WorldWideScience

Sample records for city formation central

  1. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  2. Central Place Theory and Distribution of Post Offices in Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The feasibility of application of the Central Place Theory in the distribution of post offices in cities is analysed, the grade scale structure and space distribution structure Shijiazhauang of post offices in city are studied, the research results prove the actual value of the Central Place Theory, and the suggestion of adjustment in the space distribution Shijiazhuang of post offices in city is put forward.

  3. FORMATION MECHANISM AND SPATIAL PATTERN OF URBAN AGGLOMERATION IN CENTRAL JILIN OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Gan; ZHANG Ping-yu; JIAO Bin

    2006-01-01

    Urban agglomeration is made up of cities with different sizes to be linked by traffic network in a given area, and it is an inevitable result when urbanization reaches a certain level. Taking urban agglomerationin central Jilin(UACJ) as an example, this article analyzes the formation mechanism and spatial pattern of urban agglomeration in the less-developed area. First, the dynamics of UACJ has been analyzed from the aspects of geographical condition, economic foundation, policy background, and traffic condition. Then the development process is divided into three stages-single city, city group and city cluster. Secondly, the central cities are identified from the aspects of city centrality, and the development axes are classified based on economic communication capacity. Finally, the urban agglomeration is divided into five urban economic regions in order to establish the reasonable distribution of industries.

  4. Bringing Peace to the Central City: Forgiveness Education in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassin, Elizabeth A.; Enright, Robert D.; Knutson, Jeanette A.

    2005-01-01

    The last 2 decades have seen a flowering of scholarly and applied work in the area of forgiveness, a skill important to the development of peaceful people and communities. We describe a forgiveness intervention designed to help children in a central-city environment. Such environments put children at risk for various psychological and social…

  5. Disposable and Usable Pasts in Central European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Lisiak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Central European cities memories and material histories of socialist regimes remain particularly difficult to address and incorporate into the new democratic present. After 1989, city authorities in the region have chosen to emphasize some pasts and neglect others and, thus, (rewrite their own versions of (urban history and (reshape their (urban identities. In my paper I inquire into how post-1989 Central European urbanities are shaped by and communicated through various designations including signs and symbols on city streets, monuments, and build-ings. Predictably, many material remnants of the socialist regimes have been de-stroyed or hidden from the public eye - my interest lies not only in which various designations on buildings and which monuments had to go, but also in why and how they disappeared. I discuss the most popular methods of hiding and/or effac-ing the remnants of socialism that range from subtle (surrounding of communist landmarks with tall buildings through the obvious (renaming of streets, squares, metro stations; giving old communist buildings new names and functions to the irreversible and, thus, most controversial (the razing of socialist architecture and monuments. The disappearance of the material capital of the socialist past has been accompanied by intense commemoration practices verging on memorial ob-sessions. New monuments, plaques, street names, and museums appeared almost as quickly as the old "disposable" ones were forced out from the urban landscape. The complexity of an urban identity as communicated through city streets, mo-numents, and buildings not only invites, but necessitates an interdisciplinary ap-proach and, thus, my analysis includes elements from such diverse areas of know-ledge as aesthetics, architecture, communication studies, comparative cultural studies, economics, history, and political science.

  6. Economic geology of the Central City district, Gilpin County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, P.K.; Drake, A.A.; Tooker, E.W.

    1963-01-01

    The Central City district, in Gilpin County, Colo., is on the east flank of the Front Range, about 30 miles west of Denver. The district is the most important mining camp in the Front Range mineral belt, and has yielded more than $100 million worth of gold, silver, uranium, and base-metal ores since 1859. Gold accounts for about 85 percent of the dollar value of the ore. In recent years mining activity has been slack but from 1950 to 1955 the search for uranium ores stimulated prospecting and development.

  7. Chemical composition of runoff water in Raipur city, central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Balram

    2015-03-01

    Runoff water is an important transporting medium for various pollutants from land to surface water. Several mobiles and stationary sources such as vehicles, steel cement and thermal power plants, cooking, street, construction debris, etc. are emitting effluents in the environment of the central India. The rain runoff water washes out the air as well as land pollutants and flushes out into water bodies. Therefore, rain runoff water pollution in most urbanized and industrialized city of central India, i.e., Raipur during rainy season (May-September 2012) is analyzed statistically using cluster and principal component analysis to assess sources. The cluster analysis grouped runoff water samples into two clusters based on the similarity of runoff water quality characteristics of the total variance. The factor analysis differentiated the diffused sources of runoff water contaminants. The enrichment factors and runoff fluxes of the contaminants are discussed.

  8. Thermal footprints in groundwater of central European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, P.; Menberg, K.; Blum, P.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric thermal pollution in densely populated areas is recognized as a severe problem with consequences for human health, and considerable efforts are being taken to mitigate heat stress in cities. However, anthropogenic activities also influence the thermal environment beneath the ground level, with commonly growing temperatures that affect groundwater ecology and geothermal use efficiency. In our work, we identify the controlling mechanisms for the long-term evolution of such urban heat islands. The shallow groundwater temperatures in several central European cities such as Cologne, Karlsruhe, Munich, Berlin and Zurich were mapped at high spatial and temporal resolution. Thermal anomalies were found to be highly heterogeneous with local hot spots showing temperatures of more than 20°C. Accordingly, these urban regions show a considerable groundwater warming in comparison to undisturbed temperatures of 8-11°C. Examination of potential heat sources by analytical modelling reveals that increased ground surface temperatures and basements of buildings act as dominant drivers for the anthropogenic heat input into the groundwater. The factors are revealed to be case-specific and they may have pronounced local or regional effects. Typical local factors are for example buried district heating networks. In selected cities we find that the average urban heat flux is around one order of magnitude higher than the elevated ground heat flux due to recent climate change. Additionally, such as observed in Zurich, naturally controlled temperature variations can be substantial and they are shown to wash out anthropogenic thermal footprints.

  9. Prevalence of keds on city dogs in central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokół, R; Gałęcki, R

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the species of ked infesting dogs in the cities of central Poland. A total of 510 dogs were observed between June and September 2015. The presence of keds was noted in 182 (35.7%) animals. Keds were more prevalent in female (38.0%) than in male (33.2%) dogs, and were more frequently found in animals younger than 1 year (46.2%) and in long-haired dogs (36.6%). The body areas most heavily colonized by keds were the groin (35.4%) and neck (21.4%). A total of 904 keds were isolated from dogs, including Hippobosca equina (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) (17.2%), Lipoptena cervi (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) (32.0%), and two species not previously encountered in Poland: Hippobosca longipennis (45.0%) and Lipoptena fortisetosa (5.9%). Hippoboscidae may act as vectors of pathogens and any shifts in their geographic range may lead to the spread of new diseases affecting animals.

  10. The Aalborg case - GPS tracking of 169 young adults in a Danish central city area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Bro, Peter; Knudsen, Anne-Marie

    was based on a unique sample of movement data gleaned from 169 young adults aged 16 to 20 years. Each person was GPS-tracked over a period of seven days in 2008-2009 to record their movements in and uses of spaces in the central city area of Aalborg, which is Denmark’s fourth-largest city, with 122 461...

  11. Isotopic characterization of the Precambrian carbonate aquifers under the city of Bangui (Central African Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneau, Frederic; Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal-Laure; Foto, Eric; Ito, Mari; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Garel, Emilie; Mabingui, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    The city of Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, is located on the right bank of the Ubangi River which is the northernmost tributary of the Congo River. From its foundation in 1889 this city has always suffered from serious problems of water management. This is related to the specificity of the site configuration (steep hills surrounding a large swampy flat valley poorly drained) and to the urbanisation process responsible for the waterproofing of soils and the associated increased runoff processes under tropical humid condition.This paper presents the results of a geochemical and isotopic survey carried out in 2011 aiming at evaluating the type and chemical quality of the groundwater resources of the Bangui region. By combining geological, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data it appears that the underground of Bangui seems favourable to the development of a secured and sustainable water supply from groundwater provided that the conditions of exploitation would be constrained by the local authorities. The deep fractured (and locally kastified) Precambrian carbonate aquifers known as Bimbo and Fatima formations are identified as target resources considering the relatively good quality of the resource from the chemical point of view, and the semi-confined structure of the aquifer preventing the mixing with shallow aquifers already strongly impacted by domestic and industrial pollutions.

  12. The Central Asian Armies Facing the Challenge of Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Peyrouse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the main challenges that Central Asian armies face, that is, the problem of training and formation. Having rapidly increased since 2007, Central Asian military budgets have been able to multiply the purchases of equipment and weapons from foreign partners (Russia, western countries, Israel, China, South Korea, etc.. Money is not enough, however, to get the military institution back on its feet in its most human aspect, that of formation. In fact, the teaching institutions and the training possibilities provided to conscripts and professional soldiers on contract are generally of inadequate quality and impede the overall military capacities of the Central Asian states. This article will examine the main problems of the Central Asian military institutions and will discuss the means that have been implemented by Central Asian governments to reduce the negative impact of difficulties in promoting human capital.

  13. Analysis on Tourism Economic Spatial Relation of Liaoning Central City Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guodong; SUN; Liang; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Through the calculation and analysis of the tourism economic spatial relation,it found that Liaoning central urban agglomeration tourism economic spatial relation has many problems,such as the central city is insufficient,and the low degree of spatial relations. Therefore,this article puts forward the countermeasures,which can provide theoretical and practical reference for Liaoning central urban agglomeration tourism industry layout.

  14. Peculiar early-type galaxies with central star formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Ge; Qiu-Sheng Gu

    2012-01-01

    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) are very important for understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies.Recent observations suggest that ETGs are not simply old stellar spheroids as we previously thought.Widespread recent star formation,cool gas and dust have been detected in a substantial fraction of ETGs.We make use of the radial profiles of g - r color and the concentration index from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database to pick out 31 peculiar ETGs with central blue cores.By analyzing the photometric and spectroscopic data,we suggest that the blue cores are caused by star formation activities rather than the central weak active galactic nucleus.From the results of stellar population synthesis,we find that the stellar population of the blue cores is relatively young,spreading from several Myr to less than one Gyr.In 14 galaxies with H I observations,we find that the average gas fraction of these galaxies is about 0.55.The bluer galaxies show a higher gas fraction,and the total star formation rate (SFR) correlates very well with the H l gas mass.The star formation history of these ETGs is affected by the environment,e.g.in the denser environment the H 1 gas is less and the total SFR is lower.We also discuss the origin of the central star formation of these early-type galaxies.

  15. Central star formation and metallicity in CALIFA interacting galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J K; García-Lorenzo, B; Falcón-Barroso, J; Mast, D; García-Benito, R; Husemann, B; van de Ven, G; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Pérez-Torres, M A; Márquez, I; Kehrig, C; Vilchez, J M; Galbany, L; López-Sánchez, Á R; Walcher, C J

    2015-01-01

    We use optical integral-field spectroscopic (IFS) data from 103 nearby galaxies at different stages of the merging event, from close pairs to merger remnants provided by the CALIFA survey, to study the impact of the interaction in the specific star formation and oxygen abundance on different galactic scales. To disentangle the effect of the interaction and merger from internal processes, we compared our results with a control sample of 80 non-interacting galaxies. We confirm the moderate enhancement (2-3 times) of specific star formation for interacting galaxies in central regions as reported by previous studies; however, the specific star formation is comparable when observed in extended regions. We find that control and interacting star-forming galaxies have similar oxygen abundances in their central regions, when normalized to their stellar masses. Oxygen abundances of these interacting galaxies seem to decrease compared to the control objects at the large aperture sizes measured in effective radius. Altho...

  16. Surface Ozone Enrichment Downwind of Manaus City, in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, S.; Rizzo, L. V.; Rodrigues, N. P.; Brito, J.; Cirino, G. G.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Barbosa, H. M.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Amazonia is a unique place to study the impact of anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric photochemistry, fueled by large inputs of solar radiation, humidity, biogenic emissions and turbulent mixing. In the wet season, thousands of km2 of Amazonian forest areas can be considered pristine, whereas in the dry season biomass burning emissions in regional scale add to picture. The Amazon region is also going through localized urban development, in particular, the Manaus city, with 2 million inhabitants. The GoAmazon2014/5 experiment seeks to understand the interactions between urban and biogenic emissions in Amazonia. The combination of biogenic volatile organic compounds and urban NOx emissions is expected to increase tropospheric O3 production, with impacts to the ecosystem and human health. To investigate this issue, surface O3 measurements were taken between Feb and Dec 2014 at two sites in Amazonia: T2, located in the outflow of the Manaus urban plume, and T3, sitting 60 km downwind of the city. The influence of the urban plume at T3 site was detected by a combination of typical ΔCN/ΔCO ratios, Hysplit backtrajectories and threshold concentrations of tracers such as particle number and black carbon. The transport from T2 to T3 typically lasted 7 hours. At T2, the O3 diurnal cycle showed a diurnal peak of 20 ppb in the wet season and of 35 ppb in the dry season, suggesting the contribution of regional biomass burning to O3 photochemical production. In the absence of urban or biomass burning emissions, O3 diurnal cycle at T3 showed a peak of 15 ppb, similar to observations taken in pristine forest areas in Amazonia. When the Manaus plume reached the T3 site in the afternoon, the diurnal O3 peak increased to 40 ppb, indicating a net O3 production rate of 3.6 ppb h-1 along this diurnal transport. When the Manaus plume reached the T3 site before sunrise, i.e., a transport during the night, the diurnal peak was anticipated and reached 25 ppb.

  17. Exploring Dynamic Maintenance of Detailed Control Planning in Central City of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Because the understanding of urban development principles is a continuously deepening process,the Detailed Control Planning(DCP) also needs to be improved in the implementation process.For many years,the city of Beijing has made great efforts in this regard and established a dynamic maintenance mechanism for the DCP of the Central City in 2007.This enabled constant improvement and revision of the regulatory plans based on urban economic and social development as well as actual demands.This paper analyzes the formulation and execution of the DCP for the Central City of Beijing since 1999,discussing its evolution and development,as well as its practical application and a general explration of the planning work.It focuses upon the philosophy and mechanisms of dynamic maintenance.By drawing on previous experiences and lessons,it provides ideas and examples for the future management,formulation and implementation of the DCP.

  18. Understanding Urban Spatial Structure of Shanghai Central City Based on Mobile Phone Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu; Xinyi; Ding; Liang; Song; Xiaodong; Zhang; Qingfei

    2015-01-01

    Taking Shanghai Central City as its case study, this paper presents an approach to exploring the urban spatial structure through mobile phone positioning data. Firstly, based on base station location data and mobile phone signaling data, the paper analyses the number of users connecting to each base station, and further generates the maps of mobile phone user density through kernel density analysis. We move on to calculate the multi-day average user density based on a time frame of 10:00 and 23:00 at workdays and 15:00 and 23:00 at weekends for Shanghai Central City. Then, through spatial aggregation and density classifi cation on the density maps of 10:00 at workdays and 15:00 at weekends, we identify the ranks and functions of public centers within Shanghai Central City. Lastly, we identify residential areas, business off ice areas, and leisure areas in Shanghai Central City and measure the degree of functional mix by comparing the ratio of day and night user density as well as the user density at nighttime of workdays and weekends.

  19. Analysis on the Formation Reason of a Dusty Weather in the Midwest of Hulun Buir City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to analyze the formation reason of a dusty weather in the midwest of Hulun Buir City. [Method] By combining the synoptic method with the ecological environment variation, the occurrence and influence of a typical dusty weather which happened in the midwest of Hulun Buir City on May 30, 2006 were analyzed. The occurrence mechanism of dusty weather in the city was elaborated deeply, and the source of dusty weather was put forward from the ecological environment variation angle. ...

  20. Ganymede crater dimensions - Implications for central peak and central pit formation and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Veronica J.; Schenk, Paul M.; Jay Melosh, H.; Morgan, Joanna V.; Collins, Gareth S.

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of impact craters on the icy Galilean satellites differs from craters on rocky bodies. The differences are thought due to the relative weakness of ice and the possible presence of sub-surface water layers. Digital elevation models constructed from Galileo images were used to measure a range of dimensions of craters on the dark and bright terrains of Ganymede. Measurements were made from multiple profiles across each crater, so that natural variation in crater dimensions could be assessed and averaged scaling trends constructed. The additional depth, slope and volume information reported in this work has enabled study of central peak formation and development, and allowed a quantitative assessment of the various theories for central pit formation. We note a possible difference in the size-morphology progression between small craters on icy and silicate bodies, where central peaks occur in small craters before there is any slumping of the crater rim, which is the opposite to the observed sequence on the Moon. Conversely, our crater dimension analyses suggest that the size-morphology progression of large lunar craters from central peak to peak-ring is mirrored on Ganymede, but that the peak-ring is subsequently modified to a central pit morphology. Pit formation may occur via the collapse of surface material into a void left by the gradual release of impact-induced volatiles or the drainage of impact melt into sub-crater fractures.

  1. Comprehensive Measurement for Carrying Capacity of Resources and Environment of City Clusters in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Chuanglin; LIU Xiaoli

    2010-01-01

    Studying the carrying capacity of resources and environment of city clusters in the central China has impor-tant practical guidance significance for promoting the healthy,sustainable and stable development of this region.Ac-cording to their influencing factors and reciprocity mechanism,using system dynamics approaches,this paper built a SD model for measuring the carrying capacity of resources and environment of the city clusters in the central China,and through setting different development models,the comprehensive measurement analysis on the carrying capacity was carried out.The results show that the model of promoting socio-economic development under the protection of resources and environment is the optimal model for promoting the harmony development of resources,environment,society and economy in the city clusters.According to this model,the optimum population scale of the city clusters in2020 is 42.80×106 persons,and the moderate economic development scale is 22.055× 1012 yuan(RMB).In 1996-2020,the carrying capacity of resources and environment in the city clusters took on obvious phase-change characteristics.During the studied period,it is basically at the initial development stage,and will come through the development process from slow development to speedup development.

  2. Resolving the Formation of Protogalaxies. II.Central Gravitational Collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Abel, Tom

    2007-10-15

    Numerous cosmological hydrodynamic studies have addressed the formation of galaxies. Here we choose to study the first stages of galaxy formation, including non-equilibrium atomic primordial gas cooling, gravity and hydrodynamics. Using initial conditions appropriate for the concordance cosmological model of structure formation, we perform two adaptive mesh refinement simulations of {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub {circle_dot}} galaxies at high redshift. The calculations resolve the Jeans length at all times with more than 16 cells and capture over 14 orders of magnitude in length scales. In both cases, the dense, 10{sup 5} solar mass, one parsec central regions are found to contract rapidly and have turbulent Mach numbers up to 4. Despite the ever decreasing Jeans length of the isothermal gas, we only find one site of fragmentation during the collapse. However, rotational secular bar instabilities transport angular momentum outwards in the central parsec as the gas continues to collapse and lead to multiple nested unstable fragments with decreasing masses down to sub-Jupiter mass scales. Although these numerical experiments neglect star formation and feedback, they clearly highlight the physics of turbulence in gravitationally collapsing gas. The angular momentum segregation seen in our calculations plays an important role in theories that form supermassive black holes from gaseous collapse.

  3. Residential moves by elderly persons to U.S. central cities, suburbs, and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golant, S M

    1987-09-01

    The 1975-1980 migration stream and net migration patterns of persons younger than 65 and 65 + were examined using data from the 1980 U.S. Census. Central cities and suburbs of metropolitan areas (SMSAs) and nonmetropolitan areas (NonSMSAs) were distinguished as origins and destinations. Most elderly movers relocated within a fairly limited geographic context and revealed strong preferences for metropolitan living. Suburban locations were more favored than central city locations. Net migration findings may provide misleading interpretations of older movers' locational choices. The migration patterns of the 65 + population were similar to those of the 45- to 64-year-old population but differed from those of the more youthful U.S. populations. These findings highlight migration streams of elderly movers who likely have experienced changed in their life styles or personal resources.

  4. Central Star Formation in Pseudobulges and Classical Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, D B

    2006-01-01

    I use Spitzer 3.6-8.0 \\mu m color profiles to compare the radial structure of star formation in pseudobulges and classical bulges. Pseudobulges are ``bulges'' which form through secular evolution, rather than mergers. In this study, pseudobulges are identified using the presence of disk-like structure in the center of the galaxy (nuclear spiral, nuclear bar, and/or high ellipticity in bulge); classical bulges are those galaxy bulges with smooth isophotes which are round compared to the outer disk, and show no disky structure in their bulge. I show that galaxies structurally identified as having pseudobulges have higher central star formation rates than those of classical bulges. Further, I also show that galaxies identified as having classical bulges have remarkably regular star formation profiles. The color profiles of galaxies with classical bulges show a star forming outer disk with a sharp change, consistent with a decline in star formation rates, toward the center of the galaxy. Classical bulges have a n...

  5. Formation of Galactic Prominence in the Galactic Central Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chih-Han; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2017-02-01

    We carried out 2.5-dimensional resistive MHD simulations to study the formation mechanism of molecular loops observed by Fukui et al. in the Galactic central region. Since it is hard to form molecular loops by lifting up dense molecular gas, we study the formation mechanism of molecular gas in rising magnetic arcades. This model is based on the in situ formation model of solar prominences, in which prominences are formed by cooling instability in helical magnetic flux ropes formed by imposing converging and shearing motion at footpoints of the magnetic arch anchored to the solar surface. We extended this model to Galactic center scale (a few hundreds of parsecs). Numerical results indicate that magnetic reconnection taking place in the current sheet that formed inside the rising magnetic arcade creates dense blobs confined by the rising helical magnetic flux ropes. Thermal instability taking place in the flux ropes forms dense molecular filaments floating at high Galactic latitude. The mass of the filament increases with time and can exceed {10}5 {M}ȯ .

  6. NPP-VIIRS DNB-based reallocating subpopulations to mercury in Urumqi city cluster, central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Feng, X. B.; Dai, W.; Li, P.; Ju, C. Y.; Bao, Z. D.; Han, Y. L.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate and update assignment of population-related environmental matters onto fine grid cells in oasis cities of arid areas remains challenging. We present the approach based on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) -Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) to reallocate population onto a regular finer surface. The number of potential population to the mercury were reallocated onto 0.1x0.1 km reference grid in Urumqi city cluster of China’s Xinjiang, central Asia. The result of Monte Carlo modelling indicated that the range of 0.5 to 2.4 million people was reliable. The study highlights that the NPP-VIIRS DNB-based multi-layered, dasymetric, spatial method enhances our abilities to remotely estimate the distribution and size of target population at the street-level scale and has the potential to transform control strategies for epidemiology, public policy and other socioeconomic fields.

  7. Bar effects on central star formation and AGN activity

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Seulhee; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2011-01-01

    Galactic bars are often suspected to be a channel of gas inflow to the galactic center and trigger central star formation and active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity. However, the current status on this issue based on empirical studies is unsettling, especially on AGN. We investigate this question based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. From the nearby (0.01 < z < 0.05) bright (Mr < -19) database, we have constructed a sample of 6,658 relatively face-on late-type galaxies through visual inspection. We found 36% of them to have a bar. Bars are found to be more common in galaxies with earlier morphology. This makes sample selection critical. Parameter-based selections would miss a large fraction of barred galaxies of early morphology. Bar effects on star formation or AGN are difficult to understand properly because multiple factors (bar frequency, stellar mass, black-hole mass, gas contents, etc.) seem to contribute to them in intricate manners. In the hope of breaking these degenera...

  8. Comparison of particulate number concentrations in three Central European capital cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsós, T; Řimnáčová, D; Ždímal, V; Smolík, J; Wagner, Z; Weidinger, T; Burkart, J; Steiner, G; Reischl, G; Hitzenberger, R; Schwarz, J; Salma, I

    2012-09-01

    Number size distributions of atmospheric aerosol particles in the mobility diameter range from 10 to 1000 nm were determined in Budapest, Prague and Vienna for a one-year-long period. Particle number concentrations in various size fractions, their diurnal and seasonal variations, mean size distributions and some properties of new particle formation events were derived and compared. Yearly median particle number concentrations for Budapest, Prague and Vienna were 10.6×10(3), 7.3×10(3) and 8.0×10(3) cm(-3). Differences were linked to the different pollution levels of the cities, and to diverse measurement environments and local conditions. Mean contributions of ultrafine particles (particles with a mobility diameter Vienna, thus these particles represent an overwhelming share of all particles in each city. Seasonal variation of particle number concentrations was not obvious. Diurnal variations of particles with a diameter between 100 and 1000 nm (N(100-1000)) exhibited similar shape for the cities, which was related to the time-activity pattern of inhabitants and regional influences. The structure of the diurnal variation for ultrafine particles was also similar. It contained a huge morning peak in each city which was explained by emissions from vehicular traffic. The second peak was shifted from afternoon rush hours to late evenings as a result of the daily cycling in meteorological parameters. The character of the measurement site also influenced the diurnal variation. Diurnal variation of the mean ratio of ultrafine particles to N(100-1000) clearly revealed the presence and importance of new particle formation and subsequent growth in urban environments. Nucleation frequencies in Budapest and Prague were 27% and 23%, respectively on a yearly time scale. They showed a minimum in winter for both places, while the largest nucleation activity was observed in spring for Budapest, and in summer for Prague.

  9. Organizational support for the formation of the program of economic and social development of Donetsk city

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Article analyzes the organizational structure and the interaction between the participants of the formation of the program of socio-economic development of Donetsk city, systematizes their functions, identifies problems and to substantiates directions of organizational interaction of responsible executives and program coordinators. The main result is the set of regulations and recommendations for the creation of organizational support for the formation of the program of economic and social de...

  10. GEOLOGICAL AND GEOTECHNICAL CITY KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM OF THE URBAN AREAS IN THE CENTRAL PART OF DENIZLI CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Kumsar, Halil; Sefer Beran ÇELİK; Kaya, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    Geological and geotecnical investigations which are carried out at the first stage of a settlement place of a city play an important role on the development of urbanization. Engineering geology maps which are prepared by using the data of geological and geotechnical investigation guide urban plans and settlement. In this study a geological and geotechnical city information system of Denizli city (JEO-KBS) was developed by evaluating the Project data of the Geological, Geotechnical and Hydroge...

  11. Chondrichthyans from the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Naco Formation of central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D.K.; Irmis, R.B.; Hansen, M.C.; Olson, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Teeth, spines, and dermal denticles of chondrichthyans are reported from the Middle Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Naco Formation of central Arizona. The most common elements are crushing teeth of the cochliodont Deltodus angularis, less common are teeth of D. sublaevis, Venustodus leidyi, Lagarodus angustus, "Cladodus" occidentalis, Petalodus ohioensis, Orodus sp., and Hybodontoidea. Fin spines of Acondylacanthus sp., Amelacanthus sp., and Physonemus sp., and the dermal denticle Petrodus patelliformis are also present. The material of Venustodus leidyi shows for the first time that this animal was heterodont, having arched anterior teeth with a v-shaped profile grading posteriorly into lower crescentic, and finally flattened teeth. Lagarodus angustus is shown to have at least three tooth morphotypes, and a new tooth arrangement is proposed in which small anterior teeth are replaced posteriorly by large crushing teeth arranged in whorls. This fauna is similar to others in New Mexico, Colorado, and Ohio and constitutes a western extension of such faunas in North America. In addition, the presence of Deltodus sublaevis and Lagarodus angustus documents a range extension from a known European distribution, reinforcing the cosmopolitan nature of chondrichthyan faunas at this time. ?? 2004 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

  12. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF BRACKISHWATER POND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS IN PEKALONGAN CITY CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Indrajaya Asaad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution of brackishwater pond soil has a vital role in the system of bioenvironment including brackishwater pond environment. This research was aimed to determine the spatial distribution of brackishwater pond soil characteristics in Pekalongan City, Central Java Province. A total of 59 sampling points each with two different soil depth samplings were determined by simple random method. A total of 21 soil characteristics were measured in the field and analyzed further in the laboratory. Geostatistic with Kriging Interpolation method in the ArcGIS 9.3 software were used to depict the distribution of the data across the landscape. Furthermore, the spatial distribution was presented by using ALOS AVNIR-2 image. Research result indicates that in general, pond soil in Pekalongan City can be classified as soil with high variability or relatively heterogenic with the value of variation coefficient more than 36%. Soil characteristics which have similar pattern of spatial distribution are acid sulfate soil and soil nutrient content. High value of pH, organic matter, and total-N of soil, and on the other hand, low value of PO4 were generally found in the pond area of Krapyak Lor Village, while in Pekalongan City, it was found high clayish soil content but relatively homogenous. It is recommended that pond management must be based on soil characteristics which are different from one area to another. The soil characteristics itself can be drawn and assessed through spatial distribution.

  13. Robustness and closeness centrality for self-organized and planned cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolo Masucci, A.; Molinero, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Street networks are important infrastructural transportation systems that cover a great part of the planet. It is now widely accepted that transportation properties of street networks are better understood in the interplay between the street network itself and the so-called information or dual network, which embeds the topology of the street network's navigation system. In this work, we present a novel robustness analysis, based on the interaction between the primal and the dual transportation layer for two large metropolises, London and Chicago, thus considering the structural differences to intentional attacks for self-organized and planned cities. We elaborate the results through an accurate closeness centrality analysis in the Euclidean space and in the relationship between primal and dual space. Interestingly enough, we find that even if the considered planar graphs display very distinct properties, the information space induce them to converge toward systems which are similar in terms of transportation properties.

  14. Robustness and Closeness Centrality for Self-Organized and Planned Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Masucci, A Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Street networks are important infrastructural transportation systems that cover a great part of the planet. It is now widely accepted that transportation properties of street networks are better understood in the interplay between the street network itself and the so called \\textit{information} or \\textit{dual network}, which embeds the topology of the street network navigation system. In this work, we present a novel robustness analysis, based on the interaction between the primal and the dual transportation layer for two large metropolis, London and Chicago, thus considering the structural differences to intentional attacks for \\textit{self-organized} and planned cities. We elaborate the results through an accurate closeness centrality analysis in the Euclidean space and in the relationship between primal and dual space. Interestingly enough, we find that even if the considered planar graphs display very distinct properties, the information space induce them to converge toward systems which are similar in t...

  15. Effect of liquefied petroleum gas on ozone formation in Guadalajara and Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes-López, J Luis; Sandoval-Fernández, Julio; González-Ortíz, Emmanuel; Vázquez-García, Marcos; González-Macías, Uriel; Zambrano-García, Angel

    2005-06-01

    Leakages of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are suspected to contribute greatly to ozone (O3) formation in Mexico City. We tested such a hypothesis by outdoor captive-air irradiation (CAI) experiments in the two largest Mexican metropolitan areas: Guadalajara (GMA) in 1997 and Mexico City (MCMA) in 2000. O3 was monitored in each city for 20 days (8:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m.) in smog chambers containing unaltered morning air or morning air enriched with either commercial LPG or LPG synthetic mixture 60/40 (propane and butane). Tested additions of both components were 35% (by volume) in GMA and 60% (by volume) in MCMA. The addition effects on O3 (max) were compared with effects from diluting LPG components or total nonmethane hydrocarbons (tNMHCs) by 50%. Diluting tNMHCs had the greatest absolute effect at both cities: it lowered O3 (max) by 24% in GMA and 55% in MCMA. Adding commercial LPG increased O3 (max) by 6% in GMA and 28% in MCMA; whereas adding LPG synthetic mixture 60/40 caused a similar increase in O3 (max), 4 and 21% in GMA and MCMA, respectively. Compared with dilution of tNMHCs, dilution of LPG-associated compounds had a smaller decreasing effect on O3 (max), only 4% in GMA and 15% in MCMA. These results show that commercial LPG and LPG synthetic mixture 60/40 affect O3 formation to a lesser extent than estimated previously.

  16. Soil Communities of Central Park, New York City: A Biodiversity Melting Pot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, K. S.; Leff, J. W.; Wall, D. H.; Fierer, N.

    2013-12-01

    The majority of earth's biodiversity lives in and makes up the soil, but the majority of soil biodiversity has yet to be characterized or even quantified. This may be especially true of urban soil systems. The last decade of advances in molecular, technical and bioinformatic techniques have contributed greatly to our understanding of belowground biodiversity, from global distribution to species counts. Yet, much of this work has been done in ';natural' systems and it is not known if established patterns of distribution, especially in relation to soil factors hold up in urban soils. Urban soils are intensively managed and disturbed, often by effects unique to urban settings. It remains unclear how urban pressures influence soil biodiversity, or if there is a defined or typical ';urban soil community'. Here we describe a study to examine the total soil biodiversity - Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya- of Central Park, New York City and test for patterns of distribution and relationships to soil characteristics. We then compare the biodiversity of Central Park to 57 global soils, spanning a number of biomes from Alaska to Antarctica. In this way we can identify similarities and differences in soil communities of Central Park to soils from ';natural' systems. To generate a broad-scale survey of total soil biodiversity, 596 soil samples were collected from across Central Park (3.41 km2). Soils varied greatly in vegetation cover and soil characteristics (pH, moisture, soil C and soil N). Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology we characterized the complete soil community from 16S rRNA (Bacteria and Archaea) and 18S rRNA gene sequences (Eukarya). Samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. To compare Central Park to the 57 global soils the complete soil community of the global soils was also characterized using Illumina sequencing technology. All samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. The total measured biodiversity in Central Park was

  17. Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Nagafuchi, Osamu; Kawakami, Tomonori; Inoue, Takanobu; Yokota, Kuriko; Serikawa, Yuka; Cyio, Basir; Elvince, Rosana

    2016-02-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury, Hg(0), from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities accounted for 37% of total global Hg(0) emissions in 2010. People who live near gold-mining areas may be exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). Here, we assessed the human health risk due to Hg(0) exposure among residents of Palu city (Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia). The area around the city has more than 60t of gold reserves, and the nearby Poboya area is the most active gold-mining site in Indonesia. Owing to its geography, the city experiences alternating land and sea breezes. Sampling was done over a period of 3 years (from 2010 Aug. to 2012 Dec.) intermittently with a passive sampler for Hg(0), a portable handheld mercury analyzer, and a mercury analyzer in four areas of the city and in the Poboya gold-processing area, as well as wind speeds and directions in one area of the city. The 24-h average concentration, wind speed, and wind direction data show that the ambient air in both the gold-processing area and the city was always covered by high concentration of mercury vapor. The Hg(0) concentration in the city was higher at night than in the daytime, owing to the effect of land breezes. These results indicate that the inhabitants of the city were always exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). The average daytime point-sample Hg(0) concentrations in the city, as measured with a handheld mercury analyzer over 3 days in July 2011, ranged from 2096 to 3299ngm(-3). In comparison, the average daytime Hg(0) concentration in the Poboya gold-processing area was 12,782ngm(-3). All of these concentrations are substantially higher than the World Health Organization air-quality guideline for annual average Hg exposure (1000ngm(-3)). We used the point-sample concentrations to calculate hazard quotient ratios by means of a probabilistic risk assessment method. The results indicated that 93% of the sample population overall was at risk (hazard quotient ratio ≥1 and cut off at

  18. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Post-Top Lighting at Central Park in New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Michael; Goettel, Russell T.; Kinzey, Bruce R.

    2012-09-30

    A review of five post-top light-emitting diode (LED) pedestrian luminaires installed in New York City's Central Park for possible replacement to the existing metal halide post-top luminaire. This report reviews the energy savings potential and lighting delivered by the LED post-top luminaires.

  19. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-01

    This case study describes how Verizon's Central Office in Garden City, NY, installed a 1.4-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system as an alternative solution to bolster electric reliability, optimize the company's energy use, and reduce costs in an environmentally responsible manner.

  20. GEOLOGICAL AND GEOTECHNICAL CITY KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM OF THE URBAN AREAS IN THE CENTRAL PART OF DENIZLI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil KUMSAR

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Geological and geotecnical investigations which are carried out at the first stage of a settlement place of a city play an important role on the development of urbanization. Engineering geology maps which are prepared by using the data of geological and geotechnical investigation guide urban plans and settlement. In this study a geological and geotechnical city information system of Denizli city (JEO-KBS was developed by evaluating the Project data of the Geological, Geotechnical and Hydrogeological Properties of Denizli Municipality Settlement Place which was carried out by the research team of the Geological Engineering Department of Pamukkale University. Topography, urban plan and distric maps are digitised into the system. A knowledge base system was written for evaluating geotechnical tests of field and loboratory, geophysical and geological data. Engineering geology maps were prepared in JEO-KBS system by using the data of the knowledge base system. It is possible to reach geological and geotechnical data on a defined point on the graphic screen of JEO-KBS. The developed city knowledge base system gives an important contribution to the municipalities for urban planning and re-evaluation of geological and geotechnical data.

  1. Assessment of scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Yousefi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scaling and corrosion are the two most important indexes in water quality evaluation. Pollutants are released in water due to corrosion of pipelines. The aim of this study is to assess the scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran. Methods: This research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which is based on the 20 drinking water sources in Ilam city. Experiments were carried out in accordance with the Water and Wastewater Co. standard methods for water and wastewater experiment. The data were analyzed by using Microsoft Excel and GraphPad Prism 5. The results were compared with national and international standards. Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD values of Ryznar, Langelier, Aggressive, Puckorius and Larson-Skold indices in year 2009 were equal to 7.833 (±0.28, -0.102 (±0.35, 11.88 (±0.34, 7.481 (±0.22 and 0.801 (±0.44, respectively, and were 7.861 (±0.28, -0.175 (±0.34, 11.84 (±0.37, 7.298(±0.32 and 0.633 (±0.47, for year 2013 respectively. The average of Langelier, Ryznar, Aggression, and Puckorius indices indicate that potable water resources in Ilam city have the tendency to be corrosive. Statistical analysis and figures carried out by GraphPad Prism version 5.04. Conclusion: The results of different indices for water resources of Ilam city revealed that water supplies of Ilam city were corrosive. Water quality control and replacement of distribution pipes in development of water network should be carried out. Moreover, water pipelines should be preserved with several modes of corrosion inhibition.

  2. Breeding Bird Assemblage in a Mosaic of Urbanized Habitats in a Central European City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the population densities of birds breeding in a mosaic of typical urbanized habitats. This study was undertaken to partly fulfil this gap in our knowledge. Counts were conducted in 2008 by means of simplified territory mapping method in a fragment (1197 ha of a large Central European city (Wrocław, SW Poland. In total, 50 bird species were breeding in the study area in 2008. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Common Swift Apus apus and Rock Dove comprised about 3/5 of all breeding pairs. The other group of species, each one with a density between 6 and 13 pairs per 100 ha, included seven species, namely the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, Greenfinch, Carduelis chloris, House Martin, Delichon urbica, Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, Great Tit, Parus major, Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus, and Jackdaw, Corvus monedula. They comprised together about 1/5. The remaining 40 species nested in a density between 0.1 and 3.5 pairs per 100 ha. The most numerous feeding guild were granivores (53.8% and insectivores (37.9 %. Birds nesting on buildings comprised together 74 % of all breeding pairs. For a few species (Luscinia megarhynchos, Saxicola torquata, Corvus cornix and Turdus pilaris an increase in their numbers in the last three decades has been evidenced.

  3. Chanco formation, a potential Cretaceous reservoir, central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecione, G.

    1983-07-01

    The Chanco embayment lies 300 km SSW of Santiago, Chile. The sequence within this basin above the metamorphic basement is: Chanco Formation (very clean sandstone), Quiriquina Formation (glauconitic sandstone, rich in organic matter), and Navidad Group (a very good caprock). This section thus contains reservoir, source and caprocks, and is therefore very promising for petroleum investigations. The offshore C-1 well yielded salt-water with gas shows, and two wells drilled onshore yielded shows of gas. The C-1 well lies on a gently-dipping EW-striking anticlinal structure, the presence of which makes the area very prospective.

  4. Paleomagnetism of the Puente Piedra Formation, Central Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Steven R.; Butler, Robert F.

    1985-02-01

    Paleomagnetic samples were collected from 15 sites in the early Cretaceous Puente Piedra Formation near Lima, Peru. This formation consists of interbedded volcanic flows and marine sediments and represents the oldest known rocks of the Andean coastal province in this region. The Puente Piedra Formation is interpreted as a submarine volcanic arc assemblage which along with an overlying sequence of early Cretaceous clastic and carbonate rocks represents a terrane whose paleogeographic relationship with respect to the Peruvian miogeocline in pre-Albian time is unknown. Moderate to high coercivities, blocking temperatures below 320°C, and diagnostic strong-field thermomagnetic behavior indicate that pyrrhotite is the dominant magnetic phase in the Puente Piedra Formation. This pyrrhotite carries a stable CRM acquired during an event of copper mineralization associated with the intrusion of the Santa Rosa super-unit of the Coastal Batholith at about 90 ± 5 m.y. B.P. The tectonically uncorrected formation mean direction of: D = 343.2°, I = -28.6°, α 95 = 3.4° is statistically concordant in inclination but discordant in declination with respect to the expected direction calculated from the 90-m.y. reference pole for cratonic South America. The observed declination indicates approximately 20° of counterclockwise rotation of the Puente Piedra rocks since about 90 m.y. This is consistent with other paleomagnetic data from a larger crustal block which may indicate modest counterclockwise rotation during the Cenozoic associated with crustal shortening and thickening in the region of the Peru-Chile deflection.

  5. Common Objectives of the Formation of Mixed-Use City Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justinas Bučys

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Common objectives of the formation of mixed-use city centres are discussed, mostly focusing on local centres of residential districts. Vitality and viability are the main features of mixed-use city centres influencing the potential to encourage investment and adapt to changing needs of society. Seeking to improve vitality and competitiveness of local centres, in comparison with shopping and entertainment centres, there should be ensured sufficient density and flexibility to respond to the changing conditions, increased diversity of uses, enhanced environmental quality, maximized accessibility by public transport and by walking, reducing the need to travel by car. The largest part of residential district centres of Lithuanian cities were formed using the principle of separating pedestrian and vehicle flows and ignoring the integration of movement and social interaction, the historic function of streets. To improve accessibility there could be introduced, where appropriate, new streets inside a residential district. Another way to improve the structure of existing centres is to use undeveloped sites, orientating the new buildings so that they front the street and providing multistorey or underground car parking .Article in Lithuanian

  6. Uranium deposits in the Eureka Gulch area, Central City district, Gilpin County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, P.K.; Osterwald, F.W.; Tooker, E.W.

    1954-01-01

    The Eureka Gulch area of the Central City district, Gilpin County, Colo., was mined for ores of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc; but there has been little mining activity in the area since World War I. Between 1951 and 1953 nine radioactive mine dumps were discovered in the area by the U.S. Geological Survey and by prospectors. the importance of the discoveries has not been determined as all but one of the mines are inaccessible, but the distribution, quantity, and grade of the radioactive materials found on the mine dumps indicate that the area is worth of additional exploration as a possible source of uranium ore. The uranium ans other metals are in and near steeply dipping mesothermal veins of Laramide age intrusive rocks. Pitchblende is present in at least four veins, and metatorbernite, associated at places with kosolite, is found along two veins for a linear distance of about 700 feet. The pitchblends and metatorbernite appear to be mutually exclusive and seem to occur in different veins. Colloform grains of pitchblende were deposited in the vein essentially contemporaneously with pyrite. The pitchblende is earlier in the sequence of deposition than galena and sphalerite. The metatorbernite replaces altered biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss and altered amphibolite, and to a lesser extent forms coatings on fractures in these rocks adjacent to the veins; the kasolite fills vugs in highly altered material and in altered wall rocks. Much of the pitchblende found on the dumps has been partly leached subsequent to mining and is out of equilibrium. Selected samples of metatorbernite-bearing rock from one mine dump contain as much as 6.11 percent uranium. The pitchblende is a primary vein mineral deposited from uranium-bearing hydrothermal solutions. The metatorbernite probably formed by oxidation, solution, and transportation of uranium from primary pitchblende, but it may be a primary mineral deposited directly from fluids of different composition from these

  7. Central role of pyrophosphate in acellular cementum formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Foster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i is a physiologic inhibitor of hydroxyapatite mineral precipitation involved in regulating mineralized tissue development and pathologic calcification. Local levels of PP(i are controlled by antagonistic functions of factors that decrease PP(i and promote mineralization (tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, Alpl/TNAP, and those that increase local PP(i and restrict mineralization (progressive ankylosis protein, ANK; ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase-1, NPP1. The cementum enveloping the tooth root is essential for tooth function by providing attachment to the surrounding bone via the nonmineralized periodontal ligament. At present, the developmental regulation of cementum remains poorly understood, hampering efforts for regeneration. To elucidate the role of PP(i in cementum formation, we analyzed root development in knock-out ((-/- mice featuring PP(i dysregulation. RESULTS: Excess PP(i in the Alpl(-/- mouse inhibited cementum formation, causing root detachment consistent with premature tooth loss in the human condition hypophosphatasia, though cementoblast phenotype was unperturbed. Deficient PP(i in both Ank and Enpp1(-/- mice significantly increased cementum apposition and overall thickness more than 12-fold vs. controls, while dentin and cellular cementum were unaltered. Though PP(i regulators are widely expressed, cementoblasts selectively expressed greater ANK and NPP1 along the root surface, and dramatically increased ANK or NPP1 in models of reduced PP(i output, in compensatory fashion. In vitro mechanistic studies confirmed that under low PP(i mineralizing conditions, cementoblasts increased Ank (5-fold and Enpp1 (20-fold, while increasing PP(i inhibited mineralization and associated increases in Ank and Enpp1 mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Results from these studies demonstrate a novel developmental regulation of acellular cementum, wherein cementoblasts tune cementogenesis by modulating

  8. Numerical Modeling of Flat Slab Formation in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, M.; Perez-Gussinye, M.; Manea, V.; Fernandez, M.

    2009-12-01

    Subduction of oceanic plates beneath large continental masses is a rare process and at present it occurs only along western South America and Central Mexico. Likewise, flat subduction, understood here as where the slab enters at a normal angle and reverses its curvature to flatten at ~70-120 km depth, only occurs at present beneath South America. In general, the angle at which subduction occurs in the depth range of ~100 to ~200 km reflects the balance between negative buoyancy of the slab, elastic resistance of the slab to change the angle of subduction, and non-hydrostatic pressure forces induced by subduction-driven flow within the asthenosphere. The latter force, known as suction force, acts to prevent the slab from sinking into the mantle, and its magnitude increases with increasing subduction velocity, narrowness and viscosity decrease of the mantle wedge [Manea and Gurnis, 2007]. Recent observations show that the upper plate structure varies along the Andean margin, indicating that it is thicker and stronger above flat subduction zones and suggesting a correlation between upper plate structure and subduction angle [Pérez-Gussinyé et al., 2008; Booker et al., 2004]. In this study we use numerical models to explore the extent to which upper plate structure, through its influence on asthenospheric wedge shape and viscosity, can affect the angle of subduction. We test for which upper plate thickness and asthenospheric viscosity repeated cycles of steep and flat subduction are reproduced and compare our results to estimations of lithospheric thickness and the duration of flat and steep subduction cycles hypothesized along the Andean margin. Our models are constrained by realistic plate velocities in hot spot reference frame for both Nazca and South American plates [Muller et al., 2008], the Miocene-Present shortening for the Andes [Schelart et al., 2007] and realistic Nazca plate age distribution [Sdrolias and Muller, 2006]. Using the finite element package

  9. Research on Model of Guiding Rural Residents’ Relatively Centralized Residence——A Case Study of Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expounding the status quo of rural residents’ residence, the thesis notes that influenced by the weak foundation of rural economy, the characteristic of mountain landscape, smallholder consciousness, shortage of capital and other factors, the rural residents in Chongqing City mainly live scattered. In addition to opportunities of the expansion and drive of city, rural market development, rural resources development, rural industrial development, and rural ecological migration, the model of urban development promotion, the model of market development drive, the model of land development drive, the model of rural industry construction and the model of resettlement and reconstruction are advocated in order to guide the rural residents to adopt relative centralized residence. The suggestions concerning guiding rural residents’ relative centralized residence are put forward as follows: firstly, act according to circumstances and conduct scientific planning and design; secondly, propagate extensively and activate famers’ willingness; thirdly, first experiment and exert the exemplary guide; fourthly, perfect policy and guarantee farmers’ benefit; fifthly, strengthen leadership and decrease the risk of centralized residence; sixthly, boost gradually and realize moderate centralized residence.

  10. Star Formation Quenching Timescale of Central Galaxies in a Hierarchical Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, ChangHoon; Wetzel, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    Central galaxies make up the majority of the galaxy population, including the majority of the quiescent population at $\\mathcal{M}_* > 10^{10}\\mathrm{M}_\\odot$. Thus, the mechanism(s) responsible for quenching central galaxies plays a crucial role in galaxy evolution as whole. We combine a high resolution cosmological $N$-body simulation with observed evolutionary trends of the "star formation main sequence," quiescent fraction, and stellar mass function at $z < 1$ to construct a model that statistically tracks the star formation histories and quenching of central galaxies. Comparing this model to the distribution of central galaxy star formation rates in a group catalog of the SDSS Data Release 7, we constrain the timescales over which physical processes cease star formation in central galaxies. Over the stellar mass range $10^{9.5}$ to $10^{11} \\mathrm{M}_\\odot$ we infer quenching e-folding times that span $1.5$ to $0.5\\; \\mathrm{Gyr}$ with more massive central galaxies quenching faster. For $\\mathcal{M}...

  11. Ethanol-Fed Or Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to treat mining influenced water (MIW) from the National Tunnel Adit that discharges to North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site, an...

  12. Ethanol-Fed Or Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to treat mining influenced water (MIW) from the National Tunnel Adit that discharges to North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site, an...

  13. A Central Asian city on the Silk Road: ancient and medieval Merv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Herrmann

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available In the 11th century AD, Merv was one of the world's largest and most splendid cities. Today it is a h uge archaeological site, the complexities of which are being unravelled by the International Merv Project (IMP. Here the Director of the IMP charts the succession of cities that have flourished in the Merv oasis and describes the work of the project.

  14. ALPINE MAGMATIC-METALLOGENIC FORMATIONS OF THE NORTHWESTERN AND CENTRAL DINARIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Pamić

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented basic geological, petrologieca1, geochemi-cal and mineral deposit data for five main magmatic-metallogenic formations of the northwestern and central Dinarides: (lThe Permo Triassic rifting related andesite-diorite formations; (2 The Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous accretionary (ophiolite formations; (3 The Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene subduction related basalt-rhyohite formations; (4 The Paleogene collisional granite formations, and (5 The Oligo-cene-Neogene postsubduction andesite formations. All these magmatic-metallogenic formations originated in different geotectonic settings during the Alpine evolution of the Dinaridic parts of thc Tethys and the postorogenic evolution of the Paratethys and the Pannonian Basin, respectively.

  15. Gastropods from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Aruma Formation, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameil, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.

    2015-03-01

    The gastropod fauna of the Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia comprises fifteen species belonging to fifteen genera, fourteen families, and five clades. The species are not abundant at any individual stratigraphic level but are equally and irregularly scattered in the formation. The studied species come mainly from the Hajajah Member of Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia. Calliomphalus orientalis (Douvillé, 1916); Coelobolma corbarica Cossmann, 1918; Turritella (Torquesia) figarii Quaas, 1902; Neoptyxis olisiponensis (Sharpe, 1850) and Otostoma (Otostoma) divaricatum (d'Orbigny, 1847) are recorded from the Upper Cretaceous of central Arabia for the first time. The identified species have a close affinity to the Tethyan fauna known from other parts in Asia, Africa and Europe. Herbivores and predators are the dominant trophic groups which may indicate shallow marine lagoonal and relatively open marine environment.

  16. Land subsidence in major cities of Central Mexico: Interpreting InSAR-derived land subsidence mapping with hydrogeological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Pascal; Arroyo-Domínguez, Norma; Martel, Richard; Calderhead, Angus I.; Normand, Jonathan C. L.; Gárfias, Jaime; Rivera, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    Significant structural damages to urban infrastructures caused by compaction of over-exploited aquifers are an important problem in Central Mexico. While the case of Mexico City has been well-documented, insight into land subsidence problems in other cities of Central Mexico is still limited. Among the cities concerned, we present and discuss the cases of five of them, located within the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB): Toluca, Celaya, Aguascalientes, Morelia, and Queretaro. Applying the SBAS-InSAR method to C-Band RADARSAT-2 data, five high resolution ground motion time-series were produced to monitor the spatio-temporal variations of displacements and fracturing from 2012 to 2014. The study presents recent changes of land subsidence rates along with concordant geological and water data. It aims to provide suggestions to mitigate future damages to infrastructure and to assist in groundwater resources management. Aguascalientes, Celaya, Morelia and Queretaro (respectively in order of decreasing subsidence rates) are typical cases of fault-limited land subsidence of Central Mexico. It occurs as a result of groundwater over-exploitation in lacustrine and alluvial deposits covering highly variable bedrock topography, typical of horst-graben geological settings. Aguascalientes and Toluca show high rates of land subsidence (up to 10 cm/yr), while Celaya and Morelia show lower rates (from 2 to 5 cm/yr). Comparing these results with previous studies, it is inferred that the spatial patterns of land subsidence have changed in the city of Toluca. This change appears to be mainly controlled by the spatial heterogeneity of compressible sediments since no noticeable change occurred in groundwater extraction and related drawdown rates. While land subsidence of up to 8 cm/yr has been reported in the Queretaro Valley before 2011, rates inferior to 1 cm/yr are measured in 2013-2014. The subsidence has been almost entirely mitigated by major changes in the water management

  17. The formation of music-scenes in Manchester and their relation to urban space and the image of the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The formation of music-scenes in Manchester and their relation to urban space and the image of the city The paper I would like to present derives from a study of the relation between the atmospheric qualities of a city and the formation of music scenes. I have studied Manchester which is a known...... example of a music city with its heyday in from the late 1970ies with post-punk and into the 1990ies with Madchester and brit-pop. The post-punk scene with Joy Division as the primary exponent was very much embedded in the specific atmosphere and physical structure of certain parts of Manchester from...... which it took inspiration. Later on other scenes developed on the basis of the infrastructure (recordcompanies, clubs, rehearsalspaces etc) that was put in place by the postpunk-scene. This culminated in the Madchester scene which quite contrary from postpunk, had a direct influence on the atmosphere...

  18. Distributed randomized algorithms for opinion formation, centrality computation and power systems estimation: A tutorial overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frasca, Paolo; Ishii, Hideaki; Ravazzi, Chiara; Tempo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In this tutorial paper, we study three specific applications: opinion formation in social networks, centrality measures in complex networks and estimation problems in large-scale power systems. These applications fall under a general framework which aims at the construction of algorithms for distrib

  19. FORMATION 2005 Pour L'Afrique SURLA TECHNIQUE DES PETITES CENTRALES HYDRO-ELECTRIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    “Le stage de formation 2005 por l'Afrique sur la technique de petites centrales hydro-electrique”est subventionnte par le Gouvernement Chinois specialement pour les pays en voie de developpement,dans le cadre de l'aide aux pays en voie de developpement.Charge par le Ministere chinois du Commerce,

  20. Country-specific strategy and new venture formation in Central and East Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, A.; Brouthers, K.D.; Nakos, G.; Brouthers, L.E.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examine the influence of three country-specific strategies (market-seeking, client-following and resource-seeking) on new venture formation decisions for firms entering Central and East Europe. We found that market-seeking and resource-seeking strategies tend to influence venture c

  1. Tree Canopy Cover Mapping Using LiDAR in Urban Barangays of Cebu City, Central Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejares, J. A.; Violanda, R. R.; Diola, A. G.; Dy, D. T.; Otadoy, J. B.; Otadoy, R. E. S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates tree canopy cover mapping of urban barangays (smallest administrative division in the Philippines) in Cebu City using LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) was used to extract tree canopy cover. Multi-resolution segmentation and a series of assign-class algorithm in eCognition software was also performed to extract different land features. Contextual features of tree canopies such as height, area, roundness, slope, length-width and elliptic fit were also evaluated. The results showed that at the time the LiDAR data was collected (June 24, 2014), the tree cover was around 25.11 % (or 15,674,341.8 m2) of the city's urban barangays (or 62,426,064.6 m2). Among all urban barangays in Cebu City, Barangay Busay had the highest cover (55.79 %) while barangay Suba had the lowest (0.8 %). The 16 barangays with less than 10 % tree cover were generally located in the coastal area, presumably due to accelerated urbanization. Thirty-one barangays have tree cover ranging from 10.59--27.3 %. Only 3 barangays (i.e., Lahug, Talamban, and Busay) have tree cover greater than 30 %. The overall accuracy of the analysis was 96.6 % with the Kappa Index of Agreement or KIA of 0.9. From the study, a grouping can be made of the city's urban barangays with regards to tree cover. The grouping will be useful to urban planners not only in allocating budget to the tree planting program of the city but also in planning and creation of urban parks and playgrounds.

  2. Centralized Dynamics and Control of Novel Orbiting Formations of Tethered Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

    acting as leader of the tethered formation. An application of this problem arises when a distributed sensor array formed by a chain of tethered data-gathering vehicles is being commanded to reconfigure from a remote location by the formation leader. Another application is in radar mapping where multiple free-flying vehicles synthesize multiple apertures with the main tethered vehicle for increased coverage. In this way, a centralized control architecture distributes the information flow among the members of the sensor array. Defining an orbiting formation as an ensemble of orbiting spacecraft performing a cooperative task, we point out that, until now, only spacecraft modeled as rigid bodies have been analyzed in the literature of orbiting formations and constellations. After the formation is in place, one may identify what is known as the virtual truss, i.e. the connection between the elements of the formation, which provides structural rigidity on account of the information flow between them. Our problem is different than conventional formation dynamics problems in that the presence of a tethered spacecraft within the formation demands an investigation of the dynamics coupling between spacecraft caused by tether viscoelasticity. The dynamics model takes into account the orbital and spacecraft dynamics of each vehicle. The control architecture features a separated spacecraft, which has visibility to the entire group of tethered vehicles. This vehicle is the leader of the formation, and ensures that the spacecraft on the tether remain connected and move according to a pre-specified program. The control system design consists of a proportional-derivative feedback plus acceleration feedforward. This ensures that modeling errors are compensated appropriately, and that the commanded slew is tracked accurately. The leader is also where the centralized estimator is located. This estimator continuously updates the state of the formation and estimates inter

  3. Determination of potential hazelnut plantation areas based GIS model case study: Samsun city of central Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Esra Sarıoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the few countries in the world with a favourable climate for hazelnut production. In addition, it has the leading position in world hazelnut production and export, supplying about 70% of world’s production. However, hazelnut production exceeds the demand and new some regulations have been enacted to create new land use policies in Turkey. By putting into practice regulations restricting hazelnut plantation areas, a more efficient and productive hazelnut harvest policy could be created. Samsun city is one of the most important hazelnut production centres in Central Black Sea region. The main objective of this study is to determine potential hazelnut areas in Samsun city located Central Black Sea Region according to current regulations using geographic information system technique regarding to support hazelnut policy developers and organizations. According to the criteria dictated by government regulations, potential hazelnut area in Samsun province was determined and 86973 ha of the total area is suitable hazelnut area which is about 9.3% of whole province.

  4. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karydis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3 in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m−3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m−3 in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m−3 as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m−3 potassium, 1 μg m−3 magnesium, 2 μg m−3 sodium, and 3 μg m−3 calcium from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m−3 over these areas. PM1−10 (particulate matter with diameter between 1 and 10 μm chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m−3 in Texcoco Lake. PM1 ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m−3 and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m−3. The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium is encouraging. At the T0 measurement site, located in the

  5. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm) sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3) in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m-3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m-3) in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m-3) as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m-3 potassium, 1 μg m-3 magnesium, 2 μg m-3 sodium, and 3 μg m-3 calcium) from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m-3 over these areas. PM1-10 (particulate matter with diameter between 1 and 10 μm) chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m-3 in Texcoco Lake. PM1 ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m-3) and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m-3). The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) is encouraging. At the T0 measurement site, located in the Mexico City urban center, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.5 μg m-3, 3.5 μg m-3, 2.1 μg m-3, and 0.36 μg m-3, respectively. The corresponding predicted values are 3.7

  6. Economic and technical analysis of retrofit to cogenerating district energy systems: North-Central cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Davis, A.A.; Marder, S.M.

    1979-06-01

    Six major US cities (Washington, DC, St. Louis, Cleveland, Milwaukee, Detroit, and Chicago) were studied to achieve reasonably accurate estimates of costs required to retrofit them with district energy systems. Demand estimates and energy-supply analyses are made, and component capital costs are estimated to arrive at annualized system costs. Finally, a comparison of alternative energy delivery options is made, and estimates of scarce-fuel savings are derived.

  7. Microstructure characteristics of illite from Chuanlinggou Formation of Changcheng System in Jixian County, Tianjin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Tao; WANG; HeJing

    2007-01-01

    The microstructure charateristics of illite from the Chuanlinggou Formation of Changcheng System (Chch) in Jixian County, Tianjin City has been studied by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The Kübler index of "illite crystallinity" is 0.505°△2θ, which indicates that the host rock is in a middle diagenetic stage. The chemical analyses of EDS for illite studied indicate a heavily absent in interlayer cation and an average chemical formula of K0.57(Al1.80Mg0.42Fe2+0.12)∑=2.34 (Si2.92Al1.08)∑=4O10(OH)2. It is found, from one-dimensional lattice images, that the layers of illite not only stack in a flat way but also in a curving way. A "matting fabric" illite structure results from stacking faults. Combined with SAED analysis the illite studied can be affirmed as 1M illite. The two-dimensional lattice images are obtained from [100] and [110] incidences, whose lattice images have the same d-values but different intersecting angles. The two-dimensional lattice image with [100] incidence is orthogonal to each other, whilst that with [110] incidence is oblique. This paper provides some important structure information of authigenic clay minerals for the well-known mesoproterozoic section of Jixian County.

  8. A formative evaluation of the recovery public works programme in Blantyre City, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khembo, Felix; Chapman, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    Public works programmes (PWPs) are popular social protection instruments in the context of chronic poverty but very little has been published in the way of implementation and outcomes of these programmes. This paper presents a formative process and outcome evaluation of the recovery PWP in Blantyre City, Malawi. The evaluation used longitudinal household survey data of PWP beneficiaries, programme records and interview responses from programme staff and community leaders. Largely, the process evaluation findings showed an agreement between actual and planned activities. The outcome evaluation found indications that the PWP community assets offered some potential benefits to the communities, and that PWP wages allowed the beneficiaries to purchase some food. This however, did not translate into more meals per day, nor did the earnings prevent the decline in household assets as expected. Given a plausible PWP theory and high implementation fidelity, the PWP wage rate or number of days was either just enough to smooth participant income, or insufficient altogether, to enable achievement of more distal outcomes.

  9. CHAMBERED HEXACTINELLID SPONGES FROM UPPER TRIASSIC(NORIAN-RHAETIAN? REEFS OF NAYBAND FORMATION IN CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. SENOWBARI-DARYAN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes several chambered hexactinellid sponges, including Casearia iranica n.sp., C. vezvanensis n. sp., C. delijanensis n. sp., Esfahanella magna gen. n. n. sp., and E. parva gen. n. n. sp. from reefs of the Upper Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian Nayband Formation exposed south of the town of Delijan in central Iran. The relative abundance of chambered and non-chambered hexactinellid sponges at this locality - as compared to hypercalcified representatives - highlight the importance of this group of sponges in reef and reefal limestones in central and east Tethys (China, Caucasia, Iran. 

  10. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Outer Skirts of Kota City with Reference to its Potential of Scale Formation and Corrosivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kota City is a prominent industrial and educational town of Rajasthan state, India. Mega industrial projects of cement, fertilizers, power plant, oil seed processing units are located nearby the city. The groundwater of study area is used in domestic as well as in industrial activities. It is worthwhile to know the water quality status and its effect on entity, which is exposed in practical use. A comprehensive assessment of water quality parameters in groundwater samples drawn from 24 different locations, 6 sites from each direction at outer skirts of Kota City of Rajasthan, India, in four seasons of years 2006 to 2008 was carried out. To find out the suitability and stability of water, various indices available to assess the scale formation and corrosivity was used. The Langelier saturation index (LSI and Ryznar saturation index (RSI were calculated and discussed with respect to saturation level.

  11. Effect of isoprene emissions from major forests on ozone formation in the city of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Geng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambient surface level concentrations of isoprene (C5H8 were measured in the major forest regions located south of Shanghai, China. Because there is a large coverage of broad-leaved trees in this region, high concentrations of isoprene were measured, ranging from 1 to 6 ppbv. A regional dynamical/chemical model (WRF-Chem is applied for studying the effect of such high concentrations of isoprene on the ozone production in the city of Shanghai. The evaluation of the model shows that the calculated isoprene concentrations agree with the measured concentrations when the measured isoprene concentrations are lower than 3 ppb, but underestimate the measurements when the measured values are higher than 3 ppb. Isoprene was underestimated only at sampling sites near large bamboo plantations, a high isoprene source, indicating the need to include geospatially resolved bamboo distributions in the biogenic emission model. The assessment of the impact of isoprene on ozone formation suggests that the concentrations of peroxy radicals (RO2 are significantly enhanced due to the oxidation of isoprene, with a maximum of 30 ppt. However, the enhancement of RO2 is confined to the forested regions. Because the concentrations of NOx were low in the forest regions, the ozone production due to the oxidation of isoprene (C5H8 + OH → → RO2 + NO → → O3 is low (less than 2–3 ppb h−1. The calculation further suggests that the oxidation of isoprene leads to the enhancement of carbonyls (such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in the regions downwind of the forests, due to continuous oxidation of isoprene in the forest air. As a result, the concentrations of HO2 radical are enhanced, resulting from the photo-disassociation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Because the enhancement of HO2 radical occurs in regions downwind of the forests

  12. Costs of urban area retrofit to district heating and cooling systems: north-central cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D J; Davis, A A; Marder, S M

    1978-03-01

    This study considers the major urbanized areas of six U.S. cities (Washington, D.C.; St. Louis; Cleveland; Milwaukee; Detroit; Chicago) to arrive at reasonably accurate estimates of costs required to retrofit them with district heating and cooling systems. Only costs associated with heating and hot water are addressed here. Demand estimates and energy-supply analyses are made, and component capital costs are estimated to arrive at annualized system costs. Finally, a comparison of alternative energy-delivery options is made, and estimates of scarce-fuel savings are derived. 39 refs., 12 figs., 14 tables.

  13. Clinical and Pathological Investigation on Turkey Diseases in North-central City of Jos, Nigeria, 2009-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Babatunde Akanbi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on turkey production and disease is rare in Nigeria, possibly because turkeys are seldom raised commercially. Also, turkeys require intensive husbandry and health care after hatching, which backyard poultry producers hardly provided especially, when raised in a disease endemic environment. In an attempt to document the diseases militating against turkey production in Nigeria, clinical and necropsy records were reviewed from veterinary practices in Jos and the Central Diagnostic Laboratory of the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI, Vom, Nigeria between 2009 - 2014. A total of 306 turkeys from backyard flocks were presented to the Veterinary clinics between 2009-2014 with various health complaints by backyard flock owners. Viral (Pox and Newcastle disease and parasitic (Helminthosis, Coccidiosis and Ectoparasitism diseases were mostly diagnosed. During the same period, 42 samples comprising 25 carcasses and 17 cloacal swabs were submitted for post mortem examination, virus isolation and microbiological test. Colisepticaemia, colibacillosis, pullorum disease, airsacculitis and infectious sinusitis are the main diseases diagnosed at post-mortem examination and microbiological test, while none of the samples were positive for influenza by virus isolation. It was observed that turkey rearing was small-scaled and kept as backyard poultry in North-central Nigeria. It can therefore be concluded from this study that turkeys raised in north-central city of Jos are affected by diseases ranging from viral to bacterial and parasitic, which can adversely affect productivity. This can therefore be improved upon by controlling the diseases mostly affecting turkeys.

  14. Deep structure of the central Lesser Antilles Island Arc : relevance for the formation of continental crust

    OpenAIRE

    H. Kopp; Weinzierl, W.; Becel, A.; Charvis, Philippe; Evain, M.; Flueh, E. R.; Gailler, A.; Galve, A.; Hirn, A.; Kandilarov, A.; D. Klaeschen; M. Laigle; Papenberg, C.; L. Planert; Roux, E.

    2011-01-01

    Oceanic island arcs are sites of high magma production and contribute to the formation of continental crust. Geophysical studies may provide information on the configuration and composition of island arc crust, however, to date only few seismic profiles exist across active island arcs, limiting our knowledge on the deep structure and processes related to the production of arc crust. We acquired active-source wide-angle seismic data crossing the central Lesser Antilles island arc north of Domi...

  15. QUENCHING OF STAR FORMATION IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY GROUPS: CENTRALS, SATELLITES, AND GALACTIC CONFORMITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knobel, Christian; Lilly, Simon J.; Woo, Joanna; Kovač, Katarina, E-mail: christian.knobel@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-02-10

    We re-examine the fraction of low-redshift Sloan Digital Sky Survey satellites and centrals in which star formation has been quenched, using the environment quenching efficiency formalism that separates out the dependence of stellar mass. We show that the centrals of the groups containing the satellites are responding to the environment in the same way as their satellites (at least for stellar masses above 10{sup 10.3} M {sub ☉}), and that the well-known differences between satellites and the general set of centrals arise because the latter are overwhelmingly dominated by isolated galaxies. The widespread concept of ''satellite quenching'' as the cause of environmental effects in the galaxy population can therefore be generalized to ''group quenching''. We then explore the dependence of the quenching efficiency of satellites on overdensity, group-centric distance, halo mass, the stellar mass of the satellite, and the stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR) of its central, trying to isolate the effect of these often interdependent variables. We emphasize the importance of the central sSFR in the quenching efficiency of the associated satellites, and develop the meaning of this ''galactic conformity'' effect in a probabilistic description of the quenching of galaxies. We show that conformity is strong, and that it varies strongly across parameter space. Several arguments then suggest that environmental quenching and mass quenching may be different manifestations of the same underlying process. The marked difference in the apparent mass dependencies of environment quenching and mass quenching which produces distinctive signatures in the mass functions of centrals and satellites will arise naturally, since, for satellites at least, the distributions of the environmental variables that we investigate in this work are essentially independent of the stellar mass of the satellite.

  16. Analyses and thought on countermeasures for the family formation trend among floating population in Wuhan city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Sun, L

    1997-01-01

    The familized floating population in China consists of families formed from blood kinship networks of floating population. This study examines the size of the familized floating population in Wuhan City in 1995 and the negative impacts for urban management, supplies, family planning, education, and employment. Floating population families are formed due to the presence of rural and urban differences, the desire for income, and a goal of permanent urban residence with family stability and steady economic gains. Data were obtained from a 1% sample survey among the floating population who lived in rented, borrowed, or self-built houses or apartments for over 6 months. 69.2% of the floating population, or 335,000 people, were familized floating population. 55.01% of the familized floating population were women, and 60.41% of the laborers were women. 33.50% of the women who "should" be employed were not. 50% of the women in some districts were unemployed. 30.61% were children under 14 years of age. The dependency burden for the employed floating population was greater than for the urban employed population. The birth rate among the familized floating population was 44.60%. 89.59% of women aged older than 15 years in the familized floating population were of childbearing age. Most had a low level of education. The floating population creates the need for educating 15,000 new students every year; this requires construction of 10 new schools every year. The floating population increases the need to produce more electricity, clothing, food, houses, and other services or facilities. The floating population brings norms about a higher family size, which challenges urban residents' beliefs and impedes smooth implementation of the family planning policy. Management needs to regulate population flow, reduce consumption, and control family formation and childbearing. Management needs to increase mobility costs.

  17. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the mexico city metropolitan area during the milagro campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karydis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m−3 in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m−3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m−3 in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m−3 as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m−3 potassium, 1 μg m−3 magnesium, 2 μg m−3 sodium, and 3 μg m−3 calcium from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m−3 over these areas. PM1−10 chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m−3 in Texcoco Lake. PM ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m−3 and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m−3. The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium is encouraging. At T0, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.6 μg m−3, 3.6 μg m−3, 2.1 μg m

  18. MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR-FORMATION PROPERTIES IN THE CENTRAL AND BAR REGIONS OF NGC 6946

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Hsi-An; Sorai, Kazuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University, Kita 10, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Kuno, Nario [Division of Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Koda, Jin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Hirota, Akihiko [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Kaneko, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hapan@astro1.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, NAOJ, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)

    2015-12-10

    In this work, we investigate the molecular gas and star-formation properties in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 using multiple molecular lines and star-formation tracers. A high-resolution image (100 pc) of {sup 13}CO (1–0) is created for the inner 2 kpc disk by the single-dish Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope and interferometer Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, including the central region (nuclear ring and bar) and the offset ridges of the primary bar. Single-dish HCN (1–0) observations were also made to constrain the amount of dense gas. The physical properties of molecular gas are inferred from (1) the large velocity gradient calculations using our observations and archival {sup 12}CO (1–0), {sup 12}CO(2–1) data, (2) the dense gas fraction suggested by the luminosity ratio of HCN to {sup 12}CO (1–0), and (3) the infrared color. The results show that the molecular gas in the central region is warmer and denser than that of the offset ridges. The dense gas fraction of the central region is similar to that of luminous infrared galaxies/ultraluminous infrared galaxies, whereas the offset ridges are close to the global average of normal galaxies. The coolest and least-dense region is found in a spiral-like structure, which was misunderstood to be part of the southern primary bar in previous low-resolution observations. The star-formation efficiency (SFE) changes by about five times in the inner disk. The variation of SFE agrees with the prediction in terms of star formation regulated by the galactic bar. We find a consistency between the star-forming region and the temperature inferred by the infrared color, suggesting that the distribution of subkiloparsec-scale temperature is driven by star formation.

  19. Coral microbial community dynamics in response to anthropogenic impacts near a major city in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren

    2016-01-04

    Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy.

  20. Hydrogeology and water-quality conditions at the City of Olathe Landfill, east-central Kansas, 1990-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, P.P.; Shockley, J.C.; Hargadine, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Water quality at the City of Olathe Landfill in east-central Kansas was examined in relation to hydrogeologic conditions to help determine the effects of the landfill on shallow ground water. This study focused on the Wyandotte and Plattsburg Limestones underlying the landfill. The Wyandotte Limestone underlies the entire landfill, whereas the overlying Plattsburg Limestone crops out within the landffll boundaries. Little Cedar Creek, an unnamed tributary, and a pond are located in the landfill. Water samples from seven monitoring wells and five surface-water sites in the vicinity of the City of Olathe Landfill were collected for analysis of inorganic and organic constituents. The inorganic constituents in the ground water that are most affected in the vicinity of the landfill are calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, ammonia, barium, iron, and manganese. The dissolved- organic-carbon concentration at a seep flowing from the Plattsburg Limestone was 1,400 milligrams per liter, indicating that the landfill is affecting the water quality near the seep. Benzene was detected in all of the water samples, and the largest concentration was in a sample collected upgradient of the landfill. The benzene concentration exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (0.005 milligram per liter) for drinking-water supplies. Six of the eight specific organic compounds detected were found in a water sample collected from the Plattsburg Limestone immediately downgradient of the landfill. No organic compoands, except benzene, were detected in samples collected from the Wyandotte Limestone downgradient of the landfill.

  1. Climate change and cities: why urban agendas are central to adaptation and mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Hannah; Satterthwaite, David

    2007-12-15

    Cities could hold the key to slowing and eventually stopping global warming. Most greenhouse gas emissions are generated from producing the goods and services used by middle- and upper-income urban consumers. Keeping global warming within safe limits demands far more energy-efficient urban buildings and production systems and urban lifestyles that are far less carbon-intensive. It is up to high-income nations — the biggest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions past and present — to show how such a transformation can be combined with high living standards. However, urgent action is also needed in the urban areas of low- and middleincome countries, both through mitigation to curb greenhouse gas emissions, and adaptation to the serious risks that climate change brings.

  2. What controls star formation in the central 500 pc of the Galaxy?

    CERN Document Server

    Kruijssen, J M Diederik; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Murray, Norman; Bally, John; Testi, Leonardo; Kennicutt, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    The star formation rate (SFR) in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ, i.e. the central 500 pc) of the Milky Way is lower by a factor of >10 than expected for the substantial amount of dense gas it contains, which challenges current star formation theories. In this paper, we quantify which physical mechanisms could be causing this observation. On scales larger than the disc scale height, the low SFR is found to be consistent with episodic star formation due to secular instabilities or variations of the gas inflow along the Galactic bar. The CMZ is marginally Toomre-stable when including gas and stars, but highly Toomre-stable when only accounting for the gas, indicating that the condensation of self-gravitating clouds may be limited. On small scales, we find that the SFR in the CMZ is consistent with an elevated critical density for star formation due to the high turbulent pressure - potentially aided by weak magnetic effects and an underproduction of massive stars due to a bottom-heavy IMF. The existence of a uni...

  3. CABINETS OPERATING RULES AND COALITIONN FORMATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA IRINA IONITA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After the fall of communism in the late ’80 in Central and Eastern Europe, due to the appearance of several political parties in each state, there was the need to form coalitions in order to provide support for the governments. This paper aims to identify the institutional features that influence the coalition formation process using the rational choice institutionalism approach. In this case, the political parties, who seek to optimize their benefits in the government formation process, are constrained by the institutional environment. The institutional environment comprises the rules that determine how the governments are formed. Particularly, this paper aim is to identify how the cabinet operating rules affect the outcomes of the coalition formation process. In order to do so, I will develop a quantitative analysis of 110 cabinets in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria formed after the first free elections subsequent to the communist fall until the beginning of 2010. These countries represent the post-communist states that joined the European Union, finalizing the democratization process at least from a formal point a view. This cross-country comparison tries to explain how some institutional features influence the formation of coalitions in new democracies. This research is valuable due to the lack of this type of comparative studies on Central and Eastern European states.

  4. Biofilm formation in long-term central venous catheters in children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handrup, Mette Møller; Fuursted, Kurt; Funch, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    Taurolidine has demonstrated inhibition of biofilm formation in vitro. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of catheter locking with taurolidine vs heparin in biofilm formation in central venous catheters. Forty-eight children with cancer were randomized to catheter locking by heparin (n...... = 22) or taurolidine (n = 26), respectively. After removal, catheters were examined by standardized scanning electron microscopy to assess quantitative biofilm formation. Biofilm was present if morphologically typical structures and bacterial cells were identified. Quantitative and semi......-quantitative cultures were also performed. Biofilm was identified in 23 of 26 catheters from the taurolidine group and 21 of 22 catheters from the heparin group. A positive culture was made of six of the catheters locked with taurolidine and heparin, respectively (p = 0.78). The rate of catheter-related bloodstream...

  5. A record of the upper Olduvai geomagnetic polarity transition from a sediment core in southern Yokohama City, Pacific side of central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusu, Chie; Okada, Makoto; Nozaki, Atsushi; Majima, Ryuichi; Wada, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    A detailed paleomagnetic record of the upper Olduvai polarity transition was obtained from a 106.72 m-long sediment core drilled in southern Yokohama City, located on the northern Miura Peninsula, on the Pacific side of central Japan. The core spans the upper part of the Nojima Formation and the lowermost part of the Ofuna Formation, both of which correspond to the middle Kazusa Group (Lower Pleistocene forearc basin fill). The record was reconstructed using discrete specimens taken throughout mudstone and/or sandy mudstone sequences in the Nojima Formation. In this record, the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) fluctuation accompanying the polarity transition was determined to occur between depths of 66.99 and 63.60 m. These depths have been dated at 1784.4 and 1779.9 ka, respectively, and the duration of the polarity transition is estimated to be 4.5 kyr using an age model based on a δ18O record from that core. The VGP paths during the transition do not appear to show any preferred longitudinal bands. However, the VGP positions cluster in five areas: (A) eastern Asia near Japan, (B) the Middle East, (C) eastern North America (North Atlantic), (D) off southern Australasia, and (E) the southern South Atlantic off South Africa. The primary locations of the observed VGP clusters coincide with the areas on the Earth's surface that possess a strong downward flux of the vertical component of the present geomagnetic non-axial dipole field. The relative paleointensity rapidly decreased approximately 1 kyr before the beginning of the polarity transition and gradually recovered to its initial level in 12 kyr.

  6. 'Then give him to the crocodiles' : violence, State formation, and cultural discontinuity in west central Zambia, 1600-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to explore the extent to which violence can be said to underlie any form of Stae formation in precolonial Africa. This is done by examining the role of violence in State formation in west central Zambia from the 17th century onwards. The chapter shows that State format

  7. Relationship Between Distribution of Residents’ Travels and Intensity of Mixed Land-use:A Case Study on Central Districts of Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>In recent years,the land-use structure of Guangzhou City has greatly changed along with the expansion of city size and the trans-formation of spatial layout,employment market,and real estate market,influencing in consequence the layouts of housing and employment and then the distribution of residents’ travels.The study on the relationship between the distribution of residents’ travels

  8. Intraurban Differences of Surface Energy Fluxes in a Central European City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerle, B.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Fortuniak, K.; Pawlak, W.

    2006-01-01

    Surface properties, such as roughness and vegetation, which vary both within and between urban areas, play a dominant role in determining surface atmosphere energy exchanges. The turbulent heat flux partitioning is examined within a single urban area through measurements at four locations in Łódź, Poland, during August 2002. The dominant surface cover (land use) at the sites was grass (airport), 1 3-story detached houses with trees (residential), large 2 4-story buildings (industrial), and 3 6-story buildings (downtown). However, vegetation, buildings, and other “impervious” surface coverage vary within some of these sites on the scale of the turbulent flux measurements. Vegetation and building cover for Łódź were determined from remotely sensed data and an existing database. A source-area model was then used to develop a lookup table to estimate surface cover fractions more accurately for individual measurements. Bowen ratios show an inverse relation with increasing vegetation cover both for a site and, more significant, between sites, as expected. Latent heat fluxes at the residential site were less dependent on short-term rainfall than at the grass site. Sensible heat fluxes were positively correlated with impervious surface cover and building intensity. These results are consistent with previous findings (focused mainly on differences between cities) and highlight the value of simple measures of land cover as predictors of spatial variations of urban climates both within and between urban areas.

  9. Bar-induced central star formation as revealed by integral field spectroscopy from CALIFA

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin; He, Yanqin; Xiao, Ting; Wang, Enci

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the recent star formation history (SFH) in the inner region of 57 nearly face-on spiral galaxies selected from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. For each galaxy we use the integral field spectroscopy from CALIFA to obtain two-dimensional maps and radial profiles of three parameters that are sensitive indicators of the recent SFH: the 4000\\AA\\ break (D$_n$(4000)), and the equivalent width of H$\\delta$ absorption (EW(H$\\delta_A$)) and H$\\alpha$ emission (EW(H$\\alpha$)). We have also performed photometric decomposition of bulge/bar/disk components based on SDSS optical image. We identify a class of 17 "turnover" galaxies whose central region present significant drop in D$_n$(4000), and most of them correspondingly show a central upturn in EW(H$\\delta_A$) and EW(H$\\alpha$). This indicates that the central region of the turnover galaxies has experienced star formation in the past 1-2 Gyr, which makes the bulge younger and more star-forming than surrounding regions. We find a...

  10. SMALLER FORAMINIFERS FROM THE LOWER PERMIAN EMARAT FORMATION, EAST OF FIRUZKUH (CENTRAL ALBORZ, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMED YARAHMADZAHI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The uppermost Carboniferous-Lower Permian Dorud Group of the Gaduk section in Central Alborz (Iran is more than 44 m-thick; it includes thick succession of conglomerates, quartzarenites, calcareous sandstones, oncolitic fusulinid limestones, sandy limestones, sandstones and shales. The Toyeh, Emarat and Shah Zeid formations of this Group were dated from the Gzhelian to the Sakmarian. A review of the uppermost Gzhelian, Asselian and lower Sakmarian smaller foraminifers of the Emarat Formation of the Gaduk section is here presented. Three foraminiferal biozones are defined: the Nodosinelloides shikhanica-Geinitzina primitiva Zone is latest Gzhelian in age; the Nodosinelloides spp.-Geinitzina spp.-Pseudoacutella partoazari Zone is Asselian; the Rectogordius iranicus gadukensis-Endothyra cf. bamberi Zone is early Sakmarian in age. A new subspecies Rectogordius iranicus gadukensis n. subsp. is described, and the genera Pseudovidalina and Grovesella are discussed. The studied assemblages are correlated with those from the Carnic Alps (Austria-Italy, East European Platform of Russia, the Urals (Russia, Darvaz (Uzbekistan, the northern and central Pamirs (Tajikistan, Central Iran, northern Afghanistan and other classical regions of the Tethyan realm.

  11. Bar Effects on Central Star Formation and Active Galactic Nucleus Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seulhee; Oh, Kyuseok; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2012-01-01

    Galactic bars are often suspected to be channels of gas inflow to the galactic center and to trigger central star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. However, the current status on this issue based on empirical studies is unsettling, especially regarding AGNs. We investigate this question based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. From the nearby (0.01 inspection. We found 36% of them to have a bar. Bars are found to be more common in galaxies with earlier morphology. This makes sample selection critical. Parameter-based selections would miss a large fraction of barred galaxies of early morphology. Bar effects on star formation or AGNs are difficult to understand properly because multiple factors (bar frequency, stellar mass, black hole mass, gas contents, etc.) seem to contribute to them in intricate manners. In the hope of breaking these degeneracies, we inspect bar effects for fixed galaxy properties. Bar effects on central star formation seem higher in redder galaxies. Bar effects on AGNs on the other hand are higher in bluer and less massive galaxies. These effects seem more pronounced with increasing bar length. We discuss possible implications in terms of gas contents, bar strength, bar evolution, fueling timescale, and the dynamical role of supermassive black hole.

  12. Stellar Ages and Metallicities of Central and Satellite Galaxies: Implications for Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, Anna; Fontanot, Fabio; Bosch, Frank C van den; De Lucia, Gabriella; Mo, H J; Yang, Xiaohu

    2009-01-01

    Using a large SDSS galaxy group catalogue, we study how the stellar ages and metallicities of central and satellite galaxies depend on stellar mass and halo mass. We find that satellites are older and metal-richer than centrals of the same stellar mass. In addition, the slopes of the age-stellar mass and metallicity-stellar mass relations are found to become shallower in denser environments. This is due to the fact that the average age and metallicity of low mass satellite galaxies increase with the mass of the halo in which they reside. A comparison with the semi-analytical model of Wang et al. (2008) shows that it succesfully reproduces the fact that satellites are older than centrals of the same stellar mass and that the age difference increases with the halo mass of the satellite. This is a consequence of strangulation, which leaves the stellar populations of satellites to evolve passively, while the prolonged star formation activity of centrals keeps their average ages younger. The resulting age offset i...

  13. Distributions, sources and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloids in the street dust of a heavily industrialized city of central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Li, Guanghui; Bi, Xiangyang; Zhu, Jianming; Qin, Haibo; Dai, Zhihui; Liu, Jinling; Li, Qiuhua; Sun, Guangyi

    2013-11-01

    A series of representative street dust samples were collected from a heavily industrialized city, Zhuzhou, in central China, with the aim to investigate the spatial distribution and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloid elements. Concentrations of twelve elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As, Sb, In, Bi, Tl, Ag and Ga) were distinctly amplified by atmospheric deposition resulting from a large scale Pb/Zn smelter located in the northwest fringe of the city, and followed a declining trend towards the city center. Three metals (W, Mo and Co) were enriched in samples very close to a hard alloy manufacturing plant, while Ni and Cr appeared to derive predominantly from natural sources. Other industries and traffic had neglectable effects on the accumulation of observed elements. Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the five metal/metalloids with highest pollution levels and the northwestern part of city is especially affected by heavy metal pollution.

  14. ESCO FORMATION AS ENABLING FACTOR FOR SMART CITIES DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPEAN UNION (UE: SPAIN CASE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Morcillo Bellido

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities have reached a huge magnitude and they represent great potential improvement platforms for wealth, employment and competitiveness creation, but also they involve an enormous amount of complexity that emphasized their future management challenges. Cities evolution could be seen as a strong trend towards the development of more efficient and livable cities that have been called "Smart Cities", where one of key topics is linked to how efficiently scarce resources are managed. This document analyzes the development of Energy Service Companies (ESCO in Spain, as a type of organization preliminary focused on promoting and managing projects related to the efficient use of energy, being their business success linked to energy savings achieved by their clients and getting their revenue from these achieved savings. Outcome of this study expects to provide information of interest to understand the current development of ESCO model projects in Spain as example of what is happening in several major European Union (EU countries in relation to Smart Cities development and subsequence ESCO growth, the important barriers they currently face to grow faster, and to find evidences of how collaboration between organizations could facilitate energy efficiency management, which at the end is linked to a better understanding of the future development of “Smart Cities” initiatives in EU countries.

  15. Central Pit and Dome Formation as Seen in Occator Crater, Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.; Buczkowski, Debra; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Schmidt, Britney E.; O'Brien, David P.; Hiesinger, Harald; Sizemore, Hanna G.; Ammannito, Eleonora; Raymond, Carol; Russell, Christopher T.; Dawn Science Team

    2016-10-01

    Dawn mapping of Ceres revealed that central depressions (or pits) are common in craters >75 km. The best preserved of these is Occator (D~92 km), where the pit is associated with a major bright deposit dominated by carbonates. The pit is ~9 km wide, 600-800 m deep and flanked by asymmetric massifs 0.7 to 1.3 km high. The pit is partially filled by a fractured central dome ~3 km wide and 700 m high. Fracturing could have been due to dome inflation by "magma" or by subsurface freezing of ice. Within the bright material, two color units are mapped, including a paler surface unit and a more yellowish to reddish unit exposed within the most fractured parts of the dome surface and at small bright spots, at least some of which could be post-Occator small craters. Some bright materials form as discrete small spots midslope along the pit wall and others avoid small hills, suggesting partial topographic control. Stratigraphic relations are ambiguous but suggest formation of a smooth carapace some meters thick that was subsequently disrupted by fractures crossing the floor of Occator, and by uplift of the dome surface. Pit and dome morphologies, including dome fracturing are potentially analogous to central pits and domes in many craters on Ganymede and Callisto, suggesting some commonality in formation processes. The absence of center pits or domes on Saturnian satellites could be related to much lower temperatures on those bodies. The prominence of central pits and domes on Ceres confirms the importance of volatile materials, mostly likely water ice, in the outer layers of Ceres, especially as compared to Vesta.

  16. Formation of a galaxy with a central black hole in the Lemaitre-Tolman model

    CERN Document Server

    Krasinski, A; Krasinski, Andrzej; Hellaby, Charles

    2004-01-01

    We construct two models of the formation a galaxy with a central black hole, starting from a small initial fluctuation at recombination. This is an application of previously developed methods to find a Lemaitre-Tolman model that evolves from a given initial density or velocity profile to a given final density profile. We show that the black hole itself could be either a collapsed object, or a non-vacuum generalisation of a full Schwarzschild-Kruskal-Szekeres wormhole. Particular attention is paid to the black hole's apparent and event horizons.

  17. Rheomorphic ignimbrites of the Rogerson Formation, central Snake River plain, USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Thomas R.; Reichow, Marc K.; Branney, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Rogerson Graben, USA, is critically placed at the intersection between the Yellowstone hotspot track and the southern projection of the west Snake River rift. Eleven rhyolitic members of the re-defined, ≥420-m-thick, Rogerson Formation record voluminous high-temperature explosive eruptions...... by a trend towards less-evolved rhyolites that may record melting and hybridisation of a mid-crustal source region. Contemporaneous magmatism-induced crustal subsidence of the central Snake River Basin is recorded by successive ignimbrites offlapping and thinning up the N-facing limb of a regional basin...

  18. The relationship between weathering and welding degree of pyroclastic rocks in the Kilistra ancient city, Konya (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdaǧ, Ali; Bayram, A. Ferat; İnce, İsmail; Asan, Kürşad

    2016-11-01

    Pyroclastic rocks used in both historical and modern structures are inevitably exposed to various weathering processes, leading to damage and destruction of them. To reduce the effects of weathering caused by various atmospheric effects, geologists need to know what processes are more effective and how they affect rock bodies. In this study, our aim is to show the relationship between the weathering and welding degree of pyroclastic rocks, sampled around the Ancient City of Kilistra in Konya (Central Anatolia, Turkey). For this purpose, we conducted field trips, and used petrographic and laboratory techniques such as, physico-mechanical tests and accelerated weathering tests (i.e., Freeze-Thaw, F-T; Wetting-Drying, W-D and Salt Crystallization, SC). Pyroclastic rocks around Kilistra ancient city comprise two different sub-units: the unwelded, lower pyroclastic unit (LPU) and the welded, upper pyroclastic unit (UPU). Following cycles of F-T and SC tests, we observed an increase in porosity values, but a decrease in uniaxial compressive strength values, which was more evident in unwelded-LPU samples. Also, the significant macroscopic textural changes occurred in LPU samples, linked to their unwelded nature. However, physico-mechanical features of both LPU and UPU samples were not significantly changed after W-D tests. Altogether, our findings show that welding degree is one of the main factors controlling weathering and physico-mechanical properties of pyroclastic rocks, and also F-T and SC are more effective processes than W-D on weathering. Accordingly, our approach here could be used to protect the endangered historical structures carved into pyroclastic rocks around the world.

  19. Microfacies and diagenesis of the reefal limestone, Callovian Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation, central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Almadani, Sattam A.; Al-Dabbagh, Mohammad E.

    2016-03-01

    In order to document the microfacies and diagenesis of the reefal limestone in the uppermost part of the Callovian Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation at Khashm Al-Qaddiyah area, central Saudi Arabia, scleractinian corals and rock samples were collected and thin sections were prepared. Coral framestone, coral floatstone, pelloidal packstone, bioclastic packstone, bioclastic wacke/packstone, algal wackestone and bioclastic foraminiferal wacke/packstone were the recorded microfacies types. Cementation, recrystallization, silicification and dolomitization are the main diagenetic alterations affected the aragonitic skeletons of scleractinian corals. All coral skeletons were recrystallized, while some ones were dolomitized and silicified. Microfacies types, as well as the fossil content of sclearctinian corals, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods and foraminifera indicated a deposition in environments ranging from shelf lagoon with open circulation in quiet water below wave base to shallow reef flank and organic build up for the uppermost reefal part of the Tuwaiq Formation in the study area.

  20. Shale gas reservoir characteristics of Ordovician-Silurian formations in the central Yangtze area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chang'an; Zhang, Tingshan; Wei, Yong; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    The characteristics of a shale gas reservoir and the potential of a shale gas resource of Ordovician-Silurian age in the north of the central Yangtze area were determined. Core samples from three wells in the study area were subjected to thin-section examination, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance testing, X-ray diffraction mineral analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) testing, maturity testing, gas-bearing analysis, and gas component and isothermal adsorption experiments. A favorable segment of the gas shale reservoir was found in both the Wufeng Formation and the lower part of the Longmaxi Formation; these formations were formed from the late Katian to early Rhuddanian. The high-quality shale layers in wells J1, J2, and J3 featured thicknesses of 54.88 m, 48.49 m, and 52.00 m, respectively, and mainly comprised carbonaceous and siliceous shales. Clay and brittle minerals showed average contents of 37.5% and 62.5% (48.9% quartz), respectively. The shale exhibited type II1 kerogens with a vitrinite reflectance ranging from 1.94% to 3.51%. TOC contents of 0.22%-6.05% (average, 2.39%) were also observed. The reservoir spaces mainly included micropores and microfractures and were characterized by low porosity and permeability. Well J3 showed generally high gas contents, i.e., 1.12-3.16 m3/t (average 2.15 m3/t), and its gas was primarily methane. The relatively thick black shale reservoir featured high TOC content, high organic material maturity, high brittle mineral content, high gas content, low porosity, and low permeability. Shale gas adsorption was positively correlated with TOC content and organic maturity, weakly positive correlated with quartz content, and weakly negatively correlated with clay content. Therefore, the Wufeng and Longmaxi formations in the north of the central Yangtze area have a good potential for shale gas exploration.

  1. Shale gas reservoir characteristics of Ordovician-Silurian formations in the central Yangtze area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chang'an; Zhang, Tingshan; Wei, Yong; Zhang, Zhao

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of a shale gas reservoir and the potential of a shale gas resource of Ordovician-Silurian age in the north of the central Yangtze area were determined. Core samples from three wells in the study area were subjected to thin-section examination, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance testing, X-ray diffraction mineral analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) testing, maturity testing, gas-bearing analysis, and gas component and isothermal adsorption experiments. A favorable segment of the gas shale reservoir was found in both the Wufeng Formation and the lower part of the Longmaxi Formation; these formations were formed from the late Katian to early Rhuddanian. The high-quality shale layers in wells J1, J2, and J3 featured thicknesses of 54.88 m, 48.49 m, and 52.00 m, respectively, and mainly comprised carbonaceous and siliceous shales. Clay and brittle minerals showed average contents of 37.5% and 62.5% (48.9% quartz), respectively. The shale exhibited type II1 kerogens with a vitrinite reflectance ranging from 1.94% to 3.51%. TOC contents of 0.22%-6.05% (average, 2.39%) were also observed. The reservoir spaces mainly included micropores and microfractures and were characterized by low porosity and permeability. Well J3 showed generally high gas contents, i.e., 1.12-3.16 m3/t (average 2.15 m3/t), and its gas was primarily methane. The relatively thick black shale reservoir featured high TOC content, high organic material maturity, high brittle mineral content, high gas content, low porosity, and low permeability. Shale gas adsorption was positively correlated with TOC content and organic maturity, weakly positive correlated with quartz content, and weakly negatively correlated with clay content. Therefore, the Wufeng and Longmaxi formations in the north of the central Yangtze area have a good potential for shale gas exploration.

  2. Towards a multi-scale understanding of the gas-star formation cycle in the Central Molecular Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Kruijssen, J M Diederik

    2016-01-01

    The Central Molecular Zone (CMZ, the central 500 pc of the Milky Way) contains the largest reservoir of high-density molecular gas in the Galaxy, but forms stars at a rate 10-100 times below commonly-used star formation relations. We discuss recent efforts in understanding how the nearest galactic nucleus forms its stars. The latest models of the gas inflow, star formation, and feedback duty cycle reproduce the main observable features of the CMZ, showing that star formation is episodic and that the CMZ currently resides at a star formation minimum. Using orbital modelling, we derive the three-dimensional geometry of the CMZ and show how the orbital dynamics and the star formation potential of the gas are closely coupled. We discuss how this coupling reveals the physics of star formation and feedback under the conditions seen in high-redshift galaxies, and promotes the formation of the densest stellar clusters in the Galaxy.

  3. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and paleontology of lower Eocene San Jose formation, central San Juan basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, S.G.; Smith, L.N. (New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Albuquerque (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The lower Eocene San Jose Formation in the central portion of the San Juan basin (Gobernador-Vigas Canyon area) consists of the Cuba Mesa, Regina, Llaves, and Tapicitos Members. Well log data indicate that, from its 100-m thickness, the Cuba Mesa Member thins toward the basin center and pinches out to the northeast by lat. 36{degree}40'N, long. 107{degree}19'W. The Regina Member has the most extensive outcrops in the central basin, and it decreases in sandstone/mud rock ratio to the north. The Llaves and Tapicitos Members occur only at the highest elevations, are thin due to erosion, and are not mappable as separate units. Well log data and 1,275 m of measured stratigraphic section in the Regina, Llaves, and Tapicitos Members indicate these strata are composed of approximately 35% medium to coarse-grained sandstone and 65% fine-grained sandstone and mud rock. Sedimentology and sediment-dispersal patterns indicate deposition by generally south-flowing streams that had sources to the northwest, northeast, and east. Low-sinuosity, sand-bedded, braided( ) streams shifted laterally across about 1 km-wide channel belts to produce sheet sandstones that are prominent throughout the San Jose Formation. Subtle levees separated channel environments from floodplain and local lacustrine areas. Avulsion relocated channels periodically to areas on the floodplain, resulting in the typically disconnected sheet sandstones within muddy overbank deposits of the Regina Member.

  4. Landscape Effects of Land Consolidation Projects in Central China——A Case Study of Tianmen City, Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xiaokun; DAI Bing; CHEN Baiming

    2008-01-01

    The goal of land consolidation in China is still to develop agricultural production. The study of landscapeeffects of land consolidation projects (LCPs) faces many difficulties because of the lack of government's interest anddata. This paper, taking Tianmen City of Hubei Province in Central China as an example, presents a methodology foranalyzing landscape effects of LCPs by GIS and Fragstats3.3. It describes landscape effects with indexes of PatchDensity (PD), Largest Patch Index (LPI), Landscape Shape Index (LSI), Interspersion and Juxtaposition Index (IJI),Aggregation Index (AI), and Shannon's Diversity Index (SHDI), showing more regular shape, simpler structure andless habitat diversity after LCPs. It computes ten landscape indexes of four categories of patches including CultivatedLand, Road, Water Channel, and River and Pond. The indexes show that 1) cultivated land becomes more fragmentalin patch area, less irregular in patch shape and more concentrated in block; 2) the transport capacity of roads and irri-gation and drainage capacity of water channels have been improved; 3) the landscape change of river and pond can besummarized as decreasing scale, more regular shape, reducing connectivity and diversity of the class. LCPs can facili-tate agricultural production as well as protect cultivated land and food security. However, it is doubted that the increaseof cultivated land from LCPs results from the reducing in landscape diversity of water area.

  5. Curve control, development and phenotypic bad formations in poodle the city of Medellin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ortiz Á

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Quantifying phenotypic malformations and make a curve control and development of the breed Poodle puppies in the city of Medellin. Materials and methods. We analyzed 60 individuals, 30 females and 30 males were measured and weighed from 2 to 12 months of age with these data, build a table and a control growth curve and after about 12 months of age there were the Phenotypic malformations, which are considered by the American Kennel Club (AKC and Cynological International (FCI. Results. Of the specimens analyzed, 10% had bone spurs, cryptorchidism 20%, 5% had polidoncia a year old, with teeth retained teeth more often. Conclusions. In an effort to find examples of smaller faults have been committed at the time of mating, resulting in increased phenotypic malformations found in the study, this work also provide veterinarians, another tool for assessing pediatric puppies Poodle race in the city of Medellin.

  6. Sedimentary characteristics of tide-dominated estuary in Donghetang Formation(Upper Devonian), central Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Donghetang Formation (Upper Devonian) in central Tarim Basin has been thought an important oil and gas reservoir since the abundant oil and gas resources were found in the wells W16, W20, W34, and other fields. However, the sedimentary environment of the Donghetang Formation has been disputed because it suffered from both tidal and fluvial actions and there were not rich fossils in the sandstone. After the authors analyzed sedimentary features by means of drill cores, well logging data, paleosols, and with SEM obseruations, three kinds of sedimentary environments were distinguished: alluvial fan, tide-dominated estuary, and shelf. Particularly, the sedimentary features of tide-dominated estuary were studied in detail. Besides, the authors discussed sedimentary characteristics of the Donghetang Formation which was divided into two fourth-order sequences and five system tracts. At the same time, according to the forming process of five system tracts, the whole vertical evolution and lateral transition of tide-dominated estuary were illustrated clearly. Finally, the reservoir quality was evaluated based on porosity and permeability.

  7. New Particle Formation Above a Loblolly Pine Forest at a New Tower Site in Central Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerger, V.; O'Halloran, T. L.; Barr, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    We present initial results investigating the environmental controls on new particle formation events at a new research site in central Virginia. The Sweet Briar College Land-Atmosphere Research Station (SBC-LARS) became operational in July, 2014 and features a 37-meter tower within a ~30 year-old loblolly pine plantation that is surrounded by mixed deciduous forest at the eastern edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains. The tower supports meteorological instruments at three different heights (2, 26, and 37 meters) and two air sampling inlets located above the canopy. The inlets draw air samples into a climate-controlled shed where precursor gas concentrations (ozone, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides) are determined by gas analyzers. Aerosol size distributions between 10 and 470 nm are measured every 3 minutes by a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). For this study, aerosol size distributions from July through November 2014 were analyzed along with HYSPLIT backwards trajectories, meteorological measurements, gas concentrations, and the condensational sink, to investigate controls on new particle formation. This station and corresponding dataset will contribute to a better understanding of the contribution of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions to aerosol formation in the southeastern United States.

  8. Fast airborne aerosol size and chemistry measurements above Mexico City and Central Mexico during the MILAGRO campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. DeCarlo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The concentration, size, and composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1 was measured over Mexico City and central Mexico with a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS onboard the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft as part of the MILAGRO field campaign. This was the first aircraft deployment of the HR-ToF-AMS. During the campaign the instrument performed very well, and provided 12 s data. The aerosol mass from the AMS correlates strongly with other aerosol measurements on board the aircraft. Organic aerosol (OA species dominate the NR-PM1 mass. OA correlates strongly with CO and HCN indicating that pollution (mostly secondary OA, SOA and biomass burning (BB are the main OA sources. The OA to CO ratio indicates a typical value for aged air of around 80 μg m−3 (STP ppm−1. This is within the range observed in outflow from the Northeastern US, which could be due to a compensating effect between higher BB but lower biogenic VOC emissions during this study. The O/C atomic ratio for OA is calculated from the HR mass spectra and shows a clear increase with photochemical age, as SOA forms rapidly and quickly overwhelms primary urban OA, consistent with Volkamer et al. (2006 and Kleinman et al. (2008. The stability of the OA/CO while O/C increases with photochemical age implies a net loss of carbon from the OA. BB OA is marked by signals at m/z 60 and 73, and also by a signal enhancement at large m/z indicative of larger molecules or more resistance to fragmentation. The main inorganic components show different spatial patterns and size distributions. Sulfate is regional in nature with clear volcanic and petrochemical/power plant sources, while the urban area is not a major regional source for this species. Nitrate is enhanced significantly in the urban area and immediate outflow, and is strongly correlated with CO indicating a strong urban source. The importance

  9. Fast airborne aerosol size and chemistry measurements above Mexico City and Central Mexico during the MILAGRO campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarlo, P. F.; Dunlea, E. J.; Kimmel, J. R.; Aiken, A. C.; Sueper, D.; Crounse, J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Emmons, L.; Shinozuka, Y.; Clarke, A.; Zhou, J.; Tomlinson, J.; Collins, D. R.; Knapp, D.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Campos, T.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2008-07-01

    The concentration, size, and composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) was measured over Mexico City and central Mexico with a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) onboard the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft as part of the MILAGRO field campaign. This was the first aircraft deployment of the HR-ToF-AMS. During the campaign the instrument performed very well, and provided 12 s data. The aerosol mass from the AMS correlates strongly with other aerosol measurements on board the aircraft. Organic aerosol (OA) species dominate the NR-PM1 mass. OA correlates strongly with CO and HCN indicating that pollution (mostly secondary OA, SOA) and biomass burning (BB) are the main OA sources. The OA to CO ratio indicates a typical value for aged air of around 80 μg m-3 (STP) ppm-1. This is within the range observed in outflow from the Northeastern US, which could be due to a compensating effect between higher BB but lower biogenic VOC emissions during this study. The O/C atomic ratio for OA is calculated from the HR mass spectra and shows a clear increase with photochemical age, as SOA forms rapidly and quickly overwhelms primary urban OA, consistent with Volkamer et al. (2006) and Kleinman et al. (2008). The stability of the OA/CO while O/C increases with photochemical age implies a net loss of carbon from the OA. BB OA is marked by signals at m/z 60 and 73, and also by a signal enhancement at large m/z indicative of larger molecules or more resistance to fragmentation. The main inorganic components show different spatial patterns and size distributions. Sulfate is regional in nature with clear volcanic and petrochemical/power plant sources, while the urban area is not a major regional source for this species. Nitrate is enhanced significantly in the urban area and immediate outflow, and is strongly correlated with CO indicating a strong urban source. The importance of nitrate decreases with distance from the city likely due to

  10. 赣南原中央苏区中心城市的选择与培育%Selection and Cultivation of Central Cities in Former Central Soviet Area of Southern Jiangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文玉钊; 陈文峰; 钟业喜; 郭泉恩

    2014-01-01

    对中心城市的选择与培育是欠发达地区区域发展必须解决的关键问题。在江西省社会经济数据及交通地理数据支持下,以2000、2005及2010年为时间断面,采用 Kernel 城市空间密度分析和“自下而上”的城市等级与腹地划分方法,从城市规模结构、等级结构与腹地结构3个角度对赣南原中央苏区城市体系演变进行研究,在此基础上识别出中心城市,并提出培育路径。研究结果表明,2000-2010年,赣南原中央苏区的城市人口规模正处于加速扩张阶段。城市规模空间结构呈现显著的核心-边缘特征,以赣州、吉安、瑞金、南城为中心的城市人口集聚核心区已经显现。以赣州、吉安、瑞金、南城为中心的城镇密集区释放出了显著的空间集聚效应,成为推进苏区城市化进程的重要增长极。苏区的城市等级可划分为3个等级,赣州、吉安、瑞金和南城一直是苏区最具辐射力的一级城市,其在城镇体系中的高等级城市地位已经比较稳固。在城市腹地结构演变上,尽管二级城市的腹地范围持续变动,但赣州、吉安、瑞金和南城4个一级城市的腹地范围始终保持稳定,这与其在城市等级中的稳定性高度吻合。研究认为,应选取赣州作为苏区主中心城市,选取吉安、瑞金、南城作为次中心城市;应从优化城市职能分工、壮大城市产业、做大城市城区、优化交通网络与加强制度创新等方面对中心城市进行培育。%In some undeveloped regions of China, the relationship between central cities and their jurisdictional areas is usually described as “a pony drags a cart”, and the radiation and promotion functions of the central cities for their jurisdictional areas are limited. Hence, the selection and cultivation of central cities are the key problem that the less developed regions must face and solve. Taking 2000, 2005 and

  11. β-Catenin-dependent transcription is central to Bmp-mediated formation of venous vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwada, Takeru; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Terai, Kenta; Tanaka, Toru; Wakayama, Yuki; Ando, Koji; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Fukui, Hajime; Yuge, Shinya; Saito, Yoshinobu; Gemma, Akihiko; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    β-catenin regulates the transcription of genes involved in diverse biological processes, including embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Endothelial cell (EC)-specific gene-targeting analyses in mice have revealed that β-catenin is required for vascular development. However, the precise function of β-catenin-mediated gene regulation in vascular development is not well understood, since β-catenin regulates not only gene expression but also the formation of cell-cell junctions. To address this question, we have developed a novel transgenic zebrafish line that allows the visualization of β-catenin transcriptional activity specifically in ECs and discovered that β-catenin-dependent transcription is central to the bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp)-mediated formation of venous vessels. During caudal vein (CV) formation, Bmp induces the expression of aggf1, a putative causative gene for Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, which is characterized by venous malformation and hypertrophy of bones and soft tissues. Subsequently, Aggf1 potentiates β-catenin transcriptional activity by acting as a transcriptional co-factor, suggesting that Bmp evokes β-catenin-mediated gene expression through Aggf1 expression. Bmp-mediated activation of β-catenin induces the expression of Nr2f2 (also known as Coup-TFII), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, to promote the differentiation of venous ECs, thereby contributing to CV formation. Furthermore, β-catenin stimulated by Bmp promotes the survival of venous ECs, but not that of arterial ECs. Collectively, these results indicate that Bmp-induced activation of β-catenin through Aggf1 regulates CV development by promoting the Nr2f2-dependent differentiation of venous ECs and their survival. This study demonstrates, for the first time, a crucial role of β-catenin-mediated gene expression in the development of venous vessels.

  12. Socio-cultural factors influencing insecticide treated bed net utilization in a malaria endemic city in north-central Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jombo GTA; Akosu JT; Mbaawuaga EM; Gyuse AN; Enenebeaku MNO; Okwori EE; Peters EJ; Akpan S; Odey F; Etukumana EA

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the socio-cultural factors influencing the rate of utilization of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) in a malaria endemic city of Makurdi, north central Nigeria. Methods:The study was cross-sectional in nature using systematic sampling method to identify households. Both quantitative and qualitative data was generated from adult women using structured and semi structured questionnaires, and focused group discussions (FGDs) to obtain information on rate and patterns of utilization of ITNs. Information such as age, educational level, marital status, awareness or otherwise of the existence of malaria, and factors influencing rate of ownership and utilization of ITNs were obtained. FGDs were used to obtain qualitative information on rate of utilization of ITNs not captured in the questionnaires. Data obtained was analysed using Epi Info 6 statistical software. Results: Among the respondents interviewed, 97.0%(2 013/2 075) were aware of existence of malaria and 87.0%of these (1 751/2 013) would associate it with mosquitoes. The rate of ownership of any bed net, ITNs and untreated bed nets (UTNs) was 25.1%, 17.0%and 8.3%, respectively. Utilization of ITNs among children was 30.0%(112/373) and UTNs 12.9%(48/373). Positive contributors to ITNs utilization were literacy, enhanced economy, experience of marriage, and being gainfully employed (P<0.05);while negative contributors were ignorance, poverty and some cultural beliefs and values. Conclusions: A more synchronized advocacy should be carried out on the potential benefits of ITNs utilization and sustained. Also ITNs should be made available to the people of the community at minimal or no cost.

  13. Megacities air pollution problems: Mexico City Metropolitan Area critical issues on the central nervous system pediatric impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kulesza, Randy J; Doty, Richard L; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    The chronic health effects associated with sustained exposures to high concentrations of air pollutants are an important issue for millions of megacity residents and millions more living in smaller urban and rural areas. Particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) concentrations close or above their respective air quality standards during the last 20 years affect 24 million people living in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Herein we discuss PM and O3 trends in MCMA and their possible association with the observed central nervous system (CNS) effects in clinically healthy children. We argue that prenatal and postnatal sustained exposures to a natural environmental exposure chamber contribute to detrimental neural responses. The emerging picture for MCMA children shows systemic inflammation, immunodysregulation at both systemic and brain levels, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, small blood vessel pathology, and an intrathecal inflammatory process, along with the early neuropathological hallmarks for Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases. Exposed brains are briskly responding to their harmful environment and setting the bases for structural and volumetric changes, cognitive, olfactory, auditory and vestibular deficits and long term neurodegenerative consequences. We need to improve our understanding of the PM pediatric short and long term CNS impact through multidisciplinary research. Public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce fine PM levels and pediatric exposures and establishing preventative screening programs targeting pediatric populations that are most at risk. We fully expect that the health of 24 million residents is important and blocking pediatric air pollution research and hiding critical information that ought to be available to our population, health, education and social workers is not in the best interest of our children.

  14. On the correlation of atmospheric aerosol components of mass size distributions in the larger region of a central European city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, A.; Galambos, Z.; Ctyroky, P.; Frühauf, P.; Hitzenberger, R.; Gomišček, B.; Hauck, H.; Preining, O.; Puxbaum, H.

    Mass size distributions of atmospheric aerosols have been sampled in the region of Vienna, a typical city in central Europe, at an urban and a rural site. The aerosol was collected simultaneously by cascade impactors. Two experiments which had a duration of 4 weeks each, were performed in August 1999 and in January/February 2000. Daily sampling periods were from 8:00 to 20:00, and from 20:00 to 8:00. An evaluation of the mass size distributions is represented in this paper. Emphasis is on the relationships of different aerosol components in a local and a regional context. The main results are as follows. The main components of the atmospheric aerosol are a fine aerosol, the accumulation aerosol, and a coarse aerosol. Specific coarse modes with modal diameters of 4.7 μm average and geometric standard deviations of about 3 occur at the urban and at the rural site, some times surprisingly strong. The fine and the coarse modes are very likely related to motor-car traffic. Usually the PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosols are regionally strongly correlated. Occasionally, this correlation is effectively disturbed by local and/or regional emissions. Time series of correlation coefficients reveal an episodic character of the atmospheric aerosol. Periods of strong inter-site correlations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 indicate the dominance and the co-variation of the accumulation aerosols or the dominance and the co-variation of the coarse modes.

  15. Oceanic crust formation in the Egeria Fracture Zone Complex (Central Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Minor, Marine; Gaina, Carmen; Sigloch, Karin; Minakov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse in detail the oceanic crust fabric and volcanic features (seamounts) formed for the last 10 million years at the Central Indian Ridge between 19 and 21 latitude south. Multibeam bathymetry and magnetic data has been collected in 2013 as part of the French-German expedition RHUM-RUM (Reunion hotspot and upper mantle - Reunion's unterer mantel). Three long profiles perpendicular on the Central Indian Ridge (CIR), south of the Egeria fracture zone, document the formation of oceanic crust since 10 million years, along with changes in plate kinematics and variations in the magmatic input. We have inspected the abyssal hill geometry and orientation along conjugate oceanic flanks and within one fracture zone segment where we could identify J-shaped features that are indicators of changes in plate kinematics. The magnetic anomaly data shows a slight asymmetry in seafloor spreading rates on conjugate flanks: while a steady increase in spreading rate from 10 Ma to the present is shown by the western flank, the eastern part displays a slowing down from 5 Ma onwards. The deflection of the anti J-shaped abyssal hill lineations suggest that the left-stepping Egeria fracture zone complex (including the Egeria, Flinders and an un-named fracture zone to the southeast) was under transpression from 9 to 6 Ma and under transtension since 3 Ma. The transpressional event was triggered by a clockwise mid-ocean ridge reorientation and a decrease of its offset, whereas the transtensional regime was probably due to a counter-clockwise change in the spreading direction and an increase of the ridge offset. The new multibeam data along the three profiles reveal that crust on the eastern side is smoother (as shown by the abyssal hill number and structure) and hosts several seamounts (with age estimations of 7.67, 6.10 and 0.79 Ma), in contrast to the rougher conjugate western flank. Considering that the western flank was closer to the Reunion plume, and therefore

  16. Glycinergic Pathways of the Central Auditory System and Adjacent Reticular Formation of the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Chyren

    The development of techniques to visualize and identify specific transmitters of neuronal circuits has stimulated work on the characterization of pathways in the rat central nervous system that utilize the inhibitory amino acid glycine as its neurotransmitter. Glycine is a major inhibitory transmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem of vertebrates where it satisfies the major criteria for neurotransmitter action. Some of these characteristics are: uneven distribution in brain, high affinity reuptake mechanisms, inhibitory neurophysiological actions on certain neuronal populations, uneven receptor distribution and the specific antagonism of its actions by the convulsant alkaloid strychnine. Behaviorally, antagonism of glycinergic neurotransmission in the medullary reticular formation is linked to the development of myoclonus and seizures which may be initiated by auditory as well as other stimuli. In the present study, decreases in the concentration of glycine as well as the density of glycine receptors in the medulla with aging were found and may be responsible for the lowered threshold for strychnine seizures observed in older rats. Neuroanatomical pathways in the central auditory system and medullary and pontine reticular formation (RF) were investigated using retrograde transport of tritiated glycine to identify glycinergic pathways; immunohistochemical techniques were used to corroborate the location of glycine neurons. Within the central auditory system, retrograde transport studies using tritiated glycine demonstrated an ipsilateral glycinergic pathway linking nuclei of the ascending auditory system. This pathway has its cell bodies in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) and projects to the ventrocaudal division of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VLL). Collaterals of this glycinergic projection terminate in the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO). Other glycinergic pathways found were afferent to the VLL and have their origin

  17. An X-ray View of Star Formation in the Central 3 kpc of NGC 2403

    CERN Document Server

    Yukita, Mihoko; Tennant, Allyn F; Soria, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Archival Chandra observations are used to study the X-ray emission associated with star formation in the central region of the nearby SAB(s)cd galaxy NGC 2403. The distribution of X-ray emission is compared to the morphology visible at other wavelengths using complementary Spitzer, GALEX, and ground-based Halpha imagery. In general, the brightest extended X-ray emission is associated with HII regions and to other star-forming structures but is more pervasive; existing also in regions devoid of strong Halpha and UV emission. This X-ray emission has the spectral properties of diffuse hot gas (kT ~ 0.2keV) whose likely origin is in gas shock-heated by stellar winds and supernovae with < 20% coming from faint unresolved X-ray point sources. This hot gas may be slowly-cooling extra-planar remnants of past outflow events, or a disk component that either lingers after local star formation activity has ended or that has vented from active star-forming regions into a porous interstellar medium.

  18. STRATIGRAPHY AND PALYNOLOGY OF THE UPPER TRIASSIC NAYBAND FORMATION OF EAST-CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONETTA CIRILLI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A palynological study of the Nayband Formation (central eastern Iran has been carried out in order to review and update its stratigraphic framework. In its type locality the formation crops out on the southern flank of Nayband Mountain, about 200 km south of Tabas. It consists of a thick, mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sequence subdivided into four members; in ascending order: the Gelkan Member (mainly shales and silstones, the Bidestan Member (marls, siltstones with minor sandstones and fossiliferous limestones, the Howz-e-Sheikh Member (sandstones and siltstones, and the Howz-e-Khan Member (sponge and coral dominated reefs alternating with marls and sandstones. Three palynological assemblages have been recognised; in ascending order: a an assemblage characterised by the presence of Annulispora folliculosa and A. microannulata which allows the Gelkan Member and most of the Bidestan Member to be assigned an early Norian age; (b an assemblage marked by the first occurrence of Polycingulatisporites mooniensis, which indicates the upper part of the Bidestan Member is mid-late Norian; c an assemblage containing Classopollis chateaunovi in association with Retitriletes austroclavatidites, Gliscopollis meyeriana, Limbosporites lundbladii, Rugaletes awakinoensis and Callialasporites dampieri that allows the Howz-e-Sheikh Member to be assigned a Rhaetian age. The presence of some Eurasian and/or cosmopolitan forms in the Rhaetian microflora reflects the position of the Iranian plate on the southern margin of Eurasia.   

  19. Central role of maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic brain edema formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain edema formation and the ensuing brain damages are the major cause of high mortality and long term disability following the occurrence of ischemic stroke. In this process, oxygen and glucose deprivation and the ensuing reperfusion injury play primary roles. In response to the ischemic insult, the neurovascular unit experiences both intracellular and extracellular edemas; the two processes are interactive closely under the driving of maladapted astrocytic plasticity. The astrocytic plasticity includes both morphologic and functional plasticity. The former involves a reactive gliosis and the ensuing glial retraction. It relates to the capacity of astrocytes to buffer changes in extracellular chemical levels, particularly K+ and glutamate, as well as the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. The latter involves the expression and activity of a series of ion and water transport proteins. These molecules are grouped together around glial fibrillary acidic protein and water channel protein aquaporin 4 to form functional networks, regulate hydromineral balance across cell membranes and maintain the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Intense ischemic challenges can disrupt these capacities of astrocytes and result in their maladaptation. The maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke cannot only disrupt the hydromineral homeostasis across astrocyte membrane and the blood-brain barrier, but also lead to disorders of the whole neurovascular unit. This review focuses on how the maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke plays the central role in the brain edema formation.

  20. Inhibition of trihalomethane formation in city water by radiation-ozone treatment and rapid composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehisa, M.; Arai, H.; Arai, M.; Miyata, T.; Sakumoto, A.; Hashimoto, S.; Nishimura, K.; Watanabe, H.; Kawakami, W.; Kuriyama, I.

    Humic acid and Fulvic acid in natural water are precursors of carcinogenic THM which is formed during chlorine disinfection in city water processing. The radiation-oxidation process in the presence of ozone is effective to remove the precursors. The THM formation was reduced more than the decrease in TOC by the combination treatment. This is mainly due to a change in the chemical structure of the oxidation products. A composting of radiation disinfected sludge cake for agricultural reuse could be achieved within 3 days primary fermentation in a sewage plant. The rapid fermentation with use of radiation is effective to scale down of a fermentor of composting plant and the process reduces a health risk from the workers as well as final users.

  1. Graben formation during the Bárðarbunga rifting event in central Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2015-04-01

    On the 16th of August 2014, an intense seismic swarm was detected at the Bárðarbunga caldera (central Iceland), which migrated to the east and then to the northeast during the following days. The swarm, highlighting magma propagation pathway from the caldera, migrated laterally during the following two weeks over 40 km. By the end of August, a volcanic eruption had started along a north-south oriented fissure located ~45 km from the caldera. Here we focus on the near-field deformation related to the dike emplacement in the shallow crust, which generated in few days an 8 km long by 0.8 km wide graben (depression) structure. The new graben extends from the northern edge of the Vatnajökull glacier and to the north to the eruptive fissure. We analyze the temporal evolution of the graben by integrating structural mapping using multiple acquisitions of TerraSAR-X amplitude radar images, InSAR and ground-truth data with GPS and structural measurements. Pixel-offset tracking of radar amplitude images shows clearly the graben subsidence, directly above the intrusion pathway, of up to 6 meters in the satellite line-of-sight direction. We installed a GPS profile of 15 points across the graben in October 2014 and measured its depth up to 8 meters, relative to the flanks of the graben. Field structural observations show graben collapse structures that typically accompany dike intrusions, with two tilted blocks dipping toward the graben axis, bordered by two normal faults. Extensive fractures at the center of the graben and at the graben edges show a cumulative extension of ~8 meters. The formation of the graben was also accompanied by strong seismic activity locally, constraining the time frame period of the main graben formation subsidence. Our results show a rare case of a graben formation captured from space and from ground observations. Such structures are the dominant features along rift zones, however, their formation remain poorly understood. The results also provide

  2. Formative Evaluation of a Nutritional Marketing Project in City-Center Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Andree; Renaud, Lise

    1992-01-01

    Formative evaluation of a community health project providing and promoting low-fat foods in five restaurants in Montreal (Canada) shows that restaurateurs are willing to collaborate in project implementation but not in training waiters and that the project did not cause an increase in market demand for low-fat menu offerings. (SLD)

  3. Evolution of silicic volcanism following the transition to the modern High Cascades, Deschutes Formation, central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eungard, D.; Kent, A. J.; Grunder, A.

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of the controls on silicic volcanism within convergent margin environments has important implications for crustal growth and modification during subduction. In the central Oregon Cascade range silicic volcanism has generally decreased in both size and frequency of eruptions over the last ~40 million years. Despite the general decrease, an increased abundance of silicic volcanism is observed from 5-8 Ma, corresponding to the transition from the Western Cascades to High Cascades volcanic regime. In order to constrain the processes that lead to formation of silicic magmas at this time we have studied the petrogenesis of two extensive and well-preserved ash-flow tuffs from this time period hosted within the Deschutes Formation of central Oregon. The Lower Bridge (LBT) and McKenzie Canyon Tuffs (MCT) produced ~5 km3 each of magma of predominantly rhyolitic and basaltic andesite composition. Both include large volumes of rhyolite, although the MCT also contains a significant mafic component. Both tuffs are normally zoned with mafic ejecta concentrated upsection. Geothermometry also shows that the rhyolitic component in both magmas was relatively hot (~830 degrees C). Distribution, thickness, welding facies, and paleoflow indications from imbricated pumice suggest that both eruptions derive from the same source region, probably near the present day Three Sisters complex, and were likely produced from the same magmatic system. Variations in major and trace element geochemistry also indicate that the magmas involved in both eruptions were produced through fractionation and mixing of mantle melts with a silicic partial melt derived from melting of mafic crust. Production of these voluminous silicic magmas required both crystal fractionation of incoming melts from the mantle, together with mixing with silicic partial melts derived from relatively hot mafic crust. This observation provides a potential explanation for the decrease in silicic melt production

  4. Investigating ambient ozone formation regimes in neighboring cities of shale plays in the Northeast United States using photochemical modeling and satellite retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Yuan; Faust, Eric; Hou, Xiangting; Lee, Pius; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Hedquist, Brent C.; Liao, Kuo-Jen

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates long-term (i.e., 2007-2014) fluctuations in ambient ozone formation regimes for cities adjacent to shale plays in the Northeast United States (U.S.). Ozone air quality in many cities of the Northeast U.S. does not meet the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), and understanding ambient ozone formation regimes is essential to develop effective air pollution mitigation strategies for cities violating the air quality standards. Since 2013, the U.S. has become the world's largest producer of tight oil and natural gas from shale rock, and previous studies show that emissions of air pollutant precursors from shale oil and gas-related activities would have the potential to affect ambient ozone air quality in adjacent cities of shale plays. This work leveraged (1) satellite-retrieved column densities of formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from multiple instruments (i.e., Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2)); (2) photochemical air quality modeling and sensitivity analysis; and (3) ratios of satellite-retrieved air pollutant column densities to investigate ambient ozone formation regimes in neighboring cities of shale plays (i.e., Marcellus Shale) in the Northeast U.S. from 2007 to 2014. Our results show that ambient ozone formation in Boston, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. (which are close to Marcellus Shale) was in the NOx -limited or transition regime during the period of study. Ambient ozone formation in New York City was in the transition regime during 2010-2013 and VOC -limited regime during 2007-2009 and in 2014. Based on the result of this study, we conclude that controls NOx emissions would mitigate ozone air pollution from 2007 to 2014 in most of the cities examined in this study. Controls of local VOC emissions would ease ozone air pollution in New York City during the study period. With projected increases in oil and gas production from shale plays in

  5. Staphylococcus aureus sarA regulates inflammation and colonization during central nervous system biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica N Snowden

    Full Text Available Infection is a frequent and serious complication following the treatment of hydrocephalus with CSF shunts, with limited therapeutic options because of biofilm formation along the catheter surface. Here we evaluated the possibility that the sarA regulatory locus engenders S. aureus more resistant to immune recognition in the central nervous system (CNS based on its reported ability to regulate biofilm formation. We utilized our established model of CNS catheter-associated infection, similar to CSF shunt infections seen in humans, to compare the kinetics of bacterial titers, cytokine production and inflammatory cell influx elicited by wild type S. aureus versus an isogenic sarA mutant. The sarA mutant was more rapidly cleared from infected catheters compared to its isogenic wild type strain. Consistent with this finding, several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-17, CXCL1, and IL-1β were significantly increased in the brain following infection with the sarA mutant versus wild type S. aureus, in agreement with the fact that the sarA mutant displayed impaired biofilm growth and favored a planktonic state. Neutrophil influx into the infected hemisphere was also increased in the animals infected with the sarA mutant compared to wild type bacteria. These changes were not attributable to extracellular protease activity, which is increased in the context of SarA mutation, since similar responses were observed between sarA and a sarA/protease mutant. Overall, these results demonstrate that sarA plays an important role in attenuating the inflammatory response during staphylococcal biofilm infection in the CNS via a mechanism that remains to be determined.

  6. Unraveling an antique subduction process from metamorphic basement around Medellín city, Central Cordillera of Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Andres; Juliani, Caetano

    2011-10-01

    In the surroundings of Caldas and El Retiro cities (Colombia) metamorphic rocks derived from basic and pelitic protoliths comprise the Caldas amphibole schist and the Ancón schist respectively. Subordinated metamorphosed granite bodies (La Miel gneiss) are associated to these units, and The El Retiro amphibolites, migmatites and granulites crops out eastwards of these units, separated by shear zones. The Caldas amphibole schist and the Ancón schist protoliths could have been formed in a distal marine reduced environment and amalgamated to the South American continent in an apparent Triassic subduction event. The El Retiro rocks are akin to a continental basement and possible include impure metasediments of continental margin, whose metamorphism originated granulite facies rocks and migmatites as a result of the anatexis of quartz-feldspathic rocks. The metamorphism was accompanied by intense deformation, which has juxtaposed both migmatites and granulite blocks. Afterward, heat and fluid circulation associated with the emplacement of minor igneous intrusions resulted in intense fluid-rock interaction, variations in the grain size of the minerals and, especially, intense retrograde metamorphic re-equilibrium. Thermobarometric estimations for the Caldas amphibole schist indicate metamorphism in the Barrovian amphibolite facies. The metamorphic path is counter-clockwise, but retrograde evolution could not be precisely defined. The pressures of the metamorphism in these rocks range from 6.3 to 13.5 kbar, with narrow temperature ranging from 550 to 630 °C. For the Ancón schist metapelites the P- T path is also counter-clockwise, with a temperature increase evidenced by the occurrence of sillimanite and the cooling by later kyanite. The progressive metamorphism event occurred at pressures of 7.6-7.2 kbar and temperatures of 645-635 °C for one sample and temperature between 500 and 600 °C under constant pressure of 6 kbar. The temperature estimated for these rocks

  7. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, M.

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  8. Zeolites in the Miocene Briones Sandstone and related formations of the central Coast Ranges, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, K.J.; Whiteley, Karen R.

    1973-01-01

    Authigenic zeolites present in the generally tuffaceous Miocene Briones Sandstone and related formations of the central Coast Ranges of California indicate three stages of diagenetic history: (1) Initial alteration of pyroclastic materials to clinoptilolite (and montmorillonite) that is widely distributed in small amounts throughout the region. (2) Subsequent crystallization of heulandite followed by stilbite in fractures at a few places. (3) Widespread development of laumontite in only the southern part of the region, where the sandstone appears to have been downfolded and faulted to greater depths than elsewhere. Laumontite occurs both as pervasive cement of sandstone and as filling of fractures, and was produced through the reaction of interstitial solutions with other zeolites and with such major constituents of the sandstone as plagioclase, montmorillonite, and calcite at temperatures of 100° C or higher. Mordenite was found at only one locality, closely associated with clinoptilolite and opal. Analcite occurs in diverse settings, and its relation to the other zeolites is obscure.  Sparry calcite and coexisting stilbite, laumontite, or analcite in veins seem to make up nonequilibrium assemblages.

  9. Numerical and experimental investigation of central cavity formation in aluminum during forward extrusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, S. H.; Sedighi, M.; Mosayebnezhad, J. [Iran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In the presented paper central cavity formation during the forward extrusion of commercially pure aluminum was investigated. For this purpose finite element analysis was utilized for simulation of this defect. The experimental tests were carried out on commercially pure aluminum. A good agreement between finite element simulations and experimental tests verified the adaptability of finite element simulations with the real process conditions. Taguchi method was performed for classifying the simulations regarding to consider synergistic parameters. The parameters include reduction of area, friction coefficient and die angle. Critical thickness, the representative waste material, was presented as a new criterion for optimizing the parametric study. By utilizing the Analyze Taguchi design, critical thickness was optimized and the effect of each parameter was recognized for different levels. In addition, the best levels with the minimum waste material were gained in which friction coefficient, die angle and reduction of area were 0.2, 5 .deg. and 20%, respectively. Also the amount of waste material was forecasted by just about 2% errors without FEA by Taguchi method.

  10. Palynostratigraphy of the Nayband Formation, Tabas, Central Iran Basin: Paleogeographical and paleoecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, F.; Hashemi, H.; Borzuee, E.

    2015-11-01

    Reasonably diverse and moderately preserved palynofloras of exclusively terrestrial derivation occur in surface samples of the Nayband Formation, Kamar Macheh Kuh, southeastern Tabas, east-central Iran. No marine palynomorphs encountered in the samples examined. The palynofloras comprise 62 species including radially symmetrical and monolete spores (37 species allocated to 27 genera) and pollen (25 species designated to 19 genera). Of the latter, such bisaccate taxa as Ovalipollis ovalis, Alisporites spp., Falcisporites nuthallensis, the inaperturate Araucariacites australis, and the monosulcate Chasmatosporites major dominate the assemblages. Representatives of such trilete spores as Dictyophyllidites mortonii, Kyrtomisporis laevigatus, and Gleicheiniidites senonicus are essentially abundant in the palynofloras examined. Vertical distribution of miospores allows erection within the Nayband Formation of three informal distinctive stratigraphically successive interval biozones, viz., A. australis-Annulispora folliculosa biozone, Conbaculatisporites sp.-Ricciisporites tuberculatus biozone, and R. tuberculatus-Polypodiisporites polymicroforatus biozone based on the First Observed Occurrence (FOO) and Last Observed Occurrence (LOO) of selected taxa. These are compared with palynozones from ±coeval strata in Iran and elsewhere. Additionally, two non-palyniferous intervals, one at the base (188 m thick) and another (18 m in thickness) at uppermost part of the section studied are identified. Based on the association of such key misopore species as Lunatisporites rhaeticus, O. ovalis (alias pseudoalatus), A. folliculosa, Polycingulatisporites mooniensis, Limbosporites lundbladii, Quadraeculina anellaeformis, R. tuberculatus, Conbaculatisporites sp., P. polymicroforatus, and Striatisaccus novimundi within the Nayband palynofloras, the host strata are assigned to Late Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian). This dating while corroborating previous attempts made with reference to mostly

  11. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Cretaceous Nanushuk, Seabee, and Tuluvak formations exposed on Umiat Mountain, north-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    Upper Cretaceous strata of the upper part of the Nanushuk Formation, the Seabee Formation, and the lower part of the Tuluvak Formation are exposed along the Colville River on the east flank of Umiat Mountain in north-central Alaska. The Ninuluk sandstone, which is the uppermost unit of the Nanushuk Formation, displays a vertical succession of facies indicative of deposition in an upward-deepening estuarine through shoreface setting. A marine-flooding surface lies between the Ninuluk sandstone and organic-rich shale of the basal part of the Seabee Formation. The Ninuluk sandstone and the lower part of the Seabee Formation are interpreted as components of a transgressive-systems tract. The lowest, well-exposed strata in the Seabee Formation are a succession of shoreface sandstone beds in the middle of the formation. Integration of outcrop information and the Umiat No. 11 well log suggests that this sandstone succession rests on a sequence boundary and is capped by a marine-flooding surface. The sandstone succession is interpreted as a lowstand-systems tract. The upper part of the Seabee Formation includes a thick interval of organic-rich shale deposited in a dysaerobic offshore environment, and the gradational Seabee-Tuluvak contact is a coarsening-upward shale-to-sandstone succession deposited in a prodelta/delta-front environment. The observation that the upper part of the Seabee Formation correlates with seismic clinoforms suggests that dysaerobic conditions extended well up onto the prodelta slope during intervals of transgression and highstand. Correlation of the Umiat Mountain outcrop section with well logs and seismic data suggests that sequence boundaries and lowstand shoreface deposits may be common in the Seabee Formation and that wave action may have been important in transporting sand to the paleoshelf margin. These conclusions may contribute to an enhanced understanding of sand distribution in prospective lowstand turbidite deposits in the subsurface of

  12. Investigation of Aedes mosquito distribution in the central Yuxi city%玉溪市中心城区登革热媒介伊蚊分布调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范芝宏; 杨明东; 魏如清; 李六九; 金正海; 李吉; 郭晓芳; 王艳波; 张迪; 蒋雪莹

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解玉溪市中心城区白纹伊蚊分布情况,为防控登革热提供科学依据。方法2015年8月在玉溪市中心城区的东、西、南、北、中5个方位的居民区和特殊场所室内外积水容器中捕获蚊幼虫,在特殊场所采用人工诱捕法和全捕法捕获成蚊;对白纹伊蚊成蚊进行登革热病毒(DENV)特异核酸检测。结果城北的3个村及城西1个居民区均监测到白纹伊蚊,总容器指数(CI)为0.37;城东、城南和城中均未发现白纹伊蚊;在城北及城西的废旧轮胎加工厂和废品收购站人工捕获成蚊7种共2193只,白纹伊蚊占总捕获数的82.44%(1808/2193),蚊幼虫CI为5.21,北城废旧轮胎加工厂布雷图指数高达60.00;白纹伊蚊成蚊未检出DENV特异性核酸。结论玉溪市中心城区首次监测到白纹伊蚊且密度较高,存在登革热传播及流行的风险,应引起高度关注。%Objective To investigate the distribution of Aedes albopictus in the central city of Yuxi, providing scientific basis for prevention and control of dengue fever. Methods Mosquito larvae were captured indoor and outdoor water containers from north, south, west, east and central residential areas and special places in the central city;adult mosquito was collected by human landing collection and whole site at special places;and dengue virus was tested by specific nucleic acid detection for Ae. albopictus adult mosquitoes. Results Aedes albopictus was found in 3 villages at the north of the city and 1 residential area at the west of the city,the total container index(CI)was 0.37. In the east, south and center of the city, no Ae. albopictus was found. Total of 2 193 individuals of 7 species were collected from a waste tire processing factory and a salvage station in the north and west of the city, and Ae. albopictus accounted for 82.44%(1 808/2 193);the CI of larvae was 5.21, Breteau index reached up to 60.00 at waste tire

  13. Chemical pollution of environment in the cities of Central Siberia: risk for the health of the population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Klimatskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available pollution in cities including the problem of risk assessment. The aim of the study is to determine carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for the health of the population due to chemical contamination of air, water and food in the cities of the Krasnoyarsk region. Material and methods. The research was conducted in the Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Krasnoyarsk region. 5122 samples of air, 4863 samples of water and 6915 samples of food stuff have been analyzed. Concentration of chemical substances was the base on which individual carcinogenesis risk (ICR and population carcinogenic conventional risks (PCCR and non carcinogenic risks [1] have been calculated. In the industrial cities chemical pollution of air, water and food stuff including carcinogenic substances creates carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of morbidity of the population with the reinforcement of the complex impact, “with” which greatly exceeds the maximum acceptable risks. Results. Chemical pollution of environmental facilities in cities of the Krasnoyarsk region produce complex carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks which exceed maximum limit. The greatest shares in structure of complex carcinogenic risks are made in food stuff and water consumption in structure of complex non-carcinogenic risks as a result of air pollution and food stuff pollution. Conclusions. Obtained data could be used to set priorities in preventive measures to preserve health of the population in industrial cities of the Krasnoyarsk region.

  14. Geology and Magmatism of Gülşehir Area, City of Nevşehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhan, Uǧur Can; Miyak, İlayda; Keskin, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    Basement of the study area is represented by the Kırşehir Massif, which is one of important metamorphic massifs in Turkey. This metamorphic basement is unconformably overlain by clastic sediments which were deposited in Paleogene basins and then heavily deformed due to the closure of the Neotethys Ocean in the North. Paleogene deposits are, in turn, overlain by younger post-collisional sediments and volcano-sedimentary units, ranging in age from Tertiary to Quaternary. The apparent lowermost part of the Kırşehir Massif in the study area is represented by the Kaman Group, which is made up of quartz mica schists and marbles and is thought to be pre Mesozoic in age. The Kaman Group is cut by a granitoid pluton (i.e. Ortaköy granitoid) which is Maastrichian in age and subvolcanic bodies (i.e. Kızıltepe volcanics) which are also Cretaceous in age. Both the metamorphic basement and the magmatic intrusions are unconformably overlain by a volcano-sedimentary succession (i.e. Akmezardere formation), deposited in a marine environment during the Lutetian. The Akmezardere formation contains fold and thrust structures as well as slumps related to the closure of the northern branch of the Neotehtys Ocean. Most part of the region was uplifted and as a result, turned into a continental subaerial environment after Oligocene. The Oligocene-Miocene sediments were precipitated in lakes and lagoons. The region was subjected to intense post-collisional volcanism initiated during the Miocene. During the Upper Miocene, the Cappadocia volcanic province started to be formed. The lithospheric delamination and slab breakoff processes were possibly responsible for both the regional uplift and intense calc-alkaline to alkaline volcanism across the region. The Cappadocia volcanic province includes a wide range of volcanic units, (i.e. lavas and pyroclastics displaying the characteristics of fall, flow and surge processes) ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite and in geochemical

  15. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photography: Exploring the Medieval City of Merv, on the Silk Roads of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Williams

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ancient Merv Project is a collaboration between the Turkmenistan Ministry of Culture, the Ancient Merv State Park and the UCL Institute of Archaeology. It aims to research, protect and conserve the remains of one of the great historic cities of the Silk Roads. This paper explores a new survey of the Islamic city using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to take comprehensive and systematic vertical photographs to assist in the analysis of the medieval cityscape. The background to the research and the application of the technology are presented, together with our initial conclusions.

  16. AGN Feedback, Host Halo Mass and Central Cooling Time: Implications for Galaxy Formation Efficiency and $M_{BH} - \\sigma$

    CERN Document Server

    Main, Robert; Nulsen, Paul; Russell, Helen; Vantyghem, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    We derive X-ray mass, luminosity, and temperature profiles for 45 galaxy clusters to explore relationships between halo mass, AGN feedback, and central cooling time. We find that radio--mechanical feedback power (referred to here as "AGN power") in central cluster galaxies correlates with halo mass, but only in halos with central atmospheric cooling times shorter than 1 Gyr. This timescale corresponds approximately to the cooling time (entropy) threshold for the onset of cooling instabilities and star formation in central galaxies (Rafferty et al. 2008). No correlation is found in systems with central cooling times greater than 1 Gyr. The trend with halo mass is consistent with self-similar scaling relations assuming cooling is regulated by feedback. The trend is also consistent with galaxy and central black hole co-evolution along the $M_{BH} - \\sigma $ relation. AGN power further correlates with X-ray gas mass and the host galaxy's K-band luminosity. AGN power in clusters with central atmospheric cooling ti...

  17. Palynostratigraphy of the Sanganeh Formation at the East and Central Kopeh-Dagh Basin based on dinoflagellate cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Shokri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sanganeh Formation (Lower Cretaceous has cropped out across the Kopeh-Dagh Basin. The formation conformably overly the Aptian Sarcheshmeh Formation and is in turn overlain conformably by glauconitic sandstone of the Aitamir Formation. The considered formation in eastern and central parts of the basin comprises predominantly dark shale with some interbeds of limestone and siltstone. In order to analyse dinoflagellate content of this rock unit , four stratigraphic sections from east to the center of the basin including Karizak (320m, Mozduran (355m, Sanganeh (550m, and Qarah-Su (580m were measured and sampled palynologically. A total of 370 rock samples taken from the four sections were processed palynologically and scanned under a light microscope. Of these, two sections including Karizak and Mozduran were barren of any preserved dinocysts while, the samples from other two sections (Sanganeh and Qarah-Su yielded a relatively diverse and well preserved assemblage. According to the recognized dinocysts, two zones DZ1 and DZ2 were established in Sanganeh and Qarah-Su sections. The differentiated dinozones were coincident to Odontochitina operculata and Pseudoceratium turneri which are index for late Aptian-early Albian for the Sanganeh Formation at the mentioned stratigraphic sections. In addition, distribution and dispersion of dinoflagellate cyst contents indicate an increasing trend of the depth from east to the central parts of the Kopeh-Dagh Basin.

  18. Calculation of Quad-Cities Central Bundle Documented by the U.S. in FY98 Using Russian Computer Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-06-19

    The report presents calculation results of isotopic composition of irradiated fuel performed for the Quad Cities-1 reactor bundle with UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel. The MCU-REA code was used for calculations. The code is developed in Kurchatov Institute, Russia. The MCU-REA results are compared with the experimental data and HELIOS code results.

  19. Formative evaluation of AARP's Active for Life campaign to improve walking and bicycling environments in two cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, James; Crump, Carolyn; Hawkins, Margaret

    2007-10-01

    AARP conducted a 2.5-year social-marketing campaign to improve physical activity levels among older adults in Richmond, Virginia and Madison, Wisconsin. This article presents formative evaluation findings from the campaign's policy/environmental change component. Evaluation data were abstracted from technical-assistance documentation and telephone interviews. Results include 11 policy and 14 environmental changes attained or in-process by campaign closure. Differences between the cities' results are explained through differences in program implementation (e.g., types of changes planned, formalization of partnerships). Project teams took less time deciding to pursue policy change than environmental change; however, planning the policy activities took longer than planning environmental-change activities. Recommendations for future policy/environmental change interventions focus on the selection of strategies; planning for administrative resources; formalizing partnerships to ensure sustainability of impact; ensuring training and technical assistance; and documenting progress. Similar intervention results may be attainable with a multi-year timeframe, adequate part-time coordination, and committed volunteers.

  20. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE ATTITUDE MOTIVES FORMATION TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN OF THE NORTHERN CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Zhanna Ildarovna Busheva

    2015-01-01

    Current issue under the study of problems of positive motivation formation for education of active attitude to physical culture and sports among primary school age children living in the northern city,is the study of students engaged and not engaged in physical culture and sports and main reasons research for passive attitude to the activity. In Surgut, KhMARYugra, 350 pupils were involved in theresearch of the age 710 years from the gymnasium named after Salmanov F.K. Following the procedure...

  1. Epidemiology of central nervous system tumors at the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Pérez, L; Jiménez-Marcial, M E; Martínez-Martínez, J E

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of different Central Nervous System Tumors (CNST) diagnosed at the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery) from Mexico City over a 10-year period (1990 to 1999) by means of a hospital survey. This institute is a reference hospital that provides medical attention to a very high number of adult neurological patients every year (approximately 6,000 new patients per year besides emergency cases). From a total number of 2,041 CNST cases, we found that the most frequent tumors were those affecting the neuroepithelial tissue (32.8 %), followed by tumors of the anterior pituitary gland (26.2 %) and tumors of the meninges and similar tissues (24.1 %). In both, male and female patients the higher frequency of CNST was found in patients whose age ranged from 25 to 44 years, and CNST were slightly more frequent in women than in men. Most of the CNST patients lived in the southern districts of Mexico City, it could be because of the great number of people living in the southern districts of the city, or perhaps due to the presence of certain yet unidentified environmental carcinogenic substance in this area. Since CNST are among the more frequent malignant neoplasms, it is necessary to improve the registration system to include frequency, prevalence, incidence and mortality of these diseases in Mexico, in order to plan health policies like in developed countries.

  2. The Formation of New Monetary Policies: Decisions of Central Banks on the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Esther Castro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect that the Great Recession had on monetary policies has led to the profound reorientation of central banks’ actions from 2007 to 2013. The purpose of this work is to analyze the monetary policies applied by the main central banks, mainly the European Central Bank, the Federal Reserve System of USA and the Bank of Japan, in order to raise thoughts on the guidelines that central banks should follow in the future. In the first section the bases of monetary policy before the crisis are described; in the second we explain the change in the orientation of the role of central banks during the crisis; and finally, we synthesize the bases on which the economic debate is taking place on the orientation of future monetary policies. We conclude that, in so far as the inoperativeness of transmission mechanisms still persists, monetary policies will remain in a process of change.

  3. Concentration, ozone formation potential and source analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a thermal power station centralized area: A study in Shuozhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulong; Peng, Lin; Li, Rumei; Li, Yinghui; Li, Lijuan; Bai, Huiling

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from two sampling sites (HB and XB) in a power station centralized area, in Shuozhou city, China, were sampled by stainless steel canisters and measured by gas chromatography-mass selective detection/flame ionization detection (GC-MSD/FID) in the spring and autumn of 2014. The concentration of VOCs was higher in the autumn (HB, 96.87 μg/m(3); XB, 58.94 μg/m(3)) than in the spring (HB, 41.49 μg/m(3); XB, 43.46 μg/m(3)), as lower wind speed in the autumn could lead to pollutant accumulation, especially at HB, which is a new urban area surrounded by residential areas and a transportation hub. Alkanes were the dominant group at both HB and XB in both sampling periods, but the contribution of aromatic pollutants at HB in the autumn was much higher than that of the other alkanes (11.16-19.55%). Compared to other cities, BTEX pollution in Shuozhou was among the lowest levels in the world. Because of the high levels of aromatic pollutants, the ozone formation potential increased significantly at HB in the autumn. Using the ratio analyses to identify the age of the air masses and analyze the sources, the results showed that the atmospheric VOCs at XB were strongly influenced by the remote sources of coal combustion, while at HB in the spring and autumn were affected by the remote sources of coal combustion and local sources of vehicle emission, respectively. Source analysis conducted using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model at Shuozhou showed that coal combustion and vehicle emissions made the two largest contributions (29.98% and 21.25%, respectively) to atmospheric VOCs. With further economic restructuring, the influence of vehicle emissions on the air quality should become more significant, indicating that controlling vehicle emissions is key to reducing the air pollution.

  4. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in 2003 and 2013 in Xinxiang city, Henan province, Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Hou, Yichen; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Haizhu; Ma, Jingbo; Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Xinxiang city, Henan province, China and the changes in the egg positive rate for E. vermicularis over a 10 year period. A total of 510 preschool children in 17 kindergartens were examined using the cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2003, while 1734 preschool children in 10 kindergartens were examined in 2013 using the same method. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 12.75% (65 out of 510) in 2003 and 5.13% (89 out of 1734) in 2013; the former was significantly higher than the latter (p enterobiasis. The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among preschool children decreased significantly over the 10 year period in Xinxiang city, but infection was still prevalent. Improving sanitation and personal hygiene practices, especially hand washing, could help prevent the transmission of E. vermicularis. PMID:27460881

  5. RESEARCHES ON URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT IN THE MEXICAN CITY OF QUERETARO: FROM CENTRAL TO PERI-URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Betanzo-Quezada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While in developed countries the effects of urban freight transport on congestion levels, environment and quality of life of the population have been recognized and studied, in Latin American countries a limited amount of reports have been produced on this issue, focusing only on major urban agglomerations and capital cities. The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss the results and the key analytical concepts supporting a research work carried out in the Queretaro Metropolitan Area, within the 2003−2014 period. The methodological approach considered includes a multi-year research effort for creating analytical tools and evaluation methods. As a result of this effort, urban freight related issues have been characterized in a context of urban and peri-urban interacting environments for a medium-sized city. The resulting methods and tools can now be used for studying metropolitan areas on a nation-wide basis.

  6. The theoretical plausibility of central pit crater formation via melt drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Catherine M.; Bray, Veronica J.; Melosh, H. Jay

    2012-11-01

    Central pit craters are seen in large craters on some icy satellites and on Mars. We investigate the hypothesis that central pits form when impact melt drains into fractures beneath the impact crater. For this process to occur, the volume of melt generated during the impact, the volume of void space in fractures beneath the impact crater, and the volume of melt able to drain before the fractures freeze shut all must exceed the volume of the observed central pits. We estimate the volume of melt generated using results from previous numerical modeling studies. The fracture volume is estimated using gravity anomalies over terrestrial craters. To estimate the amount of melt able to drain before freezing, we consider flow through plane parallel fractures. These calculations all suggest that enough liquid water could drain into fractured ice beneath a crater on Ganymede to form a central pit. On Earth and the Moon, silicate impact melt will freeze before a large volume is able to drain, so we do not expect to see central pits in impact craters in targets with no ice. In summary, we find our calculations are consistent with observed central pits in craters on Ganymede and the lack of central pits in craters on Earth and the Moon.

  7. Study on the Evaluation Index System of Intelligent City for National Central Cities%国家中心城市智能化发展评价指标体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鹏; 夏斌; 杨蕾

    2013-01-01

    目前,城市智能化发展理念已在世界范围内被广泛认可和接受,且已成为研究城市问题的热点,许多城市的智能化建设已逐步付诸实践.然而,针对我国城市智能化发展评价指标体系的研究还比较匮乏,基于城市类型的专项评价研究更少.城市规模、定位、特点和发展阶段不同,其智能化发展模式、评价方法和指标体系也会有所不同.在分析城市智能化发展要素的基础上,结合我国中心城市的特点和发展要求,提出包含城市智能发展支撑能力、智能发展现状水平和智能发展核心动力三大系统的国家中心城市智能化发展评价指标体系,以期为丰富城市智能化发展理论体系,提高城市智能化发展水平,促进城市智能化建设快速、健康发展提供借鉴.%The concept of intelligent city has been widely recognized and accepted throughout the world, and many cities also have been put it into practice. But there is comparative lack of evaluation research on this field, and the study for different city types is even scarcer. Due to the cities' differences of size, function, features and development stages, the evaluation method and index system also should be adjusted. This paper will propose a targeted evaluation index system to improve the accuracy and the pertinence of evaluation for Central Cities, which includes the Urban Support System, the Development Level System and the Driver of Innovation System.

  8. Depositional environments and sequence stratigraphy of the Bahram Formation (middleelate Devonian) in north of Kerman, south-central Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Afshin Hashmie; Ali Rostamnejad; Fariba Nikbakht; Mansour Ghorbanie; Peyman Rezaie; Hossien Gholamalian

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on sedimentary environments, facies distribution, and sequence stratigraphy. The facies and sequence stratigraphic analyses of the Bahram Formation (middleelate Devonian) in south-central Iran are based on two measured stratigraphic sections in the southern Tabas block. The Bah-ram Formation overlies red sandstones Padeha Formation in sections Hutk and Sardar and is overlain by Carboniferous carbonate deposits of Hutk Formation paraconformably, with a thickness of 354 and 386 m respectively. Mixed siliciclastic and carbonate sediments are present in this succession. The field observations and laboratory studies were used to identify 14 micro/petrofacies, which can be grouped into 5 depositional environments: shore, tidal flat, lagoon, shoal and shallow open marine. A mixed carbonate-detrital shallow shelf is suggested for the depositional environment of the Bahram Formation which deepens to the east (Sardar section) and thins in southern locations (Hutk section). Three 3rd-order cyclic siliciclastic and carbonate sequences in the Bahram Formation and one sequence shared with the overlying joint with Hutk Formation are identified, on the basis of shallowing upward patterns in the micro/pertofacies.

  9. Insights into the dolomitization process and porosity modification in sucrosic dolostones, Avon Park Formation (Middle Eocene), East-Central Florida, U.S.A.

    KAUST Repository

    Maliva,, Robert G.

    2011-03-01

    The Avon Park Formation (middle Eocene) in central Florida, U.S.A., contains shallow-water carbonates that have been replaced by dolomite to varying degrees, ranging from partially replaced limestones, to highly porous sucrosic dolostones, to, less commonly, low-porosity dense dolostones. The relationships between dolomitization and porosity and permeability were studied focusing on three 305-m-long cores taken in the City of Daytona Beach. Stable-isotope data from pure dolostones (mean δ 18O = +3.91% V-PDB) indicate dolomite precipitation in Eocene penesaline pore waters, which would be expected to have been at or above saturation with respect to calcite. Nuclear magnetic log-derived porosity and permeability data indicate that dolomitization did not materially change total porosity values at the bed and formation scale, but did result in a general increase in pore size and an associated substantial increase in permeability compared to limestone precursors. Dolomitization differentially affects the porosity and permeability of carbonate strata on the scale of individual crystals, beds, and formations. At the crystal scale, dolomitization occurs in a volume-for-volume manner in which the space occupied by the former porous calcium carbonate is replaced by a solid dolomite crystal with an associated reduction in porosity. Dolomite crystal precipitation was principally responsible for calcite dissolution both at the actual site of dolomite crystal growth and in the adjoining rock mass. Carbonate is passively scavenged from the formation, which results in no significant porosity change at the formation scale. Moldic pores after allochems formed mainly in beds that experienced high degrees of dolomitization, which demonstrates the intimate association of the dolomitization process with carbonate dissolution. The model of force of crystallization-controlled replacement provides a plausible explanation for key observations concerning the dolomitization process in the

  10. Magnetization of three Nubia Sandstone formations from Central Western Desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. El-Shayeb

    2013-06-01

    The first magnetic component obtained from the two older formations is considered primary, as the corresponding pole reflects the age when compared with the previously obtained Cretaceous poles for North Africa. On other hand, the second pole obtained from the Maghrabi formation (the younger is inconsistent with the Cretaceous pole positions for North Africa, but falls closer to the Eocene pole indicating that the rocks of this formation could have suffered remagnetization during the late Eocene time.

  11. Correlation, sedimentology, structural setting, chemical composition, and provenance of selected formations in Mesoproterozoic Lemhi Group, central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tysdal, Russell G.; Lindsey, David A.; Taggart, Joseph E.

    2003-01-01

    A unit of the Mesoproterozoic Apple Creek Formation of the Lemhi Range previously was correlated with part of the lower subunit of the Mesoproterozoic Yellowjacket Formation in the Salmon River Mountains. Strata currently assigned to the middle subunit of the Yellowjacket Formation lie conformably above the Apple Creek unit in the Salmon River Mountains, and are here renamed the banded siltite unit and reassigned to the Apple Creek Formation. Almost all of the banded siltite unit is preserved within the Salmon River Mountains, where it grades upward into clastic rocks that currently are assigned to the upper subunit of the Yellowjacket Formation and that here are reassigned to the Gunsight Formation. The banded siltite unit of the Apple Creek Formation is composed of a turbidite sequence, as recognized by previous workers. Uppermost strata of the unit were reworked by currents, possibly storm generated, and adjusted to a high water content by developing abundant soft-sediment deformation features. Basal strata of the overlying Gunsight Formation in the Salmon River Mountains display abundant hummocky crossbeds, storm-generated features deposited below fair-weather wave base, that are conformable above the storm-reworked deposits. The hummocky crossbedded strata grade upward into marine shoreface strata deposited above fair-weather wave base, which in turn are succeeded by fluvial strata. Hummocky and shoreface strata are absent from the Gunsight Formation in the Lemhi Range. The major thickness of the Gunsight Formation in both the Salmon River Mountains and the Lemhi Range is composed of fluvial rocks, transitional in the upper part into marine rocks of the Swauger Formation. The fluvial strata are mainly characterized by stacked sheets of metasandstone and coarse siltite; they are interpreted as deposits of braided rivers. The Poison Creek thrust fault of the Lemhi Range extends northwestward through the study area in the east-central part of the Salmon River

  12. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in 2003 and 2013 in Xinxiang city, Henan province, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Xinxiang city, Henan province, China and the changes in the egg positive rate for E. vermicularis over a 10 year period. A total of 510 preschool children in 17 kindergartens were examined using the cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2003, while 1734 preschool children in 10 kindergartens were examined in 2013 using the same method. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 12.75% (65 out of 510 in 2003 and 5.13% (89 out of 1734 in 2013; the former was significantly higher than the latter (p < 0.05. In both 2003 and 2013, the egg positive rate for 5 to 6-year-old children was significantly higher than that of 2 to 4-year-old children (p < 0.05. However, positive rates were not significantly dependent on gender or area. Among selected personal hygiene factors, no hand washing before eating, sucking fingers or toys, and scratching around the anus were all associated with enterobiasis. The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among preschool children decreased significantly over the 10 year period in Xinxiang city, but infection was still prevalent. Improving sanitation and personal hygiene practices, especially hand washing, could help prevent the transmission of E. vermicularis.

  13. Structural characterization of the fracture systems in the porcelanites: Comparing data from the Monterey Formation in California USA and the Sap Bon Formation in Central Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanapayont, Pitsanupong; Aydin, Atilla; Wongseekaew, Kanitsorn; Maneelok, Wichanee

    2016-09-01

    The fractures in the porcelanites from the Monterey Formation in California USA and the Sap Bon Formation in Central Thailand were documented for a comparative study of their modes, distribution, and their relationship to other structures such as folds and bedding planes. Both formations consist in thinly bedded stiff units that are prone to folding, flexural slip, and cross-bedding brittle fracturing under compression. There are two assemblages in the porcelanites. The first assemblage includes commonly vertical high-angle opening mode fractures, left-lateral strike-slip faults, normal faults, and thrust faults. The second one is sub-horizontal fractures which are associated with folds, bedding slip, and thrusts faults in both Monterey and Sap Bon formations. The structural architectures of these rocks and the associated groups of structures are remarkably similar in terms of both opening and shearing modes and their relationships with the bedding due to their depositional architecture and the compressional tectonic regimes, in spite of the fact that the two locations are more than ten thousand kilometers apart and have very different ages of deformation.

  14. The central dark matter content of early-type galaxies: scaling relations and connections with star formation histories

    CERN Document Server

    Napolitano, Nicola R; Tortora, Crescenzo

    2010-01-01

    We examine correlations between the masses, sizes, and star formation histories for a large sample of low-redshift early-type galaxies, using a simple suite of dynamical and stellar populations models. We confirm an anti-correlation between size and stellar age, and survey for trends with the central content of dark matter (DM). An average relation between central DM density and galaxy size of ~ Reff^-2 provides the first clear indication of cuspy DM haloes in these galaxies -- akin to standard LCDM haloes that have undergone adiabatic contraction. The DM density scales with galaxy mass as expected, deviating from suggestions of a universal halo profile for dwarf and late-type galaxies. We introduce a new fundamental constraint on galaxy formation by finding that the central DM fraction decreases with stellar age. This result is only partially explained by the size-age dependencies, and the residual trend is in the opposite direction to basic DM halo expectations. Therefore we suggest that there may be a con...

  15. A Reinterpretation of the Baturetno Formation: Stratigraphic Study of the Baturetno Basin, Wonogiri, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purna Sulastya Putra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the Quaternary Baturetno Formation. An earlier research concluded that the black clay of the Baturetno Formation formed as a ‘palaeolake’ deposit. The ‘palaeolake’ was interpreted to form due to the shifting course of the Bengawan Solo Purba River in relation to Pliocene tectonic tilting in the southern Java. The stratigraphy of the Baturetno Formation was observed in the western part of the Baturetno Basin, and based on marker beds, the Baturetno Formation was classified into three units: (1 Gravel unit (GR in the upper part, (2 clay unit (CU in the middle part, and (3 sand-gravel unit (SG in the lower part. There are floating gravel fragments of andesite, claystone, coral, and limestone with diameters of up to 10 cm in the clay unit. The particle size of sediment reflects the environment, but the lake deposition occurs under very quiet conditions. The occurrence of these fragments within the clay cannot be explained if the clay was deposited within a lake environment. The occurrence of floating fragments in the black clay of Baturetno Formation can best be explained through mudflow process. The cohesive strength of the mudflow is responsible for the ability of large fragments to float within the mud matrix. In general, the Baturetno Formation is inferred to be an alluvial fan deposit. The presence of sand, gravel, and mud are characteristics of alluvial fan deposits.

  16. Hanadirella: A new problematic arthropod(?) from the Lower Ordovician (Llanvirn) Tabuk Formation, central Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Khayal, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The new genus Hanadirella - with the type species H. bramkampi - from the Lower Ordovician (Llanvirn) of central Saudi Arabia represents a segmented organism which appears to have an arthropod affinity. The problematic genus is oval hat-shaped, less than 1 mm in diameter. Its affinity and palaeoecol

  17. Air quality forecasting for winter-time PM2.5 episodes occurring in multiple cities in central and southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saide, Pablo E.; Mena-Carrasco, Marcelo; Tolvett, Sebastian; Hernandez, Pablo; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic air quality degradation due to particles occurs in multiple cities in central and southern Chile during the austral winter reaching levels up to 300-800 µg/m3 hourly PM2.5, which can be associated with severe effects on human health. An air quality prediction system is developed to predict such events in near real time up to 3 days in advance for nine cities with regular air quality monitoring: Santiago, Rancagua, Curicó, Talca, Chillan, Los Ángeles, Temuco, Valdivia, and Osorno. The system uses the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model configured with a nested 2 km grid-spacing domain to predict weather and inert tracers. The tracers are converted to hourly PM2.5 concentrations using an observationally based calibration which is substantially less computationally intensive than a full chemistry model. The conversion takes into account processes occurring in these cities, including higher likelihood of episode occurrence during weekends and during colder days, the latter related to increased wood-burning-stove activity for heating. The system is calibrated and evaluated for April-August 2014 where it has an overall skill of 53-72% of episodes accurately forecasted (61-76% for the best initialization) which is better than persistence for most stations. Forecasts one, two, and three days in advance all have skill in forecasting events but often present large variability within them due to different meteorological initializations. The system is being implemented in Chile to assist authority decisions not only to warn the population but also to take contingency-based emission restrictions to try to avoid severe pollution events.

  18. Stretching morphogenesis of the roof plate and formation of the central canal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kondrychyn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurulation is driven by apical constriction of actomyosin cytoskeleton resulting in conversion of the primitive lumen into the central canal in a mechanism driven by F-actin constriction, cell overcrowding and buildup of axonal tracts. The roof plate of the neural tube acts as the dorsal morphogenetic center and boundary preventing midline crossing by neural cells and axons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The roof plate zebrafish transgenics expressing cytosolic GFP were used to study and describe development of this structure in vivo for a first time ever. The conversion of the primitive lumen into the central canal causes significant morphogenetic changes of neuroepithelial cells in the dorsal neural tube. We demonstrated that the roof plate cells stretch along the D-V axis in parallel with conversion of the primitive lumen into central canal and its ventral displacement. Importantly, the stretching of the roof plate is well-coordinated along the whole spinal cord and the roof plate cells extend 3× in length to cover 2/3 of the neural tube diameter. This process involves the visco-elastic extension of the roof place cytoskeleton and depends on activity of Zic6 and the Rho-associated kinase (Rock. In contrast, stretching of the floor plate is much less extensive. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The extension of the roof plate requires its attachment to the apical complex of proteins at the surface of the central canal, which depends on activity of Zic6 and Rock. The D-V extension of the roof plate may change a range and distribution of morphogens it produces. The resistance of the roof plate cytoskeleton attenuates ventral displacement of the central canal in illustration of the novel mechanical role of the roof plate during development of the body axis.

  19. The feasibility of a school-based VI polysaccharide vaccine mass immunization campaign in Hue City, central Vietnam: streamlining a typhoid fever preventive strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, Vu Dinh; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Canh, Do Gia; Son, Nguyen Dinh; Hoa, Nyugen Thai; Thuy, Dang Thi Dieu; Ochiai, R Leon; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Hop, Tran Quang; Ali, Mohammad; Park, Jin Kyung; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Holliday, Kris; Ivanoff, Bernard; Anh, Dang Duc; Pang, Tikki; Donner, Allan; Galindo, Claudia M; Trach, Dang Duc; Clemens, John D; Acosta, Camilo J

    2006-05-01

    We report the coverage, safety, and logistics of a school-based typhoid fever immunization campaign that took place in Hue City, central Vietnam; a typhoid fever endemic area. A cluster-randomized evaluation-blinded controlled trial was designed where 68 schools (cluster) were randomly allocated the single dose Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typherix) or the active control hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix). A safety surveillance system was implemented. A total of 32,267 children were immunized with a coverage of 57.5%. Strong predictors for vaccination were attending primary schools, peri-urban location of the school, and low family income. Human resources were mainly schoolteachers and the campaign was completed in about 1 month. Most adverse events reported were mild. Safe injection and safe sharp-waste disposal practices were followed. A typhoid fever school-based immunization campaign was safe and logistically possible. Coverage was moderate and can be interpreted as the minimum that could have been achievable because individual written informed consent procedures were sought for the first time in Hue City and the trial nature of the campaign. The lessons learned, together with cost-effectiveness results to be obtained by the end of follow-up period, will hopefully accelerate the introduction of Vi typhoid fever vaccine in Vietnam.

  20. Facies distribution, depositional environment, and petrophysical features of the Sharawra Formation, Old Qusaiba Village, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Muhammad Asif; Kaminski, Michael; Umran Dogan, A.

    2016-04-01

    The Silurian Sharawra Formation has great importance as it rests over the richest source rock of the Qusaiba Formation in central Saudi Arabia. The Sharawra Formation has four members including Jarish, Khanafriyah, Nayyal, and Zubliyat. The formation mainly consists of sandstone and siltstone with subordinate shale sequences. The lack of published research on this formation requires fundamental studies that can lay the foundation for future research. Three outcrops were selected from the Old Qusaiba Village in Central Saudi Arabia for field observations, petrographical and petrophysical study. Thin section study has been aided by quantitative mineralogical characterization using scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive spectroscopy and powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) for both minerals, cements, and clay minerals (detrital and authigenic). The outcrops were logged in detail and nine different lithofacies have been identified. The thin section study has revealed the Sharawra Formation to be mainly subarkosic, while the mica content increases near to its contact with the Qusaiba Formation. The XRD data has also revealed a prominent change in mineralogy with inclusion of minerals like phlogopite and microcline with depths. Field observations delineated a prominent thinning of strata as lithofacies correlation clearly shows the thinning of strata in the southwestern direction. The absence of outcrop exposures further supports the idea of southwestern thinning of strata. This is mainly attributed to local erosion and the presence of thicker shale interbeds in the southeastern section, which was probably subjected to more intense erosion than the northwestern one. The Sharawra Formation rests conformably over the thick transgressive shale sequence, deposited during the post glacial depositional cycle. The lowermost massive sandstone bed of the Sharawra Formation represents the beginning of the regressive period. The shale interbeds in the lower part are evidence of

  1. City Building: the participation in the production of income in urban formation of Guaçuí-ES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cândido Mendonça

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the participation of real income in urban education Guaçuí municipality of Southwest State of Espírito Santo. The theoretical analysis assumed seize the city (its built space, articulated the productive space, so in general, necessary for the reproduction of capital in the city urban conditions, by which they showed in the set of investment strategies in urban activities the development prospect of gains for the valuation of real property. And this value is related to the capitalist use of land through the creation of urban conditions and construction of rental housing. The conclusion is that capital originated in the field also encountered in the construction of the city the opportunity to reproduce and thereby interfere with the spatial configuration of the city. Accordingly, we sought to understand the metamorphosis of wealth from the countryside to the city in Guaçuí, in which the value of urban real estate was the significance of reserve and allowed the obtaining of income. Considering the importance of the participation of the municipality Guaçuí the regional economy were significant transfers of surplus from the countryside to the city during the first half of the last century, enabling rentier show the interference of production (for the purpose of earning income through the use of property urban land in the urban training town. Access to information, including probate proceedings on the initiatives of the business diversification of farmers and traders, helped identify initiatives such as the creation of urban infrastructure and services, as well as the construction of rental housing, allowing the valuation of real property and the transformation of the city Guaçuí.

  2. Study of particulate matters pollution related with meteorological factors for a city from South-Central of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela MITRAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the effects of climate change and air pollution is at present a global priority. Development and implementation of effective policies in order to achieve these  reductions is a challenge that requires a good understanding of the underlying phenomena  of climate change and air pollution. This paper aims to highlight the seasonal variation of PM10 concentration in Pitesti city depending on major meteorological factors (temperature, intensity of solar radiation, and relative humidity. The applied methodology consists in statistical processing, using specialized software, of a database containing historical records of concentration values of this pollutant and of meteorological parameters recorded concurrently. The results of processing a series of approximately 30000 values recorded from 2008 to 2011 indicate the fact that in every season (winter,spring, summer, and autumn the concentration of PM10 varies according to a sixth degree polynomial function, whose variable is one of the considered meteorological factors. The mathematical relationship that best approximates the variation of average PM10 concentration in relation with the three meteorological factors is by the form of a multiple linear regression equation.Keywords: air pollution and human health, particulate matters related with meteorological factors, statistical analysis

  3. Revisions to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the Abiquiu Formation, Abiquiu and contiguous areas, north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian; Kelley, Shari A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratigraphic studies and geologic mapping on the Abiquiu 7.5-min quadrangle have led to revision of the stratigraphic nomenclature for the Oligocene to Miocene Abiquiu Formation in north-central New Mexico. The Abiquiu Formation had previously been defined to include informal upper, middle (Pedernal chert member), and lower members. The basement-derived conglomeratic lower member in the northern Jemez Mountains and Abiquiu embayment is here redefined. We propose removing the "lower member" from the Abiquiu Formation because provenance of these coarse sediments is dramatically different than the volcaniclastic strata of the "upper member." Furthermore, we propose that the term "lower member of the Abiquiu Formation" be replaced with an existing unit name, the Ritito Conglomerate of Barker (1958), and that the name Abiquiu Formation be restricted to the volcaniclastic succession. The lower part of the Ritito Conglomerate in Arroyo del Cobre on the Abiquiu quadrangle is 47 m (155 ft) thick and is composed of arkosic conglomeratic beds interbedded with arkosic sands and siltstones. Clasts include, in descending order of abundance, Proterozoic quartzite, granite, metavolcanic rocks, quartz, schist, and gneiss and a trace of Mesozoic sandstone and Paleozoic chert. Clasts are predominantly of pebble and cobble size but range from granule to boulder size. Paleocurrent data collected in the Arroyo del Cobre area indicate that the Ritito Conglomerate was deposited by a south-flowing river system during the Oligocene, eroding Laramide highlands such as the Tusas Mountains to the northeast, which contain predominantly Proterozoic rocks. This depositional setting has also been suggested by previous workers. The middle member or Pedernal chert member is present both at the top of the Ritito Conglomerate and as lenses within the lower part of the Abiquiu Formation. This post-depositional diagenetic chert remains an informal unit called the Pedernal chert.

  4. Sedimentology, petrology, and gas potential of the Brallier Formation: upper Devonian turbidite facies of the Central and Southern Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundegard, P.D.; Samuels, N.D.; Pryor, W.A.

    1980-03-01

    The Upper Devonian Brallier Formation of the central and southern Appalachian basin is a regressive sequence of siltstone turbidites interbedded with mudstones, claystones, and shales. It reaches 1000 meters in thickness and overlies basinal mudrocks and underlies deltaic sandstones and mudrocks. Facies and paleocurrent analyses indicate differences between the depositional system of the Brallier Formation and those of modern submarine fans and ancient Alpine flysch-type sequences. The Brallier system is of finer grain size and lower flow intensity. In addition, the stratigraphic transition from turbidites to deltaic sediments is gradual and differs in its facies succession from the deposits of the proximal parts of modern submarine fans. Such features as massive and pebbly sandstones, conglomerates, debris flows, and massive slump structures are absent from this transition. Paleocurrents are uniformly to the west at right angles to basin isopach, which is atypical of ancient turbidite systems. This suggests that turbidity currents had multiple point sources. The petrography and paleocurrents of the Brallier Formation indicate an eastern source of sedimentary and low-grade metasedimentary rocks with modern relief and rainfall. The depositional system of the Brallier Formation is interpreted as a series of small ephemeral turbidite lobes of low flow intensity which coalesced in time to produce a laterally extensive wedge. The lobes were fed by deltas rather than submarine canyons or upper fan channel systems. This study shows that the present-day turbidite facies model, based mainly on modern submarine fans and ancient Alpine flysch-type sequences, does not adequately describe prodeltaic turbidite systems such as the Brallier Formation. Thickly bedded siltstone bundles are common features of the Brallier Formation and are probably its best gas reservoir facies, especially when fracture porosity is well developed.

  5. THE SPATIAL PATTERN OF URBANIZATION AND SMALL CITIES DEVELOPMENT IN CENTRAL JAVA: A CASE STUDY OF SEMARANG-YOGYAKARTA-SURAKARTA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawoto Sih Setyono

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The special form of urbanization in Indonesia has led to a variety of themes on the urban development studies in Indonesia. Since 1990s, there has been an emphasis on the development of mega-urban regions, particularly those surrounding Jakarta as the biggest and the prime city in Indonesia. This research is aimed at elaborating the previous knowledge on the urbanization pattern in Indonesia, and Java in particular. More specifically, this study examines urban development trend in Central Java. The analysis of urbanization in this study can be classified into two categories, i.e. analysis of the urbanization level and analysis of the urbanization growth. These two analyses are combined by applying some GIS methods in order to understand the pattern of urbanization in the region. It is found that the urbanization process in Central Java has transformed the predominantly rural regions in the 1980s into the urban ones. The rapid growth of urban population forms some observable pattern that may be different to the national pattern. There are common spatial patterns, such as the importance of the coastal region and the essential role of the larger urban centers in the urbanization. In this regards, the emergence of the smaller centers has also contributed to the process, especially in bridging a more balanced development between major urban centers and their respective rural hinterland.

  6. FORMATIVE MECHANISM OF AKAISHI MOUNTAINS AND ENREI BASIN IN CENTRAL JAPAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasu'uchi KUBOTA; Takao YANO

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction It is common in mobile belts that uplifting mountains are neighbored by synchronously subsiding basins.The coupling mechanism of such subsidence and uplift is an important target to clarify the dynamics of mobile belts.We investigate the coupled mountain uplift and basin subsidence in the Central Japan highland,the junction of three island arcs (the Northeast Japan,the Southwest Japan and the Izu-Ogasawara arcs).The highland over 3 000 m in height is composed of mountain ranges,plateaus and intramountain basins (Fig.1).

  7. FORMATIVE MECHANISM OF AKAISHI MOUNTAINS AND ENREI BASIN IN CENTRAL JAPAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasu'uchi; KUBOTA; Takao; YANO

    2001-01-01

    1 Introduction  It is common in mobile belts that uplifting mountains are neighbored by synchronously subsiding basins.The coupling mechanism of such subsidence and uplift is an important target to clarify the dynamics of mobile belts.We investigate the coupled mountain uplift and basin subsidence in the Central Japan highland,the junction of three island arcs (the Northeast Japan,the Southwest Japan and the Izu-Ogasawara arcs).The highland over 3 000 m in height is composed of mountain ranges,plateaus and intramountain basins (Fig.1).……

  8. Geologic framework, age, and lithologic characteristics of the North Park Formation in North Park, north-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroba, Ralph R.

    2016-10-18

    Deposits of the North Park Formation of late Oligocene and Miocene age are locally exposed at small, widely spaced outcrops along the margins of the roughly northwest-trending North Park syncline in the southern part of North Park, a large intermontane topographic basin in Jackson County in north-central Colorado. These outcrops suggest that rocks and sediments of the North Park Formation consist chiefly of poorly consolidated sand, weakly cemented sandstone, and pebbly sandstone; subordinate amounts of pebble conglomerate; minor amounts of cobbly pebble gravel, siltstone, and sandy limestone; and rare beds of cobble conglomerate and altered tuff. These deposits partly filled North Park as well as a few small nearby valleys and half grabens. In North Park, deposits of the North Park Formation probably once formed a broad and relatively thick sedimentary apron composed chiefly of alluvial slope deposits (mostly sheetwash and stream-channel alluvium) that extended, over a distance of at least 150 kilometers (km), northwestward from the Never Summer Mountains and northward from the Rabbit Ears Range across North Park and extended farther northwestward into the valley of the North Platte River slightly north of the Colorado-Wyoming border. The maximum preserved thickness of the formation in North Park is about 550 meters near the southeastern end of the North Park syncline.The deposition of the North Park Formation was coeval in part with local volcanism, extensional faulting, development of half grabens, and deposition of the Browns Park Formation and Troublesome Formation and was accompanied by post-Laramide regional epeirogenic uplift. Regional deposition of extensive eolian sand sheets and loess deposits, coeval with the deposition of the North Park Formation, suggests that semiarid climatic conditions prevailed during the deposition of the North Park Formation during the late Oligocene and Miocene.The North Park Formation locally contains a 28.1-mega-annum (Ma

  9. High-redshift formation and evolution of central massive objects II: The census of BH seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Devecchi, B; Rossi, E M; Colpi, M; Zwart, S Portegies

    2012-01-01

    We present results of simulations aimed at tracing the formation of nuclear star clusters (NCs) and black hole (BH) seeds, in a cosmological context. We focus on two mechanisms for the formation of BHs at high redshifts: as end-products of (1) Population III stars in metal free halos, and of (2) runaway stellar collisions in metal poor NCs. Our model tracks the chemical, radiative and mechanical feedback of stars on the baryonic component of the evolving halos. This procedure allows us to evaluate when and where the conditions for BH formation are met, and to trace the emergence of BH seeds arising from the dynamical channel, in a cosmological context. BHs start to appear already at z~30 as remnants of Population III stars. The efficiency of this mechanism begins decreasing once feedbacks become increasingly important. Around redshift z~15, BHs mostly form in the centre of mildly metal enriched halos inside dense NCs. The seed BHs that form along the two pathways have at birth a mass around 100-1000M\\odot. Th...

  10. Segregation of Central Ventricular Conduction System Lineages in Early SMA+ Cardiomyocytes Occurs Prior to Heart Tube Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Choquet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiac conduction system (CCS transmits electrical activity from the atria to the ventricles to coordinate heartbeats. Atrioventricular conduction diseases are often associated with defects in the central ventricular conduction system comprising the atrioventricular bundle (AVB and right and left branches (BBs. Conducting and contractile working myocytes share common cardiomyogenic progenitors, however the time at which the CCS lineage becomes specified is unclear. In order to study the fate and the contribution to the CCS of cardiomyocytes during early heart tube formation, we performed a genetic lineage analysis using a Sma-CreERT2 mouse line. Lineage tracing experiments reveal a sequential contribution of early Sma expressing cardiomyocytes to different cardiac compartments, labeling at embryonic day (E 7.5 giving rise to the interventricular septum and apical left ventricular myocardium. Early Sma expressing cardiomyocytes contribute to the AVB, BBs and left ventricular Purkinje fibers. Clonal analysis using the R26-confetti reporter mouse crossed with Sma-CreERT2 demonstrates that early Sma expressing cardiomyocytes include cells exclusively fated to give rise to the AVB. In contrast, lineage segregation is still ongoing for the BBs at E7.5. Overall this study highlights the early segregation of the central ventricular conduction system lineage within cardiomyocytes at the onset of heart tube formation.

  11. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3- in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  12. The demonstration project of centralized biogas supply system for 500 households in Mei-long-jie-xin village, Shanghai city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenggen Cheng [Shanghai Biogas Production Co. (China)

    2000-07-01

    The biogas project in Mei-long-jie-xin village, Shanghai, mainly includes a 150 m{sup 3} hybrid digester and a 100 m{sup 3} deep-well-type digester with a floating gas holder. This biogas project was designed by Shanghai Biogas Production Company and is used to treat high concentration distillery wastewater. Fermentation temperature is 25 - 38 C. Daily biogas production is about 1,500 m{sup 3}, which is used as daily fuel for 500 local household residents and some civil enterprises such as a village tea-house, a primary school, a kindergarten, a village glass processing workshop in Mei-long-jie-xin village. Anaerobically digested effluent is post-treated through sedimentation, coagulation and solid/liquid separation. The COD concentration in the final effluent is already less than 350 mg/l, which could meet the requirements of the national wastewater discharge standards. In addition, separated fermentation sludge could be used as fish feed. The construction of this biogas installation started in October 1987 and was put into operation during the Chinese New Year, 1989. Initially, 230 households were connected but increased to 400 households by July of the same year. Based on this plan, by November 1990 a total of 500 households was expected to use biogas. This biogas plant is a measure to implement pollution control and re-utilize resources with considerable economic and social benefits. The successful construction of this demonstration biogas plant paved the way to extending biogas technology to suburban areas near big cities. (orig.)

  13. Suburbs and Cities

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Matthew I. Spiegel; Susan M. Wachter

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how closely the fortunes of suburbs are tied to the fortunes of the central city. We use similarities in residential housing price dynamics as a measure of how closely the economies of cities and suburbs are related. We develop housing price indices for most of the zip codes in California, and use these in a clustering procedure to see whether cities and suburbs naturally aggregate together, or whether they move separately. We find that central cities tend to...

  14. On Industrial Adjustment of Wuhan to Be a National Central City%武汉:建设国家中心城市的产业结构调整

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璇

    2016-01-01

    Industrial factors serve as an important support for the economic functions of national central cities. The article conducts a comparative research on the current industrial condition of Wuhan and other national central cities. On the basis of industrial transformation, Wuhan should highlight its function as a central city, uphold scientific technological innovation, and promote the government services, and instill vigor into industries which can enhance the competitiveness of the central cities.%产业要素是国家中心城市经济职能中的重要支撑。武汉目前的产业现状与其它国家中心城市比较还存在明显差距。需要通过立足产业转型、突出区域中心功能、坚持科技创新驱动、提升政府服务功能,促进中心城市产业的引领和溢出效应,提升城市产业综合竞争能力。

  15. A comparison of mortality rates in three prospective studies from Copenhagen with mortality rates in the central part of the city, and the entire country. Copenhagen Center for Prospective Population Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Vestbo, Jørgen; Juel, Knud

    1998-01-01

    in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, whereas mortality rates in the Glostrup Population Studies were similar to rates for the whole country. The mortality rates among participants were lower than in the whole sample, and differences existed in relation to region and selection criteria of the cohorts. The Copenhagen...... Male Study, where only employed men were included, showed the lowest mortality rates, and higher rates were found in the study from the central part of the City (the Copenhagen City Heart Study) compared to the study from the suburbs (the Glostrup Population Studies). The difference between mortality...... rates in the cohorts and in Copenhagen City decreased with increasing age. The SMR converged towards 1.00 with increasing observation time. In conclusion, high participation rates were found in all three studies, resulting in SMR values for participants only slightly lower than in the source population...

  16. Dew formation on the surface of biological soil crusts in central European sand ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fischer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dew formation was investigated in three developmental stages of biological soil crusts (BSC, which were collected along a catena of an inland dune and in the initial substrate. The Penman equation, which was developed for saturated surfaces, was modified for unsaturated surfaces and used for prediction of dewfall rates. The levels of surface saturation required for this approach were predicted using the water retention functions and the thicknesses of the BSCs. During a first field campaign (2–3 August 2011, dewfall increased from 0.042 kg m−2 for the initial sandy substrate to 0.058, 0.143 and 0.178 kg m−2 for crusts 1 to 3, respectively. During a second field campaign (17–18 August 2011, where dew formation was recorded in 1.5 to 2.75-h intervals after installation at 21:30 CEST, dewfall increased from 0.011 kg m−2 for the initial sandy substrate to 0.013, 0.028 and 0.055 kg m−2 for crusts 1 to 3, respectively. Dewfall rates remained on low levels for the substrate and for crust 1, and decreased overnight for crusts 2 and 3 (with crust 3 > crust 2 > crust 1 throughout the campaign. Dew formation was well reflected by the model response. The suggested mechanism of dew formation involves a delay in water saturation in near-surface soil pores and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS where the crusts were thicker and where the water capacity was high, resulting in elevated vapor flux towards the surface. The results also indicate that the amount of dewfall was too low to saturate the BSCs and to observe water flow into deeper soil. Analysis of the soil water retention curves revealed that, despite the sandy mineral matrix, moist crusts clogged by swollen EPS pores exhibited a clay-like behavior. It is hypothesized that BSCs gain double benefit from suppressing their competitors by runoff generation and from improving their water supply by dew collection. Despite higher amounts of dew, the

  17. Observations of Lyα and O vi: Signatures of Cooling and Star Formation in a Massive Central Cluster Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Megan; Connor, Thomas; Voit, G. Mark; Postman, Marc

    2017-02-01

    We report new Hubble Space Telescope COS and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectroscopy of a star-forming region (∼ 100 {M}ȯ yr‑1) in the center of the X-ray cluster RX J1532.9+3021 (z = 0.362), to follow-up the CLASH team discovery of luminous UV filaments and knots in the central massive galaxy. We detect broad (∼500 km s‑1) Lyα emission lines with extraordinarily high equivalent widths (EQW ∼ 200 Å) and somewhat less broadened Hα (∼220 km s‑1). Ultraviolet emission lines of N v and O vi are not detected, which constrains the rate at which gas cools through temperatures of 106 K to be ≲10 M⊙ yr‑1. The COS spectra also show a flat rest-frame UV continuum with weak stellar photospheric features, consistent with the presence of recently formed hot stars forming at a rate of ∼10 M⊙ yr‑1, uncorrected for dust extinction. The slope and absorption lines in these UV spectra are similar to those of Lyman Break Galaxies at z≈ 3, albeit those with the highest Lyα equivalent widths and star formation rates. This high-EQW Lyα source is a high-metallicity galaxy rapidly forming stars in structures that look nothing like disks. This mode of star formation could significantly contribute to the spheroidal population of galaxies. The constraint on the luminosity of any O vi line emission is stringent enough to rule out steady and simultaneous gas cooling and star formation, unlike similar systems in the Phoenix Cluster and Abell 1795. The fact that the current star formation rate differs from the local mass cooling rate is consistent with recent simulations of episodic active galactic nucleus feedback and star formation in a cluster atmosphere.

  18. Pumice in the interglacial Whidbey Formation at Blowers Bluff, central Whidbey Island, WA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethier, D.P.; Dragovich, J.D.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Fleck, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    A new 40Ar/39Ar age of 128??9 ka and chemical analyses of pumice layers from interglacial alluvium at Blowers Bluff, Whidbey Island, WA, show that the deposits are part of the Whidbey Formation, a widespread, mainly subsurface unit. Glass chemistry of the dated dacitic pumice does not match any analyzed northern Cascade source, but upper Pleistocene dacites from Glacier Peak and early Pleistocene silicic rocks from the Kulshan caldera are chemically similar. The chemistry of pumiceous dacite in younger units, including the latest Pleistocene Partridge Gravel, is similar to that of the dated material. The deep troughs of the modern northern Puget lowland must have been filled during deposition of the Whidbey Formation, allowing volcanic-rich sediment to reach what is now Whidbey Island. Topographic analysis of LIDAR images demonstrates that extensive erosion occurred during latest Pleistocene ice retreat. The Partridge Gravel likely records subglacial fluvial erosion along an ice tunnel and ice-marginal deposition into adjacent marine waters. Pumice in the Partridge Gravel probably was reworked from stratigraphically and topographically lower deposits, including those at Blowers Bluff. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  19. The prevalence and abundance of helminth parasites in stray dogs from the city of Queretaro in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantó, G J; García, M P; García, A; Guerrero, M J; Mosqueda, J

    2011-09-01

    The prevalence of helminth species in stray dogs, from the capital city of the state of Queretaro, was evaluated. A total of 378 dogs were captured and examined for the presence of helminths from January to December 2008. The results showed that 275 (72.8%) of examined dogs were infected with one or more helminth species. Single infections were observed in 139 (50.5%) of infected dogs and 136 (49.5%) harboured mixed infections. Out of the 378 dogs examined, 208 (55.2%) presented nematodes and 182 (48.1%) cestodes. The prevalences (confidence interval) and mean intensities of infection ( ± SD) of nematodes and cestodes encountered were: Ancylostoma caninum 42.9% (37.9-47.8) and 22.1 ( ± 34.3); Toxocara canis 15.1% (11.8-19.0) and 8.3 ( ± 15.0); Spirocerca lupi 4.5% (2.7-7.1) and 3.9 ( ± 4.8); Toxascaris leonina 2.3% (1.1-4.5) and 4.8 ( ± 3.5); Physaloptera praeputialis 1.9% (0.8-3.8) and 9.7 ( ± 14.9); Dirofilaria immitis 1.3% (0.4-3.1) and 5.6 ( ± 2.1); Oslerus osleri 0.3% (0.0-1.6) and 5 ( ± 0.0); Dipylidium caninum 44.9% (40.0-50.0) and 18.1 ( ± 27.7); Taenia spp. 6.9% (4.7-9.9) and 6.9 ( ± 7.1). There were no significant differences in prevalences observed either between female (68.5%) and male (76.8%) or between young (70.6%) and adult (74.2%) animals. No differences were observed in the ANOVA test for the mean intensity of infection of any of the parasites (P>0.05).

  20. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  1. Formation mechanism of carbonate cemented zones adjacent to the top overpressured surface in the central Junggar Basin,NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Carbonate cemented zones are normally adjacent to the top overpressured surface in the central Junggar Basin,NW China.Stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions and petrological investigations of carbonate cements in the carbonate cemented zones indicate that:(1) carbonate cements are composed dominantly of ferrocalcite,ferroan dolomite,and ankerite;(2) carbonate cements are formed under a high temperature circumstance in the subsurface,and organic fluid migration has an important effect on the formation of them;and(3) carbon and oxygen ions in the carbonate cements migrate from the underlying overpressured system.This suggests that the occurrence of carbonate cemented zones in this region results from multiple phases of organic fluid expulsion out of the overpressure compartment through geological time.This study provides a plausible mechanism of the formation of carbonate cemented zones adjacent to the top overpressured surface in the clastic sedimentary basins,and has an important implication for understanding the internal correlation between the formation of carbonate cemented zones adjacent to top overpressured surface and geofluids expulsion out of overpressured system.

  2. How to make mega-cities energy efficient?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yoshitaka

    2010-09-15

    Tokyo is a Megalopolis with 40 million+ population. It has an energy efficient profile due to its uniqueness as extensive mass rail transit networks, high density and compact urban formation, compact space oriented life style. The other feature is extensive use of electric heat pumps (EHP), which entails low carbon city profile. Further possibility is prepared with water thermal energy utilization, which is widely available also through EHP particularly in Tokyo central districts, which could make Tokyo one of the lowest carbon cities in the world. Emerging mega-cities are expected to learn from Tokyo's success and not from western conventional models.

  3. Geophysical Exploration of Fractured-Media Aquifers at the Mexican Mesa Central: Satellite City, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Loera, Héctor; Ramos Leal, José Alfredo; Dávila Harris, Pablo; Torres Gaytan, David Ernesto; Martinez Ruiz, Victor Julian; Gogichaishvili, Avto

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is scarce in arid and semi-arid zones in the Mexican Mesa Central. It is found at depths over 200 m, and its movement is primarily through fractures. This work aims to present a geophysical methodology, which shows the potential of combining natural and induced methods to locate confined aquifers in fault zones. The studies begin by interpreting the aeromagnetic survey, mainly by seeking lineaments associated with low magnetic anomalies, which are correlated with fault zones, and/or fractures and/or geological contacts where ferromagnetic minerals have undergone oxidation due to their association with recharge zones. These aeromagnetic lineaments are confirmed on land by a ground magnetic survey. After locating these areas, interpreted as permeability zones, their possible association with moist zones is confirmed by applying the vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique. H-type curve is associated with the presence of saturated zones. This study used the proposed methodology to interpret four main aeromagnetic lineaments and 12 main ground magnetic lineaments in a 36 km2 (6 km × 6 km) area. Twenty-six SEV were performed over these magnetic lineaments, of which about 50 % were associated with H-type resistivity curves, interpreted as being associated with moisture. Of the 12 VES with inferred groundwater potential, two wells have been drilled to date, one having an extraction flow of 70 lps.

  4. Star formation in the central 0.5 pc of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Paumard, Thibaut

    2008-01-01

    The supermassive black hole candidate at the Galactic Center is surrounded by a parsec-scale star cluster, which contains a number of early type stars. The presence of such stars has been called a "paradox of youth" as star formation in the immediate vicinity of a supermassive black hole seemed difficult, as well as the transport of stars from far out in a massive-star lifetime. I will recall 30 years of technological developments which led to the current understanding of the nuclear cluster stellar population. The number of early type stars known at present is sufficient to access the 3D structure of this population and its dynamics, which in turn allows discriminating between the various possible origins proposed along the years.

  5. Volcanic succession of the Borovnik Member (Mohorje Formation, Bloke Plateau area, Central Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Dozet

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A 75 m thick volcanic succession of the Borovnik Member, Mohorje Formation in the Bloke Plateau area consistsof dacitic and rhyolitic rocks deposited in a shallow-marine environment. Volcanic activity begun with lavaflows that underwent extensive disintegration, autobrecciation and mixing with the underlying unconsolidated fine-grained clastic sediments producing dacite/rhyolite-siltstone peperites. Peperites are very rich in fractured plagioclase phenocrysts, and owing to the incorporation of clastic material, they are commonly depleted in silica.The overlying fining-upward pyroclastic sequence is monotonous. Basal parts mainly consist of coarse-grained vitric tuffs that may contain some smaller pumice lapilli. The overlying volcaniclastics are fine-grained vitric tuffs,and in the uppermost parts of the sequence, they are interbedded with cherts.The study confirms the existence of primary volcaniclastic succession in the Bloke Plateau area and excludes its epiclastic or reworked origin.

  6. Eluvial gold placer formation on actively rising mountain ranges, Central Otago, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craw, D.; Youngson, J. H.

    1993-05-01

    Eluvial gold deposits in Central Otago, New Zealand, have formed and are still forming on the flanks of actively rising antiformal mountain ranges. These gold deposits are derived mainly by erosion and concentration of fine-grained ( soil and sequences (up to 60 m thick) of poorly sorted immature schist gravels. The gravel sequences consist mainly of matrix-supported mass flow deposits and channellised proximal fan deposits, intercalated on a 1-10 m scale. Gold is concentrated in coarse lag gravels (up to 40 cm clasts) at channel bases. Topographic slopes on the rising ranges show an evolutionary trend in space and time, from gentle weakly dissected surfaces, through slightly degraded but convex slopes, to deeply incised convex streams. Eluvial gold occurs sporadically on the gentle slopes, but the most efficient concentration processes occurred where steeper convex slopes yielded an apron of fan sediments. Gold concentration at these sites resulted from selective and localized removal ("winnowing") of most schist debris, leaving coarse lag gravels and gold. The combination of authigenic grain size increase and residual concentration ensures that the eluvial deposits retain coarse-grained gold, and that only fine-grained gold is released to the alluvial systems downstream.

  7. Carbonate platform facies development of the Turonian Wata Formation in central and eastern Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, M. A.; Farouk, S.; Hassan, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Wata carbonate platform in central and eastern Sinai show a clear pattern of evolutionary development during sedimentation. Three facies are recognized in the carbonate platform. Inner-platform in the south, inter-platform basin in the middle, and outer-platform in the northwest. Such classification was probably performed by the effect of Syrian Arc System that culminated during Turonian in Sinai. Inner-platform includes fining-upward cycles, each begins with packstone, followed by wackestone and capped by lime-mudstone or claystone or molluscan bioclastic wackestone at the base capped by sandy oolitic packstone or dolostone. The dominant faunal associations are molluscs, and echinoids. Inter-platform basin occurs north of inner-platform and extends northwest-southeast direction and comprises fining-upward cycles, each of which begins with bioclastic ostracodal packstone, calcisphere packstone, bioclastic packstone, capped by wackestone and lime-mudstone The faunal association includes, sponge spines, ostracodes, molluscan debris and calcispheres. They were deposited in shoal marine and barrier. The outer-platform occurs at Gebel Giddi and extended northwestwards. The lithofacies are entirely represented by calcisphere wackestone/packstone, with a reduced thickness of 20 m.

  8. Micro bubble formation and bubble dissolution in domestic wet central heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Yunting

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 16 % of the carbon dioxide emissions in the UK are known to originate from wet domestic central heating systems. Contemporary systems make use of very efficient boilers known as condensing boilers that could result in efficiencies in the 90-100% range. However, research and development into the phenomenon of micro bubbles in such systems has been practically non-existent. In fact, such systems normally incorporate a passive deaerator that is installed as a ‘default’ feature with no real knowledge as to the micro bubble characteristics and their effect on such systems. High saturation ratios are known to occur due to the widespread use of untreated tap water in such systems and due to the inevitable leakage of air into the closed loop circulation system during the daily thermal cycling. The high temperatures at the boiler wall result in super saturation conditions which consequently lead to micro bubble nucleation and detachment, leading to bubbly two phase flow. Experiments have been done on a test rig incorporating a typical 19 kW domestic gas fired boiler to determine the expected saturation ratios and bubble production and dissolution rates in such systems.

  9. Micro bubble formation and bubble dissolution in domestic wet central heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fsadni, Andrew M.; Ge, Yunting

    2012-04-01

    16 % of the carbon dioxide emissions in the UK are known to originate from wet domestic central heating systems. Contemporary systems make use of very efficient boilers known as condensing boilers that could result in efficiencies in the 90-100% range. However, research and development into the phenomenon of micro bubbles in such systems has been practically non-existent. In fact, such systems normally incorporate a passive deaerator that is installed as a `default' feature with no real knowledge as to the micro bubble characteristics and their effect on such systems. High saturation ratios are known to occur due to the widespread use of untreated tap water in such systems and due to the inevitable leakage of air into the closed loop circulation system during the daily thermal cycling. The high temperatures at the boiler wall result in super saturation conditions which consequently lead to micro bubble nucleation and detachment, leading to bubbly two phase flow. Experiments have been done on a test rig incorporating a typical 19 kW domestic gas fired boiler to determine the expected saturation ratios and bubble production and dissolution rates in such systems.

  10. Stratigraphic and geochemical evolution of an oceanic arc upper crustal section: The Jurassic Talkeetna Volcanic Formation, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, P.D.; Draut, A.E.; Kelemen, P.B.; Blusztajn, J.; Greene, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Early Jurassic Talkeetna Volcanic Formation forms the upper stratigraphic level of an oceanic volcanic arc complex within the Peninsular Terrane of south-central Alaska. The section comprises a series of lavas, tuffs, and volcaniclastic debris-How and flow turbidite deposits, showing significant lateral facies variability. There is a general trend toward more volcaniclastic sediment at the top of the section and more lavas and tuff breccias toward the base. Evidence for dominant submarine, mostly mid-bathyal or deeper (>500 m) emplacement is seen throughout the section, which totals ???7 km in thickness, similar to modern western Pacific arcs, and far more than any other known exposed section. Subaerial sedimentation was rare but occurred over short intervals in the middle of the section. The Talkeetna Volcanic Formation is dominantly calc-alkatine and shows no clear trend to increasing SiO2 up-section. An oceanic subduction petrogenesis is shown by trace element and Nd isotope data. Rocks at the base of the section show no relative enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREEs) versus heavy rare earth elements (REES) or in melt-incompatible versus compatible high field strength elements (HFSEs). Relative enrichment of LREEs and HFSEs increases slightly up-section. The Talkeetna Volcanic Formation is typically more REE depleted than average continental crust, although small volumes of light REE-enriched and heavy REE-depleted mafic lavas are recognized low in the stratigraphy. The Talkeetna Volcanic Formation was formed in an intraoceanic arc above a north-dipping subduction zone and contains no preserved record of its subsequent collisions with Wrangellia or North America. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  11. Detection of central circuits implicated in the formation of novel pain memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhyay J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jaymin Upadhyay,1 Julia Granitzka,1 Thomas Bauermann,2 Ulf Baumgärtner,3 Markus Breimhorst,1 Rolf-Detlef Treede,3 Frank Birklein1 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Neuroradiology, University Medical Centre, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, 3Department of Neurophysiology, Center for Biomedicine and Medical Technology Mannheim (CBTM, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany Abstract: Being able to remember physically and emotionally painful events in one’s own past may shape behavior, and can create an aversion to a variety of situations. Pain imagination is a related process that may include recall of past experiences, in addition to production of sensory and emotional percepts without external stimuli. This study aimed to understand 1 the central nervous system processes that underlie pain imagination, 2 the retrieval of pain memories, and 3 to compare the latter with visual object memory. These goals were achieved by longitudinally investigating brain function with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a unique group of healthy volunteers who had never experienced tooth pain. In these subjects, we compared brain responses elicited during three experimental conditions in the following order: imagination of tooth pain (pain imagination, remembering one’s own house (object memory, and remembrance of tooth pain following an episode of induced acute tooth pain (pain memory. Key observations stemming from group-level conjunction analyses revealed common activation in the posterior parietal cortex for both pain imagination and pain memory, while object and pain memory each had strong activation predominantly within the middle frontal gyrus. When contrasting pain imagination and memory, significant activation differences were observed in subcortical structures (ie, parahippocampus – pain imagination > pain memory; midbrain – pain memory > pain imagination. Importantly, these findings were observed in the presence of

  12. Detection of central circuits implicated in the formation of novel pain memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Jaymin; Granitzka, Julia; Bauermann, Thomas; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Breimhorst, Markus; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Birklein, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Being able to remember physically and emotionally painful events in one’s own past may shape behavior, and can create an aversion to a variety of situations. Pain imagination is a related process that may include recall of past experiences, in addition to production of sensory and emotional percepts without external stimuli. This study aimed to understand 1) the central nervous system processes that underlie pain imagination, 2) the retrieval of pain memories, and 3) to compare the latter with visual object memory. These goals were achieved by longitudinally investigating brain function with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a unique group of healthy volunteers who had never experienced tooth pain. In these subjects, we compared brain responses elicited during three experimental conditions in the following order: imagination of tooth pain (pain imagination), remembering one’s own house (object memory), and remembrance of tooth pain following an episode of induced acute tooth pain (pain memory). Key observations stemming from group-level conjunction analyses revealed common activation in the posterior parietal cortex for both pain imagination and pain memory, while object and pain memory each had strong activation predominantly within the middle frontal gyrus. When contrasting pain imagination and memory, significant activation differences were observed in subcortical structures (ie, parahippocampus − pain imagination > pain memory; midbrain − pain memory > pain imagination). Importantly, these findings were observed in the presence of consistent and reproducible psychophysical and behavioral measures that informed on the subjects’ ability to imagine novel and familiar thoughts, as well as the subjects’ pain perception.

  13. The main principles of formation of structure of cultural-historical landscapes of Central Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman

    2014-05-01

    The forming and development of cultural-historical landscapes (CH) are obligate result of evolution of society and nature, as well as, man and landscapes during their coherent growth. CH landscapes are holistic historic-cultural and nature creations. They reflect the history of land use and spiritual development of ethnic community of concrete territory with determine homogeneous landscape characteristics. The majority of them appertain to the category of relict landscapes, which completed their evolution growth. That means that these are anthropogenic (AL) and cultural (CL) landscapes. They lost anthropogenic management and continue their growth obeying natural logic. These landscapes include elements of morphological structure and natural components, which have been transformed by men, and also artefacts, sociofacts and mental facts. These facts can be considered as peculiar "biographical chronicle" of activity of population in determinate landscape conditions in determinate historical period. These facts are evidences of material and spiritual cultural of society. The first AL begin to arise simultaneously with conversation of appropriating economy into generating economy. There was such conversation in Central Russia (Neolithic revolution) only in Bronze Age. Anthropogenic transformed landscape complexes and even man-made landscape complexes have been formed in Bronze Age. Some of these complexes exist now. Actual anthropogenic and cultural landscapes began to form only in Iron Age while permanent, long existed settlement and agriculture structure has organized. First, These are small settlement anthropogenic landscape complexes (selischa and gorodischa) with applied permanent miniature arable areas. These complexes located on the capes and on the areas between river banks and banks of streams. Second, these are pasture anthropogenic landscape complexes (on the level of podurochische and urochische), located in flood plain and valley-cavin position (pasture

  14. Facies development and paleoenvironment of the Hajajah Limestone Member, Aruma Formation, central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Ismail, Abdelmoneim; Youssef, Mohamed; Nour, Hamdy

    2016-12-01

    The Campanian Hajajah Limestone Member of the Aruma Formation was formed during two regressive episodes. Each of them formed of three depositional facies, from base to top: 1) intra-shelf basin facies, made up of fossiliferous green shale and mudstone with ostracods and badly preserved foraminifers. 2) fore-reef facies, consists of hard, massive, marly coralline limestone. The upper part is rich with low divers, badly to moderate preserved, solitary and colonial corals, and, 3) back reef and near-shore facies, consists of fossiliferous sandy dolomitized, bioturbated limestone with abundant reworked corals, bivalves, gastropods, and aggregate grains. On the basis of field observations, micro-and macrofossils and microfacies analysis, the Hajajah Limestone Member was deposited in distal marine settings below storm wave base in a low-energy environment changed upward to fore-reef framework in an open marine environment with moderate to high energy conditions and terminated with shallow marine facies with accumulation of skeletal grains by storms during regression.

  15. Fine and coarse particulate matter chemical characterization in a heavily industrialized city in central Mexico during Winter 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Elizabeth; Ruiz, Hugo; Martínez-Villa, Gerardo; Sosa, Gustavo; González-Avalos, Eugenio; Reyes, Elizabeth; García, José

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the first reported study on fine particulate matter (PM) chemical composition at Salamanca, a highly industrialized urban area of Central Mexico. Samples were collected at six sites within the urban area during February and March 2003. Several trace elements, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and six ions were analyzed to characterize aerosols. Average concentrations of PM with aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM10) and fine PM with aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) ranged from 32.2 to 76.6 [g m(-3) and 11.1 to 23.7 microg m(-3), respectively. OC (34%), SO4= (25.1%), EC (12.9%), and geological material (12.5%) were the major components of PM2.5. For PM10 geological material (57.9%), OC (17.3%), and SO4= (9.7%) were the major components. Coarse fraction (PM,, -PM2.5), geological material (81.7%), and OC (8.6%) were the dominant species, which amounted to 90.4%. Correlation analysis showed that sulfate in PM2.5 was present as ammonium sulfate. Sulfate showed a significant spatial variation with higher concentrations to the north resulting from predominantly southwesterly winds above the surface layer and by major SO2 sources that include a power plant and refinery. At the urban site of Cruz Roja it was observed that PM2.5 mass concentrations were similar to the submicron fraction concentrations. Furthermore, the correlation between EC in PM2.5 and EC measured from an aethalometer was r(2) = 0.710. Temporal variations of SO2 and nitrogen oxide were observed during a day when the maximum concentration of PM2.5 was measured, which was associated with emissions from the nearby refinery and power plant. From cascade impactor measurements, the three measured modes of airborne particles corresponded with diameters of 0.32, 1.8, and 5.6 microm.

  16. High Resolution Surveys of the Water and Methanol Star Formation Masers in the Central Molecular Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Matthew; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Ott, Juergen; Meier, David S.; Krieger, Nico; SWAG

    2017-01-01

    We present some of the first high resolution fully interferometric surveys of 6.7 GHz methanol and 22 GHz water masers towards the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). These masers are good signposts for early (methanol masers with resolutions of 0.9” (0.04 pc) and 0.4 km/s (8 kHz) and an average channel sensitivity of ~0.01 Jy/beam. With this high resolution and sensitivity, we have detected ~100 methanol masers, which is over a factor of two more than has previously been detected. We have also conducted two surveys of water masers in this region. As part of the Survey of Water and Ammonia in the Galactic Center (SWAG), the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) was used to survey a variety of molecular lines, including the 22 GHz water line. With the ATCA, we have detected over 200 water masers using resolutions of 26” (1 pc) and 2 km/s (60 kHz) and an average channel sensitivity of ~0.01 Jy/beam. Afterward, we conducted the first on-the-fly (OTF) VLA survey of water masers with improved resolutions of 0.7” (0.03 pc) and 0.4 km/s (26 kHz) and an average channel sensitivity of ~0.05 Jy/beam. Although the analysis of this OTF survey is not yet complete, we have already identified water masers that were not visible in the SWAG data.The improvement in the number of detected masers allows us to better analyze the distribution of these masers. We show that the SWAG water masers appear uniformly distributed along the Galactic plane, despite the asymmetry of the molecular gas distribution, where ~2/3 of the gas mass is located at positive Galactic longitudes. The methanol masers follow the molecular gas distribution, with a majority of the masers being found at positive longitudes. This could indicate a difference in the star forming history of these two parts of the CMZ and/or that the 22 GHz water masers are contaminated by water masers produced from evolved stars as well as star forming regions, indicating that a larger percentage of 22 GHz water masers are produced

  17. The central region of M83: Massive star formation, kinematics, and the location and origin of the nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Knapen, J H; Ryder, S D; Falcon-Barroso, J; Fathi, K; Gutierrez, L

    2010-01-01

    We report new near-IR integral field spectroscopy of the central starburst region of the barred spiral galaxy M83 obtained with CIRPASS on Gemini-S, which we analyse in conjunction with GHaFaS Fabry-Perot data, an AAT IRIS2 Ks-band image, and near- and mid-IR imaging from the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes. The bulk of the current star formation activity is hidden from optical view by dust extinction, but is seen in the near- and mid-IR to the north of the nucleus. This region is being fed by inflow of gas through the bar of M83, traced by the prominent dust lane entering into the circumnuclear region from the north. An analysis of stellar ages confirms that the youngest stars are indeed in the northwest. A gradual age gradient, with older stars further to the south, characterises the well-known star-forming arc in the central region of M83. Detailed analyses of the Pa beta ionised gas kinematics and near-IR imaging confirm that the kinematic centre coincides with the photometric centre of M83, and that ...

  18. Metal Exposure and Associated Health Risk to Human Beings by Street Dust in a Heavily Industrialized City of Hunan Province, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyi Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-five urban street dust samples were collected from Zhuzhou, an industrial city in central China and analyzed for a range of toxic elements. Potential carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects on children and adults due to exposure to street dust were assessed. Concerning the two subgroups, the child cohort is confronted with considerably greater health risks than adults. According to the Hazard Quotient (HQ method, ingestion of dust particles poses primary risk to children and adults, followed by dermal contact and inhalation for all of the metals investigated except Hg, for which inhalation of its elemental vapor constitute a slightly higher risk than ingestion. For children, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Sb exposure were deemed as the highest contributors to non-cancer health risks, while As and Cr represent an enhanced cancer risk for children. For adults, risk indicator values for both cancer and non-cancer effects obtained were within the safety threshold. In a comparison with other locations within and outside mainland China, exposure to arsenic is prominent for the population of Zhuzhou, indicating more attention and preventive actions should been taken.

  19. CHONGQING, the Hot City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chongqing is a well-known city with a history of more than 3,000 years. It is a famous historical and cultural city in China. Chongqing is the birthplace of the Bayu Culture. At present, Chongqing is a municipality directly under the Central Government with the largest area, the most administrative districts and the largest population.

  20. Deer City Legend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUHUANZHI; LILIKUN

    2003-01-01

    MORE and more commodities,such as clothes,shoes,millinery,lighters and shavers,now bear the “Made in Wenzhou”mark.It woule appear that Wenzhou grooms the whole nation.Lucheng(deer city)District in central Wenzhou is the nucleus of the city's thriving light industry sector.

  1. A Chandra X-ray Analysis of Abell 1664: Cooling, Feedback and Star Formation in the Central Cluster Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, C C; Rafferty, D A; Nulsen, P E J; Birzan, L; Kazemzadeh, F; Wise, M W; Gitti, M; Cavagnolo, K W

    2009-01-01

    The brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the Abell 1664 cluster is unusually blue and is forming stars at a rate of ~ 23 M_{\\sun} yr^{-1}. The BCG is located within 5 kpc of the X-ray peak, where the cooling time of 3.5x10^8 yr and entropy of 10.4 keV cm^2 are consistent with other star-forming BCGs in cooling flow clusters. The center of A1664 has an elongated, "bar-like" X-ray structure whose mass is comparable to the mass of molecular hydrogen, ~ 10^{10} M_{\\sun} in the BCG. We show that this gas is unlikely to have been stripped from interloping galaxies. The cooling rate in this region is roughly consistent with the star formation rate, suggesting that the hot gas is condensing onto the BCG. We use the scaling relations of Birzan et al. 2008 to show that the AGN is underpowered compared to the central X-ray cooling luminosity by roughly a factor of three. We suggest that A1664 is experiencing rapid cooling and star formation during a low-state of an AGN feedback cycle that regulates the rates of cooling and...

  2. Timing of cut-and-fill sequences in the John Day Formation (Eocene-Oligocene), Painted Hills area, central Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestland, E.A.; Retallack, G.J. (Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Swisher, C.C. III (Inst. of Human Origins, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Fremd, T.J. (John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, John Day, OR (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Large-scale cut-and-fill features in the Eocene-Oligocene part of the John Day Formation in the Pained Hills area of central Oregon can be interpreted as terrestrial depositional sequences, mapped as lithostratigraphic units, and correlated to North American Land Mammal Ages (NALMA). New laser-fusion 40Ar/39Ar single-crystal ages from the John Day Formation provide evidence for the timing of these sequences and a revised placement of the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. The sequences are bound by erosional surfaces that have relief of up to 60 m, are marked in places by claystone breccias full of reworked soil clasts, and separate otherwise conformable strata. The lowermost depositional sequence in the John Day Formation contains very well developed, Fe- and Al-rich paleosols, laterite horizons, and the welded tuff of member A (39.7 my), and probably correlates to the Duchesean and Chadronian NALMA. These brick-rid claystones are sharply truncated by prominent detrital laterite horizon. Overlying this basal sequence is a second sequence of much less well developed paleosols, abundant tuffs and lacustrine tuffaceous claystones. This sequence contains a distinctive biotite tuff (33 my) and the type locality of the Bridge Creek fossil flora and probably correlates to the Orellan NALMA. Above this biotite tuff are alternating red, dark gray, and tan paleosols and a prominent crystal vitric tuff (32.7 my). The Eocene-Oligocene boundary lies between these two sequences, associated with the laterite horizon that truncates the basal red beds. A major truncation surface cuts this sequence and is overlain by a third sequence of thin red paleosols which probably correlates with the Whitneyan NALMA. Above this is a fourth sequence (Arikareean NALMA) consisting of greenish-tan paleosols, a crystal vitric tuff near its base (29.8 my) and the Picture Gorge Ignimbrite (28.7 my).

  3. The redox-sensing regulator Rex modulates central carbon metabolism, stress tolerance response and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob P Bitoun

    Full Text Available The Rex repressor has been implicated in regulation of central carbon and energy metabolism in gram-positive bacteria. We have previously shown that Streptococcus mutans, the primary causative agent of dental caries, alters its transcriptome upon Rex-deficiency and renders S. mutans to have increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, aberrations in glucan production, and poor biofilm formation. In this study, we showed that rex in S. mutans is co-transcribed as an operon with downstream guaA, encoding a putative glutamine amidotransferase. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that recombinant Rex bound promoters of target genes avidly and specifically, including those down-regulated in response to Rex-deficiency, and that the ability of recombinant Rex to bind to selected promoters was modulated by NADH and NAD(+. Results suggest that Rex in S. mutans can function as an activator in response to intracellular NADH/NAD(+ level, although the exact binding site for activator Rex remains unclear. Consistent with a role in oxidative stress tolerance, hydrogen peroxide challenge assays showed that the Rex-deficient mutant, TW239, and the Rex/GuaA double mutant, JB314, were more susceptible to hydrogen peroxide killing than the wildtype, UA159. Relative to UA159, JB314 displayed major defects in biofilm formation, with a decrease of more than 50-fold in biomass after 48-hours. Collectively, these results further suggest that Rex in S. mutans regulates fermentation pathways, oxidative stress tolerance, and biofilm formation in response to intracellular NADH/NAD(+ level. Current effort is being directed to further investigation of the role of GuaA in S. mutans cellular physiology.

  4. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  5. Mantle xenoliths from Central Vietnam: evidence for at least Meso-Proterozoic formation of the lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proßegger, Peter; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Ackerman, Lukáš; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Tran, Tuan Anh

    2016-04-01

    Intraplate Cenozoic basalts that are widely dispersed along the continental margin of East Asia belong to the Western Pacific "diffuse" igneous province. They consist mainly of alkali basalts, basanites,rarely nephelinites, which are mantle xenolith-bearing, potassic rocks and quartz tholeiites. The volcanism in this area has been attributed to the continental extension caused by the collision of India with Asia and by the subduction of the Pacific Ocean below Asia. We studied a suite of 24 mantle xenoliths from La Bang Lake, Dak Doa district and Bien Ho, Pleiku city in the Gia Province, Central Vietnam. They are predominantly spinel lherzolites (19) but spinel harburgites (3) and two garnet pyroxenites are present as well. The sizes of the xenoliths range from 5 to 40 cm in diameter with medium to coarse-grained protogranular textures. Whole rock major and trace element analyses display a wide range of compositions. The MgO concentration varies from 36.0 to 45.8 wt% whereas Al2O3 and CaO range from 0.63 to 4.36 wt% and from 0.52 to 4.21 wt% (with one sample having CaO of 6.63 wt%) respectively. Both CaO and Al2O3 positively correlate with MgO most likely indicating that the sampled rocks were derived from a common mantle source experienced variable degrees of partial melting. Mineral analyses show that the rock forming minerals are chemically homogeneous. The Fo contents of olivine vary between 89.2 and 91.2 and the Mg# of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene range from 89 to 92 and 89 to 94 respectively. The range of Cr# for spinel is 0.06-0.26. Model calculations in both whole rock and clinopyroxenes show that lithospheric mantle underneath Central Vietnam experienced melt extractions that vary between 2-7, 12-15 and 20-30%. The majority of the primitive mantle-normalized whole rock and clinopyroxene REE patterns are parallel to each other indicating that clinopyroxene is the main repository of the trace elements. Clinopyroxenes are divided into two groups: group A

  6. Stratigraphy, age, and depositional setting of the Miocene Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill, central Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Shannon R.; Miller, David M.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2010-01-01

    New detailed geologic mapping and geochronology of the Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill, 30 km east of Barstow, CA, help to constrain Miocene paleogeography and tectonics of the central Mojave Desert. A northern strand of the Quaternary ENE-striking, sinistral Manix fault divides the Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill into two distinct lithologic assemblages. Strata north of the fault consist of: a green rhyolitic tuff, informally named the Shamrock tuff; lacustrine sandstone; partially silicified thin-bedded to massive limestone; and alluvial sandstone to pebble conglomerate. Strata south of the fault consist of: lacustrine siltstone and sandstone; a rhyolitic tuff dated at 19.1 Ma (U-Pb); rock-avalanche breccia deposits; partially silicified well-bedded to massive limestone; and alluvial sandstone and conglomerate. Our U-Pb zircon dating of the Shamrock tuff by SHRIMP-RG yields a peak probability age of 18.7 ± 0.1 Ma. Distinctive outcrop characteristics, mineralogy, remanent magnetization, and zircon geochemistry (Th/U) suggest that the Shamrock tuff represents a lacustrine facies of the regionally extensive Peach Spring Tuff (PST). Here we compare zircon age and geochemical analyses from the Shamrock tuff with those of the PST at Stoddard Wash and provide new insight into the age of zircon crystallization in the PST rhyolite. Results of our field studies show that Miocene strata at Harvard Hill mostly accumulated in a lacustrine environment, although depositional environments varied from a relatively deep lake to a very shallow lake or even onshore setting. Rock-avalanche breccias and alluvial deposits near the base of the exposed section indicate proximity to a steep basin margin and detrital studies suggest a southern source for coarse-grained deposits; therefore, we may infer a southern basin-margin setting at Harvard Hill during the early Miocene. Our geochronology demonstrates that deposition of the Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill extended from before

  7. IL-4 induces the formation of multinucleated giant cells and expression of β5 integrin in central giant cell lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghbali, Amirala; Rafieyan, Sona; Mohamed-Khosroshahi, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad; Shanehbandi, Dariush

    2017-01-01

    Background It is now well established that IL-4 has a central role in the development of monocytes to multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) by inducing the expression of integrins on the surface of monocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of IL-4 in induction of β5 integrin expression in the peripheral blood samples of patients with giant cell granuloma. Material and Methods Monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood samples of patients with central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) and healthy controls using human Monocyte Isolation Kit II. Isolated monocytes were then cultured in the absence or presence of IL-4 (10 and 20 ng/mL), and following RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, Real-time PCR was performed to determine the level of β5 integrin expression. The formation of CGCGs and morphological analyses were done under light microscopy. For confirmation of CGCGs, immunocytochemistry technique was also carried out by anti-RANK (receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand) antibody. Results In both patient and control groups, β5 levels were significantly enhanced by increasing the IL-4 dose from 10 to 20 ng/mL. In addition, these differences were significant between patient and control groups without IL-4 treatment. On the other hand, the number of cells which expressed RANK and therefore the number of giant cells were significantly higher in the patient group in comparison to controls, as assessed by immunohistochemistry evaluations. Conclusions In this study, we showed an elevation in the expression levels of β5 integrin when stimulated by IL-4. It is strongly indicated that this integrin acts as an important mediator during macrophage to macrophage fusion and development of giant cells. Key words:β5 integrin, giant cell, Il-4, monocyte, rank. PMID:27918730

  8. LA CIUDAD COMO ESPACIO FORMATIVO: MEDELLÍN Y SU ARTE NO VISTO. THE CITY AS A FORMATIVE SPACE: MEDELLIN AND ITS UNSEEN ART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Echeverri Rendón.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta publicación, resultado de investigación, se presenta los hallazgos del rastreo del patrimonio artístico y cultural visible en la ciudad de Medellín, específicamente referido a la gran riqueza escultórica y pictórica, que se encuentra en sus calles, carreras parques plazoletas, para identificarlas y redimensionarlas en nuestro caso, como espacio formativo para la enseñanza y formación en principio de los y las estudiantes en de la Universidad de San Buenaventura Medellín en la materia de Arte y cultura, pero también de los habitantes de la ciudad, generando un material útil para la sensibilización de cualquier ciudadano, se trata del arte expresado en la Ciudad pero que ha sido invisibilizado por múltiples razones algunas de las cuales se expondrán también en el presente artículo. Abstract This publication, a result of research, presents the findings of the tracing of the visible artistic and cultural heritage in the city of Medellin, specifically referred to the great sculptural and pictorial richness, which is found in the streets, parks, and plazas, in order to identify them and to resize them in our case, as a training area for teaching and formation, in the first place, of the students at Saint Bonaventure University, Medellin branch, in the field of art and culture, but also of the inhabitants of the city, generating a useful material for the awareness of any citizen. It is about the art expressed in the city, but which has been made invisible for many reasons, some of which will also be addressed in this article.

  9. Is violence associated with increased risk behavior among MSM? Evidence from a population-based survey conducted across nine cities in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wheeler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM, including those who identify as transgender women (TW, particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America. Design: As part of USAID's Combination Prevention for HIV program in Central America, PASMO conducted population based surveys using respondent-driven sampling (RDS in nine cities in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Initial seeds were recruited using the following criteria: individuals who represented subgroups of MSM by self-identification (homosexual vs. heterosexual or bisexual vs. transgender, social economic strata, and by sex work practices. This study examines the association between violence and 1 HIV risk behaviors relevant to the study populations; 2 protective behaviors; and 3 reported STIs. Individualized RDS estimator weights for each outcome variable were calculated using RDSAT software, and logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between different forms of violence and the outcome variables. Results: MSM who experienced physical violence were more likely to be engaged in transactional sex (OR: 1.76 [1.42–2.18], have multiple partners in the past 30 days (OR: 1.37 [1.09–1.71], and have engaged in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.51 [1.24–1.83]. Both physical violence and psychological/verbal violence were also associated with reporting STI symptoms or diagnosis within the past 12 months (OR: 1.72 [1.34–2.21] and 1.80 [1.45–2.23]. The effects of violence on the outcomes were observed after controlling for other risk factors. Transgender women were 3.9 times more likely

  10. The geometry and lithology of the Cima Sandstone Lentil: a paleoseep-bearing interbed in the Moreno Formation, central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, P. V.; Schwartz, H.

    2007-12-01

    The Cima Sandstone Lentil outcrops over a relatively small area on the western side of the San Joaquin Valley in central California. Here this unit can be found in the Panoche Hills in the northern portion of the field area and the Tumey Hills in the southern portion of the field area. The Cima Sandstone resides within the 800m Moreno Formation that spans the Maastrichtian to the Danian. The Moreno Formation comprises four members, which are the Dosados Member, the Tierra Loma Member, the Marca Shale Member, and the Dos Palos Shale Member (of which the Cima Sandstone is an interbed). The Cima Sandstone contains numerous large carbonate mounds, concretions, and pavements, indicating paleoseep activity. The Cima Sandstone has never been studied in detail, but recent interest in sandstone injectites as well as interest in paleoseeps has prompted us to examine this interbed more carefully. The Cima is an immature sandstone composed primarily of quartz along with small amounts of micas and feldspars as well as varying amounts of glauconite. These minerals are generally cemented by carbonate but, occasionally, iron oxide cement is present locally. Much variation exists within the Cima Sandstone Lentil and we seek to characterize and understand this variation. One of the most obvious sources of variability is the thickness of the unit itself. The thickness ranges from near 60m in the northern Panoche Hills to only 9m in the Tumey Hills. Induration also varies noticeably, from well cemented in the north, to unconsolidated in the south. Similarly, the sandstone is grain-supported and houses some depositional structures in the northern outcrops but becomes largely matrix-supported and lacking bedding in the southern outcrops. Preliminary data suggests that proximity to carbonate concretions, fluid conduits, and underlying injectites may have some influence over grain size and sorting.

  11. Volcanostratigraphic Sequences of Kebo-Butak Formation at Bayat Geological Field Complex, Central Java Province and Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyaningsih

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bayat Complex is usually used as a work field for students of geology and other geosciences. The study area is located in the southern part of the Bayat Complex. Administratively, it belongs to Central Java Province and Yogyakarta Special Province. The lithology of Bayat is very complex, composed of various kinds of igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks. Most of previous researchers interpreted Bayat as a melange complex constructed within a subduction zone. Kebo-Butak is one of formations that forms the Bayat field complex. The formation is composed of basalt, layers of pumice, tuff, shale, and carbonaceous tuff. Most of them are known as volcanic rocks. These imply that volcanic activities are more probable to construct the geology of Bayat rather than the subducted melange complex. The geological mapping, supported by geomorphology, petrology, stratigraphy, and geological structures, had been conducted in a comprehensive manner using the deduction-induction method. The research encounters basalt, black pumice, tuff with basaltic glasses fragments, zeolite, argilic clay, as well as feldspathic- and pumice tuff. Petrographically, the basalt is composed of labradorite, olivine, clinopyroxene, and volcanic glass. Black pumice and tuff contain prismatic clinopyroxene, granular olivine, and volcanic glasses. Feldspathic tuff and pumice tuff are crystal vitric tuff due to more abundant feldspar, quartz, and amphibole than volcanic glass. Zeolite comprises chlorite and altered glasses as deep sea altered volcanic rocks. The geologic structure is very complex, the major structures are normal faults with pyrite in it. There were two deep submarine paleovolcanoes namely Tegalrejo and Baturagung. The first paleovolcano erupted effusively producing basaltic sequence, while the second one erupted explosively ejecting feldspathic-rich pyroclastic material. The two paleovolcanoes erupted simultaneously and repeatedly.

  12. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  13. ALMA Observations of Warm Dense Gas in NGC 1614 --- Breaking of Star Formation Law in the Central kpc

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, C K; Lu, N; Gao, Y; Diaz-Santos, T; Herrero-Illana, R; Meijerink, R; Privon, G; Zhao, Y -H; Evans, A S; König, S; Mazzarella, J M; Aalto, S; Appleton, P; Armus, L; Charmandaris, V; Chu, J; Haan, S; Inami, H; Murphy, E J; Sanders, D B; Schulz, B; van der Werf, P

    2014-01-01

    We present ALMA Cycle-0 observations of the CO (6-5) line emission and of the 435um dust continuum emission in the central kpc of NGC 1614, a local luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) at a distance of 67.8 Mpc (1 arcsec = 329 pc). The CO emission is well resolved by the ALMA beam (0".26 x 0".20) into a circum-nuclear ring, with an integrated flux of f_{CO(6-5)} = 898 (+-153) Jy km/s, which is 63(+-12)% of the total CO(6-5) flux measured by Herschel. The molecular ring, located between 100pc < r < 350pc from the nucleus, looks clumpy and includes seven unresolved (or marginally resolved) knots with median velocity dispersion of 40 km/s. These knots are associated with strong star formation regions with \\Sigma_{SFR} 100 M_\\sun/yr/kpc^{2} and \\Sigma_{Gas} 1.0E4 M_\\sun/pc^{2}. The non-detections of the nucleus in both the CO (6-5) line emission and the 435um continuum rule out, with relatively high confidence, a Compton-thick AGN in NGC 1614. Comparisons with radio continuum emission show a strong deviation fro...

  14. Overview Chapter 5: Determinants of family formation and childbearing during the societal transition in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Frejka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Societal conditions for early and high rates of childbearing were replaced by conditions generating late and low levels of fertility common in Western countries. Central among factors shaping the latter behaviour (job insecurity, unstable partnership relationships, expensive housing, and profound changes in norms, values and attitudes were the following: increasing proportions of young people were acquiring advanced education, a majority of women were gainfully employed, yet women were performing most household maintenance and childrearing duties. Two theories prevailed to explain what caused changes in family formation and fertility trends. One argues that the economic and social crises were the principal causes. The other considered the diffusion of western norms, values and attitudes as the prime factors of change. Neither reveals the root cause: the replacement of state socialist regimes with economic and political institutions of contemporary capitalism. The extraordinarily low period TFRs around 2000 were the result of low fertility of older women born around 1960 overlapping with low fertility of young women born during the 1970s.

  15. Milankovitch insulation forcing and cyclic formation of large-scale glacial, fluvial, and eolian landforms in central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beget, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Continuous marine and ice-core proxy climate records indicate that the Earth's orbital geometry modulates long-term changes. Until recently, little direct evidence has been available to demonstrate correlations between Milankovitch cycles and large-scale terrestrial landforms produced during worldwide glaciations. In central Alaska large areas of loess and sand fill valleys and basins near major outwash streams. The streams themselves are bordered by sets of outwash terraces, and the terraces grade up valley into sets of moraines. The discovery of the Stampede tephra (approximately 175,000 yr ago) reworked within push moraines of the Lignite Creek glaciation suggests that this event correlates with the glaciation of marine isotope stage 6. A new occurrence of the Old Crow tephra (approximately 140,000 yr ago) on the surface of the oldest outwash terrace of the Tanana River, correlated with Delta glaciation, suggests this event also occurred at this time. The penultimate Healy glaciation apparently correlates with marine isotope stage 4, while radiocarbon dates indicate the latest Pleistocene moraines correlate with marine isotope stage 2. Recognition of the importance of orbital forcing to the cyclical formation of glacial landforms and landscapes can help in interpretations of remotely sensed glacial and proglacial land forms.

  16. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, M. [Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey). Dept. of Geology

    2007-04-15

    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ash (from 32 to 58%) and sulphur (from 1.43 to 3.03%) lignite which is petrographically characterised by a high humunite content. The mineral matter of the studied lignite samples is made up of mainly clay minerals (illite-smectite and kaolinite), plagioclase and quartz in Bolu coal field, clay minerals (illite-smectite, smectite and illite), quartz, calcite, plagioclase and gypsum in Seben coal field, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) in Kibriscik, and dolomite, quartz, clinoptilolite, opal CT and gypsum in Camhdere coal field. The differences in these four types of lignite with specific mineralogical patterns may be due to the explosive volcanic events and depositional conditions which changed from one coal field to the others. There is a zonation from SW to SE in the studied area for zeolites. Carbonate minerals are commonly calcite in Seben and Kibriscik coal fields. In Bolu, coal samples are devoid of calcite and dolomite. These analyses show that there is an increase in the amount of Mg and a decrease in the amount of Na from the northwestern part to the southern part in the study area.

  17. Effect of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides on ozone formation in smog chambers exposed to solar irradiance of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval F, J; Marroquin de la R, O; Jaimes L, J. L; Zuniga L, V. A; Gonzalez O, E; Guzman Lopez-Figueroa, F [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-01-01

    Outdoor smog chambers experiments were performed on air to determine the answer of maximum ozone levels, to changes in the initial hydrocarbons, HC, and nitrogen oxide NO{sub x}. These captive-air experiments under natural irradiation were carried out. Typically, eight chambers were filled with Mexico city air in the morning. In some of those chambers, the initial HC and/or Nox concentrations were varied by {+-}25% to {+-}50% by adding various combinations of a mixture of HC, clean air, or NO{sub x} (perturbed chambers). The O{sub 3} and NO{sub x} concentration in each chamber was monitored throughout the day to determine O{sub 3} (max). The initial HC and NO{sub x} concentration effects were determined by comparing the maximum ozone concentrations measured in the perturbed and unperturbed chambers. Ozone isopleths were constructed from the empirical model obtained of measurements of the eight chambers and plotted in a graph whose axe were the initial HC and NO{sub x} values. For the average initial conditions that were measured in Mexico City, it was found that the most efficient strategy to reduce the maximum concentration of O{sub 3} is the one that reduces NO{sub x}. [Spanish] Se realizaron experimentos de camaras de esmog con el aire de la ciudad de Mexico para determinar las respuestas de los niveles maximos de ozono a los cambios en las concentraciones iniciales de hidrocarburos, HC y oxido de nitrogeno, NO{sub x}. Por lo general, se llenaron 8 bolsas con aire matutino de la Ciudad de Mexico. En algunas camaras, las concentraciones iniciales fueron cambiadas de 25% a 50%, anadiendo varias concentraciones de una mezcla de HC, aire limpio y/o NO{sub x}. La concentracion de O{sub 3} y NO{sub x}, en cada camara, fueron monitoreadas a lo largo del dia para determinar el maximo de O{sub 3}. El efecto de los HC y el NO{sub x} fue determinado por comparacion del maximo de ozono formado en las camaras, que fueron perturbadas por adicion o reduccion de HC y/o Nox

  18. Size-resolved aerosol emission factors and new particle formation/growth activity occurring in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalafut-Pettibone A. J.; Wang J.; Eichinger, W. E.; Clarke, A.; Vay, S. A.; Blake, D. R.; Stanier, C. O.

    2011-09-01

    Measurements of the aerosol size distribution from 11 nm to 2.5 microns were made in Mexico City in March 2006, during the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations) field campaign. Observations at the urban supersite, referred to as T0, could often be characterized by morning conditions with high particle mass concentrations, low mixing heights, and highly correlated particle number and CO{sub 2} concentrations, indicative that particle number is controlled by primary emissions. Average size-resolved and total number- and volume-based emission factors for combustion sources impacting T0 have been determined using a comparison of peak sizes in particle number and CO{sub 2} concentration. Peaks are determined by subtracting the measured concentration from a calculated baseline concentration time series. The number emission and volume emission factors for particles from 11 nm to 494 nm are 1.56 x 10{sup 15} particles, and 9.48 x 10{sup 11} cubic microns per kg of carbon, respectively. The uncertainty of the number emission factor is approximately plus or minus 50 %. The mode of the number emission factor was between 25 and 32 nm, while the mode of the volume factor was between 0.25 and 0.32 microns. These emission factors are reported as log normal model parameters and are compared with multiple emission factors from the literature. In Mexico City in the afternoon, the CO{sub 2} concentration drops during ventilation of the polluted layer, and the coupling between CO{sub 2} and particle number breaks down, especially during new particle formation events when particle number is no longer controlled by primary emissions. Using measurements of particle number and CO{sub 2} taken aboard the NASA DC-8, the determined primary emission factor was applied to the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) plume to quantify the degree of secondary particle formation in the plume; the primary emission factor accounts for less than 50 % of the total particle

  19. Size-resolved aerosol emission factors and new particle formation/growth activity occurring in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Kalafut-Pettibone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the aerosol size distribution from 11 nm to 2.5 microns were made in Mexico City in March 2006, during the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations field campaign. Observations at the urban supersite, referred to as T0, could often be characterized by morning conditions with high particle mass concentrations, low mixing heights, and highly correlated particle number and CO2 concentrations, indicative that particle number is controlled by primary emissions. Average size-resolved and total number- and volume-based emission factors for combustion sources impacting T0 have been determined using a comparison of peak sizes in particle number and CO2 concentration. Peaks are determined by subtracting the measured concentration from a calculated baseline concentration time series. The number emission and volume emission factors for particles from 11 nm to 494 nm are 1.56 × 1015 particles, and 9.48 × 1011 cubic microns per kg of carbon, respectively. The uncertainty of the number emission factor is approximately plus or minus 50 %. The mode of the number emission factor was between 25 and 32 nm, while the mode of the volume factor was between 0.25 and 0.32 microns. These emission factors are reported as log normal model parameters and are compared with multiple emission factors from the literature. In Mexico City in the afternoon, the CO2 concentration drops during ventilation of the polluted layer, and the coupling between CO2 and particle number breaks down, especially during new particle formation events when particle number is no longer controlled by primary emissions. Using measurements of particle number and CO2 taken aboard the NASA DC-8, the determined primary emission factor was applied to the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA plume to quantify the degree of secondary particle formation in the plume; the primary emission

  20. Formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks, a case study in two cities in Finland and Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtola, Markku J; Juhna, Tālis; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Vartiainen, Terttu; Martikainen, Pertti J

    2004-12-01

    The formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks is a significant technical, aesthetic and hygienic problem. In this study, the effects of assimilable organic carbon, microbially available phosphorus (MAP), residual chlorine, temperature and corrosion products on the formation of biofilms were studied in two full-scale water supply systems in Finland and Latvia. Biofilm collectors consisting of polyvinyl chloride pipes were installed in several waterworks and distribution networks, which were supplied with chemically precipitated surface waters and groundwater from different sources. During a 1-year study, the biofilm density was measured by heterotrophic plate counts on R2A-agar, acridine orange direct counting and ATP-analyses. A moderate level of residual chlorine decreased biofilm density, whereas an increase of MAP in water and accumulated cast iron corrosion products significantly increased biofilm density. This work confirms, in a full-scale distribution system in Finland and Latvia, our earlier in vitro finding that biofilm formation is affected by the availability of phosphorus in drinking water.

  1. Two-stage formation model of the Junggar basin basement: Constraints to the growth style of Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dengfa

    2016-04-01

    Junggar Basin is located in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Its basement nature is a highly controversial scientific topic, involving the basic style and processes of crustal growth. Some researchers considered the basement of the Junggar Basin as a Precambrian continental crust, which is not consistent with the petrological compositions of the adjacent orogenic belts and the crust isotopic compositions revealed by the volcanic rocks in the basin. Others, on the contrary, proposed an oceanic crust basement model that does not match with the crustal thickness and geophysical characteristics of the Junggar area. Additionally, there are several viewponits, such as the duplex basement with the underlying Precambrian crystalline rocks and the overlying pre-Carboniferous folded basement, and the collaged basement by the Precambrian micro-continent block in the central part and the Hercynian accretionary folded belts circling it. Anyway, it is necessary to explain the property of basement rock, its strong inhomogeneous compositions as well as the geophysical features. In this paper, based on the borehole data from more than 300 industry wells drilled into the Carboniferous System, together with the high-resolution gravity and magnetic data (in a scale of 1:50,000), we made a detailed analysis of the basement structure, formation timing and processes and its later evolution on a basis of core geochemical and isotopic analysis. Firstly, we defined the Mahu Pre-Cambrian micro-continental block in the juvenile crust of Junggar Basin according to the Hf isotopic analysis of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks. Secondly, the results of the tectonic setting and basin analysis suggest that the Junggar area incorporates three approximately E-W trending island arc belts (from north to south: Yemaquan- Wulungu-Chingiz, Jiangjunmiao-Luliang-Darbut and Zhongguai-Mosuowan- Baijiahai-Qitai island arcs respectively) and intervened three approximately E-W trending

  2. Isotopic and geochemical characterization of groundwater of the Carnot-Berbérati sandstone formation (Western Central African Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal; Foto, Eric; Backo, Salé; Zoudamba, Narcisse; Basse-Keke, Eric; Nguerekossi, Bruno; Alladin, Oscar; Huneau, Frederic; Garel, Emilie; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Mabingui, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The hydrogeology of the Cretaceous sandstone formations of Carnot-Berbérati (covering an area of 46.000 km2) in the western part of the central African Republic is poorly known. In order to improve the access of local populations to a clean and safe drinking water resource, new investigations have been carried out in order to characterize groundwater in terms of quality, origin, residence time and sustainability. Two sampling campaigns were organized in August 2014 (rainy period) and April 2015 (dry period) on respectively 31 and 43 points including boreholes, wells and river waters. Conventional hydrogeochemical tools in conjunction with isotope hydrology tools were used to evaluate the water types and the anthropogenic fingerprint on groundwater, their recharge processes and the flow organization scheme. Investigations have shown the existence of interesting amounts of groundwater within what seems a single, well hydraulically connected unconfined aquifer of max. 400m thick. Groundwaters are characterized by two main water types: CaMg-HCO3 (for deep boreholes and river waters) and CaMg-ClNO3 (shallow wells). The latter clearly showing the very strong influence of anthropogenic activities (washing, dumps, latrines) in the near vicinity of wells and boreholes used for the drinking water supply. This is also highlighting the total lack of protection zone around the wells and boreholes. Stable isotopes of the water molecule (18O and 2H) are in agreement with a local recharge of groundwater and show a relatively homogeneous composition within the whole aquifer system. Tritium data indicate a modern recharge with a high renewability potential for shallow groundwater but very low tritium levels are observed in the deepest boreholes indicating the probable occurrence of complex flow conditions within the system in some sectors. From these results and because of its extension and storage potential, the Carnot-Berbérati sandstone aquifer appears as a groundwater resource

  3. Formation of City-Lake Integrated Urban Morphology in Hangzhou: A Study on the Related History Starting from the New Market Plan of the Lakefront District in Early Modern Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu; Shulan; Yukio; Nishimura; Qian; Fang

    2015-01-01

    In the early modern times in China, local planners have made several construction plans for Hangzhou’s old city center and the West Lake, resulting in the gradual formation of a city-lake integrated urban form, which is valued nowadays for its uniqueness and characteristically Chinese cityscape aesthetics. The key plan that spurred this process of linking the old city with the West Lake was a plan titled "Building a New Market"(1914). By elucidating the time, process, and contents of the plan, this paper analyzes the spatial transformation of the lakefront districts based on old maps, and then interprets how it led the forming process of the "city-lake integrated" urban form in Hangzhou.

  4. Spatio-temporal Pattern Evolution of the Interaction Among the Cities in Central Plains Economic Zone%中原经济区城市间相互作用时空格局演变研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静玉; 杨虎乐; 宋琼; 范晓霞

    2014-01-01

    Central Plains Economic Zone (CPEZ) is an important strong point in the regional economic develop-ment of China. Studies on the interaction strength among the regional cities are conducive to the analysis of cit-ies’economic connection degree. More importantly than all of that, this study is of great significance for ur-ban spatial structure, spatial structural optimization of urban economy, and the development of the economic CPEZ zone. This article selected 30 provincially-administered cities from CEPZ zone to conduct analysis of Gravity Model, Potential Model, Potential Scores, and Membership Model. The the evolution process and the characteristic of the interactional spatio-temporal pattern of CEPZ cities for two decades (1990-2010) were in-vestigated by the analysis strategy of“Line Point Surface”. Gravitational forces among different cities were calculated and symbolized into varied lines on the base of size of statistic data. Thickness of the lines rep-resents the connection characteristics between any two cities from CEPZ. Then, the potential capability of each city was figured out by using symbolized point to identify the potential grade of each city. The symbolized point and maximum gravity joint line were linked to show the connection characteristics. Finally, seven cities were chosen to play candidate regional central role. We calculated the economic membership of the seven can-didate cities. The first results of economic membership were used to select regional central cities. At the same time, the spatial dimensions were determined for each candidate city. Kriging spatial interpolation was also ap-plied in this study to express the standardized values in spatial pattern, which is based on the potential score from each city’s economic capacity. The result shows that significant spatio-temporal differences occurred among the CPEZ cities. In“Line”level, the gravitational force has been enhanced and the count of join lines among the cities has

  5. Functioning of an ancient sediment routing system; Mass balance and sediment budget of the Eocene Escanilla Formation, Spanish central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, N. A.; Whittaker, A. C.; Allen, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    One of the key challenges that sedimentologists and stratigraphers face is trying to understand what controls grain-size and sedimentary facies in basins, with the ultimate goal of stratigraphic prediction. It has been shown that the crucial parameters that control grain-size trends are the sediment discharge into the basin, the characteristic grain size mix of the supply, and the spatial distribution of subsidence. In this paper we present an outcrop case study of the Escanilla Formation, where all these parameters have been constrained, and explore how knowledge of these parameters translates into stratigraphic architecture. The mid-upper Eocene Escanilla Formation is part of a 200 km-long sediment routing system that was sourced primarily from the Axial Zone of the South-Central Pyrenees and deposited in a series of wedge-top basins (La Pobla, Tremp-Graus, Ainsa and Jaca basins). The Escanilla system consists of a wide variety of depositional environments and is one of the rare examples where all components of the ancient routing system are readily available for study: from proximal alluvial fanglomerates in the Sis and Gurb paleovalleys, braided river deposits in the Tremp-Graus and eastern Ainsa basins, deltaic, shallow marine and continental slope deposits in the western Ainsa Basin, and deep marine turbidite deposits in the Jaca Basin. This makes it a world class siliciclastic analogue for hydrocarbon exploration. In this study we examine how the mass balance and sediment budget influenced sedimentary trends within this paleo-sediment routing system. The entire sediment routing system has been delimited using new provenance data and a correlation from source to sink is proposed, subdividing the 7.7 Myr duration of deposition into three time intervals of roughly equal duration. Within these time intervals, the sedimentary budgets of the Escanilla system have been calculated and a mass balance framework established, enabling the quantitative assessment of how

  6. Streamlined subglacial bedforms on the Närke plain, south-central Sweden - Areal distribution, morphometrics, internal architecture and formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Per; Dowling, Thomas P. F.

    2016-08-01

    A flow set of close to 1000 drumlins has been mapped by means of LiDAR-derived digital elevation models and investigated by trenching. The area is situated on the SW part of the Närke plain and its surrounding uplands in south-central Sweden, which was deglaciated in the early Preboreal in a glacioaquatic setting. We find that there is considerable morphological difference in drumlin distribution patterns over crystalline basement areas compared to streamlined terrain over Palaeozoic sedimentary rock basement. The former area is characterized by thin Quaternary drift and the drumlins are all of the rock-cored type, built due to active deposition of sediment around obstacles to glacier flow. The latter area is characterized by deep Quaternary drift and the drumlins are more elongate and also larger in all dimensions, as compared to rock-cored drumlins. Irrespective of these geomorphological differences on local landscape scale we find that drumlin morphometric values remain part of a morphological continuum at the regional scale. Based on the internal sediment architecture as revealed in two cross-drumlin sections we find that the soft-cored drumlins were formed by compressional constructive deformation, along with excavational deformation along the flanks of the emerging drumlins, which shaped the separating troughs. Intermediate-type drumlins are those that demonstrate a coupling between underlying Palaeozoic sediment strata in areas of shallow drift sheet. These are the result of differing rheological response between incorporated sedimentary rock and a deforming bed below the ice-bed interface. An overall conclusion is that we find geomorphic and architectural compositional differences between the drumlins and the flowset they form. We can closely relate these differences to contextual geological variations with respect to basement type and drift depth. We argue that drumlin formation is better explained not by one single 'unifying' process but rather a set of

  7. [Carbon emissions and low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Feng-ming; Liang, Wen-juan; Niu, Ming-fen; Wang, Jiao-yue

    2016-02-01

    Carbon emissions due to land use change have an important impact on global climate change. Adjustment of regional land use patterns has a great scientific significance to adaptation to a changing climate. Based on carbon emission/absorption parameters suitable for Liaoning Province, this paper estimated the carbon emission of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province. The results showed that the carbon emission and absorption were separately 308.51 Tg C and 11.64 Tg C from 1997 to 2010. It meant 3.8% of carbon emission. was offset by carbon absorption. Among the 296.87 Tg C net carbon emission of land use change, carbon emission of remaining land use type was 182.24 Tg C, accounting for 61.4% of the net carbon emission, while the carbon emission of land use transformation was 114.63 Tg C, occupying the rest 38.6% of net carbon emission. Through quantifying the mapping relationship between land use change and carbon emission, it was shown that during 1997-2004 the contributions of remaining construction land (40.9%) and cropland transform ation to construction land (40.6%) to carbon emission were larger, but the greater contributions to carbon absorption came from cropland transformation to forest land (38.6%) and remaining forest land (37.5%). During 2004-2010, the land use types for carbon emission and absorption were the same to the period of 1997-2004, but the contribution of remaining construction land to carbon emission increased to 80.6%, and the contribution of remaining forest land to carbon absorption increased to 71.7%. Based on the carbon emission intensity in different land use types, we put forward the low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use in two aspects. In carbon emission reduction, we should strict control land transformation to construction land, increase the energy efficiency of construction land, and avoid excessive development of forest land and water. In carbon sink increase, we should

  8. Evaluation of water quality parameters for the Mamasin dam in Aksaray City in the central Anatolian part of Turkey by means of artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhatip, Hatim; Kömür, M. Aydin

    2008-01-01

    Sustaining the human ecological benefits of surface water requires carefully planned strategies for reducing the cumulative risks posed by diverse human activities. The municipality of Aksaray city plays a key role in developing solutions to surface water management and protection in the central Anatolian part of Turkey. The responsibility to provide drinking water and sewage works, regulate the use of private land and protect public health provides the mandate and authority to take action. The present approach discusses the main sources of contamination and the result of direct wastewater discharges into the Melendiz and Karasu rivers, which recharge the Mamasın dam sites by the use of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling techniques. The present study illustrates the ability to predict and/or approve the output values of previously measured water quality parameters of the recharge and discharge areas at the Mamasin dam site by means of ANN techniques. Using the ANN model is appreciated in such environmental research. Here, the ANN is used for estimating if the field parameters are agreeable to the results of this model or not. The present study simulates a situation in the past by means of ANN. But in case any field measurements of some relative parameters at the outlet point “discharge area” have been missed, it could be possible to predict the approximate output values from the detailed periodical water quality parameters. Because of the high variance and the inherent non-linear relationship of the water quality parameters in time series, it is difficult to produce a reliable model with conventional modeling approaches. In this paper, the ANN modeling technique is used to establish a model for evaluating the change in electrical conductivity (EC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) values in recharge (input) and discharge (output) areas of the dam water under pollution risks. A general ANN modeling scheme is also recommended for the water parameters. The modeling

  9. On the peritidal cycles and their diagenetic evolution in the Lower Jurassic carbonates of the Calcare Massiccio Formation (Central Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandano Marco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the environmental changes and high-frequency cyclicity recorded by Lower Jurassic shallow-water carbonates known as the Calcare Massiccio Formation which crop out in the central Apennines of Italy. Three types of sedimentary cycle bounded by subaerial erosion have been recognized: Type I consists of a shallowing upward cycle with oncoidal floatstones to rudstones passing gradationally up into peloidal packstone alternating with cryptoalgal laminites and often bounded by desiccation cracks and pisolitic-peloidal wackestones indicating a period of subaerial exposure. Type II shows a symmetrical trend in terms of facies arrangement with peloidal packstones and cryptoalgal laminites present both at the base and in the upper portion of the cycle, separated by oncoidal floatstones to rudstones. Type III displays a shallowing upward trend with an initial erosion surface overlain by oncoidal floatstones to rudstones that, in turn, are capped by pisolitic-peloidal wackestones and desiccation sheet cracks. Sheet cracks at the top of cycles formed during the initial phase of subaerial exposure were successively enlarged by dissolution during prolonged subaerial exposure. The following sea-level fall produced dissolution cavities in subtidal facies, while the successive sea-level rise resulted in the precipitation of marine cements in dissolution cavities. Spectral analysis revealed six peaks, five of which are consistent with orbital cycles. While a tectonic control cannot be disregarded, the main signal recorded by the sedimentary succession points toward a main control related to orbital forcing. High frequency sea-level fluctuations also controlled diagenetic processes.

  10. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath Late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Şener

    2007-04-01

    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ash (from 32 to 58%) and sulphur (from 1.43 to 3.03%) lignite which is petrographically characterised by a high humunite content. The mineral matter of the studied lignite samples is made up of mainly clay minerals (illite–smectite and kaolinite), plagioclase and quartz in Bolu coal field, clay minerals (illite–smectite, smectite and illite), quartz, calcite, plagioclase and gypsum in Seben coal field, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) in Kıbrıscık, and dolomite, quartz, clinoptilolite, opal CT and gypsum in C¸ amlıdere coal field. The differences in these four types of lignite with specific mineralogical patterns may be due to the explosive volcanic events and depositional conditions which changed from one coal field to the others. There is a zonation from SW to SE in the studied area for zeolites such as Opal CT+smectite-clinoptilolite-analcime-K-feldspar. Carbonate minerals are commonly calcite in Seben and Kıbrıscık coal fields. In Bolu, coal samples are devoid of calcite and dolomite. These analyses show that there is an increase in the amount of Mg and a decrease in the amount of Na from the northwestern part to the southern part in the study area.

  11. 城市化过程中空间布局的形成机理--以宝鸡市陈仓区城区发展为例%The Mechanism of City-space Formation in the Process of Urbanization---Based on the Case of Development of CHENCANG District,Baoji City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    China is experiencing a rapid process of urbanization and the urbanization is also a process of ur-ban space extension.Figuring out mechanism of city space formation means:how the city space layout forms,what characteristics city space layout formation has,and what problems the government should pay attention to when making urban planning.From the angle of the space-sociology,combining the develop-ment of Chencang District,Baoji City,the paper talked about the characteristics of and reasons for city space formation in China’s urbanization.%中国正经历快速城市化的过程,城市化过程也是城市空间扩展的过程。弄清城市空间布局形成的机理,就是明确城市空间的布局是怎么形成的,空间布局的形成具有哪些特征,以及政府在城市规划时应该注意哪些问题。站在空间社会学的角度,结合宝鸡市陈仓区的实例,探讨中国城市化过程中空间布局的形成特点及原因。

  12. Evaluation of the volatility basis-set approach for the simulation of organic aerosol formation in the Mexico City metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Tsimpidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New primary and secondary organic aerosol modules have been added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM, for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism based on recent smog chamber studies. The new modelling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach: both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. This new framework with the use of the new volatility basis parameters for low-NOx and high-NOx conditions tends to predict 4–6 times higher anthropogenic SOA concentrations than those predicted with the older generation of models. The resulting PMCAMx-2008 was applied in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA for approximately a week during April 2003 during a period of very low regional biomass burning impact. The emission inventory, which uses as a starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory, is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments. The predicted organic aerosol (OA concentrations peak in the center of Mexico City, reaching values above 40 μg m−3. The model predictions are compared with the results of the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of the Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS observations. The model reproduces both Hydrocarbon-like Organic Aerosol (HOA and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA concentrations and diurnal profiles. The small OA underprediction during the rush-hour periods and overprediction in the afternoon suggest potential improvements to the description of fresh primary organic emissions and the formation of the oxygenated organic aerosols, respectively, although they may also be due to errors in the simulation of dispersion and vertical mixing. However, the AMS OOA data are not specific enough to prove that the model reproduces the organic aerosol

  13. Palynological dating of the Mandal formation (uppermost Jurassic - lowermost Cretaceous, Norwegian Central Graben) and correlation to organic-rich shales in the Danish sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybkjaer, K.

    1998-10-01

    Palynological investigation of the organic-rich Mandal Formation in the type well, 7/12-3A indicates that the age of the formation is mainly Late Volgian to Early Ryazanian although the lower part may extend into the Middle Volgian. Dating is based on the last occurrence of Rotosphaeropsis thula at the upper boundary of the formation and of Glossodinium dimorphum immediately below the lower boundary. Identification of a number of stratigraphically important bioevents has permitted a detailed correlation of the Mandal Formation in its type well with equivalent organic-rich shale sin the Bo-1 well from the Danish Central Graben. The very close similarities in gamma-log patterns from the two wells, despite the considerable distance (about 180 km) between the wells suggests that the origin of these `hot shales` should be attributed to regional rather than local factors. (au) 6 fig., 29 refs.

  14. 中心城市产业布局调整与优化研究——以广州市为例%Central city industry layout adjustment and optimization research——take Guangzhou as example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧江波

    2012-01-01

    广州市作为华南地区的中心城市和特大型城市,产业结构正于转型升级的关键时期。通过对当前广州市产业空间结构的特征及存在问题分析研究,在工业化和城市化进程加速推进的背景下,提出了产业空间结构调整与优化的基本思路,以保证广州可持续发展。%As a large central city of South-China,Guangzhou is in the key period of industrial transformation.Firstly,this paper deals with the spatial structure of Guangzhou' industries,and puts forward that the spatial structure has gone through four stages in different historical periods;Secondly,it analyzes the spatial structure characteristics of Guangzhou' industries,and points out that the industries are in circle structures of distribution as a whole,through spatial expansion;Finally,it gives out the basic strategies of regulating and optimizing spatial structure under the background of accelerating industrialization and urbanization,.i e.in accordance with demanding as a modern international large city,Changchun should break through the existing mode of industrial spaces,adopt the pattern of park agglomeration according to organic dispersing principle,form a new industrial spatial allocation in which the main city,sub-city,groups,and key central towns are relatively independent orderly ranked,stressing on main points,in order to assure Guangzhou' sustainable development.

  15. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Bryne and Lulu Formations, Middle Jurassic, northern Danish Central Graben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andsbjerg, Jan

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic Bryne and Lulu Formations of the Søgne Basin (northern part of the Danish Central Graben consist of fluvially-dominated coastal plain deposits, overlain by interfingering shoreface and back-barrier deposits. Laterally continuous, mainly fining-upwards fluvial channel sandstones that locally show evidence for tidal influence dominate the alluvial/coastal plain deposits of the lower Bryne Formation. The sandstones are separated by units of fine-grained floodplain sediments that show a fining-upwards - coarsening-upwards pattern and locally grade into lacustrine mudstones. A regional unconformity that separates the lower Bryne Formation from the mainly estuarine upper Bryne Formation is defined by the strongly erosional base of a succession of stacked channel sandstones, interpreted as the fill of a system of incised valleys. Most of the stacked channel sandstones show abundant mud laminae and flasers, and rare herringbone structures, suggesting that they were deposited in a tidal environment, probably an estuary. Several tens of metres of the lower Bryne Formation may have been removed by erosion at this unconformity. The estuarine channel sandstone succession is capped by coal beds that attain a thickness of several metres in the western part of the Søgne Basin, but are thin and poorly developed in the central part of the basin. Above the coal beds, the Lulu Formation is dominated by various types of tidally influenced paralic deposits in the western part of the basin and by coarsening-upwards shoreface and beach deposits in central parts. Westwards-thickening wedges of paralic deposits interfinger with eastwards-thickening wedges of shallow marine deposits. The Middle Jurassic succession is subdivided into nine sequences. In the lower Bryne Formation, sequence boundaries are situated at the base of laterally continuous fluvial channel sandstones whereas maximum flooding surfaces are placed in laterally extensive floodplain

  16. GLAUBERITE-HALITE ASSOCIATION IN BOZKIR FORMATION (PLİOCENE, ÇANKIRI-ÇORUM BASİN, CENTRAL ANATOLİA, TURKEY)

    OpenAIRE

    SÖNMEZ, İLHAN

    2014-01-01

    Tertiary Çankırı – Çorum Basin is one of the biggest basin covering evaporitic formationsin the Central Anatolia. During borehole drills carried out in Bozkır Formation whichcontain Pliocene aged evaporites in the basin, a thick rocksalt (halite, NaCl) deposit wasdetected that consisting of glauberite (Na2Ca(SO4)2) interlayers (sabhka) synchronouswith sedimentation. Rocksalt bearing layers in Bozkır formation which was deposited inplaya-lake – sabhka environment, where seasonal changes are ef...

  17. Regional soil geochemistry in the Ojailen Valley: a realm dominated by the industrial and mining city of Puertollano (South Central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel; Fernandez-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; María Esbrí, Jose; Gonzalez-Corrochano, Beatríz; García-Noguero, Eva Mª; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; García-Noguero, Carolina

    2013-04-01

    Regional soil geochemistry in the Ojailén Valley: a realm dominated by the industrial and mining city of Puertollano (South Central Spain). Authors: Miguel A. López-Berdonces¹; Sergio Fernández Calderón¹; Pablo Higueras¹; José María Esbrí¹; Beatriz González-Corrochano¹; Eva Mª García-Noguero¹; Alba Martínez-Coronado¹; Carolina García Noguero¹ ¹Instituto de Geología Aplicada, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Almadén 13400 (Spain). Ojailén Valley is situated in South Central of Spain, an area where livestock, agriculture, mining and industry coexist. This work tries to assess the relationships between these activities and local environmental compartments: water, soils and heavy metal contents, and establish the most appropriate methodology of sample treatment and analytical techniques that can be employed on this kind of studies. For soil geochemistry, 152 samples were taken at two different depths, one at surface layer and another at 20 cm depth, and establish relationships between them and the possible sources. For this purpose, we determine soil parameters (pH, conductivity and organic matter) and total metal contents by Energy Dispersion of X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). Samples with higher nickel contents were analyzed with Inductive Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) after acid digestion. The study of surface waters includes 18 samples along the river and tributaries near mining and industrial areas. Water analysis was performed by ICP-OES. Soil samples shows pH between 6 and 8.5, highest located near on the east part of the valley, in the vicinity of petrochemical complex. Conductivity values show higher levels (1600 µS cm¯¹) in the vicinity of Puertollano and the industrial sites. Local reference value (LRV) for contaminated soils were determined according to the methodology proposed by Jimenez-Ballesta et al. (2010), using the equation: LRV=GM + 2SD, where LRV: Local Reference Value, GM: Geometric Mean, SD: Standard Deviation

  18. Predicting Quiescence: The Dependence of Specific Star Formation Rate on Galaxy Size and Central Density at 0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Katherine E; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Franx, Marijn; van der Wel, Arjen; Brammer, Gabriel; Forster-Schreiber, Natascha M; Giavalisco, Mauro; Labbe, Ivo; Momcheva, Ivelina G; Nelson, Erica J; Skelton, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between star formation and structure, using a mass-complete sample of 27,893 galaxies at 0.50.5 dex from z~2 to z~0.7. Neither a compact galaxy size nor a high n are sufficient to assess the likelihood of quiescence for the average galaxy; rather, it is the combination of these two parameters together with stellar mass that results in a unique quenching threshold in central density or velocity.

  19. Luoyang Dual Spatial Criterion Ecological City Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fazeng; Wang Shengnan

    2007-01-01

    The construction of an ecological city has two foundational platforms:the small platform,namely urban district or simply called as"city ecosystem";and the big platform,namely around city district in certain region scope or also referred to as"city-region ecosystem".The construction of an ecological city must be launched in the dual spatial criteria:in city(urban district)criterion-optimizing the city ecosystem;in city-region(city territory)criterion-optimizing the city-region ecosystem.Luoyang has the bright characteristic and the typical image within cities of China,and even in the world.The construction of anecological city in dual spatial criteria-the city and the city-region-has the vital significance to urbanization advancement and sustainable development in Luoyang.In city-region criterion,the primary mission of Luoyang's ecological city construction is to create a fine ecological environment platform in its city territory.In city criterion,the basic duty of Luoyang's ecologic city construction is to enhance the ecological capacity and benefit of the central city.

  20. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  1. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (20 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  2. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Isand Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  3. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  4. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  5. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  6. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  7. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  8. Formation of diapiric structure in the deformation zone, central Indian Ocean: A model from gravity and seismic reflection data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Rao, D.G.; Neprochnov, Y.P.

    Analyses of bathymetry, gravity and seismic reflection data of the diffusive plate boundary in the central Indian Ocean reveal a new kind of deformed structure besides the well-reported structures of long-wavelength anticlinal basement rises...

  9. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  10. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  11. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  12. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  13. Continued urbanization of the United States is causing the deterioration of the central city; costly suburban developments; and increases in congestion, pollution, crime, violence and alienation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that urban sprawl and the abuses of technological industries result in substantial environmental and economic costs at the expense of center city locations and populations. Socioeconomic deterioration and modification of the biosphere triggers climatic and environmental changes leading to ecosystem damage and destruction, health consequences and international conflict.

  14. 昆山市餐饮具集中消毒单位现状调查与对策%Present situation investigation and countermeasures of tableware centralized disinfection enterprises in Kunshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱宗升; 宋挺博

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解昆山市餐饮具集中消毒单位的卫生状况,为规范集中消毒单位的生产经营活动,强化卫生监督管理,提出相应的建议和对策.方法 根据《餐饮具集中消毒单位卫生监督规范》(试行)中管理要求对昆山市餐饮具集中消毒单位进行现况调查.结果 布局卫生要求合格率83.3%,消毒设备索证率为66.7%,人员健康证持证率为33.3%,建立出厂检测率为16.7%.结论 该市消毒单位卫生状况一般,需建立餐具消毒许可规范制度,规范企业行为,加强人员卫生知识培训,建立部门联动,加强卫生监管及监测.%[Objective]To understand the sanitary condition of tableware centralized disinfection enterprises in Kunshan City, regulate the production and management of tableware centralized disinfection enterprises, strengthen health supervision, and put forward the relevant suggestions and countermeasures. [Methods] According to the management requirements of the Regulations on sanitary supervision of tableware centralized disinfection enterprises, the cross-sectional study was conducted in tableware centralized disinfection enterprises in Kunshan City. [ Results] The pass rate of sanitary layout requirements was 83.3% , the rate of asking for certificates of disinfection equipment was 66.7% , the rate of holding health certificate among employees was 33.3% , and the rate of establishing pre-delivery inspection was 16.7%. [ Conclusion] The sanitary condition of tableware centralized disinfection enterprises in Kunshan City is common. It is necessary to set up a license system for tableware disinfection, strengthen the health knowledge training, establish the interaction of different departments, and improve the health supervision and monitoring.

  15. Magnetostratigraphy: the key to a global correlation of the classic Germanic Trias-case study Volpriehausen Formation (Middle Buntsandstein), Central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szurlies, Michael

    2004-11-01

    An integrated lithostratigraphic-magnetostratigraphic study was carried out in order to provide a magnetic record for the Volpriehausen Formation of the classic Germanic Trias. In its type area of Central Germany, the ˜150-m thick Volpriehausen Formation consists of nine small-scale fining-upward cycles, ranging from about 10 to 20 m in thickness. They can readily be correlated over large parts of the Central European Basin using a combination of cyclic stratigraphy and gamma ray logging. Based on this robust high-resolution lithostratigraphic framework, a precise positioning and verification of paleomagnetic data has been realized. To this end, the classic outcrop Kleines Bodetal and the continuously cored well Bockenem A100 were collected, yielding a total of 361 paleomagnetic samples. From about 87% of them, a characteristic remanence was obtained in both the magnetite-bearing gray lithologies as well as the hematite-bearing red-brown lithologies. The between-site correlation allows the creation of a well-defined composite magnetostratigraphy of the uppermost Bernburg Formation to lowermost Detfurth Formation, encompassing a total of five magnetic polarity intervals, which can be combined unambiguously with a recently established polarity scale for the uppermost Zechstein and Lower Buntsandstein. Moreover, the resulting composite magnetostratigraphy can be correlated with corresponding records from the Continental, Boreal, and Tethyan realms. Thus, the Buntsandstein magnetostratigraphy is important in that it provides valuable anchors to link the Germanic Trias high-resolution lithostratigraphy to the biostratigraphically calibrated Triassic substages.

  16. Size-resolved aerosol emission factors and new particle formation/growth activity occurring in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Kalafut-Pettibone

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the aerosol size distribution from 11 nm to 2.5 microns were made in Mexico City in March, 2006, during the MILAGRO field campaign. Observations at the T0 research site could often be characterized by morning conditions with high particle mass concentrations, low mixing heights, and highly correlated particle number and CO2 concentrations, indicative that particle number is controlled by primary emissions. Average size-resolved and total number- and volume-based emission factors for combustion sources impacting T0 have been determined using a comparison of peak sizes in number and CO2 concentration peaks. The number emission and volume emission factors for particles from 11 nm to 494 nm are 1.23 × 1015 particles, and 7.54 × 1011 cubic microns per kg of carbon, respectively. Uncertainty on the number emission factor is approximately a factor of 1.5. The mode of the number emission factor was between 25 and 32 nm, while the mode of the volume factor was between 0.25 and 0.32 microns. These emission factors are reported as log normal model parameters and are compared with multiple emission factors from the literature. In Mexico City in the afternoon, the CO2 concentration drops during ventilation of the polluted layer, and the coupling between CO2 and particle number breaks down, especially during new particle formation events when particle number is no longer controlled by primary emissions. Using measurements of particle number and CO2 taken aboard the NASA DC-8, this emission factor was applied to the MCMA plume; the primary emission factor predicts less than 50% of the total particle number and the surplus particle count is not correlated with photochemical age. Primary particle volume and number in the size range 0.1–2 μm are similarly too low to predict the observed volume distribution. Contrary to the case for number, the apparent secondary

  17. Biofilm formation in long-term central venous catheters in children with cancer: a randomized controlled open-labelled trial of taurolidine versus heparin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handrup, Mette Møller; Fuursted, Kurt; Funch, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    Taurolidine has demonstrated inhibition of biofilm formation in vitro. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of catheter locking with taurolidine vs heparin in biofilm formation in central venous catheters. Forty-eight children with cancer were randomized to catheter locking by heparin (n...... = 22) or taurolidine (n = 26), respectively. After removal, catheters were examined by standardized scanning electron microscopy to assess quantitative biofilm formation. Biofilm was present if morphologically typical structures and bacterial cells were identified. Quantitative and semi......-quantitative cultures were also performed. Biofilm was identified in 23 of 26 catheters from the taurolidine group and 21 of 22 catheters from the heparin group. A positive culture was made of six of the catheters locked with taurolidine and heparin, respectively (p = 0.78). The rate of catheter-related bloodstream...

  18. Palynology, palynofacies and petroleum potential of the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Matulla, Brown Limestone and Thebes formations, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Diasty, W. Sh.; El Beialy, S. Y.; Abo Ghonaim, A. A.; Mostafa, A. R.; El Atfy, H.

    2014-07-01

    Palynological, palynofacies and organic geochemical results of 46 samples retrieved from the Upper Cretaceous - Eocene Matulla, Brown Limestone and Thebes formations, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt are presented. The two latter formations are not dated palynologically as their lithology is not promising for palynological yield. However the Matulla Formation is dated as Turonian-Santonian age, based on the combined evidence of pollen and dinocysts. Palynofacies analysis carried out under both transmitted and fluorescent microscopy indicated that both the Thebes and Brown Limestone formations are deposited under a distal suboxic-anoxic environment. On the other hand, the Turonian-Santonian Matulla Formation supported the existence of a marginal marine deposition under dysoxic-anoxic basin to proximal suboxic-anoxic shelf environments. Rock-Eval pyrolysis and TOC results indicated that most of the studied formations are thermally immature to marginally mature and have a good petroleum potential. They are organically-rich in both oil- and gas-prone kerogen Type-II and II/III, deposited under marine reducing conditions favorable for hydrocarbon generation and expulsion.

  19. 合肥市物流空间区位特征与形成机理%Research on the Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of Logistics Space in Hefei City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡燕燕; 曹卫东; 黄琪; 张宇; 刘金郝; 李颖

    2016-01-01

    以合肥市111个专业大市场、852家物流企业、38个物流节点为样本,结合合肥市2014年交通网络、工业园要素地图,采用GIS技术,探讨合肥市物流空间特征及形成机理。研究结果显示:(1)陆路交通网络对物流空间区位选择影响显著,而内河港口、机场对其影响不显著;(2)城区物流空间呈单中心等级扩散格局,中心城区与近郊区为物流企业、专业大市场布局热点,远郊区主要布局规模(大中型)物流节点,且无明显物流节点体系分层现象;(3)物流空间与工业布局不协同,区域差异明显,瑶海区、庐阳区物流空间集聚,而包河区与蜀山区无明显集聚现象。%The research choose 111 professional markets, 852 logistics companies and 38 logistics nodes in Hefei as samples, combines with the transportation network and the map of industrial park elements of Hefei in 2014, u-sing GIS spatial analysis, to explore the spatial distribution characteristics of logistics in Hefei and its formation mechanism. The results showed that:(1)The road traffic network has a significant impact on location selection, the inland port, airport logistics spatial location effect was not significant;(2)Urban logistics spatial present a central hierarchical diffusion pattern, central city and suburban areas present a hot layout of logistics enterprises and pro-fessional market, the size ( large and medium-sized) logistics node layout in the outer suburban district which lay-out disorder and has no obvious logistics node hierarchy phenomenon;( 3 ) Logistics space and industrial layout is not coordinated, the regional difference is obvious, Yaohai District and Luyan District have agglomerated logistics space, but Baohe District and Shushan District have no obvious logistics space agglomeration phenomenon.

  20. 城市湖库蓝藻水华形成机理综合建模研究%Comprehensive mechanism modeling on city lake cyanobacteria bloom formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小艺; 赵晓平; 刘载文; 许继平; 董硕琦

    2012-01-01

    蓝藻水华形成是诸多营养及环境因素相互作用的结果,因此,本文对城市湖库蓝藻水华形成(包括复苏、萌芽、生长、暴发阶段)这一复杂生态过程进行了综合建模研究.通过在阳光房中模拟湖库蓝藻水华形成过程,采用正交实验分析获得蓝藻生长的关键影响因素,并为蓝藻水华形成机理建模提供相应参量.在此基础上,构建了用于模拟湖库蓝藻水华形成过程的蓝藻生长机理模型,采用遗传算法对机理模型中涉及的参数进行优化率定;同时,考虑蓝藻水华暴发阶段具有突变特性,建立了描述蓝藻水华暴发状态的尖点突变模型,进而构建了城市湖库蓝藻水华形成各阶段的综合机理模型.实验仿真结果表明,该综合机理模型能较好地模拟城市湖库蓝藻从复苏到暴发整个过程的变化规律,且该模型结合了数学机理建模和智能方法的优势,克服了单一蓝藻水华机理模型的缺陷,为湖库蓝藻水华形成机理的深入研究提供了新思路.%We developed comprehensive mechanism modeling on city lake cyanobacteria bloom formation,a complex ecological process(including recovery,germination,growth and outbreak) caused by the interaction of various nutrient and environmental factors.Through lake cyanobacteria bloom formation process simulation in the sunroom laboratory,the key factors of cyanobacteria growth were obtained by the orthogonal test to provide parameters for cyanobacteria bloom mechanism modeling.Cyanobacteria growth mechanism model was subsequently developed for simulating the formation of cyanobacteria bloom,with involved parameters optimized by genetic algorithm.Considering the mutation during cyanobacteria bloom outbreak,the cusp catastrophe model was established to describe the outbreak state of cyanobacteria bloom.In addition,the comprehensive mechanism analysis model demonstrated various stages of lake cyanobacteria bloom formation

  1. Metal ion effects on the kinetics of abiotic formation of glycylglycine and diketopiperazine under the simulated conditions of the Lost City hydrothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, K.; Yabuta, H.

    2010-12-01

    Introduction: The Lost City hydrothermal field has been recently discovered in 2000 and known for its characteristic conditions that differs from the typical hydrothermal vents, such as alkaline pH, low temperature (> ~90°C), metal ion compositions [1, 2]. The hydrothermal system is suggested as a plausible environment for the origin and evolution of life in the early Earth [3]. In our previous study, it was revealed that the dimerization of glycine (Gly) in aqueous solution reached the maximum rate in alkaline solution at pH 9.8 [4], supporting the above hypothesis from the perspective of abiotic chemistry. In this study, the heating experiments of Gly were conducted under the conditions simulating the metal ion composition of the Lost City, in order to evaluate the effects of metal ions on the kinetics of the formation of glycylglycine (GlyGly) and diketopiperazine (DKP). Experimental: Eight milliliter of 100 mM aqueous solutions of Gly at pH 9.3 with MgCl2 : MgSO4 : CaCl2 : NaCl : NaOH concentration ratio (mM) of 9.4 : 4.6 : 23 : 35 : 470 (solution A) were put into Teflon bottles and heated at 120, 140, 160 and 180°C for 1 to 5 days. For comparison, 100 mM aqueous solutions of Gly at pH 9.3 with 32 mM NaOH (solution B) and at pH 6.0 without NaOH (solution C) were heated at 140°C for 14 days. After heating, each sample was diluted and analyzed by HPLC. In this experiment, the four reaction pathways were considered: 2 Gly → GlyGly (the second order), GlyGly → DKP (the first order), DKP → GlyGly (the first order), GlyGly → 2 Gly (the first order). The rate constants were determined by fitting the changes of the concentrations of Gly, GlyGly, and DKP with increasing heating time. Results and discussion: The concentration of GlyGly in solution A at equilibrium was 25 % lower than that in solution B, although the formation rates of GlyGly were similar values for solutions A and B, 1.25 ×10-9 and 0.93 ×10-9 l mol-1 s-1, respectively. This observation is

  2. Formation, production and viability of oospores of Phytophthora infestans from potato and Solanum demissum in the Toluca Valley, central Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, W.G.; Grünwald, N.J.; Fry, W.E.; Turkensteen, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    Aspects of the ecology of oospores of Phytophthora infestans were studied in the highlands of central Mexico. From an investigation of a random sample of strains, it was found that isolates differed in their average capability to form oospores when engaged in compatible pairings. Most crosses produc

  3. Sedimentology and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous Fortress Mountain and Torok Formations Exposed Along the Siksikpuk River, North-Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wartes, Marwan A.

    2007-01-01

    An exposure of the Lower Cretaceous Fortress Mountain and Torok Formations along the Siksikpuk River in north-central Alaska provides a rare opportunity to observe the stratigraphic contact between these two formations and to interpret the depositional facies and sequence stratigraphy of the exposed strata. The Fortress Mountain Formation at the base of the measured section includes braided-fluvial and coastal-plain facies deposited in a lowstand-systems tract, and an overlying succession of mostly shallow marine facies deposited in the basal part of a transgressive-systems tract. The overlying Torok Formation includes a thick, upward-deepening succession of marine-shelf to marine-slope facies deposited in the upper part of the transgressive-systems tract. The upper part of the section includes marine-slope and incised-slope-channel turbidite deposits of the Torok Formation, interpreted as a highstand-systems tract. Consideration of the balance between accommodation and sediment flux inferred from the sequence-stratigraphic analysis suggests that both tectonics and eustasy may have influenced deposition of the lowstand-systems and transgressive-systems tracts. In contrast, the highstand-systems tract may have been primarily influenced by progradation of a regional sediment-dispersal system and by subsidence induced by sediment loading.

  4. Amphibian, reptilian, and avian remains from the Fox Hills Formation (Maastrichtian): Shoreline and estuarine deposits of the Pierre Sea in south-central North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoganson, J.W.; Erickson, J.M.; Holland, F.D.

    2007-01-01

    Although vertebrate fossils, except for fish, are not common in the Maastrichtian Fox Hills Formation, amphibian, reptilian, and avian remains have been recovered at several localities in south-central North Dakota from shoreline facies of the retreating Pierre-Fox Hills seaway. This mixed fauna of aquatic, terrestrial, and marine taxa provides insight into the composition of coastal communities and habitats at the interface between the Hell Creek delta and the Western Interior Seaway. The delta-platform aquatic paleocommunity is represented by the efficient swimming salamanders Opistho- trition kayi and Lisserpeton bairdi, the carnivorous soft-shelled turtle "Aspideretes" sensu lato, the underwater piscivorous predator Champsosaurus laramiensis, and the large, predatory crocodile IBorealosuchus. Terrestrial areas were inhabited by the tortoise-like Basilemys and the predatory dinosaurs Tyrannosaurus and cf. Saurornit- holestes. Birds occupied niches in the warm-temperate to subtropical, forested delta platform and shoreline areas. These nonmarine taxa in the Fox Hills Formation indicate that the geographic range of these animals extended to shoreline areas of the Western Interior Seaway. The toxochelyid turtle Lophochelys and the ambush predators Mosasaurus dekayi and IPlioplatecarpus resided in the shallow marine and estuarine habitats. These taxa and marine fish taxa reported earlier indicate that normal marine conditions in south- central North Dakota persisted into the latest Late Cretaceous in comparison with coeval Hell Creek Formation sites more distal from the Western Interior Seaway. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  5. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  6. The Differences and Its Influencing Factors of Logistics Development of Central Cities in China%中国主要城市物流业发展的差异及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢守红; 王平

    2016-01-01

    选取我国35个中心城市,对其在2002-2011 年间的物流业发展差异进行时空演变分析,并将其划分为物流发达城市、物流较发达城市、物流欠发达城市、物流不发达城市4种类型. 结果表明,城市之间物流业发展差异显著,东部地区物流业发展水平遥遥领先于中西部地区,但近10年来中西部地区物流业发展步伐加快,与东部地区的差距有所缩小. 文章对2002-2011年我国物流业发展与经济增长之间的关系进行了实证分析. 研究表明:经济增长要素与我国物流业具有高度相关性,对物流业发展产生正向推动作用,但存在一定的滞后性,影响程度由高到低依次为消费水平、经济发展水平、人力资源、资本投入、工业发展水平、对外开放程度,以上6个要素每增长1%,物流业产值就依次上升0.710 3%、0.703 7%、0.657 4%、0.642 9%、0 .540 7%、0 .353 3%.%The paper selected 35 central cities in China and analysed spatial-temporal evolution of logis-tics development from 2002 to 2011 .The central cities were divided into four types in terms of the logistics de-velopment:developed cities , more developed cities , less developed cities and underdeveloped cities .The re-sults indicate that there are significant differences among cities , and the polarization has been increased .Lo-gistics development in the eastern regions is well ahead of that of the midwest , but the midwest accelerated their steps of logistics development in the past ten years , and the gap has been narrowed .The paper also made an empirical analysis of the relationship between logistics industry development and economic growth in China from 2002 to 2011 .The results show that there is a high correlation between economic growth factors and the logistics industry .The economic growth factors have a positive role in promoting logistics industry develop-ment, but with a certain lag.The impacts from high to low are the consumption

  7. Isotopic and fluid-inclusion constraints on the formation of polymetallic vein deposits in the central Argentinian Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonghe, Léon; Darras, Benoît; Hughes, Guillermo; Muchez, Philippe; Scoates, James S.; Weis, Dominique

    2002-03-01

    The lead isotope compositions of galena and the fluid-inclusion systematics of nine barite-bearing polymetallic (Au, Ag, Pb, Zn) deposits of the central Argentinian Patagonia (Chubut and Rio Negro provinces) have been investigated to constrain the compositions and sources of the mineralizing fluids. Most of the deposits occur as veins, with less common wall-rock disseminations and/or stockworks, and are low-sulfidation epithermal deposits hosted in Jurassic volcanic rocks. Fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures (Th) from quartz and sphalerite from the deposits fall within the range of 100-300 °C, with the highest measured average temperatures for the most eastern deposits (Mina Angela - 298 °C; Cañadón Bagual - 343 °C). The salinities of the hydrothermal fluids at all deposits were low to moderate (≤10.4 equiv. wt% NaCl). Three groups of ore deposits can be defined on the basis of 206Pb/204Pb ratios for galena and these show a general decrease from west to east (from 18.506 to 18.000). The central Argentinian Patagonia deposits have distinctly less radiogenic lead isotope compositions than similar deposits from Peru and Chile, except for the porphyry copper deposits of central and southern Peru. Galena from the Mina Angela deposit is characterized by very low radiogenic lead isotope compositions (18.000Precambrian basement. The geographic trend in lead isotope compositions of both galena and whole rocks indicates a crustal contribution which increases eastwards, also reflected in the strontium-neodymium isotope systematics of the host lavas. Finally, due to the lack of precise age determinations for the central Patagonian polymetallic deposits, a potential link with Andean porphyry copper systems remains an open question.

  8. TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA AND CENTRAL ASIA IN THE CONTEXT FORMATION OF TRANS-EURASIAN TRANSPORT CORRIDORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savkovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In accordance with its economic interests, China advances coherent policy for development of transport infrastructure both on its own territory and in neighbouring countries. Throughout the last two decades it facilitated the widening trade activity and broader economic cooperation between Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Central Asian states. Its further development foresees a network of Trans-Eurasian links, which will connect China not only with all nearby countries, but with European region as well.

  9. Analysis of costs and scarce fuel savings associated with nine Eastern and North Central center city conversions to a district energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.A.; Santini, D.J.; Marder, S.M.; Bernow, S.S.

    1979-02-01

    This study considers the major urbanized areas of nine US cities to arrive at rough estimates of costs required to retrofit them with district energy systems (DES). Only those costs associated with heating and hot water are addressed here. Demand estimates and energy-supply analyses are made, and component capital costs are estimated to arrive at annualized system costs. Finally, a comparison of alternative energy-delivery options is made, and estimates of scarce-fuel savings are derived. 49 references, 20 figures, 14 tables.

  10. Formation of relativistic non-viscous fluid in central collisions of protons with energy 0.8 TeV with photoemulsion nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Abdurakhmanov, U U

    2013-01-01

    By the methods of mathematical statistics we test a qualitative prediction of the old theory of relativistic hydrodynamics non-viscous liquid which can be used as a part of the process of hadronization within the modern hydrodynamical approach for the description of the quark-gluon plasma. Experimental data on the interaction of protons with the energies of 0.8 TeV with emulsion nuclei are used. Results do not contradict the formation of relativistic ideal non-viscous liquid in rare central collisions.

  11. 终端雨洪生态调蓄技术在海绵城市建设中的应用--沣西新城中心绿廊示范项目%Application of Terminal Ecological Technology for Stormwater Control and Storage in Sponge City Construction- Demonstration Project of Central Green Corridor of Fengxi New City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马越; 邓朝显; 甘旭; 梁行行; 张哲

    2016-01-01

    以我国西北地区首家海绵城市建设试点—西咸新区沣西新城为案例,在全面介绍其城市雨水收集利用系统(基于低影响开发理念)的基础上,重点剖析了作为该系统终端的雨洪调蓄枢纽单元—中心绿廊项目。对其设计工作原理及雨水消纳能力进行了阐述与定量评价,探讨了其雨洪综合管理效益及与传统人工调蓄池技术的差异。结果表明,中心绿廊集径流总量、径流峰值、面源污染控制等功能于一身,在有效提升区域防洪排涝标准的同时,兼具景观、经济、生态、环境等多重效益,为海绵城市建设中绿色、灰色基础设施的有机融合,提供了实践参考。%By taking Fengxi New City of Shaanxi Xixian New Area approved as the first national pilot sponge city in northwest China as the study case,rainwater collection and utilization system of this city based on the theory of low impact development was introduced, and Central Green Corridor which is the terminal unit of above system for stormwater control and storage was mainly analyzed. In detail,working principle and rainwater retention capacity of Central Green Corridor were illustrated and evaluated quantitatively as well as its comprehensive benefits and comparison with traditional storage tank. The results indicate that Central Green Corridor has multiple functions,including runoff volume control,runoff peak control and non-point source pollution control,which can effectively improve the regional flood control and drainage standards,bring about landscape,economic,environmental and ecological benefits and provide a practical reference for the combination of green and grey infrastructures in sponge city construction.

  12. Paleoecology of Benthic Foraminifera in Coral Reefs Recorded in the Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Formation of the Khashm Al-Qaddiyah Area, Central Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Youssef; Abdelbaset S El-Sorogy

    2015-01-01

    Thirty three benthic foraminiferal species belong to 23 genera and 16 families have been recorded from the coral reefs of the Callovian Tuwaiq Formation, Khashm Al-Qaddiyah area, Central Saudi Arabia. Three species:Astacolus qaddiyahensis, Nodosaria riyadhensis, Siderolites jurassica are believed to be new. Nearly all identified foraminifera are of Atlantic-Miditeranean affinity. The fo-raminiferal assemblage recorded in the present work is mixed of open marine, moderately deep ma-rine conditions associations and shallow to deep lagoon. The reefal part of upper Twiaq Formation may have been deposited in shallow water of lower to middle shelf depth (20–50 m) as indicated by abundant corals and benthic foraminifera. The coral fauna and bearing benthic foraminifera indi-cated moderate water energy.

  13. Conodonts, stratigraphy, and relative sea-level changes of the tribes hill formation (lower ordovician, east-central New York)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landing, E.D.; Westrop, S.R.; Knox, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Tremadocian onlap is recorded by the Tribes Hill Formation. The formation is a lower Lower Ordovician (upper conodont Fauna B Interval(?)- Rossodus manitouensis Zone) depositional sequence that unconformably overlies the Upper Cambrian Little Falls Formation. Depositional environments and stratigraphy indicate that the Tribes Hill was deposited on a wave-, not tide-, dominated shelf and that a uniform, 'layer-cake' stratigraphy is present. The deepening-shoaling sequence of the Tribes Hill includes the: 1) Sprakers Member (new; peritidal carbonate and overlying tempestite limestone and shale); 2) Van Wie Member (new; subtidal shale and limestone); 3) Wolf Hollow Member (revised; massive carbonates with thrombolitic cap); and 4) Canyon Road Member (new; glauconitic limestone and overlying evaporitic dolostone). The shoaling half-cycle of the Tribes Hill is older than a shoaling event in western Newfoundland, and suggests epeirogenic factors in earliest Ordovician sea-level change in east Laurentia. Conodont and trilobite biofacies track lithofacies, and Rossodus manitouensis Zone conodonts and Bellefontia Biofacies trilobites appear in the distal, middle Tribes Hill Formation. Twenty-four conodont species are illustrated. Ansella? protoserrata new species, lapetognathus sprakersi new species, Leukorhinion ambonodes new genus and species, and Laurentoscandodus new genus are described.

  14. 基于要素分析的国家历史文化名城格局中心性研究%Distribution Centrality of National Historic Cities Based on Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡浩

    2014-01-01

    基于全国119座国家历史文化名城的空间格局,在格局中心与行政归属、交通可达与空间破碎度、时间成本矩阵与最优市场选择等关键性指标和分析方法上,对行政条件、交通条件、市场条件影响下的国家历史文化名城中心性、中心职能、中心格局、服务市场范围进行解释和分析。结果发现:国家历史文化名城受制于全国范围内多中心分布和县级、地级的行政归属,其发展格局呈现大范围离散和小范围集聚版块的景观形态,地级名城格局中心向东部地区稍有偏离,县级名城格局中心向西部地区明显偏离。交通条件影响下的国家历史文化名城格局呈大范围集聚和局部离散的面状形态,格局中心虽然也因时间距离差异出现东部偏离、南部偏离的特征,但偏离的波动情况远远低于行政条件的影响水平。市场原则影响下的国家历史文化名城格局发展呈现错综复杂的网状形态和地域相关的区位特征,格局中心或区域中心性在全国不同地区表现出不同的地域特征。名城格局中心在不同要素下分布的不同特点是名城发展中区域自发集聚与行政手段管理调控、基础设施建设引导等相互博弈的结果。行政职能下降,交通职能、市场职能增长是未来的发展趋势。%with the help of key indexes and market analysis methods, such as distribution center, administrative ownership, transport accessibility, spatial fragmentation, time cost matrix and the optimal market selections, the centrality, the center function, the distribution center and the reachable domain of service markets of nation-al historical cities were studied based on its spatial pattern of 119 national historical cities. The results indicat-ed that the different characteristics and central influences of national historic city existed compared with the oth-er cities. Firstly, because of the

  15. Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek formations, Pioneer Mountains, central Idaho; stratigraphic and structural revisions, and new data on graptolite faunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dover, James H.; Berry, William B.N.; Ross, Reuben James

    1980-01-01

    clastic rocks reported in previously measured sections of the Phi Kappa, as well as the sequence along Phi Kappa Creek from which the name originates, are excluded from the Phi Kappa as revised and are reassigned to two structural plates of Mississippian Copper Basin Formation; other strata now excluded from the formation are reassigned to the Trail Creek Formation and to an unnamed Silurian and Devonian unit. As redefined, the Phi Kappa Formation is only about 240 m thick, compared with the 3,860 m originally estimated, and it occupies only about 25 percent of the outcrop area previously mapped in 1930 by H. G. Westgate and C. P. Ross. Despite this drastic reduction in thickness and the exclusion of the rocks along Phi Kappa Creek, the name Phi Kappa is retained because of widely accepted prior usage to denote the Ordovician graptolitic shale facies of central Idaho, and because the Phi Kappa Formation as revised is present in thrust slices on Phi Kappa Mountain, at the head of Phi Kappa Creek. The lithic and faunal consistency of this unit throughout the area precludes the necessity for major facies telescoping along individual faults within the outcrop belt. However, tens of kilometers of tectonic shortening seems required to juxtapose the imbricated Phi Kappa shale facies with the Middle Ordovician part of the carbonate and quartzite shale sequence of east central Idaho. The shelf rocks are exposed in the Wildhorse structural window of the northeastern Pioneer Mountains, and attain a thickness of at least 1,500 m throughout the region north and east of the Pioneer Mountains. The Phi Kappa is in direct thrust contact on intensely deformed medium- to high-grade metamorphic equivalents of the same shelf sequence in the Pioneer window at the south end of the Phi Kappa-Trail Creek outcrop belt. Along East Pass, Big Lake, and Pine Creeks, north of the Pioneer Mountains, some rocks previously mapped as Ramshorn Slate are lithologically and faunally equivalent to the P

  16. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever,...... and urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  17. Biofilm formation in long-term central venous catheters in children with cancer: a randomized controlled open-labelled trial of taurolidine versus heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handrup, Mette Møller; Fuursted, Kurt; Funch, Peter; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Schrøder, Henrik

    2012-10-01

    Taurolidine has demonstrated inhibition of biofilm formation in vitro. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of catheter locking with taurolidine vs heparin in biofilm formation in central venous catheters. Forty-eight children with cancer were randomized to catheter locking by heparin (n = 22) or taurolidine (n = 26), respectively. After removal, catheters were examined by standardized scanning electron microscopy to assess quantitative biofilm formation. Biofilm was present if morphologically typical structures and bacterial cells were identified. Quantitative and semi-quantitative cultures were also performed. Biofilm was identified in 23 of 26 catheters from the taurolidine group and 21 of 22 catheters from the heparin group. A positive culture was made of six of the catheters locked with taurolidine and heparin, respectively (p = 0.78). The rate of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) was 0.1 per 1000 catheter-days using taurolidine and 0.9 per 1000 catheter-days using heparin (p = 0.03). This randomized trial confirmed that the use of taurolidine as catheter-lock compared with heparin reduced the rate of CRBSIs; this reduction was not related to a reduction in the intraluminal biofilm formation and the rate of bacterial colonization detected by scanning electron microscopy in the two groups.

  18. Palaeoecological Analysis of Paleogene Shahejie Formation in North Central Raoyang Sag of Central Hebei Depression%冀中坳陷饶阳凹陷中北部古近纪沙河街组古生态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袭著纲; 国景星; 赵晓颖

    2011-01-01

    According to the identification of sporopollen fossils from the 42 wells in north central Raoyang Sag, Central Hebei Depression, the palaeoecological classification of palynoflora in Shahejie Formation was discussed; one palynological assemblage with high proportion of QuercoiditesUlmi pollenites was recognized, and five sub-assemblages were established, including Ephedripites-Ulmoideipites sub-assemblages, Pinacear-Ephedripites-Podocarpidites sub-assemblages, Ephedripites-Pinaceae-Labitricolpiles sub-assemblages, Pinaceae-Podocarpidites sub-assemblages and Piceaepollenites-Ephedripites-Cedripites sub-assemblages. Contrast to the palynological assemblage of offshore Shahejie Formation in Huanghua Depression, the palaeoecological change of Shahejie Formation in north central Raoyang Sag was discussed according to the different characteristics of palynological assemblage during various periods. The results showed that the proportion of mesic sporopollen was stable, with an average of 70% or higher, while there was a little change for the proportion of xerophilous and hygrophilous sporopollen; vegetation pattern during the late member 4 of Shahejie Formation was mainly evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest in semi-arid warm temperate climate; vegetation pattern during the member 3 of Shahejie Formation was mainly coniferous forest, and secondly broad-leaved forest in sub-humid sub-tropical climate; vegetation pattern during the member 2 of Shahejie Formation was mainly coniferous and broad-leaf forest in semi-arid sub-tropical climate; vegetation pattern during the member 1 of Shahejie Formation was mainly coniferous and broad-leaf forest with an increase of hygrophilous herbaceous vegetation in humid sub-tropical climate.%基于对冀中坳陷饶阳凹陷中北部42口井孢粉化石的鉴定,讨论了该区沙河街组孢粉植物群的古生态分类,建立了一个Quercoidites-Ulmipollenites高比例组合和5

  19. Suppression of Star Formation in the central 200 kpc of a z = 1.4 Galaxy Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Grutzbauch, Ruth; Jørgensen, Inger; Varela, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of an extended narrow-band H{\\alpha} study of the massive galaxy cluster XMMU J2235.3-2557 at z = 1.39. This paper represents a follow up study to our previous investigation of star-formation in the cluster centre, extending our analysis out to a projected cluster radius of 1.5 Mpc. Using the Near InfraRed Imager and Spectrograph (NIRI) on Gemini North we obtained deep H narrow-band imaging corresponding to the rest-frame wavelength of H{\\alpha} at the cluster's redshift. We identify a total of 163 potential cluster members in both pointings, excluding stars based on their near-IR colours derived from VLT/HAWK-I imaging. Of these 163 objects 14 are spectroscopically confirmed cluster members, and 20% are excess line-emitters. We find no evidence of star formation activity within a radius of 200 kpc of the brightest cluster galaxy in the cluster core. Dust-corrected star formation rates (SFR) of excess emitters outside this cluster quenching radius, RQ \\sim 200 kpc, are on average = 2.7...

  20. The UK Infrared Telescope M33 monitoring project. II. The star formation history in the central square kiloparsec

    CERN Document Server

    Javadi, Atefeh; Mirtorabi, Mohammad Taghi

    2011-01-01

    We have conducted a near-infrared monitoring campaign at the UK InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT), of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33 (Triangulum). The main aim was to identify stars in the very final stage of their evolution, and for which the luminosity is more directly related to the birth mass than the more numerous less-evolved giant stars that continue to increase in luminosity. In this second paper of the series, we construct the birth mass function and hence derive the star formation history. The star formation rate has varied between ~0.002 and 0.007 M ̇ yr^-1 kpc^-2. We give evidence of two epochs of a star formation rate enhanced by a factor of a few -- one that happened \\geq 6 Gyr ago and produced \\geq 80% of the total mass in stars, and one around 250 Myr ago that lasted ~ 200 Myr and formed \\leq 6% of the mass in stars. We construct radial and azimuthal distributions in the image plane and in the galaxy plane for populations associated with old first-ascent red giant branch (RGB) stars, intermedia...

  1. Significant melting of ice-wedges and formation of thermocirques on hill-slopes of thermokarst lakes in Central Yakutia (Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séjourné, Antoine; Costard, François; Gargani, Julien; Fedorov, Alexander; Skorve, Johnny

    2013-04-01

    On Earth, permafrost containing a high ice volume (referred as ice-rich) are sensible to climate change, they have been regionally degraded (thermokarst) during the early Holocene climatic optimum forming numerous thermokarst lakes in Central Yakutia (eastern Siberia). Recent temperature increases in the Arctic and Subarctic have been significantly greater than global averages. The frequency and magnitude of terrain disturbances associated with thawing permafrost are increasing in these regions and are thought to intensify in the future. Therefore, understand how is the current development of thermokarst is a critical question. Here, we describe the significant melting of ice-wedges on slopes of thermokarst lakes that leads to formation of amphitheatrical hollows referred as thermocirques. The evolution of thermocirques in Central Yakutia has been little studied and analyzing their formation could help to understand the recent thermokarst in relation to climate change in Central Yakutia. We studied the thermocirques at two scales: (i) field surveys of different thermocirques in July 2009-2010 and October 2012 to examine the processes and origin of melting of ice-wedges and; (ii) photo-interpretation of time series of satellite images (KH-9 Hexagon images of 6-9 m/pixel and GeoEye images of 50 cm/pixel) to study the temporal evolution of thermocirques. The melting of ground-ice on the scarp of thermocirque triggers falls and small mud-flows that induce the retreat of the scarp parallel to itself. Based on field studies and on GeoEye image comparison, we show that their rate of retrogressive growth is 1-2 m/year. On the hill-slopes of lakes, the thermokarst could be initiated by different processes that lead to the uncover and then melting of ice-wedges: thermal erosion by the waves of the ice-rich bluff; active-layer detachment (a form of slope failure linked to detachment of the seasonally thawed upper ground); flowing of water on the slope (precipitation) or

  2. Stratigraphical and sedimentary characters of Late Cretaceous formations outcropping in central and southern Tunisia, Tethyan southern margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaballah, J.; Negra, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    The main goals of our approach are to identify some local to global events in relation with tectonic instabilities and/or sea-level changes, occurring during the deposition of Cenomanian-Coniacian carbonate series in Tunisia. Several sections surveyed in Central-Southern Tunisia, along a North-South transect extending from Sidi Bouzid to Gafsa area, show that the Cenomanian-Coniacian series include rudist-rich facies associated to other shallow marine to deeper deposits. Detailed sedimentological studies supported by new biostratigraphical data (provided by H. Bismuth, oral comm.), have allowed to add more precisions on the lithostratigraphical stacking and thus on the Central Tunisia Stratigraphic Chart. Some carbonate members such as the Middle Turonian Bireno and the Late Turonian-Coniacian Douleb have been identified in certain localities for the first time. Indeed, these members were never described before at Jebel el Kébar and Jebel Meloussi. In the Sidi Bouzid area, especially at Jebel el Kébar, the Cenomanian-Coniacian carbonate members are characterized by frequent and rapid changes, related to the existence of highs (horsts, probably) and depressed depositional domains (grabens, probably), which formed during the deposition of the two lower Units of the Middle Turonian Bireno Member. Above, the Late Turonian to Coniacian deposits, have tended to seal the irregular paleotopography affected, at least locally, by Middle Turonian extensional tectonic movements. They could be related, in contrast, to a drowning linked to a sea level rise. Similar events were described abroad during Late Turonian times; a partial drowning of carbonate platforms was already identified in other localities of the African Tethyan margin. However, the global drowning corresponding to the C/T event was not identified in the present study, although previous works have described this event North of the studied sector. As demonstrated in other localities, a global eustatic event could

  3. The contribution of sulphuric acid to atmospheric particle formation and growth: a comparison between boundary layers in Northern and Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fiedler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric gaseous sulphuric acid was measured and its influence on particle formation and growth was investigated building on aerosol data. The measurements were part of the EU-project QUEST and took place at two different measurement sites in Northern and Central Europe (Hyytiälä, Finland, March-April 2003 and Heidelberg, Germany, March-April 2004. From a comprehensive data set including sulphuric acid, particle number size distributions and meteorological data, particle growth rates, particle formation rates and source rates of condensable vapors were inferred. Growth rates were determined in two different ways, from particle size distributions as well as from a so-called timeshift analysis. Moreover, correlations between sulphuric acid and particle number concentration between 3 and 6 nm were examined and the influence of air masses of different origin was investigated. Measured maximum concentrations of sulphuric acid were in the range from 1x106 to 16x106cm-3. The gaseous sulphuric acid lifetime with respect to condensation on aerosol particles ranged from 2 to 33min in Hyytiälä and from 0.5 to 8 min in Heidelberg. Most calculated values (growth rates, formation rates, vapor source rates were considerably higher in Central Europe (Heidelberg, due to the more polluted air and higher preexistent aerosol concentrations. Close correlations between H2SO4 and nucleation mode particles (size range: 3-6 nm were found on most days at both sites. The percentage contribution of sulphuric acid to particle growth was below 10% at both places and to initial growth below 20%. An air mass analysis indicated that at Heidelberg new particles were formed predominantly in air advected from southwesterly directions.

  4. Analysis on Sports Traveling's SWOT of the Central China City Group in the Period of Central China Economic Zone Constru%中原经济区建设时期中原城市群体育旅游的SWOT分析及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟方; 岳贤锋

    2011-01-01

    This paper used the method of SWOT to make analysis on the sport traveling development of central China city group.It points out that central China city group has advantages in aspect of position,resource and environment and disadvantages in aspect of mar%运用SWOT法对中原城市群体育旅游发展进行了分析,指出中原城市群在区位、资源、环境方面具有优势,在市场规模、开发深度和竞争力方面具有劣势,政府的重视和武术旅游热为其提供了发展机遇,而对手的强大和自身品牌的不成熟是其面临的巨大挑战。在此基础上,寻求中原城市群体育旅游资源整合、开发的策略,以促进中原城市群体育旅游业的健康、良性发展。

  5. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    s moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city......, the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing...

  6. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated by the st......This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  7. FORMATION AND INFLUENCING FACTORS OF FREE SURFACE VORTEX IN A BARREL WITH A CENTRAL ORIFICE AT BOTTOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai-feng; CHEN Hong-xun; MA Zheng; ZHOU Yi

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Navier-Stokes equations with considering the effect of the Coriolis force, the finite volume method was employed to discretize the governing equations, the SIMPLE method was adopted to solve the discretized equations, and the flow field in a barrel with an outlet at the center of the bottom was simulated. The numerical results agree well with the experimental data. From the Lagrangian, the relations among the acceleration, the Coriolis force and the viscosity force were analyzed. The results show that the Coriolis force is the major factor that causes the formation of the vortex. The flow fields in the flume under different incoming flow conditions were numerically simulated using the software Fluent. The numerical simulations show good agreement with the experiments for the shape and position of the vortex.

  8. Volcanic settings and their reservoir potential: An outcrop analog study on the Miocene Tepoztlán Formation, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Nils; Götz, Annette E.

    2011-07-01

    The reservoir potential of volcanic and associated sedimentary rocks is less documented in regard to groundwater resources, and oil and gas storage compared to siliciclastic and carbonate systems. Outcrop analog studies within a volcanic setting enable to identify spatio-temporal architectural elements and geometric features of different rock units and their petrophysical properties such as porosity and permeability, which are important information for reservoir characterization. Despite the wide distribution of volcanic rocks in Mexico, their reservoir potential has been little studied in the past. In the Valley of Mexico, situated 4000 m above the Neogene volcanic rocks, groundwater is a matter of major importance as more than 20 million people and 42% of the industrial capacity of the Mexican nation depend on it for most of their water supply. Here, we present porosity and permeability data of 108 rock samples representing five different lithofacies types of the Miocene Tepoztlán Formation. This 800 m thick formation mainly consists of pyroclastic rocks, mass flow and fluvial deposits and is part of the southern Transmexican Volcanic Belt, cropping out south of the Valley of Mexico and within the two states of Morelos and Mexico State. Porosities range from 1.4% to 56.7%; average porosity is 24.8%. Generally, permeabilities are low to median (0.2-933.3 mD) with an average permeability of 88.5 mD. The lavas are characterized by the highest porosity values followed by tuffs, conglomerates, sandstones and tuffaceous breccias. On the contrary, the highest permeabilities can be found in the conglomerates, followed by tuffs, tuffaceous breccias, sandstones and lavas. The knowledge of these petrophysical rock properties provides important information on the reservoir potential of volcanic settings to be integrated to 3D subsurface models.

  9. Formation of diapiric structure in the deformation zone, central Indian Ocean: A model from gravity and seismic reflection data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Krishna; D Gopala Rao; Yu P Neprochnov

    2002-03-01

    Analyses of bathymetry, gravity and seismic reflection data of the diffusive plate boundary in the central Indian Ocean reveal a new kind of deformed structure besides the well-reported structures of long-wavelength anticlinal basement rises and high-angle reverse faults. The structure (basement trough) has a length of about 150 km and deepens by up to 1 km from its regional trend (northward dipping). The basement trough includes a rise at its center with a height of about 1.5 km. The rise is about 10 km wide with rounded upper surface and bounded by vertical faults. A broad free-air gravity low of about 20 mGal and a local high of 8 mGal in its center are associated with the identified basement trough and rise structure respectively. Seismic results reveal that the horizontal crustal compression prevailing in the diffusive plate boundary might have formed the basement trough possibly in early Pliocene time. Differential loading stresses have been generated from unequal crust/sediment thickness on lower crustal and upper mantle rocks. A thin semi-ductile serpentinite layer existing near the base of the crust that is interpreted to have been formed at mid-ocean ridge and become part of the lithosphere, may have responded to the downward loading stresses generated by the sediments and crustal rocks to inject the serpentinites into the overlying strata to form a classic diapiric structure.

  10. Process modeling studies of physical mechanisms of the formation of an anticyclonic eddy in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Changsheng

    2014-02-01

    Surface drifters released in the central Red Sea during April 2010 detected a well-defined anticyclonic eddy around 23°N. This eddy was ∼45–60 km in radius, with a swirl speed up to ∼0.5 m/s. The eddy feature was also evident in monthly averaged sea surface height fields and in current profiles measured on a cross-isobath, shipboard CTD/ADCP survey around that region. The unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) was configured for the Red Sea and process studies were conducted to establish the conditions necessary for the eddy to form and to establish its robustness. The model was capable of reproducing the observed anticyclonic eddy with the same location and size. Diagnosis of model results suggests that the eddy can be formed in a Red Sea that is subject to seasonally varying buoyancy forcing, with no wind, but that its location and structure are significantly altered by wind forcing, initial distribution of water stratification and southward coastal flow from the upstream area. Momentum analysis indicates that the flow field of the eddy was in geostrophic balance, with the baroclinic pressure gradient forcing about the same order of magnitude as the surface pressure gradient forcing.

  11. High Resistant Sand Injected Marl and Low Resistant Damaged Marl to Locate and Characterize the Thénia Fault Zone in Boumerdes City (North-Central Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulouel, Hakim; Bensalem, Rabah; Machane, Djamel; Bendaoud, Abderrahmane; Gharbi, Sofiane; Oubaiche, El-Hadi; Ousalem, Hassane; Skendri, Walid

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to locate and characterize the Thénia Fault Zone (TFZ) in the urban area of Boumerdes city; geological and electrical resistivity tomography surveys have targeted the Plaisancian marl and its Quaternary cover. As a whole, data indicate a complex near-vertical fault zone with an asymmetric and zoned internal structure of at least 150 m wide and with a straight N120° overall trending. The fault zone is traversed with two elongated parallel fault branches (FB1 and FB2), generally, 70 m distant from each other. These fault branches locate two intense damage zones (IDZs) of 10-15 m thick each, situated at the margin of two damage zones each having a thickness of several tens of meters. Downward sand injections into IDZs during Pleistocene epoch, possible pulverization of Plaisancian marl rocks, systematic deflection of actual stream channels, and vertical displacement of at least 30 m affecting Quaternary alluvial deposits show that the area would have undergone active tectonic driven by the TFZ.

  12. High Resistant Sand Injected Marl and Low Resistant Damaged Marl to Locate and Characterize the Thénia Fault Zone in Boumerdes City (North-Central Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulouel, Hakim; Bensalem, Rabah; Machane, Djamel; Bendaoud, Abderrahmane; Gharbi, Sofiane; Oubaiche, El-Hadi; Ousalem, Hassane; Skendri, Walid

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to locate and characterize the Thénia Fault Zone (TFZ) in the urban area of Boumerdes city; geological and electrical resistivity tomography surveys have targeted the Plaisancian marl and its Quaternary cover. As a whole, data indicate a complex near-vertical fault zone with an asymmetric and zoned internal structure of at least 150 m wide and with a straight N120° overall trending. The fault zone is traversed with two elongated parallel fault branches (FB1 and FB2), generally, 70 m distant from each other. These fault branches locate two intense damage zones (IDZs) of 10-15 m thick each, situated at the margin of two damage zones each having a thickness of several tens of meters. Downward sand injections into IDZs during Pleistocene epoch, possible pulverization of Plaisancian marl rocks, systematic deflection of actual stream channels, and vertical displacement of at least 30 m affecting Quaternary alluvial deposits show that the area would have undergone active tectonic driven by the TFZ.

  13. A Formative Study of the Implementation of the Inquiry Team Process in New York City Public Schools: 2007-08 Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marian A.; Kannapel, Patricia; Gujarati, Joan; Williams, Hakim; Oettinger, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    During the 2007-08 school year, the New York City Department of Education launched the second phase of its ambitious and innovative initiative known as "Children First." Ultimately, this initiative aims to intensify the focus by all educators on student performance and in doing so to stimulate the development of evidence-based cultures…

  14. Shallow structure and its formation process of an active flexure in the forearc basin of the central Nankai subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashi, J.; Ikehara, K.; Omura, A.; Ojima, T.; Murayama, M.

    2013-12-01

    ENE-WSW trending active faults, named Enshu fault system, are developed in the forearc basins of the eastern and central Nankai subduction zone. Three parallel faults developed in the Enshu forearc basin of the eastern Nankai have right lateral slip on the basis of dextral displacement of the canyon axis. Moreover, bathymetry data and side-scan sonar imageries indicate relative uplift of the northern region and the multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiles show northward dipping fault planes. In the central Nankai subuduction zone, an ENE-WSW trending step is distributed at the northern part of the Kumano forearc basin and is regarded as the western extension of the Enshu fault system. Although MCS records show deformations including an anticlinal fold beneath the bathymetric step, they have less resolution to identify deformation of basin sequence just below the seafloor. In contrast, deformation seems to reach to the seafloor on a profile by SBP mounted on a mother ship. Investigation of shallow deformation structures is significant for understanding of recent tectonic activity. We carried out deep towed SBP survey by ROV NSS (Navigable Sampling System) during Hakuho-maru KH-11-9 cruise. High resolution mapping of shallow structures was successfully conducted by a chirp SBP system of EdgeTech DW-106. ROV NSS also has capability to take a long core with a pinpoint accuracy around complex topographic region. The Kumano forearc basin is topographically divided into the northern part at a water depth of 2038 m and the other major region at a depth of 2042 m by the ENE-WSW linear step. Three deep towed SBP lines intersected this topographical step and revealed the following structures. This step is composed of 100 m wide gentle slope with an inclination of about 8 degrees. An anticlinal axis is located beneath the upper edge of this slope. Sedimentary layers continue at this slope region without any abut/termination and rapidly increase their thickness toward the

  15. Analysis of Dose at the Site of Second Tumor Formation After Radiotherapy to the Central Nervous System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Indelicato, Daniel J., E-mail: dindelicato@floridaproton.org [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Amdur, Robert J.; Morris, Christopher G.; Swanson, Erika L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Marcus, Robert B. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Second tumors are an uncommon complication of multimodality treatment of childhood cancer. The present analysis attempted to correlate the dose received as a component of primary treatment and the site of the eventual development of a second tumor. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified 16 patients who had received radiotherapy to sites in the craniospinal axis and subsequently developed a second tumor. We compared the historical fields and port films of the primary treatment with the modern imaging of the second tumor locations. We classified the location of the second tumors as follows: in the boost field; marginal to the boost field, but in a whole-brain field; in a whole-brain field; marginal to the whole brain/primary treatment field; and distant to the field. We divided the dose received into 3 broad categories: high dose (>45 Gy), moderate dose (20-36 Gy), and low dose (<20 Gy). Results: The most common location of the second tumor was in the whole brain field (57%) and in the moderate-dose range (81%). Conclusions: Our data contradict previous publications that suggested that most second tumors develop in tissues that receive a low radiation dose. Almost all the second tumors in our series occurred in tissue within a target volume in the cranium that had received a moderate dose (20-36 Gy). These findings suggest that a major decrease in the brain volume that receives a moderate radiation dose is the only way to substantially decrease the second tumor rate after central nervous system radiotherapy.

  16. The spatially resolved star formation relation in two HI-rich galaxies with central post-starburst signature

    CERN Document Server

    Klitsch, Anne; Kuntschner, Harald; Couch, Warrick J; Pracy, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    E+A galaxies are post-starburst systems that are identified from their optical spectra. These galaxies contain a substantial young A-type stellar component, but have only little ongoing star formation (SF). HI 21-cm line emission is found in approximately half of the nearby E+A galaxies, indicating that they contain a reservoir of gas that could fuel active SF. Here, we study two HI-rich galaxies, which show a typical E+A spectrum at the centre and SF at larger radii. We present new high spatial resolution radio interferometric observations of the HI 21-cm emission line using the VLA and of the CO(1-0) emission line using ALMA. We combine these data sets to predict the SFR and show that it does not correlate well with the SFR derived from H alpha on sub-kpc scales. We apply a recently developed statistical model for the small scale behaviour of the SF relation to predict and interpret the observed scatter. We find smoothly distributed, regularly rotating HI gas. The CO(1-0) emission line is not detected for b...

  17. Atypical Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  18. Why Do the Poor Live in Cities?

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.; Jordan Rappaport

    2000-01-01

    More than 17 percent of households in American central cities live in poverty; in American suburbs, just 7.4 percent of households live in poverty. The income elasticity of demand for land is too low for urban poverty to be the result of wealthy individuals' wanting to live where land is cheap (the traditional urban economics explanation of urban poverty). Instead, the urbanization of poverty appears to be the result of better access to public transportation in central cities, and central cit...

  19. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography.......This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...

  20. Reactive overprint of the Central Indian Ridge mantle and formation of hybrid troctolites: reassessing the significance of bulk oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, A.; Morishita, T.; Kumagai, H.; Nakamura, K.; Okino, K.; Tamura, A.; Arai, S.

    2014-12-01

    The idea that hybridized mantle rocks can contribute to the oceanic crust composition has recently emerged thanks to studies on primitive (olivine-rich) troctolites [e.g. 1]. These rocks are considered to be formed by melt-rock interaction, but the exact reaction process by which they originate is still debated and their role on the bulk oceanic crust composition has been never defined. Olivine-rich troctolites have been mostly found at slow spreading ridges [2] or at their fossil analogues [3]. Similar rocks have been recently collected in the 25ºS area of the intermediate spreading Central Indian Ridge (CIR), and rarely characterize the crust mantle boundary at fast spreading ridges [4]. We show that textural and chemical inheritances of the pre-existing mantle are preserved in the CIR troctolites. In particular, the local occurrence of granular, mantle-derived orthopyroxenes and the composition of the associated clinopyroxene indicate that these crustal rocks formed through a direct (one-stage) conversion of a mantle peridotite. We use chemical evidence to infer the same origin of the olivine-rich troctolites worldwide, concluding that the reactive overprint of the oceanic mantle is a process diffused over the entire spreading rate spectrum. Bulk oceanic crust estimates of the Hess Deep (Pacific) and Atlantis Massif (Atlantic) crustal sections are used to quantify and compare the effect of these rocks on the bulk crust composition at fast and slow spreading ridges. Our inferences suggest that the significance of the bulk oceanic crust should be reassessed. When hybrid troctolites are included at crustal levels, the oceanic crust cannot be considered equal to the composition of the melt extracted from the mantle, but it results more primitive and importantly thicker. References: [1] Suhr G., Hellebrand E., Johnson K., Brunelli D., 2008, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 9, doi:10.1029/2008GC002012; [2] Drouin M., Godard M., Ildefonse B., Bruguier O., Garrido C

  1. Valey-Fill Sandstones in the Kootenai Formation on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David A

    1998-04-07

    Subsurface data is being collected, organized, and a digital database is being prepared for the project. An ACCESS database and PC-Arcview is being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map data have been successfully imported into Arcview and customized to meet the needs of this project. Log tops and other data from about ½ of the exploration wells in the area have been incorporated into the data base. All of the four 30" X 60" geologic quadrangles have been scanned to produce a digital surface geologic data base for the Crow Reservation and all are nearing completion. Formal technical review prior to publication has been completed for the Billings and Bridger Quadrangles; and are underway for the Hardin and Lodge Grass Quadrangles. Field investigations were completed during the last quarter. With the help of a student field assistant from the Crow Tribe, the entire project area was inventoried for the presence of valley-fill deposits in the Kootenai Formation. Field inventory has resulted in the identification of nine exposures of thick valley-fill deposits. These appear to represent at least four major westward-trending valley systems. All the channel localities have been measured and described in detail and paleocurrent data has been collected from all but one locality. In addition, two stratigraphic sections were measured in areas where channels are absent. One channel has bee traced over a distance of about 60 miles and exhibits definite paleostructural control. An abstract describing this channel has been submitted and accepted for presentation at the Williston Basin Symposium in October, 1998.

  2. Valley-Fill Sandstones in the Kootenai Formation on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David A

    1998-07-03

    Subsurface data continues to be collected, organized, and a digital database is being prepared for the project. An ACCESS database and PC-Arcview is being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map data have been successfully imported into Arcview and customized to meet the needs of this project. Log tops and other data from about ¾ of the exploration wells in the area have been incorporated into the data base. All of the four 30" X 60" geologic quadrangles have been scanned to produce a digital surface geologic data base for the Crow Reservation and all are nearing completion. Formal technical review prior to publication has been completed for all the quadrangles; Billings, Bridger; Hardin, and Lodge Grass. Final GIS edits are being made before being forwarded to the Bureau's Publications Department. Field investigations were completed during the third quarter, 1997. With the help of a student field assistant from the Crow Tribe, the entire project area was inventoried for the presence of valley-fill deposits in the Kootenai Formation. Field inventory has resulted in the identification of nine exposures of thick valley-fill deposits. These appear to represent at least four major westward-trending valley systems. All the channel localities have been measured and described in detail and paleocurrent data has been collected from all but one locality. In addition, two stratigraphic sections were measured in areas where channels are absent. One channel has bee traced over a distance of about 60 miles and exhibits definite paleostructural control. An abstract describing this channel has been submitted and accepted for presentation at the Williston Basin Symposium in October, 1998.

  3. Sedimentary environments and stratigraphy of the carbonate-silicilastic deposits of the Shirgesht Formation: implications for eustasy and local tectonism in the Kalmard Block, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aram bayetgoll

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Sedimentological and sequence stratigraphic analysis providing insight into the main relationships between sequence architecture and stacking pattern, syn/post-depositional tectonics, and eustatic sea-level fluctuations (Gawthorpe and Leeder 2000; Zecchin et al. 2003, 2004; Carpentier et al. 2007. Relative variations in sea level are due to tectonic activity and eustasy. The Shirgesht Formation in the Kalmard Block of Central Iran provides a useful case study for to determine the processes responsible on internal architecture and stacking pattern of depositional sequences in a half-graben basin. In the Shirgesht Formation, siliciclastic and carbonate successions of the Kalmard Basin, the cyclic stratigraphic record is the result of the complex interaction of regional uplift, eustasy, local tectonics, sediment supply, and sedimentary processes (Bayet-Goll 2009, 2014; Hosseini-Barzi and Bayet-Goll 2009.     Material & Methods   Lower Paleozoic successions in Tabas and Kalmard blocks from Central Iran share the faunal and floral characteristics with other Gondwana sectors such as south-western Europe and north Africa–Middle East (Ghaderi et al. 2009. The geology of these areas was outlined by Ruttner et al. (1968 and by Bruton et al. (2004. The Cambrian-Middle Triassic strata in the Kalmard Block were deposited in a shallow water platform that possesses lithologic dissimilarities with the Tabas area (Aghanabati 2004. The occurrence of two active faults indicates clearly that Kalmard basin formed a mobile zone throughout the Paleozoic so that lithostratigraphic units show considerably contrasting facies in comparison with Tabas basin (Hosseini-Barzi and Bayet-Goll 2009; Bayet-Goll 2014 . The Shirgesht Formation in the Block Kalmard is mainly composed of carbonate-siliciclastic successions that disconformability overlain Kalmard Formation (attributed to Pre-Cambrian and is underlain by Gachal (Carboniferous or Rahdar (Devonian

  4. Urban Scaling of Cities in the Netherlands

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J; Goedhart, Willem

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the socioeconomic scaling behavior of cities in the Netherlands and found significant nonlinear correlations between gross urban product as well as number of jobs with population size. This nonlinearity manifested by a super-linear power law scaling is found for both the cities defined as municipalities and for the agglomerations of major cities. We used two types of agglomerations as defined by the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics: the direct agglomeration, i.e. the central city (municipality) with the adjacent suburbs (which are separate municipalities); and the larger urban area of the same major cities. The exponents are all similar, with values around 1.20. Remarkably, the agglomerations of cities underperform as compared to a city which is one municipality with the same population as the agglomeration. This effect is larger for the second type of agglomerations, the urban areas. We think this finding has important implications for the current Dutch urban policy. A residual analys...

  5. Centrality Measures in Urban Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Crucitti, P; Porta, S; Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito; Porta, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Centrality has revealed crucial for understanding the structural order of complex relational networks. Centrality is also relevant for various spatial factors affecting human life and behaviors in cities. We present a comprehensive study of centrality distributions over geographic networks of urban streets. Four different measures of centrality, namely closeness, betweenness, straightness and information, are compared over eighteen 1-square-mile samples of different world cities. Samples are represented by primal geographic graphs, i.e. valued graphs defined by metric rather than topologic distance where intersections are turned into nodes and streets into edges. The spatial behavior of centrality indexes over the networks is investigated graphically by means of colour-coded maps. The results indicate that a spatial analysis, that we term Multiple Centrality Assessment(MCA), grounded not a single but on a set of different centrality indices, allows an extended comprehension of the city structure, nicely captu...

  6. 2009年昆山市集中式区域供水水质现况调查%Investigation on Water Quality of Centralized Regional Water Supply in Kunshan City in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡见远

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解昆山市集中式供水(区域供水)的水质现况.方法 按照(GB/T 5750-2006)对2009年昆山市集中式供水单位水源水、出厂水、末梢水进行水质检测、分析.结果 2009年共采集水样258份,合格253份,样品合格率99.2%.共检测5 990个项次,合格项次5 982个,项次合格率99.9%.其中水源水和出厂水样品合格率均为100%,末梢水样品合格率为97.5%.对末梢水不合格项目菌落总数和游离余氯按照监测点级别不同进行方差分析,市级及镇级游离余氯含量较高,菌落总数较低;村级余氯含量较低,菌落总数相对较高,甚至不达标.结论 昆山市区域供水水质稳定、合格率高,特别是大大提高了农村饮用水水质状况.但也存在着整个供水管网游离余氯含量分布不均的现象,建议市自来水集团公司根据存在问题及时改进水处理工艺,进一步提高供水水质.%[ Objective ] To understand the water quality of centralized water supply (regional water supply) in Kunshan city.[ Methods] According to the Standard examination methods for drinking water ( GB/T 5750 - 2006 ), the water quality of source water, finished water and tap water of centralized water supply system in Kunshan city in 2009 was tested and analyzed. [ Results ] Among 259 water samples collected in 2009, 253 samples were qualified, and the qualified rate was 99.2%. 5 990 items (times)were detected, 5 982 items ( times ) were qualified with the qualified rate of 99.9%. The qualified rates of source water and finished water were 100% , and that of tap water was 97.5%. Variance analysis was applied toward the unqualifiod indexes of total bacteria count and free residual chlorine according to levels of monitoring points. At city and town level, the content of free residual chlorine was high, and total bacteria count was low. At village level, the content of free residual chlorine was low, and total bacteria count was high, which even did not

  7. A composite foraminiferal biostratigraphic sequence for the Lower Miocene deposits in the type area of the Qom Formation, central Iran, developed by constrained optimization (CONOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshian, Jahanbakhsh; Ramezani Dana, Leila; Sadler, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benthic foraminifera species commonly outnumber planktic species in the type area of the Lower Miocene Qom Formation, in north central Iran, where it records the Tethyan link between the eastern Mediterranean and Indo- Pacific provinces. Because measured sections preserve very different sequences of first and last occurrences of these species, no single section provides a completely suitable baseline for correlation. To resolve this problem, we combined bioevents from three stratigraphic sections into a single composite sequence by constrained optimization (CONOP). The composite section arranges the first and last appearance events (FAD and LAD) of 242 foraminifera in an optimal order that minimizes the implied diachronism between sections. The composite stratigraphic ranges of the planktic foraminifera support a practical biozonation which reveals substantial local changes of accumulation rate during Aquitanian to Burdigalian times. Traditional biozone boundaries emerge little changed but an order of magnitude more correlations can be interpolated. The top of the section at Dobaradar is younger than previously thought and younger than sections at Dochah and Tigheh Reza-Abad. The latter two sections probably extend older into the Aquitanian than the Dobaradar section, but likely include a hiatus near the base of the Burdigalian. The bounding contacts with the Upper Red and Lower Red Formations are shown to be diachronous.

  8. 关中一天水经济区中心城市旅游经济空间联系研究%Spatial linkage of tourism economy of the central cities in the Guanzhong - Tianshui economic region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石惠春; 王晖

    2012-01-01

    The Guanzhong -Tianshui economic region is a rapid developing zone. There for, it is singnificant to research the external economic links and the central tourism cities. In this paper we analyzed the conditions for the spatial effect of tourism, and adopted tourism economy linkage intensity, subjection rapport of the main tourism cities, and travel breaking points to measure the spatial linkage of tourism economy. The results showedthat the strength of tourism economic linkage between the urban cities in the Guanzhong- Tianshui economic re- gion is intensifying and extending to the integration of regional tourism economy. Moreover, it shows the distinct difference in tourism economy between the main cities. It has relations in the spatial linkage of tourism economy according to particular axis which presents as "route" and the intensitve of the linkage is decreasing with the in- crease of distance between the tourism cities. We divided the Guanzhong -Tianshui economic region into smalltourism economic circles according the calcualated data, which are the small tourism economic circles centered by xi~n , baoji and tianshui, in order to analyze the relationgship between the tourism economic circles and enhancethe tourism economic scale. Therefor, the spatial structure of the Guanzhong - Tianshui economic region tourismsystem will evolve more reasonable. With the developing of the tourism, a wide market and different tourism prod- ucts could be designed for different tourists'demand.%通过对关中一天水经济区旅游空间相互作用条件的简单分析,结合GIS技术,运用旅游经济联系模型,分析关中一天水经济区中心城市的旅游经济联系强度大小,表明关中一天水经济区中心城市之间的经济联系强度随地理距离的增加而逐渐降低,旅游经济的空间联系多沿交通干线呈”点一轴”式扩散;对关中一天水经济区内中心城市旅游经济隶属度以

  9. Feicheng City of Peach Blossom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    IN Feicheng City, central Shandong Province, can be found the world’s largest peach orchard, recorded in the Guinness Book of World Records as covering 6,667 hectares. In spring, the city is permeated with the fragrance of peach blossom.Home of the "Buddha Peach"Peach growing in Feicheng has a history of 1,100 years. The Feicheng peach is distinctive for

  10. The Stranger, The Nation and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Simonsen, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship between ‘the stranger’ and the spatial formations of the city and the nation in a dual sense. On the one hand, it discusses the construction of the stranger as a figure, both generally and in relation to formation of the city and the nation in particular...

  11. INVESTIGATION ON SANITATION OF RURAL CENTRALIZED WATER SUPPLY OF FIVE URBAN AREAS IN LANZHOU CITY%兰州市五城区农村集中式供水卫生现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盛; 王金玉; 余加琳; 王宇红; 李志强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the current situation of rural centralized water supply sanitation of five urban areas in Lanzhou city arid to provide scientific basis for improving water supply. Methods Sampling in spot and water quality detection were used to investigate the water quality of 25 water supply points in five rural areas. Results There were 15 points ( 60% ) without water purification and without disinfection among 25 water supply points. The qualified rate of water samples was 35% and the unqualified rate of bacteriological index was higher than that of others. The unqualified rate of total numbers of colony was 51%. Conclusion The current situation of rural centralized water supply sanitation is bad in five urban areas in Lanzhou city. Measure of water treatment should be taken and administration of drinking water should be strengthened.%目的 了解兰州市五城区农村集中式供水点水质现状,为进一步进行农村改水工作提供科学依据.方法 通过现场采样和水质检测方法,对兰州市五城区25个供水点的水质进行了调查.结果 所调查的兰州市五城区25个供水点中,有15个供水点(占60%)未进行水处理,无任何消毒设备,未进行任何方式消毒.25个供水点抽检水样水质合格率为35%,以细菌学指标超标最为严重,细菌总数超标率高达51%.结论 兰州市五城区农村集中式供水水质卫生状况较差,应限期采取水处理措施,加强居民饮用水管理.

  12. Small City With Big Ambitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2004-01-01

    Yiwu is a county-level city in the central part of Zhejiang Province with no obvious geographical advantage or traditional industrial foundation. And yet it has dazzled the country with its sizzling economic figures. The city posted an annual growth of 16 percent in GDP in 2003 on 15.6bn yuan {US$1.9 billion)from the previous year. Its average annual GDP increase from 1978 to 1999 reached 18.5 percent. Exports from Yiwu were valued at US$734 million last year, compared with US$390m for 2002. So what is it about Yiwu that has molded the city into such handsome shape?

  13. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  14. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  15. 我国中部城市老年体育锻炼现状调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of the Elder' s Present Physical Training Situation in Central China Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚婕

    2011-01-01

    This paper made a sample survey testing the current situation of the elder' s participation into physical exercises of eight cities in Central China, the research result showed that older people of central cit- ies took more time in participating into physical exercise with high frequency, rich contents and diverse forms. Moreover most of the elder had strong consciousness of participating physical exercise, and basically formed habits of physical activity. However, older people participating in physical exercise at the same time lacked physical exercise method, while physical activity space was limited, sports organization construction lagged behind and so on. It put forward some suggestions for improvement.%对我国中部8个城市老年人参加体育锻炼的有关情况进行了抽样调查,结果表明:我国中部城市老年人参加体育锻炼的时间较多,频率较高,内容丰富形式多样,且大部分老年人参加体育锻炼的意识较强,体育健身活动的习惯已基本养成。但是,老年人在参加体育锻炼的同时缺乏体育锻炼的方法,体育健身活动场地有限,老年人体育组织建设滞后,等等,并提出了改进建议。

  16. 太原市某集中供热换热站的节能运行%Energy saving operation mode of one heat exchange stations in the central heating system in Taiyuan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇

    2012-01-01

    以太原市某集中供热换热站的运行调节为例,将水泵变频控制技术应用于两个换热站的二次网循环水泵上,分析了2007年~2011年四个采暖年度的运行工况特点,总结了变频调速控制技术的应用,指出了利用二次网循环水泵变频技术是降低换热站能耗的有效手段,从而达到节约能源、减少环境污染的目的。%In this paper taking the operation adjustment mode of one heat exchanger station in the central heating system in Taiyuan city for ex- ample, water pump frequency conversion control technology is applied to the secondary network circulating water pump in two heat exchanger stations system. This paper analyzes the characteristics of operation condition system during 2007 - 2011 year for heating, summarizes the application of frequency conversion control technology, and points out that using frequency conversion control technology in the secondary network can reduce the energy consumption in heat exchanger stations, so as to reach the energy-saving and reduce the environmental pollution.

  17. Survey of sanitary and hygienic conditions of central air conditioning system in public places in Haikou City%海口市公共场所集中空调通风系统卫生状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵仁敏; 符振华; 梁启昌; 陈莲玉; 陈彩云

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解海口市公共场所集中空调通风系统卫生状况,对存在的卫生问题提出相应对策.方法 随机抽取正常使用集中空调通风系统的公共场所16家,在每套集中空调通风系统的风管内表面,选择5个代表性采样点使用涂抹法采样,检测风管内表面积尘量、细菌总数和真菌总数,同时采集冷却塔中的冷却水500ml,检测嗜肺军团菌.结果 集中空调通风系统风管内表面的积尘量、细菌总数和真菌总数合格率分别为32.50%、90.00%、55.00%,16份冷却水未检出嗜肺军团菌.结论 海口市公共场所集中空调通风系统风管存在较严重的污染,应定期清洗消毒,加大监测力度.%Objective To understand the sanitary and hygienic conditions of central air-conditioning system in public places of Haikou City and put forward monitoring and management suggestions. Methods The 16 institutions using central air-conditioning systems in public places of Haikou were randomly selected and the samples were collected from the internal surface of ventilation pipes for detection of dust,total bateria and fungi. Meawhile the Legionella pneumophila in the 16 cooling water samples of cooling towner was detected. Resuts The qualitfication rates of dust quantity in the internal surface of the ventilation pipes,the total bacteria and fungi were 32.50%,90.00% aand 55.00%. No Legionella pneumophila was detected. Conclusion The ventilation pipies in the central air-conditioning systems were heavily polluted and contaminatied, therefore clearance and disinfection be regularly conducted. The work of monitoring and supervision should also be carried out.

  18. The link between turbulence, magnetic fields, filaments, and star formation in the Central Molecular Zone cloud G0.253+0.016

    CERN Document Server

    Federrath, C; Longmore, S N; Kruijssen, J M D; Bally, J; Contreras, Y; Crocker, R M; Garay, G; Jackson, J M; Testi, L; Walsh, A J

    2016-01-01

    Star formation is primarily controlled by the interplay between gravity, turbulence, and magnetic fields. However, the turbulence and magnetic fields in molecular clouds near the Galactic Center may differ substantially from spiral-arm clouds. Here we determine the physical parameters of the central molecular zone (CMZ) cloud G0.253+0.016, its turbulence, magnetic field and filamentary structure. Using column-density maps based on dust-continuum emission observations with ALMA+Herschel, we identify filaments and show that at least one dense core is located along them. We measure the filament width W_fil=0.17$\\pm$0.08pc and the sonic scale {\\lambda}_sonic=0.15$\\pm$0.11pc of the turbulence, and find W_fil~{\\lambda}_sonic. A strong velocity gradient is seen in the HNCO intensity-weighted velocity maps obtained with ALMA+Mopra, which is likely caused by large-scale shearing of G0.253+0.016, producing a wide double-peaked velocity PDF. After subtracting the gradient to isolate the turbulent motions, we find a near...

  19. The Starburst in the Abell 1835 Cluster Central Galaxy: A Case Study of Galaxy Formation Regulated by an Outburst from a Supermassive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    McNamara, B R; Carilli, C L; Nulsen, P E J; Rafferty, D A; Ryan, R; Sharma, M; Steiner, J; Wise, M W

    2006-01-01

    We present an optical, X-ray, and radio analysis of the starburst in the Abell 1835 cluster's central cD galaxy. The dense gas surrounding the galaxy is radiating X-rays with a luminosity of ~1E45 erg/s consistent with a cooling rate of ~1000-2000 solar masses per year. However, new Chandra and XMM-Newton observations find less than 200 solar masses per year of gas cooling below ~2 keV, a level that is consistent with the cD's current star formation rate of 100-180 solar masses per year. One or more heating agents (feedback) must then be replenishing the remaining radiative losses. The heat fluxes from supernova explosions and thermal conduction alone are unable to do so. However, a pair of X-ray cavities from an AGN outburst has deposited ~1.7E60 erg into the surrounding gas over the past 40 Myr. The corresponding jet power 1.4E45 erg/sec is enough to offset most of the radiative losses from the cooling gas. The jet power exceeds the radio synchrotron power by ~4000 times, making this one of the most radiati...

  20. Innovative design of composite structures: The use of curvilinear fiber format to improve buckling resistance of composite plates with central circular holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, M. W.; Lee, H. H.

    1990-01-01

    The gains in buckling performance are explored that can be achieved by deviating from the conventional straightline fiber format and considering the situation whereby the fiber orientation in a layer, or a group of layers, can vary from point to point. The particular situation studied is a simply supported square plate with a centrally located hole loaded in compression. By using both a sensitivity analysis and a gradient-search technique, fiber orientation in a number of regions of the plate are selected so as to increase the buckling load relative to baseline straightline designs. The sensitivity analysis is used to determine which regions of the plate have the most influence on buckling load, and the gradient search is used to find the design that is believed to represent the absolute maximum buckling load for the conditions prescribed. Convergence studies and sensitivity of the final design are discussed. By examining the stress resultant contours, it is shown how the curvilinear fibers move the load away from the unsupported hole region of the plate to the supported edges, thus increasing the buckling capacity. The tensile capacity of the improved buckling design is investigated, and it is shown that both tensile capacity and buckling capacity can be improved with the curvilinear fiber concept.

  1. Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphy of a Back-Arc Basin: A Case Study of the Qom Formation in the Kashan Area, Central Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guoqiang; ZHANG Shaonan; LI Zhongdong; SONG Lailiang; LIU Huimin

    2007-01-01

    The Qom Formation comprises Oligo-Miocene deposits from a marine succession distributed in the Central Basin of Iran. It is composed of five members designated as A-F. Little previous work exists on the sequence stratigraphy. Based on an integrated study of sequence stratigraphy with outcrop data, wells and regional seismic profiles, the Qom Formation is interpreted as a carbonate succession deposited in a mid-Tertiary back-arc basin. There are two second-order sequences (designated as SS1 and SS2) and five third-order sequences (designated as S1-S5). Five distinct systems tracts including transgressive, highstand, forced regressive, slope margin and lowstand have been recognized. The relationship between the sequences and lithologic sub-units has been collated and defined (S1 to S5 individually corresponding to A-C1, C2-C4, D-E, the lower and upper portions of F); a relative sea level change curve and the sequence stratigraphic framework have been established and described in detail. The coincidence of relative sea level change between that of the determined back-arc basin and the world indicates that the sedimentary cycles of the Qom Formation are mainly controlled by eustatic cycles. The variable combination of the systems tracts and special tectonic-depositional setting causally underpin multiple sequence stratigraphic framework styles seen in the carbonates of the back-arc basin revealing: (1) a continental margin basin that developed some form of barrier, characterized by the development of multiple cycles of carbonate-evaporites; (2) a flat carbonate ramp, which occurred on the southern shelf formed by the lack of clastic supply from nearby magmatic islands plus mixed siliciclastics and carbonates that occurred on the northern shelf due to a sufficient clastics supply from the land; and (3) a forced regressive stratigraphic stacking pattern that occured on the southern shelf and in basin lows due to the uplifting of the southern shelf. Thick and widespread

  2. CHANGCHUN:Spring City of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Although Changchun has been more than 200 years old,it is still a young city compared with other historical cities in China.It is located at the central oart of Songliao Plain,covering a total area of 20,571 square kilometers (about 8,012 square miles).Being the capital city of Jilin province,Changchun is the political,economic and cultural center.

  3. Xiangyang City’ s Cultural Force in the Construction of the Central City of the Han River Basin%襄阳建设汉江流域中心城市文化力问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张润昊; 肖兆武

    2015-01-01

    一个城市是否有核心竞争力,最根本的是看它的文化力。襄阳文化力涵盖了“自强不息、昂扬向上”的精神原动力,“崇文重教、尊重人才”的核心智慧力,“崇尚科学、敢为人先”的强劲活力,“重商亲商、重利尚义”的城市竞争力,“注重生态、追求和谐”的可持续发展力。襄阳要建成汉江流域中心城市,要充分发挥文化力的龙头作用、纽带作用、中心作用。打造襄阳文化力,需要全面提升市民素质,打造襄阳“气质”;大力实施文化惠民工程,打造襄阳“气韵”;精心培育城市文化品牌,打造襄阳“气派”;积极推进文化传播交流,打造襄阳“气场”;勇于创新文化体制机制,打造襄阳“气魄”。%It is the cultural force that determines a city’ s core competitiveness.For Xiangyang City, the cultural force means:“unyielding and uplifting”;“respecting for knowledge, respecting for talent” ;“advocating science, daring to be the first”;“attaching importance to business, emphasizing righteousness”and “paying attention to e-cology, pursuing harmony”.To become the central city of the Han River basin, Xiangyang should give full play to the leading role of its culture.It is necessary to improve citizen’ s quality, to cultivate Xiangyang“temperament”, to implement vigorously the people-benefit engineering, to build urban cultural brand, to promote actively the cul-tural communication and to innovate culture systems.

  4. Demographic changes in towns of Central Serbia: Comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Marko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to intensive urbanization, Central Serbia's urban population reached almost 60% in the total population. Despite the fact that the urban residents share in Serbia is still bellow the level of urbanization in developed countries, in which the percentage of urban residents exudes 70% (in majority of cases even more than 80%, it is an impression that demographic "resources" of rural areas have bean rather exhausted and that all demographic revitalization potential of Central Serbia is concentrated in towns. This paper treats the demographic changes which encompassed the towns of Central Serbia since 1981 census onwards, with special emphasis on the population migrations as well as on the natural growth, i.e. age - gender structure formation featuring the towns of Central Serbia. The changes will be analyzed trough a comparative analysis at the level of small, medium sized towns and big cities, while Belgrade will be represent as a special category.

  5. Depositional Characteristics of Lake-Floor Fan of Cretaceous Lower Yaojia Formation in Western Part of Central Depression Region,Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Renchen; Li Guifan; Feng Zhiqiang; Liang Jiangping; Lin Changsong

    2009-01-01

    Based on the integrated subsurface data,including those of over 600 m drilled cores,more than 30 drilled wells and 600 km2 three-dimensional (3D) seismic-reflection data of the study area, the characteristics of the lake-floor fan of lower Yaojia(姚家) Formation have been clarified.An evident lacustrine slope break and a steep slope belt developed in the west of Songliao(松辽)basin during depositional period of Qingshankou(青山口)-Yaojia formations(K2).The slope gradient was about 15 m/km.During the depositional period of lower Yaojia Formation,the lake shrank and the shore line of the western Songliao basin shifted to the lacustrine slope-break.The wedge-shaped sediment body,which is interpreted as the lowstand system tract of SQy1 (LSTy1),developed in the area below the slope-break.The LSTyl is pinched out in the west of the study area.As to the thickness of LSTyl,ft is thicker in the east with SO m in its thickness than in the west The LSTyl,rich in sandstone,can be divided into lower part LSTylL and upper part LSTy1u based on two onlap seismic reflection phases,and core and logging data clearly.The various sediments' gravity flow deposits developed and the complex of lake-floor fan formed in the LSTyl under the slope-break in the western part of the central depression region.The lake-floor fan consists of various sediments' gravity flow deposits,including: (1) turbidity deposits with characteristics of Bouma sequences; (2) sand-bearing muddy debrite dominated by mud and mixed by sand; (3) mud-bearing sandy debrites characterized by dominated sand and mixed by mud; (4) sandy debris laminar flow deposits with massive or inclined bedding,and (5) sandy slump deposits developed as deforma tional sedimentary structure.During the lower lake-level period (LSTy1L),the western clinoform region was erosion or sediment pass-by area; the terrigenous clastic was directly transported to deep-water area,converted to channelized sandy debris flow,and combined with slump

  6. The Middle Jurassic basinal deposits of the Surmeh Formation in the Central Zagros Mountains, southwest Iran: Facies, sequence stratigraphy, and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasemi, Y.; Jalilian, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    The lower part of the Lower to Upper Jurassic Surmeh Formation consists of a succession of shallow marine carbonates (Toarcian-Aalenian) overlain by a deep marine basinal succession (Aalenian-Bajocian) that grades upward to Middle to Upper Jurassic platform carbonates. The termination of shallow marine carbonate deposition of the lower part of the Surmeh Formation and the establishment of deep marine sedimentation indicate a change in the style of sedimentation in the Neotethys passive margin of southwest Iran during the Middle Jurassic. To evaluate the reasons for this change and to assess the basin configuration during the Middle Jurassic, this study focuses on facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the basinal deposits (pelagic and calciturbidite facies) of the Surmeh Formation, referred here as 'lower shaley unit' in the Central Zagros region. The upper Aalenian-Bajocian 'lower shaley unit' overlies, with an abrupt contact, the Toarcian-lower Aalenian platform carbonates. It consists of pelagic (calcareous shale and limestone) and calciturbidite facies grading to upper Bajocian-Bathonian platform carbonates. Calciturbidite deposits in the 'lower shaley unit' consist of various graded grainstone to lime mudstone facies containing mixed deep marine fauna and platform-derived material. These facies include quartz-bearing lithoclast/intraclast grainstone to lime mudstone, bioclast/ooid/peloid intraclast grainstone, ooid grainstone to packstone, and lime wackestone to mudstone. The calciturbidite layers are erosive-based and commonly exhibit graded bedding, incomplete Bouma turbidite sequence, flute casts, and load casts. They consist chiefly of platform-derived materials including ooids, intraclasts/lithoclasts, peloids, echinoderms, brachiopods, bivalves, and open-ocean biota, such as planktonic bivalves, crinoids, coccoliths, foraminifers, and sponge spicules. The 'lower shaley unit' constitutes the late transgressive and the main part of the highstand

  7. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project exploring sustainable ways of urban living. The project renders a scenario comprised of an array of simple conversions of existing urban spaces and buildings, in the attempt to tie strategies ranging from urban planning to interior design into a coherent vision...... of a sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  8. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin...... down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning"....

  9. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services......, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of - or willingness...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  10. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  11. Global Cities and Liability of Foreignness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernicke, Georg; Mehlsen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the concepts of location, liability of foreignness (LoF), and their relation to factors that drive multinational enterprises (MNEs) towards, or away from, global cities. We argue that three interrelated characteristics of global cities - cosmopolitanism, availability of ...... can reduce the liability of foreignness suffered by MNEs, and that global cities play a central role in the process of globalisation.......In this paper, we combine the concepts of location, liability of foreignness (LoF), and their relation to factors that drive multinational enterprises (MNEs) towards, or away from, global cities. We argue that three interrelated characteristics of global cities - cosmopolitanism, availability...... indicate that MNEs have a stronger propensity to locate in global cities than in metropolitan or peripheral areas, and that these locational choices are affected by institutional distance and industrial characteristics. The results provide empirical support for our argument that locating in a global city...

  12. City Walks and Tactile Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Diaconu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to develop categories of the pedestrian’s tactile and kinaesthetic experience of the city. The beginning emphasizes the haptic qualities of surfaces and textures, which can be “palpated” visually or experienced by walking. Also the lived city is three-dimensional; its corporeal depth is discussed here in relation to the invisible sewers, protuberant profiles, and the formal diversity of roofscapes. A central role is ascribed in the present analysis to the formal similarities between the representation of the city by walking through it and the representation of the tactile form of objects. Additional aspects of the “tactile” experience of the city in a broad sense concern the feeling of their rhythms and the exposure to weather conditions. Finally, several aspects of contingency converge in the visible age of architectural works, which record traces of individual and collective histories.

  13. Water quality of the Ogallala Formation, central High Plains aquifer within the North Plains Groundwater Conservation District, Texas Panhandle, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley; Haynie, Monti M.; Beussink, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    In cooperation with the North Plains Groundwater Conservation District (NPGCD), the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water-quality samples at 30 groundwater monitor wells in the NPGCD in the Texas Panhandle. All of the wells were completed in the Ogallala Formation of the central High Plains aquifer. Samples from each well were collected during February–March 2012 and in March 2013. Depth to groundwater in feet below land surface was measured at each well before sampling to determine the water-quality sampling depths. Water-quality samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, and trace metals, and 6 of the 30 samples were analyzed for pesticides. There was a strong relation between specific conductance and dissolved solids as evidenced by a coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.98. The dissolved-solids concentration in water from five wells exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Water from 3 of these 5 wells was near the north central part of the NPGCD. Nitrate values exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in 2 of the 30 wells. A sodium-adsorption ratio of 23.4 was measured in the sample collected from well Da-3589 in Dallam County, with the next largest sodium-adsorption ratio measured in the sample collected from well Da-3588 (12.5), also in Dallum County. The sodium-adsorption ratios measured in all other samples were less than 10. The groundwater was generally a mixed cation-bicarbonate plus carbonate type. Twenty-three trace elements were analyzed, and no concentrations exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard or maximum contaminant level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water supplies. In 2012, 6 of the 30 wells were sampled for commonly used pesticides. Atrazine and its degradate 2-Chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine were detected in

  14. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    /assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  15. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  16. Vacant city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzot, N.

    2013-01-01

    Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if not recognized by any in

  17. Sin City?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, Pieter A.; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city

  18. Rock magnetic and other geophysical signatures of relative sea level change in the Middle Cambrian Wheeler Formation, Drum Mountains, West-Central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgedahl, S. L.; Jarrard, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Wheeler Formation of West-Central Utah is a succession of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic rocks deposited during the Middle Cambrian along a passive continental margin of Laurentia (western margin, in today's coordinates). The depositional setting was a gentle ramp, bounded by a normal fault on the south. The present study focuses on the Wheeler Formation in the Drum Mountains, Utah, which is thought to have recorded Middle Cambrian sea level changes and which is known to yield exceptionally-preserved fossils with soft parts, similar to the famed Burgess shale. An integrated approach has been used here to investigate the following: (1) high-resolution changes in water depth (sea level changes?) with stratigraphic position; (2) where exceptionally preserved fossils are most likely to occur; and (3) mineralogical indicators of sea level change, such as magnetic susceptibility and other rock magnetic properties. Rocks consist of limestones, argillaceous limestones, and finely-bedded mudstones (shales). Methods used here are: measurements of magnetic susceptibility, natural remanent magnetization, and viscous remanent magnetization; hysteresis loops; spectral gamma ray; coulometry to determine calcite content; X-ray diffraction; and field mapping. In these rocks, mineralogical analyses indicate primarily a 2-component system of calcite and terrigenous minerals, mainly illite. Magnetic susceptibility, gamma ray, and coulometry results strongly indicate that magnetic susceptibility stems primarily from the paramagnetic clay component, namely, illite. Thus, both magnetic susceptibility and gamma ray increase linearly with decreasing calcite content throughout the section studied. Deep-water shales yield very high values of gamma ray and magnetic susceptibility; by contrast, carbonates with low gamma ray and low magnetic susceptibilities were deposited in relatively shallow water. These results lead to the following conclusions: (1) changes in relative water depth have

  19. 江汉平原石家河谭家岭遗址新石器时代环境考古%Environmental archaeology of the Tanjialing Neolithic Site in the Shijiahe Ancient City, the Jianghan Plain of Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立; 朱诚; 李冰; 李枫; 孙伟; 王晓翠; 刘辉; 孟华平; 孙珏

    2016-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope The middle Yangtze River basin is a developing and lfourishing area of the Neolithic cultures, as revealed by abundant archaeological sites in the Jianghan Plain. The Shijiahe Culture is representative of an advanced stage in the Neolithic Age, and archaeological remains reflect the features of native culture in the Jianghan Plain. The Shijiahe Culture fully flourished in its early and middle stages, but it deteriorated around 4.2 ka BP. Some topics of the cause of this cultural deterioration such as the war, disaster, climatic events, southward migration, and abandonment of the ancient city are still under debate. Also, no systematic analysis was conducted throughout the method of archaeological stratigraphy. Therefore, the Tanjialing Neolithic Site during the Shijiahe cultural period provides a good opportunity and material to examine the relationship between anthropogenic impact and environmental dynamics by palynomorph-TOC-TN-δ13Corg-magnetic susceptibility analysis, owing to its well chronological control, rich organic sediment, and unique archaeological ifndings. This study is highly necessary to better understand interaction between human and nature in this special historical period. Materials and methods The Shijiahe ancient city is located in the northwest of Shihe Town, Tianmen City, Hubei Province, and geographically lies in the north-central Jianghan Plain. The terrain is higher in the northwest, and the elevation is 33—40 m above sea level. The Tanjialing Neolithic Site is situated in the center of Shijiahe ancient city. An archaeological sedimentary proifle, in the south wall of T0620 from the site, was examined for pollen, TOC, TN, δ13Corg and magnetic susceptibility. The proifle is 330 cm in thickness and divided into 9 lithological horizons. 28 samples were collected in the 9th layer, 22 samples in the cultural layers for palynological analysis, and 97 samples for TOC, TN,δ13Corg and magnetic susceptibility analysis

  20. Beyond the City Limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hairong

    2012-01-01

    While most fresh university graduates in China aim to find jobs in the cities,more and more welleducated young people are starting to look for career opportunities in rural areas.Cheng Guangjing is one of those who have chosen to work as a village official.In 2009 he began working in Dongzhuang Village,Lankao County in central China's Henan Province.On November 24,2011,the villagers unanimously elected him secretary of the Dongzhuang Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC).

  1. 品牌旅游城市社会经济影响因素及形成分析%Socio-economic Factors Impacting on Tourist Cities Brand and Its Formation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯庆; 孙根年

    2015-01-01

    According to CTTC distribution characteristics in provinces , this research focused on the analysis of provincial socio-economic factors impacting on formation of CTTC . Based on China excellent tourism cities (CETC), the CTB have various formation rate in different provinces , the formation rate of mid-eastern areas higher than western regions of China .In order to quantitative analysis of each factors impact on formation rate of CTB , se-lect population density , GDP per capita , traffic accessibility , and CETC ’ s number as key indicators to build forma-tion rate coefficient equation .Among them , GDP per capita and population density have the greatest influence on CTB’s formation rate, correlation coefficient of 0.96 and 0.99, respectively.According to the research of CETC, CTTC as well as formation rate of CTB in province , to explain the China tourism geography hub , Yangtze River Delta which involve Shanghai City , Jiangsu and Zhejiang Province is considered to be the single tourism geography hub.Pearl River Delta and Beijing , Tianjin and Hebei Province are multi-level tourism geographic hubs .This re-search provides factual basis for CTB formation through develop regional economy , society and environment , also provides theoretical basis for clarify the China tourism geography hub and its spatial distribution pattern .%从中国省际旅游城市分布特征出发,重点分析各省份社会经济因素对热点旅游城市形成的影响。以优秀旅游城市为基础,旅游百强城市为对象,分析不同省份品牌旅游城市形成率的差异性,中东部地区品牌形成率较高,而西部边疆地区品牌形成率低。以各省份人口密度、人均GDP、交通区位和优秀城市数为关键指标构建品牌形成率系数方程,定量分析各因素对品牌形成率的影响,人均GDP和人口密度对品牌形成率的影响最大,边际贡献分别为0.37,0.32。优秀旅游城市、旅游百强城市和

  2. Rheomorphic ignimbrites of the Rogerson Formation, central Snake River plain, USA: record of mid-Miocene rhyolitic explosive eruptions and associated crustal subsidence along the Yellowstone hotspot track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Thomas R.; Reichow, Marc K.; Branney, Michael J.; Finn, David R.; Coe, Robert S.; Storey, Michael; Bonnichsen, Bill

    2016-04-01

    Rogerson Graben, USA, is critically placed at the intersection between the Yellowstone hotspot track and the southern projection of the west Snake River rift. Eleven rhyolitic members of the re-defined, ≥420-m-thick, Rogerson Formation record voluminous high-temperature explosive eruptions, emplacing extensive ashfall and rheomorphic ignimbrite sheets. Yet, each member has subtly distinct field, chemical and palaeomagnetic characteristics. New regional correlations reveal that the Brown's View ignimbrite covers ≥3300 km2, and the Wooden Shoe ignimbrite covers ≥4400 km2 and extends into Nevada. Between 11.9 and ˜8 Ma, the average frequency of large explosive eruptions in this region was 1 per 354 ky, about twice that at Yellowstone. The chemistry and mineralogy of the early rhyolites show increasing maturity with time possibly by progressive fractional crystallisation. This was followed by a trend towards less-evolved rhyolites that may record melting and hybridisation of a mid-crustal source region. Contemporaneous magmatism-induced crustal subsidence of the central Snake River Basin is recorded by successive ignimbrites offlapping and thinning up the N-facing limb of a regional basin-margin monocline, which developed between 10.59 and 8 Ma. The syn-volcanic basin topography contrasted significantly with the present-day elevated Yellowstone hotspot plateau. Concurrent basin-and-range extension produced the N-trending Rogerson Graben: early uplift of the Shoshone Hills (≥10.34 Ma) was followed by initiation of the Shoshone Fault and an E-sloping half-graben (˜10.3-10.1 Ma). The graben asymmetry then reversed with initiation of the Brown's Bench Fault (≥8 Ma), which remained intermittently active until the Pliocene.

  3. Cyanobacteria/Foraminifera Association from Anoxic/Dysoxic Beds of the Agua Nueva Formation (Upper Cretaceous - Cenomanian/Turonian) at Xilitla, San Luis Potosi, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Piñón, A.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Rojas-León, A.; Duque-Botero, F.

    2008-05-01

    The Agua Nueva Formation in the vicinity of Xilitla, State of San Luis Potosí, Central Mexico, consists of interbedded brown shale (Grayish orange 10YR 7/4 to Moderate yellowish brown 10YR 5/4) and dark-gray fossiliferous limestone (Bluish gray 5B 6/1 to Dark bluish gray 5B 4/1), varying between 10 and 20 cm in thickness. The sequence also includes 2 to 4 cm- thick intermittent bentonite layers (Moderate greenish yellow 10Y 7/4, to dark greenish yellow 10Y 6/6 and Light olive 10Y 5/4). At the field scale, shaly intervals show no apparent internal structures, whereas most limestone beds show primary lamination at the millimeter scale (1-2 mm), and intermittent layers of black chert of about 5 cm thick. Pyrite is present as disseminated crystals and as 2 cm-thick layers. Bioturbation or macrobenthic organisms other than inoceramids do not occur in the Agua Nueva Formation at Xilitla. Unusual macrofossils are present only in limestone strata, and consist of well- preserved diverse genera of fishes such as sharks, Ptychodus sp. and teleosteans, Rhynchodercetis sp., Tselfatia sp., Goulmimichthys sp., and scales of Ichtyodectiformes, as well as ammonites and inoceramids (Blanco et al., 2006). The presence of Inoceramus (Mytyloides) labiatus (Maldonado-Koederll, 1956) indicates an Early Turonian age for the sequence. Total carbonate content (CaCO3 = TIC) varies between 62 and 94% in the Limestone beds, which yield Total Organic Carbon (TOC) from 0.4% to 2.5%; the shale intervals contain TIC values consistently lower than 33% and TOC lower than 0.8% Microscopically the limestone beds vary from mudstone to packstone composed essentially of coccoid cyanobacteria similar to coeval deposits in northeastern Mexico, Coahuila State, at Parras de La Fuente (Duque- Botero 2006). Similarly, the microspheroids are spherical to sub-spherical, and occur as isolated elements or aggregates forming series of chains of parallel-packed light lamina 1-2 mm thick. Filamentous cyanobacteria

  4. Crisis in the resurgent city? The rise of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Thor; Winther, Lars

    2010-01-01

    development was characterized by a set of eroding processes that included de-industrialization, suburbanization, high unemployment rates, high welfare costs, an outdated housing market, strong segregation and various other factors. Copenhagen city and its city region have now been revitalized and today......Copenhagen today appears to be a resurgent city and city region. It came back to life in the mid-1990s and, until recently, has shown marked growth in key variables such as jobs, income and inhabitants, primarily as a result of the rise and spatial dynamics of its service- and knowledge......-based economy. Its resurgence is also evident in the central municipalities that 20 years ago struggled with the repercussions of a long-term urban crisis. Financially, the central city was almost doomed in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and the city of Copenhagen was close to bankruptcy. Central-city...

  5. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities ...... of being mobile, as well as profoundly altering the process and perspective of data collection and feedback to governments, businesses and citizens.......This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid...

  6. A model of the Quaternary geological deposits of Bucharest City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpescu, Irina; Radu, Emil; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Amine Boukhemacha, Mohamed; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Bica, Ioan

    2013-04-01

    Bucharest city is located in the central part of the Moesic Platform, in the Romanian Plain with micro-relief resulting from erosion and sedimentary processes which extended along the valleys of the Dambovita River to the south and the Colentina River to the north. The city is located in the axial area of a syncline where the thickness of the sedimentary deposits is up to 1000 m. The area lies on a rigid base is made of metamorphites, and various igneous intrusions (granodiorite, granite). The sedimentary deposits covering this rigid base are made by different phases of erosion and sedimentary processes of marine, lacustrian or continental sediments ending with Quaternary sediments. As a result, different alluvial deposits (such as piedmont, deltaic, alluvial cones, terrace, waterside and lacustrine deposits) can be met. Furthermore one also can find loess deposits which in turn cover totally the older deposits where rivers dug the present relief. To highlight the spatial extent of these geological structures, a geological model of Bucharest city is developed. A set of information coming from different sources as geological and geotechnical boreholes showing a detailed geological and lithological description, geological and topographical maps, geological and hydrogeological reports have been used to develop the 3D geological model of this region. 33 geological cross sections were defined and interpreted by using lithological and sedimentological criteria. Using these geological cross sections and prior geological knowledge, the Quaternary deposits have been described and classified into 6 structural units given from top to down as follows: (1) Superficial deposits represented by loess and anthropogenic materials. The geological model indicates that these deposits show a sporadic development becoming more concentrated in the central west part of the city. (2) Colentina Formations composed by of poorly sorted, cross-stratified sand and gravel with clayey lens

  7. Ammonoids from the Dalle des Iridet of the Mouydir and Ahnet (Central Sahara and the Formation d'Hassi Sguilma of the Saoura Valley (Late Tournaisian–Early Viséan; Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Korn

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Four ammonoid species are described from the Early Carboniferous (Mississippian Iridet Formation of the Ahnet and Mouydir (Central Sahara, Algeria; three of which are new: Eurites temertassetensis n. sp., Trimorphoceras teguentourense n. sp., and Trimorphoceras azzelmattiense n. sp. The species can be attributed to the North African Ammonellipsites-Merocanites Assemblage (Fascipericyclus-Ammonellipsites Genus Zone; Late Tournaisian to Early Viséan. Additionally, the two new species Ammonellipsites sguilmensis n. sp. and Muensteroceras beniabbesense n. sp. are described from the time equivalent Hassi Sguilma Formation of the Saoura Valley (north-western Algeria. doi:10.1002/mmng.200900012

  8. PETROGENESIS OF THE METACARBONATE AND RELATED ROCKS OF THE SILGARÁ FORMATION, CENTRAL SANTANDER MASSIF, COLOMBIAN ANDES: AN OVERVIEW OF A “REACTION CALCIC EXOSCARN”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellanos O.M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Metacarbonate rocks (pure and impure marbles, carbonate-silicate rocks, calc-silicate rocks and carbonate-bearing silicate rocks form a very complex group within the metamorphic sequence of the Silgará Formation at the central Santander Massif (CSM. These rocks are interpreted as derived from a sedimentary sequence (including limestones and dolostones, carbonate-bearing mudstones,  sandstones, tuffaceous and evaporitic sediments and marlstones overprinted by near-isochemical regional metamorphism. They usually appear as scarce intercalations from millimeter up to meter scale, within the high-grade pelitic rocks, in the lower part of the metamorphic section, although the proportion of metacarbonate rocks can be higher and different marble layers are exploited. We report for the first time the occurrence of a "reaction calcic exoskarn", which corresponds to
    such metacarbonate rocks, taking into account that a skarn can be developed during regional metamorphism and by different metasomatic processes, adjacent to intrusive bodies, along faults and shear zones, and what defines these rocks as a skarn is its mineralogy, which includes a variety of calc-silicate and associated minerals, usually dominated by garnet and pyroxene. Therefore, this paper focus attention to the occurrence of metacarbonate and
    related rocks, which occurs as small scale reactions zones that show a gradational contact from garnet-bearing pelitic rocks to marbles or carbonate-silicate rocks, giving particular interest to the calc-silicate rocks, which are characterized by the presence of elongated grains of banded clinopyroxene (diopside and scapolite and massive
    or scattered garnet. Several reaction-zones occur in the contact between impure calcite marble and garnet-bearing metapelite and the sequence of mineral assemblages in these reaction zones is: biotite + plagioclase K-feldspar garnet (Zone I, biotite + plagioclase K-feldspar garnet staurolite epidote

  9. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of a constant recharge value for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to...

  10. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula...

  11. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital aquifer boundaries for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in...

  12. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  13. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  14. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from shelf and slope environments at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. These data provide coverage between...

  15. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific with 1 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  16. 500 Cities: City-level Data (GIS Friendly Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013, 2014. Data were provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of Population Health, Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch. The...

  17. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  18. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  19. Format Conversion of Thematic Map and Map Making of Earthquake Damage Prediction for a City%城市震害预测专题图格式转换与成图

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晋; 李宏志; 袁志祥

    2011-01-01

    针对城市震害预测与防御对策系统建设项目中的近场区地震构造图图形数据转换需求,解决由MapInfo的图形文件到ArcGIS的图形文件转换过程中的具体问题。并对数据格式转换、坐标系统转换、拓扑构建以及地图可视化表达步骤等关键环节进行了总结,为相关工作提供参考。%For demand of the data conversion of the seismoteetonic map of near- field in the project of the earthquake damage prediction and countermeasure of protection against earthquake disaster for a city, some problems in the conversion process from the figure files of MapInfo to AreGIS is solved. Some key issues such as data format conversion, coordinate system conversion, the topological structuring and expressing step of map vision etc. are summarized and some parameters resulted will be helpful to related work.

  20. 张掖市肉牛类群的形成及产业发展的思考%Thought of Formation of Beef Cattle Group and Industry Development in Zhangye City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the formation of the Zhangye beef cattle groups are reviewed for the first time, improtant scientific research and project of Zhangye beef cattle industry were combed, historical background of Zhangye beef cattle development were clarified. Aimed at problems exsisting in beef industry development such as inefficiency of interest systems, low utilization rate of straw, no characteristic advantage brand, five proposals were proposed to develop beef cattle industry in Zhangye city.%本文首次对张掖肉牛类群的形成阶段进行了系统的回顾总结,梳理了肉牛产业发展历程中的重大科研及项目支撑,明晰了张掖肉牛发展的历史背景。针对肉牛产业发展中利益连接机制不健全、农作物秸秆利用率低、特色优势品牌未形成等问题,就张掖肉牛产业发展探索性的提出了五项建议。

  1. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers,...

  2. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers, Pool...

  3. Expats rank Chinese cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Lv Dong

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, April The results of the "2011 Amazing China- The Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners" election are released. Expats choose Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities as Chinas 10 most attractive cities for foreigners.

  4. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  5. Cluster Formation during Expansion of Hot and Compressed Nuclear Matter Produced in Central Collisions of Au on Au at 250 A MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovici, M.; Herrmann, N.; Legrand, I.; Gobbi, A.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Reisdorf, W.; Buta, A.; Freifelder, R.; Jeong, S. C.; Krämer, M.; Moisa, D.; Schüll, D.; Simion, V.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I. M.; Berger, L.; Blaich, Th.; Boussange, S.; Čaplar, R.; Cerruti, C.; Cindro, N.; Coffin, J. P.; Donà, R.; Dupieux, P.; Erö, J.; Fintz, P.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Guillaume, G.; Hölbling, S.; Houari, A.; Jundt, F.; Kecskemeti, J.; Koncz, P.; Korchagin, Y.; Kotte, R.; Kuhn, C.; Ibnouzahir, M.; Lebedev, A.; Maguire, C.; Manko, V.; Mösner, J.; Montarou, G.; Montbel, I.; Morel, P.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Rami, F.; Ramillien, V.; Sadchikov, A.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Smolyankin, S.; Tezkratt, R.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M. A.; Wagner, P.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A. V.

    1995-06-01

    Complete distributions of the light and intermediate mass fragments ( Z = 1-6) produced within the polar angular range 1∘<=Θlab<=30∘ in highly central collisions of 250 A MeV Au + Au are presented. The results of this measurement and a model analysis are used to study the expansion and clustering of the hot and compressed transient state formed in central collisions of such a heavy system. The influence of the initial conditions on the final observables is discussed.

  6. Cluster formation during expansion of hot and compressed nuclear matter produced in central collisions of Au on Au at 250{ital A} MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovici, M.; Herrmann, N.; Legrand, I.; Gobbi, A.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Reisdorf, W.; Buta, A.; Freifelder, R.; Jeong, S.C.; Kraemer, M.; Moisa, D.; Schuell, D.; Simion, V.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K.; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Alard, J.P.; Amouroux, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.M.; Berger, L.; Blaich, T.; Boussange, S.; Caplar, R.; Cerruti, C.; Cindro, N.; Coffin, J.P.; Dona, R.; Dupieux, P.; Eroe, J.; Fintz, P.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Guillaume, G.; Hoelbling, S.; Houari, A.; Jundt, F.; Kecskemeti, J.; Koncz, P.; Korchagin, Y.; Kotte, R.; Kuhn, C.; Ibnouzahir, M.; Lebedev, A.; Maguire, C.; Manko, V.; Moesner, J.; Montarou, G.; Montbel, I.; Morel, P.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Rami, F.; Ramillien, V.; Sadchikov, A.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Smolyankin, S.; Tezkratt, R.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M.A.; Wagner, P.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A.V. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)]|[Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest (Hungary)]|[Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire/IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France)]|[Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)]|[Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany)]|[Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Kurchatov Institute for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Rossendorf (Germany)]|[Centre de Recherches Nucleaires/Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France)]|[Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland)]|[Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)]|[Laboratori Nationali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); (FOPI Collaboration)

    1995-06-19

    Complete distributions of the light and intermediate mass fragments ({ital Z}=1--6) produced within the polar angular range 1{sup {circ}}{le}{Theta}{sub lab}{le}30{sup {circ}} in highly central collisions of 250{ital A} MeV Au+Au are presented. The results of this measurement and a model analysis are used to study the expansion and clustering of the hot and compressed transient state formed in central collisions of such a heavy system. The influence of the initial conditions on the final observables is discussed.

  7. 沈阳市集中供暖锅炉房环境信访问题的成因及解决对策%A Study on Causes and Solutions for Environmental Petitions Related to Central Heating Boiler Room in Shenyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨佳妮

    2012-01-01

    对近年来沈阳市集中供暖锅炉房环境信访问题的特点和成因进行了分析研究,探索了解决环境信访问题的对策、思路和方法。%After the analysis of the features and causes of the environmental petitioris related to the central heating boiler rooms in Shenyang city in recent years, the article explores the counter measures, thoughts and methods for resolving the environmental petitions.

  8. Study on Formation and Governance of Hazy Weather in Nanjing City from New Energy Perspective%基于新能源视角的南京市雾霾形成与治理路径研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    伴随着南京市工业化进程的快速推进,雾霾天气出现的频率越来越高,严重影响到交通的顺。运行,威胁着居民健康,制约了当地经济环境的可持续发展,因此人们对雾霾现象的关注度日益提高。从能源结构角度,具体分析南京市雾霾天气的形成原因,提出针对性的治理雾霾的现实性建议与路径,指出必须调整以煤炭为中心的能源消费结构,加快建设新能源汽车配套设施,严格规范成品油标准以减排汽车尾气,通过内化环保产业外部性实现优化资源配置。%With the rapid advancement of the industrialization process in Nanjing city , the frequency of haze weather in-creased, which seriously affects the smooth operation of transportation, threatens the health of residents seriously and restricts the sustainable development of the local economy.People's attention on the phenomenon of haze weather is increasing day by day. From the perspective of energy structure.A detailed analysis on formation of haze weather in Nanjing city was conducted to put forward some practical suggestions and path of governing haze .It is pointed out that relevant authorities should push the change of energy consumption structure, which has coal as the major source, accelerate the construction of new energy vehicles facilities, and strictly regulate the standard of refined oil to reduce emissions of automobile exhaust , through internalized environmental pro-tection industry externality to achieve optimal allocation of resources.

  9. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinquan; Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  10. Late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial tableland formation in an intra-mountainous basin in a tectonically active mountain belt - A case study in the Puli Basin, central Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tseng, Chia Han; Lüthgens, Christopher; Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Reimann, Tony; Frechen, Manfred; Böse, Margot

    2016-01-01

    The morphology in Taiwan is a product of high tectonic activity at the convergent margin and East Asian monsoon climate. Tablelands are prominent geomorphic features in the Puli Basin in central Taiwan. These tablelands provide an archive to understand links between past climatic evolution and te

  11. Assessment Of Inocula To Enhance Startup Of Ethanol-Fed And Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to construct an Anaerobic Passive Treatment System (APTS) to treat acid mine drainage from the National Tunnel in North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Centr...

  12. Assessment Of Inocula To Enhance Startup Of Ethanol-Fed And Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to construct an Anaerobic Passive Treatment System (APTS) to treat acid mine drainage from the National Tunnel in North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Centr...

  13. The Purisima Formation and related rocks (upper Miocene - Pliocene), greater San Francisco Bay area, central California; review of literature and USGS collection now housed at the Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks more than 1.6 kilometers thick are attributed to the upper Miocene to upper Pliocene Purisima Formation in the greater San Francisco Bay area. These rocks occur as scattered, discontinuous outcrops from Point Reyes National Seashore in the north to south of Santa Cruz. Lithologic divisions of the Formation appear to be of local extent and are of limited use in correlating over this broad area. The Purisima Formation occurs in several fault-bounded terranes which demonstrate different stratigraphic histories and may be found to represent more than a single depositional basin. The precise age and stratigraphic relationship of these scattered outcrops are unresolved and until they are put into a stratigraphic and paleogeographic context the tectonic significance of the Purisima Foramtion can only be surmised. This paper will attempt to resolve some of these problems. Mollusks and echinoderms are recorded from the literature and more than 70 USGS collections that have not previously been reported. With the exception of one locality, the faunas suggest deposition in normal marine conditions at water depths of less than 50 m and with water temperatures the same or slightly cooler than exist along the present coast of central California. The single exception is a fauna from outcrops between Seal Cove and Pillar Point, where both mollusks and foraminifers suggest water depths greater than 100 m. Three molluscan faunas, the La Honda, the Pillar Point, and the Santa Cruz, are recognized based on USGS collections and published literature for the Purisima Formation. These biostratigraphically distinct faunas aid in the correlation of the scattered Purisima Formation outcrops. The lowermost La Honda fauna suggests shallow-water depths and an age of late Miocene to early Pliocene. This age is at odds with a younger age determination from an ash bed in the lower Purisima Formation along the central San Mateo County coast. The Pillar Point fauna contains only a

  14. Secondary organic aerosol formation during June 2010 in Central Europe: measurements and modelling studies with a mixed thermodynamic-kinetic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Until recently secondary organic carbon (SOC aerosol mass concentrations have been systematically underestimated by three-dimensional atmospheric-chemistry-aerosol models. With a newly proposed concept of aging of organic vapours more realistic model results for organic carbon aerosol mass concentrations could be achieved. Applying a mixed thermodynamic-kinetic approach for SOC aerosol formation shifted the aerosol size distribution towards particles in the cloud condensation nuclei size range, thereby emphasising the importance of SOC aerosol formation schemes for modelling realistic cloud and precipitation formation. The additional importance of hetero-molecular nucleation between H2SO4 and organic vapours remains to be evaluated in three-dimensional atmospheric-chemistry-aerosol models. Here a case study is presented focusing on Puy-de-Dôme, France in June 2010. Even though nucleation events at Puy-de-Dôme were rare during the chosen period of investigation a weak event in the boundary layer could be reproduced by the model when nucleation of low-volatile secondary organic vapour is included. Differences in the model results with and without nucleation of organic vapour are visible in the lower free troposphere over several days of the period. Taking into account nucleation of organic vapour leads to an increase in accumulation mode particles due to coagulation of nucleation and aitken mode particles. Moreover, the measurements indicate a considerable increase in SOC aerosol mass concentration during the measurement campaign, which could be reproduced by modelling using a simplified thermodynamic-kinetic approach for SOC aerosol formation and increased biogenic VOC precursor emissions. Comparison with a thermodynamic SOC aerosol formation approach shows a huge improvement in modelled SOC aerosol mass concentration with the thermodynamic-kinetic approach for SOC aerosol formation and a slight improvement of modelled particle size

  15. Geochronological arguments for a close relationship between surficial formation profiles and environmental crisis (c. 3000-2000 BP) in Gabon (Central Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiéblemont, Denis; Flehoc, Christine; Ebang-Obiang, Michel; Rigollet, Christophe; Prian, Jean-Pierre; Prognon, François

    2013-07-01

    We present new 14C data on charcoal fragments recovered from the lower (coarse-grained Stone Line) and upper (fine-grained Cover Horizon) portions of surficial formation profiles in Gabon. These data and others compiled from the literature enable a reconstruction of the Upper Holocene geological regional history of Gabon. The connection between the geological events recorded in the surficial formations and the Upper Holocene environmental crisis is discussed and a scenario connecting geological events with climatic and environmental changes is proposed. Such a scenario suggests that following the climatic crisis, the reconstitution of soils by aeolian sedimentation could have been an important factor of Bantu expansion.

  16. Formation of sulphation deposits in cables in the electricity generation plant of Los Humeros geothermal field, Mexico; Sulfatacion de cables en la central geotermoelectrica Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara Rangel, Agustin [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    In the construction of a central electrical generation plant using geothermal fluids, high quality standards are applied in all aspects of engineering. Los Humeros generation units were installed through trenches, ducts and trays according to norms for cables of control, force and power, specifically in point to point cables and connections. Performance of the power plant has been affected by electric momentary and sequence flaws due to problems of cable sulfating, which were solved by tinning the conductors. [Spanish] En la construccion de centrales generadoras de electricidad con fluidos geotermicos se aplican criterios de calidad de diseno en todos los aspectos de la ingenieria. En Los Humeros Puebla, se realizo la instalacion conforme a normas de cables de control, fuerza y potencia a traves de trincheras, ductos y charolas y especificamente en el cableado asi como en las conexiones de punta a punta. Todos estos aspectos son referidos a planos de los componentes y equipos electricos existentes en una central. Al paso del tiempo existieron fallas electricas momentaneas y secuenciales por el problema de sulfatacion en cables, los cuales fueron resueltos con el estanado de conductores.

  17. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  18. Depositional history and diagenesis of quartz-sand bars and lime-mud environments in the Devonian Basibé Formation (Central Pyrenees, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habermehl, M.A.

    1970-01-01

    The Basibé Formation, of Lower Devonian age (Emsian) according to conodonts, consists, in the area between the Esera River and Mañanet River, of nodular weathering limestones, dolomites, silty to sandy argillaceous dolomites, quartzites and limestones. Thickness variations of the lower member (nodul

  19. Sedimentary facies and sequential architecture of tide-influenced alluvial deposits : an example from the middle Eocene Capella formation, South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuevas Gozalo, M.C

    1989-01-01

    The sediments investigated consist of a thick sequence of clastic deposits of middle Eocene age, the Capella Formation. At the time of deposition the sedimentary basin was tectonically active. Tectonic influence in the sedimentary sequence is recognized from angular unconformities, synsedimentary fa

  20. Milk quality improvement after implantation of good manufacturing practices in milking in 19 cities of the central region of Paraná / Melhoria da qualidade do leite a partir da implantação de boas práticas de higiene na ordenha em 19 municípios da região central do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Cavaletti Corrêa da Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The milk production in Brazil presents efficiency and quality problems concerning the raw material, reducing its competitiveness. The poor quality of raw milk is associated with faults in handling and milking hygiene conditions, high indices of mastitis, inadequate maintenance and disinfection of the equipment, inefficient or inexistent refrigeration, disqualified workforce, among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of implantation of simple, inexpensive and easily adopted Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP on dairy farms. Quality parameters researched were total bacterial count (TBC and somatic cell count (SCC, which indicates respectively milking hygiene and mammary gland health. Forty six raw milk samples from 19 cities of the central region of Paraná were analyzed, among them, 32 (69,57% had manual milking and 14 (30,43% mechanic milking. The implantation of GMP resulted in average reduction of 87,90% to TBC on manual milking farms and 86,99% on mechanic milking farms. Regarding SCC, the average reduction was 33,94% in manual milking farms and 51,85% in mechanics milking farms. The implemented practices had shown efficient in all of the studied conditions of production and installations.O setor leiteiro brasileiro apresenta problemas de eficiência produtiva e de qualidade da matéria-prima e, por isso, perde em competitividade. A má qualidade do leite cru está relacionada a fatores como deficiências no manejo e higiene da ordenha, índices elevados de mastite, manutenção e desinfecção inadequadas dos equipamentos, refrigeração ineficiente ou inexistente e mão de obra desqualificada, entre outros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da implantação de Boas Práticas na ordenha na ordenha, simples e baratas, que pudessem ser facilmente introduzidas pelos produtores de leite. Os parâmetros de qualidade considerados foram a contagem de células somáticas (CCS, indicativo de sanidade da gl

  1. Perfil dos trabalhadores da atenção básica em saúde no município de São Paulo: região norte e central da cidade Profile of the primary health care workers in the municipality of São Paulo: north and central regions of the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria Giffoni Marsiglia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa do Observatório de Recursos Humanos em Saúde de São Paulo em 2009, com 87 UBS na região norte e centro da cidade. OBJETIVO: levantar o perfil dos trabalhadores das UBS, organizadas sob: Programas de Saúde, Saúde da Família e Mistas. METODOLOGIA: sexo, idade, naturalidade, escolaridade, formação, função e tempo de trabalho na UBS de 4.968 trabalhadores, e entrevistas com amostra de 621 trabalhadores, através do Sistema de Entrevista Telefônica Assistida por Computador (ETAC. RESULTADOS: 80,7% dos entrevistados eram mulheres, mas só 56,4% entre os médicos; 50,5% entre 21 e 40 anos de idade e 49,1% entre 41 e 60 anos; 61,4% naturais do município ; apresentaram escolaridade superior ao exigido para as funções exercidas; no nível superior, 13,9 % eram médicos; no médio, 21,3% eram auxiliares de enfermagem e, no operacional, 20,7% eram ACS; 40,1% trabalhavam na UBS há mais de 5 anos, 12,9% há mais de 10 anos e 6,3% há mais de 20 anos; 64,7% trabalhavam só na UBS, 46,7% tiveram experiência na área hospitalar; 92,3% dos que trabalhavam nas UBS de Programas de Saúde eram funcionários públicos estatutários e 77% dos das UBS de Saúde da família contratados via CLT, pelas instituições parceiras da SMS-SP. CONCLUSÕES: predominância de trabalhadores do sexo feminino; processos de consolidação e de renovação do contingente de trabalhadores, maioria natural do município de São Paulo, escolaridade superior à exigida para a função; predominância de médicos, auxiliares de enfermagem e agentes comunitários de saúde; processo de terceirização nas relações de trabalho.Research conducted by São Paulo's Observatory of Human Resources in Health in 2009. It investigated 87 unidades básicas de saúde (UBS - primary care units located in the north and central regions of the city of São Paulo. OBJECTIVE: to survey the profile of the UBS workers. The UBS were organized under different models: Health Programs

  2. An Ornithopod-Dominated Tracksite from the Lower Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation (Barremian-Albian of Qijiang, South-Central China: New Discoveries, Ichnotaxonomy, Preservation and Palaeoecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Xing

    Full Text Available The historically-famous Lotus Fortress site, a deep 1.5-3.0-meter-high, 200-meter-long horizonal notch high up in near-vertical sandstone cliffs comprising the Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation, has been known since the 13th Century as an impregnable defensive position. The site is also extraordinary for having multiple tetrapod track-bearing levels, of which the lower two form the floor of part of the notch, and yield very well preserved asseamblages of ornithopod, bird (avian theropod and pterosaur tracks. Trackway counts indicate that ornithopods dominate (69% accounting for at least 165 trackmakers, followed by bird (18%, sauropod (10%, and pterosaur (3%. Previous studies designated Lotus Fortress as the type locality of Caririchnium lotus and Wupus agilis both of which are recognized here as valid ichnotaxa. On the basis of multiple parallel trackways both are interpreted as representing the trackways of gregarious species. C. lotus is redescribed here in detail and interpreted to indicate two age cohorts representing subadults that were sometimes bipedal and larger quadrupedal adults. Two other previously described dinosaurian ichnospecies, are here reinterpreted as underprints and considered nomina dubia. Like a growing number of significant tetrapod tracksites in China the Lotus Fortress site reveals new information about the composition of tetrapod faunas from formations in which the skeletal record is sparse. In particular, the site shows the relatively high abundance of Caririchium in a region where saurischian ichnofaunas are often dominant. It is also the only site known to have yielded Wupus agilis. In combination with information from other tracksites from the Jiaguan formation and other Cretaceous formations in the region, the track record is proving increasingly impotant as a major source of information on the vertebrate faunas of the region. The Lotus Fortress site has been developed as a spectacular, geologically

  3. An Ornithopod-Dominated Tracksite from the Lower Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation (Barremian–Albian) of Qijiang, South-Central China: New Discoveries, Ichnotaxonomy, Preservation and Palaeoecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lida; Lockley, Martin G.; Marty, Daniel; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Yan; Klein, Hendrik; McCrea, Richard T.; Buckley, Lisa G.; Belvedere, Matteo; Mateus, Octávio; Gierliński, Gerard D.; Piñuela, Laura; Persons, W. Scott; Wang, Fengping; Ran, Hao; Dai, Hui; Xie, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    The historically-famous Lotus Fortress site, a deep 1.5–3.0-meter-high, 200-meter-long horizonal notch high up in near-vertical sandstone cliffs comprising the Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation, has been known since the 13th Century as an impregnable defensive position. The site is also extraordinary for having multiple tetrapod track-bearing levels, of which the lower two form the floor of part of the notch, and yield very well preserved asseamblages of ornithopod, bird (avian theropod) and pterosaur tracks. Trackway counts indicate that ornithopods dominate (69%) accounting for at least 165 trackmakers, followed by bird (18%), sauropod (10%), and pterosaur (3%). Previous studies designated Lotus Fortress as the type locality of Caririchnium lotus and Wupus agilis both of which are recognized here as valid ichnotaxa. On the basis of multiple parallel trackways both are interpreted as representing the trackways of gregarious species. C. lotus is redescribed here in detail and interpreted to indicate two age cohorts representing subadults that were sometimes bipedal and larger quadrupedal adults. Two other previously described dinosaurian ichnospecies, are here reinterpreted as underprints and considered nomina dubia. Like a growing number of significant tetrapod tracksites in China the Lotus Fortress site reveals new information about the composition of tetrapod faunas from formations in which the skeletal record is sparse. In particular, the site shows the relatively high abundance of Caririchium in a region where saurischian ichnofaunas are often dominant. It is also the only site known to have yielded Wupus agilis. In combination with information from other tracksites from the Jiaguan formation and other Cretaceous formations in the region, the track record is proving increasingly impotant as a major source of information on the vertebrate faunas of the region. The Lotus Fortress site has been developed as a spectacular, geologically-, paleontologically- and a

  4. An Ornithopod-Dominated Tracksite from the Lower Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation (Barremian-Albian) of Qijiang, South-Central China: New Discoveries, Ichnotaxonomy, Preservation and Palaeoecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lida; Lockley, Martin G; Marty, Daniel; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Yan; Klein, Hendrik; McCrea, Richard T; Buckley, Lisa G; Belvedere, Matteo; Mateus, Octávio; Gierliński, Gerard D; Piñuela, Laura; Persons, W Scott; Wang, Fengping; Ran, Hao; Dai, Hui; Xie, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    The historically-famous Lotus Fortress site, a deep 1.5-3.0-meter-high, 200-meter-long horizonal notch high up in near-vertical sandstone cliffs comprising the Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation, has been known since the 13th Century as an impregnable defensive position. The site is also extraordinary for having multiple tetrapod track-bearing levels, of which the lower two form the floor of part of the notch, and yield very well preserved asseamblages of ornithopod, bird (avian theropod) and pterosaur tracks. Trackway counts indicate that ornithopods dominate (69%) accounting for at least 165 trackmakers, followed by bird (18%), sauropod (10%), and pterosaur (3%). Previous studies designated Lotus Fortress as the type locality of Caririchnium lotus and Wupus agilis both of which are recognized here as valid ichnotaxa. On the basis of multiple parallel trackways both are interpreted as representing the trackways of gregarious species. C. lotus is redescribed here in detail and interpreted to indicate two age cohorts representing subadults that were sometimes bipedal and larger quadrupedal adults. Two other previously described dinosaurian ichnospecies, are here reinterpreted as underprints and considered nomina dubia. Like a growing number of significant tetrapod tracksites in China the Lotus Fortress site reveals new information about the composition of tetrapod faunas from formations in which the skeletal record is sparse. In particular, the site shows the relatively high abundance of Caririchium in a region where saurischian ichnofaunas are often dominant. It is also the only site known to have yielded Wupus agilis. In combination with information from other tracksites from the Jiaguan formation and other Cretaceous formations in the region, the track record is proving increasingly impotant as a major source of information on the vertebrate faunas of the region. The Lotus Fortress site has been developed as a spectacular, geologically-, paleontologically- and a

  5. Raman and micro-thermometric investigation of the fluid inclusions in quartz in a gold-rich formation from Lepaguare mining district (Honduras, Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, D; Salvioli-Mariani, E; Mattioli, M; Menichetti, M; Lottici, P P

    2009-08-01

    Fluid inclusions in the quartz crystals present in gold-rich veins from central Honduras have been studied by means of micro-thermometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to provide information on the physico-chemical conditions and chemical composition of the mineralizing fluids. The use of a confocal micro-Raman apparatus allowed to obtain information on the fluid composition, in particular on the gas phase, minimizing the contributions of the host matrix to the Raman signal. The samples studied were collected from an area (Lepaguare mining district, Northern-Central Honduras) rich in ore deposits due to the Cenozoic magmatic activity, where the gold and sulphide mineralization is connected with a system of quartz veins (few decimetres thick) occurring in low-grade metamorphic rocks and produced by hydrothermal fluids. The quartz crystals present in the gold-rich veins often contain fluid inclusions. Four types of fluid inclusions have been observed, but their assemblage in the same clusters and fracture systems, as well as their comparable salinity and homogenization data, suggest that they have the same origin. Micro-thermometry and Raman spectroscopy provide a composition of the mineralizing fluids attributable to the system H(2)O-NaCl-KCl-CO(2)-CH(4), with temperature and pressure intervals of 210-413 degrees C and 1050-3850 bar, respectively. These data agree with an epigenetic origin of the gold deposit (depth < 6 km) related to granitoid or granodiorite intrusions associated to orogenic environments.

  6. Raman and micro-thermometric investigation of the fluid inclusions in quartz in a gold-rich formation from Lepaguare mining district (Honduras, Central America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, D.; Salvioli-Mariani, E.; Mattioli, M.; Menichetti, M.; Lottici, P. P.

    2009-08-01

    Fluid inclusions in the quartz crystals present in gold-rich veins from central Honduras have been studied by means of micro-thermometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to provide information on the physico-chemical conditions and chemical composition of the mineralizing fluids. The use of a confocal micro-Raman apparatus allowed to obtain information on the fluid composition, in particular on the gas phase, minimizing the contributions of the host matrix to the Raman signal. The samples studied were collected from an area (Lepaguare mining district, Northern-Central Honduras) rich in ore deposits due to the Cenozoic magmatic activity, where the gold and sulphide mineralization is connected with a system of quartz veins (few decimetres thick) occurring in low-grade metamorphic rocks and produced by hydrothermal fluids. The quartz crystals present in the gold-rich veins often contain fluid inclusions. Four types of fluid inclusions have been observed, but their assemblage in the same clusters and fracture systems, as well as their comparable salinity and homogenization data, suggest that they have the same origin. Micro-thermometry and Raman spectroscopy provide a composition of the mineralizing fluids attributable to the system H 2O-NaCl-KCl-CO 2-CH 4, with temperature and pressure intervals of 210-413 °C and 1050-3850 bar, respectively. These data agree with an epigenetic origin of the gold deposit (depth < 6 km) related to granitoid or granodiorite intrusions associated to orogenic environments.

  7. From the network city to the neo-liberal city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    , the forging of regional identities, the impact of information technologies on urban development, the development of networked infrastructures (transport, telecommunications) and spatial consequences such as the changing status of public space, social polarization, amongst others. The central purpose...... in the three Schandinavian capitals, namely Oslo, Stockholm and Copenhagen. Relationships between urban transformations and global networks (economic, cultural, informational), are closely related to considerations by planners, decision makers and academics about themes such as the competition between cities......Network Cities: Globalization and Urban Transformation in Oslo, Stockholm and Copenhagen aims to probe relationships between planning discourses, planning practices and urban transformations. By bringing together practitioners and academics we aim at focussing the discussion on developments...

  8. Reservoir Characterization for CO2 Sequestration: Assessing the Potential of the Devonian Carbonate Nisku Formation of Central Alberta Caractérisation de réservoir en vue du stockage géologique de CO2 : évaluation du potentiel offert par les carbonates dévoniens de la formation de Nisku, en Alberta central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisinger C.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Wabamun Lake area of Central Alberta, Canada includes several large CO2 point source emitters, collectively producing more than 30 Mt annually. Previous studies established that deep saline aquifers beneath the Wabamun Lake area have good potential for the large-scale injection and storage of CO2. This study reports on the characterization of the Devonian carbonate Nisku Formation for evaluation as a CO2 repository. Major challenges for characterization included sparse well and seismic data, poor quality flow tests, and few modern measurements. Wireline porosity measurements were present in only one-third of the wells, so porosity and flow capacity (permeability-thickness were estimated using wireline electrical measurements. The Archie cementation factor appears to vary between 2 and 3, creating uncertainty when predicting porosity using the electrical measurements; however, high-porosity zones could be identified. The electrically-based flow capacity predictions showed more favorable values using a correlation with core than the relation based on drill stem and production tests. This behavior is expected, since the flow test flow capacities are less influenced by local occurrences of very permeable vuggy and moldic rocks. Facies distributions were modeled using both pixel and object methods. The object models, using dimensions obtained from satellite imaging of modern day environments, gave results that were more consistent with the geological understanding of the Nisku and showed greater large-scale connectivity than the pixel model. Predicted volumes show considerable storage capacity in the Nisku, but flow simulations suggest injection capacities are below an initial 20 Mt/year target using vertical wells. More elaborate well designs, including fracture stimulation or multi-lateral wells may allow this goal to be reached or surpassed. Plusieurs gros émetteurs de CO2, totalisant 30 Mt annuels, sont localisés dans la région du Lac

  9. City health development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Geoff; Acres, John; Price, Charles; Tsouros, Agis

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this evaluation was to review the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the Healthy Cities Network organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 56 cities which participated in Phase III (1998-2002) of the Network. Evidence was gathered from documents either held in WHO archives or made available from Network cities and from interviews with city representatives. CHDPs were the centrepiece of Phase III, evolving from city health plans developed in Phase II. They are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed three types of CHDP, reflecting the realpolitik of each city. For many cities, the process of CHDP was as important as the plan itself.

  10. Active shortening and intermontane basin formation in the central Puna Plateau: Salar de Pocitos, NW Argentina (24°37'S, 67°03'W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Manfred; Bookhagen, Bodo; Freymark, Jessica; Pingel, Heiko; Alonso, Ricardo N.

    2015-04-01

    Similar to other Cenozoic orogenic plateaus, extensional tectonics associated with mafic volcanism typifies the Altiplano-Puna of the southern Central Andes, while the flanks of the plateau and adjacent foreland areas experience shortening. Extensional tectonism in the plateau region since the late Miocene has been explained with delamination of lithospheric mantle. However, new evidence for protracted basin-wide shortening in the Salar de Pocitos region in the south-central Puna documents that the kinematic changeover from shortening to extension is highly diachronous. In this study we assess the deformation and geomorphic history of the Salar de Pocitos region using DGPS surveys, CRN dating of deformed pediment surfaces, and U/Pb dating of volcanic ash horizons in deformed strata. With average elevations of about 3.7 km the Altiplano-Puna is a first-order morphotectonic province of the southern central Andes and constitutes the world's second largest orogenic plateau. With few exceptions the Andean plateau consists of internally drained, partly coalesced sedimentary basins that are mainly bordered by reverse-fault bounded ranges, 5 to 6 km high. While there are many unifying plateau characteristics in the Altiplano (north) and Puna (south), including internal drainage, semi-arid to arid climate and associated deposition of evaporites, there are notable differences between both plateau sectors. In contrast to the vast Altiplano basin of Bolivia, the Argentine Puna comprises numerous, smaller and partly coalesced basins that reflect continued comparmentalization by the combined effects of tectonism and volcanic activity. The N-S oriented Salar de Pocitos basin is the vestige of a formerly contiguous sedimentary basin within the Puna interior. Unlike many other basins in this region it is bordered by the limb of an anticline developed in Tertiary sedimentary rocks on the west, while the eastern border is a reverse-faulted range front. To the north and south the

  11. Petrology, magnetostratigraphy and geochronology of the Miocene volcaniclastic Tepoztlán Formation: implications for the initiation of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (Central Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Nils; Böhnel, Harald; Wemmer, Klaus; Torres-Alvarado, Ignacio S.; Hornung, Jens; Hinderer, Matthias

    2010-09-01

    The volcaniclastic Tepoztlán Formation (TF) represents an important rock record to unravel the early evolution of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). Here, a depositional model together with a chronostratigraphy of this Formation is presented, based on detailed field observations together with new geochronological, paleomagnetic, and petrological data. The TF consists predominantly of deposits from pyroclastic density currents and extensive epiclastic products such as tuffaceous sandstones, conglomerates and breccias, originating from fluvial and mass flow processes, respectively. Within these sediments fall deposits and lavas are sparsely intercalated. The clastic material is almost exclusively of volcanic origin, ranging in composition from andesite to rhyolite. Thick gravity-driven deposits and large-scale alluvial fan environments document the buildup of steep volcanic edifices. K-Ar and Ar-Ar dates, in addition to eight magnetostratigraphic sections and lithological correlations served to construct a chronostratigraphy for the entire Tepoztlán Formation. Correlation of the 577 m composite magnetostratigraphic section with the Cande and Kent (1995) Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) suggests that this section represents the time intervall 22.8-18.8 Ma (6Bn.1n-5Er; Aquitanian-Burdigalian, Lower Miocene). This correlation implies a deposition of the TF predating the extensive effusive activity in the TMVB at 12 Ma and is therefore interpreted to represent its initial phase with predominantly explosive activity. Additionally, three subdivisions of the TF were established, according to the dominant mode of deposition: (1) the fluvial dominated Malinalco Member (22.8-22.2 Ma), (2) the volcanic dominated San Andrés Member (22.2-21.3 Ma) and (3) the mass flow dominated Tepozteco Member (21.3-18.8 Ma).

  12. Comparative taphonomy, taphofacies, and bonebeds of the Mio-Pliocene Purisima Formation, central California: strong physical control on marine vertebrate preservation in shallow marine settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Boessenecker

    Full Text Available Taphonomic study of marine vertebrate remains has traditionally focused on single skeletons, lagerstätten, or bonebed genesis with few attempts to document environmental gradients in preservation. As such, establishment of a concrete taphonomic model for shallow marine vertebrate assemblages is lacking. The Neogene Purisima Formation of Northern California, a richly fossiliferous unit recording nearshore to offshore depositional settings, offers a unique opportunity to examine preservational trends across these settings.Lithofacies analysis was conducted to place vertebrate fossils within a hydrodynamic and depositional environmental context. Taphonomic data including abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, articulation, polish, and biogenic bone modification were recorded for over 1000 vertebrate fossils of sharks, bony fish, birds, pinnipeds, odontocetes, mysticetes, sirenians, and land mammals. These data were used to compare both preservation of multiple taxa within a single lithofacies and preservation of individual taxa across lithofacies to document environmental gradients in preservation. Differential preservation between taxa indicates strong preservational bias within the Purisima Formation. Varying levels of abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, and articulation are strongly correlative with physical processes of sediment transport and sedimentation rate. Preservational characteristics were used to delineate four taphofacies corresponding to inner, middle, and outer shelf settings, and bonebeds. Application of sequence stratigraphic methods shows that bonebeds mark major stratigraphic discontinuities, while packages of rock between discontinuities consistently exhibit onshore-offshore changes in taphofacies.Changes in vertebrate preservation and bonebed character between lithofacies closely correspond to onshore-offshore changes in depositional setting, indicating that the dominant control of preservation is exerted by physical

  13. Inventive city-regions: path dependence and creative knowledge strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontje, M.; Musterd, S.; Pelzer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Virtually every city and region in West and Central Europe has developed policies and strategies to attract, retain and encourage creative industries and knowledge-intensive services. Since most of these cities and regions tend to see a creative knowledge economy as 'the best bet for the future', on

  14. 城市中心区地下空间城市设计研究*--构建地面上下“双层”城市%Research for Urban Design of Underground Spaces in Central Area-Building up Double-Decker City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁红; 孟琪; 崔叙; 潘坤

    2016-01-01

    城市中心区地下空间处于岩石封闭系统中,地下建筑与地面建筑在设计及表达上具有较大差异。通过对地面建筑及城市设计方法的类比,基于凯文·林奇所提出的城市设计五要素,研究城市中心区地下—地面“双层”城市设计方法,旨在消除地下街的迷途感并增强地下空间开发的系统性。提出地下空间城市设计需要与地面城市相对应,包括“区域:空间的分区主题设计”,“节点:地下空间节点创造”,“标志:地下空间高潮点及中心”,“边界:地下空间界面设计”,“路径:导向系统及导视系统”五个方面,并形成地下、地面立体对应关系,构建完整的“双层”城市空间系统,为整个城市系统服务。%Underground space of central area is in the closed rock system. And there are many differences between underground and ground buildings in design and form. According to the five elements of urban images identified by Kevin Lynch, and by comparing the ground buildings and urban design method, this paper focus on studying the urban design method of double-decker city in central area in order to eliminate the lost feeling in underground street and enhance the systematic development of underground space. Then it proposes that underground space design should correspond to the ground city including “areas: theme design for space partition”, “nodes: underground space nodes creation”, “mark: peak point and center of underground space”, “boundary: interface design of underground space” and “Path: guiding system and visual system” to form stereoscopic correspondence for underground and ground space, build up the complete “double” city image system, as well provide services for the whole city.

  15. Oligomer formation during gas-phase ozonolysis of small alkenes and enol ethers: new evidence for the central role of the Criegee Intermediate as oligomer chain unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadezky, A.; Winterhalter, R.; Kanawati, B.; Römpp, A.; Spengler, B.; Mellouki, A.; Le Bras, G.; Chaimbault, P.; Moortgat, G. K.

    2008-05-01

    An important fraction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by atmospheric oxidation of diverse volatile organic compounds (VOC) has recently been shown to consist of high-molecular weight oligomeric species. In our previous study (Sadezky et al., 2006), we reported the identification and characterization of oligomers as main constituents of SOA from gas-phase ozonolysis of small enol ethers. These oligomers contained repeated chain units of the same chemical composition as the main Criegee Intermediates (CI) formed during the ozonolysis reaction, which were CH2O2 (mass 46) for alkyl vinyl ethers (AVE) and C2H4O2 (mass 60) for ethyl propenyl ether (EPE). In the present work, we extend our previous study to another enol ether (ethyl butenyl ether EBE) and a variety of structurally related small alkenes (trans-3-hexene, trans-4-octene and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene). Experiments have been carried out in a 570 l spherical glass reactor at atmospheric conditions in the absence of seed aerosol. SOA formation was measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). SOA filter samples were collected and chemically characterized off-line by ESI(+)/TOF MS and ESI(+)/TOF MS/MS, and elemental compositions were determined by ESI(+)/FTICR MS and ESI(+)/FTICR MS/MS. The results for all investigated unsaturated compounds are in excellent agreement with the observations of our previous study. Analysis of the collected SOA filter samples reveal the presence of oligomeric compounds in the mass range 200 to 800 u as major constituents. The repeated chain units of these oligomers are shown to systematically have the same chemical composition as the respective main Criegee Intermediate (CI) formed during ozonolysis of the unsaturated compounds, which is C3H6O2 (mass 74) for ethyl butenyl ether (EBE), trans-3-hexene, and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene, and C4H8O2 (mass 88) for trans-4-octene. Analogous fragmentation pathways among the oligomers formed by gas-phase ozonolysis of the different

  16. Oligomer formation during gas-phase ozonolysis of small alkenes and enol ethers: new evidence for the central role of the Criegee Intermediate as oligomer chain unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sadezky

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An important fraction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formed by atmospheric oxidation of diverse volatile organic compounds (VOC has recently been shown to consist of high-molecular weight oligomeric species. In our previous study (Sadezky et al., 2006, we reported the identification and characterization of oligomers as main constituents of SOA from gas-phase ozonolysis of small enol ethers. These oligomers contained repeated chain units of the same chemical composition as the main Criegee Intermediates (CI formed during the ozonolysis reaction, which were CH2O2 (mass 46 for alkyl vinyl ethers (AVE and C2H4O2 (mass 60 for ethyl propenyl ether (EPE. In the present work, we extend our previous study to another enol ether (ethyl butenyl ether EBE and a variety of structurally related small alkenes (trans-3-hexene, trans-4-octene and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene.

    Experiments have been carried out in a 570 l spherical glass reactor at atmospheric conditions in the absence of seed aerosol. SOA formation was measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS. SOA filter samples were collected and chemically characterized off-line by ESI(+/TOF MS and ESI(+/TOF MS/MS, and elemental compositions were determined by ESI(+/FTICR MS and ESI(+/FTICR MS/MS. The results for all investigated unsaturated compounds are in excellent agreement with the observations of our previous study. Analysis of the collected SOA filter samples reveal the presence of oligomeric compounds in the mass range 200 to 800 u as major constituents. The repeated chain units of these oligomers are shown to systematically have the same chemical composition as the respective main Criegee Intermediate (CI formed during ozonolysis of the unsaturated compounds, which is C3H6O2 (mass 74 for ethyl butenyl ether (EBE, trans-3-hexene, and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene, and C4H8

  17. Discrimination on the Concept of Historic City in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jinghui; LI Caige

    2012-01-01

    In 1982,the State Council announced a list of historic cities in China,aiming to set up a conservation measure to conserve the cultural heritages from the perspective of a city.The historic city is a concept in relation to urban administrative governance.Its conservation scope and specific contents should be defined in conservation planning.Since the conservation planning of historic city is a part of the city master planning,its planning area should be the same as that in the master planning,with focus on the central urban area.The conservation planning of a historic city should define its objects in view of the interconnection between city history and culture and thus specify its conservation scope and contents accordingly.

  18. European Strategies for Smarter Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Barresi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On a worldwide scale, cities and regions must tackle the challenges set by the radical change in our society and in our economy, aiming to develop effective public policies and boost their managerial, evaluation and planning skills. Anyway, it is essential to put a new idea of city at the centre of the smart strategies in order to bring policies back to their former central position, since technologies alone cannot generate welfare and prosperity. Local leadership, integrated planning and a rich social fabric go hand in hand, the social capital being able to produce an added value for the cities. We are exactly in a new phase of urban growth centred on the economy of services characterized by widespread digital technologies and new innovative organization patterns, which encourage the participation in the civic policy processes through the realization of structures to share information and data so as to define intervention policies. The most recent studies and trials about innovation and competitiveness, such as the examples illustrated in the present work (Amsterdam, Paredes, Aarhus and Gent show a growing interest in measuring the relationship between innovation and economic growth at various territorial levels, key factors in conceiving inclusive smart strategies, linked to principles of sustainability and territorial cohesion, and building smarter cities. In the light of these remarks, the article is divided into three parts: the first part is focussed on the above-mentioned central issues of the international debate; the second part examines four significant European initiatives; the third part draws preliminary conclusions and directions for further research.

  19. Magnetic properties of the remagnetized Middle-Ordovician limestones of the Ponón Trehué Formation (San Rafael Block, central-western Argentina): Insights into the Permian widespread Sanrafaelic overprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzito, Sabrina Y.; Rapalini, Augusto E.

    2016-10-01

    The widespread Sanrafaelic remagnetization reset most of the early Cambrian to mid-Ordovician carbonate platform of the Argentine Precordillera and the calcareous units of the San Rafael Block. We conducted a detailed rock-magnetic study on the Middle-Ordovician limestones of the Ponón Trehué Formation at both limbs of a tight anticline exposed in the San Rafael Block (Mendoza province, central-western Argentina) that are carriers of a syntectonic magnetization of Permian age. We found that the magnetic overprint in the Ponón Trehué Formation is carried by both pyrrhotite and magnetite, with goethite and subordinate haematite likely related to weathering. Hysteresis parameters, frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility, Cisowski and modified Lowrie-Fuller tests suggest the presence of ultrafine particles of chemical origin. Demagnetization of natural remanent magnetization and of three-axis isothermal remanence confirm pyrrhotite and magnetite as important contributors to the remanence. Both minerals carry the same magnetic syntectonic component suggesting a coeval or nearly coeval remanence acquisition and therefore mineral formation. This and the results of the magnetic fabric analyses indicate an authigenic origin of the magnetic minerals during folding associated with the Sanrafaelic tectonic phase (ca. 280 Ma). Although the chemically active (oxidizing?) fluids expelled from the orogen as it developed in the early Permian is a viable explanation for the Sanrafaelic remagnetization, the role of the nearly coeval magmatism in Precordillera and the San Rafael Block remains to be properly evaluated.

  20. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  1. Oligomer formation during gas-phase ozonolysis of small alkenes and enol ethers: new evidence for the central role of the Criegee Intermediate as oligomer chain unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sadezky

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An important fraction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formed by atmospheric oxidation of diverse volatile organic compounds (VOC has recently been shown to consist of high-molecular weight oligomeric species. In our previous study (Sadezky et al., 2006, we reported the identification and characterization of oligomers as main constituents of SOA from gas-phase ozonolysis of small enol ethers. These oligomers contained repeated chain units of the same chemical composition as the main Criegee Intermediates (CI formed during the ozonolysis reaction, which were CH2O2 (mass 46 for alkyl vinyl ethers (AVE and C2H4O2 (mass 60 for ethyl propenyl ether (EPE. In the present work, we extend our previous study (Sadezky et al., 2006 to another enol ether (ethyl butenyl ether EBE and a variety of structurally related small alkenes (trans-3-hexene, trans-4-octene and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene.

    Experiments have been carried out in a 570 l spherical glass reactor at atmospheric conditions in the absence of seed aerosol. SOA formation was measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS. SOA filter samples were collected and chemically characterized off-line by ESI(+/MS-TOF and ESI(+/MS/MS-TOF, and elemental compositions were confirmed by ESI(+/MS/MS-FTICR. The results for all investigated unsaturated compounds are in excellent agreement with the observations of our previous study (Sadezky et al., 2006. Analysis of the collected SOA filter samples reveal the presence of oligomeric compounds in the mass range 200 to 800 u as major constituents. The repeated chain units of these oligomers are shown to systematically have the same chemical composition as the respective main Criegee Intermediate (CI formed during ozonolysis of the unsaturated compounds, which is C3H6O2 (mass 74 for ethyl butenyl ether (EBE, trans-3-hexene, and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene

  2. Deployable centralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-28

    A centralizer assembly is disclosed that allows for the assembly to be deployed in-situ. The centralizer assembly includes flexible members that can be extended into the well bore in situ by the initiation of a gas generating device. The centralizer assembly can support a large load carrying capability compared to a traditional bow spring with little or no installation drag. Additionally, larger displacements can be produced to centralize an extremely deviated casing.

  3. A Crowded City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Over 4 million vehicles on road challenge Beijing’s city management Beijing, the city once known as the kingdom of bicycles, has become clogged with automobiles, the Beijing Municipal Government Publicity Office said on December 18.

  4. Build a Green City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUYING; HAOXUE

    2005-01-01

    MA'ANSHAN,dubbed ""City of Iron and Steel,""is on the south bank of the Yangtze River in eastern Anhui Province, bordering Jiangsu Province. One of the city's most impressive features is its clean environment.

  5. Formation of orogen-perpendicular thrusts due to mechanical contrasts in the basal décollement in the Central External Sierras (Southern Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Royo, Oskar; Koyi, Hemin A.; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2009-05-01

    Two series of analogue models are used to explore the effect of ductile-frictional contrasts of the basal décollement on the development of oblique and transverse structures during thin-skinned shortening. These models simulate the evolution of the Central External Sierras (CES; Southern Pyrenees, Spain), which constitute the frontal emerging part of the southernmost Pyrenean thrust. The CES are characterised by the presence of N-S to NW-SE anticlines, perpendicular to the Pyrenean structural trend and developed in the hanging-wall of the thrust system. They detach on unevenly distributed Triassic materials (evaporitic-dolomitic interfingering). The models simulated the effect of adjacent ductile versus frictional décollements during shortening. Model Series A tests the thickness ratio between overburden and the ductile layer, whereas model Series B tests the width (perpendicular to the shortening direction) of frictional décollement. Model results confirms that deformation reaches further in areas detached on a ductile layer whereas above frictional décollement areas, shortening is accommodated by additional uplift and penetrative strain. This replicates the structural style of the CES: higher structural relief of N-S anticlines with regard to orogen-parallel structures, absence of a representative ductile décollement in the core, plunging towards the hinterland and foreland-side closure not thrusted by the South Pyrenean thrust.

  6. Formation history and protolith characteristics of granulite facies metamorphic rock in Central Cathaysia deduced from U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic studies of single zircon grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jinhai; ZHOU Xinmin; Y. S. O'Reilly; ZHAO Lei; W. L. Griffin; WANG Rucheng; WANG Lijuan; CHEN Xiaomin

    2005-01-01

    The petrochemical as well as zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic studies of granulite facies metamorphic rock from the Taoxi Group in eastern Nanling Range, Central Cathaysia indicate that its protolith is the sedimentary rock with low maturation index. The clastic materials are mostly from middle Neoproterozoic (~736 Ma) granitoid rocks with minor Neoarchaean and Paleoproterozoic rocks. The timing of this Neoproterozoic magmatism is in agreement with the second period of magmatism widespread surrounding the Yangtze Block. Hf isotopic data indicate that the Neoproterozoic granitoids resulted from the recycled Paleoproterozoic mantle-derived crustal materials. The sedimentary rock was deposited in Late Neoproterozoic Era, and carried into low crust in Early Paleozoic. The partial melting of the meta-sedimentary rock took place at about 480 Ma and subsequently granulite facies metamorphism occurred at ca. 443 Ma. The zircons forming during this time interval (Early Paleozoic) show large Hf isotope variations, and their -Hf(t) values increase from -13.2 to +2.36 with decreasing age, suggesting the injection of mantle-derived materials during partial melting and metamorphism processes in the Early Paleozoic. Calculation results show that this metamorphic rock, if evolved to Mesozoic, has similar isotopic composition to the nearby Mesozoic high Si peraluminous granites, implying that this kind of granulite facies metamorphic rock is probably the source material of some Mesozoic peraluminous granitoids in eastern Nanling Range.

  7. Bay sedimentation as controlled by regional crustal behaviour, local tectonics and eustatic sea-level changes: Coquimbo Formation (Miocene Pliocene), Bay of Tongoy, central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, J. P.; Olivares, Danisa M.; Nielsen, Sven N.; Smith, Norman D.; Middleton, Heather; Fenner, Juliane; Ishman, Scott E.

    2006-02-01

    The north-facing Bay of Tongoy in central Chile is flanked by topographic highs in the west and east. During the Miocene and Pliocene, the bay extended inland at least 30 km farther south than a present. It was filled with muds, sands, coquinas and gravel during a series of transgressions and regressions related to regional and local tectonic movements combined with global sea-level variations. 87Sr/ 86Sr and microfossil dating indicates transgressions between 11.9-11.2 Ma, 10.1-9.5 Ma, 9.0-7.3 Ma, 6.3-5.3 Ma, 4.3-2.2 Ma and 1.7-1.4 Ma. The regional tectonic behaviour of the crust shows general uplifting from 10.5 Ma to 6.9 Ma, associated with subduction of the Juan Fernández Ridge (JFR) beneath this part of the continent. Subsidence followed between 6.9 and 2.1 Ma, in the wake of the southeastward-migrating JFR. The subsequent subduction of an oceanic plateau similar to the JFR caused rapid uplift that led to the final emergence of the bay above sea level. The Puerto Aldea normal fault along the western limit of the study area was reactivated during the regional uplift and subsidence events, with reverse faulting occurring during the latter phase. Sporadic fault reactivation probably triggered the rapid changes in water depth reflected in the recorded vertical succession of facies.

  8. A City Is a Complex Network

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    A city is not a tree but a semi-lattice. To use a more fashionable term, a city is a complex network. The complex network constitutes a unique topological perspective on cities and enables us to better understand the kind of problem a city is. The topological perspective differentiates it from the perspectives of Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics that deal with essentially regular shapes and more or less similar things. Many urban theories, such as the Central Place Theory, Zipf's Law, the Image of the City, and the Theory of Centers can be interpreted from the point of view of complex networks. A livable city consists of far more small things than large ones, and their shapes tend to be irregular and rough. This chapter illustrates the complex network view and argues that we must abandon the kind of thinking guided by Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics, and instead adopt fractal geometry, power-law statistics, and Alexander's living geometry to develop sustainable cities. Keywords: Scaling, ...

  9. The Creative Cities Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Creative Cities Network, started by UNESCO in 2004, is one of the world’s highest-level non-governmental organizations in creative industry. The network focuses on the excellence of its member cities as its main product, and finds ways to maintain relevance in city life, local economy

  10. Revisiting city connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a new perspective on city connectivity in order to analyze non-hub cities and their position in the world economy. The author revisits the different approaches discussed in the Global Commodity Chains (GCC), Global Production Networks (GPN) and World City Network (WCN) discou

  11. Structural and stratigraphic evolution of the central Mississippi Canyon area: Interaction of salt tectonics and slope processes in the formation of engineering and geologic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, John Richard

    Approximately 720 square miles of digital 3-dimensional seismic data covering the eastern Mississippi Canyon area, Gulf of Mexico, continental shelf was used to examine the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the geology in the study area. The analysis focused on salt tectonics and sequence stratigraphy to develop a geologic model for the study area and its potential impact on engineering and geologic hazards. Salt in the study area was found to be established structural end-members derived from shallow-emplaced salt sheets. The transition from regional to local salt tectonics was identified through structural deformation of the stratigraphic section on the seismic data and occurred no later than ˜450,000 years ago. From ˜450,000 years to present, slope depositional processes have become the dominant geologic process in the study area. Six stratigraphic sequences (I-VI) were identified in the study area and found to correlate with sequences previously defined for the Eastern Mississippi Fan. Condensed sections were the key to the correlation. The sequence stratigraphy for the Eastern Mississippi Fan can be extended ˜28 miles west, adding another ˜720 square miles to the interpreted Fan. A previously defined channel within the Eastern Fan was identified in the study area and extended the channel ˜28 miles west. Previous work on the Eastern Fan identified the source of the Fan to be the Mobile River; however, extending the channel west suggests the sediment source to be from the Mississippi River, not the Mobile River. Further evidence for this was found in ponded turbidites whose source has been previously established as the Mississippi River. Ages of the stratigraphic sequences were compared to changes in eustatic sea level. The formation stratigraphic sequences appear decoupled from sea level change with "pseudo-highstands" forming condensed sections during pronounced Pleistocene sea level lowstands. Miocene and Pleistocene depositional analogues

  12. Galaxy population properties of the massive X-ray luminous galaxy cluster XDCP J0044.0-2033 at z=1.58: red-sequence formation, massive galaxy assembly, and central star formation activity

    CERN Document Server

    Fassbender, R; Santos, J S; Lidman, C; Verdugo, M; Koyama, Y; Rosati, P; Pierini, D; Padilla, N; Romeo, A D; Menci, N; Bongiorno, A; Castellano, M; Cerulo, P; Fontana, A; Galametz, A; Grazian, A; Lamastra, A; Pentericci, L; Sommariva, V; Strazzullo, V; Suhada, R; Tozzi, P

    2014-01-01

    We investigate various galaxy population properties of the massive X-ray luminous galaxy cluster XDCP J0044.0-2033 at z=1.58, which constitutes the most extreme matter density peak at this redshift currently known. We analyze deep VLT/HAWK-I NIR data in the J- and Ks-bands, complemented by Subaru imaging in i and V, Spitzer observations at 4.5 micron, and new spectroscopic observations with VLT/FORS2. We detect a cluster-associated excess population of about 90 galaxies, which follows a centrally peaked, compact NFW galaxy surface density profile with a concentration of c200~10. Based on the Spitzer 4.5 micron imaging data, we measure a stellar mass fraction of fstar,500=(3.3+-1.4)% consistent with local values. The total J- and Ks-band galaxy luminosity functions of the core region yield characteristic magnitudes J* and Ks* consistent with expectations from simple z_f=3 burst models. However, a detailed look at the morphologies and color distributions of the spectroscopically confirmed members reveals that t...

  13. 基于IPA方法的非中心城市酒店一线员工满意度研究%Study on the Front-line Employees' Satisfaction of Star-hotels in Non-central Area Based on IPA:A Case Study of Mianyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湛艳琳

    2014-01-01

    酒店业普遍存在一线员工工作满意度过低的问题,导致一线员工频繁地跳槽,人才流失严重,影响了整个酒店业的发展。在如今一线中心城市尚且存在高度“用工荒”的情况下,非中心城市的星级酒店如何留住一线员工?本文通过对市级不同星级酒店的实地调查研究以及对个别酒店领导的访谈,通过IPA方法分析了影响一线员工工作满意度的具体因素。%There generally exists a low job satisfaction of the workers at the production line in hotel industry, and it leads to employees' frequent job-hopping and serious brain drain, which affects the development of the entire hotel industry. Considering the "labor shortage"condition in the first line center cities, how to retain the front-line staff of starred hotels in non-central cities is a matter that must be taken into account. In this paper, by means of the field research in secondary and tertiary cities as well as interviews with leaders of individual hotels, the author analyzed the specific factors affecting staff's job satisfaction by the IPA method, and proposed the specific measures to improve front-line staff's job satisfaction.

  14. Discussion on the Central Business District of a City Bus Priority Traffic Planning%城市中心商业区公交优先的交通规划的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维彬; 祖宇聪

    2013-01-01

    bus priority is a system engineering, it relates to the transformation of city traffic development strategy and system of the existing mechanism of city planning, and the concept of people, and it is not just a bus and taxi in the way of use preference, but the vast majority of people in the priority traffic. The most important is, in the"three factors of human, vehicle, road traffic management", in the limited road conditions to solve the smooth road and vehicle growth problem, we should fol ow the principle of people-oriented, considering that most people travel convenience.%  公交优先是一个系统的工程,它涉及到城市总体规划、城市交通发展战略和现行的体制机制及人们观念的转变,而且它不仅仅是指公交车和出租车在路权使用上的优先,而是指绝大多数人在交通出行方面的优先。最重要的是,在“人、车、路”交通管理的三要素当中,要在有限的道路条件下解决好道路通畅和车辆增长的问题,我们要遵循以人为本的原则,考虑到多数人出行方便的情况。

  15. 中心城市周边区域农产品生产与物流供应的粒子群优化模型%Particle Swarm Optimization Model for Agricultural Production and Logistics Supply in Fringe of Central Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨景祥; 黄永生; 杜化美

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, in view of the cost of agricultural planting in fringes of central cities as well as the different, diversified and complex logistics transportation cost in the supply of the agricultural products to the central cities, we proposed the particle swarm optimization model for the agricultural production and logistics supply of these areas. Then through analyzing the characteristics of the agricultural production and logistics supply in these areas, we designed the relevant parameters, established a particle swarm optimization algorithm, and then through a numerical example, tested the effect of the optimization model in the aspects of planting area selection, plant selection and logistics route selection.%针对中心城市周边区域农产品种植成本及供给中心城市物流运输成本的差异性、多样性和复杂性,提出中心城市周边区域农产品生产与物流供应的粒子群优化模型.通过中心城市周边区域农产品生产与物流供应特性为出发点的模型基础分析,设计中心城市周边区域农产品生产和物流供应相关参数,构建粒子群优化模型,并通过算例和算例分析,验证粒子群优化模型在种植区域选择、种植种类选择、物流去向选择方面的优化效果.

  16. The Wuluma granite, Arunta Block, central Australia: An example of in situ, near-isochemical granite formation in a granulite-facies terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, W. J.; Flood, R. H.; Vernon, R. H.; Shaw, S. E.

    1989-06-01

    The Wuluma granite is a small, elongate, relatively undeformed pluton in the Proterozoic Strangways Metamorphic Complex, central Australia. The complex constitutes a supracrustal assemblage that underwent granulite-facies metamorphism 1800 Ma ago. Metamorphism was associated with at least three phases of folding that ultimately produced upright, regional, doubly plunging F 3 folds and isobaric cooling ensued. Generation of the Wuluma granite occurred at ˜ 1750 Ma, based on RbSr isotopic data, during syn-D 3 regional retrogression and rehydration of the terrane. Contacts between the granite and gneisses are invariably gradational. At the pluton margin, banded gneisses grade along strike into granite containing abundant biotite schlieren that parallel regional structures. Granite and pegmatite dykes cut these rocks. Inwards from the contact, the granite is more homogeneous, containing diffuse parallel schlieren and small aligned rectangular feldspar crystals, indicating flow of magma. Rafts of unmelted granofels form a ghost layering; they mimic macroscopic F 3 folds and show only minor retrogressive metamorphic effects. At the pluton core, the granite is homogeneous and structurally isotropic, containing some subrounded granofelsic inclusions, very diffuse schlieren and disaggregated pegmatite dykes. Thus, it appears that an isoclinally folded, vertical body of quartzofeldspathic gneiss was melted "in situ" to form the pluton, which did not break away from the source. The body resembles a tapered diapir and we term this type of pluton a regional migmatite terrane granite. Geochemical data are consistent with the granite forming by anatexis of quartzofeldspathic migmatitic gneisses with appropriate composition. The chemical similarity of both rock types implies derivation of the granite by either partial melting and retention of residual material in the magma or more complete melting, followed by solidification virtually in situ. The latter interpretation is

  17. 2010 China International Friendship Cities Conference Held in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2010-01-01

    <正>The 2010 China International Friendship Cities Conference under the theme of "City Cooperation Leads to a Better Life" convened in Shanghai September 8-10,co-sponsored by the CPAFFC and the China International Friendship-Cities Association(CIFCA) and hosted by the Shanghai Municipal Government.A total of 427 representatives from local governments,local governments’ organizations,friendship-city organizations and friendship associations in 47 countries as well as 144 Chinese local government officials from 31 provinces(autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government) participated.

  18. Implementation of warm-cloud processes in a source-oriented WRF/Chem model to study the effect of aerosol mixing state on fog formation in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiang-He; Chen, Shu-Hua; Kleeman, Michael J.; Zhang, Hongliang; DeNero, Steven P.; Joe, David K.

    2016-07-01

    The source-oriented Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry model (SOWC) was modified to include warm cloud processes and was applied to investigate how aerosol mixing states influence fog formation and optical properties in the atmosphere. SOWC tracks a 6-D chemical variable (X, Z, Y, size bins, source types, species) through an explicit simulation of atmospheric chemistry and physics. A source-oriented cloud condensation nuclei module was implemented into the SOWC model to simulate warm clouds using the modified two-moment Purdue Lin microphysics scheme. The Goddard shortwave and long-wave radiation schemes were modified to interact with source-oriented aerosols and cloud droplets so that aerosol direct and indirect effects could be studied. The enhanced SOWC model was applied to study a fog event that occurred on 17 January 2011, in the Central Valley of California. Tule fog occurred because an atmospheric river effectively advected high moisture into the Central Valley and nighttime drainage flow brought cold air from mountains into the valley. The SOWC model produced reasonable liquid water path, spatial distribution and duration of fog events. The inclusion of aerosol-radiation interaction only slightly modified simulation results since cloud optical thickness dominated the radiation budget in fog events. The source-oriented mixture representation of particles reduced cloud droplet number relative to the internal mixture approach that artificially coats hydrophobic particles with hygroscopic components. The fraction of aerosols activating into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) at a supersaturation of 0.5 % in the Central Valley decreased from 94 % in the internal mixture model to 80 % in the source-oriented model. This increased surface energy flux by 3-5 W m-2 and surface temperature by as much as 0.25 K in the daytime.

  19. Me, the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for identity of cities looks rather urgent and attracts attention of many researchers. Addressing this issue, the article draws an analogy between a human person and a city. Like a city, a human being needs to comprehend his self-identity in order to resist depressive tendencies. It is shown that a person’s depressive symptoms are similar to those of cities. The city identity necessary to resist depression can be searched for both historically and geographically. The historical aspect consists of local myths and legends about the city and the citizens. The geographical aspect of identity comprises features of the terrain, climate, flora and fauna of the region where the city is located.

  20. Cities as Organisms: Allometric Scaling of Urban Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Samaniego

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a statistical approach to determine the features of urban road networks affecting accessibility. Our approach is inspired by metabolic scaling theory (MST in biology (West et al. 1997.We study the structure of road networks across 425 cities of different sizes in the USA. We show decentralization as an important difference between urban road networks and biological vascular networks. Per capita road capacity is independent of the spatial extent of cities. Driving distances do depend on the size of the city, although not as much as is predicted by a completely centralized model. This intermediate pattern between centralized and decentralized extremes may reflect a mixture of different travel behaviors.The approach presented here offers a novel macroscopic perspective on the differences between small and large cities and on how the road infrastructure and traffic might change as cities grow.

  1. Usage of microbial mats in depostional environment interpretation and sea level changes: A study of carbonate deposits of members 1 to 2 of the Mila Group (Deh-Sufiyan Formation in Central Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Bayetgol

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate deposits of members 1 to 2 of the Mila Group (Middle Cambrian in Central Alborz that call Deh-Sufiyan Formation in this research, were studied in Shahmirzad, Tueh-Darvar, Mila-Kuh and Deh-Molla sections. These sediments were deposited in four facies belts on a carbonate ramp including basinal environments, outer ramp (deep subtidal sequences, mid ramp (shallow subtidal to lower intertidal sequences, and inner ramp (shoal and upper intertidal to supratidal sequences. Various microbialites were recognized in the shallow-water sediments (includes subtidal and intertidal of this unit. Based on this study, microbial mats have various morphology of form and type of growth structure and inluding laminar to wavy-laminar, domal or hemispheroidal, bulbous, columnar, regular flabellate columns, unlaminated, loaf- to mound-shaped thrombolities. Facies associations of Deh-Sufiyan Formation are arranged in small-scale of peritidal, shallow subtidal, and deep subtidal cycles and microbial mats are the major features of them. The trends of vertical changes of facies in shallowing-upward and deepening-upward cycles and distribution of various types of microbialites in these cycles had been related to depostional environments and their postions on carbonate ramp. Basal classification method used in this study can provide valuable informations for application of microbiali mats in paleo-environmental and sequence stratigraphy analysis.

  2. Natural Hazards In Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vera, M.

    2001-12-01

    Around the world more than 300 natural disasters occur each year, taking about 250,000 lives and directly affecting more than 200 million people. Natural hazards are complex and vary greatly in their frequency, speed of onset, duration and area affected. They are distinguished from extreme natural events, which are much more common and widespread, by their potential impacts on human societies. A natural disaster is the occurrence of a natural hazard on a large scale, involving great damage and, particularly in developing countries, great loss of life. The Basin of Mexico, whose central and southwestern parts are occupied by the urban area of Mexico City at the average altitude of 2,240 m above the sea level, is located on the southern edge of the Southern Plateau Central, on a segment of the Trans-Mexican Neovolcanic Belt that developed during Pliocene-Holocene times. The Basin of Mexico is a closed basin, which was created with the closing of the former Valley of Mexico because of basaltic-andesitic volcanism that formed the Sierra de Chichinautzin south of the city. The south-flowing drainage was obstructed and prompted the development of a lake that became gradually filled with sediments during the last 700,000 years. The lake fill accumulated unconformably over a terrain of severely dissected topography, which varies notably in thickness laterally. The major part of the urban area of Mexico City is built over these lake deposits, whereas the rest is built over alluvial material that forms the transition zone between the lake deposits and what constitutes the basement for the basin fill. In the present study, the effect of rain, fire and earthquakes onto Mexico City is evaluated. Rain risk was calculated using the most dangerous flood paths. The fire risk zones were determined by defining the vegetation areas with greater probability to catch fires. Earthquake hazards were determined by characterization of the zones that are vulnerable to damages produced by

  3. An evaluation eMergetics of Itacoatiara's city in the central Amazon, their plywood, and cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river; Uma avaliacao eMergetica da cidade de Itacoatiara na Amazonia Central, sua industria de compensado e laminado e a varzea da bacia do rio Madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comar, Vito

    1994-12-01

    The plywood production system of Itacoatiara's industry and the wooden extraction impact of cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river are presented. The incorporated energy flows - eMergy are evaluated by the models mathematical simulation, which applies to specific indices derivation aiming at the comparison with other similar processes. Itacoatiara's city was going analyzed regarding the industry load energetics and of others urban components.

  4. MODEL OF THE CITY IN THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yermolenko V. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The known models of the city from a position of knowledge economy are analyzed in the article. The hypothesis of the research shows that practice of a strategizing of the city has to be based on polymodel approach when several key models adequate to modern trends are taken as a basis, connected with formation of sector of economy as a part of regional social and economic system, and other models are addition and essential extension of the contents chosen basic models, strengthening their cognitive component. Research of the model of a creative city, creative clusters, quarters and zones of the city, model of the digital city, model of an eco-city is conducted. Substantial features of models are revealed. It is established that the informative potential of types of models of the city increases on the basis of research and identification of mechanisms of mutually transition (participation of elements of one model as elements another (others complementary models. The city as the semistructured system consisting of diverse subsystems and elements does not submit to rational planning owing to structural and territorial duplication of functions and asynchrony in functioning and changes, and also owing to the history and sociocultural specifics of the population significantly giving immanent logic of life. It is necessary to create flexible system of the city strategy on a polymodel (interdisciplinary basis, based on activization of growth sources, various on contents, for the purpose of formation of new image of the cities

  5. Formação do fonoaudiólogo no município de Salvador e consolidação do SUS Speech-language pathology formation in the city of Salvador and the consolidation of SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Lemos

    2010-08-01

    speech-language pathology profile in the city of Salvador, Bahia State. Documental analysis and coordinator interviews were used to investigate how the public area is characterized in 3 modules. It was noticed little adhesion of the upper level institutions to the legislation of the field; lack of contact between graduating students and collective health, and a teaching-service disconnection. The graduation of the speech therapist was shown incipient regarding SUS's consolidation. Identifying challenges and opportunities of changes in HRH formation in upper level institutions may lead to better levels of aid to the population, quality of education and expansion of theoretical and practical models of knowledge.

  6. 四川省峨眉山市王山-抓口寺滑坡成因机理研究%FORMATION MECHANISM OF WANGSHAN-ZHUAKOUSHI LANDSLIDE IN EMEI CITY, SICHUAN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏云杰; 褚宏亮; 庄茂国; 王灿峰; 柏永岩

    2016-01-01

    On June 14, 2015, an unstable slope in Xingyang village Jiuli town Ermeishan city begun to slide after continuous rainfall.It was named as Wangshan-zhuakousi landslide.It threatened more than 52 people and their property.It also caused a direct economic loss of about 5million RMB, and an indirect economic loss of more than 30million RMB.Due to timely and effective emergency evacuation by the local government organization , the landslide had no casualties.On the basis of field investigation and simulation calculation , the conclusions are as follows:(1) the landslide is belonged to the slip-cracking type.Its stability is governed by tuff interlayers.In meanwhile, the rock mass structure of landslide was crushed by the early mining excavation and "5.12″Wenchuan earthquake, which made the stability of landslide in critical condition .(2)Rainfall was the direct triggering factor of landslide formation.The rainfall mainly infiltrated the rock mass and became the groundwater which flowed along the tuff layer.With its weight increasing, stability coefficient of landslide was gradually reduced until high -speed landslide happened.(3) According to the characteristics of landslide in basalt area , the corresponding landslide emergency safety measures are summarizes .%2015年6月14日,受连续强降雨影响,峨眉山市九里镇兴阳村王山—抓口寺不稳定斜坡发生滑动,威胁27户52人的安全,由于当地政府提前组织人员紧急撤离,滑坡未造成人员伤亡,直接经济损失约为500万元,间接经济损失3000余万元。通过现场调查和模拟计算,结果表明:(1)滑坡稳定性受凝灰岩夹层控制,受早期采矿开挖和“5・12”汶川地震影响,岩体结构破碎,其稳定性处于临界状态,属于滑移-拉裂型;(2)降雨是导致滑坡形成的直接因素,降雨入渗后并转化为地下水,沿凝灰岩夹层上层面流动,滑坡稳定性系数逐渐降低,在重力作

  7. Assessment of the hydraulic properties of fractured aquifers in crystalline and metamorphic formations in the region of Lacs (Central Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soro, G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the main source of water supply for rural populations in the Region des Lacs area in central Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa. The area is underlain by the metamorphic and crystalline fractured hard rock aquifers. This paper focuses on the assessment of their hydraulic properties. To this end, a data base comprising pumping tests data and the technical reports were gathered. 105 values of transmissivity (T and specific capacity (Q/s have been deduced after pumping tests interpretation by the Jacob recovery method. Statistical analyses of all these data have been done. Depth of wells range from 49.50 to 99 m with an average of 69 m. The thickness of the weathered zone has averaged 16.52 m and lies between 1.90 and 63.10 m. Wells average rate is 2.32 m3/s. The depths of open fractures are significantly in the first 60 meters of hard rock drilling and averaged 42.94 m. The transmissivity and specific capacity of each aquifer span over several orders of magnitude revealing the strong heterogeneity of the aquifer. Both variables are lognormal variables A significant empirical relationship between T and Q/s was found T = 0,937(Q/s^1.118 with a coefficient of determination (R^2 = 0.82. This relationship enabled the transmissivity data to be supplemented with the 95% prediction interval in order to assess the uncertainty associated with the estimates of transmissivity in the area of the study. These results are significant and can be used as an input in forthcoming modeling these aquifers and facilitate groundwater management policy.

    [fr] Dans la région des Lacs, centre de la Côte d’Ivoire (Afrique de l’Ouest, l’alimentation en eau potable des populations rurales est assurée en majorité par les eaux souterraines contenues dans les aquifères discontinus cristallin et cristallophyllien. L’objet de cet article est d’évaluer les propriétés hydrauliques de ces aquifères afin d’entreprendre des études pour la gestion

  8. Wisp2/CCN5 up-regulated in the central nervous system of GM3-only mice facilitates neurite formation in Neuro2a cells via integrin-Akt signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkawa, Yuki, E-mail: tomilbio@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Ohmi, Yuhsuke, E-mail: ooumi82@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Tajima, Orie, E-mail: oriet@isc.chubu.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chubu University College of Life and Health Sciences, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan); Yamauchi, Yoshio, E-mail: yyoshio@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Furukawa, Keiko, E-mail: keikofu@isc.chubu.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chubu University College of Life and Health Sciences, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan); Furukawa, Koichi, E-mail: koichi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Wisp2/CCN5 was up-regulated in nervous tissues of GM3-only mutant mice. {yields} Wisp2/CCN5 was found in neurons more strongly in the mutant mice. {yields} Wisp2/CCN5 induces Akt phosphorylation via integrins and facilitates neurite formation. {yields} Wisp2/CCN5 conferred resistance to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis. {yields} Up-regulation of Wisp2/CCN5 in GM3-only mice seemed for protection of brains from neurodegeneration. -- Abstract: Wisp2/CCN5 belongs to CCN family proteins which are involved in cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis and wound healing. Although a number of studies on the roles of Wisp2/CCN5 in cancers have been reported, no study on the expression and function of Wisp2/CCN5 in the central nervous system has been reported. In this study, we focused on Wisp2/CCN5 that was up-regulated in nervous tissues in GM3-only mice. Over-expression of Wisp2/CCN5 enhanced neurite outgrowth potently after serum withdrawal with increased phosphorylation levels of Akt and ERKs. When cells were cultured with recombinant Wisp2/CCN5 proteins, more and longer neurites were formed than in the controls. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that Wisp2/CCN5 facilitates neurite formation in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro2a. Akt phosphorylation induced by recombinant Wisp2/CCN5 was suppressed after knockdown of integrin {beta}1. Moreover, Wisp2/CCN5-over-expressing cells were resistant to apoptosis induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. These results suggested that secreted Wisp2/CCN5 induces Akt and ERK phosphorylation via integrins, and consequently facilitates neurite formation and conferred resistance to apoptosis. Up-regulation of Wisp2/CCN5 in GM3-only mice should be, therefore, a reaction to protect nervous tissues from neurodegeneration caused by ganglioside deficiency.

  9. Bioclimatic conditions in Mexico City - an assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, E.; Cervantes, Juan; Tejeda, Adalberto

    Bioclimatic conditions have been assessed for a large urban area located in the tropical highlands of central Mexico using the indices (in °C) of resultant temperature (RT) and effective temperature (ET). The well-developed heat island effect the city generates, reduces the number of nights categorized as cold (ET between 5 and 15° C) to cool (ET from 15 to 18.5° C). Most days fall in the cold to cool range and during the warm season (April to June) the bioclimate of Mexico City is mostly within the neutral (comfort) range. The effect of the nocturnal (to the west) and daytime (to the east of the town) heat island is noticeable in the central and northern sectors. The daytime heat island located in these regions, albeit small (urban air temperature 2-3° C greater than rural), compared with the nocturnal heat island intensity (9-10° C) still adds energy to the already heated afternoon urban air. ET values in the north and central sectors approach the threshold for comfort (ET of 25° C) during the warm months around noon. It is not surprising to find that as the nocturnal heat island has increased over the years (1921-1985) as the city grew, so has the ET for the central district and indicating the dominating role of temperature in the ET index. Assessment of the diurnal cycle of bioclimatic conditions in downtown Mexico City by means of two empirical indices (effective temperature and thermopreferendum) throughout the years gave similar results to those obtained from the application of Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV) model. An attempt has been made to characterize four bioclimatic zones in the capital city.

  10. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  11. Study of City Landscape Heritage Using Lidar Data and 3d-City Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinowicz, P.; Czynska, K.

    2015-04-01

    In contemporary town planning protection of urban landscape is a significant issue. It regards especially those cities, where urban structures are the result of ages of evolution and layering of historical development process. Specific panoramas and other strategic views with historic city dominants can be an important part of the cultural heritage and genius loci. Other hand, protection of such expositions introduces limitations for future based city development. Digital Earth observation techniques creates new possibilities for more accurate urban studies, monitoring of urbanization processes and measuring of city landscape parameters. The paper examines possibilities of application of Lidar data and digital 3D-city models for: a) evaluation of strategic city views, b) mapping landscape absorption limits, and c) determination protection zones, where the urbanization and buildings height should be limited. In reference to this goal, the paper introduces a method of computational analysis of the city landscape called Visual Protection Surface (VPS). The method allows to emulate a virtual surface above the city including protection of a selected strategic views. The surface defines maximum height of buildings in such a way, that no new facility can be seen in any of selected views. The research includes also analyses of the quality of simulations according the form and precision of the input data: airborne Lidar / DSM model and more advanced 3D-city models (incl. semantic of the geometry, like in CityGML format). The outcome can be a support for professional planning of tall building development. Application of VPS method have been prepared by a computer program developed by the authors (C++). Simulations were carried out on an example of the city of Dresden.

  12. How to study the city on Instagram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boy, J.D.; Uitermark, J.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Instagram as a data source for use by scholars in urban studies and neighboring disciplines and propose ways to operationalize key concepts in the study of cities. These data can help shed light on segregation, the formation of subcultures, strategies of distinction, and status hierarch

  13. How to study the city on instagram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boy, J.D. (John D.); J.L. Uitermark (Justus)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce Instagram as a data source for use by scholars in urban studies and neighboring disciplines and propose ways to operationalize key concepts in the study of cities. These data can help shed light on segregation, the formation of subcultures, strategies of distinction, and sta

  14. Competitiveness, Migration, and Mobility in the Global City: Insights from Sydney, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The global city thesis and the migration thesis concern two important dimensions of the impacts of contemporary globalization on cities. The two theses are intrinsically linked. The central question is how we should approach migration in the new context of the global city, and how we should articulate their interrelationships. To address this question, we construct an integrative analytical framework linking global city and migration, and empirically apply it to Sydney. We build a set of inde...

  15. Retrospective on 20 Years of Friendship-City Ties Between Yangzhou and Kent, Washington State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang; Le

    2014-01-01

    <正>This year marks the 20th anniversary of the establishment of friendship-city relations between Kent,a satellite city of Seattle with a population of 92,000 and covering an area of 34.19 square miles,and Yangzhou.Kent was the third foreign city to make such arrangement with the central-eastern Chinese city.Friendship and Exchanges of Gifts Yangzhou started

  16. Challenges and Opportunities of Air Quality Management in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, V.

    2013-05-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is located in the central plateau of Mexico and is the capital of the country. Its natural characteristics present favorable conditions for air pollution formation and accumulation: mountains surrounding the city, frequent thermal inversions, high isolation all around the year and weak winds. To these natural conditions, a population of more than 20 million inhabitants, a fleet of 4.5 million vehicles and more than 4 thousands industries, make air quality management a real challenge for governments of the region. Intensive air quality improvement actions and programs began at the end of the 1980's and continued nowadays. Since then criteria air pollutants concentrations have decreased in such a way that currently most of pollutants meet the Mexican air quality standards, except for ozone and particulate matter. Applied measures comprised of fuel quality improvements, fuel replacements, regulations for combustion processes, closing of high polluting refineries and industries, regulations of emissions for new and on road vehicles, mandatory I/M programs for vehicles, circulation restrictions for vehicles (Day without car program), alert program for elevated air pollution episodes, improvement of public transportation, among others. Recent researches (MILAGRO 2006 campaign) found that currently it is necessary to implement emissions reduction actions for Volatile Organic Compounds, particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers PM2.5 and Nitrogen Oxides, in order to reduce concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter. Among the new measures to be implemented are: regulations for VOCs emissions in the industry and commercial sectors; regulation of the diesel fleet that includes fleets renewal, filters and particulate traps for in use vehicles and regulation of the cargo fleet; new schemes for reducing the number of vehicles circulating in the city; implementation of non-motorized mobility programs; among

  17. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2011-01-01

    for innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden....... It is shown that the cities have the potential to significantly contribute to a more sustainable development through increased material recycling and energy recovery. Waste prevention may increase this potential. For example, instead of constituting 3% of the total greenhouse gas emission problem, it seems......There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth...

  18. Urban DNA for cities evolutions. Cities as physical expression of dynamic equilibriums between competitive and cooperative forces

    CERN Document Server

    D'Acci, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Cities are physical manifestations of our competitive and cooperative behaviours. The tension between these two forces generates dynamic equilibriums whose material expressions are cities and their evolutions. In a Darwinian cooperative view, as Darwinism does not involve only competition, the public benefit obtained by cooperation, return in terms of private benefit too. An urban genetic code is proposed, according to which cities emerge connecting nature and urbanity, and as sum of multiuse, independent micro-areas, each one with its centrality, job locations, parks and daily shops-services and amenities. This mechanism, called Isobenefit Urbanism, is not static and pre-designed, but allows infinitely dynamic changes and expansions. Rather than describing The ideal city, which doesn't exist outside our own minds, Isobenefit Urbanism describes what a city should avoid to be in order to not become an unideal city. Its six principles are the urban DNA which does not give predetermined forms but indications to ...

  19. 海口市公共场所集中空调通风系统卫生监测与分析%Hygienic monitoring of central air conditioning ventilation systems in public places of Haikou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彩云; 李永忠; 梁启昌; 封丹; 符振华; 叶静

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解海口市公共场所集中空调通风系统卫生状况,为卫生监督管理提供依据.方法 2010~2011年选取海口市28家公共场所集中空调通风系统单位,分别对风管内表面积尘量、细菌总数和真菌总数进行监测和评价.结果 细菌总数合格率为90.7%(127/140),真菌总数合格率为57.1%(80/140),风管内表面积尘量合格率为50.0%(70/140).结论 建议规范空调的清洗消毒,将空调通风系统清洗消毒工作纳入《公共场所卫生管理条例》,提高公共场所卫生质量,减少疾病传播.%Objective To investigate sanitary condition of the central air conditioning ventilation system in Haikou to provide scientific basis for sanitary control. Methods 28 units with central air conditioning ventilation system in 2010 and 2011 were investigated through detection and evaluation of the following indexes: the content of the dust, total count of fungi and bacteria on the surface of air duct. Results The qualified rate of total bacterial count, total fungi count and dust accumulation were 90.7%( 127/140),57.1%(80/140)and 50.0%(70/140),respectively. Conclusion It is suggested that measures should be taken to strengthen monitoring and supervision about the centralized air ventilation system and regulate the disinfection. To improve the sanitary quality and cut down disease transmission, it s obviously important to bring the disinfection under Regulation on Hygienic Managemnent in Public Places.

  20. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  1. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...

  2. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  3. Influential Aspects of the Smart City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinovici, Maria C.; Kirkham, Harold; Widergren, Steven E.

    2016-01-05

    Using millions of sensors in everyday objects, smart cities will generate petabytes of data, and it will be delivered to multiple users via networks. Multi-disciplinary inter-operability is essential. We propose system engineering management, with multidisciplinary teams as an effective way to deliver real change. Their goal is to develop intelligent and integrated services through the use of digital technologies and open collaboration. We also caution that the process cannot be entirely planned ahead of time, it must be allowed to evolve. New technology will change the game (where does a 3-D printer fit into a smart city?). Municipal planning means central planning – not known for its sensitivity to reality. A successful smart city will include lots of feedback mechanisms for the citizenry.

  4. City Improves State Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EnjoyceZhu

    2003-01-01

    As China's new leadership drafts measures to help ailing Stateowned enterprises(SOEs),Changchun,a strategic city in the Rust Belt,is reaping benefits unseen in more than a decade of SOE reform.Home to a large number of SOEs,Changchun has had its share of bureaucracy and stagnation.The city initiated a program called,“Saving SOEs

  5. City profile: Paramaribo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrest, H.J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Paramaribo, the largest and only significant urban area in Suriname, is a typical primate city. The majority of the countries’ population resides here and the majority of political, social and economic functions is clustered in the urban zone. In the course of the 20th century, the city changed dram

  6. Responsive City Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper presents and discusses perspectives extracted from two interviews conducted during the experiments Urban Responsive Lighting. The two experts embody two different fields related to city lighting: architecture & public lighting industry. The representatives were invited to the test...... on applied technologies and responsive light design in the contemporary cities....

  7. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It thus...

  8. Reflective cool cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidegger, V.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Our globe is heating, and cities are heating up much more. At the same time, cities are growing and green spaces are substituted by buildings and streets. These man-made surfaces are dark and tend to heat up

  9. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets Arkitekt...

  10. 以国际商贸中心引领广州国家中心城市建设的战略研究%A Strategic Research on Building Guangzhou into a National Central City through Developing the City as an International

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 李江涛

    2011-01-01

    无论从历史传承还是从现实条件看,"国际商贸中心"都应作为广州现阶段经济发展和都市化进程的核心引擎。选择和实施以国际商贸中心引领广州城市可持续发展的战略,不是简单重复过去"重商主义"的老路,而是以现代流通为引领适应经济全球化的趋势,这不仅是广州基于历史传承、发展阶段和比较优势的必然选择,也是广州主动承担"国家使命"、贯彻扩大内需战略以及代表国家参与国际竞争的大势所趋。%The role as an international business hub is the core engine of Guangzhou' s economic development and urbanization past and present. Taking this path to lead the city to sustainable urban development is by no means a duplication of mercantilism, but an in

  11. The Flickering Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  12. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  13. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    There are over 20 cities world-wide with a population of over 10 million people. We have entered ‘The Millennium of the City’. The growth of urban populations has been accompanied by profound changes of the cities’ economic and social profile and of the cities themselves. The world economy...... is increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing...... on experience. We will argue for a human turn in the research on liveabil- ity and urbanisation, and debates the concept of liveability. We will take Copenhagen as our main case and compare with other cities from around the world....

  14. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...... premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles are more likely to move from rural areas to cities while married couples are more likely to make...... the reverse movement. A second prediction of the model is that attractive singles benefit most from a dense market (i.e. from being choosy). Those predictions are tested with a unique Danish dataset....

  15. Universities Scale Like Cities

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the gross university income in terms of total number of citations over size in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its ...

  16. Governing the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Strategy frames the contemporary epistemological space of urbanism: major cities across the globe such as New York, London and Sydney invest time, energy and resources to craft urban strategies. Extensive empirical research projects have proposed a shift towards a strategic framework to manage...... cities. This theoretical curiosity is reflected in the rising interest in urban strategy from practice. For instance, the World Bank regularly organizes an Urban Strategy Speaker Series, while the powerful network CEOs for Cities lobbies for a strategic approach to urban development. Critical scholars...... such as Zukin diagnose not a shift in but a shift to strategic thinking in the contemporary city. This article poses the question: what makes strategy such an attractive ‘thought style’ in relation to imagining and managing cities? How can we understand the practice of urban strategy? And what are its intended...

  17. Cities, Towns and Villages, City Limits of City of Dubuque, IA, Published in 2007, City of Dubuque.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as 'City Limits of City of...

  18. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  19. Cities, Wages, and the Urban Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Juan D. Soto; Dusan Paredes

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence regarding the unequal spatial distribution of population in the north and south of Chile which implies that even when geographical distances to the main urban center are similar, the distances in a context of urban hierarchy are completely di?erent. Given this economic geography, we postulate that Central Place Theory provides a better understanding for the study of city size wage gap in Chile. In order to test our hypothesis, we construct ?ve tiers of urban hierarchy usin...

  20. Cities in Space: Three Simple Models

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Krugman

    1991-01-01

    Urban agglomerations arise at least in part out of the interaction between economies of scale in production and market size effects. This paper develops a simple spatial framework to develop illustrative models of the determinants of urban location, of the number and size of cities, and of the degree of urbanization. A Central theme is the probable existence of multiple equilibria, and the dependence of the range of potential outcomes on a few key parameters.

  1. Recentralization of Kampala City Administration in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabukeera Madinah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The government disseminated a new constitution in 1995 with the provision on decentralization of Article 176 2 (b that acted shortly before the rebirth of the local government act in 1997. Devolution as a form of decentralization transferred both political and administrative powers from the center to lower local councils specially to handle the responsibility of service delivery. Following the approval of the Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA Act 2010, the city’s administration reverted to the central government. Detractors of decentralization allege that the conveyance in the policy and legislation for change of Kampala city administration was timely because decentralization failed to deliver desired services to residents. This article contends that recentralization of Kampala city administration was a necessary evil, it decreased the autonomy of sub-national governments in civil service administration, eroded accountability to the electorates, and transferred the allegiance of the accounting officer from local governments with and for which they work to the central government that designates and positions. To inflame accountability in local governments, the article champions for the reexamining of the KCCA Act 2010 to allow power sharing between the mayor and executive director to enhance bottom-up accountability, checks and balances, and for participation of central government in appointing of executive director to allow financial and security support. It additionally requests for a reconsideration of the 9th Parliament to lobby for the amendments owing to challenges in its implementation and impact on accountability.

  2. The formation of the religious infrastructure of cities of Kuban and Black Sea region in the context of the development of cross-cultural dialogue (the middle of XIX – beginning of XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey L. Dudarev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the problems of development of inter-confessional dialogue in the context of the multiethnic composition of the population of cities of Kuban and black sea region of the late XIX – early XX century are. Studied organization and the specifics of the religious life of Russians, Armenians, Germans, Poles, Tatars, Jews and representatives of other ethnic communities of the cities of the region. Shows the process of development in the urbanized environment of intense cross-cultural interfaith communication, which are developed on the basis of mutual respect and close cooperation. Analyzed constructive models of interaction and cooperation of representatives of different faiths. Studied confessional structure of the population the most important urban centers of the region and shows the construction of the temples. The authors conclude that the efforts of state and local authorities, despite the declared supremacy of Orthodoxy, actually was maintained and defended religious pluralism, allow the development of the variety of national cultures.

  3. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  4. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rojas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of  technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects  the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City,  creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  5. How to Study the City on Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, John D; Uitermark, Justus

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Instagram as a data source for use by scholars in urban studies and neighboring disciplines and propose ways to operationalize key concepts in the study of cities. These data can help shed light on segregation, the formation of subcultures, strategies of distinction, and status hierarchies in the city. Drawing on two datasets of geotagged Instagram posts from Amsterdam and Copenhagen collected over a twelve-week period, we present a proof of concept for how to explore and visualize sociospatial patterns and divisions in these two cities. We take advantage of both the social and the geographic aspects of the data, using network analysis to identify distinct groups of users and metrics of unevenness and diversity to identify socio-spatial divisions. We also discuss some of the limitations of these data and methods and suggest ways in which they can complement established quantitative and qualitative approaches in urban scholarship.

  6. How to Study the City on Instagram.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Boy

    Full Text Available We introduce Instagram as a data source for use by scholars in urban studies and neighboring disciplines and propose ways to operationalize key concepts in the study of cities. These data can help shed light on segregation, the formation of subcultures, strategies of distinction, and status hierarchies in the city. Drawing on two datasets of geotagged Instagram posts from Amsterdam and Copenhagen collected over a twelve-week period, we present a proof of concept for how to explore and visualize sociospatial patterns and divisions in these two cities. We take advantage of both the social and the geographic aspects of the data, using network analysis to identify distinct groups of users and metrics of unevenness and diversity to identify socio-spatial divisions. We also discuss some of the limitations of these data and methods and suggest ways in which they can complement established quantitative and qualitative approaches in urban scholarship.

  7. Central Sumatra enjoys success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongsosantiko, A.

    1977-05-02

    The Sihapas group contains the most prolific oil producing zones in the Central Sumatra Basin. It represents the transgressive, coarse clastic sequence deposited during the early Miocene. Some of these sandstone grade laterally into siltstones and shales of the Telisa Formation, believed to be a major source of rock for Central Sumatra oil. Recent exploratory wells drilled between the mountain front and coastal plain areas have provided more data for stratigraphic studies. These have resulted in subdivision of the lower Miocene transgressive sequence into discrete rock-stratigraphic units. The former Sihapas Formation has subsequently been elevated to group rank and now consists of several formations with the Duri Formation as the uppermost sand unit. This study covers Caltex's areas of operation, which includes the area between the Kampar River of the south, the Barumum River to the north, the Malacca Straits to the east, and the Barisan Mt. to the west. A basic map shows the regional scene, while a stratigraphic chart shows the lithology.

  8. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  9. Cities and Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Bruce; Noring, Luise; Garrelts, Nantke

    institutions, it is municipalities across Europe in general and Germany in particular who are responsible for planning, delivering, and, in some cases, financing the housing, education, and full integration of new arrivals. “Cities and Refugees: The European Response” is a collaboration of the Brookings...... Centennial Scholar Initiative and the Foreign Policy program, with key research led by the Copenhagen Business School. It aims to show the extent to which cities are at the vanguard of this crisis and to deepen our understanding of the role and capacity of city governments and local networks in resettlement...... and long-term economic and social integration....

  10. Integrating Dynamic Data and Sensors with Semantic 3D City Models in the Context of Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, K.; Kolbe, T. H.

    2016-10-01

    Smart cities provide effective integration of human, physical and digital systems operating in the built environment. The advancements in city and landscape models, sensor web technologies, and simulation methods play a significant role in city analyses and improving quality of life of citizens and governance of cities. Semantic 3D city models can provide substantial benefits and can become a central information backbone for smart city infrastructures. However, current generation semantic 3D city models are static in nature and do not support dynamic properties and sensor observations. In this paper, we propose a new concept called Dynamizer allowing to represent highly dynamic data and providing a method for injecting dynamic variations of city object properties into the static representation. The approach also provides direct capability to model complex patterns based on statistics and general rules and also, real-time sensor observations. The concept is implemented as an Application Domain Extension for the CityGML standard. However, it could also be applied to other GML-based application schemas including the European INSPIRE data themes and national standards for topography and cadasters like the British Ordnance Survey Mastermap or the German cadaster standard ALKIS.

  11. Brazilian city planners, American city planning? New perspectives on urban planning in Rio de Janeiro, 1930-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Vera F

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the connections between the ideas and principles of American city planning from 1920 with those articulated by Brazilian city planners in the 1930s and implemented by the administration of the City of Rio de Janeiro, then the capital of Brazil, notably during the period of the Estado Novo [The New State] from 1937 to 1945. In a period characterized by the centralization of political power and the concentration of decision-making in the hands of the president and the state, the City of Rio de Janeiro undertook a series of restructuring projects which utilized new forms of administration and organization. This article explores the links between urban planning in Brazil and the USA that were a notable feature of these projects. It examines particular requirements set down in city plans, city planning commissions and funding for urban activities, such as 'excess condemnation', by focusing upon articles and books written by four Brazilian engineers and proposals put forward by the American City Planning Institute, detailed in the proceedings of the National Conference on City Planning, in the periodical, City Planning and works by affiliated authors.

  12. Circuitos de uso de crack na região central da cidade de São Paulo (SP, Brasil Crack usage circuits in the downtown area of the city of São Paulo (SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Raupp

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de o uso de drogas ser uma prática presente desde os primórdios da humanidade, atualmente o seu abuso adquiriu dimensões preocupantes, configurando-se como um problema de saúde pública. O surgimento do crack, droga derivada da pasta de coca, agravou esse quadro ao aumentar os danos sociais e à saúde dos usuários. Visando conhecer o impacto de sua inserção no cotidiano dos usuários, foi realizado um estudo etnográfico em locais de venda e uso de crack na região central da cidade de São Paulo (SP, Brasil. Foi utilizado um diário de campo para registrar as observações e os diálogos informais efetuados com as pessoas que circulavam no local estudado. Os resultados apontaram os circuitos percorridos pelos usuários, suas dinâmicas e as relações que estabelecem com outros atores sociais, as quais são permeadas por permanente tensão, envolvendo a prática de atos violentos nos quais os usuários são tanto agressores quanto vítimas. O estudo também sugere a importância de outros fatores como a história da região pesquisada, as políticas públicas, questões econômicas e ausência de investimentos sociais e em saúde pública. Sugere-se que o alto grau de degradação da região pesquisada não seria consequência apenas das pessoas e atividades exercidas no local, mas principalmente do processo urbano que gerou tal quadro social.Although drug usage has been prevalent since the dawn of humankind, drug abuse has currently escalated alarmingly and can be characterized as a public health problem. The spread of "crack," a drug derived from cocaine paste, is worsening the situation by aggravating the social damages and harming the health of users. An ethnographic study was conducted in downtown São Paulo, SP (Brazil in locations where crack is sold and used in order to establish the impact of the spread of this drug in the daily life of users. A field diary was used to record the observations and informal dialogues with

  13. The Study of the Legionella pneumophila Pollution and Killing Effects on Centralized Air-conditioners Cooling Circulating Water in Huizhou City%惠州市中央空调冷却循环水中嗜肺军团菌污染状况和杀灭效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑惠东; 杨建秀; 郑丽萍; 戴昌芳; 辜少红; 严琦瑞; 柯晓明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the Legionella pneumophila pollution and the effects of killing Legionella pneumophila by electrolyzed water of Centralized Air Ventilation System in Huizhou City.Methods We culture and identify 123 units Legionella pneumophila,which collecting in the Centralized Air-conditioners cooling circulation water of Huizhou.A new type of low-voltage high-frequency electrolytic water equipment is applied by Guang Zhou Shui Li Qing Environmental Protection Technology Co.,Ltd.It can use physical way instead of chemicals to deal with Legionella pneumophila and other pathogenic microorganisms in cooling circulating water in centralized air-conditioners.Results In the survey of 123 units,448 water samples were collected,313 samples were prove out that contain Legionella pneumophila,the detection rate is 69.86%.At the same time,62 units which contain Legionella pneumophila were collected from Centralized Air-conditioners and deal with low voltage high frequency Electrolyzed Water equipment for 7-73 d.Finally,112 water samples,which from those units,were found out that all the Legionella pneumophila had been killed.The sterilizing rate for the Legionella pneumophila is 100%.Conclusion Part of Centralized Air-conditioners Cooling Circulating Water were Pollution by Legionella pneumophila in Huizhou,Daily inspection should be taken,The low-voltage high-frequency electrolytic water equipment can effectively control and sterilize Legionella pneumophila etc in the cooling water and chilled water in centralized air-conditioners.It has a good application prospect for this technology.%目的 了解惠州市中央空调冷却循环水中嗜肺军团菌污染情况和电解水对其的杀灭效果观察.方法 对惠州市123个单位中央空调冷却循环水进行嗜肺军团菌的培养和鉴定;然后采用源自广州水力清环保科技有限公司的新型低压高频电解水处理器,用物理方式代替化学药剂,处理中央空调冷却循环水

  14. Vertical distributions of COS and CS2 in Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Yu-jing; WU Hai; WU Peng-zhang; WANG Yue-si

    2004-01-01

    Vertical distributions of COS and CS2 were measured at a meteorological tower in Beijing City. The mixingratios of COS and CS2 are in the range of 371-1681 pptv and 246-1222 pptv, respectively. The significant highmixing ratios of the two compounds at ground level and distinct vertical distributions indicated the existence of stronganthropogenic sources of COS and CS2 in Beijing City. Domestic stoves and central heaters are important sources ofCOS during winter season. Cesspools may play significant role on COS over whole seasons. Chemical productionsmay be responsible for the observed high mixing ratios of CS2 in Beijing City.

  15. Central line infections - hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired ...

  16. Geochemistry of the Miocene oil shale (Hançili Formation) in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin, Central Turkey: Implications for Paleoclimate conditions, source-area weathering, provenance and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosoughi Moradi, A.; Sarı, A.; Akkaya, P.

    2016-07-01

    The geochemistry of oil shale units of Hançili Formation in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin (Central Turkey) was studied using various chemical analyses. The mineralogical composition of the samples were preliminarily investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficients of selected elements, indicating that the samples contain abundant clay minerals as well as K-feldspar and carbonate. The K2O/Al2O3 and SiO2/Al2O3 ratios indicate that the major proportion of clay minerals is composed of smectite. Si, Al, Ti, K, Na, and Fe reside in clay minerals, while Ca, Mg, and Mn are mostly associated with carbonates (e.g., calcite and dolomite) and phosphorous (P) is present as apatite. The total REE content of the oil shale range from 19 to 113 ppm. The chondrite-normalized patterns of the oil shale show LREE enrichments, HREE deficits, negative Eu anomalies and negligible Ce anomalies. In general, major, trace and rare earth element abundances suggest that the studied oil shale in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin are mainly from the intermediate rocks, mixed with small amounts of basic rocks, and that their source rocks are mostly deposited in the continental collision setting. The REE geochemistry of the oil shale suggests that these samples were derived from a consistent terrigenous source and the Eu anomaly was inherited from the source rocks. The paleoclimate index (C-value), varies between 0.07 and 1.22 reflecting a generally semi-arid to humid conditions. In addition, Rb/Sr (~ 0.22) and Sr/Cu (~ 9.09) ratios support the idea that warm and humid conditions prevailed during deposition of the Hançili Formation. Sr/Ba ratios (0.54-3.7) of the studied samples suggest a paleoenvironment with variable salinity. The co-variation among this factor and paleoclimate indicators suggest that variations in climatic conditions exerted a primary control on salinity. The substantially low C-value and Rb/Sr ratio and significantly high ratios of Sr/Cu and Sr/Ba and also elevated carbonate

  17. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  18. Ecological city planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Rueda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A territory, a city, a neighbourhood are all ecosystems; a mixture of chemico-physical and organic elements related to each other. That which defines an ecological system is the set of rules and characteristics which condition its relationships, and its duration in time is guaranteed by its efficiency and internal organization which applied to the city is translated in the reduction of the use of natural resources and in the increase of social organization. To increase the efficiency of the urban systems is the necessary condition for the formulation of ecological city planning favouring the maximum liveability of sites. Liveability is directly correlated to the optimization of numerous elements (public space, equipment, services, building techniques, innovative technology, social cohesion, biodiversity. To carry out such objectives, ecological city planning proposes a new model of town planning on three levels (subsoil, ground level, and upper level.

  19. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  20. Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

  1. Earthquakes in cities revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wirgin, Armand

    2016-01-01

    During the last twenty years, a number of publications of theoretical-numerical nature have appeared which come to the apparently-reassuring conclusion that seismic motion on the ground in cities is smaller than what this motion would be in the absence of the buildings (but for the same underground and seismic load). Other than the fact that this finding tells nothing about the motion within the buildings, it must be confronted with the overwhelming empirical evidence (e.g, earthquakes in Sendai (2011), Kathmandu (2015), Tainan City (2016), etc.) that shaking within buildings of a city is often large enough to damage or even destroy these structures. I show, on several examples, that theory can be reconciled with empirical evidence, and suggest that the crucial subject of seismic response in cities is in need of more thorough research.

  2. Should Cities Regulate Graffiti?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Graffiti, while still a new phenomenon to most Chinese, is becoming more familiar among teenagers in big cities like Beijing and Shanghai. A recent report by Xinhua News Agency discusses the trend. The report said a small

  3. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    WE LOVE THE CITY Byen i bygningen, bygningen i byen Lasse Andersson, Ph.d., arkitekt maa, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY vil vi formidle mødet mellem urban design oog arkitektur. Disciplinen ’at bygge by’ har de seneste 20 år ikke tændt hjerterne hos...... fjern og ’usexet’ for unge arkitekter in spe. Det kan fremtidens by ikke være tjent med, og WE LOVE THE CITY vil derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at her er et potentiale. Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY ønsker Utzon Centeret, LasseVegas Kontoret ApS og ADEPT...

  4. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  5. Formation, obduction and provenance of the Støren-Bymarka-Løkken ophiolite, Central Norwegian Caledonides; constraints from geochronology, geochemistry, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagstad, T.; Pin, C.; Roberts, D.; Kirkland, C. L.; Grenne, T.; Dunning, G.; Sauer, S.; Andersen, T.

    2012-04-01

    Suprasubduction-zone ophiolites are a characteristic feature of the Palaeozoic Caledonian-Appalachian orogenic belt, and mark the onset of convergence and closure of one or more oceans separating the Baltican, Laurentian and Avalonian continents, ending with continent-continent collision in the Mid Palaeozoic. The Bymarka-Løkken ophiolite in the Central Norwegian Caledonides is a variably tectonised ophiolite fragment, locally with an incomplete, but nevertheless well-preserved ophiolite pseudostratigraphy. Previous work has concluded that the ophiolite formed in an Early Ordovician suprasubduction-zone environment, most likely in an oceanic arc/back-arc basin system, but little is know about the evolution of the ophiolitic crust. There has also been some debate as to the whether obduction of the ophiolite upon the subjacent Gula Complex was onto Laurentia, Baltica, or a microcontinent of Baltican affinity. Here we present new, high-precision TIMS and SHRIMP zircon analyses from felsic rocks in the ophiolite. Combined with geochemical and Sm-Nd whole-rock and Lu-Hf zircon analyses from the same rocks, these data allow us to elucidate the timing of various stages in the evolution of the ophiolite. Plagiogranite bodies range in age from 493 to 480 Ma and have relatively juvenile isotopic compositions. Geochemical data suggest subduction-zone influence and we interpret this stage to represent formation of the ophiolite in an oceanic back-arc setting. At 480 Ma, a large granitoid body with an unradiogenic isotopic composition and strong subduction-zone geochemical signature intruded the ophiolite. We interpret this stage to reflect convergence in the back-arc basin and formation or migration of an oceanic arc. The unradiogenic isotopic composition probably reflects subduction of back-arc basin crust with sediments derived from the nearby continent or microcontinent. At 480-470 Ma, a greenstone-dominated conglomerate and an overlying volcaniclastic sequence was

  6. Aging City Leads Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The northern city of Dalian has become a model of care for the elderly that other Chinese cities are following Chinese Minister of Civil Affairs Li Xueju has called upon civil affairs agencies in the nation to learn from Dalian’s diversified models for elderly care,ranging from running collectively owned and foreign-designed nursing homes to offering tax incentives to private households and companies serving the elderly

  7. Promoting Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This pilot project is the first attempt to address the lack of rigorous and transparent approach to defining best practice in city energy efficiency programmes. The project has provided interesting insights into a range of exciting projects being implemented in cities around the world. However, the potential exists for far greater benefit. The study has found that it is possible to collate the detailed information needed to identify best practice energy efficiency projects in cities. However, gathering the data is not easy. The data is often not recorded in an easily accessible format. Nor is it easy to get city officials to allocate time to the necessary data collation given the many other competing demands on their time. A key area that this project identifies as requiring urgent attention is the development of a common data management format for energy efficiency projects by Cas. Further work could also focus on refining the criteria used to define best practice, and broadening the scope of projects beyond energy efficiency.

  8. Central (ICV) leptin injection increases bone formation, bone mineral density, muscle mass, serum IGF-1, and the expression of osteogenic genes in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartell, Shoshana M; Rayalam, Srujana; Ambati, Suresh; Gaddam, Dhanunjaya R; Hartzell, Diane L; Hamrick, Mark; She, Jin-Xiong; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Baile, Clifton A

    2011-08-01

    Both central and peripheral leptin administrations reduce body weight, food intake, and adiposity in ob/ob mice. In this study we compared effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) and subcutaneous (SC) administration of leptin on bone metabolism in the appendicular and axial skeleton and adipose tissue gene expression and determined the effects of ICV leptin on bone marrow gene expression in ob/ob mice. In experiment 1, leptin (1.5 or 0.38 µg/d) or control was continuously injected ICV for 12 days. Gene expression analysis of femoral bone marrow stromal cells showed that expression of genes associated with osteogenesis was increased after ICV injection, whereas those associated with osteoclastogenesis, adipogenesis, and adipocyte lipid storage were decreased. In experiment 2, leptin was injected continuously ICV (0.0 or 1.5 µg/d) or SC (0.0 or 10 µg/d) for 12 days. In both experiments, regardless of mode of administration, leptin decreased body weight, food intake, and body fat and increased muscle mass, bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone area, marrow adipocyte number, and mineral apposition rate. Serum insulin was decreased, whereas serum osteocalcin, insulin-like growth factor 1, osteoprotegerin, pyridinoline, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand concentrations were increased. In experiment 2, expression of genes in adipose tissue associated with apoptosis, lipid mobilization, insulin sensitivity, and thermogenesis was increased, whereas expression of genes associated with cell differentiation and maturation was decreased regardless of mode of administration. Thus ICV injection of leptin promotes expression of pro-osteogenic factors in bone marrow, leading to enhanced bone formation in ob/ob mice.

  9. City marketing: online communication plan for the city of Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    Altrichter, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing City Marketing represents marketing efforts of cities in order to attract more visitors. Today, we are confronted everyday with marketing campaigns in all different communication media promoting countries, cities or events. Cities are competing for visitors on a global scale, forcing them to adapt successful marketing strategies for gaining and retaining costumers. Yet, City Marketing still remains an unknown chapter for a big part of the general public an...

  10. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  11. Inquérito entre migrantes atendidos pela Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento, na Capital do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil: III. Aspectos alimentares Survey conducted among migrants going through the "Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento (CETREN" in S. Paulo City, Brazil: III. Nutritional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Roncada

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um inquérito alimentar recordatório do tipo qualitativo, sobre o consumo de alimentos ricos em caroteno e vitamina A, e também sobre alimentos consumidos diariamente por migrantes em trânsito pela Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento, na Capital do Estado de São Paulo. O consumo dos alimentos fontes da pró-vitamina ou da vitamina A foi classificado em: nulo, esporádico e freqüente. Os alimentos habitualmente ingeridos foram classificados segundo as Regiões de procedência. Concluiu-se que a alimentação dos migrantes foi julgada insatisfatória no que se refere aos alimentos ricos em caroteno e vitamina A.The present study is a recall qualitative alimentary survey on consumption of rich sources of vitamin A and carotene as well as foodstuffs consumed daily by migrants in transit through the "Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento", in S. Paulo, SP, Brazil. Consumption of sources of carotene or vitamine A was divided into: null, occasional and frequent. The foodstuffs usually consumed were classified according to the Region from which the migrants came. In conclusion the feeding habits of the migrants were considered unsatisfactory as regards sources of Vitamin A and carotene.

  12. Inquérito entre migrantes atendidos pela Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento, na capital do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil: II. Aspectos bioquímicos da hipovitamionose A Survey conducted among migrants going through the "Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento (CETREN" in S. Paulo City, Brazil: II. Biochemical aspects of hipovitaminosis A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Roncada

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os níveis das concentrações séricas de caroteno e vitamina A em 1.097 migrantes nacionais em trânsito na Central de Triagem e Encaminho (CETREN, na Capital do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, no período de 18 de julho a 17 de agosto de 1972. Os resultados apontaram a existência de um problema de Saúde Pública em relação à vitamina A. Sugestões foram apontadas para diminuir a prevalência da hipovitaminose A nesse grupo populacional.The author studied serum levels of carotene and vitamin A in 1.091 Brazilian migrants in transit through the "Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento (CETREN", in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, during the period of July 18th through August 17th, 1972. Results showed the existence of a Public Health problem. Suggestions were made to ameliorate the problem of vitamin A deficiency in the studied popualtion.

  13. Sinking Coastal Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management

  14. Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

  15. Multi-scalar influences on mortality change over time in 274 European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Elizabeth A; Moon, Graham; Pearce, Jamie; Shortt, Niamh K; Mitchell, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Understanding determinants of urban health is of growing importance. Factors at multiple scales intertwine to influence health in cities but, with the growing autonomy of some cities from their countries, city population health may be becoming more a matter for city-level rather than national-level policy and action. We assess the importance of city, country, and macroregional (Western and East-Central Europe) scales to mortality change over time for 274 cities (population 80 million) from 27 European countries. We then investigate whether mortality changes over time are related to changes in city-level affluence. Using Urban Audit data, all-age all-cause standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for males and females were calculated at three time points (wave one 1999-2002, wave two 2003-2006, and wave three 2007-2009) for each city. Multilevel regression was used to model the SMRs as a function of survey wave and city region gross domestic product (GDP) per 1000 capita. SMRs declined over time and the substantial East-West gap narrowed slightly. Variation at macroregion and country scales characterised SMRs for women in Western and East-Central European cities, and SMRs for men in East-Central European cities. Between-city variation was evident for male SMRs in Western Europe. Changes in city-region GDP per capita were not associated with changes in mortality over the study period. Our results show how geographical scales differentially impact urban mortality. We conclude that changes in urban health should be seen in both city and wider national and macroregional contexts.

  16. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  17. 城市80后利益性焦虑心态及其成因探究%Research on City After 80s Interests of the Anxiety State of Mind and its Cause of Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王澜诺; 刘琦

    2016-01-01

    The present society is in transform acceleration period in our country, the high house prices, rising prices, high quality education, stable employment difficulty, the pressure of heavy endowment aging society and re-ality problems such as shortage of medical resources, most of the city after 80 itself is only children, in marriage, employment, child care, pension pressure is more and more big, the explicit anxiety for the society. Speed up the pace of social transformation, an open society and informatization level of jumped has great impact on psychological of people, especially young people. City after 80s needs to keep their feet on the ground working status and positive and optimistic attitude towards life, it is a good state of mind to overcome temporary interests anxiety.%当下我国社会正处于转型加速期,在房价居高不下、物价持续上涨、高质量教育供给不足、稳定就业困难、老龄社会带来的沉重养老压力和医疗资源短缺等现实问题面前,城市中大多数自身是独生子女的80后,在婚恋、就业、育儿、养老方面的压力越来越大,外显为社会焦虑。社会转型节奏加快,社会开放与信息化程度的跃升对人、尤其是青年人的心理冲击加大。城市80后需保持脚踏实地的工作状态和积极乐观的生活态度,这是克服暂时利益性焦虑的必要的良好的心态。

  18. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross uni