Napolitano, Nicola R; Tortora, Crescenzo

    2010-01-01

    We examine correlations between the masses, sizes, and star formation histories for a large sample of low-redshift early-type galaxies, using a simple suite of dynamical and stellar populations models. We confirm an anti-correlation between size and stellar age, and survey for trends with the central content of dark matter (DM). An average relation between central DM density and galaxy size of ~ Reff^-2 provides the first clear indication of cuspy DM haloes in these galaxies -- akin to standard LCDM haloes that have undergone adiabatic contraction. The DM density scales with galaxy mass as expected, deviating from suggestions of a universal halo profile for dwarf and late-type galaxies. We introduce a new fundamental constraint on galaxy formation by finding that the central DM fraction decreases with stellar age. This result is only partially explained by the size-age dependencies, and the residual trend is in the opposite direction to basic DM halo expectations. Therefore we suggest that there may be a con...

  8. Clinical and Pathological Investigation on Turkey Diseases in North-central City of Jos, Nigeria, 2009-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Olatunde Babatunde Akanbi; Christiana Ibironke Odita; Philip Adeokemola Okewole; Christopher Jerry Bot; Adebowale Obalisa; Ezekiel Gyang Pam; Dakyahas John; Johnson Shallmizhili; Gabriel Ijale; Bulus Alim

    2015-01-01

    Information on turkey production and disease is rare in Nigeria, possibly because turkeys are seldom raised commercially. Also, turkeys require intensive husbandry and health care after hatching, which backyard poultry producers hardly provided especially, when raised in a disease endemic environment. In an attempt to document the diseases militating against turkey production in Nigeria, clinical and necropsy records were reviewed from veterinary practices in Jos and the Central Diagnostic La...

  9. A Reinterpretation of the Baturetno Formation: Stratigraphic Study of the Baturetno Basin, Wonogiri, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purna Sulastya Putra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the Quaternary Baturetno Formation. An earlier research concluded that the black clay of the Baturetno Formation formed as a ‘palaeolake’ deposit. The ‘palaeolake’ was interpreted to form due to the shifting course of the Bengawan Solo Purba River in relation to Pliocene tectonic tilting in the southern Java. The stratigraphy of the Baturetno Formation was observed in the western part of the Baturetno Basin, and based on marker beds, the Baturetno Formation was classified into three units: (1 Gravel unit (GR in the upper part, (2 clay unit (CU in the middle part, and (3 sand-gravel unit (SG in the lower part. There are floating gravel fragments of andesite, claystone, coral, and limestone with diameters of up to 10 cm in the clay unit. The particle size of sediment reflects the environment, but the lake deposition occurs under very quiet conditions. The occurrence of these fragments within the clay cannot be explained if the clay was deposited within a lake environment. The occurrence of floating fragments in the black clay of Baturetno Formation can best be explained through mudflow process. The cohesive strength of the mudflow is responsible for the ability of large fragments to float within the mud matrix. In general, the Baturetno Formation is inferred to be an alluvial fan deposit. The presence of sand, gravel, and mud are characteristics of alluvial fan deposits.

  10. Stretching morphogenesis of the roof plate and formation of the central canal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kondrychyn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurulation is driven by apical constriction of actomyosin cytoskeleton resulting in conversion of the primitive lumen into the central canal in a mechanism driven by F-actin constriction, cell overcrowding and buildup of axonal tracts. The roof plate of the neural tube acts as the dorsal morphogenetic center and boundary preventing midline crossing by neural cells and axons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The roof plate zebrafish transgenics expressing cytosolic GFP were used to study and describe development of this structure in vivo for a first time ever. The conversion of the primitive lumen into the central canal causes significant morphogenetic changes of neuroepithelial cells in the dorsal neural tube. We demonstrated that the roof plate cells stretch along the D-V axis in parallel with conversion of the primitive lumen into central canal and its ventral displacement. Importantly, the stretching of the roof plate is well-coordinated along the whole spinal cord and the roof plate cells extend 3× in length to cover 2/3 of the neural tube diameter. This process involves the visco-elastic extension of the roof place cytoskeleton and depends on activity of Zic6 and the Rho-associated kinase (Rock. In contrast, stretching of the floor plate is much less extensive. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The extension of the roof plate requires its attachment to the apical complex of proteins at the surface of the central canal, which depends on activity of Zic6 and Rock. The D-V extension of the roof plate may change a range and distribution of morphogens it produces. The resistance of the roof plate cytoskeleton attenuates ventral displacement of the central canal in illustration of the novel mechanical role of the roof plate during development of the body axis.

  11. Seven hundred years of peat formation recorded throughout a deep floating mire profile from Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Floating mires are defined by the occurrence of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Islands floating and moving on a lake naturally were already described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis historia almost two millennia ago. Actually, he devoted a whole chapter of Naturalis historia to "Of Islands Ever Floating and Swimming", reporting how certain isles were always waving and never stood still. The status of "flotant" has been defined transitory; in fact, these small isles often disappear, in most of the cases because of a transition from floating island to firm land during decades is likely to happen. That is why most of the floating islands described by Pliny the Elder (e.g., Lacus Fundanus, Lacus Cutiliensis, Lacus Mutinensis, Lacus Statoniensis, Lacus Tarquiniensis, Lydia Calaminae, Lacus Vadimonis) do not exist anymore. In the present study, peat formation and organic matter evolution were investigated in order to understand how these peculiar environments form, and how stable actually they are. In fact, it is hoped that peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, since much of their evolution, as well as the changes of the surrounding areas, is recorded in their peat deposits. A complete, 4-m deep peat core was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum centre. Here, some of the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur. The 14C age dating of organic sediments isolated from the sample at 385 cm of depth revealed that the island formed ca. 700 yrs ago (620±30 yr BP). The top 100 cm, consisting almost exclusively of Sphagnum mosses, show a very low bulk density (avg., 0.03±0.01 g cm

  12. A CHANDRA X-RAY ANALYSIS OF ABELL 1664: COOLING, FEEDBACK, AND STAR FORMATION IN THE CENTRAL CLUSTER GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the Abell 1664 cluster is unusually blue and is forming stars at a rate of ∼ 23 M sun yr-1. The BCG is located within 5 kpc of the X-ray peak, where the cooling time of 3.5 x 108 yr and entropy of 10.4 keV cm2 are consistent with other star-forming BCGs in cooling flow clusters. The center of A1664 has an elongated, 'barlike' X-ray structure whose mass is comparable to the mass of molecular hydrogen, ∼1010 M sun in the BCG. We show that this gas is unlikely to have been stripped from interloping galaxies. The cooling rate in this region is roughly consistent with the star formation rate, suggesting that the hot gas is condensing onto the BCG. We use the scaling relations of BIrzan et al. to show that the active galactic nucleus (AGN) is underpowered compared to the central X-ray cooling luminosity by roughly a factor of three. We suggest that A1664 is experiencing rapid cooling and star formation during a low state of an AGN feedback cycle that regulates the rates of cooling and star formation. Modeling the emission as a single-temperature plasma, we find that the metallicity peaks 100 kpc from the X-ray center, resulting in a central metallicity dip. However, a multi-temperature cooling flow model improves the fit to the X-ray emission and is able to recover the expected, centrally peaked metallicity profile.

  13. FOREX Microstructure, Invisible Price Determinants, and the Central Bank's Understanding of Exchange Rate Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Derviz, Alexis

    2003-01-01

    The paper investigates the transmission of macroeconomic factors into the price-setting behavior of a specific dealer in the FX market. This problem is viewed from the perspective of a central banker who observes the price evolution but does not make the market in the home currency. The analysis is based on a model of a multiple dealer market under two organizations: direct inter-dealer and brokered.

  14. Nitrous oxide formation in and emissions from grazed upland grasslands in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Miloslav; Čuhel, Jiří; Hynšt, Jaroslav

    New York : Nova Science Publishers, 2009, s. 67-83. ISBN 978-1-60692-267-5 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600660605; GA ČR GA526/09/1570; GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : nitrous oxide * grazed upland grasslands * Central Europe Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Study of particulate matters pollution related with meteorological factors for a city from South-Central of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela MITRAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the effects of climate change and air pollution is at present a global priority. Development and implementation of effective policies in order to achieve these  reductions is a challenge that requires a good understanding of the underlying phenomena  of climate change and air pollution. This paper aims to highlight the seasonal variation of PM10 concentration in Pitesti city depending on major meteorological factors (temperature, intensity of solar radiation, and relative humidity. The applied methodology consists in statistical processing, using specialized software, of a database containing historical records of concentration values of this pollutant and of meteorological parameters recorded concurrently. The results of processing a series of approximately 30000 values recorded from 2008 to 2011 indicate the fact that in every season (winter,spring, summer, and autumn the concentration of PM10 varies according to a sixth degree polynomial function, whose variable is one of the considered meteorological factors. The mathematical relationship that best approximates the variation of average PM10 concentration in relation with the three meteorological factors is by the form of a multiple linear regression equation.Keywords: air pollution and human health, particulate matters related with meteorological factors, statistical analysis

  16. City Building: the participation in the production of income in urban formation of Guaçuí-ES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cândido Mendonça

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the participation of real income in urban education Guaçuí municipality of Southwest State of Espírito Santo. The theoretical analysis assumed seize the city (its built space, articulated the productive space, so in general, necessary for the reproduction of capital in the city urban conditions, by which they showed in the set of investment strategies in urban activities the development prospect of gains for the valuation of real property. And this value is related to the capitalist use of land through the creation of urban conditions and construction of rental housing. The conclusion is that capital originated in the field also encountered in the construction of the city the opportunity to reproduce and thereby interfere with the spatial configuration of the city. Accordingly, we sought to understand the metamorphosis of wealth from the countryside to the city in Guaçuí, in which the value of urban real estate was the significance of reserve and allowed the obtaining of income. Considering the importance of the participation of the municipality Guaçuí the regional economy were significant transfers of surplus from the countryside to the city during the first half of the last century, enabling rentier show the interference of production (for the purpose of earning income through the use of property urban land in the urban training town. Access to information, including probate proceedings on the initiatives of the business diversification of farmers and traders, helped identify initiatives such as the creation of urban infrastructure and services, as well as the construction of rental housing, allowing the valuation of real property and the transformation of the city Guaçuí.

  17. Soil formation on a calcic chronosequence of Ancient Lake Konya in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaytekin, Hasan Huseyin; Mutlu, Hasan Huseyin; Dedeoglu, Mert

    2012-11-01

    With the passage of time, different soils show a wide range of variation in their formation. The passage of time in soil formation affects both soil features and the rates of weathering. The aim of this research is to study and compare the pedogenic evolution of soils developed on the terraces of Ancient Lake Konya using weathering indices such as Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW), and Eu and Ce anomalies. The study will also take into account other features, such as the physical and chemical properties, the analytical characteristics and how soil formation is determined according to the passage of time. For this purpose, four representative profiles were dug at different levels. After the macro-morphological identifications were completed in all the profiles, the samples were then collected from the horizons and were analysed for their physical, chemical, mineralogical and geochemical properties. Although the soils in the study field were formed in different terrace levels, no significant relationship between the age of the soil and the soil properties was found. The lone exception was the clay movement in profile 1, which resulted from the limitation in profile development caused by erosion. Moreover, this erosion was the result of an increasing slope from the low terrace to the high coastal terraces. Similar physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics were determined in the profiles. Using geochemical characteristics, the determined weathering indexes and their anomalies showed a very limited variation between the profiles, which suggests that though they differ in terms of age, the profiles have similar weathering levels. The climatological factors continuing along the Holocene were not efficient enough to change the effect of the other soil formation factors in the last period of the Quaternary. Therefore, it was concluded that the main factors determining soil formation are climate and topography, both of which

  18. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3‑ in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  19. Revisions to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the Abiquiu Formation, Abiquiu and contiguous areas, north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian; Kelley, Shari A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratigraphic studies and geologic mapping on the Abiquiu 7.5-min quadrangle have led to revision of the stratigraphic nomenclature for the Oligocene to Miocene Abiquiu Formation in north-central New Mexico. The Abiquiu Formation had previously been defined to include informal upper, middle (Pedernal chert member), and lower members. The basement-derived conglomeratic lower member in the northern Jemez Mountains and Abiquiu embayment is here redefined. We propose removing the "lower member" from the Abiquiu Formation because provenance of these coarse sediments is dramatically different than the volcaniclastic strata of the "upper member." Furthermore, we propose that the term "lower member of the Abiquiu Formation" be replaced with an existing unit name, the Ritito Conglomerate of Barker (1958), and that the name Abiquiu Formation be restricted to the volcaniclastic succession. The lower part of the Ritito Conglomerate in Arroyo del Cobre on the Abiquiu quadrangle is 47 m (155 ft) thick and is composed of arkosic conglomeratic beds interbedded with arkosic sands and siltstones. Clasts include, in descending order of abundance, Proterozoic quartzite, granite, metavolcanic rocks, quartz, schist, and gneiss and a trace of Mesozoic sandstone and Paleozoic chert. Clasts are predominantly of pebble and cobble size but range from granule to boulder size. Paleocurrent data collected in the Arroyo del Cobre area indicate that the Ritito Conglomerate was deposited by a south-flowing river system during the Oligocene, eroding Laramide highlands such as the Tusas Mountains to the northeast, which contain predominantly Proterozoic rocks. This depositional setting has also been suggested by previous workers. The middle member or Pedernal chert member is present both at the top of the Ritito Conglomerate and as lenses within the lower part of the Abiquiu Formation. This post-depositional diagenetic chert remains an informal unit called the Pedernal chert.

  20. Suburbs and Cities

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Matthew I. Spiegel; Susan M. Wachter

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how closely the fortunes of suburbs are tied to the fortunes of the central city. We use similarities in residential housing price dynamics as a measure of how closely the economies of cities and suburbs are related. We develop housing price indices for most of the zip codes in California, and use these in a clustering procedure to see whether cities and suburbs naturally aggregate together, or whether they move separately. We find that central cities tend to...

  1. FORMATIVE MECHANISM OF AKAISHI MOUNTAINS AND ENREI BASIN IN CENTRAL JAPAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasu'uchi KUBOTA; Takao YANO

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction It is common in mobile belts that uplifting mountains are neighbored by synchronously subsiding basins.The coupling mechanism of such subsidence and uplift is an important target to clarify the dynamics of mobile belts.We investigate the coupled mountain uplift and basin subsidence in the Central Japan highland,the junction of three island arcs (the Northeast Japan,the Southwest Japan and the Izu-Ogasawara arcs).The highland over 3 000 m in height is composed of mountain ranges,plateaus and intramountain basins (Fig.1).

  2. FORMATIVE MECHANISM OF AKAISHI MOUNTAINS AND ENREI BASIN IN CENTRAL JAPAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasu'uchi; KUBOTA; Takao; YANO

    2001-01-01

    1 Introduction  It is common in mobile belts that uplifting mountains are neighbored by synchronously subsiding basins.The coupling mechanism of such subsidence and uplift is an important target to clarify the dynamics of mobile belts.We investigate the coupled mountain uplift and basin subsidence in the Central Japan highland,the junction of three island arcs (the Northeast Japan,the Southwest Japan and the Izu-Ogasawara arcs).The highland over 3 000 m in height is composed of mountain ranges,plateaus and intramountain basins (Fig.1).……

  3. Natural gas transport and storage markets in central Europe - trends of development and price formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final consumer price is to a large part determined by the costs of natural gas transport, which thus often also becomes a determinant of the structure of natural gas markets. The present paper restricts itself to current developments in central Europe. It is intended to show that there is an increase in demand for 'unbundled' storage and transport services across markets of different strufctures. It is not possible to give more than a scanty outline of the principles governing tariff and price fixing. (orig.)

  4. A comparison of mortality rates in three prospective studies from Copenhagen with mortality rates in the central part of the city, and the entire country. Copenhagen Center for Prospective Population Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L B; Vestbo, J; Juel, K;

    1998-01-01

    Copenhagen City Heart Study, whereas mortality rates in the Glostrup Population Studies were similar to rates for the whole country. The mortality rates among participants were lower than in the whole sample, and differences existed in relation to region and selection criteria of the cohorts. The Copenhagen...... Male Study, where only employed men were included, showed the lowest mortality rates, and higher rates were found in the study from the central part of the City (the Copenhagen City Heart Study) compared to the study from the suburbs (the Glostrup Population Studies). The difference between mortality...... rates in the cohorts and in Copenhagen City decreased with increasing age. The SMR converged towards 1.00 with increasing observation time. In conclusion, high participation rates were found in all three studies, resulting in SMR values for participants only slightly lower than in the source population...

  5. Biostratigraphy of the Hawthorn formation in northeast and north central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenstine, R. W.

    Cores recently drilled along Florida's east coast by the Florida Bureau of Geology have yielded a record of the most complete Florida Hawthorn fossiliferous sediments heretofor available for biostratigraphic analysis. The record of Hawthorn deposition extends from the Early Miocene in sediments near the base of this formation in Nassau County to what appears to be Early Pliocene time in core sediments present in Indian River and St. Lucie counties. A diversity of microfossil groups including diatoms, silicoflagellates, foraminifera and coccoliths were identified in the Hawthorn sediments. Diatoms, which represented the largest and most definitive number of species, where the primary group used to determine the biochronology and paleoenvironmental interpretations of this important phosphate-bearing formation. Three biostratigraphic zones of Middle Miocene to Late Middle Miocene age can be recognized in the Hawthorn sediments (Coscinodiscus plicatus, Coscinodiscus plicatus/Delphineis penelliptica, Delphineis penelliptica zones).

  6. STAR FORMATION IN THE CENTRAL 400 PC OF THE MILKY WAY: EVIDENCE FOR A POPULATION OF MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central kpc of the Milky Way might be expected to differ significantly from the rest of the Galaxy with regard to gasdynamics and the formation of young stellar objects (YSOs). We probe this possibility with mid-infrared observations obtained with Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer on Spitzer and with Midcourse Space Experiment. We use color-color diagrams and spectral energy distribution (SED) fits to explore the nature of YSO candidates (including objects with 4.5 μm excesses possibly due to molecular emission). There is an asymmetry in the distribution of the candidate YSOs, which tend to be found at negative Galactic longitudes; this behavior contrasts with that of the molecular gas, approximately 2/3 of which is at positive longitudes. The small-scale height of these objects suggests that they are within the Galactic center region and are dynamically young. They lie between two layers of infrared dark clouds and may have originated from these clouds. We identify new sites for this recent star formation by comparing the mid-IR, radio, submillimeter, and methanol maser data. The methanol masers appear to be associated with young, embedded YSOs characterized by 4.5 μm excesses. We use the SEDs of these sources to estimate their physical characteristics; their masses appear to range from ∼10 to ∼20 Msun. Within the central 400 x 50 pc (|l| 03 and |b| sun yr-1. Given that the majority of the sources in the population of YSOs are classified as Stage I objects, we suggest that a recent burst of star formation took place within the last 105 yr. This suggestion is also consistent with estimates of SFRs within the last ∼107 yr showing a peak around 105 yr ago. Lastly, we find that the Schmidt-Kennicutt Law applies well in the central 400 pc of the Galaxy. This implies that star formation does not appear to be dramatically affected by the extreme physical conditions in the Galactic center region.

  7. Dew formation on the surface of biological soil crusts in central European sand ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fischer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dew formation was investigated in three developmental stages of biological soil crusts (BSC, which were collected along a catena of an inland dune and in the initial substrate. The Penman equation, which was developed for saturated surfaces, was modified for unsaturated surfaces and used for prediction of dewfall rates. The levels of surface saturation required for this approach were predicted using the water retention functions and the thicknesses of the BSCs. During a first field campaign (2–3 August 2011, dewfall increased from 0.042 kg m−2 for the initial sandy substrate to 0.058, 0.143 and 0.178 kg m−2 for crusts 1 to 3, respectively. During a second field campaign (17–18 August 2011, where dew formation was recorded in 1.5 to 2.75-h intervals after installation at 21:30 CEST, dewfall increased from 0.011 kg m−2 for the initial sandy substrate to 0.013, 0.028 and 0.055 kg m−2 for crusts 1 to 3, respectively. Dewfall rates remained on low levels for the substrate and for crust 1, and decreased overnight for crusts 2 and 3 (with crust 3 > crust 2 > crust 1 throughout the campaign. Dew formation was well reflected by the model response. The suggested mechanism of dew formation involves a delay in water saturation in near-surface soil pores and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS where the crusts were thicker and where the water capacity was high, resulting in elevated vapor flux towards the surface. The results also indicate that the amount of dewfall was too low to saturate the BSCs and to observe water flow into deeper soil. Analysis of the soil water retention curves revealed that, despite the sandy mineral matrix, moist crusts clogged by swollen EPS pores exhibited a clay-like behavior. It is hypothesized that BSCs gain double benefit from suppressing their competitors by runoff generation and from improving their water supply by dew collection. Despite higher amounts of dew, the

  8. How to make mega-cities energy efficient?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yoshitaka

    2010-09-15

    Tokyo is a Megalopolis with 40 million+ population. It has an energy efficient profile due to its uniqueness as extensive mass rail transit networks, high density and compact urban formation, compact space oriented life style. The other feature is extensive use of electric heat pumps (EHP), which entails low carbon city profile. Further possibility is prepared with water thermal energy utilization, which is widely available also through EHP particularly in Tokyo central districts, which could make Tokyo one of the lowest carbon cities in the world. Emerging mega-cities are expected to learn from Tokyo's success and not from western conventional models.

  9. Formation mechanism of carbonate cemented zones adjacent to the top overpressured surface in the central Junggar Basin,NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Carbonate cemented zones are normally adjacent to the top overpressured surface in the central Junggar Basin,NW China.Stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions and petrological investigations of carbonate cements in the carbonate cemented zones indicate that:(1) carbonate cements are composed dominantly of ferrocalcite,ferroan dolomite,and ankerite;(2) carbonate cements are formed under a high temperature circumstance in the subsurface,and organic fluid migration has an important effect on the formation of them;and(3) carbon and oxygen ions in the carbonate cements migrate from the underlying overpressured system.This suggests that the occurrence of carbonate cemented zones in this region results from multiple phases of organic fluid expulsion out of the overpressure compartment through geological time.This study provides a plausible mechanism of the formation of carbonate cemented zones adjacent to the top overpressured surface in the clastic sedimentary basins,and has an important implication for understanding the internal correlation between the formation of carbonate cemented zones adjacent to top overpressured surface and geofluids expulsion out of overpressured system.

  10. Dew formation on the surface of biological soil crusts in central European sand ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fischer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dew formation was investigated in three developmental stages of biological soil crusts (BSC, which were collected along a catena of an inland dune and in the initial substrate. The Penman equation, which was developed for saturated surfaces, was modified for unsaturated surfaces and used for prediction of dewfall rates. The levels of surface saturation required for this approach were predicted using the water retention functions and the thicknesses of the BSCs. During a single event, dewfall increased with crust development from 0.08 kg m−2 for the initial substrate to 0.10, 0.20 and 0.25 kg m−2 for crusts stages 1 to 3, respectively, which was well reflected by the model response. The suggested mechanism of dew formation involves a delay in water saturation in near-surface soil pores and EPS where the crusts were thicker and where the water capacity was high, resulting in elevated vapor flux towards the surface. The results also indicate that the amount of dewfall was too low to observe water flow into deeper soil. Analysis of the soil water retention curves revealed that, despite the sandy mineral matrix, moist crusts with clogged by swollen EPS pores exhibited a clay-like behavior. It is hypothesized that BSCs gain double benefit from suppressing their competitors by runoff generation and from improving their water supply by dew collection. Despite higher amounts of dew, the water availability to the crust community decreases with crust development, which may be compensated by ecophysiological adaptation of crust organisms, and which may further suppress higher vegetation or mosses.

  11. Central Nervous Insulin Signaling in Sleep-Associated Memory Formation and Neuroendocrine Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Gordon B; Wilhem, Ines; Benedict, Christian; Rüdel, Benjamin; Klameth, Corinna; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2016-05-01

    The neurochemical underpinnings of sleep's contribution to the establishment and maintenance of memory traces are largely unexplored. Considering that intranasal insulin administration to the CNS improves memory functions in healthy and memory-impaired humans, we tested whether brain insulin signaling and sleep interact to enhance memory consolidation in healthy participants. We investigated the effect of intranasal insulin on sleep-associated neurophysiological and neuroendocrine parameters and memory consolidation in 16 men and 16 women (aged 18-30 years), who learned a declarative word-pair task and a procedural finger sequence tapping task in the evening before intranasal insulin (160 IU) or placebo administration and 8 h of nocturnal sleep. On the subsequent evening, they learned interfering word-pairs and a new finger sequence before retrieving the original memories. Insulin increased growth hormone concentrations in the first night-half and EEG delta power during the second 90 min of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. Insulin treatment impaired the acquisition of new contents in both the declarative and procedural memory systems on the next day, whereas retrieval of original memories was unchanged. Results indicate that sleep-associated memory consolidation is not a primary mediator of insulin's acute memory-improving effect, but that the peptide acts on mechanisms that diminish the subsequent encoding of novel information. Thus, by inhibiting processes of active forgetting during sleep, central nervous insulin might reduce the interfering influence of encoding new information. PMID:26448203

  12. Recent star formation in the inner Galactic Bulge seen by ISOGAL II -- The Central Molecular Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Immer, K; Omont, A; Menten, K M

    2011-01-01

    We present 5--38 $\\mu$m spectroscopic observations of a sample of 68 ISOGAL sources with unknown natures, taken with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. Based on the characteristics and the slope of their spectra we classified the sources as young or late-type evolved objects. These sources were selected to test selection criteria based on the ISOGAL [7]--[15] color and the spatial extent parameter $\\sigma_{\\rm 15}$. We revised these criteria until they reliably distinguished between young and late-type evolved objects and then applied them to all ISOGAL sources in the central molecular zone (CMZ), resulting in the selection of 485 sources believed to be young. Furthermore, we added 656 Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) sources to the CMZ sample that fulfilled $F_{\\rm E}/F_{\\rm D} > 2$ with $F{\\rm D}$ and $F_{\\rm E}$ being the flux densities in the D (15 $\\mu$m) and E (21 $\\mu$m) bands. After obtaining $\\frac{L_{\\rm bol}}{F_{\\rm 15}}$ conversion factors, we calculated the bolometric luminosity, $L_{\\rm bol}$, v...

  13. Exposure of school children to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals and radionuclides in the urban soil of Kragujevac city, Central Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajic, J M; Milenkovic, B; Pucarevic, M; Stojic, N; Vasiljevic, I; Nikezic, D

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations of radionuclides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were measured in soil samples collected from school backyards and playgrounds in Kragujevac, one of the largest cities of Central Serbia. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs were determined using the HPGe semiconductor detector. The average values were 34.6, 44.7, 428.9 and 45.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The correlation between the activity concentrations of (226)Ra in the soil samples and the results of the previous measurement of (222)Rn concentrations in the indoor air was examined. The absorbed dose rates, the annual effective doses and excess lifetime cancer risk were also estimated. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th have shown normal distribution. The collected soil samples were analysed for PAHs by HPLC. All analysed soil samples contained PAHs, and their total amounts (for 15 measured compounds) were found to be between 0.038 and 3.136 mg kg(-1) of absolutely dry soil (a.d.s). In addition the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in the fourteen soil samples collected from the playgrounds of kindergartens. PMID:26706933

  14. Duration of inverted metamorphic sequence formation across the Himalayan Main Central Thrust (MCT), Sikkim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioldi, Stefania; Moulas, Evangelos; Tajcmanová, Lucie; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates since the Eocene (50 Ma) caused the closure of the Neo-Tethys and the underthrusting of India beneath the Tibetan Plateau, generating the 2500 km extended Himalayan belt. The Main Central Thrust (MCT) marks the boundary of the underlying Midland Lower Himalaya metasediments zone (LH) in the south from the overlying high grade metamorphic Higher Himalaya (HH) in the north. Several models considering petrochronology, geothermobarometry and structural geology have been discussed to explain the inverted metamorphic gradient in the LH metasediments without reaching a common agreement. This study investigates the tectonic setting and the timescale of inverted isograds related to crustal-scale thrusting at the MCT in the Sikkim region, northeast India. The aim is to contribute to the understanding of the link between mechanical and thermal evolution of major thrust zones and to clarify the nature and the origin of orogenic heat applying garnet geospeedometry. Garnets provide a sensitive record of metamorphic conditions and are potential chronometer. Their compositional zoning is used as a gauge for rate estimates of element diffusion within the mineral and allows estimating the absolute time of the thermal evolution. Inverse-fitting numerical model considering FRactIonation and Diffusion in GarnEt (FRIDGE) calculates garnet composition profiles by introducing P-T-t paths and bulk-rock composition of a specific sample. P-T conditions were estimated by convectional geothermobarometry supported by phase equilibria modelling and measured garnet chemical compositions. Simulation were compared with measured garnet profiles. Simple step function and FRIDGE preliminary results of Fe-Mg - Ca - Mn garnet fractionation-diffusion modelling indicate very short timescale (between 3 and 6 Ma) for peak metamorphic conditions in the northeast Himalayan collisional system. This duration does not allow thermal re-equilibration. It is an

  15. The main principles of formation of structure of cultural-historical landscapes of Central Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman

    2014-05-01

    The forming and development of cultural-historical landscapes (CH) are obligate result of evolution of society and nature, as well as, man and landscapes during their coherent growth. CH landscapes are holistic historic-cultural and nature creations. They reflect the history of land use and spiritual development of ethnic community of concrete territory with determine homogeneous landscape characteristics. The majority of them appertain to the category of relict landscapes, which completed their evolution growth. That means that these are anthropogenic (AL) and cultural (CL) landscapes. They lost anthropogenic management and continue their growth obeying natural logic. These landscapes include elements of morphological structure and natural components, which have been transformed by men, and also artefacts, sociofacts and mental facts. These facts can be considered as peculiar "biographical chronicle" of activity of population in determinate landscape conditions in determinate historical period. These facts are evidences of material and spiritual cultural of society. The first AL begin to arise simultaneously with conversation of appropriating economy into generating economy. There was such conversation in Central Russia (Neolithic revolution) only in Bronze Age. Anthropogenic transformed landscape complexes and even man-made landscape complexes have been formed in Bronze Age. Some of these complexes exist now. Actual anthropogenic and cultural landscapes began to form only in Iron Age while permanent, long existed settlement and agriculture structure has organized. First, These are small settlement anthropogenic landscape complexes (selischa and gorodischa) with applied permanent miniature arable areas. These complexes located on the capes and on the areas between river banks and banks of streams. Second, these are pasture anthropogenic landscape complexes (on the level of podurochische and urochische), located in flood plain and valley-cavin position (pasture

  16. Czech alien flora and the historical pattern of its formation: what came first to Central Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pysek, Petr; Sádlo, Jirí; Mandák, Bohumil; Jarosík, Vojtech

    2003-03-01

    Temporal patterns of immigration to the country were analysed using 668 alien species in the flora of the Czech Republic for which the dates of the first record were available (64.8% of the total number of 1031 so-called neophytes, i.e. aliens introduced after the year 1500). After a period of initial slow increase lasting to the 1840s, the accumulation of neophytes over time could be best fitted by a linear model that explained 97% of the variance. The intensity of floristic research, which varied between periods, did not significantly affect the overall increase in the number of aliens. The effect of species traits on the year of introduction was evaluated, with continent of origin, introduction type (deliberate or accidental), life history, Grime's life strategy, onset of flowering, mode of dispersal and propagule size as explanatory variables. Species of European origin and CSR strategists arrived earlier than those with other origins and strategies. Deliberately introduced species appeared earlier than accidental arrivals, and those cultivated for utilitary reasons on average arrived earlier than ornamentals. Species capable of early flowering were remarkably more prevalent among early newcomers. A separate analysis of accidentally introduced American species also identified life history as a significant predictor of immigration time, with annuals being introduced earlier than biennials and perennials. The data contribute to an understanding of a crucial stage of the invasion process that has received little attention in the literature. The model "early alien" to Central Europe is a European species with a CSR strategy deliberately brought for cultivation as a utilitary plant. Once it escaped from cultivation, its establishment in the wild was favoured by its ability to flower early and, therefore, complete the life cycle. PMID:12647111

  17. Formation and Accumulation of Hydrocarbons in the Central Uplift, Dongying Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Sumei; Qiu Guiqiang; Gao Yongjin; Jiang Zhenxue

    2006-01-01

    A large number of crude oil and rock samples from various oil pools of the Central Uplift in Dongying Depression were investigated to reveal the origin and accumulation of hydrocarbons. The results showed that the composition and areal distribution of hydrocarbons vary with the location of the oil pools. An increasing trend of gammacerane/C30-hopane and steranes/hopanes but a decreasing trend of prystane/phytane (Pr/Ph) and 18(H)-/17(H)-trisnorhopane (Ts/Tm) ratios were observed from southwest to northeast. This indicates a variation of source rocks and hydrocarbon properties. An increasing trend of water salinity with much more input of algae-rich microorganisms in the deposition environment of the source rock was observed from southwest to northeast. However, the thermal maturity of the source rocks showed a decreasing trend in the same direction. Oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations showed that most oils were sourced from Es3 and Es4 members with a burial depth of more than 3,000-3,150 m and 2,700 m respectively. The oils in the Shinan and Ying 11 sand bodies, which were generally mixed with the Es4 sourced oils, came mostly from Es3 mudstones. It is quite significant that the Es4 derived oils migrated vertically for hundreds of meters and accumulated in an overlying lithologic pool of the Es3m, i.e., Ying 11 synclinal lithologic pool, which suggests that the mechanisms of migration and accumulation for subtle oil pools in the Dongying Depression are more complex than that of the previously expected.

  18. Detrital zircon geochronology of the Adams Argillite and Nation River Formation, east-central Alaska, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, G.E.; Johnsson, M.J.; Howell, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Cambrian Adams Argillite and the Devonian Nation River Formation are two sandstone-bearing units within a remarkably complete Paleozoic stratigraphic section in east-central Alaska. These strata, now foreshortened and fault-bounded, were originally contiguous with miogeoclinal strata to the east that formed as a passive-margin sequence along the northwestern margin of the North American continent. Seventy-five detrital zircon grains from the Adams Argillite and the Nation River Formation were analyzed in an effort to provide constraints on the original sources of the grains, and to generate a detrital zircon reference for miogeoclinal strata in the northern Cordillera. Thirty-five single zircon grains from a quartzite in the Adams Argillite yield dominant age clusters of 1047-1094 (n = 6), 1801-1868 (n = 10), and 2564-2687 (n = 5) Ma. Forty zircons extracted from a sandstone in the Nation River Formation yield clusters primarily of 424-434 (n = 6), 1815-1838 (n = 6), 1874-1921 (n = 7), and 2653-2771 (n = 4) Ma. The Early Proterozoic and Archean grains in both units probably originated in basement rocks in a broad region of the Canadian Shield. In contrast, the original igneous sources for mid-Protcrozoic grains in the Adams Argillite and ??? 430 Ma grains in the Nation River Formation are more difficult to identify. Possible original sources for the mid-Proterozoic grains include: (1) the Grenville Province of eastern Laurentia, (2) the Pearya terrane along the Arctic margin, and (3) mid-Proterozoic igneous rocks that may have been widespread along or outboard of the Cordilleran margin. The ??? 430 Ma grains may have originated in: (1) arc-type sources along the Cordilleran margin, (2) the Caledonian orogen, or (3) a landmass, such as Pearya, Siberia, or crustal fragments now in northern Asia, that resided outboard of the Innuitian orogen during mid-Paleozoic time. Copyright ?? 1999, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  19. Greening cosmopolitan urbanism? On the transnational mobility of low-carbon formats in Northern European and East Asian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Blok

    2012-01-01

    This paper engages key social theories of transnational mobilities in order to forge the concept of urban ‘green’ cosmopolitization, posited as a social scientific contribution to epochal conversations on climate change. Bringing Ulrich Beck’s notion of ‘cosmopolitization’ to bear on recent work around ‘urban policy mobilities’, I analyze professional planning practices in large-scale world cities as privileged sites for contemporary imaginings and material implementations of low-carbon socio...

  20. A new upper jurassic ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaur from the Slottsmoya Member, Agardhfjellet formation of central Spitsbergen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey Jane Roberts

    Full Text Available Abundant new ichthyosaur material has recently been documented in the Slottsmøya Member of the Agardhfjellet Formation from the Svalbard archipelago of Norway. Here we describe a partial skeleton of a new taxon, Janusaurus lundi, that includes much of the skull and representative portions of the postcranium. The new taxon is diagnosed by a suite of cranial character states including a very gracile stapedial shaft, the presence of a dorsal process on the prearticular and autapomorphic postcranial features such as the presence of an interclavicular trough and a conspicuous anterodorsal process of the ilium. The peculiar morphology of the ilia indicates a previously unrecognized degree of morphological variation in the pelvic girdle of ophthalmosaurids. We also present a large species level phylogenetic analysis of ophthalmosaurids including new and undescribed ichthyosaur material from the Upper Jurassic of Svalbard. Our results recover all Svalbard taxa in a single unresolved polytomy nested within Ophthalmosaurinae, which considerably increases the taxonomic composition of this clade. The paleobiogeographical implications of this result suggest the presence of a single clade of Boreal ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs that existed during the latest Jurassic, a pattern also reflected in the high degree of endemicity among some Boreal invertebrates, particularly ammonoids. Recent and ongoing descriptions of marine reptiles from the Slottsmøya Member Lagerstätte provide important new data to test hypotheses of marine amniote faunal turnover at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary.

  1. Nuclear Disk Formation by Direct Collisions of Gas Clouds with the Central Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Alig, Christian; Johansson, Peter H; Schartmann, Marc

    2009-01-01

    We simulate clouds in the Galactic Centre (GC) crossing over the black hole in parts and present this as a possible formation mechanism for the observed stellar disks in the GC through the redistribution of angular momentum by colliding material with opposite angular momentum. A parameter study using six high resolution simulations of an isothermal cloud of constant density falling onto the black hole and crossing over it in parts demonstrates that this mechanism is able to reproduce the observed disk properties in the GC. The evolution of the ensuing accretion disks is highly non-linear with the redistribution of the angular momentum through dissipative processes being a dominant effect. We analyse the resulting Toomre unstable, eccentric gaseous disk and show that this already yields a good comparison with the observed stellar disk size and eccentricity in the GC. The best simulation results in an outer radius of 1 pc, a mass of 10$^4$ M$_{\\sun}$ and an eccentricity of 0.24 for the Toomre unstable disk, whi...

  2. Fractures Patterns of Tight Carbonates of Upper Jurassic Arab-D Member and Upper Jubaila Formation Outcrops, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullatif, Osman; Abdlmutalib, Ammar

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the fracture patterns of the upper Jurassic Arab-D member and upper Jubaila Formation outcropping in central Saudi Arabia. These strata represent the outcrop equivalent for Arab-D reservoir. The upper Jubaila Formation was deposited in the lower to upper slope to ramp crest leading to deposition Stromatoporoid lithofacies association, while Arab-D member deposited under deep to shallow lagoonal settings including skeletal bank and tidal flat lithofacies associations. This study utilized high resolution outcrop scale integrated fracture analysis, sedimentological and stratigraphical approach and methods.The field data included lithofacies, stratigraphic hierarchy, cyclicity and fracture measurements of orientation, length, spacing, intensity, and aperture. The Arab-D member is affected by five fracture patterns: (a) regular large scale fractures NW striking, several meters widely spaced, vertically dipping and cutting through several beds; (b) regular medium scale fractures striking NE and vertically dipping, moderately spaced and extending from two to three meters in length and cut through two or three beds; (c) regular small scale fractures that are arrested near the bed boundary vertically dipping and having less than one meter length and spacing; (d) irregular fractures filled with chemically weathered materials; (e) large scale fractures oriented perpendicular to the first fracture pattern in (a) along the outcrop strike and also cut on the top of the resistive sandy grainstone lithofacies of Arab D member. In contrast, the Upper Jubaila Formation is characterized mostly by medium scale NW and NE striking fractures that near vertically dipping and extended within one or two beds. Irregular small scale fractures also occur within parts of the beds of this group.Fracture formation and development in the Arab D and Jubaila Formation are partially attributed to regional tectonics affected the study area and locally to stratigraphic and

  3. Deer City Legend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUHUANZHI; LILIKUN

    2003-01-01

    MORE and more commodities,such as clothes,shoes,millinery,lighters and shavers,now bear the “Made in Wenzhou”mark.It woule appear that Wenzhou grooms the whole nation.Lucheng(deer city)District in central Wenzhou is the nucleus of the city's thriving light industry sector.

  4. CHONGQING, the Hot City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chongqing is a well-known city with a history of more than 3,000 years. It is a famous historical and cultural city in China. Chongqing is the birthplace of the Bayu Culture. At present, Chongqing is a municipality directly under the Central Government with the largest area, the most administrative districts and the largest population.

  5. Magnesium-hydroxide-sulfate-hydrate formation at 200°C: Implications for sulfur fixation at the Lost City hydrothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozeva, N. G.; Syverson, D. D.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    Serpentinization reactions at ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems have been shown to be important sinks for sulfur in the oceanic crust. Indeed, the high sulfate content of serpentinized peridotites beneath the Lost City hydrothermal field and moderately low dissolved sulfate concentrations of the vent fluids suggest a sulfate mineral may precipitate at depth during seawater entrainment into the hydrothermal system. While it has long been proposed that anhydrite provides the primary control on partitioning of SO42- between fluid and rock, other sulfate removal mechanisms need to be considered. This is especially true in light of the high pH fluids and magnesium-rich protolith at Lost City. Examining the stability of alternative sulfate phases, such as magnesium-hydroxide-sulfate-hydrate (MHSH), would therefore yield a better understanding of sulfur fixation in the oceanic crust and the influence of hydrothermal circulation on the global sulfur cycle. Hydrothermal experiments were conducted to investigate the potential for MHSH formation at inferred reaction zone temperatures for Lost City (150-250°C). An evolved seawater solution containing MgSO4 was heated to 200°C at steam saturation pressure, and its fluid chemistry was analyzed by IC and ICP-OES upon quenching. Results suggest removal of SO42- and B with precipitation of Mg(OH)2 from solution. Thermodynamic calculations, however, indicate that precipitation of the previously characterized MHSH(0.75) and MHSH(0.625) is unfavorable under the reaction conditions. Observed incorporation of SO42- into the Mg(OH)2 structure thus demonstrates the formation of MHSH of different stoichiometry and points to the occurrence of a more extensive solid solution between Mg(OH)2 and MgSO4 than previously thought. Experiments have also examined the uptake of SO42- and B by serpentine, a product of olivine hydrolysis. Findings suggest no incorporation of sulfate occurs either within the serpentine structure or as an adsorbed

  6. The central region of M83: Massive star formation, kinematics, and the location and origin of the nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Knapen, J H; Ryder, S D; Falcon-Barroso, J; Fathi, K; Gutierrez, L

    2010-01-01

    We report new near-IR integral field spectroscopy of the central starburst region of the barred spiral galaxy M83 obtained with CIRPASS on Gemini-S, which we analyse in conjunction with GHaFaS Fabry-Perot data, an AAT IRIS2 Ks-band image, and near- and mid-IR imaging from the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes. The bulk of the current star formation activity is hidden from optical view by dust extinction, but is seen in the near- and mid-IR to the north of the nucleus. This region is being fed by inflow of gas through the bar of M83, traced by the prominent dust lane entering into the circumnuclear region from the north. An analysis of stellar ages confirms that the youngest stars are indeed in the northwest. A gradual age gradient, with older stars further to the south, characterises the well-known star-forming arc in the central region of M83. Detailed analyses of the Pa beta ionised gas kinematics and near-IR imaging confirm that the kinematic centre coincides with the photometric centre of M83, and that ...

  7. Research on the Self-organization of City Formation and Development%城市形成与发展的自组织性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉智; 赵佳琪

    2015-01-01

    The core of the self organization theory is the self evolution of the internal system from chaos to being organized and the most crucial factor of formation and development process of a city lies in its internal organization. This article at-tempts to analyze the process of urban evolution and mechanism among these factors on the theoretical point of view of self organization. Cities, as the main presentation mode of economy, become the essential element of the economy in a country, and also are the main force of economic development and science progress. Hence it is imperative to study the formation and development of a city.%自组织理论的核心在于系统内部无序到有序的自身演进,而城市的形成与发展过程中最为关键的因素在于其内部组织性。通过研究自组织性理论,分析城市演化发展的过程及其影响因素的作用机理可知,作为经济体的主要呈现模式,城市已然成为一国经济的最核心单元,也是经济与科技进步的最主要力量,对城市形成与发展的研究势在必行。

  8. First radiometric age (U-Pb, LA-ICP-MS, on detrital zircons) from the Punta Topocalma Formation: insights on Late Cretaceous marine deposition in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upper Cretaceous marine rocks crop out along the Pacific coast of central and south-central Chile between 33o and 37oS. These strata constitute an important reference for the Upper Cretaceous of South America due to their diverse fossil fauna and flora. The type unit of these deposits is the Quiriquina Formation, near Concepcion. This unit is considered Maastrichtian in age based on ammonites. Upper Cretaceous marine strata from other localities of central and south-central Chile are largely unstudied and their biostratigraphic ages are not precisely known. We present the first radiometric dating (U-Pb on detrital zircons) for Upper Cretaceous marine strata of the Chilean forearc at Punta Topocalma that indicates a probable depositional age of 71.9+0.9 Ma (latest Campanian-earliest Maastrichtian). Provenance analysis indicates that the source of sediments of the Punta Topocalma Formation was plutonic and volcano-sedimentary rocks from the Coastal Cordillera and the Central Depression of central Chile. The Lo Valle Formation, a volcano-sedimentary unit in the Central Depression, recorded deposition of the Upper Cretaceous volcanic arc that was coeval with marine sedimentation in the Topocalma area

  9. Mantle xenoliths from Central Vietnam: evidence for at least Meso-Proterozoic formation of the lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proßegger, Peter; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Ackerman, Lukáš; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Tran, Tuan Anh

    2016-04-01

    Intraplate Cenozoic basalts that are widely dispersed along the continental margin of East Asia belong to the Western Pacific "diffuse" igneous province. They consist mainly of alkali basalts, basanites,rarely nephelinites, which are mantle xenolith-bearing, potassic rocks and quartz tholeiites. The volcanism in this area has been attributed to the continental extension caused by the collision of India with Asia and by the subduction of the Pacific Ocean below Asia. We studied a suite of 24 mantle xenoliths from La Bang Lake, Dak Doa district and Bien Ho, Pleiku city in the Gia Province, Central Vietnam. They are predominantly spinel lherzolites (19) but spinel harburgites (3) and two garnet pyroxenites are present as well. The sizes of the xenoliths range from 5 to 40 cm in diameter with medium to coarse-grained protogranular textures. Whole rock major and trace element analyses display a wide range of compositions. The MgO concentration varies from 36.0 to 45.8 wt% whereas Al2O3 and CaO range from 0.63 to 4.36 wt% and from 0.52 to 4.21 wt% (with one sample having CaO of 6.63 wt%) respectively. Both CaO and Al2O3 positively correlate with MgO most likely indicating that the sampled rocks were derived from a common mantle source experienced variable degrees of partial melting. Mineral analyses show that the rock forming minerals are chemically homogeneous. The Fo contents of olivine vary between 89.2 and 91.2 and the Mg# of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene range from 89 to 92 and 89 to 94 respectively. The range of Cr# for spinel is 0.06-0.26. Model calculations in both whole rock and clinopyroxenes show that lithospheric mantle underneath Central Vietnam experienced melt extractions that vary between 2-7, 12-15 and 20-30%. The majority of the primitive mantle-normalized whole rock and clinopyroxene REE patterns are parallel to each other indicating that clinopyroxene is the main repository of the trace elements. Clinopyroxenes are divided into two groups: group A

  10. Star Formation in the Central 400 pc of the Milky Way: Evidence for a Population of Massive YSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Yusef-Zadeh, F; Arendt, R G; Whitney, B; Rieke, G; Wardle, M; Hinz, J L; Stolovy, S; Lang, C C; Burton, M G; Ramírez, S

    2009-01-01

    The central kpc of the Milky Way might be expected to differ significantly from the rest of the Galaxy with regard to gas dynamics and the formation of YSOs. We probe this possibility with mid-infrared observations obtained with IRAC and MIPS on Spitzer and with MSX. We use color-color diagrams and SED fits to explore the nature of YSO candidates (including objects with 4.5 micron excesses possibly due to molecular emission). There is an asymmetry in the distribution of the candidate YSOs, which tend to be found at negative Galactic longitudes; this behavior contrasts with that of the molecular gas, approximately 2/3 of which is at positive longitudes. The small scale height of these objects suggests that they are within the Galactic center region and are dynamically young. They lie between two layers of infrared dark clouds and may have originated from these clouds. We identify new sites for this recent star formation. The methanol masers appear to be associated with young, embedded YSOs characterized by 4.5...

  11. The role of vegetation in the formation of anabranching channels in an ephemeral river, Northern plains, arid central Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooth, Stephen; Nanson, Gerald C.

    2000-10-01

    As the distribution and abundance of vegetation in drylands is often controlled by the greater availability of water along river channels, riparian vegetation has the potential to influence significantly dryland river form, process and behaviour. This paper demonstrates how a small indigenous shrub, the inland teatree (Melaleuca glomerata), influences the formation and maintenance of anabranching channels in a reach of the ephemeral Marshall River, Northern Plains, arid central Australia. Here, the Marshall is characterized by ridge-form anabranching, where water and sediment are routed through subparallel, multiple channels of variable size which occur within a typically straight channel-train. Channels are separated by channel-train ridges - narrow, flow-aligned, vegetated features - or by wider islands. By providing a substantial element of boundary roughness, dense stands of teatrees growing on channel beds or atop the ridges and islands influence flow velocities, flow depths and sediment transport, resulting in flow diversion, bank and floodplain erosion, and especially sediment deposition. Ridges and islands represent a continuum of forms, and their formation and development can be divided into a three-stage sequence involving teatree growth and alluvial sedimentation.1Teatrees colonize a flat, sandy channel bed, initiating the formation of ridges by lee-side accretion. Individual ridges grow laterally, vertically and longitudinally and maintain a geometrically similar streamlined (lemniscate) form that presents minimum drag.2Individual ridges grow in size, and interact with neighbouring ridges, causing the lemniscate forms to become distorted. Ridges in the lee of other ridges tend to be protected from the erosive effects of floods and survive, whereas individual teatrees or small ridges exposed to flow concentrated between larger ridges, tend to be removed.3organized system of ridge-form anabranches. In the moderate- to low-gradient Marshall River, which is

  12. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  13. Is violence associated with increased risk behavior among MSM? Evidence from a population-based survey conducted across nine cities in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wheeler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM, including those who identify as transgender women (TW, particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America. Design: As part of USAID's Combination Prevention for HIV program in Central America, PASMO conducted population based surveys using respondent-driven sampling (RDS in nine cities in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Initial seeds were recruited using the following criteria: individuals who represented subgroups of MSM by self-identification (homosexual vs. heterosexual or bisexual vs. transgender, social economic strata, and by sex work practices. This study examines the association between violence and 1 HIV risk behaviors relevant to the study populations; 2 protective behaviors; and 3 reported STIs. Individualized RDS estimator weights for each outcome variable were calculated using RDSAT software, and logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between different forms of violence and the outcome variables. Results: MSM who experienced physical violence were more likely to be engaged in transactional sex (OR: 1.76 [1.42–2.18], have multiple partners in the past 30 days (OR: 1.37 [1.09–1.71], and have engaged in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.51 [1.24–1.83]. Both physical violence and psychological/verbal violence were also associated with reporting STI symptoms or diagnosis within the past 12 months (OR: 1.72 [1.34–2.21] and 1.80 [1.45–2.23]. The effects of violence on the outcomes were observed after controlling for other risk factors. Transgender women were 3.9 times more likely

  14. LA CIUDAD COMO ESPACIO FORMATIVO: MEDELLÍN Y SU ARTE NO VISTO. THE CITY AS A FORMATIVE SPACE: MEDELLIN AND ITS UNSEEN ART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Echeverri Rendón.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta publicación, resultado de investigación, se presenta los hallazgos del rastreo del patrimonio artístico y cultural visible en la ciudad de Medellín, específicamente referido a la gran riqueza escultórica y pictórica, que se encuentra en sus calles, carreras parques plazoletas, para identificarlas y redimensionarlas en nuestro caso, como espacio formativo para la enseñanza y formación en principio de los y las estudiantes en de la Universidad de San Buenaventura Medellín en la materia de Arte y cultura, pero también de los habitantes de la ciudad, generando un material útil para la sensibilización de cualquier ciudadano, se trata del arte expresado en la Ciudad pero que ha sido invisibilizado por múltiples razones algunas de las cuales se expondrán también en el presente artículo. Abstract This publication, a result of research, presents the findings of the tracing of the visible artistic and cultural heritage in the city of Medellin, specifically referred to the great sculptural and pictorial richness, which is found in the streets, parks, and plazas, in order to identify them and to resize them in our case, as a training area for teaching and formation, in the first place, of the students at Saint Bonaventure University, Medellin branch, in the field of art and culture, but also of the inhabitants of the city, generating a useful material for the awareness of any citizen. It is about the art expressed in the city, but which has been made invisible for many reasons, some of which will also be addressed in this article.

  15. Duration of formation of magmatic system of polyphase paleozoic alkaline complexes of the Central Kola: U-Pb, Rb-Sr, Ar-Ar data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempt was made for the determination of duration of all abyssal system formation in the central part of the Kola peninsula. System of isotope methods inclosing Rb-Sr-isochronic dating, 40Ar/39Ar-age analysis of rocks as well as U-Th-Pb-dating is applied. Formation of the Khibiny-Lovozero-Kurga volcano-plutonic system is proposed to have a multiphase character. Summary scheme of the order of events is performed

  16. Overview Chapter 5: Determinants of family formation and childbearing during the societal transition in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Frejka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Societal conditions for early and high rates of childbearing were replaced by conditions generating late and low levels of fertility common in Western countries. Central among factors shaping the latter behaviour (job insecurity, unstable partnership relationships, expensive housing, and profound changes in norms, values and attitudes were the following: increasing proportions of young people were acquiring advanced education, a majority of women were gainfully employed, yet women were performing most household maintenance and childrearing duties. Two theories prevailed to explain what caused changes in family formation and fertility trends. One argues that the economic and social crises were the principal causes. The other considered the diffusion of western norms, values and attitudes as the prime factors of change. Neither reveals the root cause: the replacement of state socialist regimes with economic and political institutions of contemporary capitalism. The extraordinarily low period TFRs around 2000 were the result of low fertility of older women born around 1960 overlapping with low fertility of young women born during the 1970s.

  17. Milankovitch insulation forcing and cyclic formation of large-scale glacial, fluvial, and eolian landforms in central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beget, J. E.

    Continuous marine and ice-core proxy climate records indicate that the Earth's orbital geometry modulates long-term changes. Until recently, little direct evidence has been available to demonstrate correlations between Milankovitch cycles and large-scale terrestrial landforms produced during worldwide glaciations. In central Alaska large areas of loess and sand fill valleys and basins near major outwash streams. The streams themselves are bordered by sets of outwash terraces, and the terraces grade up valley into sets of moraines. The discovery of the Stampede tephra (approximately 175,000 yr ago) reworked within push moraines of the Lignite Creek glaciation suggests that this event correlates with the glaciation of marine isotope stage 6. A new occurrence of the Old Crow tephra (approximately 140,000 yr ago) on the surface of the oldest outwash terrace of the Tanana River, correlated with Delta glaciation, suggests this event also occurred at this time. The penultimate Healy glaciation apparently correlates with marine isotope stage 4, while radiocarbon dates indicate the latest Pleistocene moraines correlate with marine isotope stage 2. Recognition of the importance of orbital forcing to the cyclical formation of glacial landforms and landscapes can help in interpretations of remotely sensed glacial and proglacial land forms.

  18. Spatial Distribution of Sulfate and the Formation of Ettringite in Lime-Amended Soils of Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, L.; Markley, C. T.; Herbert, B. E.; Little, D. N.

    2004-12-01

    During road construction, the use of calcium-based stabilizers, such as calcium oxide (lime), in sulfate-bearing clay soils has historically lead to distress and heave due to the formation of ettringite and possibly thaumasite. Ettringite (Ca6(Al(OH)6)2(SO4)3*26H2O) is a hydrous calcium alumino-sulfate mineral that precipitates in environments with high pH and high sulfate activity. Field surveys of soil conductivity quantified using electromagnetics (EM31), geochemical characterization of soils, geochemical modeling of ettringite precipitation in lime-amended soils, and landscape characterization using existing geospatial databases were coupled to prediction the potential for ettringite formation along the SH 130 corridor, a new toll road being constructed in central Texas. Electromagnetic surveys of soil conductivities were conducted at two sites near HWY 290 and HWY 79, in the SH 130 corridor. Soil conductivities at the two sites were correlated extractable SO42- and other soil properties (extractable Al, Ca, and Mg) quantified by water extracts at two pHs (pH 8-9 and 12). At the HWY 290 site, the soil conductivity ranged from 111 to 184 ms/m, while the conductivity ranged from 34-48 ms/m at the HWY 79 site. The concentration of extractable SO42- in HWY 290 and HWY 79 sites are up to 7269 mg/kg and 406 mg/kg, respectively. Soils at these sites are dominated by smectitic clay with relatively high amounts of carbonate. Information from STATSGO, the USDA soil database, and the comparisons between the results of the field surveys and laboratory soil analyses show that variations in sulfate levels at the two sites are strongly influenced by topography. The HWY 79 site is fairly level and there are only very weak trends in the sulfate composition of the soils. The HWY 290 site, on the other hand, is fairly hilly, with a dry stream channel, whose soil and sediments exhibited very high sulfate concentrations. The strong topographic slope influences hydrologic flow

  19. Two-stage formation model of the Junggar basin basement: Constraints to the growth style of Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dengfa

    2016-04-01

    Junggar Basin is located in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Its basement nature is a highly controversial scientific topic, involving the basic style and processes of crustal growth. Some researchers considered the basement of the Junggar Basin as a Precambrian continental crust, which is not consistent with the petrological compositions of the adjacent orogenic belts and the crust isotopic compositions revealed by the volcanic rocks in the basin. Others, on the contrary, proposed an oceanic crust basement model that does not match with the crustal thickness and geophysical characteristics of the Junggar area. Additionally, there are several viewponits, such as the duplex basement with the underlying Precambrian crystalline rocks and the overlying pre-Carboniferous folded basement, and the collaged basement by the Precambrian micro-continent block in the central part and the Hercynian accretionary folded belts circling it. Anyway, it is necessary to explain the property of basement rock, its strong inhomogeneous compositions as well as the geophysical features. In this paper, based on the borehole data from more than 300 industry wells drilled into the Carboniferous System, together with the high-resolution gravity and magnetic data (in a scale of 1:50,000), we made a detailed analysis of the basement structure, formation timing and processes and its later evolution on a basis of core geochemical and isotopic analysis. Firstly, we defined the Mahu Pre-Cambrian micro-continental block in the juvenile crust of Junggar Basin according to the Hf isotopic analysis of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks. Secondly, the results of the tectonic setting and basin analysis suggest that the Junggar area incorporates three approximately E-W trending island arc belts (from north to south: Yemaquan- Wulungu-Chingiz, Jiangjunmiao-Luliang-Darbut and Zhongguai-Mosuowan- Baijiahai-Qitai island arcs respectively) and intervened three approximately E-W trending

  20. Effect of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides on ozone formation in smog chambers exposed to solar irradiance of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval F, J; Marroquin de la R, O; Jaimes L, J. L; Zuniga L, V. A; Gonzalez O, E; Guzman Lopez-Figueroa, F [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-01-01

    Outdoor smog chambers experiments were performed on air to determine the answer of maximum ozone levels, to changes in the initial hydrocarbons, HC, and nitrogen oxide NO{sub x}. These captive-air experiments under natural irradiation were carried out. Typically, eight chambers were filled with Mexico city air in the morning. In some of those chambers, the initial HC and/or Nox concentrations were varied by {+-}25% to {+-}50% by adding various combinations of a mixture of HC, clean air, or NO{sub x} (perturbed chambers). The O{sub 3} and NO{sub x} concentration in each chamber was monitored throughout the day to determine O{sub 3} (max). The initial HC and NO{sub x} concentration effects were determined by comparing the maximum ozone concentrations measured in the perturbed and unperturbed chambers. Ozone isopleths were constructed from the empirical model obtained of measurements of the eight chambers and plotted in a graph whose axe were the initial HC and NO{sub x} values. For the average initial conditions that were measured in Mexico City, it was found that the most efficient strategy to reduce the maximum concentration of O{sub 3} is the one that reduces NO{sub x}. [Spanish] Se realizaron experimentos de camaras de esmog con el aire de la ciudad de Mexico para determinar las respuestas de los niveles maximos de ozono a los cambios en las concentraciones iniciales de hidrocarburos, HC y oxido de nitrogeno, NO{sub x}. Por lo general, se llenaron 8 bolsas con aire matutino de la Ciudad de Mexico. En algunas camaras, las concentraciones iniciales fueron cambiadas de 25% a 50%, anadiendo varias concentraciones de una mezcla de HC, aire limpio y/o NO{sub x}. La concentracion de O{sub 3} y NO{sub x}, en cada camara, fueron monitoreadas a lo largo del dia para determinar el maximo de O{sub 3}. El efecto de los HC y el NO{sub x} fue determinado por comparacion del maximo de ozono formado en las camaras, que fueron perturbadas por adicion o reduccion de HC y/o Nox

  1. Fueling the central engine of radio galaxies. III. Molecular gas and star formation efficiency of 3C 293

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiano, A.; García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Usero, A.; Soria-Ruiz, R.; Piqueras López, J.; Fuente, A.; Hunt, L.; Neri, R.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Powerful radio galaxies show evidence of ongoing active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback, mainly in the form of fast, massive outflows. But it is not clear how these outflows affect the star formation of their hosts. Aims: We investigate the different manifestations of AGN feedback in the evolved, powerful radio source 3C 293 and their impact on the molecular gas of its host galaxy, which harbors young star-forming regions and fast outflows of H i and ionized gas. Methods: We study the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas of 3C 293 using high spatial resolution observations of the 12CO(1-0) and 12CO(2-1) lines, and the 3 mm and 1 continuum taken with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer. We mapped the molecular gas of 3C 293 and compared it with the dust and star-formation images of the host. We searched for signatures of outflow motions in the CO kinematics, and re-examined the evidence of outflowing gas in the H i spectra. We also derived the star formation rate (SFR) and star formation efficiency (SFE) of the host with all available SFR tracers from the literature, and compared them with the SFE of young and evolved radio galaxies and normal star-forming galaxies. Results: The 12CO(1-0) emission line shows that the molecular gas in 3C 293 is distributed along a massive (M(H2) ~ 2.2 × 1010M⊙) ~24″(21 kpc-) diameter warped disk, that rotates around the AGN. Our data show that the dust and the star formation are clearly associated with the CO disk. The 12CO(2-1) emission is located in the inner 7 kpc (diameter) region around the AGN, coincident with the inner part of the 12CO(1-0) disk. Both the 12CO(1-0) and 12CO(2-1) spectra reveal the presence of an absorber against the central regions of 3C 293 that is associated with the disk. We do not detect any fast (≳500 km s-1) outflow motions in the cold molecular gas. The host of 3C 293 shows an SFE consistent with the Kennicutt-Schmidt law of normal galaxies and young radio galaxies, and it

  2. Size-resolved aerosol emission factors and new particle formation/growth activity occurring in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalafut-Pettibone A. J.; Wang J.; Eichinger, W. E.; Clarke, A.; Vay, S. A.; Blake, D. R.; Stanier, C. O.

    2011-09-01

    Measurements of the aerosol size distribution from 11 nm to 2.5 microns were made in Mexico City in March 2006, during the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations) field campaign. Observations at the urban supersite, referred to as T0, could often be characterized by morning conditions with high particle mass concentrations, low mixing heights, and highly correlated particle number and CO{sub 2} concentrations, indicative that particle number is controlled by primary emissions. Average size-resolved and total number- and volume-based emission factors for combustion sources impacting T0 have been determined using a comparison of peak sizes in particle number and CO{sub 2} concentration. Peaks are determined by subtracting the measured concentration from a calculated baseline concentration time series. The number emission and volume emission factors for particles from 11 nm to 494 nm are 1.56 x 10{sup 15} particles, and 9.48 x 10{sup 11} cubic microns per kg of carbon, respectively. The uncertainty of the number emission factor is approximately plus or minus 50 %. The mode of the number emission factor was between 25 and 32 nm, while the mode of the volume factor was between 0.25 and 0.32 microns. These emission factors are reported as log normal model parameters and are compared with multiple emission factors from the literature. In Mexico City in the afternoon, the CO{sub 2} concentration drops during ventilation of the polluted layer, and the coupling between CO{sub 2} and particle number breaks down, especially during new particle formation events when particle number is no longer controlled by primary emissions. Using measurements of particle number and CO{sub 2} taken aboard the NASA DC-8, the determined primary emission factor was applied to the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) plume to quantify the degree of secondary particle formation in the plume; the primary emission factor accounts for less than 50 % of the total particle

  3. Formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks, a case study in two cities in Finland and Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtola, Markku J; Juhna, Tālis; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Vartiainen, Terttu; Martikainen, Pertti J

    2004-12-01

    The formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks is a significant technical, aesthetic and hygienic problem. In this study, the effects of assimilable organic carbon, microbially available phosphorus (MAP), residual chlorine, temperature and corrosion products on the formation of biofilms were studied in two full-scale water supply systems in Finland and Latvia. Biofilm collectors consisting of polyvinyl chloride pipes were installed in several waterworks and distribution networks, which were supplied with chemically precipitated surface waters and groundwater from different sources. During a 1-year study, the biofilm density was measured by heterotrophic plate counts on R2A-agar, acridine orange direct counting and ATP-analyses. A moderate level of residual chlorine decreased biofilm density, whereas an increase of MAP in water and accumulated cast iron corrosion products significantly increased biofilm density. This work confirms, in a full-scale distribution system in Finland and Latvia, our earlier in vitro finding that biofilm formation is affected by the availability of phosphorus in drinking water. PMID:15672281

  4. Levels and sources of volatile organic compounds including carbonyls in indoor air of homes of Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. Estimation of health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli; Amo-Salas, Mariano; Notario, Alberto; Cabañas, Beatriz; Martínez, Ernesto

    2015-08-01

    Twenty nine organic air pollutants including carbonyl compounds, alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons and terpenes were measured in the indoor environment of different houses together with the corresponding outdoor measurements in Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. VOCs were sampled during 8 weeks using Radiello(®) passive samplers, and a questionnaire on potential VOCs sources was filled out by the occupants. The results show that formaldehyde and hexanal was the most abundant VOCs measured in indoor air, with a median concentration of 55.5 and 46.4μgm(-3), respectively followed by butanal (29.1μgm(-3)), acetone (28.4μgm(-3)) and acetaldehyde (21.4μgm(-3)). After carbonyls, n-dodecane (13.1μgm(-3)) and terpenes (α-pinene, 13.4μgm(-3) and limonene, 13.4μgm(-3)) were the compounds with higher median concentrations. The indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios demonstrated that sources in the indoor environment are prevailing for most of the investigated VOCs especially for limonene, α-pinene, hexanal, formaldehyde, pentanal, acetaldehyde, o-xylene, n-dodecane and acetone with I/O ratio >6. Multiple linear regressions were applied to investigate the indoor VOC determinants and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to establish common sources between VOCs. Finally, the lifetime cancer risk associated to formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzene exposure was estimated and they varied from 7.8×10(-5) to 4.1×10(-4) for formaldehyde, from 8.6×10(-6) to 3.5×10(-5) for acetaldehyde and from 2.0×10(-6) to 1.5×10(-5) for benzene. For formaldehyde, the attributed risk in most sampled homes was two orders of magnitude higher than the one (10(-6)) proposed as acceptable by risk management bodies. PMID:26025206

  5. [Carbon emissions and low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Feng-ming; Liang, Wen-juan; Niu, Ming-fen; Wang, Jiao-yue

    2016-02-01

    Carbon emissions due to land use change have an important impact on global climate change. Adjustment of regional land use patterns has a great scientific significance to adaptation to a changing climate. Based on carbon emission/absorption parameters suitable for Liaoning Province, this paper estimated the carbon emission of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province. The results showed that the carbon emission and absorption were separately 308.51 Tg C and 11.64 Tg C from 1997 to 2010. It meant 3.8% of carbon emission. was offset by carbon absorption. Among the 296.87 Tg C net carbon emission of land use change, carbon emission of remaining land use type was 182.24 Tg C, accounting for 61.4% of the net carbon emission, while the carbon emission of land use transformation was 114.63 Tg C, occupying the rest 38.6% of net carbon emission. Through quantifying the mapping relationship between land use change and carbon emission, it was shown that during 1997-2004 the contributions of remaining construction land (40.9%) and cropland transform ation to construction land (40.6%) to carbon emission were larger, but the greater contributions to carbon absorption came from cropland transformation to forest land (38.6%) and remaining forest land (37.5%). During 2004-2010, the land use types for carbon emission and absorption were the same to the period of 1997-2004, but the contribution of remaining construction land to carbon emission increased to 80.6%, and the contribution of remaining forest land to carbon absorption increased to 71.7%. Based on the carbon emission intensity in different land use types, we put forward the low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use in two aspects. In carbon emission reduction, we should strict control land transformation to construction land, increase the energy efficiency of construction land, and avoid excessive development of forest land and water. In carbon sink increase, we should

  6. Evaluation of water quality parameters for the Mamasin dam in Aksaray City in the central Anatolian part of Turkey by means of artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhatip, Hatim; Kömür, M. Aydin

    2008-01-01

    Sustaining the human ecological benefits of surface water requires carefully planned strategies for reducing the cumulative risks posed by diverse human activities. The municipality of Aksaray city plays a key role in developing solutions to surface water management and protection in the central Anatolian part of Turkey. The responsibility to provide drinking water and sewage works, regulate the use of private land and protect public health provides the mandate and authority to take action. The present approach discusses the main sources of contamination and the result of direct wastewater discharges into the Melendiz and Karasu rivers, which recharge the Mamasın dam sites by the use of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling techniques. The present study illustrates the ability to predict and/or approve the output values of previously measured water quality parameters of the recharge and discharge areas at the Mamasin dam site by means of ANN techniques. Using the ANN model is appreciated in such environmental research. Here, the ANN is used for estimating if the field parameters are agreeable to the results of this model or not. The present study simulates a situation in the past by means of ANN. But in case any field measurements of some relative parameters at the outlet point “discharge area” have been missed, it could be possible to predict the approximate output values from the detailed periodical water quality parameters. Because of the high variance and the inherent non-linear relationship of the water quality parameters in time series, it is difficult to produce a reliable model with conventional modeling approaches. In this paper, the ANN modeling technique is used to establish a model for evaluating the change in electrical conductivity (EC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) values in recharge (input) and discharge (output) areas of the dam water under pollution risks. A general ANN modeling scheme is also recommended for the water parameters. The modeling

  7. Isotopic and geochemical characterization of groundwater of the Carnot-Berbérati sandstone formation (Western Central African Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal; Foto, Eric; Backo, Salé; Zoudamba, Narcisse; Basse-Keke, Eric; Nguerekossi, Bruno; Alladin, Oscar; Huneau, Frederic; Garel, Emilie; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Mabingui, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The hydrogeology of the Cretaceous sandstone formations of Carnot-Berbérati (covering an area of 46.000 km2) in the western part of the central African Republic is poorly known. In order to improve the access of local populations to a clean and safe drinking water resource, new investigations have been carried out in order to characterize groundwater in terms of quality, origin, residence time and sustainability. Two sampling campaigns were organized in August 2014 (rainy period) and April 2015 (dry period) on respectively 31 and 43 points including boreholes, wells and river waters. Conventional hydrogeochemical tools in conjunction with isotope hydrology tools were used to evaluate the water types and the anthropogenic fingerprint on groundwater, their recharge processes and the flow organization scheme. Investigations have shown the existence of interesting amounts of groundwater within what seems a single, well hydraulically connected unconfined aquifer of max. 400m thick. Groundwaters are characterized by two main water types: CaMg-HCO3 (for deep boreholes and river waters) and CaMg-ClNO3 (shallow wells). The latter clearly showing the very strong influence of anthropogenic activities (washing, dumps, latrines) in the near vicinity of wells and boreholes used for the drinking water supply. This is also highlighting the total lack of protection zone around the wells and boreholes. Stable isotopes of the water molecule (18O and 2H) are in agreement with a local recharge of groundwater and show a relatively homogeneous composition within the whole aquifer system. Tritium data indicate a modern recharge with a high renewability potential for shallow groundwater but very low tritium levels are observed in the deepest boreholes indicating the probable occurrence of complex flow conditions within the system in some sectors. From these results and because of its extension and storage potential, the Carnot-Berbérati sandstone aquifer appears as a groundwater resource

  8. Streamlined subglacial bedforms on the Närke plain, south-central Sweden - Areal distribution, morphometrics, internal architecture and formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Per; Dowling, Thomas P. F.

    2016-08-01

    A flow set of close to 1000 drumlins has been mapped by means of LiDAR-derived digital elevation models and investigated by trenching. The area is situated on the SW part of the Närke plain and its surrounding uplands in south-central Sweden, which was deglaciated in the early Preboreal in a glacioaquatic setting. We find that there is considerable morphological difference in drumlin distribution patterns over crystalline basement areas compared to streamlined terrain over Palaeozoic sedimentary rock basement. The former area is characterized by thin Quaternary drift and the drumlins are all of the rock-cored type, built due to active deposition of sediment around obstacles to glacier flow. The latter area is characterized by deep Quaternary drift and the drumlins are more elongate and also larger in all dimensions, as compared to rock-cored drumlins. Irrespective of these geomorphological differences on local landscape scale we find that drumlin morphometric values remain part of a morphological continuum at the regional scale. Based on the internal sediment architecture as revealed in two cross-drumlin sections we find that the soft-cored drumlins were formed by compressional constructive deformation, along with excavational deformation along the flanks of the emerging drumlins, which shaped the separating troughs. Intermediate-type drumlins are those that demonstrate a coupling between underlying Palaeozoic sediment strata in areas of shallow drift sheet. These are the result of differing rheological response between incorporated sedimentary rock and a deforming bed below the ice-bed interface. An overall conclusion is that we find geomorphic and architectural compositional differences between the drumlins and the flowset they form. We can closely relate these differences to contextual geological variations with respect to basement type and drift depth. We argue that drumlin formation is better explained not by one single 'unifying' process but rather a set of

  9. Transition from marine to hypersaline conditions in the Messinian Tripoli Formation from the marginal areas of the central Sicilian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanca, A.; Caruso, A.; Ferruzza, G.; Neri, R.; Rouchy, J. M.; Sprovieri, M.; Blanc-Valleron, M. M.

    2001-04-01

    Three sections of the early Messinian Tripoli Formation from the northern and southern margins of the central Sicilian Basin (Serra Pirciata, Torrente Vaccarizzo, and Marianopoli) have been studied with the aim to reconstruct the sedimentary and environmental changes which occurred during the transition between marine conditions and the evaporitic events of the Salinity Crisis recorded in the overlying Calcare di Base Formation. A detailed biostratigraphic and cyclostratigraphic study provided the opportunity of cycle-by-cycle correlations between the marginal sections and the reference section of Falconara. The main paleoenvironmental changes are recorded by: (1) the evolution of calcareous microfossils towards low diversity and their complete disappearance; (2) the composition of the carbonate fraction which commonly changes from calcite, mostly related to calcareous microfossils, to authigenic carbonate phases consisting of either calcite, dolomite, and/or aragonite; (3) the appearance of shallow water deposits and evaporite pseudomorphs; (4) the variation of the stable isotope composition of the carbonate fraction, indicative of large fluctuations of the freshwater dilution/evaporation balance, with a general trend towards hypersaline conditions. Both mineralogical and isotope data indicate that the dolomite precipitated generally from concentrated pore waters while other carbonates formed in the water column submitted to large fluctuations of salinity. Except locally, the increase in salinity did not reach concentrations high enough to precipitate significant volumes of evaporites as during the deposition of the overlying Calcare di Base. The transition from normal marine to hypersaline conditions is recorded diachroneously in the three sections, respectively, in cycle 34 (6.32 Ma) at Serra Pirciata, cycle 42 (6.15 Ma) at Torrente Vaccarrizzo, and cycle 44 (6.12 Ma) at Marianopoli. These changes represent the hydrological and sedimentary response to the

  10. DNA-adduct formation in lungs, nasal mucosa, and livers of rats exposed to urban roadside air in Kawasaki City, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potency of ambient air for DNA-adduct formation was estimated using Wistar rats. The animals were maintained in a small-animal facility located beside a main highway intersection in Kawasaki City, Japan, for up to 60 weeks and were exposed to roadside air contaminated mainly with automobile emission (exposure group, EG) or to clean air (control group, CG). Compared to CG, the relative adduct levels (RAL) were increased significantly in EG lungs (17.1-fold (P<0.05)), nasal mucosa, and livers after exposure for 4 weeks. However, there were no significant differences in RAL between EG and CG after exposure for 12 weeks, but they were elevated again in EG after exposure for 48 or 60 weeks. These results suggest that roadside air in this region can cause the generation of DNA adducts. This activity of ambient roadside air can be estimated using experimental animals, indicating that biological monitoring of DNA-adduct formation may be a powerful tool to assess the effect of ambient air on human health

  11. On the peritidal cycles and their diagenetic evolution in the Lower Jurassic carbonates of the Calcare Massiccio Formation (Central Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandano Marco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the environmental changes and high-frequency cyclicity recorded by Lower Jurassic shallow-water carbonates known as the Calcare Massiccio Formation which crop out in the central Apennines of Italy. Three types of sedimentary cycle bounded by subaerial erosion have been recognized: Type I consists of a shallowing upward cycle with oncoidal floatstones to rudstones passing gradationally up into peloidal packstone alternating with cryptoalgal laminites and often bounded by desiccation cracks and pisolitic-peloidal wackestones indicating a period of subaerial exposure. Type II shows a symmetrical trend in terms of facies arrangement with peloidal packstones and cryptoalgal laminites present both at the base and in the upper portion of the cycle, separated by oncoidal floatstones to rudstones. Type III displays a shallowing upward trend with an initial erosion surface overlain by oncoidal floatstones to rudstones that, in turn, are capped by pisolitic-peloidal wackestones and desiccation sheet cracks. Sheet cracks at the top of cycles formed during the initial phase of subaerial exposure were successively enlarged by dissolution during prolonged subaerial exposure. The following sea-level fall produced dissolution cavities in subtidal facies, while the successive sea-level rise resulted in the precipitation of marine cements in dissolution cavities. Spectral analysis revealed six peaks, five of which are consistent with orbital cycles. While a tectonic control cannot be disregarded, the main signal recorded by the sedimentary succession points toward a main control related to orbital forcing. High frequency sea-level fluctuations also controlled diagenetic processes.

  12. High diversity and morphological convergence among melanised fungi from rock formations in the Central Mountain System of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal, C; Platas, G; Bills, G F

    2008-12-01

    Melanised fungi were isolated from rock surfaces in the Central Mountain System of Spain. Two hundred sixty six isolates were recovered from four geologically and topographically distinct sites. Microsatellite-primed PCR techniques were used to group isolates into genotypes assumed to represent species. One hundred and sixty three genotypes were characterised from the four sites. Only five genotypes were common to two or more sites. Morphological and molecular data were used to characterise and identify representative strains, but morphology rarely provided a definitive identification due to the scarce differentiation of the fungal structures or the apparent novelty of the isolates. Vegetative states of fungi prevailed in culture and in many cases could not be reliably distinguished without sequence data. Morphological characters that were widespread among the isolates included scarce micronematous conidial states, endoconidia, mycelia with dark olive-green or black hyphae, and mycelia with torulose, isodiametric or moniliform hyphae whose cells develop one or more transverse and/or oblique septa. In many of the strains, mature hyphae disarticulated, suggesting asexual reproduction by a thallic micronematous conidiogenesis or by simple fragmentation. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, ITS2) and 5.8S rDNA gene were employed to investigate the phylogenetic affinities of the isolates. According to ITS sequence alignments, the majority of the isolates could be grouped among four main orders of Pezizomycotina: Pleosporales, Dothideales, Capnodiales, and Chaetothyriales. Ubiquitous known soil and epiphytic fungi species were generally absent from the rock surfaces. In part, the mycota of the rock surfaces shared similar elements with melanised fungi from plant surfaces and fungi described from rock formations in Europe and Antarctica. The possibility that some of the fungi were lichen mycobionts or lichen parasites could not be ruled out. PMID:20396580

  13. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath Late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Şener

    2007-04-01

    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ash (from 32 to 58%) and sulphur (from 1.43 to 3.03%) lignite which is petrographically characterised by a high humunite content. The mineral matter of the studied lignite samples is made up of mainly clay minerals (illite–smectite and kaolinite), plagioclase and quartz in Bolu coal field, clay minerals (illite–smectite, smectite and illite), quartz, calcite, plagioclase and gypsum in Seben coal field, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) in Kıbrıscık, and dolomite, quartz, clinoptilolite, opal CT and gypsum in C¸ amlıdere coal field. The differences in these four types of lignite with specific mineralogical patterns may be due to the explosive volcanic events and depositional conditions which changed from one coal field to the others. There is a zonation from SW to SE in the studied area for zeolites such as Opal CT+smectite-clinoptilolite-analcime-K-feldspar. Carbonate minerals are commonly calcite in Seben and Kıbrıscık coal fields. In Bolu, coal samples are devoid of calcite and dolomite. These analyses show that there is an increase in the amount of Mg and a decrease in the amount of Na from the northwestern part to the southern part in the study area.

  14. Reservoir Characterization for CO2 Sequestration: Assessing the Potential of the Devonian Carbonate Nisku Formation of Central Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wabamun Lake area of Central Alberta, Canada includes several large CO2 point source emitters, collectively producing more than 30 Mt annually. Previous studies established that deep saline aquifers beneath the Wabamun Lake area have good potential for the large-scale injection and storage of CO2. This study reports on the characterization of the Devonian carbonate Nisku Formation for evaluation as a CO2 repository. Major challenges for characterization included sparse well and seismic data, poor quality flow tests, and few modern measurements. Wire-line porosity measurements were present in only one-third of the wells, so porosity and flow capacity (permeability-thickness) were estimated using wire-line electrical measurements. The Archie cementation factor appears to vary between 2 and 3, creating uncertainty when predicting porosity using the electrical measurements; however, high-porosity zones could be identified. The electrically-based flow capacity predictions showed more favorable values using a correlation with core than the relation based on drill stem and production tests. This behavior is expected, since the flow test flow capacities are less influenced by local occurrences of very permeable vuggy and moldic rocks. Facies distributions were modeled using both pixel and object methods. The object models, using dimensions obtained from satellite imaging of modern day environments, gave results that were more consistent with the geological understanding of the Nisku and showed greater large-scale connectivity than the pixel model. Predicted volumes show considerable storage capacity in the Nisku, but flow simulations suggest injection capacities are below an initial 20 Mt/year target using vertical wells. More elaborate well designs, including fracture stimulation or multi-lateral wells may allow this goal to be reached or surpassed. (authors)

  15. The Green Plant Configuration and Landscape Features in the Central of Two Roads in Guangzhou City%广州市两条道路中央绿化带的植物配置与景观特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉

    2014-01-01

    By investigating and analysis of green plant species and landscape characteristics in the middle of two roads of Dongfeng road and Fangcun Avenue in Guangzhou city, this article summarizes the green plant application features and construction maintenance essentials in the central road green belts to provide reference for greening in the road of Gua-ngzhou city and its neighboring region.%本文通过对广州市东风路、芳村大道两条道路中央绿化带植物种类及其景观特点的调查和分析,归纳总结了该类型道路中央绿化带的植物应用特色和施工养护要点,为广州市及其邻近地区的道路中央分车带绿化提供了参考。

  16. Fossil-bearing deposits from the Bukpyeong Formation (Miocene) in the Bukpyeong Basin at Donghae city, Gangwon-do, South Korea: occurrences, taphonomy and paleoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik; Paik, In Sung

    2016-04-01

    Abundant and diverse plant fossils such as land plants and subaqueous plants, freshwater mollusc fossils and invertebrate trace fossils are found in the Miocene Bukpyeong Formation at Donghae city, Gangwon-do, South Korea. Occurrences and taphofacies of the fossil-bearing deposits from the Bukpyeong Formation are described and their taphonomy and paleoenvironmental implications are interpreted. Based on fossil occurrences, lithofacies and sedimentary features of the fossil-bearing deposits, eight taphofacies are classified as the following: (1) Taphofacies 1: Gastropod fossils in massive silty mudstone; (2) Taphofacies 2: Bivalve fossils in massive silty mudstone; (3) Taphofacies 3: Plant fossils (leaf fossils) in massive silty mudstone; (4) Taphofacies 4: Gastropod and plant fossils in massive silty mudstone; (5) Taphofacies 5: Plant fossils in weakly fissile silty mudstone; (6) Taphofacies 6: Plant fossils (leaf fossils) in thin-bedded and graded silty mudstone to mudstone (claystone); (7) Taphofacies 7: Plant fragment fossils in thin-bedded and graded silty mudstone to mudstone (claystone); (8) Taphofacies 8: Plant debris in planar- to cross-laminated fine-grained sandstone. Taphonomy of taphofacies 1, 2, and 4 including freshwater mollusc fossils is interpreted to have been reworked or transported by turbidity currents after death and deposited in shallow lake to open lake. Taphonomy of taphofacies 3, 5, 6, and 7 including plant fossils is interpreted to have been transported by input of episodic flooding in the land and deposited by settling down in open lake. Taphofacies 8 including plant debris has been deposited in shallow lake by input of intensive episodic flooding from the land. The occurrences and taphofacies of the fossil-bearing deposits indicate that most of the fossils were transported by turbidity current induced by input of episodic flooding in the land and deposited in shallow lake to open lake. Moreover, plant fossils from the Bukpyeong

  17. Geotechnical Feasibility Analysis of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) in Bedded Salt Formations: a Case Study in Huai'an City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guimin; Li, Yinping; Daemen, Jaak J. K.; Yang, Chunhe; Wu, Yu; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Yanlong

    2015-09-01

    The lower reaches of the Yangtze River is one of the most developed regions in China. It is desirable to build compressed air energy storage (CAES) power plants in this area to ensure the safety, stability, and economic operation of the power network. Geotechnical feasibility analysis was carried out for CAES in impure bedded salt formations in Huai'an City, China, located in this region. First, geological investigation revealed that the salt groups in the Zhangxing Block meet the basic geological conditions for CAES storage, even though the possible unfavorable characteristics of the salt formations include bedding and different percentages of impurities. Second, mechanical tests were carried out to determine the mechanical characteristics of the bedded salt formations. It is encouraging that the samples did not fail even when they had undergone large creep deformation. Finally, numerical simulation was performed to evaluate the stability and volume shrinkage of the CAES under the following conditions: the shape of a single cavern is that of a pear; the width of the pillar is adopted as two times the largest diameter; three regular operating patterns were adopted for two operating caverns (internal pressure 9-10.5 MPa, 10-11.5 MPa, and 11-12.5 MPa), while the other two were kept at high pressure (internal pressure 10.5, 11.5, and 12.5 MPa) as backups; an emergency operating pattern in which two operating caverns were kept at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) for emergency while the backups were under operation (9-10.5 MPa), simulated for 12 months at the beginning of the 5th year. The results of the analysis for the plastic zone, displacement, and volume shrinkage support the feasibility of the construction of an underground CAES power station.

  18. Evaluation of the volatility basis-set approach for the simulation of organic aerosol formation in the Mexico City metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Tsimpidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New primary and secondary organic aerosol modules have been added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM, for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism based on recent smog chamber studies. The new modelling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach: both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. This new framework with the use of the new volatility basis parameters for low-NOx and high-NOx conditions tends to predict 4–6 times higher anthropogenic SOA concentrations than those predicted with the older generation of models. The resulting PMCAMx-2008 was applied in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA for approximately a week during April 2003 during a period of very low regional biomass burning impact. The emission inventory, which uses as a starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory, is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments. The predicted organic aerosol (OA concentrations peak in the center of Mexico City, reaching values above 40 μg m−3. The model predictions are compared with the results of the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of the Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS observations. The model reproduces both Hydrocarbon-like Organic Aerosol (HOA and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA concentrations and diurnal profiles. The small OA underprediction during the rush-hour periods and overprediction in the afternoon suggest potential improvements to the description of fresh primary organic emissions and the formation of the oxygenated organic aerosols, respectively, although they may also be due to errors in the simulation of dispersion and vertical mixing. However, the AMS OOA data are not specific enough to prove that the model reproduces the organic aerosol

  19. Regional soil geochemistry in the Ojailen Valley: a realm dominated by the industrial and mining city of Puertollano (South Central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel; Fernandez-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; María Esbrí, Jose; Gonzalez-Corrochano, Beatríz; García-Noguero, Eva Mª; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; García-Noguero, Carolina

    2013-04-01

    Regional soil geochemistry in the Ojailén Valley: a realm dominated by the industrial and mining city of Puertollano (South Central Spain). Authors: Miguel A. López-Berdonces¹; Sergio Fernández Calderón¹; Pablo Higueras¹; José María Esbrí¹; Beatriz González-Corrochano¹; Eva Mª García-Noguero¹; Alba Martínez-Coronado¹; Carolina García Noguero¹ ¹Instituto de Geología Aplicada, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Almadén 13400 (Spain). Ojailén Valley is situated in South Central of Spain, an area where livestock, agriculture, mining and industry coexist. This work tries to assess the relationships between these activities and local environmental compartments: water, soils and heavy metal contents, and establish the most appropriate methodology of sample treatment and analytical techniques that can be employed on this kind of studies. For soil geochemistry, 152 samples were taken at two different depths, one at surface layer and another at 20 cm depth, and establish relationships between them and the possible sources. For this purpose, we determine soil parameters (pH, conductivity and organic matter) and total metal contents by Energy Dispersion of X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). Samples with higher nickel contents were analyzed with Inductive Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) after acid digestion. The study of surface waters includes 18 samples along the river and tributaries near mining and industrial areas. Water analysis was performed by ICP-OES. Soil samples shows pH between 6 and 8.5, highest located near on the east part of the valley, in the vicinity of petrochemical complex. Conductivity values show higher levels (1600 µS cm¯¹) in the vicinity of Puertollano and the industrial sites. Local reference value (LRV) for contaminated soils were determined according to the methodology proposed by Jimenez-Ballesta et al. (2010), using the equation: LRV=GM + 2SD, where LRV: Local Reference Value, GM: Geometric Mean, SD: Standard Deviation

  20. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Bryne and Lulu Formations, Middle Jurassic, northern Danish Central Graben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andsbjerg, Jan

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic Bryne and Lulu Formations of the Søgne Basin (northern part of the Danish Central Graben consist of fluvially-dominated coastal plain deposits, overlain by interfingering shoreface and back-barrier deposits. Laterally continuous, mainly fining-upwards fluvial channel sandstones that locally show evidence for tidal influence dominate the alluvial/coastal plain deposits of the lower Bryne Formation. The sandstones are separated by units of fine-grained floodplain sediments that show a fining-upwards - coarsening-upwards pattern and locally grade into lacustrine mudstones. A regional unconformity that separates the lower Bryne Formation from the mainly estuarine upper Bryne Formation is defined by the strongly erosional base of a succession of stacked channel sandstones, interpreted as the fill of a system of incised valleys. Most of the stacked channel sandstones show abundant mud laminae and flasers, and rare herringbone structures, suggesting that they were deposited in a tidal environment, probably an estuary. Several tens of metres of the lower Bryne Formation may have been removed by erosion at this unconformity. The estuarine channel sandstone succession is capped by coal beds that attain a thickness of several metres in the western part of the Søgne Basin, but are thin and poorly developed in the central part of the basin. Above the coal beds, the Lulu Formation is dominated by various types of tidally influenced paralic deposits in the western part of the basin and by coarsening-upwards shoreface and beach deposits in central parts. Westwards-thickening wedges of paralic deposits interfinger with eastwards-thickening wedges of shallow marine deposits. The Middle Jurassic succession is subdivided into nine sequences. In the lower Bryne Formation, sequence boundaries are situated at the base of laterally continuous fluvial channel sandstones whereas maximum flooding surfaces are placed in laterally extensive floodplain

  1. Basin formation and inversion of the back-arc, Niigata basin, central Japan: New insight from deep seismic profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Abe, Susumu; Kawai, Nobuo; Saito, Hideo; Kato, Naoko; Shiraishi, Kazuya; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Fukasawa, Hikaru; Inaba, Mitsuru

    2010-05-01

    Associated with the opening of the Japan Sea, rift-basins have been developed along the Japan Sea coast of northern Honshu. The Niigata basin, central Japan, is one of the such basins and filled by thick (faulting. Due to thick Neogene sediments, relationship between active faults/folds at near the surface and deep-sited seismogenic source faults is poorly understood. To reveal the crustal structure, in particular geometry of source faults, onshore-offshore integrated deep seismic profiling was undertaken along the two seismic lines in 2008 and 2009. The 2009 Aizu-Sado seismic line is a 135-km-long, onshore-offshore seismic line across Niigata basin and Sado island, which is located in the eastern part of Japan Sea. The 2008 Sanjo-Yahiko seismic line (Sato et al., 2009) is located 20 km south of the seismic line and trending parallel to it. The seismic source was air-gun (3020 cu. inch), four vibroseis trucks and explosives (cables, cable-connected-recording system and offline recorders, forming a maximum 2400 channels receiver array. The basin fill consists of early to middle Miocene volcaniclastic rocks and overlying Neogene sedimentary rocks showing upward coarsening facies deposited under bathyal to fluvial environment. Main features of basin development, such as early Miocene normal faulting, associated with the formation of Japan Sea, and shortening deformation since Pliocene, are well demonstrated on the seismic sections. Particularly, boundary between pre-Tertiary meta-sedimentary rocks and Miocene volcanics were identified by velocity profile deduced by diving wave tomography and it enabled us to identify the geometry of extensional rift-basin. It is very difficult to distinguish meta-sedimentary rocks from volcaniclastic rocks by seismic facies or pattern of reflections. Fault reactivation of Miocene normal faulting to reverse faulting is common style of deformation. The fault reactivation processes of the eastern boundary fault of the Nagaoka plane

  2. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  3. The House Sparrows Passer domesticus and Tree Sparrows Passer montanus: fine-scale distribution, population densities, and habitat selection in a Central European city

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Riegert, J.; Grill, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2015), s. 221-232. ISSN 0001-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : House Sparrow * Tree Sparrow * urban environment * city green * built-up area * habitat selection * nest-site selection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2014

  4. Predicting Quiescence: The Dependence of Specific Star Formation Rate on Galaxy Size and Central Density at 0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Katherine E; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Franx, Marijn; van der Wel, Arjen; Brammer, Gabriel; Forster-Schreiber, Natascha M; Giavalisco, Mauro; Labbe, Ivo; Momcheva, Ivelina G; Nelson, Erica J; Skelton, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between star formation and structure, using a mass-complete sample of 27,893 galaxies at 0.50.5 dex from z~2 to z~0.7. Neither a compact galaxy size nor a high n are sufficient to assess the likelihood of quiescence for the average galaxy; rather, it is the combination of these two parameters together with stellar mass that results in a unique quenching threshold in central density or velocity.

  5. Facies characterization and depositional architecture of a mixed-influence asymmetric delta lobe: Upper Cretaceous basal Belly River Formation, central Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Cindy Diane

    2007-01-01

    The Campanian basal Belly River Formation (Cycle G) of central Alberta is differentiated into two mappable facies associations (FA1 and FA2). FA1 comprises uniformly coarsening-upward successions with abundant wave- and storm-generated physical structures. FA2 forms variable and markedly heterolithic coarsening-upwards successions, dominated by current-generated structures, normal grading, convolute bedding, structureless siltstones, claystone drapes, and syneresis cracks. Both facies associa...

  6. Origin of acid orthoderived and paraderived geologic formations of the central part of the province of Limousin (France). A possible source for uraniferous leucogranite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important metamorphic formations of the central part of the province of Limousin are studied by chemical investigations for characterization of their primary signature. Four large orthoderived formations are compared: Dronne, Meuzac, and Thaurion arcs and leptynite formations. The typology of the parent magmatism of orthogneiss and leptynite allows to find leack most of plutonic associations known in the Variscan chain (subalkaline, calcoalkaline, aluminous). Interpretation of primary geochemical fractionation in rocks from the Dronne are suggests cogenetism of the whole facies following a fractionated crystallization process. Moreover rocks from the Dronne arc have a peraluminous character with high U and Th content related to subalkaline magmatism which make of them a potential source of uraniferous peraluminous leucogranites. Paraderived formations are represented by 3 mica schist formations and 2 gneiss formations. Each unit is individualized by geochemical study of mica schist. Gneiss formation are chemically distinct. These differences confirm that they belong to distinct lithologic units. Trace elements are used to precise the paleogeotectonic context of original sediment deposition

  7. Feasibility of artificial recharge to the 800-foot sand of the Kirkwood Formation in the coastal plain near Atlantic City, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Renewed development of the Atlantic City area since the mid-1970 's has increased the demand for water. Increased pumpage from the 800-foot sand of the Kirkwood Formation has reversed an antecedent water-level recovery in this aquifer, thus reducing water in storage and increasing the potential for saltwater intrusion. Practicable approaches to providing a dependable water supply while properly managing withdrawals from the 800-foot sand include development of surface- and ground-water supplies but artificial recharging the 800-foot sand is the principal alternative discussed. Investigation of its feasibility locally included a review of methods of artificial recharge and attendant operational problems, investigation of local hydrogeologic conditions, and collection and interpretation of water-quality data. System design and quality of injected water are important for successful artificial recharge. Mixtures of water from the 800-foot sand and from a representative local public-supply system may become supersaturated with oxygen. Significant temperature differences between two such waters would likely exacerbate that condition. Limited chemical analyses suggest that suspended solids concentration of water from local public supplies may at times be high enough to cause clogging of recharge-well screens. These problems are soluable by appropriate conditioning of recharge water. (USGS)

  8. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (20 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  9. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  10. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  11. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (20 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  12. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  13. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  14. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete...

  15. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  16. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete...

  17. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  18. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  19. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  20. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (20 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  1. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  2. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  3. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete...

  4. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (20 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete...

  5. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (20 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  6. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Isand Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  7. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  8. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  9. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  10. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central...

  11. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  12. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central...

  13. Geologic Map of Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary Strata and Coal Stratigraphy of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation, Rawlins-Little Snake River Area, South-Central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinger, R.D.; Honey, J.G.; Ellis, M.S.; Barclay, C.S.V.; East, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a map and detailed descriptions of geologic formations for a 1,250 square mile region in the Rawlins-Little Snake River coal field in the eastern part of the Washakie and Great Divide Basins of south-central Wyoming. Mapping of geologic formations and coal beds was conducted at a scale of 1:24,000 and compiled at a scale of 1:100,000. Emphasis was placed on coal-bearing strata of the China Butte and Overland Members of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Surface stratigraphic sections were measured and described and well logs were examined to determine the lateral continuity of individual coal beds; the coal-bed stratigraphy is shown on correlation diagrams. A structure contour and overburden map constructed on the uppermost coal bed in the China Butte Member is also provided.

  14. Is violence associated with increased risk behavior among MSM? Evidence from a population-based survey conducted across nine cities in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Jennifer; Anfinson, Katherine; Valvert, Dennis; Lungo, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objective: There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), including those who identify as transgender women (TW), particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America.D...

  15. 城市湖库蓝藻水华形成机理综合建模研究%Comprehensive mechanism modeling on city lake cyanobacteria bloom formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小艺; 赵晓平; 刘载文; 许继平; 董硕琦

    2012-01-01

    蓝藻水华形成是诸多营养及环境因素相互作用的结果,因此,本文对城市湖库蓝藻水华形成(包括复苏、萌芽、生长、暴发阶段)这一复杂生态过程进行了综合建模研究.通过在阳光房中模拟湖库蓝藻水华形成过程,采用正交实验分析获得蓝藻生长的关键影响因素,并为蓝藻水华形成机理建模提供相应参量.在此基础上,构建了用于模拟湖库蓝藻水华形成过程的蓝藻生长机理模型,采用遗传算法对机理模型中涉及的参数进行优化率定;同时,考虑蓝藻水华暴发阶段具有突变特性,建立了描述蓝藻水华暴发状态的尖点突变模型,进而构建了城市湖库蓝藻水华形成各阶段的综合机理模型.实验仿真结果表明,该综合机理模型能较好地模拟城市湖库蓝藻从复苏到暴发整个过程的变化规律,且该模型结合了数学机理建模和智能方法的优势,克服了单一蓝藻水华机理模型的缺陷,为湖库蓝藻水华形成机理的深入研究提供了新思路.%We developed comprehensive mechanism modeling on city lake cyanobacteria bloom formation,a complex ecological process(including recovery,germination,growth and outbreak) caused by the interaction of various nutrient and environmental factors.Through lake cyanobacteria bloom formation process simulation in the sunroom laboratory,the key factors of cyanobacteria growth were obtained by the orthogonal test to provide parameters for cyanobacteria bloom mechanism modeling.Cyanobacteria growth mechanism model was subsequently developed for simulating the formation of cyanobacteria bloom,with involved parameters optimized by genetic algorithm.Considering the mutation during cyanobacteria bloom outbreak,the cusp catastrophe model was established to describe the outbreak state of cyanobacteria bloom.In addition,the comprehensive mechanism analysis model demonstrated various stages of lake cyanobacteria bloom formation

  16. High diversity and morphological convergence among melanised fungi from rock formations in the Central Mountain System of Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruibal, C.; Platas, G.; Bills, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Melanised fungi were isolated from rock surfaces in the Central Mountain System of Spain. Two hundred sixty six isolates were recovered from four geologically and topographically distinct sites. Microsatellite-primed PCR techniques were used to group isolates into genotypes assumed to represent spec

  17. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  18. Ideal Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Meitner, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Erika Meitner discusses her new book: Ideal Cities. This collection of autobiographical narrative and lyric poems explores the relationship between body and place—specifically the pleasures and dangers of women’s corporeal experiences. Ideal Cities is guided by an epigraph from Song of Songs, and the metaphorical idea of bodies as cities, and cities as bodies. How do women’s bodies become sites of inscription via sex, childbirth, and other highly physical acts? These poems also investigate ur...

  19. Sin City?

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Pieter A; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? Weinvestigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners bymoving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danishcouples. We find that of the couples who married in the city, the ones who stay inthe city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who marriedoutside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. Thiscorrelation ...

  20. Summertime PM2.5 ionic species in four major cities of China: nitrate formation in an ammonia-deficient atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Strong atmospheric photochemistry in summer can produce a significant amount of secondary aerosols, which may have a large impact on regional air quality and visibility. In the study reported herein, we analyzed sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium in PM2.5 samples collected using a 24-h filter system at suburban and rural sites near four major cities in China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Lanzhou. Overall, the PM2.5 mass concentrations were high (with a mean value of 55–68 µg m−3, which reflects the long-known particulate pollution in China's large urban centers. We observed very high concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the Beijing and Shanghai sites, and, in particular, abnormally high levels of nitrate (24-h average concentration up to 42 µg m−3 and contributing up to 25% of the PM2.5 mass in the ammonium-poor samples. The Beijing and Shanghai aerosols were characterized by high levels of aerosol acidity (~220–390 nmol m−3 and low levels of in-situ pH (−0.77 to −0.52. In these samples, the formation of the observed high concentrations of particulate nitrate cannot be explained by homogeneous gas-phase reaction between ammonia and nitric acid. Examination of the relation of nitrate to relative humidity and aerosol loading suggests that the nitrate was most probably formed via the heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 on the surface of the moist and acidic aerosols in Beijing and Shanghai. In comparison, the samples collected in Lanzhou and Guangzhou were ammonium-rich with low levels of aerosol acidity (~65–70 nmol m−3, and the formation of ammonium nitrate via the homogeneous gas-phase reaction was favored, which is similar to many previous studies. An empirical fit has been derived to relate fine nitrate to aerosol acidity, aerosol water content, aerosol surface area, and the precursor of nitrate for the data from Beijing and Shanghai.

  1. Summertime PM2.5 ionic species in four major cities of China: nitrate formation in an ammonia-deficient atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Strong atmospheric photochemistry in summer can produce a significant amount of secondary aerosols, which may have a large impact on regional air quality and visibility. In the study reported herein, we analyzed sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium in PM2.5 samples collected using a 24-h filter system at suburban and rural sites near four major cities in China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Lanzhou. Overall, the PM2.5 mass concentrations were high (with a mean value of 55–68 gμgm−3, which reflects the long-known particulate pollution in China's large urban centers. We observed very high concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the Beijing and Shanghai sites, and, in particular, abnormally high levels of nitrate (24-h average concentration up to 42 gμgm−3 and contributing up to 25% of the PM2.5 mass in the ammonium-poor samples. The Beijing and Shanghai aerosols were characterized by high levels of aerosol acidity (~220–390 nmol m−3 and low levels of in-situ pH (−0.77 to −0.52. In these samples, the formation of the observed high concentrations of particulate nitrate cannot be explained by homogeneous gas-phase reaction between ammonia and nitric acid. Examination of the relation of nitrate to relative humidity and aerosol loading suggests that the nitrate was most probably formed via the heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 on the surface of the moist and acidic aerosols in Beijing and Shanghai. In comparison, the samples collected in Lanzhou and Guangzhou were ammonium-rich with low levels of aerosol acidity (~65–70 nmol m−3, and the formation of ammonium nitrate via the homogeneous gas-phase reaction was favored, which is similar to many previous studies. An empirical fit has been derived to relate fine nitrate to aerosol acidity, aerosol water content, aerosol surface area, and the precursor of nitrate for the data from Beijing and Shanghai.

  2. Overview Chapter 5: Determinants of family formation and childbearing during the societal transition in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Frejka

    2008-01-01

    Societal conditions for early and high rates of childbearing were replaced by conditions generating late and low levels of fertility common in Western countries. Central among factors shaping the latter behaviour (job insecurity, unstable partnership relationships, expensive housing, and profound changes in norms, values and attitudes) were the following: increasing proportions of young people were acquiring advanced education, a majority of women were gainfully employed, yet women were perfo...

  3. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...... urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  4. Paleoecology of Benthic Foraminifera in Coral Reefs Recorded in the Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Formation of the Khashm Al-Qaddiyah Area, Central Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Youssef; Abdelbaset S El-Sorogy

    2015-01-01

    Thirty three benthic foraminiferal species belong to 23 genera and 16 families have been recorded from the coral reefs of the Callovian Tuwaiq Formation, Khashm Al-Qaddiyah area, Central Saudi Arabia. Three species:Astacolus qaddiyahensis, Nodosaria riyadhensis, Siderolites jurassica are believed to be new. Nearly all identified foraminifera are of Atlantic-Miditeranean affinity. The fo-raminiferal assemblage recorded in the present work is mixed of open marine, moderately deep ma-rine conditions associations and shallow to deep lagoon. The reefal part of upper Twiaq Formation may have been deposited in shallow water of lower to middle shelf depth (20–50 m) as indicated by abundant corals and benthic foraminifera. The coral fauna and bearing benthic foraminifera indi-cated moderate water energy.

  5. Conodonts, stratigraphy, and relative sea-level changes of the tribes hill formation (lower ordovician, east-central New York)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landing, E.D.; Westrop, S.R.; Knox, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Tremadocian onlap is recorded by the Tribes Hill Formation. The formation is a lower Lower Ordovician (upper conodont Fauna B Interval(?)- Rossodus manitouensis Zone) depositional sequence that unconformably overlies the Upper Cambrian Little Falls Formation. Depositional environments and stratigraphy indicate that the Tribes Hill was deposited on a wave-, not tide-, dominated shelf and that a uniform, 'layer-cake' stratigraphy is present. The deepening-shoaling sequence of the Tribes Hill includes the: 1) Sprakers Member (new; peritidal carbonate and overlying tempestite limestone and shale); 2) Van Wie Member (new; subtidal shale and limestone); 3) Wolf Hollow Member (revised; massive carbonates with thrombolitic cap); and 4) Canyon Road Member (new; glauconitic limestone and overlying evaporitic dolostone). The shoaling half-cycle of the Tribes Hill is older than a shoaling event in western Newfoundland, and suggests epeirogenic factors in earliest Ordovician sea-level change in east Laurentia. Conodont and trilobite biofacies track lithofacies, and Rossodus manitouensis Zone conodonts and Bellefontia Biofacies trilobites appear in the distal, middle Tribes Hill Formation. Twenty-four conodont species are illustrated. Ansella? protoserrata new species, lapetognathus sprakersi new species, Leukorhinion ambonodes new genus and species, and Laurentoscandodus new genus are described.

  6. Temperature record and sapropel formation during the late Pliocene in central Mediterranean: a multi-proxy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancq, Julien; Grossi, Vincent; Huguet, Carme; Pittet, Bernard; Rosell-Mele, Antoni; Mattioli, Emanuela

    2014-05-01

    The late Pliocene (Piacenzian; 3.6-2.6 Myr) in the Mediterranean region is characterized by the deposition of organic-rich sedimentary layers named sapropels. Sapropel formation has been related to the strengthening of the precessionally-controlled African monsoon, triggering enhanced primary productivity and/or improved organic matter preservation. However, the relative importance of surface-ocean productivity versus deep-water preservation for sapropel formation remains a long standing debate among the science community. Here, we used a multi-proxy approach to characterize long-term environmental conditions and to discuss sapropel formation during the late Pliocene at Punta Grande/Punta Piccola sections (southwest Sicily). Sea and air temperatures were reconstructed using all the lipid biomarker-based temperature proxies currently available: the alkenone unsaturation index (UK'37), the tetraether index (TEX86), the Long-chain Diol Index (LDI), and the degree of methylation/cyclization of branched tetraether (MBT/CBT). Results show that sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) were relatively stable throughout the late Pliocene, but that consistent increases are recorded in most sapropel layers. SST record was then compared with variations in total organic carbon proportions, lipid biomarkers contents and nannofossil assemblages. Based on these observations, two mechanisms of formation can be inferred for each sapropel. A first series of sapropels is likely due to a better preservation of organic matter, due to the development of a thermohaline stratification of the water column and to oxygen depleted bottom waters. The second series of sapropels is more likely due to enhanced primary productivity in a non-stratified water column.

  7. The UK Infrared Telescope M33 monitoring project. II. The star formation history in the central square kiloparsec

    CERN Document Server

    Javadi, Atefeh; Mirtorabi, Mohammad Taghi

    2011-01-01

    We have conducted a near-infrared monitoring campaign at the UK InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT), of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33 (Triangulum). The main aim was to identify stars in the very final stage of their evolution, and for which the luminosity is more directly related to the birth mass than the more numerous less-evolved giant stars that continue to increase in luminosity. In this second paper of the series, we construct the birth mass function and hence derive the star formation history. The star formation rate has varied between ~0.002 and 0.007 M ̇ yr^-1 kpc^-2. We give evidence of two epochs of a star formation rate enhanced by a factor of a few -- one that happened \\geq 6 Gyr ago and produced \\geq 80% of the total mass in stars, and one around 250 Myr ago that lasted ~ 200 Myr and formed \\leq 6% of the mass in stars. We construct radial and azimuthal distributions in the image plane and in the galaxy plane for populations associated with old first-ascent red giant branch (RGB) stars, intermedia...

  8. Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Charophyte Gyrogonites from the Lameta Formation of Jabalpur, Central India: Palaeobiogeographic and Palaeoecological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Ashu

    2014-12-01

    A charophyte gyrogonite assemblage consisting of Platychara cf. sahnii, Nemegtichara grambastii and Microchara sp. is reported herein from two localities (Bara Simla Hill and Chui Hill sections) of the Lameta Formation at Jabalpur. he Lameta Formation locally underlying the Deccan traps has been shown to be pedogenically modified alluvial plain deposits containing one of the most extensive dinosaur nesting sites in the world. They are associated with dinosaur bones and freshwater ostracod assemblages that suggest a Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) age. This is the first detailed systematic account of charophyte gyrogonites from the Lameta Formation. This charophyte assemblage is compatible with the biostratigraphic attribution provided by the ostracods. From a biogeographic viewpoint, it exhibits considerable similarity to other infratrappean assemblages of the Nand, Dongargaon, and Dhamni-Pavna sections (Maharashtra), and some intertrappean assemblages of Kora in Gujarat, Rangapur in Andhra Pradesh and Gurmatkal in South India. Globally, the genus Microchara is well distributed throughout Eurasia, whereas the genus Platychara occurs richly in the Upper Cretaceous deposits of Europe, Asia, America and Africa. However, at the specific level, Platychara cf. sahnii shows close affinities with charophytes from the Maastrichtian of Iran whilst Nemegtichara grambastii shows distinct affinities with two species of Early Palaeogene deposits of China and Mongolia. The presence of charophyte gyrogonites in the Lameta sediments is attributed to local lacustrine and palustrine conditions within a flood plain environment.

  9. Reservoir Characterization for CO2 Sequestration: Assessing the Potential of the Devonian Carbonate Nisku Formation of Central Alberta Caractérisation de réservoir en vue du stockage géologique de CO2 : évaluation du potentiel offert par les carbonates dévoniens de la formation de Nisku, en Alberta central

    OpenAIRE

    Eisinger C.; Jensen J

    2011-01-01

    The Wabamun Lake area of Central Alberta, Canada includes several large CO2 point source emitters, collectively producing more than 30 Mt annually. Previous studies established that deep saline aquifers beneath the Wabamun Lake area have good potential for the large-scale injection and storage of CO2. This study reports on the characterization of the Devonian carbonate Nisku Formation for evaluation as a CO2 repository. Major challenges for characterization included sparse well and seis...

  10. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...... emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban...

  11. Petrographic and geochemical evidence for the formation of primary, bacterially induced lacustrine dolomite: La Roda 'white earth' (Pliocene, Central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Del; Cura, M.A.; Calvo, J.P.; Ordonez, S.; Jones, B.F.; Canaveras, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Upper Pliocene dolomites ('white earth') from La Roda, Spain, offer a good opportunity to evaluate the process of dolomite formation in lakes. The relatively young nature of the deposits could allow a link between dolomites precipitated in modern lake systems and those present in older lacustrine formations. The La Roda Mg-carbonates (dolomite unit) occur as a 3??5- to 4-m- thick package of poorly indurated, white, massive dolomite beds with interbedded thin deposits of porous carbonate displaying root and desiccation traces as well as local lenticular gypsum moulds. The massive dolomite beds consist mainly of loosely packed 1- to 2-??m-sized aggregates of dolomite crystals exhibiting poorly developed faces, which usually results in a subrounded morphology of the crystals. Minute rhombs of dolomite are sparse within the aggregates. Both knobbly textures and clumps of spherical bodies covering the crystal surfaces indicate that bacteria were involved in the formation of the dolomites. In addition, aggregates of euhedral dolomite crystals are usually present in some more clayey (sepiolite) interbeds. The thin porous carbonate (mostly dolomite) beds exhibit both euhedral and subrounded, bacterially induced dolomite crystals. The carbonate is mainly Ca-dolomite (51-54 mol% CaCO3), showing a low degree of ordering (degree of ordering ranges from 0??27 to 0??48). Calcite is present as a subordinate mineral in some samples. Sr, Mn and Fe contents show very low correlation coefficients with Mg/Ca ratios, whereas SiO2 and K contents are highly correlated. ??18O- and ??13C-values in dolomites range from -3??07??? to 5??40??? PDB (mean = 0??06, ?? = 1??75) and from -6??34??? to -0??39??? PDB (mean = -3??55, ?? = 1??33) respectively. Samples containing significant amounts of both dolomite and calcite do not in general show significant enrichment or depletion in 18O and 13C between the two minerals. The correlation coefficient between ??18O and ??13C for dolomite is extremely

  12. Trilobites from the Çal Tepe Formation (Cambrian), Near Seydişehir, Central Taurides, Southwestern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    DEAN, WILLIAM T.

    2005-01-01

    The type section of the Çal Tepe Formation, near Seydişehir, is reviewed. The basal dolomite member is unfossiliferous, but the succeeding black limestone member (24 m), light-grey limestone member (10.15 m), and red nodular limestone member (46.7 m) are subdivided into thirty-seven numbered, often fossiliferous beds. Trilobites from the black limestone member, late Early Cambrian, exhibit affinities with Morocco, Spain and northwestern Europe; they include one new genus and species (Pamphyli...

  13. Palaeoceanographic conditions during the formation of ferromanganese crust from the Afanasiy Nikitin seamount, north central Indian Ocean: geochemical evidence

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Pattan, J.N.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    to subsidence due to sediment loading. Fig. 2 presents a simplified subsidence diagram of the seamount which gives a cumulative subsi- dence rate of -50 m/m.y. Assuming uniform, uninterrupted subsidence since the formation of the seamount, a simplified.... I 75 7’0 I 40 I I 60 40 30 2’0 I IO 6 Ma Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of simplified subsidence history of the Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount. The three standings of the seamount for different time periods with respect to the sea-level is based...

  14. Airborne Measurements of Ammonia and Implications for Ammonium Nitrate Formation in the Central Valley and the South Coast Air Basin of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, J. B.; Neuman, J.; Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Brock, C. A.; Frost, G. J.; Holloway, J. S.; McKeen, S. A.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D. D.

    2010-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the dominant gas-phase base in the troposphere. As a consequence, NH3 abundance influences aerosol formation and composition. Ammonium nitrate aerosol is formed from the reaction of gas phase NH3 and nitric acid (HNO3). Anthropogenic emissions of NH3 and NOx (NO + NO2), which in sunlight can be oxidized to form HNO3, can react to form ammonium nitrate aerosol. Agricultural activity (i.e., dairy farms), and urban centers (i.e., Fresno, Los Angeles) are sources of ammonium nitrate gas-phase precursors in both the Central Valley and the South Coast Air Basin. Airborne measurements of NH3, HNO3, particle composition, and particle size distribution were made aboard the NOAA WP-3D research aircraft during May and June 2010 in the Central Valley and the South Coast Air Basin of California, as part of CalNex 2010 (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change). The highest mixing ratios of NH3, well over 100 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv), were measured downwind of dairy farms. The high NH3 mixing ratios were highly anti-correlated with HNO3 mixing ratios on fast time scales (~1 s) that correspond to short flight distances (~100 m). During these periods particulate nitrate (NO3-) concentrations increased, indicating ammonium nitrate formation. The meteorological and chemical environments during these periods will be studied to determine the factors driving or limiting ammonium nitrate formation and the resulting regional differences. Finally, the relationship between the NH3 observations and NH3 sources will be examined to assess the emissions and their contribution to ammonium nitrate abundance.

  15. Limerick City

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Postcard. Colour photograph of River Shannon with Limerick City in background. Number 2/LK-018. Printed on reverse "Limerick city, where the Shannon river meets the sea is one of the most progressive of Irish cities, where the past and present mingle pleasantly. That part of the city called Newtown Pery was designed and planned in 1767, and is the Limerick of wide streets crossing at right angles, and the pleasantly tree-sprinkled People's Park. The tall column in the park commemorates Thomas...

  16. Research on the Livability Assessment for the City Agglomeration in Central Plains Economic Zone%中原经济区主体城市群生态宜居评价与构建策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于长立

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the development of the node cities from the main urban agglomeration in Central Plains Economic Zone and the principle of cluster analysis, this paper selected 27 factors from the natural ecology and humanities ecology, built the ecological livability evaluation system by using cluster analysis, correlation coefficient method, non - correlational method and by obtaining experts' advice. With the use of entropy theory and matter - element analysis theory, this paper contacted fuzzy set with euclidean approach degree, established entropy weight fuzzy element model and gave full analysis and evaluation to the ecological livability of the main urban agglomeration in Central Plains Economic Zone. The results showed that the overall level of the ecological livability of the main urban agglomeration in Central Plains Economic Zone is moderate preference and there is much room for improvement. The ecological livability of the node cities showed uneven development among these cities, Zhengzhou is the best, Jiyuan, Xinxiang, Luohe, Xuchang followed, while Jiaozuo and Luoyang, Kaifeng, Pingdingshan are left behind. This paper also proposed countermeasures and suggestions to further strengthen the ecological livability of the main urban agglomeration in Central Plains Economic Zone.%根据中原经济区主体城市群节点城市的发展状况,按照聚类分析原理,运用聚类分析法、相关系数法、极大不相关法和征询专家意见法,选取自然生态相与人文生态相中的27个因子,构建生态宜居评价体系。引用熵值理论,采用物元分析法,联系模糊集与欧氏贴近度,建立熵权模糊物元评价模型,对中原经济区主体城市群生态宜居进行分析评价。结果显示:中原经济区主体城市群生态宜居整体水平为中等偏好,提升空间很大;群域内各节点城市发展不均衡,生态宜居水平差别较大,其中,郑州最好,济源、新乡、漯

  17. Process modeling studies of physical mechanisms of the formation of an anticyclonic eddy in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Changsheng

    2014-02-01

    Surface drifters released in the central Red Sea during April 2010 detected a well-defined anticyclonic eddy around 23°N. This eddy was ∼45–60 km in radius, with a swirl speed up to ∼0.5 m/s. The eddy feature was also evident in monthly averaged sea surface height fields and in current profiles measured on a cross-isobath, shipboard CTD/ADCP survey around that region. The unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) was configured for the Red Sea and process studies were conducted to establish the conditions necessary for the eddy to form and to establish its robustness. The model was capable of reproducing the observed anticyclonic eddy with the same location and size. Diagnosis of model results suggests that the eddy can be formed in a Red Sea that is subject to seasonally varying buoyancy forcing, with no wind, but that its location and structure are significantly altered by wind forcing, initial distribution of water stratification and southward coastal flow from the upstream area. Momentum analysis indicates that the flow field of the eddy was in geostrophic balance, with the baroclinic pressure gradient forcing about the same order of magnitude as the surface pressure gradient forcing.

  18. Formation of diapiric structure in the deformation zone, central Indian Ocean: A model from gravity and seismic reflection data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Krishna; D Gopala Rao; Yu P Neprochnov

    2002-03-01

    Analyses of bathymetry, gravity and seismic reflection data of the diffusive plate boundary in the central Indian Ocean reveal a new kind of deformed structure besides the well-reported structures of long-wavelength anticlinal basement rises and high-angle reverse faults. The structure (basement trough) has a length of about 150 km and deepens by up to 1 km from its regional trend (northward dipping). The basement trough includes a rise at its center with a height of about 1.5 km. The rise is about 10 km wide with rounded upper surface and bounded by vertical faults. A broad free-air gravity low of about 20 mGal and a local high of 8 mGal in its center are associated with the identified basement trough and rise structure respectively. Seismic results reveal that the horizontal crustal compression prevailing in the diffusive plate boundary might have formed the basement trough possibly in early Pliocene time. Differential loading stresses have been generated from unequal crust/sediment thickness on lower crustal and upper mantle rocks. A thin semi-ductile serpentinite layer existing near the base of the crust that is interpreted to have been formed at mid-ocean ridge and become part of the lithosphere, may have responded to the downward loading stresses generated by the sediments and crustal rocks to inject the serpentinites into the overlying strata to form a classic diapiric structure.

  19. A Formative Study of the Implementation of the Inquiry Team Process in New York City Public Schools: 2007-08 Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marian A.; Kannapel, Patricia; Gujarati, Joan; Williams, Hakim; Oettinger, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    During the 2007-08 school year, the New York City Department of Education launched the second phase of its ambitious and innovative initiative known as "Children First." Ultimately, this initiative aims to intensify the focus by all educators on student performance and in doing so to stimulate the development of evidence-based cultures at all…

  20. Research on frost formation in air source heat pump at cold-moist conditions in central-south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ►A dynamic evaporator model is built up. ► The model involves the ratio of the latent heat to sensible heat of wet air. ►A correlation considering deq is shown below to predict frost accumulation: (Mfrv3)/(Ψdeq2) =((Ta)/(Tw) )0.1((vτ)/(deq) )0.7(l/(deq) )1.378Xa1.228. ►The changing ratio can characterize the early development of system performance. ►The changing ratio can characterize the early development of frost accumulation. -- Abstract: A dynamic evaporator model of air source heat pump (ASHP), considering the ratio of the latent heat to sensible heat of wet air, is presented to analyze the performance of ASHP under frosting. The performance parameters, such as the heating capacity, COP and the outlet temperature of compressor, are simulated with CYCLEPAD. Then a semi-empirical correlation that predicts frost accumulation on the air-side of fin-tube heat exchanger is developed with dimensionless analysis and also modified by a test conducted under cold-moist conditions in winter. In addition, eight influence factors are considered involving the ambient conditions and structures of heat exchanger, whose effects are analyzed as well. Among them, the equivalent diameter of air flow cross-section in fin-tube deq is especially proposed. Lastly, the relationships between the ratio, the performance parameters and the frost accumulation are discussed in this paper, followed by an evaluation of an optimal defrosting time interval to improve the ASHP’s energy efficiency and operational reliability at cold-moist conditions in central-south China.

  1. Analysis of Dose at the Site of Second Tumor Formation After Radiotherapy to the Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Second tumors are an uncommon complication of multimodality treatment of childhood cancer. The present analysis attempted to correlate the dose received as a component of primary treatment and the site of the eventual development of a second tumor. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified 16 patients who had received radiotherapy to sites in the craniospinal axis and subsequently developed a second tumor. We compared the historical fields and port films of the primary treatment with the modern imaging of the second tumor locations. We classified the location of the second tumors as follows: in the boost field; marginal to the boost field, but in a whole-brain field; in a whole-brain field; marginal to the whole brain/primary treatment field; and distant to the field. We divided the dose received into 3 broad categories: high dose (>45 Gy), moderate dose (20–36 Gy), and low dose (<20 Gy). Results: The most common location of the second tumor was in the whole brain field (57%) and in the moderate-dose range (81%). Conclusions: Our data contradict previous publications that suggested that most second tumors develop in tissues that receive a low radiation dose. Almost all the second tumors in our series occurred in tissue within a target volume in the cranium that had received a moderate dose (20–36 Gy). These findings suggest that a major decrease in the brain volume that receives a moderate radiation dose is the only way to substantially decrease the second tumor rate after central nervous system radiotherapy.

  2. Centrality Measures in Urban Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Crucitti, P; Porta, S; Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito; Porta, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Centrality has revealed crucial for understanding the structural order of complex relational networks. Centrality is also relevant for various spatial factors affecting human life and behaviors in cities. We present a comprehensive study of centrality distributions over geographic networks of urban streets. Four different measures of centrality, namely closeness, betweenness, straightness and information, are compared over eighteen 1-square-mile samples of different world cities. Samples are represented by primal geographic graphs, i.e. valued graphs defined by metric rather than topologic distance where intersections are turned into nodes and streets into edges. The spatial behavior of centrality indexes over the networks is investigated graphically by means of colour-coded maps. The results indicate that a spatial analysis, that we term Multiple Centrality Assessment(MCA), grounded not a single but on a set of different centrality indices, allows an extended comprehension of the city structure, nicely captu...

  3. Urban Scaling of Cities in the Netherlands

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J; Goedhart, Willem

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the socioeconomic scaling behavior of cities in the Netherlands and found significant nonlinear correlations between gross urban product as well as number of jobs with population size. This nonlinearity manifested by a super-linear power law scaling is found for both the cities defined as municipalities and for the agglomerations of major cities. We used two types of agglomerations as defined by the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics: the direct agglomeration, i.e. the central city (municipality) with the adjacent suburbs (which are separate municipalities); and the larger urban area of the same major cities. The exponents are all similar, with values around 1.20. Remarkably, the agglomerations of cities underperform as compared to a city which is one municipality with the same population as the agglomeration. This effect is larger for the second type of agglomerations, the urban areas. We think this finding has important implications for the current Dutch urban policy. A residual analys...

  4. Sedimentology, paleontology and age of the Ayacara and Lago Ranco formations (south-central Chile, 40°- 42°S). Tectonic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinas, Alfonso; Zambrano, Patricio; Bernabe, Pablo; Finger, Kenneth; Buatois, Luis; Duhart, Paul; Valencia, Victor; Fanning, M.; Herve, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Deep-marine, Mio-Pliocene strata correlative with the Navidad Formation crop out in different areas along the forearc of south-central Chile (~34°-41°) and have also been recognized in boreholes drilles on the continental shelf. However, at Lago Ranco (40°S) and Ayacara (42°) there are outcrops of marine strata whose age and correlation with these units remain uncertain. These deposits consist of rhythmic successions of sandstone and siltstone representing facies similar to those of the Navidad and correlative formations. These marine successions are known ase the Estratos de Lago Ranco and Ayacara formations. They both crop out in the western Andean Cordillera near the limit with the Intermediate Depression at Lago Ranco and the submerged equivalent of this physiographic unit at Ayacara. There are very few studies carried out on these units and most of them consist on internal reports and unpublished theses.In order to unravel the sedimentary enviroment, age and tectonic history of this area during the Neogene we carried out sedimentological, ichnological and micropaleontological studies. In addition, we carried out U-Pb dating in detrital zircons (LAICPMS and SHRIMP). Our studies show the presence of sedimentary features and ichnofacies typical of deposition in a deep-marine environment for these units..In agreement, benthic foraminifers (Ciclamina incisa and Siphonodosaria sangrinensis) indicate lower bathial depths (1500 m). U-Pb (LAICPMS and SHRIMP) indicate a maximum depositional age of around 20 Ma for these units. In agreement, the occurrence of the planktic foraminifer species Globorotalia siakensis (P22-N14), Globigerinoides quadrilobatus (N6-Recent) and Globigerinoides sikanus (N8-N9) in strata of the Ayacara Formation suggest an early-middle Miocene age for this unit. These data indicate that the area corresponding to the western Main Andean Cordillera in south central Chile, was subjeted to major subsidence during the early-middle Miocene. Major

  5. The specific star formation rate and stellar mass fraction of low-mass central galaxies in cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Avila-Reese, V; González-Samaniego, A; Valenzuela, O; Firmani, C; Velázquez, H; Ceverino, D

    2011-01-01

    By means of cosmological simulations of galaxies in the context of the LCDM scenario we explore the specific star formation rates (SSFR=SFR/Ms, Ms is the stellar mass) and stellar mass fractions (Fs=Ms/Mh, Mh is the halo mass) for sub-M* field galaxies at different redshifts (0

  6. 2009年昆山市集中式区域供水水质现况调查%Investigation on Water Quality of Centralized Regional Water Supply in Kunshan City in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡见远

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解昆山市集中式供水(区域供水)的水质现况.方法 按照(GB/T 5750-2006)对2009年昆山市集中式供水单位水源水、出厂水、末梢水进行水质检测、分析.结果 2009年共采集水样258份,合格253份,样品合格率99.2%.共检测5 990个项次,合格项次5 982个,项次合格率99.9%.其中水源水和出厂水样品合格率均为100%,末梢水样品合格率为97.5%.对末梢水不合格项目菌落总数和游离余氯按照监测点级别不同进行方差分析,市级及镇级游离余氯含量较高,菌落总数较低;村级余氯含量较低,菌落总数相对较高,甚至不达标.结论 昆山市区域供水水质稳定、合格率高,特别是大大提高了农村饮用水水质状况.但也存在着整个供水管网游离余氯含量分布不均的现象,建议市自来水集团公司根据存在问题及时改进水处理工艺,进一步提高供水水质.%[ Objective ] To understand the water quality of centralized water supply (regional water supply) in Kunshan city.[ Methods] According to the Standard examination methods for drinking water ( GB/T 5750 - 2006 ), the water quality of source water, finished water and tap water of centralized water supply system in Kunshan city in 2009 was tested and analyzed. [ Results ] Among 259 water samples collected in 2009, 253 samples were qualified, and the qualified rate was 99.2%. 5 990 items (times)were detected, 5 982 items ( times ) were qualified with the qualified rate of 99.9%. The qualified rates of source water and finished water were 100% , and that of tap water was 97.5%. Variance analysis was applied toward the unqualifiod indexes of total bacteria count and free residual chlorine according to levels of monitoring points. At city and town level, the content of free residual chlorine was high, and total bacteria count was low. At village level, the content of free residual chlorine was low, and total bacteria count was high, which even did not

  7. Analysis on Water Quality Monitoring Results of Centralized Water Supply in Rural Areas of Luoyang City%洛阳市农村集中式供水水质监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙磊

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the health situation of centralized water supply in rural areas and discuss efficient preventive measures,so as to provide a basis for the improvement of water quality of rural centralized water supply.Method:The drinking water quality of 250 centralized water supply points in rural areas of 9 counties in Luoyang City in 2012 were monitored according to the relevant national standards of water quality testing. The water quality indicators of samples in different conditions were analyzed statistically.Result:In the 500 detected finished water samples of centralized water supply in rural areas,the total qualification rate was 39.80%.In the 500 detected peripheral water samples of centralized water supply in rural areas,the total qualification rate was 38.00%. The water quality indicators showed statistically significant difference among centralized water supplies with different water treatment processes as well as various water source types(P<0.01).The water quality in the dry season was better than that in the wet season(P<0.01). Conclusion:The total qualification rate of centralized water supply in rural areas is related to the factors like water treatment processes and water source types. It suggests that to strengthen management of centralized water supply in rural areas,water treatment processes should be integrated,water source protection should be promoted,and the propaganda on rural drinking water safety should be strengthened,to improve the health awareness of peasants.%目的:了解洛阳市农村集中式供水水质状况,探讨有效防治措施,为改善农村集中式供水饮水安全提供依据。方法:按照国家有关水质检验标准对2012年洛阳市9个县(市)250处农村集中式供水点的饮用水水质进行监测,统计分析不同条件对水质指标的影响。结果:抽检500份农村集中式供水出厂水水样合格率为39.80%,500份末梢水水样合格率为38.00%。不同水处

  8. Sedimentary environments and stratigraphy of the carbonate-silicilastic deposits of the Shirgesht Formation: implications for eustasy and local tectonism in the Kalmard Block, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aram bayetgoll

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Sedimentological and sequence stratigraphic analysis providing insight into the main relationships between sequence architecture and stacking pattern, syn/post-depositional tectonics, and eustatic sea-level fluctuations (Gawthorpe and Leeder 2000; Zecchin et al. 2003, 2004; Carpentier et al. 2007. Relative variations in sea level are due to tectonic activity and eustasy. The Shirgesht Formation in the Kalmard Block of Central Iran provides a useful case study for to determine the processes responsible on internal architecture and stacking pattern of depositional sequences in a half-graben basin. In the Shirgesht Formation, siliciclastic and carbonate successions of the Kalmard Basin, the cyclic stratigraphic record is the result of the complex interaction of regional uplift, eustasy, local tectonics, sediment supply, and sedimentary processes (Bayet-Goll 2009, 2014; Hosseini-Barzi and Bayet-Goll 2009.     Material & Methods   Lower Paleozoic successions in Tabas and Kalmard blocks from Central Iran share the faunal and floral characteristics with other Gondwana sectors such as south-western Europe and north Africa–Middle East (Ghaderi et al. 2009. The geology of these areas was outlined by Ruttner et al. (1968 and by Bruton et al. (2004. The Cambrian-Middle Triassic strata in the Kalmard Block were deposited in a shallow water platform that possesses lithologic dissimilarities with the Tabas area (Aghanabati 2004. The occurrence of two active faults indicates clearly that Kalmard basin formed a mobile zone throughout the Paleozoic so that lithostratigraphic units show considerably contrasting facies in comparison with Tabas basin (Hosseini-Barzi and Bayet-Goll 2009; Bayet-Goll 2014 . The Shirgesht Formation in the Block Kalmard is mainly composed of carbonate-siliciclastic successions that disconformability overlain Kalmard Formation (attributed to Pre-Cambrian and is underlain by Gachal (Carboniferous or Rahdar (Devonian

  9. Feicheng City of Peach Blossom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    IN Feicheng City, central Shandong Province, can be found the world’s largest peach orchard, recorded in the Guinness Book of World Records as covering 6,667 hectares. In spring, the city is permeated with the fragrance of peach blossom.Home of the "Buddha Peach"Peach growing in Feicheng has a history of 1,100 years. The Feicheng peach is distinctive for

  10. Housing Booms and City Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Edward L. Glaeser; Joshua D. Gottlieb; Kristina Tobio

    2012-01-01

    Popular discussions often treat the great housing boom of the 1996-2006 period as if it were a national phenomenon with similar impacts across locales, but across metropolitan areas, price growth was dramatically higher in warmer, less educated cities with less initial density and higher initial housing values. Within metropolitan areas, price growth was faster in neighborhoods closer to the city center. The centralization of price growth during the boom was particularly dramatic in those met...

  11. European Strategies for Smarter Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Barresi; Gabriella Pultrone

    2013-01-01

    On a worldwide scale, cities and regions must tackle the challenges set by the radical change in our society and in our economy, aiming to develop effective public policies and boost their managerial, evaluation and planning skills. Anyway, it is essential to put a new idea of city at the centre of the smart strategies in order to bring policies back to their former central position, since technologies alone cannot generate welfare and prosperity. Local leadership, integrated planning and a r...

  12. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge...

  13. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... on the block” that will potentially be a game-changer for urban governance, economics and everyday life. Here we are thinking of the unmanned aerial vehicle or drone as the popular term has it. Therefore, the paper asks how life in “drone city” may play out. Drones may alter the notion of surveillance by means...

  14. City Marketing: How to promote a city? : The case of Umeå

    OpenAIRE

    Balencourt, Amélie; Curado Zafra, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    A context of increased competition between territories for attracting investments and people has led the cities to implement Marketing and Branding strategies. Those strategies should be adapted in order to fit the cities’ requirements and needs, consequently city managers and planners have to be initiated to those techniques. The city’s image is a central item here. Every possible asset of the city should be enhanced to improve people’s perception of the city (residents but also potential re...

  15. Temporal observations of a linear sand dune in the Simpson Desert, central Australia: Testing models for dune formation on planetary surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Robert A.; Tooth, Stephen; Zimbelman, James R.; Wilson, Sharon A.; Maxwell, Ted A.; Kling, Corbin

    2015-10-01

    Linear dunes are the most common dune form found on planetary surfaces, yet questions remain about their formation. Temporal observations of a linear dune located in the Simpson Desert of central Australia were made to monitor dune movement and to test competing hypotheses regarding linear dune formation. Our observations were collected on three separate occasions from 2006 to 2014. Rebar stakes were placed in a gridded pattern so that multiple measurements of sand thickness, GPS surveys, and photographs could be taken at the same locations over time. We observed widespread reworking of sand on and around the dune crest, with sand accumulation locally exceeding a meter between surveys. Overall, the height of the dune crest increased by several centimeters. We also observed fluctuations in the sand cover in the adjacent swales that often exceeded 2-3 cm between surveys, yet we did not observe any appreciable changes in the position of the dune's downwind terminus. Weather data indicate that the effective sand-transporting winds in the Simpson are widely unimodal. Net sediment flux (resultant drift direction) is toward the north-northwest, locally at an oblique angle to dune orientation. Collectively, our results suggest that the linear dune is actively maintained by vertical accretion. The implications from our observations are that linear dunes on other planetary surfaces could form in wind regimes that are widely unimodal, even where the resultant drift direction is locally oblique to dune orientation. In particular, such findings may provide support for global circulation models of Titan.

  16. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  17. Potential Cities_

    OpenAIRE

    Budzynski, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Buildings and urban construction are understood in this paper as representations of the city. Their meanings, however, are often invisible, positing unrealized urban visions, which are both imbedded in and which call up chains of associations expressing desires and fears. Narratives of what the city should be often contain the rejection of the existing urban situation. Understanding architectural objects as potential underscores their imaginary nature. Freud, for example, uses the Roman ruins...

  18. Beautiful city

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino

    2009-01-01

    Proponents of the City Beautiful movement advocated for sizable public investments in monumental spaces, street beautification, and classical architecture. Today, economists and policymakers see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract people and jobs to cities. But past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisure amenities for urban growth and development. In this article, Jerry Carlino uses a new data set on the number of leisure tourist ...

  19. City Beautiful

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino; Saiz, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The City Beautiful movement, which in the early 20th century advocated city beautification as a way to improve the living conditions and civic virtues of the urban dweller, had languished by the Great Depression. Today, new urban economic theorists and policymakers are coming to see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract population, especially the highly skilled and their employers. However, past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisur...

  20. 我国中部城市老年体育锻炼现状调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of the Elder' s Present Physical Training Situation in Central China Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚婕

    2011-01-01

    This paper made a sample survey testing the current situation of the elder' s participation into physical exercises of eight cities in Central China, the research result showed that older people of central cit- ies took more time in participating into physical exercise with high frequency, rich contents and diverse forms. Moreover most of the elder had strong consciousness of participating physical exercise, and basically formed habits of physical activity. However, older people participating in physical exercise at the same time lacked physical exercise method, while physical activity space was limited, sports organization construction lagged behind and so on. It put forward some suggestions for improvement.%对我国中部8个城市老年人参加体育锻炼的有关情况进行了抽样调查,结果表明:我国中部城市老年人参加体育锻炼的时间较多,频率较高,内容丰富形式多样,且大部分老年人参加体育锻炼的意识较强,体育健身活动的习惯已基本养成。但是,老年人在参加体育锻炼的同时缺乏体育锻炼的方法,体育健身活动场地有限,老年人体育组织建设滞后,等等,并提出了改进建议。

  1. 南京市农家乐专业村的网络空间中心性%The Centrality of the Agritainment Village Network Space in Nanjing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    琚胜利; 陶卓民

    2016-01-01

    Central villages enjoy pole efficiency in growth among all groups of villages specialized in agritainment.This essay constructs a spatial interaction model of villages specialized in agritainment in Nanjing,taking as main factors in spatial interaction among specialization villages the tourism income,classes of tourism resources,location conditions of tourism and the shortest distance between villages of the villages specialized in agritainment.It then takes a further step on this basis to analyze the spatial network structure of the villages specialized in agritainment in Nanjing,applying the social network analysis method in combination with the GIS spatial analysis technology.This analysis has exposed the spatial centrality of villages specialized in agritainment.This essay discovers in the Nanjing agritainment villages network that,Shiau Taoyuan are on the Grade One core,followed by Changjiang Fishing Village and Xiangzhangyuan Suoshicun,Shanaocun and Dashancun on the Grade Three core,and Lianhecun and Molihuacun on the Grade Four core.From a regional viewpoint,the villages specialized in agritainment in the Jiangning District exerts the most powerful influence in the network,followed by the Qixia District,Pukou District,which,in turn,are followed by the Lishui District and the Gaochun District.The last district on the list is Luhe.Centered around the core villages,the villages specialized in agritainment in Nanjing can be planned into six areas of specialization villages including the short distance area in the south of city,the short distance area in the north of city,the medium distance area in the southern suburb of the city,the long distance area in the southern suburb and the long distance area in the northern suburb.%以农家乐专业村的旅游收入、旅游资源等级、旅游区位条件、村庄之间的最短距离等作为专业村空间相互作用的主要因子,构建了南京市农家乐专业村空间相互作用模

  2. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Volgian–Ryazanian ‘hot shales’ of the Bo Member (Farsund Formation) in the Danish Central Graben, North Sea: stratigraphy, facies and geochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Dybkjær, Karen; Bojesen-Koefoed, Jørgen A.; Ineson, Jon I.; Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Upper Jurassic – lowermost Cretaceous marine mudstones represent the most significant source of hydrocarbons in the Central and Northern North Sea. Of particular importance in the Danish sector of the Central Graben is a succession of radioactive ‘hot shales’ referred to the Bo Member, in the upper levels of the Farsund Formation (Kimmeridge Clay Formation equivalent). This mudstone-dominated succession is typically 15–30 m thick and has a total organic carbon (TOC) content of 3–8%, though lo...

  3. REE Provenance and U-Th Distribution on Poly-Mineralized Lithofacies, Um Bogma Formation, Allouga environs, West Central Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Allouga environs, West Central Sinai, are bounded by lat. 28 degree 58/ - 29 degree 03/ N and long. 33 degree 21/ and 33 degree 26/ E, covering about 100 km2. The environs are covered by late Proterozoic basement rocks overlain non conformably by Paleozoic rock succession. The Paleozoic succession attains about 450 m, comprising seven stratigraphic formations. The Um Bogma Formation, Also referred to as the middle carbonate series, attains 61 m thickness and hosts most of the polymetallic mineralization associated with Paleozoic rocks. It was deposited in shallow, warm, well agitated and oxidized transgressed marine environment. Owing to its importance, it is classified into three members: a) lower members comprising siltstone, clay stone and sandy dolomite; b) middle member comprising marly dolostone and c) upper member comprising sandy dolostone, clay stone and siltstone. The REE and trace elements investigations of the shale/siltstone/clay stone lithofacies (Um Bogma Formation), indicate that it mainly comprises graywacke provenance with small amount of litharenites. Also, the data indicates the derivation of the terrigenous material from granite-gneiss and siliceous sources characteristics of sedimentary basins developed near or around active continental margin. The Cu- mineralization occurs in all members of Umm Bog ma Formation as disseminations and encrustation of green and blue colored Cu-minerals dominated by highly oxidized minerals such as silicates, carbonates, phosphates, sulphates and chlorides. This mineral assemblage reflects the wide range of ph conditions of the mineralizing fluids. The U-Th distribution in the shale/siltstone/clay stone lithofaciesis as follows: The marly shales have U content average (261 ppm) and Th content average (7.7 ppm), black and variegated shales have U content average (56.2 ppm) and Th content average (20 ppm), The ferrgenous siltstone have U content average (38 ppm) and Th content average (17.8 ppm), the black

  4. Summertime PM2.5 ionic species in four major cities of China: nitrate formation in an ammonia-deficient atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Wang; Ravi Kant Pathak; Wai Shing Wu

    2008-01-01

    Strong atmospheric photochemistry in summer can produce a significant amount of secondary aerosols, which may have a large impact on regional air quality and visibility. In the study reported herein, we analyzed sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium in PM2.5 samples collected using a 24-h filter system at suburban and rural sites near four major cities in China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Lanzhou). Overall, the PM2.5 mass concentrations were high (with a mean value of 55–68 µg m&m...

  5. Contesting State Forests in Post-Suharto Indonesia: Authority Formation, State Forest Land Dispute, and Power in Upland Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Lounela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the ongoing conflict over state forest land between the local population and the State Forestry Corporation (SFC in a village in upland Central Java with regard to authority formation. It looks at how different agents draw on different sources of authority in the course of the conflict and its negotiations. The principal questions are to what kind of sources of authority villagers refer to and how the formation of authority informs the relations between the state and society in the land dispute. The article is based on 11 months of ethnographic fieldwork and focuses on the central figure of Pak Wahid who took a leading position in the forest land dispute and in mobilising peasants in the village. The article argues that in post-Suharto Java, leadership in the struggle for state forest land at the village level is embedded in the interaction of Javanese ideas of power and authority as well as administrative authority. Due to political and institutional reforms, new sources of authority could be invoked while there are no real changes in the power relations within the village or between the SFC and the villagers. ----- Dieser Artikel untersucht den anhaltenden Konflikt um staatliche Waldflächen zwischen der lokalen Bevölkerung und der State Forestry Corporation (SFC in einem Dorf im Hochland von Zentral- Java in Bezug auf die Entwicklung von Autorität. Es wird untersucht, wie sich unterschiedliche AkteurInnen im Rahmen des Konflikts und dessen Verhandlung auf unterschiedliche Bezugsquellen von Autorität beziehen. Die zentralen Forschungsfragen in diesem Zusammenhang sind, auf welche Bezugsquellen von Autorität sich DorfbewohnerInnen beziehen und wie die Entwicklung von Autorität die Beziehungen zwischen Staat und Gesellschaft im Rahmen des Landkonflikts beeinflusst. Der Artikel basiert auf einer 11-monatigen ethnografischen Feldforschung und fokussiert auf die Person von Pak Wahid, der eine Schlüsselrolle im Konflikt

  6. Braid-Delta Deposits from a Broad Shallow-Marine Setting:the Middle Member of the Kalpingtag Formation in the Central Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yiming; ZHANG Jinliang

    2008-01-01

    During the early Silurian, a transgressive and vast shallow sea with flat sea-floor covered the central Tarim Basin (the Tazhong area). The depositional environment of the middle member of the Kalpingtag Formation is controversial. In order to provide a basis for the prediction of reservoir sand, the sedimentary facies are recognized according to abundant core observations and de-scriptions combined with well-log analysis, isograms, seismic interpretations and regional sedimentary background. The middle member of the Kalpingtag Formation, which shows a retrograding sequence, is interpreted as braid-delta deposits influenced by mi-nor tidal reworking. The sources of clasts are from the southern uplift. The subaqueous braid-delta deposits in the study area have some characteristics quite different from the common deltas that generally deposit in marginal seas. Four facies grouped to a delta front association are recognized, ranging from distributary-channel (Facies A), front bar (Facies B), sand sheet (Facies C) and inter-distributary bay (Facies D). The distributary channels construct the sandbody framework of the delta front. Front bar deposits, which are fine-grained with low depositionai dips, display a near-continuous sand strip around the entire periphery of the delta. Sand sheet deposits are mainly found in front of Facies B, gradationally contacting with the prodelta. The interdistributary bay is essentially the uppermost unit capping the channel sequence and generally made up of laminated and massive mudstones. The delta front deposits display extensive sheet-like bodies contrasting with the characteristic wedge shapes of common subaqueous delta bodies. The bi-modal cross-stratification and mud drapes in the fine-to medium-grained sandstone in the distal area are inferred to reflect high-energy tidal processes.

  7. Detour the Moleskine City Notebook Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Detour The Moleskin City Notebook Experience Central London-curated by Raffaela Guidobono-72 Moleskine note book works from poets/people involved in Music, travel writing, graphics, illustration, fashion and other visual arts. Notebook by myself on London included

  8. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trads, Søren Frimann; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services with...... potential visitors, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of...... - or willingness to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  9. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project exploring sustainable ways of urban living. The project renders a scenario comprised of an array of simple conversions of existing urban spaces and buildings, in the attempt to tie strategies ranging from urban planning to interior design into a coherent vision of a...... sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  10. The Starburst in the Abell 1835 Cluster Central Galaxy: A Case Study of Galaxy Formation Regulated by an Outburst from a Supermassive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    McNamara, B R; Carilli, C L; Nulsen, P E J; Rafferty, D A; Ryan, R; Sharma, M; Steiner, J; Wise, M W

    2006-01-01

    We present an optical, X-ray, and radio analysis of the starburst in the Abell 1835 cluster's central cD galaxy. The dense gas surrounding the galaxy is radiating X-rays with a luminosity of ~1E45 erg/s consistent with a cooling rate of ~1000-2000 solar masses per year. However, new Chandra and XMM-Newton observations find less than 200 solar masses per year of gas cooling below ~2 keV, a level that is consistent with the cD's current star formation rate of 100-180 solar masses per year. One or more heating agents (feedback) must then be replenishing the remaining radiative losses. The heat fluxes from supernova explosions and thermal conduction alone are unable to do so. However, a pair of X-ray cavities from an AGN outburst has deposited ~1.7E60 erg into the surrounding gas over the past 40 Myr. The corresponding jet power 1.4E45 erg/sec is enough to offset most of the radiative losses from the cooling gas. The jet power exceeds the radio synchrotron power by ~4000 times, making this one of the most radiati...

  11. Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphy of a Back-Arc Basin: A Case Study of the Qom Formation in the Kashan Area, Central Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guoqiang; ZHANG Shaonan; LI Zhongdong; SONG Lailiang; LIU Huimin

    2007-01-01

    The Qom Formation comprises Oligo-Miocene deposits from a marine succession distributed in the Central Basin of Iran. It is composed of five members designated as A-F. Little previous work exists on the sequence stratigraphy. Based on an integrated study of sequence stratigraphy with outcrop data, wells and regional seismic profiles, the Qom Formation is interpreted as a carbonate succession deposited in a mid-Tertiary back-arc basin. There are two second-order sequences (designated as SS1 and SS2) and five third-order sequences (designated as S1-S5). Five distinct systems tracts including transgressive, highstand, forced regressive, slope margin and lowstand have been recognized. The relationship between the sequences and lithologic sub-units has been collated and defined (S1 to S5 individually corresponding to A-C1, C2-C4, D-E, the lower and upper portions of F); a relative sea level change curve and the sequence stratigraphic framework have been established and described in detail. The coincidence of relative sea level change between that of the determined back-arc basin and the world indicates that the sedimentary cycles of the Qom Formation are mainly controlled by eustatic cycles. The variable combination of the systems tracts and special tectonic-depositional setting causally underpin multiple sequence stratigraphic framework styles seen in the carbonates of the back-arc basin revealing: (1) a continental margin basin that developed some form of barrier, characterized by the development of multiple cycles of carbonate-evaporites; (2) a flat carbonate ramp, which occurred on the southern shelf formed by the lack of clastic supply from nearby magmatic islands plus mixed siliciclastics and carbonates that occurred on the northern shelf due to a sufficient clastics supply from the land; and (3) a forced regressive stratigraphic stacking pattern that occured on the southern shelf and in basin lows due to the uplifting of the southern shelf. Thick and widespread

  12. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  13. Depositional Characteristics of Lake-Floor Fan of Cretaceous Lower Yaojia Formation in Western Part of Central Depression Region,Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Renchen; Li Guifan; Feng Zhiqiang; Liang Jiangping; Lin Changsong

    2009-01-01

    Based on the integrated subsurface data,including those of over 600 m drilled cores,more than 30 drilled wells and 600 km2 three-dimensional (3D) seismic-reflection data of the study area, the characteristics of the lake-floor fan of lower Yaojia(姚家) Formation have been clarified.An evident lacustrine slope break and a steep slope belt developed in the west of Songliao(松辽)basin during depositional period of Qingshankou(青山口)-Yaojia formations(K2).The slope gradient was about 15 m/km.During the depositional period of lower Yaojia Formation,the lake shrank and the shore line of the western Songliao basin shifted to the lacustrine slope-break.The wedge-shaped sediment body,which is interpreted as the lowstand system tract of SQy1 (LSTy1),developed in the area below the slope-break.The LSTyl is pinched out in the west of the study area.As to the thickness of LSTyl,ft is thicker in the east with SO m in its thickness than in the west The LSTyl,rich in sandstone,can be divided into lower part LSTylL and upper part LSTy1u based on two onlap seismic reflection phases,and core and logging data clearly.The various sediments' gravity flow deposits developed and the complex of lake-floor fan formed in the LSTyl under the slope-break in the western part of the central depression region.The lake-floor fan consists of various sediments' gravity flow deposits,including: (1) turbidity deposits with characteristics of Bouma sequences; (2) sand-bearing muddy debrite dominated by mud and mixed by sand; (3) mud-bearing sandy debrites characterized by dominated sand and mixed by mud; (4) sandy debris laminar flow deposits with massive or inclined bedding,and (5) sandy slump deposits developed as deforma tional sedimentary structure.During the lower lake-level period (LSTy1L),the western clinoform region was erosion or sediment pass-by area; the terrigenous clastic was directly transported to deep-water area,converted to channelized sandy debris flow,and combined with slump

  14. Hope for Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The cities surrounding Changsha and Wuhan in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River will ally to form a new pilot zone to boost regional economic development China’s fourth pilot zone for compre- hensive and coordinated economic reform will soon debut in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River,open- ing a new area to attract foreign investment. The application has been submitted to the State Council for approval. The pilot zone will include two clusters of cities in central China:One consists of Wuhan,capital of Hubei Province,and eight surrounding cities in Hubei,and the other is composed of Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan,three major cities in Hunan Province.

  15. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  16. City Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  17. City Walks and Tactile Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Diaconu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to develop categories of the pedestrian’s tactile and kinaesthetic experience of the city. The beginning emphasizes the haptic qualities of surfaces and textures, which can be “palpated” visually or experienced by walking. Also the lived city is three-dimensional; its corporeal depth is discussed here in relation to the invisible sewers, protuberant profiles, and the formal diversity of roofscapes. A central role is ascribed in the present analysis to the formal similarities between the representation of the city by walking through it and the representation of the tactile form of objects. Additional aspects of the “tactile” experience of the city in a broad sense concern the feeling of their rhythms and the exposure to weather conditions. Finally, several aspects of contingency converge in the visible age of architectural works, which record traces of individual and collective histories.

  18. 江汉平原石家河谭家岭遗址新石器时代环境考古%Environmental archaeology of the Tanjialing Neolithic Site in the Shijiahe Ancient City, the Jianghan Plain of Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立; 朱诚; 李冰; 李枫; 孙伟; 王晓翠; 刘辉; 孟华平; 孙珏

    2016-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope The middle Yangtze River basin is a developing and lfourishing area of the Neolithic cultures, as revealed by abundant archaeological sites in the Jianghan Plain. The Shijiahe Culture is representative of an advanced stage in the Neolithic Age, and archaeological remains reflect the features of native culture in the Jianghan Plain. The Shijiahe Culture fully flourished in its early and middle stages, but it deteriorated around 4.2 ka BP. Some topics of the cause of this cultural deterioration such as the war, disaster, climatic events, southward migration, and abandonment of the ancient city are still under debate. Also, no systematic analysis was conducted throughout the method of archaeological stratigraphy. Therefore, the Tanjialing Neolithic Site during the Shijiahe cultural period provides a good opportunity and material to examine the relationship between anthropogenic impact and environmental dynamics by palynomorph-TOC-TN-δ13Corg-magnetic susceptibility analysis, owing to its well chronological control, rich organic sediment, and unique archaeological ifndings. This study is highly necessary to better understand interaction between human and nature in this special historical period. Materials and methods The Shijiahe ancient city is located in the northwest of Shihe Town, Tianmen City, Hubei Province, and geographically lies in the north-central Jianghan Plain. The terrain is higher in the northwest, and the elevation is 33—40 m above sea level. The Tanjialing Neolithic Site is situated in the center of Shijiahe ancient city. An archaeological sedimentary proifle, in the south wall of T0620 from the site, was examined for pollen, TOC, TN, δ13Corg and magnetic susceptibility. The proifle is 330 cm in thickness and divided into 9 lithological horizons. 28 samples were collected in the 9th layer, 22 samples in the cultural layers for palynological analysis, and 97 samples for TOC, TN,δ13Corg and magnetic susceptibility analysis

  19. Water quality of the Ogallala Formation, central High Plains aquifer within the North Plains Groundwater Conservation District, Texas Panhandle, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley; Haynie, Monti M.; Beussink, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    In cooperation with the North Plains Groundwater Conservation District (NPGCD), the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water-quality samples at 30 groundwater monitor wells in the NPGCD in the Texas Panhandle. All of the wells were completed in the Ogallala Formation of the central High Plains aquifer. Samples from each well were collected during February–March 2012 and in March 2013. Depth to groundwater in feet below land surface was measured at each well before sampling to determine the water-quality sampling depths. Water-quality samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, and trace metals, and 6 of the 30 samples were analyzed for pesticides. There was a strong relation between specific conductance and dissolved solids as evidenced by a coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.98. The dissolved-solids concentration in water from five wells exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Water from 3 of these 5 wells was near the north central part of the NPGCD. Nitrate values exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in 2 of the 30 wells. A sodium-adsorption ratio of 23.4 was measured in the sample collected from well Da-3589 in Dallam County, with the next largest sodium-adsorption ratio measured in the sample collected from well Da-3588 (12.5), also in Dallum County. The sodium-adsorption ratios measured in all other samples were less than 10. The groundwater was generally a mixed cation-bicarbonate plus carbonate type. Twenty-three trace elements were analyzed, and no concentrations exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard or maximum contaminant level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water supplies. In 2012, 6 of the 30 wells were sampled for commonly used pesticides. Atrazine and its degradate 2-Chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine were detected in

  20. Beyond the City Limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hairong

    2012-01-01

    While most fresh university graduates in China aim to find jobs in the cities,more and more welleducated young people are starting to look for career opportunities in rural areas.Cheng Guangjing is one of those who have chosen to work as a village official.In 2009 he began working in Dongzhuang Village,Lankao County in central China's Henan Province.On November 24,2011,the villagers unanimously elected him secretary of the Dongzhuang Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC).

  1. Formation and emplacement of two contrasting late-Mesoproterozoic magma types in the central Namaqua Metamorphic Complex (South Africa, Namibia): Evidence from geochemistry and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bial, Julia; Büttner, Steffen H.; Frei, Dirk

    2015-05-01

    The Namaqua Metamorphic Complex is a Mesoproterozoic low-pressure, granulite facies belt along the southern and western margin of the Kaapvaal Craton. The NMC has formed between ~ 1.3 and 1.0 Ga and its central part consists essentially of different types of granitoids intercalated with metapelites and calc-silicate rocks. The granitoids can be subdivided into three major groups: (i) mesocratic granitoids, (ii) leucocratic granitoids and (iii) leucogranites. The high-K, ferroan mesocratic granitoids (54-75 wt% SiO2) have a variable composition ranging from granitic to tonalitic, and contain biotite and/or hornblende or orthopyroxene. They are strongly enriched in REE and LILE, indicating A-type chemical characteristics, and are depleted in Ba, Sr, Eu, Nb, Ta and Ti. The leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites (68-76 wt% SiO2) differ from the other group in having a granitic or slightly syenitic composition containing biotite and/or garnet/sillimanite. They have lower REE and MgO, FeOt, CaO, TiO2, MnO concentrations, but higher Na2O and K2O contents. Compositional variations in mesocratic granitoids indicate their formation by fractional crystallization of a mafic parental magma. Leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites lack such trends, which suggests melting of a felsic crustal source without subsequent further evolution of the generated magmas. The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the mesocratic granitoids are consistent magmatic differentiation of a mantle derived, hot (> 900 °C) parental magma. The leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites granites were formed from low-temperature magmas (< 730 °C), generated during fluid-present melting from metasedimentary sources. New U-Pb zircon ages reveal that both magma types were emplaced into the lower crust within a 30-40 million years interval between 1220-1180 Ma. In this time period the crust reached its thermal peak, which led to the formation of the leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites. A

  2. Rheomorphic ignimbrites of the Rogerson Formation, central Snake River plain, USA: record of mid-Miocene rhyolitic explosive eruptions and associated crustal subsidence along the Yellowstone hotspot track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Thomas R.; Reichow, Marc K.; Branney, Michael J.; Finn, David R.; Coe, Robert S.; Storey, Michael; Bonnichsen, Bill

    2016-04-01

    Rogerson Graben, USA, is critically placed at the intersection between the Yellowstone hotspot track and the southern projection of the west Snake River rift. Eleven rhyolitic members of the re-defined, ≥420-m-thick, Rogerson Formation record voluminous high-temperature explosive eruptions, emplacing extensive ashfall and rheomorphic ignimbrite sheets. Yet, each member has subtly distinct field, chemical and palaeomagnetic characteristics. New regional correlations reveal that the Brown's View ignimbrite covers ≥3300 km2, and the Wooden Shoe ignimbrite covers ≥4400 km2 and extends into Nevada. Between 11.9 and ˜8 Ma, the average frequency of large explosive eruptions in this region was 1 per 354 ky, about twice that at Yellowstone. The chemistry and mineralogy of the early rhyolites show increasing maturity with time possibly by progressive fractional crystallisation. This was followed by a trend towards less-evolved rhyolites that may record melting and hybridisation of a mid-crustal source region. Contemporaneous magmatism-induced crustal subsidence of the central Snake River Basin is recorded by successive ignimbrites offlapping and thinning up the N-facing limb of a regional basin-margin monocline, which developed between 10.59 and 8 Ma. The syn-volcanic basin topography contrasted significantly with the present-day elevated Yellowstone hotspot plateau. Concurrent basin-and-range extension produced the N-trending Rogerson Graben: early uplift of the Shoshone Hills (≥10.34 Ma) was followed by initiation of the Shoshone Fault and an E-sloping half-graben (˜10.3-10.1 Ma). The graben asymmetry then reversed with initiation of the Brown's Bench Fault (≥8 Ma), which remained intermittently active until the Pliocene.

  3. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF WARM DENSE GAS IN NGC 1614—BREAKING OF THE STAR FORMATION LAW IN THE CENTRAL KILOPARSEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, C. K.; Cao, C.; Lu, N.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Zhao, Y.-H.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Appleton, P.; Armus, L.; Murphy, E. J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gao, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Herrero-Illana, R. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía - CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía, s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Meijerink, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Privon, G.; Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); König, S. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Aalto, S. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Onsala Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Chu, J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96816 (United States); Haan, S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF, P.O. Box 76, Epping 1710 (Australia); Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); and others

    2015-01-20

    We present ALMA Cycle-0 observations of the CO (6-5) line emission and of the 435 μm dust continuum emission in the central kiloparsec of NGC 1614, a local luminous infrared galaxy at a distance of 67.8 Mpc (1{sup ′′}=329 pc). The CO emission is well resolved by the ALMA beam (0.''26 × 0.''20) into a circumnuclear ring, with an integrated flux of f {sub CO(6-5)} = 898 (± 153) Jy km s{sup –1}, which is 63(± 12)% of the total CO (6-5) flux measured by Herschel. The molecular ring, located between 100 pcformation regions with Σ{sub SFR} ∼ 100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2} and Σ{sub Gas}∼10{sup 4} M{sub ⊙} pc{sup −2}. The non-detections of the nucleus in both the CO (6-5) line emission and the 435 μm continuum rule out, with relatively high confidence, a Compton-thick active galactic nucleus in NGC 1614. Comparisons with radio continuum emission show a strong deviation from an expected local correlation between Σ{sub Gas} and Σ{sub SFR}, indicating a breakdown of the Kennicutt-Schmidt law on the linear scale of ∼100 pc.

  4. Diagenesis of Paleozoic playa-lake and ephemeral-stream deposits from the Pimenta Bueno Formation, Siluro-Devonian (?) of the Parecis Basin, central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, K.; Morad, S.; Al-Aasm, I. S.; De Ros, L. F.

    2011-07-01

    The Parecis Basin is a large intracratonic rift located in central Brazil and filled with Paleozoic carbonate, evaporite and siliciclastic sediments. The occurrence of gas seeps has recently attracted significant exploration interest by the Brazilian petroleum agency and by Petrobras. The continuously cored PB-01-RO well provided the first opportunity to study the depositional environments, diagenetic evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the largely unknown sedimentary successions of the Parecis Basin. The cored lithologies, belonging to the Siluro-Devonian (?) Pimenta Bueno Formation, are interpreted as deposited in playa-lake and ephemeral-stream environments. The deposits display a strong facies control on the diagenetic mineral assemblages and evolution. Diagenetic minerals in the ephemeral-stream deposits include eogenetic hematite and smectitic clay coats and quartz cement, and the mesogenetic process includes precipitation of sulfates (anhydrite and barite) and carbonates (calcite, dolomite and kutnahorite-ankerite-huntite), followed by partial dissolution of these carbonates and sulfates, and of feldspar grains. Telogenetic processes include the precipitation of hematite and kaolinite within secondary pores, and the replacement of anhydrite by gypsum. A second burial phase and mesodiagenesis is indicated by the precipitation of discrete K-feldspar crystals within moldic pores after dissolved feldspars, and by the illitization of etched, telogenetic kaolinite. The playa-lake deposits show early diagenetic dolomitization of lime mud, precipitation of anhydrite nodules and extensive silicification. The anhydrite nodules were replaced by gypsum and chalcedony during telodiagenesis. Potential source rocks are locally represented by organic shales. The fluvial sandstones show fair reservoir quality and limited compaction, as indicated by their intergranular volume, suggesting that the succession has undergone moderate burial. Potential seals for hydrocarbon

  5. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003). But......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  6. 解析新型城镇化背景下的镇中心区规划--以中山市板芙镇新中心区规划为例%Analysis on the Central Town Planning under the Background of New Urbanization--Taking New Central District Planning of Banfu Town, Zhongshan City as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建武

    2014-01-01

    新型城镇化是以城乡统筹、城乡一体、产城互动、节约集约、生态宜居、和谐发展为基本特征的城镇化,是大中小城市、小城镇、新型农村社区协调发展、互促共进的城镇化。做好镇级中心区规划,将会对城乡一体化起到至关重要的作用。%New urbanization is the urbanization with essential features of urban-rural development balance, urban-rural inte-gration, production and city’s interaction, saving and intensive, ecological and livable and developing harmoniously. With it, cities, smal towns and new- type rural communities develop harmoniously and promote each others. It wil play a crucial role in urban and rural integration to complete the township central planning.

  7. George Baldessin’s first view of the city: The formative influence of the Italian sculptor Alik Cavaliere on George Baldessin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Perin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In Sasha Grishin’s 2014 book, Australian art: a history, he begins his discussion of printmaker-sculptor George Baldessin (1939-1978 with a statement about the artist’s migration to Australia. While this is appropriate, as Baldessin’s art is intimately involved with his relationship to ‘place’, extensive biographical interpretations have meant that the consequences of Baldessin’s life have long overshadowed the consequences of his art. After travelling to Milan in 1962 to study with the internationally renowned Marino Marini, Baldessin found himself under the tutelage of Marini’s lesser-known studio assistant, Alik Cavaliere (1926-1998. Cavaliere’s phenomenological philosophy, which informed his approach to sculpture, formed a foundational basis for Baldessin’s later work in Australia. After his return from Milan, the young artist created works that were derivative of Cavaliere. This was contemporary Milanese art, Melbourne style. Over time this influence became less obvious, and Baldessin slowly transformed Cavaliere’s approach into something idiosyncratic and deeply personal. Yet the basic tenets of Cavaliere’s philosophy remain traceable in Baldessin’s most admired work, the installation produced for the 1975 São Paulo Biennial – the sculpture Occasional screens with seating arrangement with the print suite Occasional images from a city chamber. Cavaliere’s advocacy for works which simulated ‘place’ and being-in-the-world struck a chord with Baldessin. Not least because Baldessin was raised relatively close to Milan, a truth he often obscured.

  8. Changing mobilities in Asian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Boquet, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Asian countries have experienced tremendous changes in their mobility patterns in recent years. As economic development has allowed a rise in the standards of living of a god part of the population, the rate of motorzation has increased very quickly. At the sametime, cities populations continue to grow at a fast pace, and the spread of the urbanized area requires more and more to be able to travel on distances too long for walking or even bicycling. Given the high density of many central citi...

  9. Centrality Measures in Spatial Networks of Urban Streets

    OpenAIRE

    Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito; Porta, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    We study centrality in urban street patterns of different world cities represented as networks in geographical space. The results indicate that a spatial analysis based on a set of four centrality indices allows an extended visualization and characterization of the city structure. Planned and self-organized cities clearly belong to two different universality classes. In particular, self-organized cities exhibit scale-free properties similar to those found in the degree distributions of non-sp...

  10. The City Street

    OpenAIRE

    H.C. van der Wouden

    1999-01-01

    Original title: De stad op straat. The city street; the public space in perspective (De stad op straat; de openbare ruimte in perspectief) by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP is intended to contribute to the formation of new ideas about the public space and the future of urban societies. It presents a collection of essays on the urban public space from a large number of scientific disciplines. The following authors contributed to the collection: Prof. R.W. Boomkens (cult...

  11. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of a constant recharge value for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to...

  12. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital aquifer boundaries for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in...

  13. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula...

  14. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal...... performance. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  15. PETROGENESIS OF THE METACARBONATE AND RELATED ROCKS OF THE SILGARÁ FORMATION, CENTRAL SANTANDER MASSIF, COLOMBIAN ANDES: AN OVERVIEW OF A “REACTION CALCIC EXOSCARN”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellanos O.M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Metacarbonate rocks (pure and impure marbles, carbonate-silicate rocks, calc-silicate rocks and carbonate-bearing silicate rocks form a very complex group within the metamorphic sequence of the Silgará Formation at the central Santander Massif (CSM. These rocks are interpreted as derived from a sedimentary sequence (including limestones and dolostones, carbonate-bearing mudstones,  sandstones, tuffaceous and evaporitic sediments and marlstones overprinted by near-isochemical regional metamorphism. They usually appear as scarce intercalations from millimeter up to meter scale, within the high-grade pelitic rocks, in the lower part of the metamorphic section, although the proportion of metacarbonate rocks can be higher and different marble layers are exploited. We report for the first time the occurrence of a "reaction calcic exoskarn", which corresponds to
    such metacarbonate rocks, taking into account that a skarn can be developed during regional metamorphism and by different metasomatic processes, adjacent to intrusive bodies, along faults and shear zones, and what defines these rocks as a skarn is its mineralogy, which includes a variety of calc-silicate and associated minerals, usually dominated by garnet and pyroxene. Therefore, this paper focus attention to the occurrence of metacarbonate and
    related rocks, which occurs as small scale reactions zones that show a gradational contact from garnet-bearing pelitic rocks to marbles or carbonate-silicate rocks, giving particular interest to the calc-silicate rocks, which are characterized by the presence of elongated grains of banded clinopyroxene (diopside and scapolite and massive
    or scattered garnet. Several reaction-zones occur in the contact between impure calcite marble and garnet-bearing metapelite and the sequence of mineral assemblages in these reaction zones is: biotite + plagioclase K-feldspar garnet (Zone I, biotite + plagioclase K-feldspar garnet staurolite epidote

  16. Migration of a Central Venous Catheter in a Hemodialysis Patient Resulted in Left Atrial Perforation and Thrombus Formation Requiring Open Heart Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin; Marks, Barry A; Qureshi, Anwer; Stemm, Joseph J

    2016-07-01

    Central venous catheterization is widely used in patients on hemodialysis. A rare complication associated with the clinical use of central venous catheters is perforation of the heart or major vessels. We report a case of inadvertent perforation of the left atrium and thrombosis after the placement of a hemodialysis catheter in the right internal jugular vein. In such cases, surgical removal of the central venous catheter from perforation sites in the heart and vessel walls poses anesthetic challenges because of the high risk of pneumothorax, hemorrhage, arrhythmias, thrombosis, and death. PMID:27224040

  17. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  18. Abanico East Formation: petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks behind the Cenozoic arc front in the Andean Cordillera, central Chile (33°50'S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Muñoz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The stratigraphy, chemistry and age of rocks assigned to the eastern portion of the Abanico Formation exposed along the El Volcán river valley, Principal Cordillera east of Santiago (30º50'S/70º12'-70º5'W, are reported and discussed. This ca. 3,300 m thick succession is mainly composed of basalts, basaltic andesites and volcaniclastic rocks. 40Ar/39Ar radiometric dates on plagioclase from the lava flows yield Oligocene-lower Miocene ages with a maximum age of 34.3 ±0.4 Ma for the lower part and a plateau age of 21.4±1.0 Ma for the upper part of the succession. The lava flows show calc-alkaline affinities and have chemical characteristics that are typical of arc volcanic rocks erupted in an active continental margin. A temporal chemical evolution in the sequence is indicated by upward increases in concentrations of LILE and LREE elements and LaN/YbN ratios. This pattern can be attributed to increasing contributions of fluids derived from the subducted lithosphere with time. A chemical comparison of these rocks with Oligocene-lower Miocene volcanic rocks from the Cerro Abanico and Chacabuco areas on the western border of the Principal Cordillera, east of Santiago, and at the northern end of the Central Depression reveals west to east compositional variations. From west to east these variations include: (1 increasing LILE and LREE concentrations, LaN/YbN ratios and Sr and Nd initial isotopic ratios, and (2 decreasing LILE/HFSE and LREE/HFSE ratios. These pattern can be attributed to a west to east decrease in the contribution of slab derived fluids and increase in the influence of crustal contamination processesLa formación Abanico Este: petrología y geoquímica de las rocas volcánicas detrás del arco Cenozoico en la Cordillera Andina, Chile central (33º50'S. Se presentan los resultados del estudio de la estratigrafía, química y edades de rocas asignadas a la franja oriental de la Formación Abanico expuestas en la ladera sur del R

  19. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  20. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from shelf and slope environments at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. These data provide coverage between...

  1. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  2. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Island, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  3. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific with 1 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central...

  4. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  5. Human Limitations to Introduction of Smart Cities: Comparative Analysis From Two CEE Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel KLIMOVSKÝ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smart cities are a modern administrative/ developmental concept that tries to combine the development of urban areas with a higher level of citizens’ participation. However, there is a lack of understanding of the concept’s potential, due possibly to an unwillingness to accept a new form of relationship with the citizens. In this article, the willingness to introduce the elements of smart cities into two Central and Eastern European cities is tested. The results show that people are reluctant to use technology above the level of their needs and show little interest in participating in matters of governance, which prevents smart cities from developing in reality.

  6. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers,...

  7. Shifting fortunes of neighbouring cities

    OpenAIRE

    Meijers, E.J.; Lambregts, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    Polycentricity is often conceived to be the product of “a long process of very extended decentralization from big central cities to adjacent smaller ones, old and new” (Hall and Pain, 2006: 3). Accordingly, polycentric spatial development (as a process) is usually identified with a development towards a more balanced distribution of functions and activities across regional space, and with the moderation of intra-regional urban hierarchies. However, the term polycentricity is also linked to th...

  8. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  9. BURSA CITY MUSEUM FROM PAST TO THE PRESENT

    OpenAIRE

    SİLAV, Muna

    2011-01-01

    Museums are places that transfers social, economic and cultural heritage from past to present. Society’ lifestyle, traditions, and habits are memory of the city. Regarded as exhibiting the cultural values of the past and the city's memory, the museums carry the characteristics values of society and value judgments. Playing an important role in the formation of Turkish culture and keeping it alive the city of Bursa has protected its historic heritage until the present day. This city, which was...

  10. Sister Cities Flourish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building sister city relation,also known as friendsh ip city,is a common channel for cities in different countries to keep a closer tie and communication.According to the statistics from China International Friendship Cities Association,up to the end of 2007,1087 provinces and states and 314 cities from 120 countries in the world have found their sister cities in China.Among them,Japan has the largest amount of Chinese sister cities,that is 200 provinces and 33 cities,and takes up almost 17 percent of the total number.

  11. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinquan; Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  12. poverty and poverty alleviation in globalised cities

    OpenAIRE

    Verena Ast

    2014-01-01

    In the light of increasing "division of the cities" and its underlying process of socio-spatial segregation researches focus more and more on the consequences of this process: the development of advantaged and disadvantaged districts within contemporary cities. Thereby especially poverty alleviation respectively poverty eradication in disadvantaged districts becomes an emerging and central field of intervention in social policies. This is due to the broad impact of poverty like higher risk of...

  13. Assessment Of Inocula To Enhance Startup Of Ethanol-Fed And Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to construct an Anaerobic Passive Treatment System (APTS) to treat acid mine drainage from the National Tunnel in North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Centr...

  14. Assessment Of Inocula To Enhance Startup Of Ethanol-Fed And Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to construct an Anaerobic Passive Treatment System (APTS) to treat acid mine drainage from the National Tunnel in North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Centr...

  15. Aspectos formativos do embate entre fé gentílica e leis da Cidade- Estado em Antígona = Formative aspects within the conflict between gentilic faith and city-state laws in Antigone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Joaquim Pereira Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto, pretende-se abordar como, em Antígona, Sófocles representa o processo de transição entre mito e razão — fé gentílica e lei estatal — entre os séculos VIII a V a.C, tendo em vista os aspectos formativos da peça. A reflexão proposta por Sófocles tem como fio condutor a reação da princesa Antígona ao edito do rei Creonte que proibia a realização de cerimônia fúnebre para um dos irmãos dela, Polinices. No embate em que, de um lado, a protagonista se respalda na religião patriarcal e, de outro, o antagonista defendeas leis da Cidade-Estado, Sófocles coloca na ordem do dia não somente um conflito de personagens, mas também o conflito vivenciado pelo homem grego nesse momento de transição. Destarte, em Antígona, o poeta apresenta, mesmo que de maneira não-intencional, o ideal formativo correspondente às necessidades da sociedade helênica do seu tempo. Para o desenvolvimento dessa abordagem, optou-se por uma metodologia que prevê a compreensão da sociedade grega no período em questão como a base para a discussão do processo formativo inerente à representação sofocliana.Having as a frame of reference certain formative aspects in Antigone by Sophocles, this paper intends to discuss how the dramatist, in theaforementioned play, represents the process of transition between myth and reason — gentilic faith and City-State laws — which the Greek society of the 8-5th centuries B.C. faced. The reflection proposed by Sophocles has as its guiding principle the acts of princess Antigone against an edict by King Creon, concerning the burial ceremony of her brother, Polynices. As the protagonist is backed up by the religion of the patriarchal society, the antagonist is the defender of the City-State laws. Within this conflict, not only did Sophocles make use of his character’s issues, but also those of the Greek Man during that transitional time. Thus, in Antigone, the poet presents, though not intentionally

  16. Site Effect and Expected Seismic Performance of Buildings in Palestine- Case Study: Nablus City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of local geology on ground-motion amplification and building damage were studied in Palestine-West Bank. Nakamura's method of microtremor analysis was applied in this study. The measurements showed significantly higher amplification in the frequency range of building vulnerability in different parts of Nablus city. This finding is consistent with the distribution of the earthquake damage grades in the urban areas struck by the 11 February 2004 earthquake (ML = 5.2) with a focal depth of 17 km beneath the northeastern part of the Dead Sea Basin. Quite large differences in amplification between around 1 and 9 were computed between the eastern and western rims of the city. The downtown built in the central part of the city on soft clay, marl and valley deposits, whereas the northern and southern parts of urban areas in Nablus city lying on mountains consist of consolidated carbonates bedrock. In the central part of the city and at the rims, where the thickness of fluvial deposits and soft formations is about 15 m, amplifications between 6.74 and 8.67 for dominant natural period range of 0.8-1.1 sec were obtained. On the southern and northern mountains, which are located on limestone rocks covered with a thin layer of soil, the amplification in the same frequency range was low. Calculating the natural period of the existing common buildings (Tb) in the studied area (buildings with 10-12 stories), by using the dynamic analysis method. The values of Tb obtained were much closed to the site dominant natural period (Ts). The findings of this study indicate that the expected differences in damage grades for urban areas in Nablus city could be attributed to variations in the thickness and physical properties of Tertiary-Quaternary sediments, which appear to be rather heterogeneous

  17. Global Cities and Liability of Foreignness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernicke, Georg; Mehlsen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the concepts of location, liability of foreignness (LoF), and their relation to factors that drive multinational enterprises (MNEs) towards, or away from, global cities. We argue that three interrelated characteristics of global cities - cosmopolitanism, availability of...... advanced producer services, and interconnectedness - help MNEs to overcome the liability of foreignness. We operationalise liability of foreignness as institutional distance and analyse its influence on the worldwide location of a large sample of subsidiaries of Nordic and Japanese MNEs. Our results...... can reduce the liability of foreignness suffered by MNEs, and that global cities play a central role in the process of globalisation....

  18. The Advancement of World Digital Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yasuoka, Mika; Ishida, Toru; Aurigi, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    activities appeared in the early 1990s. In Europe, more than one hundred digital cities have been tried, often supported by local government, central government and EU in the name of local digitalization. Asian countries have actively adopted the latest information technologies as a part of national...... initiatives. In the past 15 years since the first stage of digital cities, the development of the original digital cities has leveled off or stabilized. In spite of that, by looking back at the trajectory of digital cities, it is clear that digital environments in cities often benefit from the previous...

  19. A Regular City

    OpenAIRE

    Arina Sharavina

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the first plans of Chita, which served as the basis for the city development. It presents contribution to the city history made by the Decembrist Dmiry Zavalishin’s, who was the first author of the city development plan. Peculiarities of the quarter development of the realized city plan are also presented.

  20. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  1. Milk quality improvement after implantation of good manufacturing practices in milking in 19 cities of the central region of Paraná / Melhoria da qualidade do leite a partir da implantação de boas práticas de higiene na ordenha em 19 municípios da região central do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Cavaletti Corrêa da Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The milk production in Brazil presents efficiency and quality problems concerning the raw material, reducing its competitiveness. The poor quality of raw milk is associated with faults in handling and milking hygiene conditions, high indices of mastitis, inadequate maintenance and disinfection of the equipment, inefficient or inexistent refrigeration, disqualified workforce, among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of implantation of simple, inexpensive and easily adopted Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP on dairy farms. Quality parameters researched were total bacterial count (TBC and somatic cell count (SCC, which indicates respectively milking hygiene and mammary gland health. Forty six raw milk samples from 19 cities of the central region of Paraná were analyzed, among them, 32 (69,57% had manual milking and 14 (30,43% mechanic milking. The implantation of GMP resulted in average reduction of 87,90% to TBC on manual milking farms and 86,99% on mechanic milking farms. Regarding SCC, the average reduction was 33,94% in manual milking farms and 51,85% in mechanics milking farms. The implemented practices had shown efficient in all of the studied conditions of production and installations.O setor leiteiro brasileiro apresenta problemas de eficiência produtiva e de qualidade da matéria-prima e, por isso, perde em competitividade. A má qualidade do leite cru está relacionada a fatores como deficiências no manejo e higiene da ordenha, índices elevados de mastite, manutenção e desinfecção inadequadas dos equipamentos, refrigeração ineficiente ou inexistente e mão de obra desqualificada, entre outros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da implantação de Boas Práticas na ordenha na ordenha, simples e baratas, que pudessem ser facilmente introduzidas pelos produtores de leite. Os parâmetros de qualidade considerados foram a contagem de células somáticas (CCS, indicativo de sanidade da gl

  2. Formation of sulphation deposits in cables in the electricity generation plant of Los Humeros geothermal field, Mexico; Sulfatacion de cables en la central geotermoelectrica Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara Rangel, Agustin [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    In the construction of a central electrical generation plant using geothermal fluids, high quality standards are applied in all aspects of engineering. Los Humeros generation units were installed through trenches, ducts and trays according to norms for cables of control, force and power, specifically in point to point cables and connections. Performance of the power plant has been affected by electric momentary and sequence flaws due to problems of cable sulfating, which were solved by tinning the conductors. [Spanish] En la construccion de centrales generadoras de electricidad con fluidos geotermicos se aplican criterios de calidad de diseno en todos los aspectos de la ingenieria. En Los Humeros Puebla, se realizo la instalacion conforme a normas de cables de control, fuerza y potencia a traves de trincheras, ductos y charolas y especificamente en el cableado asi como en las conexiones de punta a punta. Todos estos aspectos son referidos a planos de los componentes y equipos electricos existentes en una central. Al paso del tiempo existieron fallas electricas momentaneas y secuenciales por el problema de sulfatacion en cables, los cuales fueron resueltos con el estanado de conductores.

  3. Comparative Study on the Differentiation of Central Cities' Development Quality Based on "Three Force" Catastrophe Progression%基于“三力”突变级数的中心城市发展质量差异化比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解佳龙; 雷殷

    2013-01-01

    Based on the model of "Three Force" used in industry evaluation, this paper set the evaluation index system from three dimensions of indigenous innovation ability, effective contribution ability and international competitive ability, and constructed the evaluation model of central cities' development quality by catastrophe progression method. By comprehensive measuring and scatter clustering in three-dimensional space the development quality among the 4 municipalities and 15 sub-provincial cities in China, it is concluded that central cities in China are superposed by the trend of Three Force synchronous equilibrium alienation and the feature of plate level gradient descending, and appears five development phase features, including high equilibrium mode, crossing approximation mode, steady advance mode, innovation short-board mode and low equilibrium mode.%以产业评价“三力模型”为依据,从自主创新力、效益贡献力、国际竞争力三个维度设定了评价指标体系,采用突变级数法构建了中心城市发展质量评价模型,并对全国4个直辖市和15个副省级城市的发展质量进行综合测算与三维空间散点聚类分析,结论认为:我国中心城市发展质量“三力”同步均衡异化趋势与板块级别梯度递减特征叠加,且呈现高水平均衡、跨越逼近、平稳推进、创新短板、低水平均衡五种发展阶段特征.

  4. 同质产品中心市场形成机理的博弈论模型解释%THE EXPLANATION OF THE MECHANISM OF THE CENTRAL MARKET FORMATION OF HOMOGEOUS PRODUCTS USING GAME THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏灿秋; 付战兵

    2000-01-01

    The extending analysis of the Hotelling model for spatial difference of homogeneous products is presented. A conclusion different from the classical one is obtained and it gives a satisfactory explanation for the central market formation mechanism of homogeneous product.%对产品空间位置差异的Hotelling模型进行了扩展分析,得到了与经典分析方法不同的结果,该结果能很好地解释同质产品中心市场形成的原因和机理.

  5. Perfil dos trabalhadores da atenção básica em saúde no município de São Paulo: região norte e central da cidade Profile of the primary health care workers in the municipality of São Paulo: north and central regions of the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria Giffoni Marsiglia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa do Observatório de Recursos Humanos em Saúde de São Paulo em 2009, com 87 UBS na região norte e centro da cidade. OBJETIVO: levantar o perfil dos trabalhadores das UBS, organizadas sob: Programas de Saúde, Saúde da Família e Mistas. METODOLOGIA: sexo, idade, naturalidade, escolaridade, formação, função e tempo de trabalho na UBS de 4.968 trabalhadores, e entrevistas com amostra de 621 trabalhadores, através do Sistema de Entrevista Telefônica Assistida por Computador (ETAC. RESULTADOS: 80,7% dos entrevistados eram mulheres, mas só 56,4% entre os médicos; 50,5% entre 21 e 40 anos de idade e 49,1% entre 41 e 60 anos; 61,4% naturais do município ; apresentaram escolaridade superior ao exigido para as funções exercidas; no nível superior, 13,9 % eram médicos; no médio, 21,3% eram auxiliares de enfermagem e, no operacional, 20,7% eram ACS; 40,1% trabalhavam na UBS há mais de 5 anos, 12,9% há mais de 10 anos e 6,3% há mais de 20 anos; 64,7% trabalhavam só na UBS, 46,7% tiveram experiência na área hospitalar; 92,3% dos que trabalhavam nas UBS de Programas de Saúde eram funcionários públicos estatutários e 77% dos das UBS de Saúde da família contratados via CLT, pelas instituições parceiras da SMS-SP. CONCLUSÕES: predominância de trabalhadores do sexo feminino; processos de consolidação e de renovação do contingente de trabalhadores, maioria natural do município de São Paulo, escolaridade superior à exigida para a função; predominância de médicos, auxiliares de enfermagem e agentes comunitários de saúde; processo de terceirização nas relações de trabalho.Research conducted by São Paulo's Observatory of Human Resources in Health in 2009. It investigated 87 unidades básicas de saúde (UBS - primary care units located in the north and central regions of the city of São Paulo. OBJECTIVE: to survey the profile of the UBS workers. The UBS were organized under different models: Health Programs

  6. Métamorphismes et déformations des séries cristallophylliennes du Chavanon, de la Sioule et d'Ussel (Massif Central français). Discussion du modèle de nappes du Massif Central.

    OpenAIRE

    Thiery, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Les séries du Chavanon, de la Sioule et d'Ussel sont situées au coeur du massif central français et constituent donc un secteur clé pour la compréhension de cette zone interne de l'orogène varisque en Europe de l'ouest. Leur métamorphisme inverse est traditionnellement expliqué par un empilement de nappes au cours d'un évènement unique au Dévonien. Cet édifice est ensuite affecté par le jeu de grands décrochements régionaux. Ce mémoire établit une comparaison entre les différentes séries grâc...

  7. Guest editorial introduction: Understanding island cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grydehoj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Island studies research has traditionally focused on relatively rural, peripheral, and isolated communities, yet island cities (strongly urbanized small islands or archipelagos or major population centres of large islands or archipelagos also represent an important research area. Island spatiality has a host of historical and continuing effects on urban development, influencing urban densification and agglomeration, zonal differentiation, and neighbourhood formation in cities both big and small. This special section of Island Studies Journal includes papers on the island cities and urban archipelagos of Peel (Isle of Man, British Isles, Nuuk (Greenland, Palma de Majorca (Spain, Belize City (Belize, and Mumbai (India. The Island Cities and Urban Archipelagos research network seeks to help enrich wider island studies scholarship and contribute to introducing the island dimension to urban studies.

  8. A submarine fan in the Mesa Central, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Romo, G.; Arellano-Gil, J.; Mendoza-Rosales, C.; Nieto-Obregón, J.

    2000-10-01

    The contact between the Guerrero and Sierra Madre tectonostratigraphic terranes has been proposed to lie in the Mesa Central, east of the city of Zacatecas. Marine Triassic units have been assigned to the Guerrero Terrane. It is here proposed that this contact occurs to the west of the city of Zacatecas and the Triassic marine sequence assigned to the Sierra Madre Terrane. We analyzed the stratigraphic record and structural features of pre-Late Jurassic sequences at four localities in the Mesa Central. They contain a marine turbiditic Triassic unit, which includes La Bellena, Taray, and Zacatecas Formations, and a continental unit of probable Middle Jurassic age. Triassic sandstones were derived from a cratonic area, without the influence of arc volcanism. The sequences were affected by two phases of deformation. The Triassic formations are unconformably overlain by a continental volcano-sedimentary sequence that contains fragments of sandstones derived from the underlying unit. Sedimentologic characteristics of the Triassic unit fit a submarine fan model. The submarine fan developed at the continental margin of Pangaea during Triassic times. Turbidite associations in the San Rafael Area indicate a middle fan depositional environment, while in the Real de Catorce Area, they correspond to the distal part (basin plain facies). At La Ballena and Zacatecas the turbidite associations occur in the middle part and perhaps the external part of the fan.

  9. /S/ in Central American Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, John M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the behavior of the phoneme /s/ in Central American Spanish by comparing the speech patterns of residents of Guatemala City, San Salvador, Tegucigalpa, San Jose, and Managua. Considers the possible diachronic processes which could have given rise to the current configurations and the theoretical consequences implied by the…

  10. Assessment of the hydraulic properties of fractured aquifers in crystalline and metamorphic formations in the region of Lacs (Central Côte d’Ivoire)

    OpenAIRE

    Soro, G.; Soro, N.; Ahoussi, K. E.; Lasm, T.; Kouamé, F. K.; Soro, T. D.; Biémi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply for rural populations in the Region des Lacs area in central Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa). The area is underlain by the metamorphic and crystalline fractured hard rock aquifers. This paper focuses on the assessment of their hydraulic properties. To this end, a data base comprising pumping tests data and the technical reports were gathered. 105 values of transmissivity (T ) and specific capacity (Q/s) have been deduced after pumping tests interpret...

  11. How to Study the City on Instagram

    OpenAIRE

    Boy, John D.; Uitermark, Justus

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Instagram as a data source for use by scholars in urban studies and neighboring disciplines and propose ways to operationalize key concepts in the study of cities. These data can help shed light on segregation, the formation of subcultures, strategies of distinction, and status hierarchies in the city. Drawing on two datasets of geotagged Instagram posts from Amsterdam and Copenhagen collected over a twelve-week period, we present a proof of concept for how to explore and visuali...

  12. CO-0.30-0.07: A Candidate Site of Collision-induced Massive Star Formation in the Milky Way's Central Molecular Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.

    2016-05-01

    Cloud-cloud collision has long been claimed to be an efficient trigger of massive star formation. We present interferometric maps of a candidate site of collision-triggered star formation newly discovered at 40 pc projected distance from the Galactic center. The cloud CO- 0.3 has an extremely broad molecular line emission of a 140 km s-1 velocity width despite of absence of any known energy sources nearby and inside the cloud. Recent observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array have unveiled that the cloud is comprised by two distinctive velocity components which appear to contact at a thin, well-defined interface layer on the plane-of-the-sky, suggesting that the extremely broad emissions originate from shocked regions created by cloud-cloud collision.

  13. An Ornithopod-Dominated Tracksite from the Lower Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation (Barremian-Albian) of Qijiang, South-Central China: New Discoveries, Ichnotaxonomy, Preservation and Palaeoecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lida; Lockley, Martin G; Marty, Daniel; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Yan; Klein, Hendrik; McCrea, Richard T; Buckley, Lisa G; Belvedere, Matteo; Mateus, Octávio; Gierliński, Gerard D; Piñuela, Laura; Persons, W Scott; Wang, Fengping; Ran, Hao; Dai, Hui; Xie, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    The historically-famous Lotus Fortress site, a deep 1.5-3.0-meter-high, 200-meter-long horizonal notch high up in near-vertical sandstone cliffs comprising the Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation, has been known since the 13th Century as an impregnable defensive position. The site is also extraordinary for having multiple tetrapod track-bearing levels, of which the lower two form the floor of part of the notch, and yield very well preserved asseamblages of ornithopod, bird (avian theropod) and pterosaur tracks. Trackway counts indicate that ornithopods dominate (69%) accounting for at least 165 trackmakers, followed by bird (18%), sauropod (10%), and pterosaur (3%). Previous studies designated Lotus Fortress as the type locality of Caririchnium lotus and Wupus agilis both of which are recognized here as valid ichnotaxa. On the basis of multiple parallel trackways both are interpreted as representing the trackways of gregarious species. C. lotus is redescribed here in detail and interpreted to indicate two age cohorts representing subadults that were sometimes bipedal and larger quadrupedal adults. Two other previously described dinosaurian ichnospecies, are here reinterpreted as underprints and considered nomina dubia. Like a growing number of significant tetrapod tracksites in China the Lotus Fortress site reveals new information about the composition of tetrapod faunas from formations in which the skeletal record is sparse. In particular, the site shows the relatively high abundance of Caririchium in a region where saurischian ichnofaunas are often dominant. It is also the only site known to have yielded Wupus agilis. In combination with information from other tracksites from the Jiaguan formation and other Cretaceous formations in the region, the track record is proving increasingly impotant as a major source of information on the vertebrate faunas of the region. The Lotus Fortress site has been developed as a spectacular, geologically-, paleontologically- and a

  14. An Ornithopod-Dominated Tracksite from the Lower Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation (Barremian-Albian of Qijiang, South-Central China: New Discoveries, Ichnotaxonomy, Preservation and Palaeoecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Xing

    Full Text Available The historically-famous Lotus Fortress site, a deep 1.5-3.0-meter-high, 200-meter-long horizonal notch high up in near-vertical sandstone cliffs comprising the Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation, has been known since the 13th Century as an impregnable defensive position. The site is also extraordinary for having multiple tetrapod track-bearing levels, of which the lower two form the floor of part of the notch, and yield very well preserved asseamblages of ornithopod, bird (avian theropod and pterosaur tracks. Trackway counts indicate that ornithopods dominate (69% accounting for at least 165 trackmakers, followed by bird (18%, sauropod (10%, and pterosaur (3%. Previous studies designated Lotus Fortress as the type locality of Caririchnium lotus and Wupus agilis both of which are recognized here as valid ichnotaxa. On the basis of multiple parallel trackways both are interpreted as representing the trackways of gregarious species. C. lotus is redescribed here in detail and interpreted to indicate two age cohorts representing subadults that were sometimes bipedal and larger quadrupedal adults. Two other previously described dinosaurian ichnospecies, are here reinterpreted as underprints and considered nomina dubia. Like a growing number of significant tetrapod tracksites in China the Lotus Fortress site reveals new information about the composition of tetrapod faunas from formations in which the skeletal record is sparse. In particular, the site shows the relatively high abundance of Caririchium in a region where saurischian ichnofaunas are often dominant. It is also the only site known to have yielded Wupus agilis. In combination with information from other tracksites from the Jiaguan formation and other Cretaceous formations in the region, the track record is proving increasingly impotant as a major source of information on the vertebrate faunas of the region. The Lotus Fortress site has been developed as a spectacular, geologically

  15. An Ornithopod-Dominated Tracksite from the Lower Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation (Barremian–Albian) of Qijiang, South-Central China: New Discoveries, Ichnotaxonomy, Preservation and Palaeoecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lida; Lockley, Martin G.; Marty, Daniel; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Yan; Klein, Hendrik; McCrea, Richard T.; Buckley, Lisa G.; Belvedere, Matteo; Mateus, Octávio; Gierliński, Gerard D.; Piñuela, Laura; Persons, W. Scott; Wang, Fengping; Ran, Hao; Dai, Hui; Xie, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    The historically-famous Lotus Fortress site, a deep 1.5–3.0-meter-high, 200-meter-long horizonal notch high up in near-vertical sandstone cliffs comprising the Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation, has been known since the 13th Century as an impregnable defensive position. The site is also extraordinary for having multiple tetrapod track-bearing levels, of which the lower two form the floor of part of the notch, and yield very well preserved asseamblages of ornithopod, bird (avian theropod) and pterosaur tracks. Trackway counts indicate that ornithopods dominate (69%) accounting for at least 165 trackmakers, followed by bird (18%), sauropod (10%), and pterosaur (3%). Previous studies designated Lotus Fortress as the type locality of Caririchnium lotus and Wupus agilis both of which are recognized here as valid ichnotaxa. On the basis of multiple parallel trackways both are interpreted as representing the trackways of gregarious species. C. lotus is redescribed here in detail and interpreted to indicate two age cohorts representing subadults that were sometimes bipedal and larger quadrupedal adults. Two other previously described dinosaurian ichnospecies, are here reinterpreted as underprints and considered nomina dubia. Like a growing number of significant tetrapod tracksites in China the Lotus Fortress site reveals new information about the composition of tetrapod faunas from formations in which the skeletal record is sparse. In particular, the site shows the relatively high abundance of Caririchium in a region where saurischian ichnofaunas are often dominant. It is also the only site known to have yielded Wupus agilis. In combination with information from other tracksites from the Jiaguan formation and other Cretaceous formations in the region, the track record is proving increasingly impotant as a major source of information on the vertebrate faunas of the region. The Lotus Fortress site has been developed as a spectacular, geologically-, paleontologically- and a

  16. Ranking of Logistics System Scenarios for Central Business District

    OpenAIRE

    Radoman Tadić, Snežana; Marko Zečević, Slobodan; Dragan Krstić, Mladen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the procedure for logistics system scenario selection for the central business district (CBD) of the city in the phase of significant urban changes. Scenarios are defined in accordance with the overall logistics concept of the city. Conflicting goals of stakeholders (residents, shippers and receivers, logistics providers and city government) generate a vast number of criteria that need to be included when selecting the scenario for the city area logistics system. Due to li...

  17. Reservoir Characterization for CO2 Sequestration: Assessing the Potential of the Devonian Carbonate Nisku Formation of Central Alberta Caractérisation de réservoir en vue du stockage géologique de CO2 : évaluation du potentiel offert par les carbonates dévoniens de la formation de Nisku, en Alberta central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisinger C.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Wabamun Lake area of Central Alberta, Canada includes several large CO2 point source emitters, collectively producing more than 30 Mt annually. Previous studies established that deep saline aquifers beneath the Wabamun Lake area have good potential for the large-scale injection and storage of CO2. This study reports on the characterization of the Devonian carbonate Nisku Formation for evaluation as a CO2 repository. Major challenges for characterization included sparse well and seismic data, poor quality flow tests, and few modern measurements. Wireline porosity measurements were present in only one-third of the wells, so porosity and flow capacity (permeability-thickness were estimated using wireline electrical measurements. The Archie cementation factor appears to vary between 2 and 3, creating uncertainty when predicting porosity using the electrical measurements; however, high-porosity zones could be identified. The electrically-based flow capacity predictions showed more favorable values using a correlation with core than the relation based on drill stem and production tests. This behavior is expected, since the flow test flow capacities are less influenced by local occurrences of very permeable vuggy and moldic rocks. Facies distributions were modeled using both pixel and object methods. The object models, using dimensions obtained from satellite imaging of modern day environments, gave results that were more consistent with the geological understanding of the Nisku and showed greater large-scale connectivity than the pixel model. Predicted volumes show considerable storage capacity in the Nisku, but flow simulations suggest injection capacities are below an initial 20 Mt/year target using vertical wells. More elaborate well designs, including fracture stimulation or multi-lateral wells may allow this goal to be reached or surpassed. Plusieurs gros émetteurs de CO2, totalisant 30 Mt annuels, sont localisés dans la région du Lac

  18. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Volgian–Ryazanian ‘hot shales’ of the Bo Member (Farsund Formation in the Danish Central Graben, North Sea: stratigraphy, facies and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybkjær, Karen

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Upper Jurassic – lowermost Cretaceous marine mudstones represent the most significant source of hydrocarbons in the Central and Northern North Sea. Of particular importance in the Danish sector of the Central Graben is a succession of radioactive ‘hot shales’ referred to the Bo Member, in the upper levels of the Farsund Formation (Kimmeridge Clay Formation equivalent. This mudstone-dominated succession is typically 15–30 m thick and has a total organic carbon (TOC content of 3–8%, though locally exceeding 15%. Although truncated on some structural highs, the Bo Member is a persistent feature of the Danish Central Graben. Lateral variation in boththickness and organic richness is attributed to intrabasinal structural topography and to the location of sediment input centres.Detailed study of the dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy of 10 wells indicates that the onset of enhanced organic carbon burial began in the middle–late Middle Volgian in this portion of theCentral Graben. The Bo Member, representing the peak of organic carbon enrichment, is largely of Early Ryazanian age. Core data (Jeppe-1, E-1 wells indicate that the organic-rich shales of theBo Member are not wholly of hemipelagic origin, as commonly assumed, but may locally be dominated by fine-grained turbidites. Absence of bioturbation, well-preserved lamination and high TOC values suggest that bottom waters were predominantly anoxic although the presenceof in-situ benthic bivalves at discrete horizons in the E-1 well suggests that suboxic conditions prevailed on occasion. The Bo Member is a good to very good source rock, showing very highpyrolysis yields (10–100 kg HC/ton rock and Hydrogen Index (HI values in the range 200–600. In particular, the Bo Member is characterised by an abundance of 28,30 bisnorhopane (H28, acompound that is indicative of anoxic environments. These new data from the Danish sector of the Central Graben are compatible with the model of Tyson et

  19. The municipal archives of the City of New York

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb, Kenneth R.

    1999-01-01

    Ith some 100,000 cubic feet of civic documents, vital and building records, libers, films and photographs, New York City's Municipal Archives is a magnet for researchers. Among those who benefit from centralized access to the wealth of material deposited in the Archives by city government agencies are genealogists, urban scholars and architectural historians.

  20. Cities and Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew K. Rose

    2005-01-01

    If one ranks cities by population, the rank of a city is inversely related to its size, a well-documented phenomenon known as Zipf's Law. Further, the growth rate of a city's population is uncorrelated with its size, another well-known characteristic known as Gibrat's Law. In this paper, I show that both characteristics are true of countries as well as cities; the size distributions of cities and countries are similar. But theories that explain the size-distribution of cities do not obviously...

  1. European Strategies for Smarter Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Barresi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On a worldwide scale, cities and regions must tackle the challenges set by the radical change in our society and in our economy, aiming to develop effective public policies and boost their managerial, evaluation and planning skills. Anyway, it is essential to put a new idea of city at the centre of the smart strategies in order to bring policies back to their former central position, since technologies alone cannot generate welfare and prosperity. Local leadership, integrated planning and a rich social fabric go hand in hand, the social capital being able to produce an added value for the cities. We are exactly in a new phase of urban growth centred on the economy of services characterized by widespread digital technologies and new innovative organization patterns, which encourage the participation in the civic policy processes through the realization of structures to share information and data so as to define intervention policies. The most recent studies and trials about innovation and competitiveness, such as the examples illustrated in the present work (Amsterdam, Paredes, Aarhus and Gent show a growing interest in measuring the relationship between innovation and economic growth at various territorial levels, key factors in conceiving inclusive smart strategies, linked to principles of sustainability and territorial cohesion, and building smarter cities. In the light of these remarks, the article is divided into three parts: the first part is focussed on the above-mentioned central issues of the international debate; the second part examines four significant European initiatives; the third part draws preliminary conclusions and directions for further research.

  2. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Dodge City NTMS Quadrangle, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-31

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Dodge City Quadrangle are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 756 groundwater and 321 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate that the most promising areas for uranium mineralization are as follows: (1) in the north central area of the quadrangle within close proximity to the Arkansas River, mostly from waters of the Ogallala Formation; (2) in the west central area, from groundwater samples of the Dakota and the Ogallala Formations; and (3) between the North Fork of the Cimarron River and the main Cimarron River, mostly in waters from the Ogallala Formation. Associated with the high uranium values are high concentrations for magnesium, strontium, and sulfate. Of the groundwater samples taken 81% were collected from the Ogallala Formation. Stream sediment data indicate high uranium concentrations in scattered samples in the northwestern, central, and southwestern areas of the quadrangle. Most of the samples with high uranium values were collected from the Quaternary alluvium. Associated with the high uranium values are high concentrations of barium, cerium, iron, manganese, titanium, vanadium, yttrium, and zirconium.

  3. Discrimination on the Concept of Historic City in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jinghui; LI Caige

    2012-01-01

    In 1982,the State Council announced a list of historic cities in China,aiming to set up a conservation measure to conserve the cultural heritages from the perspective of a city.The historic city is a concept in relation to urban administrative governance.Its conservation scope and specific contents should be defined in conservation planning.Since the conservation planning of historic city is a part of the city master planning,its planning area should be the same as that in the master planning,with focus on the central urban area.The conservation planning of a historic city should define its objects in view of the interconnection between city history and culture and thus specify its conservation scope and contents accordingly.

  4. Comparative taphonomy, taphofacies, and bonebeds of the Mio-Pliocene Purisima Formation, central California: strong physical control on marine vertebrate preservation in shallow marine settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Boessenecker

    Full Text Available Taphonomic study of marine vertebrate remains has traditionally focused on single skeletons, lagerstätten, or bonebed genesis with few attempts to document environmental gradients in preservation. As such, establishment of a concrete taphonomic model for shallow marine vertebrate assemblages is lacking. The Neogene Purisima Formation of Northern California, a richly fossiliferous unit recording nearshore to offshore depositional settings, offers a unique opportunity to examine preservational trends across these settings.Lithofacies analysis was conducted to place vertebrate fossils within a hydrodynamic and depositional environmental context. Taphonomic data including abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, articulation, polish, and biogenic bone modification were recorded for over 1000 vertebrate fossils of sharks, bony fish, birds, pinnipeds, odontocetes, mysticetes, sirenians, and land mammals. These data were used to compare both preservation of multiple taxa within a single lithofacies and preservation of individual taxa across lithofacies to document environmental gradients in preservation. Differential preservation between taxa indicates strong preservational bias within the Purisima Formation. Varying levels of abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, and articulation are strongly correlative with physical processes of sediment transport and sedimentation rate. Preservational characteristics were used to delineate four taphofacies corresponding to inner, middle, and outer shelf settings, and bonebeds. Application of sequence stratigraphic methods shows that bonebeds mark major stratigraphic discontinuities, while packages of rock between discontinuities consistently exhibit onshore-offshore changes in taphofacies.Changes in vertebrate preservation and bonebed character between lithofacies closely correspond to onshore-offshore changes in depositional setting, indicating that the dominant control of preservation is exerted by physical

  5. Rheomorphic ignimbrites of the Rogerson Formation, central Snake River plain, USA: record of mid-Miocene rhyolitic explosive eruptions and associated crustal subsidence along the Yellowstone hotspot track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Thomas R.; Reichow, Marc K.; Branney, Michael J.;

    2016-01-01

    Rogerson Graben, USA, is critically placed at the intersection between the Yellowstone hotspot track and the southern projection of the west Snake River rift. Eleven rhyolitic members of the re-defined, ≥420-m-thick, Rogerson Formation record voluminous high-temperature explosive eruptions......, emplacing extensive ashfall and rheomorphic ignimbrite sheets. Yet, each member has subtly distinct field, chemical and palaeomagnetic characteristics. New regional correlations reveal that the Brown's View ignimbrite covers ≥3300 km2, and the Wooden Shoe ignimbrite covers ≥4400 km2 and extends into Nevada...

  6. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  7. From the network city to the neo-liberal city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    , the forging of regional identities, the impact of information technologies on urban development, the development of networked infrastructures (transport, telecommunications) and spatial consequences such as the changing status of public space, social polarization, amongst others. The central purpose......-mentioned themes. What concrete issues are they facing in their day-to-day practice? What is the impact of global economies on urban development and planning in each of these cities? How are urban transformations taking place, such as urban restructuring, the implementation of new infrastructure and key urban...

  8. Landscape Sustainability in a Sonoran Desert City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A. Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to discuss concepts of landscape sustainability in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Phoenix is situated in the greater Salt River Valley of the lower Sonoran Desert in the southwest United States. In this paper I use the ecological frameworks of ecosystem services and resiliency as a metric for understanding landscape sustainability. An assessment of landscape sustainability performance benchmarks were made by surveying research findings of scientists affiliated with the Central Arizona Phoenix Long Term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER. In Phoenix, present day emphases on cultural, aesthetic, and habitat formation ecosystem services within an arid ecoregion of low natural resilience coupled to a complex matrix of socioeconomic stratification, excessive landscape water use and pruning practices has had the undesired effect of degrading landscape sustainability. This has been measured as mixed patterns of plant diversity and human-altered patterns of carbon regulation, microclimate control, and trophic dynamics. In the future, sustainable residential landscaping in desert cities such as Phoenix may be fostered through use of water-conserving irrigation technologies, oasis-style landscape design motifs, recycling of landscape green waste, and conservative plant pruning strategies.

  9. Oligomer formation during gas-phase ozonolysis of small alkenes and enol ethers: new evidence for the central role of the Criegee Intermediate as oligomer chain unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sadezky

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An important fraction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formed by atmospheric oxidation of diverse volatile organic compounds (VOC has recently been shown to consist of high-molecular weight oligomeric species. In our previous study (Sadezky et al., 2006, we reported the identification and characterization of oligomers as main constituents of SOA from gas-phase ozonolysis of small enol ethers. These oligomers contained repeated chain units of the same chemical composition as the main Criegee Intermediates (CI formed during the ozonolysis reaction, which were CH2O2 (mass 46 for alkyl vinyl ethers (AVE and C2H4O2 (mass 60 for ethyl propenyl ether (EPE. In the present work, we extend our previous study to another enol ether (ethyl butenyl ether EBE and a variety of structurally related small alkenes (trans-3-hexene, trans-4-octene and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene.

    Experiments have been carried out in a 570 l spherical glass reactor at atmospheric conditions in the absence of seed aerosol. SOA formation was measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS. SOA filter samples were collected and chemically characterized off-line by ESI(+/TOF MS and ESI(+/TOF MS/MS, and elemental compositions were determined by ESI(+/FTICR MS and ESI(+/FTICR MS/MS. The results for all investigated unsaturated compounds are in excellent agreement with the observations of our previous study. Analysis of the collected SOA filter samples reveal the presence of oligomeric compounds in the mass range 200 to 800 u as major constituents. The repeated chain units of these oligomers are shown to systematically have the same chemical composition as the respective main Criegee Intermediate (CI formed during ozonolysis of the unsaturated compounds, which is C3H6O2 (mass 74 for ethyl butenyl ether (EBE, trans-3-hexene, and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene, and C4H8

  10. Bright Lights, Big Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Overabundant lighting has become another pollution source in the Chinese cities The glow of electric lights illuminating the nights of ever-brighter cities has been regarded as one of the signs of prosperity and modern civilization.

  11. A Crowded City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Over 4 million vehicles on road challenge Beijing’s city management Beijing, the city once known as the kingdom of bicycles, has become clogged with automobiles, the Beijing Municipal Government Publicity Office said on December 18.

  12. A City Is a Complex Network

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    A city is not a tree but a semi-lattice. To use a more fashionable term, a city is a complex network. The complex network constitutes a unique topological perspective on cities and enables us to better understand the kind of problem a city is. The topological perspective differentiates it from the perspectives of Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics that deal with essentially regular shapes and more or less similar things. Many urban theories, such as the Central Place Theory, Zipf's Law, the Image of the City, and the Theory of Centers can be interpreted from the point of view of complex networks. A livable city consists of far more small things than large ones, and their shapes tend to be irregular and rough. This chapter illustrates the complex network view and argues that we must abandon the kind of thinking guided by Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics, and instead adopt fractal geometry, power-law statistics, and Alexander's living geometry to develop sustainable cities. Keywords: Scaling, ...

  13. Etude paléomagnetique des formations crétacées et tertiaires des Andes centrales du Pérou. Rôle des rotations dans la formation des déflexions andines

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo Sanchez, Orlando

    1993-01-01

    La déflexion majeure d'Arica, située entre 19-22° S et qui dévie l'orientation générale des structures des Andes Centrales depuis une direction péruvienne N W-SE jusqu'à une direction chilienne presque NS, est une des caractéristiques importantes de la chaîne andine. Aussi à cette latitude la croûte sud-américaine atteint une épaisseur double de la normale (-70 km). Cet épaississement crustal est à l'origine du développement de l'Altiplano, vaste plateau situé à une altitude moyenne proche de...

  14. Globalization and cities

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Mina

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the basic concepts on cities within contemporary globalisation. First, it briefly reviews the city perspective within the world system theory (concepts of over-urbanisation, under-urbanisation, and dependent urbanisation), new international division of labour, theory of the second circuit of capital and informational society. The second part of the paper is dedicated to the concepts of global and world cities and their implications for the cities in developed and develop...

  15. Cities as Spatial Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinand Rauch

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that Zipf's Law for cities can emerge as a property of a clustering process. If initially uniformly distributed people chose their location based on a specific gravity equation as found in trade studies, they will form cities that follow Zipf's Law in expected value. This view of cities as spatial agglomerations is supported empirically by the observation that larger cities are surrounded by larger hinterland areas and larger countryside populations.

  16. The Creative Cities Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Creative Cities Network, started by UNESCO in 2004, is one of the world’s highest-level non-governmental organizations in creative industry. The network focuses on the excellence of its member cities as its main product, and finds ways to maintain relevance in city life, local economy

  17. Imagineering the city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van den Berg

    2015-01-01

    Cities today are products. The urban experience is commodified into marketable items by urban entrepreneurs. Urban administrations, city marketers, politicians, local businesses and other actors all over the world are developing entrepreneurial strategies to sell their city. From "‘I ♥ New York"’ to

  18. 基于IPA方法的非中心城市酒店一线员工满意度研究%Study on the Front-line Employees' Satisfaction of Star-hotels in Non-central Area Based on IPA:A Case Study of Mianyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湛艳琳

    2014-01-01

    酒店业普遍存在一线员工工作满意度过低的问题,导致一线员工频繁地跳槽,人才流失严重,影响了整个酒店业的发展。在如今一线中心城市尚且存在高度“用工荒”的情况下,非中心城市的星级酒店如何留住一线员工?本文通过对市级不同星级酒店的实地调查研究以及对个别酒店领导的访谈,通过IPA方法分析了影响一线员工工作满意度的具体因素。%There generally exists a low job satisfaction of the workers at the production line in hotel industry, and it leads to employees' frequent job-hopping and serious brain drain, which affects the development of the entire hotel industry. Considering the "labor shortage"condition in the first line center cities, how to retain the front-line staff of starred hotels in non-central cities is a matter that must be taken into account. In this paper, by means of the field research in secondary and tertiary cities as well as interviews with leaders of individual hotels, the author analyzed the specific factors affecting staff's job satisfaction by the IPA method, and proposed the specific measures to improve front-line staff's job satisfaction.

  19. Role of wind and thermal forcing in the formation of the water circulation variability in the Japan/East Sea Central Basin in 1958-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diansky, N. A.; Stepanov, D. V.; Gusev, A. V.; Novotryasov, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    Based on the numerical experiment on simulation of the Japan/East Sea (JES) water circulation response to the atmospheric forcing for 1958-2006, the analysis is made of its long-term variability in the JES Central Basin (CB). It was found that during the climatic year, the circulation remains cyclonic, strengthening in spring and weakening in autumn. The analysis of mean relative vorticity (MRV) at intermediate depths in the JES CB showed one that the spectrum of its interannual variability is formed mainly by oscillations of periods ˜2, ˜4 and ˜5 years, and in the decadal range with ˜10 and ˜14 years. Along the depth, the spectral composition of MRV variability does not change, but there is a noticeable weakening of decadal variability amplitude, which does not occur with the 4- and 5-year oscillations. Using SVD-analysis, the connection is established between MRV variability, wind stress curl (WSC), as well as sensible heat flux. The strong connection between MRV and WSC is revealed in the range of 4-5 years, and in the decadal range (period is 10 years) the significant connection is with both WSC and air-sea temperature as a result of winter cooling and following deep convection.

  20. Petrographic characterization and preliminary geochronologic data from volcanic rocks of the Iriri formation, southern-central portion of the Amazon Craton, Aripuana - Mato Grosso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Moriru area is located in the south-central portion of the Amazon Craton, near the border of Mato Grosso and Amazonas states. The research was carried out using eight drill cores, 200 meters deep in average. The description of these drill cores allowed the identification of felsic lavas and pyroclastics inter layered with mafic flows volcanoclastic and sedimentary rocks. Granitic intrusions are completely altered by hydrothermal metamorphism. Later stage dikes were identified. The pyroclastic successions is characterized by ignimbritic rocks generated by pumice flows. The ignimbrites are enriched in pumice and phenocrysts and are classified as crystal enriched ignimbrite. The content of fine particles is low and the welding grade ranges from good to medium. The composition of ignimbrites is rhyodacite to dacite. U-Pb zircon ages are 1801+- 11 Ma for ignimbrites and 1848+-9 Ma for mafic volcanics. However, for the mafic rocks age may represent some inherited zircon. More data from these rocks are necessary before we can make a definitive conclusion. The air fall deposits are represented by ash tuff enriched in vitroclasts. The volcanogenic sedimentary deposits occur inter layered with pyroclastic deposits and are represented by volcanoclastic conglomerates and immature tuffaceous sandstones. The volcanic particles in this sequence, partially maintain igneous characteristics, which suggests small amount of reworking and a possible proximity to the source. Sulfides occur disseminated in sub-volcanic and in late-stage quartz-carbonate-chlorite veins. (author)

  1. Wave-influenced deltaic sandstone bodies and offshore deposits in the Viking Formation, Hamilton Lake area, south-central Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dafoe, L.T.; Gingras, M.K.; Pemberton, S.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    2010-06-15

    This analytical study incorporated sedimentological, ichnological and stratigraphic data to provide a framework for both deltaic and offshore deposition in the Hamilton Lake (HL) area in south-central Alberta. Fourty-one drill cores were logged within the area to conduct a comprehensive facies analysis of the Cretaceous Viking deposits at HL to refine the depositional history. The Viking deposits include a delta front, prodelta, upper offshore, lower offshore, shelf, slump and transgressive lag deposits. Various bioturbate textures proved useful in interpreting the paleoenvironment. Particular facies within HL strata contain physical and biogenic indicators of riverine discharge, and are considered to be deltaic in origin. This study focused on distinguishing between these deltaic deposits and strata reflecting normal-marine depositional conditions and relating facies within the stratigraphic framework. Four major bounding discontinuities and 2 major transgressive flooding surfaces separate units reflecting predominantly deltaic deposition, strictly offshore deposition, and mixed offshore and deltaic deposition. The implications of this study for petroleum exploration and development include better recognition of wave-influenced deltaic deposits in ancient successions. This paper presented a model that provided a better understanding of the nature of potential reservoirs in terms of lithology and morphology. In contrast to wave-dominated deltas or shoreface strata, sandy deposits in these wave-influenced systems are expected to contain higher proportions of mud, particularly mudstone laminae that reduce overall permeability between sandstone beds. 55 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  2. Innovation and Practice of School-enterprise Cooperative Education Mechanism for Vocation Accounting Specialty in Non-central City%非中心城市高职会计专业校企合作办学体制机制创新与实践探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文伟

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the accounting specialty has been a popular specialty because of its vast market demand and good employment situation. As the important base for training high quality skilled talents, the vocational accounting specialty has trained a large number of outstanding accounting personnel. This paper discussed the innovation and practice of school-enterprise cooperative education mechanism for vocation accounting specialty in non-central city, to make us clearly recognize the demands for accounting students in today's society and explore the effective ways to establish school-enterprise cooperative education mechanism for vocation accounting specialty in non-central city.%会计专业一直是近年来的热门专业,其广大的市场需求和良好的就业形势使选择学习会计专业的学生人数居高不下,高职会计专业作为培养高素质技能型人才的重要基地,为国家培养了大批优秀的会计人才。本文通过对非中心城市高职会计专业校企合作办学体制机制创新与实践进行探讨,使我们清楚地认识到当今社会对会计专业学生的要求,探寻建立非中心城市高职会计专业校企合作办学体制机制的有效途径。

  3. Towards urban sustainability: Interdisciplinary European research and professional experience in the field of historic city management

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Drdácký, Tomáš

    Budapest : Department for the Protection of settlement heritage, 2004, s. 41-45 [Regional conference of the central and eastern european member cities of the organization of world heritage cities /5./. Budapest (HU), 21.09.2004-23.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : historic city * urban management * public participation Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  4. Back to the City: An Analysis of Trends in the Sixties and Seventies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Harvey; Lewis, Bonnie L.

    1982-01-01

    Migration data suggest an evolutionary process in which central cities attract high status migrants when cities are relatively small, attract migrants less as they grow, and then again become attractive. Large northern cities may currently be in the middle stage. (Author/MJL)

  5. Upward Sweeps of Empire and City Growth Since the Bronze Age

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Chase-Dunn; Alexis Alvarez; Hiroko Inoue; Richard Niemeyer; Anders Carlson; Ben Fierro; Kirk Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper uses quantitative estimates of the sizes of cities and empires to tentatively identify upward sweeps in which uniquely large cities and empires emerged in the Central Political/military network since the Bronze Age, and it formulates a causal model to explain both the cyclical rise and fall of cities and empires and the upward sweep

  6. Assessment of the hydraulic properties of fractured aquifers in crystalline and metamorphic formations in the region of Lacs (Central Cote d'Ivoire)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply for rural populations in the Region des Lacs area in central Cote d'Ivoire (West Africa). The area is underlain by the metamorphic and crystalline fractured hard rock aquifers. This paper focuses on the assessment of their hydraulic properties. To this end, a data base comprising pumping tests data and the technical reports were gathered. 105 values of transmissivity (T ) and specific capacity (Q/s ) have been deduced after pumping tests interpretation by the Jacob recovery method. Statistical analyses of all these data have been done. Depth of wells range from 49.50 to 99 m with an average of 69 m. The thickness of the weathered zone has averaged 16.52 m and lies between 1.90 and 63.10 m. Wells average rate is 2.32 m3/s. The depths of open fractures are significantly in the first 60 meters of hard rock drilling and averaged 42.94 m. The transmissivity and specific capacity of each aquifer span over several orders of magnitude revealing the strong heterogeneity of the aquifer. Both variables are lognormal variables A significant empirical relationship between T and Q/s was found T = 0,937(Q/s)1,118 with R2 = 0.82. This relationship enabled the transmissivity data to be supplemented with the 95% prediction interval in order to assess the uncertainty associated with the estimates of transmissivity in the area of the study. These results are significant and can be used as an input in forthcoming modeling these aquifers and facilitate groundwater management policy. (Author).

  7. Urban history and modernity in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Klautke, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    This historiographical review discusses recent literature on cities in modern Central Europe – mainly on Berlin and Vienna – which reflects the great variety of approaches to urban history and underlines the importance of urban history for the study of modernity. The history of urbanisation was a central event in the history of modernity. Especially in the Central European capitals of Berlin and Vienna, where modernisation and urban growth started later and then advanced quicker than in West ...

  8. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage;

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth...... can be serious threats to the realization of the socio-economic contributions that cities can make. However, as a result of considerable diversity of competences combined with interactive learning and innovation, cities may also solve these problems. The ‘urban order’ may form a platform for...... innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden. It...

  9. Me, the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for identity of cities looks rather urgent and attracts attention of many researchers. Addressing this issue, the article draws an analogy between a human person and a city. Like a city, a human being needs to comprehend his self-identity in order to resist depressive tendencies. It is shown that a person’s depressive symptoms are similar to those of cities. The city identity necessary to resist depression can be searched for both historically and geographically. The historical aspect consists of local myths and legends about the city and the citizens. The geographical aspect of identity comprises features of the terrain, climate, flora and fauna of the region where the city is located.

  10. Urban street networks: a comparative analysis of ten European cities

    CERN Document Server

    Strano, Emanuele; Cardillo, Alessio; Costa, Luciano Da Fontoura; Porta, Sergio; Latora, Vito

    2012-01-01

    We compare the structural properties of the street networks of ten different European cities using their primal representation. We investigate the properties of the geometry of the networks and a set of centrality measures highlighting differences and similarities among cases. In particular, we found that cities share structural similarities due to their quasi planarity but that there are also several distinctive geometrical proprieties. A Principal Component Analysis is also performed on the distributions of centralities and their respective moments, which is used to find distinctive characteristics by which we can classify cities into families. We believe that, beyond the improvement of the empirical knowledge on streets network proprieties, our findings can open new perspectives in the scientific relation between city planning and complex networks, stimulating the debate on the effectiveness of the set of knowledge that statistical physics can contribute for city planning and urban morphology studies.

  11. Implementation of warm-cloud processes in a source-oriented WRF/Chem model to study the effect of aerosol mixing state on fog formation in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiang-He; Chen, Shu-Hua; Kleeman, Michael J.; Zhang, Hongliang; DeNero, Steven P.; Joe, David K.

    2016-07-01

    The source-oriented Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry model (SOWC) was modified to include warm cloud processes and was applied to investigate how aerosol mixing states influence fog formation and optical properties in the atmosphere. SOWC tracks a 6-D chemical variable (X, Z, Y, size bins, source types, species) through an explicit simulation of atmospheric chemistry and physics. A source-oriented cloud condensation nuclei module was implemented into the SOWC model to simulate warm clouds using the modified two-moment Purdue Lin microphysics scheme. The Goddard shortwave and long-wave radiation schemes were modified to interact with source-oriented aerosols and cloud droplets so that aerosol direct and indirect effects could be studied. The enhanced SOWC model was applied to study a fog event that occurred on 17 January 2011, in the Central Valley of California. Tule fog occurred because an atmospheric river effectively advected high moisture into the Central Valley and nighttime drainage flow brought cold air from mountains into the valley. The SOWC model produced reasonable liquid water path, spatial distribution and duration of fog events. The inclusion of aerosol-radiation interaction only slightly modified simulation results since cloud optical thickness dominated the radiation budget in fog events. The source-oriented mixture representation of particles reduced cloud droplet number relative to the internal mixture approach that artificially coats hydrophobic particles with hygroscopic components. The fraction of aerosols activating into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) at a supersaturation of 0.5 % in the Central Valley decreased from 94 % in the internal mixture model to 80 % in the source-oriented model. This increased surface energy flux by 3-5 W m-2 and surface temperature by as much as 0.25 K in the daytime.

  12. 3D geomodelling and flow simulation of the Late Devonian Bakken Formation in south-central Saskatchewan : case study : Smiley Buffalo heavy oil waterflood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, R.; Estrada, C.A.; Norrena, K. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    The Smiley Buffalo field in southern Saskatchewan is a mature heavy oil reservoir where reservoir management has been challenged by complex geological features. The primary reservoir is the middle Bakken sandstone which was deposited as an offshore sand ridge in late Devonian to early Mississippian period. The greatest challenge is that the reservoir sits above a carbonate formation that was subjected to post depositional erosion and karstification. Conduits for out-of-zone water infiltration were created by fracture networks that were generated during the structural deformation. These features influence reservoir performance. A newly constructed geomodel was used to simulate flow and to identify areas of missed opportunity. The method used to characterize the reservoir and predict reservoir behaviour was presented in an effort to optimize a heavy oil waterflood project. The geological model was described followed by a geocellular model and flow simulation. A facies classification model was derived with fuzzy logic which used the core and log data along with the geologic model. Sequential indicator simulation was used to augment the structural model with facies information, while sequential Gaussian simulation was used to augment the petrophysical properties. Flow simulation and well location selection were determined from these representative models. The complexity of the 3 dimensional facies and property modeling in the flow simulation was reflected in the amount of changes needed to reach a history match. These changes included the oil-water contact in sinkholed areas within defined limits, relative permeability end points of facies 2, vertical to horizontal permeability ratios of the same rock type, and negative skin factor. The additional property modeling was justified by the excellent results obtained in the history matching process. The results are being used for reservoir management decisions. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 38 figs.

  13. Tectonic and climatic control on terrace formation: Coupling in situ produced 10Be depth profiles and luminescence approach, Danube River, Hungary, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Zsófia; Braucher, Régis; Novothny, Ágnes; Csillag, Gábor; Fodor, László; Molnár, Gábor; Madarász, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    The terrace sequence of the Hungarian part of the Danube valley preserves a record of varying tectonic uplift rates along the river course and throughout several climate stages. To establish the chronology of formation of these terraces, two different dating methods were used on alluvial terraces: exposure age dating using in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be and luminescence dating. Using Monte Carlo approach to model the denudation rate-corrected exposure ages, in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be samples originated from vertical depth profiles enabled the determination of both the exposure time and the denudation rate. Post-IR IRSL measurements were carried out on K-feldspar samples to obtain the ages of sedimentation. The highest terrace horizon remnants of the study area provided a best estimate erosion-corrected minimum 10Be exposure age of >700 ka. We propose that the abandonment of the highest terrace of the Hungarian Danube valley was triggered by the combined effect of the beginning tectonic uplift and the onset of major continental glaciations of Quaternary age (around MIS 22). For the lower terraces it was possible to reveal close correlation with MIS stages using IRSL ages. The new chronology enabled the distinction of tIIb (∼90 ka; MIS 5b-c) and tIIIa (∼140 ka; MIS 6) in the study area. Surface denudation rates were well constrained by the cosmogenic 10Be depth profiles between 5.8 m/Ma and 10.0 m/Ma for all terraces. The calculated maximum incision rates of the Danube relevant for the above determined >700 ka time span were increasing from west (<0.06 mm/a) to east (<0.13 mm/a), toward the more elevated Transdanubian Range. Late Pleistocene incision rates derived from the age of the low terraces (∼0.13-0.15 mm/a) may suggest a slight acceleration of uplift towards present.

  14. An evaluation eMergetics of Itacoatiara's city in the central Amazon, their plywood, and cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river; Uma avaliacao eMergetica da cidade de Itacoatiara na Amazonia Central, sua industria de compensado e laminado e a varzea da bacia do rio Madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comar, Vito

    1994-12-01

    The plywood production system of Itacoatiara's industry and the wooden extraction impact of cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river are presented. The incorporated energy flows - eMergy are evaluated by the models mathematical simulation, which applies to specific indices derivation aiming at the comparison with other similar processes. Itacoatiara's city was going analyzed regarding the industry load energetics and of others urban components.

  15. Biophilic Cities Are Sustainable, Resilient Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Newman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition of the need for daily contact with nature, to live happy, productive, meaningful lives. Recent attention to biophilic design among architects and designers acknowledges this power of nature. However, in an increasingly urban planet, more attention needs to be aimed at the urban scales, at planning for and moving towards what the authors call “biophilic cities”. Biophilic cities are cities that provide close and daily contact with nature, nearby nature, but also seek to foster an awareness of and caring for this nature. Biophilic cities, it is argued here, are also sustainable and resilient cities. Achieving the conditions of a biophilic city will go far in helping to foster social and landscape resilience, in the face of climate change, natural disasters and economic uncertainty and various other shocks that cities will face in the future. The paper identifies key pathways by which biophilic urbanism enhances resilience, and while some are well-established relationships, others are more tentative and suggest future research and testing.

  16. Pollution and city size: can cities be too small?

    OpenAIRE

    Borck, Rainald; TABUCHI Takatoshi

    2015-01-01

    We study the optimal and equilibrium size of cities in a monocentric city model with environmental pollution. Pollution is related to city size through the effect of population on production, commuting, and housing consumption. If pollution is local, we find that equilibrium cities are too large, mirroring standard results in the theory of city systems. When pollution is global and per capita pollution declines with city size, however, equilibrium cities may be too small.

  17. The Stranger, The Nation and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Simonsen, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship between ‘the stranger’ and the spatial formations of the city and the nation in a dual sense. On the one hand, it discusses the construction of the stranger as a figure, both generally and in relation to formation of the city and the nation in particular. On the...... other hand, it explores the experiences and practices of people designated as ‘strangers’, that is, the experiences and feelings arising in the multiplicity of everyday signifying encounters and the possibilities of identification afforded by the city and the nation respectively. This twofold aim is...... pursued through an integrated reading of literature on the stranger and material from an interpretative analysis performed in Copenhagen among citizens of Pakistani origin. The main point argued throughout the paper is that it is not possible to simply ‘be’ a stranger; you become a stranger through...

  18. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  19. Usage of microbial mats in depostional environment interpretation and sea level changes: A study of carbonate deposits of members 1 to 2 of the Mila Group (Deh-Sufiyan Formation in Central Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Bayetgol

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate deposits of members 1 to 2 of the Mila Group (Middle Cambrian in Central Alborz that call Deh-Sufiyan Formation in this research, were studied in Shahmirzad, Tueh-Darvar, Mila-Kuh and Deh-Molla sections. These sediments were deposited in four facies belts on a carbonate ramp including basinal environments, outer ramp (deep subtidal sequences, mid ramp (shallow subtidal to lower intertidal sequences, and inner ramp (shoal and upper intertidal to supratidal sequences. Various microbialites were recognized in the shallow-water sediments (includes subtidal and intertidal of this unit. Based on this study, microbial mats have various morphology of form and type of growth structure and inluding laminar to wavy-laminar, domal or hemispheroidal, bulbous, columnar, regular flabellate columns, unlaminated, loaf- to mound-shaped thrombolities. Facies associations of Deh-Sufiyan Formation are arranged in small-scale of peritidal, shallow subtidal, and deep subtidal cycles and microbial mats are the major features of them. The trends of vertical changes of facies in shallowing-upward and deepening-upward cycles and distribution of various types of microbialites in these cycles had been related to depostional environments and their postions on carbonate ramp. Basal classification method used in this study can provide valuable informations for application of microbiali mats in paleo-environmental and sequence stratigraphy analysis.

  20. Le Carbonifère du Maroc central : les formations de Migoumess, de Tirhela et d'Idmarrach. Lithologie, biostratigraphie et conséquences géodynamiquesThe Carboniferous formations of Migoumess, Tirhela and Idmarrach (central Morocco): lithology, biostratigraphy and geodynamic consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhli, Mostafa; Vachard, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    New biostratigraphical data based on foraminifers, algae and pseudo-algae indicate that the limestone pebbles of the channelized polygenic conglomerates of the Migoumess formation contain Late Visean (V3b γ-V3c) assemblages. That confirms the Westphalian age attributed to this formation by Hollard [Zdt. Geol. Ges. 129 (1978) 495-512]. The Tournaisian age assigned to it by palynology [C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, série II 310 (1990) 1573-1576] cannot be retained. The Tirhela formation, Late Visean and Serpukhovian (E1) in age, is coeval with the Akerchi formation [Berkhli, thèse d'État, 1999; Berkhli et al., J. Afr. Earth Sci. (accepté)]. The Idmarrach formation, mapped as a thrust sheet [C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, série II 310 (1990) 1573-1576], is dated as Serpukhovian (E1) and its thrusting is consequently post-Serpukhovian. Palaeogeographic and geodynamic consequences are listed. To cite this article: M. Berkhli, D. Vachard, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 67-72

  1. In situ produced 10Be depth profiles and luminescence data tracing climatic and tectonic control on terrace formation, Danube River, Central Europe, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Zsófia; Braucher, Régis; Novothny, Ágnes; Csillag, Gábor; Fodor, László; Molnár, Gábor; Madarász, Balázs; Aster Team

    2015-04-01

    The terrace sequence of the Hungarian part of the Danube valley preserves a record of varying tectonic uplift rates along the river course and throughout several climate stages. To establish the chronology of formation of these terraces, two different dating methods on alluvial terraces were used: 1) in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be, which yield the time of abandonment of the terrace and 2) luminescence dating, which provides burial ages of the sediment. In situ produced cosmogenic 10Be samples originated from vertical depth profiles to enable the determination of both the exposure time and the denudation rate at each locality. We used Monte Carlo approach to model the denudation rate-corrected exposure ages. Post-IR IRSL measurements were carried out on K-feldspar samples to obtain the ages of sedimentation. The highest and oldest terrace remnants (tIV-VI) yield a minimum 10Be exposure age of 800 ka close to MIS 22, the onset of major continental glaciations of Quaternary age, suggesting climatic signal of the abandonment of the uppermost terrace levels. For the lower terraces it was possible to reveal close correlation with MIS stages using IRSL ages. The new chronology enables the distinction of tIIb (60-110 ka; MIS 4-5d) and tIIIa (130-190 ka; MIS 6) in the study area. Surface denudation rates were well constrained by the cosmogenic 10Be depth profiles between 5.9 m/Ma and 10.0 m/Ma for all terraces. Maximum incision rates of the Danube were calculated for middle and late Pleistocene times. These rates were increasing from west to east, toward the more elevated Transdanubian Range from 0.05 mm/a to 0.12 mm/a. Incision rates derived from the age of the low terraces (0.13 mm/a) may suggest a slight acceleration of uplift towards present. Our research was supported by the OTKA PD83610, PD100315, NK60455, K062478, K83150 and F042799, the French-Hungarian Balaton-Tét Project (FR-32/2007; TÉT_11-2-2012-0005), the Bolyai János Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy

  2. Competitiveness, Migration, and Mobility in the Global City: Insights from Sydney, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Hu

    2015-01-01

    The global city thesis and the migration thesis concern two important dimensions of the impacts of contemporary globalization on cities. The two theses are intrinsically linked. The central question is how we should approach migration in the new context of the global city, and how we should articulate their interrelationships. To address this question, we construct an integrative analytical framework linking global city and migration, and empirically apply it to Sydney. We build a set of inde...

  3. Retrospective on 20 Years of Friendship-City Ties Between Yangzhou and Kent, Washington State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang; Le

    2014-01-01

    <正>This year marks the 20th anniversary of the establishment of friendship-city relations between Kent,a satellite city of Seattle with a population of 92,000 and covering an area of 34.19 square miles,and Yangzhou.Kent was the third foreign city to make such arrangement with the central-eastern Chinese city.Friendship and Exchanges of Gifts Yangzhou started

  4. Assessment of the hydraulic properties of fractured aquifers in crystalline and metamorphic formations in the region of Lacs (Central Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soro, G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the main source of water supply for rural populations in the Region des Lacs area in central Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa. The area is underlain by the metamorphic and crystalline fractured hard rock aquifers. This paper focuses on the assessment of their hydraulic properties. To this end, a data base comprising pumping tests data and the technical reports were gathered. 105 values of transmissivity (T and specific capacity (Q/s have been deduced after pumping tests interpretation by the Jacob recovery method. Statistical analyses of all these data have been done. Depth of wells range from 49.50 to 99 m with an average of 69 m. The thickness of the weathered zone has averaged 16.52 m and lies between 1.90 and 63.10 m. Wells average rate is 2.32 m3/s. The depths of open fractures are significantly in the first 60 meters of hard rock drilling and averaged 42.94 m. The transmissivity and specific capacity of each aquifer span over several orders of magnitude revealing the strong heterogeneity of the aquifer. Both variables are lognormal variables A significant empirical relationship between T and Q/s was found T = 0,937(Q/s^1.118 with a coefficient of determination (R^2 = 0.82. This relationship enabled the transmissivity data to be supplemented with the 95% prediction interval in order to assess the uncertainty associated with the estimates of transmissivity in the area of the study. These results are significant and can be used as an input in forthcoming modeling these aquifers and facilitate groundwater management policy.

    [fr] Dans la région des Lacs, centre de la Côte d’Ivoire (Afrique de l’Ouest, l’alimentation en eau potable des populations rurales est assurée en majorité par les eaux souterraines contenues dans les aquifères discontinus cristallin et cristallophyllien. L’objet de cet article est d’évaluer les propriétés hydrauliques de ces aquifères afin d’entreprendre des études pour la gestion

  5. Study of City Landscape Heritage Using Lidar Data and 3d-City Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinowicz, P.; Czynska, K.

    2015-04-01

    In contemporary town planning protection of urban landscape is a significant issue. It regards especially those cities, where urban structures are the result of ages of evolution and layering of historical development process. Specific panoramas and other strategic views with historic city dominants can be an important part of the cultural heritage and genius loci. Other hand, protection of such expositions introduces limitations for future based city development. Digital Earth observation techniques creates new possibilities for more accurate urban studies, monitoring of urbanization processes and measuring of city landscape parameters. The paper examines possibilities of application of Lidar data and digital 3D-city models for: a) evaluation of strategic city views, b) mapping landscape absorption limits, and c) determination protection zones, where the urbanization and buildings height should be limited. In reference to this goal, the paper introduces a method of computational analysis of the city landscape called Visual Protection Surface (VPS). The method allows to emulate a virtual surface above the city including protection of a selected strategic views. The surface defines maximum height of buildings in such a way, that no new facility can be seen in any of selected views. The research includes also analyses of the quality of simulations according the form and precision of the input data: airborne Lidar / DSM model and more advanced 3D-city models (incl. semantic of the geometry, like in CityGML format). The outcome can be a support for professional planning of tall building development. Application of VPS method have been prepared by a computer program developed by the authors (C++). Simulations were carried out on an example of the city of Dresden.

  6. Wisp2/CCN5 up-regulated in the central nervous system of GM3-only mice facilitates neurite formation in Neuro2a cells via integrin-Akt signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkawa, Yuki, E-mail: tomilbio@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Ohmi, Yuhsuke, E-mail: ooumi82@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Tajima, Orie, E-mail: oriet@isc.chubu.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chubu University College of Life and Health Sciences, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan); Yamauchi, Yoshio, E-mail: yyoshio@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Furukawa, Keiko, E-mail: keikofu@isc.chubu.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chubu University College of Life and Health Sciences, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan); Furukawa, Koichi, E-mail: koichi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Wisp2/CCN5 was up-regulated in nervous tissues of GM3-only mutant mice. {yields} Wisp2/CCN5 was found in neurons more strongly in the mutant mice. {yields} Wisp2/CCN5 induces Akt phosphorylation via integrins and facilitates neurite formation. {yields} Wisp2/CCN5 conferred resistance to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis. {yields} Up-regulation of Wisp2/CCN5 in GM3-only mice seemed for protection of brains from neurodegeneration. -- Abstract: Wisp2/CCN5 belongs to CCN family proteins which are involved in cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis and wound healing. Although a number of studies on the roles of Wisp2/CCN5 in cancers have been reported, no study on the expression and function of Wisp2/CCN5 in the central nervous system has been reported. In this study, we focused on Wisp2/CCN5 that was up-regulated in nervous tissues in GM3-only mice. Over-expression of Wisp2/CCN5 enhanced neurite outgrowth potently after serum withdrawal with increased phosphorylation levels of Akt and ERKs. When cells were cultured with recombinant Wisp2/CCN5 proteins, more and longer neurites were formed than in the controls. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that Wisp2/CCN5 facilitates neurite formation in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro2a. Akt phosphorylation induced by recombinant Wisp2/CCN5 was suppressed after knockdown of integrin {beta}1. Moreover, Wisp2/CCN5-over-expressing cells were resistant to apoptosis induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. These results suggested that secreted Wisp2/CCN5 induces Akt and ERK phosphorylation via integrins, and consequently facilitates neurite formation and conferred resistance to apoptosis. Up-regulation of Wisp2/CCN5 in GM3-only mice should be, therefore, a reaction to protect nervous tissues from neurodegeneration caused by ganglioside deficiency.

  7. Challenges and Opportunities of Air Quality Management in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, V.

    2013-05-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is located in the central plateau of Mexico and is the capital of the country. Its natural characteristics present favorable conditions for air pollution formation and accumulation: mountains surrounding the city, frequent thermal inversions, high isolation all around the year and weak winds. To these natural conditions, a population of more than 20 million inhabitants, a fleet of 4.5 million vehicles and more than 4 thousands industries, make air quality management a real challenge for governments of the region. Intensive air quality improvement actions and programs began at the end of the 1980's and continued nowadays. Since then criteria air pollutants concentrations have decreased in such a way that currently most of pollutants meet the Mexican air quality standards, except for ozone and particulate matter. Applied measures comprised of fuel quality improvements, fuel replacements, regulations for combustion processes, closing of high polluting refineries and industries, regulations of emissions for new and on road vehicles, mandatory I/M programs for vehicles, circulation restrictions for vehicles (Day without car program), alert program for elevated air pollution episodes, improvement of public transportation, among others. Recent researches (MILAGRO 2006 campaign) found that currently it is necessary to implement emissions reduction actions for Volatile Organic Compounds, particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers PM2.5 and Nitrogen Oxides, in order to reduce concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter. Among the new measures to be implemented are: regulations for VOCs emissions in the industry and commercial sectors; regulation of the diesel fleet that includes fleets renewal, filters and particulate traps for in use vehicles and regulation of the cargo fleet; new schemes for reducing the number of vehicles circulating in the city; implementation of non-motorized mobility programs; among

  8. Urban DNA for cities evolutions. Cities as physical expression of dynamic equilibriums between competitive and cooperative forces

    CERN Document Server

    D'Acci, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Cities are physical manifestations of our competitive and cooperative behaviours. The tension between these two forces generates dynamic equilibriums whose material expressions are cities and their evolutions. In a Darwinian cooperative view, as Darwinism does not involve only competition, the public benefit obtained by cooperation, return in terms of private benefit too. An urban genetic code is proposed, according to which cities emerge connecting nature and urbanity, and as sum of multiuse, independent micro-areas, each one with its centrality, job locations, parks and daily shops-services and amenities. This mechanism, called Isobenefit Urbanism, is not static and pre-designed, but allows infinitely dynamic changes and expansions. Rather than describing The ideal city, which doesn't exist outside our own minds, Isobenefit Urbanism describes what a city should avoid to be in order to not become an unideal city. Its six principles are the urban DNA which does not give predetermined forms but indications to ...

  9. Cities and human security

    OpenAIRE

    Szpak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Cities have been researched mostly in terms of their economic, technological, and social value and significance. Despite some changes in this respect there is still a need to research cities as a fascinating phenomenon, also in respect of its capabilities to increase human security on a local and global scale. The article examines the role of cities for human security in the selected and representative fields such as sustainable development, human rights and environmental protection which are...

  10. Assimilation in multilingual cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier; Verdugo, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    International audience We characterise how the assimilation patterns of minorities into the strong and the weak language differ in a situation of asymmetric bilingualism. Using large variations in language composition in Canadian cities from the 2001 and 2006 Censuses, we show that the differences in the knowledge of English by immigrant allophones (i.e. the immigrants with a mother tongue other than English and French) in English-majority cities are mainly due to sorting across cities. In...

  11. Learning cities 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of historic work in the field of Learning City development. It then proceeds to highlight two contemporary strands of work. The first is the initiative of UNESCO’s Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) in establishing the International Platform of Learning Cities. The second is the work of the PASCAL Observatory, currently manifested in the Learning Cities 2020 programme.

  12. Sound and the City

    OpenAIRE

    Bulley, James; Sahin, Ozden; Spinelli, Emmanuel; Tanaka, Atau; Hosang, Georgina M.; Cubitt, Sean; Drever, John L.; Kanngieser, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Imagining the future soundscape of the city. Researchers from across disciplines explore the rapidly changing urban soundscape — how do the sounds around us affect our daily life? What might a futuristic city sound like? An interactive listening experience exploring the impact that the sounds around us can have on our health, wellbeing and sense of place. Sound and the City installation was exhibited as part of the Universities Week at the Natural History Museum between June 9 — 11, 2...

  13. Assimilation in multilingual cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Using the Public Use Microdata Files of the 2001 and 2006 Canadian Censuses, we study the determinants of the assimilation of language minorities into the city majority language. We show that official minority members (i.e. francophones in English-speaking cities and anglophones in French-speaking cities) assimilate less than the "allophones" (the individuals with a mother tongue other than English or French), and that immigrants generally assimilate less than natives. In addition, the langua...

  14. Analysis on Evolution of Abnormal High Formation Pressure in Gas Fields of Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation,Central Sichuan Basin%川中地区上三叠统须家河组气田异常高压演化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马德文; 邱楠生; 谢增业; 许威

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of present abnormal high formation pressure(AHFP) in Xujiahe Formation of central Sichuan Basin were obtained based on the measured formation pressure.The formation pressure of main reservoirs obviously shows high formation pressure or AHFP at present.Bajiaochang gas field is a typical AHFP gas field with pressure coefficient between 1.7 and 2.0,while the others belong to high formation pressure gas fields with pressure coefficient between 1.2 and 1.6.This paper use coupled fluid flow compaction method to reconstruct the pressure evolution of the major reservoirs in Xujiahe Formation.This method could perfectly consider the changes of porosity,permeability and fluid volume in the reservoirs,which could perfectly reconstruct the pressure evolution history.Thermal history is a key parameter during reconstructing the pressure evolution,so this paper reconstructs thermal history by using vitrinite reflectance based on Easy% Ro model.The pressure evolution history of the major reservoirs were reconstructed according to relevant parameters and constrained in measured formation pressure.The evolution of formation pressure in Xujiahe Formation can be divided into three stages:(1) normal pressure before 150 Ma;(2) pressure increase and AHFP accumulation between 150 Ma and 100 Ma.The formation pressure and pressure coefficient gradually increased during this period.The formation pressure got to maximum with pressure coefficient between 1.1 and 1.6 at about 100 Ma;(3) pressure release but AHFP accumulation after 100 Ma.Both the formation pressure and the hydrostatic pressure decreased,but the hydrostatic pressure decreased more than formation pressure,so the pressure coefficient still increase and finally reach between 1.4 and 2.0.The origin of abnormal pressure was analyzed based on the reconstructed formation pressure incorporated burial history and maturity evolution history.It was found that the hydrocarbon charging and the

  15. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  16. Political Function and Political Identity Paradox of City Councils

    OpenAIRE

    MUTLU, Doç.Dr. Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    City Councils, are institutions that have “political identity” as well. According to the City Councils Regulation, having been created after the general local elections  and regulations for elected mayor’s active role in the formation of new city council oblige them to have a political identity.  Political function, which is the reason of existence of the city council, is made ineffective due to political identity enforcement. Thus, it can be said that “political identity” enforcement is to b...

  17. Network Centrality of Metro Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sybil Derrible

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st) century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the e...

  18. Network centrality of metro systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybil Derrible

    Full Text Available Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all" unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node, but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48. Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc. to develop more sustainable cities.

  19. Network centrality of metro systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrible, Sybil

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st) century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all") unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities. PMID:22792373

  20. The Hygiene Evaluation of Central Air Conditioning Ventilation Systems of Hospital and Hotel in Shenzhen City%深圳市罗湖区医院、宾馆集中式空调系统卫生学评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴浩生; 林奕嘉; 余伟欣; 曹惠珍; 方丽芳; 陈延妮

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解深圳市罗湖区医院及宾馆集中空调通风系统的卫生状况,探索有效的卫生管理对策.方法 于2009~2010年随机抽取深圳市罗湖区6家宾馆及2家医院集中空调通风系统的卫生管理状况进行调查,检测新风量、冷却水军团菌、送风中可吸入颗粒物(PM10)、采集风管内表面积尘和空调送风进行微生物检测.结果 6家宾馆送风中PM10、细菌总数、真菌总数和β -溶血性链球菌的合格率分别为81.2%、82.9%、51.4%、100.0%;2家医院送风中PM10、细菌总数、真菌总数和β -溶血性链球菌的合格率分别为46.8%、33.3%、53.3%、100.0%.医院和宾馆在PM10(χ2=19.4 P=0.000 1)和真菌总数(P=0.001 9)上合格率不同,差异有统计学意义.6家宾馆冷却水军团菌的检出率为20.0%,冷凝水嗜肺军团菌的检出率为0;2家医院冷却水、冷凝水军团菌的检出率为0.结论 深圳市罗湖区医院及宾馆集中空调通风系统存在一定程度的污染,并且医院的污染比宾馆更严重.因此,应该加强空调系统的运行管理,提高空调环境卫生状况,促进人群健康.%Objectives The study was aimed to detect the sanitary conditions of central air conditioning ventilation systems of hospital and hotel in Luohu district in Shenzhen, and to explore some effective supervision measures for central air conditioning ventilation systems. Methods In this randomized study, 6 hotels and 2 hospitals in Shenzhen were selected to determine the total count of bacteria and fungi in internal surface of pipe and blowing air, the air change flow, legionella in cooling tower water, inhalable particulate matter (PM10) in air blow and the dust volume of internal surfaces of pipes. Results The 6 hotels' qualified rate of the total count of PM10 , bacteria, fungi and β-hemolytic streptococcus were respectively 81. 2% , 82. 9 % , 51. 4 % , 100. 0% in air blow; the 2 hospitals' qualified rate of the total count of PM10

  1. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  2. Influential Aspects of the Smart City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinovici, Maria C.; Kirkham, Harold; Widergren, Steven E.

    2016-01-05

    Using millions of sensors in everyday objects, smart cities will generate petabytes of data, and it will be delivered to multiple users via networks. Multi-disciplinary inter-operability is essential. We propose system engineering management, with multidisciplinary teams as an effective way to deliver real change. Their goal is to develop intelligent and integrated services through the use of digital technologies and open collaboration. We also caution that the process cannot be entirely planned ahead of time, it must be allowed to evolve. New technology will change the game (where does a 3-D printer fit into a smart city?). Municipal planning means central planning – not known for its sensitivity to reality. A successful smart city will include lots of feedback mechanisms for the citizenry.

  3. The Practices of from Landscape Lighting towards Featured Lighting Landscape Lighting Designations of the Central Axis Green River in the Expended New City Area of Luoyang%由景观照明翻特色照明的实践——洛阳新区拓展区中央轴线绿地水系景观照明设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金霞

    2011-01-01

    由功能照明、景观照明提升为特色照明、绿色照明,是当前城市景观照明设计理念的发展趋势。该文以洛阳新区拓展区中央轴线绿地水系分区景观照明设计为例,因地制宜,充分运用各种现代照明技术,艺术性地显现丰富且风格迥异的夜间景观资源,彰显城市地域特色,初步进行了将“景观照明”提升为“特色照明”的实践性探索。%The current trend of landscape lighting designations has been developing in the direction from func- tional lighting and landscape lighting towards green lighting and featured lighting. As an example to practice the above idea, the scheme of landscape lighting designations of the central axis green river in the expended new city area of Luoyang was introduced in detail. The designing region is rich in resources and different in features of landscape, which provided a space and platform to employ various modem lighting techniques and arts fully to present the beauty of landscape and the characteristic of the local city at night, as well as to ex- plore how to promote the landscape lighting into featured lighting preliminarily in practice.

  4. Dynamic Aspects of Synapse Formation

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, A. Kimberley

    2007-01-01

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) requires the proper formation of exquisitely precise circuits to function correctly. These neuronal circuits are assembled during development by the formation of synaptic connections between thousands of differentiating neurons. Proper synapse formation during childhood provides the substrate for cognition while improper formation or function of these synapses leads to neurodevelopmental disorders, including mental retardation and autism. Recent work...

  5. Extreme Rainfall In A City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemdirim, Lawrence

    industrialization. The development of small cloud droplets into larger particles requires time. A single thunderstorm cell has a mean development time of about 20 minutes and a life time of around 45 minutes with a mean mind of 10m/s, an air parcel would travel 12 km from the beginning of droplet formation to the first precipitation. That means that the precipitation field is shifted downwind of settlements. It could also explain the the higher frequency of the trace to small amounts observed in Calgary since those events occur under relatively calm weather. Whereas the majority of studies have focused on summer convectional type events, little appears to have been done on the extreme rainfall events on which most structural designs are based. Is there a detectable urban bias in these events? Do urban areas intensify them? What are the implications of point distribution of extreme rainfall events on flood frequency across a city. This paper examines the spatial distribution of the mean annual maximum rainfall event in Calgary, Canada, with a view to determining the relative contribution of geographical setting and urbanisation to point patterns. The data are subsequently maximized to produce maps of probable maximum precipitation for the city. The major results are as follows: (a) position along storm path is the most important variable determining maximum rainfall hazard, (b) higher grounds receive up to seventy percent more maximum rainfall than values based on spatial trend, (c) urban structure and geometry correlate negatively with maximum rainfall intensity, however, (d) zones of maximum flood peaks are found down slope of areas of maximum precipitation increasing flood hazard in the inner city in spite of its lower precipitation. Drainage networks based on point rainfall patterns have proved grossly inadequate for flood mitigation. The new design based on this study recognizes the strong moisture gradients caused by rapid movement of water and other elements down slope. Snow

  6. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

    development are discussed in the paper, as well as the problems and the new opportunities with which the ‘Experience city' is faced. The article focus on the design of the Danish Experience City with special emphasis on hybrid cultural projects and on performative urban spaces. It present the first findings...... as we engage with the discussion about the trajectory of future research....

  7. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing on...

  8. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...

  9. Escaping The Big Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    More white-collar workers consider leaving major metropolises to find opportunities in small and medium-sized cities The energy and excitement of first-tier cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen in Guangdong Province, have long served as magnets attracting enthusiastic young people. But recent surveys have overturned the perception of this urban draw.

  10. Smart cities: event everywhere

    OpenAIRE

    Reboredo Penedo, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The research attempts to provide a big picture from the literature through a Systematic Literature Review about the smart city and the existing standards topics for interchanging data through Smart City Apps. Additionally a prototype was created to analyze one of the standards found in the SLR

  11. Making Cities Better

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Livelihood programs change the lives of urban residents For decades Chinese cities have vied with each other to top national and international development rankings. However, the triennial national list of cities with an advanced living environment judges candidates according to less conventional

  12. Walkout in Crystal City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  13. Reflective cool cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidegger, V.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Our globe is heating, and cities are heating up much more. At the same time, cities are growing and green spaces are substituted by buildings and streets. These man-made surfaces are dark and tend to heat up

  14. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  15. Universities Scale Like Cities

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the gross university income in terms of total number of citations over size in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its ...

  16. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  17. Accessibility in cities: transport and urban form

    OpenAIRE

    Rode, Philipp; Floater, Graham; Thomopoulos, Nikolas; Docherty, James; Schwinger, Peter; Mahendra, Anjali; Fang, Wanli

    2014-01-01

    This paper focusses on one central aspect of urban development: transport and urban form and how the two shape the provision of access to people, goods and services, and information in cities. The more efficient this access, the greater the economic benefits through economies of scale, agglomeration effects and networking advantages. This paper discusses how different urban accessibility pathways impact directly on other measures of human development and environmental sustainability. It also ...

  18. Late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial tableland formation in an intra-mountainous basin in a tectonically active mountain belt ― A case study in the Puli Basin, central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chia-Han; Lüthgens, Christopher; Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Reimann, Tony; Frechen, Manfred; Böse, Margot

    2016-01-01

    The morphology in Taiwan is a product of high tectonic activity at the convergent margin and East Asian monsoon climate. Tablelands are prominent geomorphic features in the Puli Basin in central Taiwan. These tablelands provide an archive to understand links between past climatic evolution and tectonic events resulting in the formation of the present-day landforms. To establish a geochronological framework for the alluvium underlying the tablelands in the Puli Basin, optically stimulated luminescence dating was applied to obtain burial ages. The numerical data indicate an accumulation phase of alluvial fans in the Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene transition. The study area in the Taomi River catchment, an obvious longer precursor of the Taomi River, originating from west of the Yuchih Basin, transported the sediments forming the present-day southern tablelands. During the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, the climate changed to wetter and warmer conditions, so that slope processes might have changed and an increasing transport in the fluvial system was stimulated. Fluvial and fan terraces in other river catchments in Taiwan also indicate a period of increased fluvial transport and deposition. A geomorphic evolution model in the Puli Basin is reconstructed on the basis of the chronological framework and of sedimentological features. Fluvial processes controlled by climatic change and accompanied by tectonic activities have created the diverse topography in the Puli Basin.

  19. The strong diachronous Muschelkalk/Keuper facies shift in the Central European Basin: implications from the type-section of the Erfurt Formation (Lower Keuper, Triassic) and basin-wide correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Matthias; Henniger, Matthias; Barnasch, Jens

    2013-04-01

    The transition from the shallow marine Upper Muschelkalk Sea to the Lower Keuper fluvial plain represents the most diachronous facies shift of the entire Germanic Triassic. The type-section of the fluvial Lower Keuper (Erfurt Formation) is described in detail for the first time including biostratigraphic dating of the Muschelkalk/Keuper boundary. The type-section is integrated into a NNE-SSW cross section through the Central European Basin, and the Muschelkalk/Keuper facies shift is constrained by high-resolution conodont and ceratite biostratigraphy. Thus, the fundamental changes in palaeogeography, shifts of facies belts and stratal pattern architecture are visualised. Forced by a rapid transgression from Tethyan waters, the shallow marine Upper Muschelkalk Sea attained its maximum flooding in the lower conodont zone 2 ( sequens/pulcher to philippi/robustus zones). Subsequent slow continuous regression to the South was accompanied by step-by-step progradation of coastal to fluvial plain environments of the Lower Keuper, culminating in a fluvial plain extending to South Germany. Based on stratal patterns, an improved sequence-stratigraphic interpretation for the Upper Muschelkalk/Lower Keuper interval is suggested. In combination with biostratigraphic arguments, the new sequence-stratigraphy points to a revised correlation of this interval within the Tethyan Triassic, incorporating the positions of the Anisian/Ladinian and Fassanian/Longobardian boundaries.

  20. Sustained Nitric Oxide-Releasing Nanoparticles Induce Cell Death in Candida albicans Yeast and Hyphal Cells, Preventing Biofilm Formation In Vitro and in a Rodent Central Venous Catheter Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammed S; Lee, Hiu Ham; Sanchez, David A; Friedman, Adam J; Tar, Moses T; Davies, Kelvin P; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Martinez, Luis R

    2016-04-01

    Candida albicansis a leading nosocomial pathogen. Today, candidal biofilms are a significant cause of catheter infections, and such infections are becoming increasingly responsible for the failure of medical-implanted devices.C. albicansforms biofilms in which fungal cells are encased in an autoproduced extracellular polysaccharide matrix. Consequently, the enclosed fungi are protected from antimicrobial agents and host cells, providing a unique niche conducive to robust microbial growth and a harbor for recurring infections. Here we demonstrate that a recently developed platform comprised of nanoparticles that release therapeutic levels of nitric oxide (NO-np) inhibits candidal biofilm formation, destroys the extracellular polysaccharide matrices of mature fungal biofilms, and hinders biofilm development on surface biomaterials such as the lumen of catheters. We found NO-np to decrease both the metabolic activity of biofilms and the cell viability ofC. albicansin vitroandin vivo Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis found NO-np to induce apoptosis in biofilm yeast cellsin vitro Moreover, NO-np behave synergistically when used in combination with established antifungal drug therapies. Here we propose NO-np as a novel treatment modality, especially in combination with standard antifungals, for the prevention and/or remediation of fungal biofilms on central venous catheters and other medical devices. PMID:26810653

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNDERGROUND SPACE OF CITIES IN TERMS OF THEIR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Belyaev Valeriy L’vovich; Belyaev Vladimir Borisovich

    2014-01-01

    The article shows that the negative trends in the cities development, especially their territorial "sprawling" contributes to the onset of the global environmental crisis. This call requires setting the city planners mind on noosphere thinking and establishing an adequate system of spatial development of the cities. The formation of compact city models "new urbanism", "smart development" can be considered a progressive response and a world trend. It fully meets the course of integrated urban ...

  2. Great cities look small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  3. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  4. Informal settlements in post-communist cities: Diversity factors and patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Tsenkova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In some post-communist cities, the formation of informal settlements is a phenomenon associated with the wave of urbanisation of the 1960s and 1970s. In others, the phenomenon is connected with the influx of immigrants and refugees in the 1990s. Informal settlement areas are the result of various factors: inadequate spatial planning, outdated and complex legislation, housing policies that do not ensure the provision of affordable housing and outdated public administration structures. Illegal construction practices in urban areas, often due to the lack of a clear system of property rights and urban poverty, have created significant challenges in many cities such as Tirana, Belgrade, Tbilisi and Bucharest. This paper presents a typology of informal settlements in post-communist cities and discusses the interrelated economic, social and environmental challenges associated with this phenomenon. Various types of informal settlements, as well as the evolution of those types, demonstrate the complexity of the problem as well as the need to develop contextually sensitive and diverse solutions. This study presents the emerging related policy responses, including legalisation and inclusion in formal urban planning, the provision of essential social services (e.g., schools and medical clinics, the construction of technical infrastructure (e.g., safe roads, public transit, water and sewage systems and resettlement programmes as part of social housing. Although these solutions represent various aspects of the policy continuum, they also require significant political will and the financial commitment of central and local institutions to ensure effective implementation.

  5. Cultural renaissance and cultrual tourism in the City of Tainan

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yu-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Tainan is the oldest city in Taiwan and inherits rich historic assets including national level landmark buildings, important historic fabric and local traditions. The city has lost her political and economic importance since mid nineteenth century. Around the turn of the millennium Tainan started to gain more political and economic importance after the change of central government policy to counterbalance long term uneven development focusing on the north. Claiming to be Taiwan’s cultural cap...

  6. Can Western mobility solutions apply to East Asia's cities ?

    OpenAIRE

    Boquet, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Cities around the world are experiencing traffic congestion and test different solutions to insure adequate mobility for their inhabitants while at the same time taking into consideration the relatively new concern for sustainable development. Several Western countries, such as France and the United States, have seen a resurgence of streetcars/tramways as a way of enhancing mobility at a lower environmental cost in central parts of their cities. Many European towns have embraced the concept o...

  7. Central Sumatra enjoys success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongsosantiko, A.

    1977-05-02

    The Sihapas group contains the most prolific oil producing zones in the Central Sumatra Basin. It represents the transgressive, coarse clastic sequence deposited during the early Miocene. Some of these sandstone grade laterally into siltstones and shales of the Telisa Formation, believed to be a major source of rock for Central Sumatra oil. Recent exploratory wells drilled between the mountain front and coastal plain areas have provided more data for stratigraphic studies. These have resulted in subdivision of the lower Miocene transgressive sequence into discrete rock-stratigraphic units. The former Sihapas Formation has subsequently been elevated to group rank and now consists of several formations with the Duri Formation as the uppermost sand unit. This study covers Caltex's areas of operation, which includes the area between the Kampar River of the south, the Barumum River to the north, the Malacca Straits to the east, and the Barisan Mt. to the west. A basic map shows the regional scene, while a stratigraphic chart shows the lithology.

  8. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Arkitektskole. Bogen  har 3 dele. Principles: Copenhagen Agenda for Sustainable Living, 10 principper udviklet af Ugebrevet Mandag Morgen illustreret af arkitektstuderende. Congress: Futures of Cities, Emerging Urbanisms- Emerging Practices, oplæg fra unge tegnestuer til temaet fremlagt på Student Congress......Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets...

  9. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It thus...... makes an investigation into the complex relationship between the words and policies of the ‘Experience Economy' and the actual urban transformations made in cities with reference to these changes. The paper discusses the cases researched in relation to the state, market, civil society framework as well...

  10. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  11. How to Study the City on Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, John D; Uitermark, Justus

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Instagram as a data source for use by scholars in urban studies and neighboring disciplines and propose ways to operationalize key concepts in the study of cities. These data can help shed light on segregation, the formation of subcultures, strategies of distinction, and status hierarchies in the city. Drawing on two datasets of geotagged Instagram posts from Amsterdam and Copenhagen collected over a twelve-week period, we present a proof of concept for how to explore and visualize sociospatial patterns and divisions in these two cities. We take advantage of both the social and the geographic aspects of the data, using network analysis to identify distinct groups of users and metrics of unevenness and diversity to identify socio-spatial divisions. We also discuss some of the limitations of these data and methods and suggest ways in which they can complement established quantitative and qualitative approaches in urban scholarship. PMID:27336728

  12. How to Study the City on Instagram.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Boy

    Full Text Available We introduce Instagram as a data source for use by scholars in urban studies and neighboring disciplines and propose ways to operationalize key concepts in the study of cities. These data can help shed light on segregation, the formation of subcultures, strategies of distinction, and status hierarchies in the city. Drawing on two datasets of geotagged Instagram posts from Amsterdam and Copenhagen collected over a twelve-week period, we present a proof of concept for how to explore and visualize sociospatial patterns and divisions in these two cities. We take advantage of both the social and the geographic aspects of the data, using network analysis to identify distinct groups of users and metrics of unevenness and diversity to identify socio-spatial divisions. We also discuss some of the limitations of these data and methods and suggest ways in which they can complement established quantitative and qualitative approaches in urban scholarship.

  13. Green Cities : Cities and Climate Change in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Urban sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Brazilian cities are growing. At the national level, the dominance of greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in Brazil masks the fact that emissions from other sectors, like Energy, Transport and Waste, are growing quite rapidly in cities. Compared to other cities around the world, Brazilian cities have low per capita GHG emissions be...

  14. Seasonal variations of air pollutant concentrations within Krasnoyarsk City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailuta, Sergey V; Taseiko, Olga V; Pitt, Anne; Lezhenin, Anatoly A; Zakharov, Yuri V

    2009-02-01

    This paper examines the significant differences in seasonal variations of criteria pollutant concentrations in various parts of a large urban area. These differences are caused by the microclimatic heterogeneity of the city and show the influence of breeze and orographic-type circulations on urban air pollution. The temperature heterogeneity of Krasnoyarsk territory during the winter leads to an increase of 150% in CO air pollution levels in the central part of city. During the summer the orographical heterogeneity of Krasnoyarsk City leads to increases of up to 400% in air pollution for different areas. PMID:18330715

  15. Cities within Cities: An Urbanization Approach in the Gulf Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bamakhrama, Salim Salah

    2015-01-01

    Within Dubai, nineteen out of the original 112 mega-projects carried the word city in their names, a phenomenon that is common in Gulf cities such as Dubai, Riyadh and Abu Dhabi. To further explore this phenomenon, this thesis focuses on three aspects that affect the dynamic relationship between the primary city and the cities within cities (sub-cities) in the Gulf region with special emphasis on Dubai. First, the naming problem of the sub-city illustrates why the tension between competing id...

  16. Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

  17. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This article uses a mixed-method study of Denmark to investigate whether and how Richard Florida's creative class theory should be adapted to small welfare economies. First, we carry out an econometric analyses showing that like in North America, the Danish creative class propels economic growth...... and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...

  18. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  19. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    WE LOVE THE CITY Byen i bygningen, bygningen i byen Lasse Andersson, Ph.d., arkitekt maa, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY vil vi formidle mødet mellem urban design oog arkitektur. Disciplinen ’at bygge by’ har de seneste 20 år ikke tændt hjerterne hos...... fjern og ’usexet’ for unge arkitekter in spe. Det kan fremtidens by ikke være tjent med, og WE LOVE THE CITY vil derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at her er et potentiale. Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY ønsker Utzon Centeret, LasseVegas Kontoret ApS og ADEPT...

  20. Should Cities Regulate Graffiti?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Graffiti, while still a new phenomenon to most Chinese, is becoming more familiar among teenagers in big cities like Beijing and Shanghai. A recent report by Xinhua News Agency discusses the trend. The report said a small

  1. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  2. Other city symphonies

    OpenAIRE

    Hielscher, Eva; Jacobs, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Catalogue description of the film program curated by Eva Hielscher and Steven Jacobs on 'Other City Symphonies' during the 2015 Pordenone Silent Film Festival, including paragraphs on individual films.

  3. Simulacrum City / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2000-01-01

    Veneetsia 7. arhitektuuribiennaali Eesti ekspositsiooni kataloogist Simulacrum City. Tallinn : Eesti Arhitektide Liit, 2000. Teksti autorid Anders Härm, Tarmo Maiste, Andres Kurg, Harry Charrington, kujundaja Jaanus Tamme, fotod Arne Maasik

  4. Earthquakes in cities revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wirgin, Armand

    2016-01-01

    During the last twenty years, a number of publications of theoretical-numerical nature have appeared which come to the apparently-reassuring conclusion that seismic motion on the ground in cities is smaller than what this motion would be in the absence of the buildings (but for the same underground and seismic load). Other than the fact that this finding tells nothing about the motion within the buildings, it must be confronted with the overwhelming empirical evidence (e.g, earthquakes in Sendai (2011), Kathmandu (2015), Tainan City (2016), etc.) that shaking within buildings of a city is often large enough to damage or even destroy these structures. I show, on several examples, that theory can be reconciled with empirical evidence, and suggest that the crucial subject of seismic response in cities is in need of more thorough research.

  5. City, ICT and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Galit Cohen; Peter Nijkamp

    2004-01-01

    New technologies tend to exert a profound influence on modern city life. This paper addresses the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the city. After a broad overview of the potential of ICT in a geographical setting and its possible impact on urban policy in regard to the ICT sector, the paper focusses attention on urban public policy in regard to the ICT sector. This study offers the proposition that urban ICT policy is driven by the stakeholders attitudinal and perc...

  6. Feeding the City

    OpenAIRE

    Roncaglia, Sara; Giorgio Solinas, Pier

    2015-01-01

    Every day in Mumbai 6,000 dabbawalas (literally translated as "those who carry boxes") distribute a staggering 200,000 home-cooked lunchboxes to the city's workers and students. Giving employment and status to thousands of largely illiterate villagers from Mumbai's hinterland, this co-operative has been in operation since the late nineteenth century. It provides one of the most efficient delivery networks in the world: only one lunch in six million goes astray. Feeding the City is an ethnogr...

  7. Aging City Leads Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The northern city of Dalian has become a model of care for the elderly that other Chinese cities are following Chinese Minister of Civil Affairs Li Xueju has called upon civil affairs agencies in the nation to learn from Dalian’s diversified models for elderly care,ranging from running collectively owned and foreign-designed nursing homes to offering tax incentives to private households and companies serving the elderly

  8. Improving the City environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All around the world cities are under severe environmental pressure. Water supplies, traffic congestion, air pollution, noise and waste disposal cause very similar problems in cities that are otherwise quite diverse. And attempts to improve conditions usually run into a range of difficulties. Indeed, environmental problems often persist for years before governments -national, regional and local- make any major effort to address them. 6 refs

  9. Cities in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Shepotylo Oleksandr

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the urban development of transition countries in 1991–2010, primarily focusing on the last decade. Cities in transition face a unique set of challenges that came forth due to interplay of the legacy of socialist urban policies and the transition to the market economy. The socialist urban policies restrained growth of the largest cities and distorted the spatial equilibrium towards more uniform distribution of urban population. The transition to the market economy reduces d...

  10. The Happiness of Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Florida, Richard; Mellander, Charlotta; Rentfrow, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Research on subjective well-being has focused on cross-national differences, while research on cities and regions has shown that human capital is a key factor in metropolitan income and related outcomes. This investigation tests the hypothesis that human capital will have a significant effect on well-being at the metropolitan scale. Using metropolitan level data from the 2009 Gallup-Healthways Survey, we examine the effects of human capital on city happiness alongside many...

  11. Towards smart city education

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Annika; Kortuem, Gerd; Cavero, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability has been an important topic in UK schools for some time, most notably since the Sustainable School Strategy was proposed by the UK Department for Education (DFES) in 2006. However, as smart city technologies emerge and show real promise in contributing to a more sustainable future, it is becoming apparent that new skills for working with the big urban data sets that drive these innovations must be taught to upcoming generations to ensure that they can be active smart city citiz...

  12. Innovation across cities

    OpenAIRE

    Soo, Kwok Tong

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of patenting activity across cities in the OECD, using a sample of 218 cities from 2000 to 2008. We obtain three main results. First, patenting activity is more concentrated than population and GDP. Second, patenting activity is less persistent than population and GDP. Third, patenting exhibits mean-reversion, and is positively associated with GDP, the fragmentation of local government, and population density. Our results suggest that policymakers can infl...

  13. Small Cell City

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan, S.; Steele, R.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, mobile operators have planned their networks to accommodate mobile terminals at ground level. Increasingly, mobile users communicate while stationary from within high-rise buildings. With mobiles operating at a variety of different heights and mobilities, plus the requirement to accommodate increasing teletraffic and multimedia services, there is a need to compact small cells into the three-dimensional city space. This article is concerned with using city buildings to act as el...

  14. Active City Administration

    OpenAIRE

    M .R. Sindhu; Viraj M. Jamle; Pramod M. Shelke; Shrikant G. Baheti

    2012-01-01

    The basic and universal corner stone of good governance are quality of service, quick response mechanisms and above all accountable and transparent process mechanism. The active city administration initiatives resulted in computerization of the legacy systems in government with limited ability to internalize the advances in information and communication technologies.By using active city administration services we able to know real time, quantitative and basic approach of the government servic...

  15. Cities and Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Mare, David C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the productivity (and wage) gains from locating in dense, urban environments. We distinguish between three potential explanations of why firms are willing to pay urban workers more: (1) the urban wage premium is spurious and is the result of omitted ability measures, (2) the urban wage premium works because cities enhance productivity and (3) the urban wage premium is the result of faster skill accumulation in cities. Using a combination of standard regressions, individual...

  16. Inquérito entre migrantes atendidos pela Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento, na Capital do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil: III. Aspectos alimentares Survey conducted among migrants going through the "Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento (CETREN" in S. Paulo City, Brazil: III. Nutritional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Roncada

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um inquérito alimentar recordatório do tipo qualitativo, sobre o consumo de alimentos ricos em caroteno e vitamina A, e também sobre alimentos consumidos diariamente por migrantes em trânsito pela Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento, na Capital do Estado de São Paulo. O consumo dos alimentos fontes da pró-vitamina ou da vitamina A foi classificado em: nulo, esporádico e freqüente. Os alimentos habitualmente ingeridos foram classificados segundo as Regiões de procedência. Concluiu-se que a alimentação dos migrantes foi julgada insatisfatória no que se refere aos alimentos ricos em caroteno e vitamina A.The present study is a recall qualitative alimentary survey on consumption of rich sources of vitamin A and carotene as well as foodstuffs consumed daily by migrants in transit through the "Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento", in S. Paulo, SP, Brazil. Consumption of sources of carotene or vitamine A was divided into: null, occasional and frequent. The foodstuffs usually consumed were classified according to the Region from which the migrants came. In conclusion the feeding habits of the migrants were considered unsatisfactory as regards sources of Vitamin A and carotene.

  17. Hackable Cities : From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change

    OpenAIRE

    de Lange, M.L.; de Waal, Martijn; Foth, Marcus; Verhoeff, Nanna; Martin, Brynskov

    2015-01-01

    The DC9 workshop takes place on June 27, 2015 in Limerick, Ireland and is titled "Hackable Cities: From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change". The notion of "hacking" originates from the world of media technologies but is increasingly often being used for creative ideals and practices of city making. "City hacking" evokes more participatory, inclusive, decentralized, playful and subversive alternatives to often top-down ICT implementations in smart city making. However, these discourses ...

  18. City marketing: online communication plan for the city of Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    Altrichter, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing City Marketing represents marketing efforts of cities in order to attract more visitors. Today, we are confronted everyday with marketing campaigns in all different communication media promoting countries, cities or events. Cities are competing for visitors on a global scale, forcing them to adapt successful marketing strategies for gaining and retaining costumers. Yet, City Marketing still remains an unknown chapter for a big part of the general public an...

  19. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  20. Promoting Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This pilot project is the first attempt to address the lack of rigorous and transparent approach to defining best practice in city energy efficiency programmes. The project has provided interesting insights into a range of exciting projects being implemented in cities around the world. However, the potential exists for far greater benefit. The study has found that it is possible to collate the detailed information needed to identify best practice energy efficiency projects in cities. However, gathering the data is not easy. The data is often not recorded in an easily accessible format. Nor is it easy to get city officials to allocate time to the necessary data collation given the many other competing demands on their time. A key area that this project identifies as requiring urgent attention is the development of a common data management format for energy efficiency projects by Cas. Further work could also focus on refining the criteria used to define best practice, and broadening the scope of projects beyond energy efficiency.

  1. Geochemistry of the Miocene oil shale (Hançili Formation) in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin, Central Turkey: Implications for Paleoclimate conditions, source-area weathering, provenance and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosoughi Moradi, A.; Sarı, A.; Akkaya, P.

    2016-07-01

    The geochemistry of oil shale units of Hançili Formation in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin (Central Turkey) was studied using various chemical analyses. The mineralogical composition of the samples were preliminarily investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficients of selected elements, indicating that the samples contain abundant clay minerals as well as K-feldspar and carbonate. The K2O/Al2O3 and SiO2/Al2O3 ratios indicate that the major proportion of clay minerals is composed of smectite. Si, Al, Ti, K, Na, and Fe reside in clay minerals, while Ca, Mg, and Mn are mostly associated with carbonates (e.g., calcite and dolomite) and phosphorous (P) is present as apatite. The total REE content of the oil shale range from 19 to 113 ppm. The chondrite-normalized patterns of the oil shale show LREE enrichments, HREE deficits, negative Eu anomalies and negligible Ce anomalies. In general, major, trace and rare earth element abundances suggest that the studied oil shale in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin are mainly from the intermediate rocks, mixed with small amounts of basic rocks, and that their source rocks are mostly deposited in the continental collision setting. The REE geochemistry of the oil shale suggests that these samples were derived from a consistent terrigenous source and the Eu anomaly was inherited from the source rocks. The paleoclimate index (C-value), varies between 0.07 and 1.22 reflecting a generally semi-arid to humid conditions. In addition, Rb/Sr (~ 0.22) and Sr/Cu (~ 9.09) ratios support the idea that warm and humid conditions prevailed during deposition of the Hançili Formation. Sr/Ba ratios (0.54-3.7) of the studied samples suggest a paleoenvironment with variable salinity. The co-variation among this factor and paleoclimate indicators suggest that variations in climatic conditions exerted a primary control on salinity. The substantially low C-value and Rb/Sr ratio and significantly high ratios of Sr/Cu and Sr/Ba and also elevated carbonate

  2. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  3. Estratigrafía y paleoambientes de la Formación Los Llanos (La Rioja: una secuencia condensada Miocena en el antepaís fragmentado andino central Stratigraphy and paleoenvironments of Los Lanos Formation (La Rioja: A condensed sequence in the broken foreland of the Central Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ezpeleta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En la región central de las Sierras Pampeanas, un conjunto de afloramientos saltuarios conocidos como Formación Los Llanos, se disponen irregularmente a través de las sierras Brava, Los Llanos y Ulapes-Las Minas, formando parte de la cubierta cenozoica. Esta sucesión sedimentaria está dominantemente compuesta por niveles de calcretes y depósitos fluvio-eólicos, y su espesor raramente supera los ~40 m. Desde su definición, existen escasos trabajos de detalle sobre su estratigrafía desde una óptica moderna. El mapeo y análisis detallado de facies permitieron dividir a la unidad en miembros inferior y superior, y caracterizar sus paleoambientes sedimentarios. Para el conjunto se definieron ocho facies: 1 conglomerados clastos soportados, 2 brechas y microbrechas, 3 areniscas con megaestratificación cruzada, 4 conglomerados arenosos calcáreos fuertemente cementados, 5 areniscas y arcilitas con estructura columnar, 6 areniscas conglomerádicas con cemento silícico, 7 limo-arcilitas pardo-rojizas, y 8 brechas fangosas. Estas facies fueron agrupadas en las asociaciones de facies (I fluvio-eólica y (II aluviales con paleosuelos, que parcialmente coinciden con los miembros reconocidos. El conjunto permite deducir un paleoambiente de abanicos aluviales medios a distales periódicamente afectados por formación de paleosuelos. Estos últimos reflejan sectores distales con escasa influencia de relieve indicativos de episodios de condensación. Debido a los escasos registros paleontológicos con procedencia documentada, y hasta tanto se tengan edades geocronológicas precisas, nuestras interpretaciones paleoclimáticas permitirían realizar una correlación con los eventos climáticos del Mioceno Medio- Plioceno ampliamente difundidos en el antepaís andino, que habrían afectado a los depósitos sinorogénicos desarrollados en una zona de domamiento periférico.In the central region of the Sierras Pampeanas, within the Cenozoic cover, sparse

  4. The Joint Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The new connections, which high speed train allows to activate among the metropolitan systems, seem to be able to give life to new urban macro-structures for which the transfer time, among the main poles of the railway segment, becomes comparable to an inside moving into the city and therefore considered as an inter-functional mobility. The tunnel effect generated by the high speed connection seems to be able to allow a new temporal and functional joint among the metropolitan systems consequently supporting the possibility, for the users, to move themselves among the different urban functions belonging to the different cities. The birth of these urban aggregations seems to drive towards new megalopolis, which we can define for the first time with the term: joint-city. For this new metropolitan settlement it seems to be very interesting to investigate the constitutive peculiarities, the systemic articulation, its relational structures, the evolutionary scenarios, and so on. The urban functions (activities can be considered as structures of relationships between people that allows to define "organizational links" inside the community; the urban functions are located in specific places inside urban container or in open spaces. The urban functions represent the urban engines and the functional system can be thought as the “soul of the city", abstract but essential to its survival. In the definition set out here the analysis is carried out for many interconnected urban functional system points (specifically those in Rome and Naples. The new high speed railway has to be considered not only as a new channel of mobility between cities, but as a real possibility of joint between the functional systems of the two centres. A final consideration can be carried out in relation to the possibility of implementing new measures of governance of urban transformations considering the new macro-city: the "Joint City".

  5. An Evaluation of Social Justice Performance in the Distribution of Metro Networks in the Central City of Shanghai%上海市中心城区轨道交通网络分布的社会正义绩效评价*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐子来; 陈颂

    2016-01-01

    以上海市中心城区轨道交通网络分布为例,提出了城市公共服务设施分布的社会正义绩效评价的份额指数方法。研究显示,低收入社会群体享有轨交网络资源的份额指数略低于社会平均份额,但轨道交通网络分布的社会正义绩效仍处于基本合理区间。社会正义绩效的空间格局表明,低收入社会群体人均享有轨交网络资源在圈层之间和扇面之间存在显著差异,但浦西地区和浦东地区之间差异并不显著。城市社会空间极化的不断加剧趋势对于城市规划中基本公共服务设施分布兼顾社会公平绩效和社会正义绩效提出了挑战。本文提出的社会正义绩效评价方法为同一城市的历时性比较和不同城市的共时性比较提供了研究基础,但缓解城市社会空间的极化趋势则是包容性发展中更为需要关注的公共政策。%Taking the distribution of metro networks in the central city of Shanghai as a case, the paper conducts the application of share index to evaluate social justice performance in the distribution of urban public services. According to the research ifndings, although the share index of metro network resource by low-income residents is slightly lower than the social share of total residents, the reasonable situation of social justice performance in the distribution of metro networks can be justiifed. As shown by the spatial conifguration of social justice performance, there is signiifcant discrepancy in the share index of metro network resource by low-income residents among concentric-circles and sectoral areas rather than the dimension between Puxi and Pudong areas. The increasing process of urban social-spatial polarization is generating a great challenge to the distribution of urban public services with its social performance evaluated in both equity and justice dimensions. While the paper provides a framework of evaluating social justice performance in

  6. Hamilton : the electric city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Earth's City Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  8. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  9. Maximum urban heat island intensity in a medium-sized coastal Mediterranean city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Dimitris K.; Kittas, Constantinos

    2012-02-01

    This paper studies the maximum intensity of the urban heat island (UHI) that develops in Volos urban area, a medium-sized coastal city in central Greece. The maximum temperature difference between the city center and a suburb is 3.4°C and 3.1°C during winter and summer, respectively, while during both seasons the average maximum UHI intensity is 2.0°C. The UHI usually starts developing after sunset during both seasons. It could be attributed to the different nocturnal radiative cooling rate and to the different anthropogenic heat emission rate that are observed at the city center and at the suburb, as well as to meteorological conditions. The analysis reveals that during both seasons the daily maximum hourly (DMH) UHI intensity is positively correlated with solar radiation and with previous day's maximum hourly UHI intensity and negatively correlated with wind speed. It is also negatively correlated with relative humidity during winter but positively correlated with it during summer. This difference could be attributed to the different mechanisms that mainly drive humidity levels (i.e., evaporation in winter and sea breeze (SB) in summer). Moreover, it is found that SB development triggers a delay in UHI formation in summer. The impact of atmospheric pollution on maximum UHI intensity is also examined. An increase in PM10 concentration is associated with an increase in maximum UHI intensity during winter and with a decrease during summer. The impact of PM10 on UHI is caused by the attenuation of the incoming and the outgoing radiation. Additionally, this study shows that the weekly cycle of the city activities induces a weekly variation in maximum UHI intensity levels. The weekly range of DMH UHI intensity is not very large, being more pronounced during winter (0.4°C). Moreover, a first attempt is made to predict the DMH UHI intensity by applying regression models, whose success is rather promising.

  10. The political economy of retail change in Chinese cities

    OpenAIRE

    Enru Wang; Jinping Song

    2008-01-01

    Retailing in China has become an important engine driving the nation’s economy. Along with the rapid expansion in scale, the retail industry has also experienced profound structural changes in cities. The transformation of the retail sector in large cities like Beijing and Shanghai is characterized by a realignment of ownership structure, diversification of retail functions, the emergence of new retail formats, the increasing concentration of retail capital and rapid expansion of retail chain...

  11. Aerosol Extinction Characteristics and Analysis of Haze Formation in Suzhou City%苏州市气溶胶消光特性及其对灰霾特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨康; 刘红年; 朱焱; 王学远; 林惠娟

    2015-01-01

    Hazy weather is a heavy pollution phenomenon in urban areas of China.The primary cause of the deterioration of visibility and the increase of haze is the enhancement of aerosol extinction caused by the increase of particle pollution in urban areas.Based on hourly observation data (including scattering coefficient,visibility,particle concentration,wind velocity and direction,temperature,pressure and humidity) from January 2010 to December 2013 in Suzhou City,aerosol scattering coefficient,extinction coefficient and their impact factors were analyzed.The results show that the average scattering coefficient in Suzhou City was (301.1 ± 251.3) Mm-1,and there were two peaks in daily variation,one at 07:00-08:00 and the other at 20:00-21:00.The seasonal variation of scattering coefficient was also obvious:the highest one was in winter while the lowest one was in summer.The correlation coefficient between scattering coefficient and ρ(PM2.5) was 0.77,higher than those of ρ (PM10) and ρ (PM1).The mass scattering efficiency of PM2.5 was 6.08 m2/g.The relationship between scattering coefficient and some meteorological elements,such as wind direction and velocity,was also significant.When the wind velocity was less than 4 m/s,the scattering coefficient decreased rapidly with increasing wind velocity.When the wind velocity was between 4 and 6 m/s,the scattering coefficient decreased slowly with increasing wind velocity.The average single-scattering albedo and scattering-to-extinction ratios were 0.84 and 0.79,respectively,which showed that the aerosol extinction of Suzhou City was based on scattering of aerosol.The contribution to light extinction of aerosol scattering,aerosol absorbing,air molecules scattering and NO2 absorption were 82.33%,13.63%,2.72% and 1.32%,respectively.The most important reason for the deterioration of visibility and the increase of haze in Suzhou City was the nonabsorbable PM2.5,which contributed the most to the aerosol scattering extinction

  12. The role of cities and local authorities following COP21 and the Paris Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Tollin, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The article highlights the implications for cities, local authorities and non-party stakeholders of the Paris Agreement and the resolve of United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties COP21. The article focuses on the central role that cities will have in the implementation of the Paris Agreement itself, particularly with reference to mitigation, adaptation, capacity building and technology transfer. The Paragraphs finally identifies the key challenges for cities ...

  13. Ultrafine particles in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts. PMID:24503484

  14. Reproducing in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth

    2008-02-01

    Reproducing in cities has always been costly, leading to lower fertility (that is, lower birth rates) in urban than in rural areas. Historically, although cities provided job opportunities, initially residents incurred the penalty of higher infant mortality, but as mortality rates fell at the end of the 19th century, European birth rates began to plummet. Fertility decline in Africa only started recently and has been dramatic in some cities. Here it is argued that both historical and evolutionary demographers are interpreting fertility declines across the globe in terms of the relative costs of child rearing, which increase to allow children to outcompete their peers. Now largely free from the fear of early death, postindustrial societies may create an environment that generates runaway parental investment, which will continue to drive fertility ever lower. PMID:18258904

  15. Research for the Design and Construction Methods for the Public Spaces in the Central City of Shanghai:Comment on Competition for Pocket Squares Design%上海市中心城公共空间建设与设计方法探索--兼评袖珍广场设计竞赛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚东帆; 陈敏

    2013-01-01

    The promotion of public spaces construction in central city of Shanghai is the key and difficult part for being both the area reflecting the city’s development and lacking of public spaces. The paper researches and concludes the design methods for the construction of public spaces combining the research and design results of the competition for pocket squares design. It uses the concept of ‘acupuncture’ restoration to inspire the energy of the area while promoting the urban regeneration by mining the stock of urban space. The design of the public spaces should satisfy the needs for the routine leisure requirement of the citizens while promoting the cultural equalities and plays an important role in the urban space system.%中心城区既是城市历史发展的精华地区,也是公共空间品质差距较大的地区,是新时期上海加强公共空间建设的重点和难点地区。结合袖珍广场设计竞赛的相关研究和设计成果,对上海中心城公共空间建设的路径和设计方法进行了探索和总结,认为中心城应当走存量空间挖潜的道路,通过多种方式因地制宜地开展“针灸式”的改造,以激发地区活力,推动城市更新。公共空间设计应以满足市民休闲活动需求为基本目标,注重提升文化艺术品质,统筹城市空间系统。

  16. The egocentric city

    OpenAIRE

    Tzinis, A.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is going to discus the advantages of the use of a GPS as a tool for surveying the pedestrian movements of individuals in an urban environment. An experiment is going to take place that will try to evolve City designs specifically for the pedestrian movements of particular individuals whose tracks have been recorded with a GPS for this specific purpose. The aim is to see if the rest of participants’ movement habits have been affected by this mutation in the city g...

  17. City Bug Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the wider contexts of digital policy, transparency, digitisation and how this changes city administration and the role of the (digital) publics, using City Bug Report as a design case. Employing a mix between design research and action research, the authors exemplify and analyse...... elements of both the design process, the organisational, the political and technological contexts. They point to the role of researchers and designers in exploring and understanding digital elements of public space as not merely registering structures but also actively engaging in public discourse...

  18. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city....

  19. Cities, Towns and Villages, city, Published in 2003, Daggett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'city'. Data by this publisher are often...

  20. Cultural and historical heritage: An asset for city branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijić Siniša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving wider recognition is part of the development agenda of contemporary cities, which are all confronted with the need to stand out and compete against one another. City branding reads as and plays an important role in this struggle for recognition. The identity of a city is generated over a long period, as it undergoes historical change, resulting in cultural diversity as the product of a specific environment. This paper discusses the possibility of using the cultural and historical heritage of Trebinje and its identity as an asset to create its city brand. Trebinje is a small city situated in the vicinity of Dubrovnik, a major tourist destination with a rich cultural and historical heritage and an excellent city brand. Dubrovnik may be seen as jeopardising the development of Trebinje’s authentic identity; on the other hand, the strong historical ties between the two cities can actually be used as an asset to develop Trebinje’s city brand. The material and non-material heritage which helped the formation of Trebinje’s identity, is analysed. The Mediterranean region in which it is located, its rich history, authentic architecture and different cultural influences, including the national poet Jovan Dučić, have all helped create Trebinje’s genius loci. The same factors may be used to communicate its new image. After that, the paper outlines models of the possible use of the recognised assets to brand the city and emphasise the importance of the effective presentation of these assets for creating a recognisable city image. It also proposes specific actions and interventions that may contribute to branding the city.